Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural worker employment

  1. Agricultural employers' hiring and safety practices for adolescent workers.

    PubMed

    Lee, B C; Westaby, J D; Chyou, P H; Purschwitz, M A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the "Safety Training for Employers and Supervisors of Adolescent Farmworkers" initiative is to improve the occupational health and safety knowledge and practices of agricultural employers and supervisors responsible for employees, ages 14 to 17 years. Surveys were sent to members of the National Council of Agricultural Employers and the Washington Growers League to measure attitudes regarding adolescent employees, current hiring and training practices, and future intentions. More than half of the respondents hire adolescents. Two-thirds were male, nearly three-quarters of the respondents had college or post-graduate degrees, and more than half were 50 years or older. The majority of respondents had positive perceptions of adolescents in terms of dependability, helpfulness, and work ethic. Among those who currently hire young workers, the most common reasons were to provide a job for children of friends and family and because they can work part-time to fill a labor demand. Among those not hiring adolescents, the most common reason was concern about child labor regulations and associated tasks (e.g., paperwork, monitoring hours). Respondents use a variety of safety training resources, especially posters and safety meetings. For the future, they expect to need more handout materials and training videos. Study results provide insights into barriers to the employment of young workers and suggest methods by which agricultural safety specialists can best assist those employers and producers who are willing to hire adolescents into agricultural work settings. PMID:17370911

  2. MANPOWER NEEDS AND EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WORKERS NEEDING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL IN AGRICULTURE. TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN AND FOR RURAL AREAS, REPORT NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WARMBROD, J. ROBERT

    THREE TYPES OF FIRMS IN A 14-COUNTY AREA WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF WORKERS WITH AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES REQUIRED IN THE OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS AND TO COMPARE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN FARM AND OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS. OF 77,868 WORKERS IN 384 FIRMS IN AREAS OF LESS THAN 25,000 POPULATION, 18 PERCENT WERE IN…

  3. 75 FR 7293 - Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Workers in the United States: 2010 Adverse Effect Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... collective bargaining rate, or the Federal or State minimum wage rate, in effect at the time work is... rates for field and livestock workers (combined), as computed by USDA quarterly wage surveys. 54 FR...: 2010 Adverse Effect Wage Rates, Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals, and Maximum...

  4. Findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) 1990. A Demographic and Employment Profile of Perishable Crop Farm Workers. Research Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mines, Richard; And Others

    This report provides information on the characteristics and work patterns of United States agricultural workers performing seasonal agricultural services (SAS) during fiscal year 1990. SAS crops include the majority of nursery products, cash grains, field crops, and all fruits and vegetables. More than 2,000 personal interviews with SAS workers…

  5. Young Agricultural Workers in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Michele Gonzalez; Kurre, Laura

    This report examines the extent to which young people work in California agriculture and describes work-related hazards and injuries among young agricultural workers. Data were gathered through a literature review; discussion groups with parents, community groups, and English-as-a-second-language students in the San Joaquin Valley; surveys of 295…

  6. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 404.1016 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers...

  7. Findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS), 1997-1998: A Demographic and Employment Profile of United States Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Kala; Gabbard, Susan M.; Barrat, Vanessa; Lewis, Melissa; Carroll, Daniel; Mines, Richard

    This report presents current information on the characteristics and work patterns of hired laborers who perform crop work in the United States. Information was obtained from interviews with 4,199 workers in 85 counties between October 1, 1996 and September 30, 1998. Chapters 1-3 provide information about the farmworkers themselves, including…

  8. Housing for Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J. W.; And Others

    Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…

  9. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers lawfully admitted to the United States on a temporary basis to do farm work is not covered as employment. The excluded work includes any services connected with farm operations....

  10. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers lawfully admitted to the United States on a temporary basis to do farm work is not covered as employment. The excluded work includes any services connected with farm operations....

  11. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers lawfully admitted to the United States on a temporary basis to do farm work is not covered as employment. The excluded work includes any services connected with farm operations....

  12. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers lawfully admitted to the United States on a temporary basis to do farm work is not covered as employment. The excluded work includes any services connected with farm operations....

  13. The impact of biotechnology on agricultural worker safety and health.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M

    2002-08-01

    Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here. PMID:12363179

  14. The impact of biotechnology on agricultural worker safety and health.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M

    2002-08-01

    Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here.

  15. Agricultural health and safety: incorporating the worker perspective.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Amy K; Augustave, Wilson

    2010-07-01

    This commentary offers a worker's perspective on agricultural health and safety and describes (1) the historical exemption of agriculture from regulatory oversight and barriers encountered due to lack of regulations and poor enforcement of the existing standards; (2) the effect of immigration status on worker protections; and (3) the basic desire for economic survival and how this impacts worker health and safety. The commentary describes two models to reduce hazards at work that illustrate how workers' perspectives can be incorporated successfully at the policy level and during the intervention development process and puts forth recommendations for employers, researchers, and funding agencies to facilitate the integration of workers' perspectives into occupational health and safety in agriculture. Ultimately, improved worker protection requires systemic policy and regulatory changes as well as strong enforcement of existing regulations. This commentary summarizes the presentation, "Ground View: Perspectives of Hired Workers," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. PMID:20665305

  16. Employer Concerns Regarding Workers with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Reed; Johnson, Virginia Anne

    More than 90 surveys conducted during the past 40 years covering a variety of disabling conditions and employers' concerns regarding workers with these conditions were reviewed. The goal of this review is to identify, develop, test, and disseminate interventions for rehabilitation practitioners to use in job development and placement. The review…

  17. Affective Skills of Selected Agricultural Workers and Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Gregory C.; Stewart, Bob R.

    1982-01-01

    Significant differences exist between agribusiness workers and agricultural production workers in Missouri in the affective work skills they demonstrate. Significant differences also appear between agricultural supervisors and workers. (SK)

  18. Case studies of violations of workers' freedom of association: migrant agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    As part of its report "Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards," Human Rights Watch conducted a series of case studies in a dozen states, covering a variety of industries and employment sectors, analyzing the U.S. experience in the light of both national law and international human rights and labor rights norms. Presented here are the case studies of migrant agricultural workers.

  19. 45 CFR 1626.11 - H-2 agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false H-2 agricultural workers. 1626.11 Section 1626.11... ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural workers. (a) Nonimmigrant agricultural workers admitted under the provisions of 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(h)(ii), commonly called H-2 workers, may...

  20. 77 FR 12882 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  1. 77 FR 13635 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  2. Foreign and Undocumented Workers in California Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Edward; Espenshade, Thomas J.

    The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 contains controversial provisions to allow temporary "replenishment" farmworkers to enter the United States to harvest perishable crops. This paper describes the role of legal and illegal foreign workers in California agriculture in relation to these provisions and the assumptions on which they rest.…

  3. Migrant Workers in Agriculture: A View from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Daniell, William

    2016-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the global movement of workers during the last few decades. As Thailand has developed rapidly over the past 20 years, it has attracted laborers (both authorized and unauthorized) from the neighboring countries of Myanmar, People's Democratic Republic of Lao (Lao PDR), and Cambodia. Given that agriculture has been Thailand's most important industry, its continued growth has been dependent on migrant workers. Both crop agriculture and animal-production agriculture have employed migrant labor. Migrants have been hired to plant, weed, fertilize, spray pesticides, and harvest crops such as rice, corn, sugar cane, and cassava. They have worked at rubber and coffee plantations, as well as in the production of ornamental crops. Also, migrants have labored on pig, beef, and duck farms. There have been numerous documented health problems among migrant workers, including acute diarrhea, malaria, and fever of unknown causes. Occupational illness and injury have been a significant concern, and there has been limited health and safety training. This article reviewed the demographic changes in Thailand, studied the agricultural crops and animal production that are dependent on migrant labor, discussed the health status and safety challenges pertaining to migrant workers in agriculture, and described several recommendations. Among the recommendations, the conclusions of this study have suggested that addressing the cost for health care and solutions to health care access for migrant labor are needed. PMID:26479089

  4. Dual Support in Contract Workers' Triangular Employment Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buch, Robert; Kuvaas, Bard; Dysvik, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the interplay between perceived investment in contract worker development by the "client" organization and contract workers' perceived organizational support from their temporary employment "agency." A study among 2021 contract workers from three temporary employment agencies in Norway showed that the relationships between…

  5. Temporary Employment of Aliens Working in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, David S.

    1978-01-01

    Two groups are in conflict regarding the temporary employment of aliens in agriculture. One group is in favor of government planning, and of direct government intervention in the market place. The other group is very reluctant for the government to intervene in the market place, and would prefer free enterprise to operate. (NQ)

  6. Presenteeism among self-employed workers: Korean working conditions survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Presenteeism has become a public concern recently. Thus, we aimed to understand the relationship between self-employed workers and presenteeism using a nationally representative sample of Korean workers. Methods Using data from the Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2011, a total of 43,392 workers including paid employees and self-employed workers were analyzed. The effect of employment status on presenteeism was analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The independent variables were socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, and working environments. Results Among the 43,392 workers, 34,783 were paid and 8,609 were self-employed. Self-employed workers were more likely to exhibit presenteeism than were paid workers. An elevated odds ratio of 1.27 (95% CI 1.19-1.36) was found for presenteeism among self-employed workers. Conclusion Being self-employed was significantly related with exhibiting presenteeism. Additional research should investigate whether other factors mediate the relationship between employment status and presenteeism as well as ways to reduce presenteeism among self-employed workers. PMID:25852942

  7. The energy expenditure of Iranian agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Brun, T A; Geissler, C A; Mirbagheri, I; Hormozdiary, H; Bastani, J; Hedayat, H

    1979-10-01

    The energy cost of agricultural and standard activities and the daily energy expenditure of male agricultural workers were measured during different seasons in Iranian villages to assess the validity of past and present Food and Agricultural Organization recommended energy allowances for that population. Studies included low income farmers in a village representative of those around the central desert where harvesting takes place under conditions of extreme summer heat. Measurements were also made during the Moslem fasting period when no food may be eaten between dawn and dusk. Energy cost of typical activities was measured by indirect calorimetry using the Max-Planck respirometer and daily energy expenditure was assessed using these figures combined with a diary of activities throughout the 24-hr period. Results of individual activity values are compared with other published figures. Comparison of daily energy expenditure of fasting subjects and nonfasting after Ramazan showed no significant difference. No significant difference was found between values of standardized activities at high summer temperatures and moderate temperatures. Mean values of daily energy expenditure during winter when activity is low are around 2600 kcal/day and for the other seasons of high activity 3400 kcal/day. These figures suggest that past and present Food and Agricultural Organization standards are low for this population. PMID:484535

  8. Respiratory disease in agricultural workers: mortality and morbidity statistics.

    PubMed

    Greskevitch, Mark; Kullman, Greg; Bang, Ki Moon; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2007-01-01

    To quantify the respiratory disease burden among agricultural workers, we examined the 1988-1998 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) "Multiple Cause of Death Data" and the 1988-1994 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (NHANES III). Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were determined for 11 respiratory conditions among 6 agricultural groups: crop farm workers, livestock farm workers, farm managers, landscape and horticultural workers, forestry workers, and fishery workers. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were determined for 12 respiratory conditions among 3 agricultural groups: farm workers, farm managers, and other agricultural workers. Disease categories groups were based on the 9th International Classification of Diseases and the agricultural groups on the NCHS or NHANES III industry and occupation codes, respectively. Crop farm workers and livestock farm workers had significantly elevated mortality for several respiratory conditions, with mortality for hypersensitivity pneumonitis being 10 and 50 times higher than expected. Landscape and horticultural workers had significantly elevated mortality for abscess of the lung and mediastinum and chronic airways obstruction. Forestry workers had significantly elevated mortality for pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic airways obstruction, and pneumonia. Prevalence of wheeze was elevated for female farm workers, shortness of breath was elevated for farm workers who had ever smoked, and hay fever was elevated for black, non-Hispanic farm workers. Prevalence of asthma was elevated for other agricultural workers who had ever smoked. Farm workers had a PR of 173 for obstructive respiratory abnormality. Continued improvement in occupational health surveillance systems for agriculture is essential to help guide prevention efforts for respiratory disease.

  9. The Structural Disempowerment of Eastern European Migrant Farm Workers in Norwegian Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik; Andrzejewska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2004 EU enlargement established one European common labour market, a large number of Eastern Europeans have taken up seasonal employment as hired farm workers in Norwegian agriculture. Much attention in the public has been given to the potential for "social dumping" of these migrating workers, as they are considered prone to exploitation…

  10. [Foreign agricultural proletariat and seasonal migrations: Haitian workers in the Dominican agriculture].

    PubMed

    Lozano, W

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the massive entry of Haitian agricultural workers into rice, coffee, and other agricultural production in the Dominican Republic over the past 15 years are analyzed using data from surveys conducted in 1985 and 1987. Unlike the classic Latin American cases of labor migration, the movement of Haitian workers to the Dominican Republic crosses national borders and involves a landless proletariat rather than peasant farmers seeking to supplement their subsistence. Most of the Haitians finding work in coffee and rice cultivation were former sugar cane workers with several years of residence in the Dominican Republic who were forced out of sugar cane cutting by the collapse of the industry in the 1980s. Although Haitians have been employed in Dominican agriculture since the early 1900s, their massive movement to crops of great labor demand other than sugar began in the 1980s. Most of the Haitian workers in rice and coffee are illiterate men with no more than 3 years of primary education. Their average age is 28.4 years for coffee and 29.1 for rice workers. 40% of coffee workers and 53% of rice workers had children. The survey found a greater proportion of migrants from the North zone of Haiti than have previous studies, probably because of the accelerating crisis in the peasant economy in the North and the curtailment of movement to the Bahamas. The technical and social organization of agricultural work goes far in explaining migratory flows. Rice cultivation has heavy labor demands year round, while demand for labor in coffee cultivation is concentrated between August-December. The more complex and better paying jobs in rice cultivation are performed primarily by Dominican workers, who have formed a landless agricultural proletariat in place for at least 2 generations. Dominican workers thus meet the condition of staying in place all year that is not completely possible for Haitian workers. No such ethnic separation occurs in the coffee harvest, and

  11. Employers' Perceptions of Recent Agricultural Communications Graduates' Workplace Habits and Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irlbeck, Erica Goss; Akers, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural communications programs should frequently review their curriculum to ensure students receive the highest quality of education possible (Akers, 2000). This research is a nationwide look at recent agricultural communications graduates' employers and/or co-workers. The purpose of this study was to determine which workplace habits and…

  12. TRAINING METHODS FOR OLDER WORKERS. EMPLOYMENT OF OLDER WORKERS, 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BELBIN, R.M.

    A SURVEY WAS PRESENTED OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE ON AGE CHANGES IN HUMAN CAPACITIES, ESPECIALLY IN LEARNING ABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY, AND DESCRIBED VARIOUS METHODS USED TO TRAIN WORKERS OVER 40. THE ROLE OF MEMORY, MOTIVATION, RIGIDITY, AND INTELLIGENCE IN DETERMINING THE LEARNING EFFICIENCY OF MATURE ADULTS WAS ASSESSED, ALSO DIFFICULTIES CAUSED BY…

  13. Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume III. Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, David; And Others

    This training manual, the third volume in a four-volume series of curriculum guides for use in training Peace Corps agricultural development workers, deals with crops. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the crops component of the agricultural development worker training series. Included in the second…

  14. Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume II. Extension Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Peter; And Others

    This training manual, the second volume in a four-volume series of curriculum guides for use in training Peace Corps agricultural development workers, deals with extension skills. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the extension skills component of the agricultural development worker training series.…

  15. Productivity of older workers: perceptions of employers and employees.

    PubMed

    Van Dalen, Hendrik P; Henkens, Kène; Schippers, Joop

    2010-01-01

    What determines the perceived productivity of the older worker and how does this perception compare to the perception of the productivity of the younger worker? In this study we present evidence based on data from Dutch employers and employees. Productivity perceptions are affected by one's age and one's position in the hierarchy. The young favor the young, the old favor the old, and employers value the productivity of workers less than employees do. However, there are also remarkable similarities across employers and employees. By distinguishing the various dimensions that underlie the productivity of younger and older workers, we tested whether soft qualities and abilities-e.g., reliability and commitment-are just as important as hard qualities-cognitive and physically based skills-in the eyes of both employers and employees. It appears that both employers and employees, young and old, view hard skills as far more important than soft skills. PMID:20734554

  16. Employment Characteristics of Low-Wage Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternlieb, Stevens; Bauman, Alvin

    1972-01-01

    Low-paid workers are defined as the lowest paid one-fourth of nonsupervisory employees in private industry in the nonfarm economy, mostly in service and retail industries, not covered by union or other labor standards, and concentrated in the South. (MF)

  17. 78 FR 69541 - Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... rulemaking (NPRM). 74 FR 45906 (Sept. 4, 2009). After considering comments from the public on the subject... Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States, 75 FR 6884 (Feb. 12, 2010). The effect of..., Health professions, Immigration, Labor, Longshore and harbor work, Migrant workers, Nonimmigrant...

  18. Overcoming Language and Literacy Barriers in Safety and Health Training of Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Estrada, Jorge M.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, “Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture,” is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the US to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented. PMID:20665309

  19. Overcoming language and literacy barriers in safety and health training of agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Estrada, Jorge M; Quandt, Sara A

    2010-07-01

    The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the United States to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented. PMID:20665309

  20. Language, Employment, and Settlement: Temporary Meat Workers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piller, Ingrid; Lising, Loy

    2014-01-01

    Australia is one of the world's largest beef exporters. However, meat processing jobs are widely considered undesirable and are increasingly filled with employer-sponsored migrant workers on temporary long-stay visas. Against this background, our paper explores the role of language in the employment and migration trajectories of a group of…

  1. The Employer's Voice: Frontline Workers and Workforce Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, Boston, MA.

    Seventeen small and mid-sized employers from Annie E. Casey Foundation Jobs Initiative sites addressed the challenges of recruiting, retaining, and promoting frontline workers. Employers shared collaboration experiences with Jobs Initiatives sites to develop effective, efficient strategies to prepare and support low-income residents. Firms relied…

  2. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE..., dairy workers, and others may qualify for the exemption under section 13(b)(13) if the other...

  3. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE..., dairy workers, and others may qualify for the exemption under section 13(b)(13) if the other...

  4. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE..., dairy workers, and others may qualify for the exemption under section 13(b)(13) if the other...

  5. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE..., dairy workers, and others may qualify for the exemption under section 13(b)(13) if the other...

  6. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE..., dairy workers, and others may qualify for the exemption under section 13(b)(13) if the other...

  7. Agricultural Extension Workers' Roles in Canada and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeshewalul, Ayele; Griffith, William S.

    1984-01-01

    This research examined the effects of government and the university organizational models and of performing regulatory functions on American and Canadian agricultural extension workers' role perception and role performance. (Author/SSH)

  8. MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JORGENSON, JANET M.; AND OTHERS

    FIELD STUDIES WERE CONDUCTED IN 1960 IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS AND IN IOWA TO AUGMENT INFORMATION ON MIGRATORY WORKERS. FACULTY-STUDENT TEAM FIELD TRIPS FOUND MANY FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN PROVIDING A CONSTRUCTIVE APPROACH TO THE PROBLEMS OF THE MIGRANT WORKER. CHILDREN OF THE MIGRANTS ARE NOT GETTING THE EDUCATION THEY NEED TO BREAK…

  9. Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume IV. Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Neil; And Others

    This training manual, the last volume in a four-volume series for use in training Peace Corps workers, deals with livestock. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the livestock component of the agricultural development worker training course. Included in the second chapter are lesson plans covering the…

  10. Mexican Workers and U.S. Agriculture: The Revolving Door.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Discusses agriculture and farming factors affecting immigration and integration policies. Examines seasonality, wages, and guest workers; the Immigration Reform and Control Act; and the search for seasonal workers. Data suggest that first generation immigrants age out of seasonal farm work with few skills to enable them to climb any job ladder,…

  11. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  12. Agricultural Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

    The duties and tasks found in these task lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs for agricultural occupations. The agricultural occupations are divided into three clusters. The clusters and occupations are: agricultural business and management cluster…

  13. [The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in agricultural workers].

    PubMed

    Komleva, N E; Spirin, V F; Trubetskov, A D; Zaikina, I V

    2012-01-01

    Among agricultural workers is common gastroesophageal reflux disease. On a professional factors affecting agricultural labor (physical activity, weight lifting, carrying heavy loads, frequent and/or long slopes). These factors contribute to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease and severe course.

  14. Structural shifts in the employment of foreign workers in Austria.

    PubMed

    Biffl, G

    1985-03-01

    The full economic importance of immigration becomes clear only when one examines the concentration of immigrant workers in certain industries and occupations, and this is done in the case of Austria to show the degree of segmentation of the labor market between indigenous and foreign labor. In the course of the 1960s the employment of foreign labor gained importance in Austria. As a consequence, bilateral agreements with the major recruiting countries were made, e.g., with Spain in 1962 and 1969, with Turkey in 1964, and with Yugoslavia in 1966. The reason for the increasing demand for foreign labor was the short supply of indigenous labor due to increasing participation rates and strong economic growth. The demand-pull for foreign labor gained momentum with the onset of the economic boom in 1970, so that by the end of 1973 the number of foreign workers had doubled in comparison to 1970. The 226,800 foreign workers accounted for 8.7% of total employment. The 1974-75 recession and the weak economic development ever since resulted in a decreasing demand for labor. At the same time, the supply of indigenous labor increased as a consequence of a demographic effect and because of increasing participation rates of women. From 1981 to the present, foreign employment decreased again due to the unusually long period of economic stagnation. During 1983, 145,300 foreign workers were engaged, i.e., 5.3% of total employment. The structure for foreign employment now differs greatly from that in the 1960s. The share of women in foreign employment has increased steadily from some 20% in the early 1960s to 31% in 1973 and 40% in 1983 -- a value comparable to the Austrian female share in employment. The reduction of foreign employment since 1973 affected, above all, Yugoslav men. the share of Yugoslavs in foreign employment decreased from 196,300 or 79% in 1973 to 92,200 or 61.7% in 1983. With the duration of foreign employment rising, the disribution of foreign labor over economic

  15. Educational and Employment Experiences of the Younger Adult Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.; Gardner, John A.

    The Younger Adult Worker (YAW) study examined the systematic long-term relationship between exposure to vocational education and various indices of educational and employment outcomes. A telephone survey of 1539 young adults between the ages of 20 and 34 supplemented information from the l966-78 National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market…

  16. Job Satisfaction of Developmentally Disabled Workers in Competitive Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Patricia A.; And Others

    The job satisfaction of 35 developmentally disabled workers (17 to 38 years old) placed into competitive employment over a 2.5 year period was assessed. The Job Satisfaction Survey which measures satisfaction with the job itself, with the work group, with the company, and with the pay and job status, was administered orally in structured interview…

  17. 76 FR 69146 - Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program; Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... proposed rule published October 27, 2011, at 76 FR 66656, is withdrawn. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Office of Advocacy and Outreach 7 CFR Part 2502 RIN 0503-AA49 Agricultural Career and Employment Grants... withdrawing its proposed rule of October 27, 2011, entitled ``Agricultural Career and Employment...

  18. Part-Time Employment by Secondary Agricultural Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Harry N., Jr.; Scarbrough, Connie; Gartin, Stacy A.; Boone, Deborah A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare secondary agricultural educators' perceptions of the benefits and problems associated with teaching agricultural education and being involved in other part-time employment activities. The sample consisted of 107 agricultural educators nonrandomly selected from three states. Sixty-nine usable questionnaires…

  19. 76 FR 79711 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... agricultural labor or services (H-2A workers). AEWRs are the minimum wage rates the Department has determined... collective bargaining wage, if applicable; or (v) the Federal or State minimum wage, in effect at the time... Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Adverse Effect Wage Rates AGENCY: Employment and...

  20. The Impacts of Demographic Change: Young Workers, Older Workers and the Consequences for Education, Skills and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, John; O'Connor, Henrietta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the key themes in the area of the impact of demographic change on young workers and older workers in relation to education, skills and employment, as discussed in the papers included in this section. The authors have also drawn upon data from their project "From Young Workers to Older Workers" as…

  1. A Study of New Mexico Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrego, John G.; And Others

    The intent of this report, as stated, is to bring about an awareness of the kinds of problems faced by migrant agricultural workers (Mexican Americans and Navajos), by farmers, and by agencies offering services to these migrants in New Mexico. An overview of the national and state migrant situation is presented, as well as case studies of various…

  2. Barriers to Participatory Extension in Egypt: Agricultural Workers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…

  3. Risk of malignant lymphoma in Swedish agricultural and forestry workers.

    PubMed Central

    Wiklund, K; Lindefors, B M; Holm, L E

    1988-01-01

    The risk of malignant lymphoma after possible exposure to phenoxy acid herbicides was studied in 354,620 Swedish men who, according to a national census in 1960, were employed in agriculture or forestry. The cohort was divided into subcohorts according to assumed exposure and compared with 1,725,645 Swedish men having other economic activities. All were followed up in the Cancer-Environment Register between 1961 and 1979. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was found in 861 men in the study cohort. The relative risk was not significantly increased in any subcohort, did not differ significantly between the subcohorts, and showed no time related increase in the total cohort or any subcohort. Hodgkin's disease was found in 355 men in the study cohort. Relative risks significantly higher than unity were found among fur farming and silviculture workers where the relative risks were 4.45 and 2.26, respectively. All five cases in the former group were engaged in mink farming. A time related rising trend in relative risk was found in the silviculture subcohort. Elsewhere the relative risk did not diverge from unity and no time related trend was discernible. PMID:3342183

  4. 78 FR 45167 - Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture; Pesticides, Agricultural Worker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...This document notifies the public as required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) that the EPA Administrator has forwarded to the Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) a draft regulatory document concerning Pesticides; Agricultural Worker Protection Standard Revisions. The draft regulatory document is not available to the public until......

  5. Agricultural "killing fields": the poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers.

    PubMed

    Sass, R

    2000-01-01

    The poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers by multinational corporations' excessive use of pesticides is not a local issue; it is embedded in a dominant ideology expressed by the phenomenon of globalization. This ideology seeps into every aspect of our social institutions--economic, political, and legal. The practice of this ideological perspective is evident in the industrialization of global agriculture and the shift from "developmentalism"--liberal welfarism, industrialization, and urbanization--to a dominant, undemocratic, global financial elite with "economism" and a neoliberal political agenda overriding the nation-state polis. A specific effect is to transform the agricultural workers of developing countries, such as Costa Rican banana workers, into politically superfluous flesh-and-blood human beings.

  6. Worker Satisfaction Following Employment Restructuring: Effects of Nonstandard Workers and Downsizing on Job Satisfaction in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Jyh-Jer Roger; Yeh, Ying-Jung Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, many employment relationships in Taiwan have evolved from regular and long-term to contingent and short-term, with widespread downsizing adding a considerable amount of instability. Since these changes are part of a global trend, there is a growing literature concerning their influences on worker attitudes and work life quality.…

  7. Oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Kisby, Glen E; Muniz, Juan F; Scherer, Jennifer; Lasarev, Michael R; Koshy, Mary; Kow, Yoke W; McCauley, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage have been proposed as mechanisms linking pesticide exposure to health effects such as cancer and neurological diseases. A pilot study of pesticide applicators and farm workers working in the fruit orchards of Oregon (i.e., apples, pears) was conducted to examine the relationship between organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure and oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urine samples were analyzed for OP metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Lymphocytes were analyzed for oxidative DNA repair activity and DNA damage (Comet assay) and serum analyzed for lipid peroxides (i.e., malondialdehyde [MDA]). Cellular DNA damage in agricultural workers was validated using lymphocyte cell cultures. Urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in farm workers and applicators (p < .001) when compared to controls. 8-OH-dG levels were 8.5 times and 2.3 times higher in farm workers and applicators, respectively, than in controls. Serum MDA levels were 4.9 times and 24 times higher in farm workers and applicators, respectively, than in controls. DNA damage and oxidative DNA repair were significantly greater in lymphocytes from applicators and farm workers when compared with controls. A separate field study showed that DNA damage was also significantly greater (p < .001) in buccal cells (i.e., leukocytes) collected from migrant farm workers working with fungicides in the berry crops in Oregon. Markers of oxidative stress (i.e., reactive oxygen species, reduced levels of glutathione) and oxidative DNA damage were also observed in lymphocyte cell cultures treated with an OP. The findings from these in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that pesticides induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers. These biomarkers may be useful for increasing our understanding of the link between pesticides and cancer. PMID:19437279

  8. Mortality from lung cancer among workers employed in formaldehyde industries.

    PubMed

    Blair, A; Stewart, P A; Hoover, R N

    1990-01-01

    A historical cohort of 26,561 workers employed in ten facilities was assembled to evaluate cancer risks associated with exposure to formaldehyde. Historical exposures to formaldehyde by job, work area, plant, and calendar time were estimated using monitoring data available from participating plants, comments from long-term workers and company officials, exposure evaluations from walk-through surveys conducted by project industrial hygienists, and results from monitoring specifically performed for this project. A previous report of findings from this study noted a 30% excess mortality from lung cancer among wage workers. The relative risk for lung cancer (whether estimated by SMRs or SRRs) 20 or more years after first exposure did not generally rise with increasing exposure to formaldehyde. Various estimates of exposure were investigated including duration, intensity, peak, cumulative, and average, and by exposures lagged by 5, 10, 20, and 30 years. The excess did not appear to arise gradually, but emerged suddenly among workers whose total cumulative exposure was less than 0.1 ppm-years. Slightly positive, but nonsignificant, exposure-response associations between lung cancer and level of formaldehyde occurred in only a few out of a large number of comparisons (e.g., for persons hired before the start dates for the study and for workers also exposed to particulates). There was a lack of consistency among the various plants for risk of lung cancer, with six plants having elevated SMRs and four plants having deficits. Mortality from lung cancer was more strongly associated with exposure to other substances including phenol, melamine, urea, and wood dust than with exposure to formaldehyde. Workers exposed to formaldehyde without exposure to these substances did not experience an elevated mortality from lung cancer. The risk did not increase with cumulative levels of formaldehyde among those exposed to other substances and there was a slightly negative trend for those

  9. Needlestick Injuries in Agriculture Workers and Prevention Programs.

    PubMed

    Buswell, Minden L; Hourigan, Mary; Nault, André J; Bender, Jeffrey B

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of biologics, vaccines, antibiotics, and hormones used in animal agriculture. Depending upon the procedure or pharmaceutical used, accidental injections or product exposures can result in mild to severe injuries. Needlestick injury (NSI) prevention, research, and education for veterinarians and agriculture workers is limited. The objective of this study was to collect and review published case reports and case series/surveys on human needlestick exposure to veterinary biologics and to summarize needlestick prevention strategies for agricultural workers/veterinarians. A search was conducted of PubMed and Centre for Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI) databases. References were reviewed to identify additional articles. NSI among agricultural workers were primarily included in this review. Thirty articles were applicable to exposures in agricultural settings. Relevant literature consisted of case reports, survey/case series articles, prevention documents, and background articles. Fifty-nine case patients were identified. Most of these cases were associated with exposures to specific vaccines or veterinary products. Injury location was identified from 36 individuals: 24 (67%) NSI to the hands, 10 (28%) injuries to the legs, and 2 to other body locations. Of the 59 cases, 20 (34%) involved oil-adjuvant vaccines. Evidence of hospitalization was recorded for 30 case patients. The length of hospitalization was available from 11 case patients. Median length of hospitalization was 3 days (range: 1-4). Surgical intervention was reported in 25 case patients. Outcome information was available on 30 case patients. Fifteen made a complete recovery within 2 weeks of treatment, 14 had residual sequelae attributed to the injury, and there was 1 reported death. Of the 13 survey/case series articles: 2 focused on oil-adjuvant products, 1 on Brucellosis RB-51 vaccine, 3 on tilmicosin, 1 on Salmonella enteritidis vaccine, 1 on high-pressure injection, and 5

  10. 20 CFR 663.705 - What are the requirements for OJT contracts for employed workers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contracts for employed workers? OJT contracts may be written for eligible employed workers when: (a) The... production or service procedures, upgrading to new jobs that require additional skills, workplace...

  11. Task Lists for Agricultural Occupations, 1988: Cluster Matrices for Agricultural Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepple, Jerry

    This document contains four publications for agricultural occupations in Illinois. "Task Lists for Agricultural Occupations" provide lists of employability skills for the following: park aide; hand sprayer; gardener/groundskeeper; salesperson, parts, agricultural equipment; and dairy processing equipment operator. Each list contains skills…

  12. Mortality among workers employed in petroleum refining and petrochemical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, T.L.; Decoufle, P.; Moure-Eraso, R.

    1980-02-01

    The cause-specific mortality experience of 3,105 members of the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union was examined to determine if there were unusual patterns of fatal disease that may be indicative of hazardous agents in the work environment. Deaths among active Union members that were reported by locals in Texas between 1947 and 1977 were identified through membership records, and proportionate mortality was analyzed in several broad industrial categories. PMRs for cancers of the liver and biliary passages, pancreas, lung and skin were elevated among refinery and petrochemical plant workers; however risks did not increase with length of membership. Increased relative frequencies of stomach cancer, cancer of the brain, leukemia and multiple myeloma were confined to white males in the same category who had been Union members for 10 or more years. Excess deaths from stomach cancer and brain cancer were found among white male members employed at one specific oil refinery and petrochemical plant. Observed numbers of deaths from cancer of the stomach were greater than expected among whites and nonwhites, and an elevated PMR for lung cancer among nonwhites was found at an additional plant. Findings suggest that workers in this industry may be at increased risk of certain cancers and indicate areas for further investigation.

  13. Affordable health benefits for workers without employer coverage.

    PubMed

    Etheredge, L; Jones, S B

    1998-02-01

    With 42 million individuals lacking health insurance in 1996, an increase of 1.1 million uninsured from the previous year, new initiatives to deal with health insurance problems merit a high priority among domestic policy initiatives. This paper examines the opportunities for assisting full-time workers (and their families) who do not receive employer-paid health insurance-a group that now includes 49 million individuals-by using three policy tools that Congress and President Clinton have already agreed to use in recent healthcare legislation: (a) equitable tax assistance; (b) market reforms; and (c) competition among health plans that offer economical benefits. Estimates for a model plan illustrate that such strategies could make decent private health insurance more affordable and more accessible for workers and their families who want to purchase it; family insurance protection, with guaranteed issue of insurance and large-group-rated premiums, could be offered at potential savings of 42% (or more). Premiums for worker's coverage, after tax assistance, would be below $1,200 per year, i.e., less than 60 cents per hour. These market-oriented reforms can be accomplished with a limited government role, and, after start-up costs, ongoing federal expenses would be modest, predictable, and controllable. When combined with the new $24 billion child health initiative to assist low-income families, the proposed plan would provide considerable progress toward universal access to affordable insurance coverage.

  14. Mortality among workers employed in petroleum refining and petrochemical plants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T L; Decoufle, P; Moure-Eraso, R

    1980-02-01

    The cause-specific mortality experience of 3,105 members of the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union was examined to determine if there were unusual patterns of fatal disease that may be indicative of hazardous agents in the work environment. Deaths among active Union members that were reported by locals in Texas between 1947 and 1977 were identified through membership records, and proportionate mortality was analyzed in several broad industrial categories. PMRs for cancers of the liver and biliary passages, pancreas, lung and skin were elevated among refinery and petrochemical plant workers; however, risks did not increase with length of membership. Increased relative frequencies of stomach cancer, cancer of the brain, leukemia and multiple myeloma were confined to white males in the same category who had been Union members for 10 or more years. Excess deaths from stomach cancer and brain cancer were found among white male members employed at one specific oil refinery and petrochemical plant. Observed numbers of deaths from cancer of the stomach were greater than expected among whites and nonwhites, and an elevated PMR for lung cancer among nonwhites was found at an additional plant. Findings suggest that workers in this industry may be at increased risk of certain cancers and indicate areas for further investigation.

  15. Cancer Survivorship, Health Insurance, and Employment Transitions among Older Workers

    PubMed Central

    Tunceli, Kaan; Short, Pamela Farley; Moran, John R.; Tunceli, Ozgur

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of job-related health insurance on employment transitions (labor force exits, reductions in hours, and job changes) of older working cancer survivors. Using multivariate models, we compared longitudinal data for the period 1997–2002 from the Penn State Cancer Survivor Study to similar data for workers with no cancer history in the Health and Retirement Study, who were also ages 55 to 64 at follow up. The interaction of cancer survivorship with health insurance at diagnosis was negative and significant in predicting labor force exits, job changes, and transitions to part-time employment for both genders. The differential effect of job-related health insurance on the labor market dynamics of cancer survivors represents an additional component of the economic and psychosocial burden of cancer on survivors. PMID:19489481

  16. Agricultural links to nonagricultural growth: urbanization, employment, poverty.

    PubMed

    Mellor, J W

    1991-01-01

    Economic development in Pakistan has occurred due to a successful agricultural sector. It stimulated the nonagricultural sector, especially the small and medium scale nonagricultural sectors. In fact, its multiplier effects on other sectors are slight if agricultural incomes tend to amass in large scale farms. It is indeed the expenditure patterns of small-medium farmers that stimulate local, labor intensive goods and services. Further agricultural development has resulted in a dispersion of urbanization and growth in employment. The successes in Pakistan should soon reduce the incidence of rural poverty as happened in Brazil, Thailand, Indonesia, and India. Considerable declines in poverty due to agricultural growth in these countries occurred because employment in nonagricultural activities was associated with the pace of agricultural growth. Further the poverty level was linked with per capita changes in agricultural production. This optimal development strategy for low income countries with a large agricultural sector is heavily based on factor productivity which increases technological change which then fuels income and economic growth. Another component is the expenditure of income which spurs growth in the high income elastic components of agriculture (e.g., livestock). The last component is that feedback to agriculture from efforts stimulated by agricultural growth increases the demand the thus maintains prices of those agricultural goods undergoing quick technological change. This phenomenon of growth in the agricultural sector stimulating growth in the nonagricultural sector has not occurred in Africa, however, because economic growth since the early 1970s has been due to urban oriented foreign aid. At early stages of development, the public sector must support activities, but eventually the private sector handles them. Planning for this strategy requires a broad statement and sectoral strategies developed by highly trained sectoral economists for the

  17. Student, Advisor, and Employer Opinions on Interdisciplinary Education in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mindi; Colglazier, Ashley; Beutler, Rhoda; Pollard, Caleb; Francis, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This study explores "integration", the gathering of multiple disciplines of study into a curricular whole, and "interdisciplinarity", the inclusion of multiple disciplines, in the agricultural college at a land-grant university. We also evaluate the importance that employers place on student abilities to integrate information across disciplines.…

  18. 76 FR 70639 - Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ..., at 76 FR 69114, is November 15, 2011, and is applicable beginning November 8, 2011. Comments on the....chavez@osec.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Need for Correction On November 8, 2011 (76 FR 69114... Office of Advocacy and Outreach 7 CFR Part 2502 RIN 0503-AA49 Agricultural Career and Employment...

  19. 45 CFR 1626.11 - H-2 agricultural and forestry workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false H-2 agricultural and forestry workers. 1626.11... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural and forestry workers. (a... section. (b) Nonimmigrant forestry workers admitted to, or permitted to remain in, the United States...

  20. 77 FR 28764 - Temporary Non-agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... published a Final Rule amending the H-2B regulations at 20 CFR part 655, Subpart A. 77 FR 10038, February 21... Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers), and Other Technical Changes, 73 FR... H-2B Aliens in the United States AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ]...

  1. 76 FR 175 - Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Control Technologies, including on-site leased workers from Adecco Employment Services and Emcon... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-73,609 Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Employment Servcies and Emcon Technologies, Troy, MI; Amended...

  2. Effective Employment-Based Training Models for Childcare Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Sarojni; Haukka, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Childcare workers play a significant role in the learning and development of children in their care. This has major implications for the training of workers. Under new reforms of the childcare industry, the Australian government now requires all workers to obtain qualifications from a vocational education and training provider (e.g. Technical and…

  3. Mature Age "White Collar" Workers' Training and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymock, Darryl; Billett, Stephen; Klieve, Helen; Johnson, Greer Cavallaro; Martin, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Global concerns about the growing impact of ageing populations on workplace productivity and on welfare budgets have led to a range of government-supported measures intended to retain and upskill older workers. Yet, a consistent theme in the research literature is that older workers are reluctant and harder to train than younger workers, and that,…

  4. Gastrointestinal parasitoses discovered in agricultural workers in South Bohemia, Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed

    Stĕrba, J; Ditrich, O; Prokopic, J; Kadlcík, K

    1988-01-01

    In the years from 1975 to 1982 1,750 persons, mostly employed by agricultural enterprises in the South Bohemian Region in Czechoslovakia, were examined. We discovered seven species of parasites: Taenia saginata in 0.3%, Enterobius vermicularis in 10.1%, Giardia lamblia in 1.0%, Endolimax nana in 0.8%, Entamoeba coli in 0.7%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 0.2%, and Chilomastix mesnili in 0.5%. The greatest number of parasites was found in students of the Secondary agricultural and technical school. Only two species of parasites were diagnosed in children of the employees. The incidence of E. vermicularis was 75% in children, in adult employees of agricultural enterprises, however, only 9.8%. PMID:3169645

  5. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(1)-1 - Certain services performed by foreign agricultural workers, or performed before 1959 in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... agricultural worker lawfully admitted to the United States from the Bahamas, Jamaica, or the other British West... worker lawfully admitted to the United States from any foreign country or possession thereof, including... employment” included also horticultural employment, cotton ginning, compressing and storing, crushing of...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(1)-1 - Certain services performed by foreign agricultural workers, or performed before 1959 in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... agricultural worker lawfully admitted to the United States from the Bahamas, Jamaica, or the other British West... worker lawfully admitted to the United States from any foreign country or possession thereof, including... employment” included also horticultural employment, cotton ginning, compressing and storing, crushing of...

  7. The Employability of Older Workers as Teleworkers: An Appraisal of Issues and an Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharit, Joseph; Czaja, Sara J.; Hernandez, Mario A.; Nair, Sankaran N.

    2009-01-01

    The aging of the population and, concomitantly, of the workforce has a number of important implications for governments, businesses, and workers. In this article, we examine the prospects for the employability of older workers as home-based teleworkers. This alternative work could accommodate many of the needs and preferences of older workers and at the same time benefit organizations. However, before telework can be considered a viable work option for many older workers there are a number of issues to consider, including the ability of older workers to adapt to the technological demands that are typically associated with telework jobs and managerial attitudes about older workers and about telework. Through an integrated examination of these and other issues, our goal is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the challenges associated with employing older workers as teleworkers. We also present findings from a questionnaire study that assessed managers’ perceptions of worker attributes desirable for telework and how older workers compare to younger workers on these attributes. The sample included 314 managers with varying degrees of managerial experience from a large variety of companies in the United States. The results presented a mixed picture with respect to the employability of older workers as teleworkers, and strongly suggested that less experienced managers would be more resistant to hiring older people as teleworkers. We conclude with a number of recommendations for improving the prospects for employment of older workers for this type of work arrangement. PMID:20090856

  8. Industrial Characteristics and Employment of Older Manufacturing Workers in the Early-Twentieth-Century United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how industry-specific technological, organizational, and managerial features affected the employment of old male manufacturing workers in the early twentieth-century United States. Industrial characteristics favorably related to the employment of old industrial workers include high labor productivity, less capital- and material-intensive production, short workdays, low intensity of work, high job flexibility, and formalized employment relationship. Results show that aged industrial workers were heavily concentrated in “unfavorable” industries, suggesting that the contemporary argument of “industrial scrap heap” was applicable for most of the manufacturing workers in the early twentieth century United States. PMID:26989273

  9. Perceptions of Environmental and Occupational Health Hazards Among Agricultural Workers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Crowe, Jennifer; Postma, Julie; Ybarra, Vickie; Keifer, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers. Interviews were conducted with 389 agricultural workers in the Yakima Valley in central Washington State in the summers of 2004 and 2005. Undergraduate students from the community conducted interviews in Spanish or English. Environmental and occupational health issues were ranked by frequency of concern, and differences by demographic characteristics were evaluated using multivariate analyses. In both 2004 and 2005, agricultural workers expressed high levels of concern about working in hot weather, agricultural injuries, pesticides, and pediatric asthma. Perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers differed by certain demographic characteristics, particularly age and ethnicity. Consideration should be given to these issues when designing research studies, creating educational materials, and developing interventions related to environmental and occupational hazards among agricultural workers. PMID:19715263

  10. 75 FR 6031 - Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... AGENCY Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural... Register of December 9, 2009, making available for comment a policy paper entitled ``Revised Risk... uses and exposures not governed by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). Implementing...

  11. Training and Development for Transitional Employment in Mature-Aged Manual Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the current article was to explore perceptions of transitional employment and training and development amongst blue collar workers employed in technical, trade, operations or physical and labour-intensive occupations within the local government system. Methods: The responses of manual workers to two national surveys…

  12. 29 CFR 516.30 - Learners, apprentices, messengers, students, or handicapped workers employed under special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Learners, apprentices, messengers, students, or handicapped... handicapped workers employed under special certificates as provided in section 14 of the Act. (a) With respect... education, or handicapped workers employed at special minimum hourly rates under Special...

  13. 78 FR 66780 - Blount International, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Express Employment Professionals, Portland, Oregon Blount International, Inc., Carlton, Blount Including... International, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Express Employment Professionals Portland, Oregon... attributable to the same shift in production that was the basis for certifying workers at the Portland,...

  14. EEOC says temporary workers qualify for ADA protection. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

    PubMed

    1998-01-23

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) issued guidelines clarifying that both employers and staffing agencies can be held liable for discrimination and harassment of temporary or contingent workers. These workers are often viewed as independent contractors, and not employees. The guidance clarifies the employee-employer relationship, holding both the employment firm and the client accountable for discrimination and harassment and offering protection for this class of worker under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and other anti-discrimination statutes. The guidance also contains two case examples of how the ADA applies to contractual workers with HIV. The staffing firm and client each must count every worker with whom there is an employment relationship, and are prohibited from discriminating against each other's employees. PMID:11364955

  15. Characterization of α-cypermethrin Exposure in Egyptian Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Steven T.; Lein, Pamela J.; Farahat, Fayssal M.; Farahat, Taghreed; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Olson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides that exert their effects by prolonging the open time of sodium channels, which increases the duration of neuronal excitation. α-cypermethrin (αCM) is derived from the 8-stereoisomers that together make up the pyrethroid cypermethrin, which is one of the most common pyrethroids being used in agriculture throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure to αCM in a cohort of Egyptian agriculture workers (n=37) before, during and after 6 to 10 consecutive days of application of αCM to cotton fields. Daily spot urine specimens were collected and analyzed by GC-MS NCI for the αCM metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and cis-3-(2’,2’-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA). Prior to αCM application, median urinary levels of 3-PBA (4.59 nmol/g creatinine) were greater than cis-DCCA (0.33 nmole/g creatinine) demonstrating low background exposures to pyrethroids. During the application period for αCM, median urinary levels of both biomarkers increased (13.44 nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 7.76 nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine) and ranged from 2.3–93.96 nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 0.09–90.94 nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine, demonstrating that workers had a wide range of exposures to αCM. The data also demonstrate that pesticide applicators had greater exposures to αCM than workers who play a supporting role in the seasonal application of pesticides on the cotton crop. Urinary cis-DCCA and 3-PBA concentrations were elevated at 7–11 days after the cessation of αCM application, compared to baseline levels. This study is the first to use these biomarkers to quantify occupational exposures specifically to αCM. This urinary biomarker data will be useful for estimating daily internal dose, comparing exposures across job categories within the Egyptian pesticide application teams, and for modeling human exposures to αCM. PMID:24269189

  16. Characterization of α-cypermethrin exposure in Egyptian agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Steven T; Lein, Pamela J; Farahat, Fayssal M; Farahat, Taghreed; Bonner, Matthew R; Knaak, James B; Olson, James R

    2014-01-01

    Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides that exert their effects by prolonging the open time of sodium channels, which increases the duration of neuronal excitation. α-cypermethrin (αCM) is derived from the 8-stereoisomers that together make up the pyrethroid cypermethrin, which is one of the most common pyrethroids being used in agriculture throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure to αCM in a cohort of Egyptian agriculture workers (n=37) before, during and after 6-10 consecutive days of application of αCM to cotton fields. Daily spot urine specimens were collected and analyzed by GC-MS NCI for the αCM metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and cis-3-(2',2'-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA). Prior to αCM application, median urinary levels of 3-PBA (4.59nmol/g creatinine) were greater than cis-DCCA (0.33nmole/g creatinine) demonstrating low background exposures to pyrethroids. During the application period for αCM, median urinary levels of both biomarkers increased (13.44nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 7.76nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine) and ranged from 2.3-93.96nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 0.09-90.94nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine, demonstrating that workers had a wide range of exposures to αCM. The data also demonstrate that pesticide applicators had greater exposures to αCM than workers who play a supporting role in the seasonal application of pesticides on the cotton crop. Urinary cis-DCCA and 3-PBA concentrations were elevated at 7-11 days after the cessation of αCM application, compared to baseline levels. This study is the first to use these biomarkers to quantify occupational exposures specifically to αCM. This urinary biomarker data will be useful for estimating daily internal dose, comparing exposures across job categories within the Egyptian pesticide application teams, and for modeling human exposures to αCM.

  17. SUPERVISED TRAINING FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT FOR STUDENTS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IN ARKANSAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WAY, DARREL

    INFORMATION TO ASSIST LOCAL ADMINISTRATORS, TEACHERS, COUNSELORS, ADVISORY COMMITTEEMEN, AND TRAINING CENTER REPRESENTATIVES IN OPERATING A PROGRAM OF SUPERVISED TRAINING FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IS PROVIDED. THE MAJOR SECTIONS ARE--(1) THE NEED FOR THE PROGRAM, (2) ADVANTAGES OF THE PROGRAM, (3) ORGANIZATIONAL PROCEDURES, (4) PROGRAM POLICIES,…

  18. An Invitation for Social Workers To Employ Conflict Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linville, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    This article looks at how a social worker is able to use conflict management as described by William Purkey and John Schmidt in their book on invitational counseling in order to better engage the hardest to reach clients. (GCP)

  19. Employer-Led Organizations and Skill Supply Chains: Linking Worker Advancement with the Skill Needs of Employers. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jack; Prince, Heath

    Skill supply chains apply a chain strategy to human resources to make the labor market more efficient. They link the multiple skill levels in a given labor market within a network of recruitment pathways for employers and advancement pathways for workers. Skill supply chains are based on employers' actual skill needs and on the principle that…

  20. Technical Guidelines and References: Crops Training Component. From: Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume III: Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This reference manual for training Peace Corps agricultural development workers deals with crops. The document begins with common units of area, length, weight, volume, and conversions between them. A practice problem is worked and other conversion problems are given. The second section is intended to show agricultural field workers how to survey…

  1. Workforce Training: Employed Worker Programs Focus on Business Needs, But Revised Performance Measures Could Improve Access for Some Workers. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined publicly supported training programs for employed workers, including low-wage workers. The GAO surveyed local workforce boards nationwide and received responses from 470 boards. Two-thirds of the responding boards provided assistance to train employed workers, including partnering with employers to…

  2. Dynamic Changes in DNA Damage and Repair Biomarkers with Employment Length among Nickel Smelting Workers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan; Bai, Ya Na; Pu, Hong Quan; He, Jie; Zheng, Tong Zhang; Li, Hai Yan; Dai, Min; Cheng, Ning

    2015-09-01

    Our study explored the dynamic changes in and the relationship between the DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and the DNA repair marker 8-hydroxyguanine DNA glycosidase 1 (hOGG1) according to the length of occupational employment in nickel smelting workers. One hundred forty nickel-exposed smelting workers and 140 age-matched unexposed office workers were selected from the Jinchang cohort. The 8-OHdG levels in smelting workers was significantly higher than in office workers (Z=-8.688, P<0.05) and the 8-OHdG levels among nickel smelting workers in the 10-14 y employment length category was significantly higher than among all peers. The hOGG1 levels among smelting workers were significantly lower than those of non-exposed workers (Z=-8.948, P<0.05). There were significant differences between employment length and hOGG1 levels, with subjects employed in nickel smelting for 10-14 y showing the highest levels of hOGG1. Correlation analysis showed positive correlations between 8-OHdG and hOGG1 levels (r=0.413; P<0.01). DNA damage was increased with employment length among nickel smelting workers and was related to the inhibition of hOGG1 repair capacity.

  3. Dynamic Changes in DNA Damage and Repair Biomarkers with Employment Length among Nickel Smelting Workers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan; Bai, Ya Na; Pu, Hong Quan; He, Jie; Zheng, Tong Zhang; Li, Hai Yan; Dai, Min; Cheng, Ning

    2015-09-01

    Our study explored the dynamic changes in and the relationship between the DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and the DNA repair marker 8-hydroxyguanine DNA glycosidase 1 (hOGG1) according to the length of occupational employment in nickel smelting workers. One hundred forty nickel-exposed smelting workers and 140 age-matched unexposed office workers were selected from the Jinchang cohort. The 8-OHdG levels in smelting workers was significantly higher than in office workers (Z=-8.688, P<0.05) and the 8-OHdG levels among nickel smelting workers in the 10-14 y employment length category was significantly higher than among all peers. The hOGG1 levels among smelting workers were significantly lower than those of non-exposed workers (Z=-8.948, P<0.05). There were significant differences between employment length and hOGG1 levels, with subjects employed in nickel smelting for 10-14 y showing the highest levels of hOGG1. Correlation analysis showed positive correlations between 8-OHdG and hOGG1 levels (r=0.413; P<0.01). DNA damage was increased with employment length among nickel smelting workers and was related to the inhibition of hOGG1 repair capacity. PMID:26464256

  4. Nutra-ergonomics: influence of nutrition on physical employment standards and the health of workers.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jane; Graham, Terry E; Skinner, Tina L

    2016-06-01

    The importance of ergonomics across several scientific domains, including biomechanics, psychology, sociology, and physiology, have been extensively explored. However, the role of other factors that may influence the health and productivity of workers, such as nutrition, is generally overlooked. Nutra-ergonomics describes the interface between workers, their work environment, and performance in relation to their nutritional status. It considers nutrition to be an integral part of a safe and productive workplace that encompasses physical and mental health as well as the long-term wellbeing of workers. This review explores the knowledge, awareness, and common practices of nutrition, hydration, stimulants, and fortified product use employed prior to physical employment standards testing and within the workplace. The influence of these nutra-ergonomic strategies on physical employment standards, worker safety, and performance will be examined. Further, the roles, responsibilities, and implications for the applicant, worker, and the employer will be discussed within the context of nutra-ergonomics, with reference to the provision and sustainability of an environment conducive to optimize worker health and wellbeing. Beyond physical employment standards, workplace productivity, and performance, the influence of extended or chronic desynchronization (irregular or shift work) in the work schedule on metabolism and long-term health, including risk of developing chronic and complex diseases, is discussed. Finally, practical nutra-ergonomic strategies and recommendations for the applicant, worker, and employer alike will be provided to enhance the short- and long-term safety, performance, health, and wellbeing of workers. PMID:27277565

  5. Employing of the workers from abroad in Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed

    Tesarova, D

    1983-01-01

    Labor migrants from other socialist or developing countries work in Czechoslovakia (CSSR) on the basis of agreements between governments of ministries of labor. In 1965, 7,200 foreigners, or 8% of the labor force worked in the CSSR. In 1982, these number had grown to 37,400 or 39% of the labor force. In the 1960s, many Polish people came to work n the CSSR, mostly in the regions bordering Poland. Polish women work in consumer industries, especially textiles in the Northern and Eastern Bohemian regions; Polish men work in the metalugrical and engineering industries of the Northern Moravian region. Although the numbers of Polish workers in the CSSR has decreased, in 1982 they constituted 1/3 of all foreign workers. A treaty with Hungary allows Hungarian men to work in Czechoslovakia and Czechoslovakian women to work in Hungary. Young people from the Mongolian People's Republic, the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, and Cuba also come to work in Czechoslovakia, as well as small numbers of people from Laos and Cyprus. Foreign workers work under the same conditions and receive the same wages as native workers. In addition, they receive special preparatory and language training at full wages. Depending on need, they also receive clothing, housing, food, medical care, and social opportunities. The primary purpose of having foreign workers in Czechoslovakia is not to have a cheap labor force; rather it is to provide aid to developing countries.

  6. A Case-Crossover Study of Heat Exposure and Injury Risk in Outdoor Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Bonauto, David K.; Sheppard, Lianne; Busch-Isaksen, Tania; Calkins, Miriam; Adams, Darrin; Lieblich, Max; Fenske, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that heat exposure may increase the risk of traumatic injuries. Published heat-related epidemiological studies have relied upon exposure data from individual weather stations. Objective To evaluate the association between heat exposure and traumatic injuries in outdoor agricultural workers exposed to ambient heat and internal heat generated by physical activity using modeled ambient exposure data. Methods A case-crossover study using time-stratified referent selection among 12,213 outdoor agricultural workers with new Washington State Fund workers’ compensation traumatic injury claims between 2000 and 2012 was conducted. Maximum daily Humidex exposures, derived from modeled meteorological data, were assigned to latitudes and longitudes of injury locations on injury and referent dates. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of injury for a priori daily maximum Humidex categories. Results The mean of within-stratum (injury day and corresponding referent days) standard deviations of daily maximum Humidex was 4.8. The traumatic injury odds ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.22), 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.25), and 1.10 (95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.20) for daily maximum Humidex of 25–29, 30–33, and ≥34, respectively, compared to < 25, adjusted for self-reported duration of employment. Stronger associations were observed during cherry harvest duties in the June and July time period, compared to all duties over the entire study period. Conclusions Agricultural workers laboring in warm conditions are at risk for heat-related traumatic injuries. Combined heat-related illness and injury prevention efforts should be considered in high-risk populations exposed to warm ambient conditions in the setting of physical exertion. PMID:27716794

  7. Region of birth, sex, and agricultural work of immigrant Latino farm workers: the MICASA study.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, S A; Stoecklin-Marois, M T; Tancredi, D J; Bennett, D H; Schenker, M B

    2014-04-01

    Agricultural work is hazardous, and immigrant workers perform the majority of production tasks, yet there are few data describing agricultural work and use of protective measures by demographic characteristics. We examined cross-sectionally the influence of region of birth (Mexico vs. Central America) and sex on agricultural work and use of protective measures in the MICASA cohort of immigrant Latino farm workers in Mendota, California. Of 445 participants, 293 (65.8%) were born in Mexico (163 men, 130 women) and 152 (34.2%) were born in Central America (80 men, 72 women). Men worked on average 74.4 more days than women (95% CI 62.0, 86.9) and were more likely to perform tasks requiring high levels of training or strength, such as machine operation, pruning, picking, planting, and irrigation; more likely to work in dusty conditions; and more likely to work directly with pesticides. Women predominated in packing. Respondents from Mexico were more likely to work with tomatoes and less likely to work with melon and lettuce. Central America-born respondents were less likely to engage in planting, irrigation, and pesticide use. Use of task-appropriate personal protective measures on at least a half-time basis was rare, with the exception of persons working with pesticides (a group limited to men) and for facial scarves among Central American women. Further work should focus on identifying barriers to use of preventive measures and programs to further their use. Educational models accounting for cultural factors and driving social norm change, employer engagement, and use of community health workers (promotores) may be helpful in promoting use of preventive measures.

  8. Region of birth, sex, and agricultural work of immigrant Latino farm workers: the MICASA study.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, S A; Stoecklin-Marois, M T; Tancredi, D J; Bennett, D H; Schenker, M B

    2014-04-01

    Agricultural work is hazardous, and immigrant workers perform the majority of production tasks, yet there are few data describing agricultural work and use of protective measures by demographic characteristics. We examined cross-sectionally the influence of region of birth (Mexico vs. Central America) and sex on agricultural work and use of protective measures in the MICASA cohort of immigrant Latino farm workers in Mendota, California. Of 445 participants, 293 (65.8%) were born in Mexico (163 men, 130 women) and 152 (34.2%) were born in Central America (80 men, 72 women). Men worked on average 74.4 more days than women (95% CI 62.0, 86.9) and were more likely to perform tasks requiring high levels of training or strength, such as machine operation, pruning, picking, planting, and irrigation; more likely to work in dusty conditions; and more likely to work directly with pesticides. Women predominated in packing. Respondents from Mexico were more likely to work with tomatoes and less likely to work with melon and lettuce. Central America-born respondents were less likely to engage in planting, irrigation, and pesticide use. Use of task-appropriate personal protective measures on at least a half-time basis was rare, with the exception of persons working with pesticides (a group limited to men) and for facial scarves among Central American women. Further work should focus on identifying barriers to use of preventive measures and programs to further their use. Educational models accounting for cultural factors and driving social norm change, employer engagement, and use of community health workers (promotores) may be helpful in promoting use of preventive measures. PMID:24897916

  9. Youth Employment Laws: A Handbook for Supervisors of Young Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerber, Gaer C.

    Prepared by an attorney, this guide is intended for school personnel involved in the work placement of students. Pertinent youth employment laws are condensed and interpreted, providing a reference guide for both school personnel and employers. Information is provided about the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, the Hittle Juvenile Employment Act,…

  10. Employer Experiences and Expectations: Finding, Training, and Keeping Qualified Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perron, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The graying of the labor force, together with the recession of 2008-2010, has forced employers and prognosticators to take a hard look at workforce preparation, training, and planning. This employer research survey is one component of a larger project that explores the workforce, labor force projections, and employer views on training,…

  11. Microstructural changes in the substantia nigra of asymptomatic agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Du, Guangwei; Lewis, Mechelle M; Sterling, Nicholas W; Kong, Lan; Chen, Honglei; Mailman, Richard B; Huang, Xuemei

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is marked by the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Although the exact etiology is unknown, sporadic PD is hypothesized to be a result of genetic susceptibility interacting with environmental insult. Epidemiological studies suggest that pesticide exposure is linked to higher PD risk, but there are no studies demonstrating SN changes with chronic pesticide exposure in human subjects. Thus, high resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor (DTI) images were obtained from 12 agricultural workers with chronic pesticide exposure, 12 controls, and 12 PD subjects. Neither controls nor pesticide-exposed subjects, had any parkinsonian symptoms. Exposure history to pesticides was assessed by a structured questionnaire. DTI measures in the SN, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), were obtained for all subjects and compared among groups. Compared to controls, PD patients showed the expected significant changes in all DTI measurements in the SN. The pesticide-exposed subjects, compared to controls, had significantly lower FA values (p=0.022, after multiple comparisons correction), but no significant differences in RD, MD, or AD measures. The study is the first to demonstrate microstructural changes in the SN of human subjects with chronic pesticide exposure. The changes detected by MRI may mark "one of the hits" leading to PD, and underlie the increased risk of PD in pesticide users found in epidemiological studies. Further human studies assisted by these imaging markers may be useful in understanding the etiology of PD.

  12. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary functions of workers employed in Turkish textile dyeing factories.

    PubMed

    Ozkurt, Sibel; Kargi, Beyza Akdag; Kavas, Murat; Evyapan, Fatma; Kiter, Göksel; Baser, Sevin

    2012-04-01

    Dyes are known to be a causative agent of occupational asthma in workers exposed to them. We have evaluated respiratory symptoms among textile workers. The study population comprised 106 exposed workers and a control (unexposed) group. Data were collected by a questionnaire. PFTs (Pulmonary Function Test) were performed. Among the exposed workers 36.8% defined phlegm. Respiratory symptoms were not significantly different between two groups. The employment duration of the exposed workers with phlegm was longer than those without phlegm (p = 0.027). The mean % predicted of FEF(25-75) of the exposed workers was found to be significantly lower than the control (unexposed) group (p = 0.01). Our study suggests that textile dyeing might cause respiratory symptoms in workers.

  13. Employment among Older Workers and Inequality of Gender and Education: Evidence from a Taiwanese National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was twofold: to examine the prevalence of employment and under-employment among Taiwanese older workers (aged 50 and above), and to explore personal correlates of their employment status, in particular gender and education. Using a national representative sample, we found that: 1) a rather substantial percentage of people…

  14. Re-Employment of Displaced Workers: What Does and Doesn't Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, David P.; Ramey, Luellen

    In light of the many thousands of displaced workers in Michigan, a program was developed to help laid-off workers assess their capabilities, relate their skills to job market needs, overcome the grief resulting from job loss, learn how to approach prospective employers, and successfully market their abilities. The 3-month program was offered at…

  15. "At This Point Now": Older Workers' Reflections on Their Current Employment Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the frequently referenced graying of the U.S. workforce, we know relatively little about the work-related concerns and experiences of older workers--those aged 55+. This qualitative study addresses that gap by examining the current employment situations of a purposive sample of 37 older workers. Thematic content analysis revealed a vast…

  16. Recruitment and Employment of Foreign Workers--Iran. Project Findings and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Prepared for the government of Iran, the report is the result of a study concerned with the recruitment and employment of foreign workers. Due to the rapid industrialization of Iran, an anticipated shortage of qualified workers led to the government's request for an outside expert to advise on considerations and suggested procedures involved in…

  17. A Human Resource Development Performance Improvement Model for Workers with Mental Retardation in Supported Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra; Rosenberg, Howard; Rocco, Tonette S.; Gallagher, Jo

    2006-01-01

    This literature review discusses the factors for successful job retention of adult workers with mental retardation (MR) including external factors related to work environments and internal issues of the individual worker. Through the synthesis of the literature, a performance improvement model for supported employment (SE) is discussed based on…

  18. Risk of tick-borne diseases in various categories of employment among forestry workers in eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Cisak, Ewa; Zając, Violetta; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Among the zoonotic agents causing occupational diseases, those transmitted by ticks are very important, in particular the spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi which are the common cause of occupational Lyme borreliosis in forestry and agricultural workers. The objective of this study was an evaluation of the exposure of forestry workers employed at individual workplaces to infection with tick-borne pathogens (especially Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes), based on epidemiological investigation and serologic tests. Epidemiological studies covered 111 forestry employees from eastern Poland employed in 4 randomly-selected forest inspectorates which replied to questions in the area of epidemiology and prophylaxis of diseases transmitted by ticks. Eighty-two forestry workers employed in one forest inspectorate were examined for the presence of specific anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies. The correlation between individual items of the questionnaire was assessed by Spearman's test. Results of serological tests were assessed by Mann-Whitney test. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that the workers performing manual jobs in the forest are at the greatest risk of tick bite and contraction of tick-borne disease. They are aware of the risk, but use the improper method of removal of ticks with the fingers. Comparisons of the relationship between job category and the results of serologic study, expressed in BBU/ml, revealed that the serologic response was significantly greater in manual workers than in administrative workers (p=0.019). All other comparisons did not produce significant results. Therefore, providing a simple tweezer-like device to forest inspectorates seems to be an effective mean of protection against Lyme borreliosis and other tick-borne diseases. PMID:23020041

  19. Risk of tick-borne diseases in various categories of employment among forestry workers in eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Cisak, Ewa; Zając, Violetta; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Among the zoonotic agents causing occupational diseases, those transmitted by ticks are very important, in particular the spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi which are the common cause of occupational Lyme borreliosis in forestry and agricultural workers. The objective of this study was an evaluation of the exposure of forestry workers employed at individual workplaces to infection with tick-borne pathogens (especially Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes), based on epidemiological investigation and serologic tests. Epidemiological studies covered 111 forestry employees from eastern Poland employed in 4 randomly-selected forest inspectorates which replied to questions in the area of epidemiology and prophylaxis of diseases transmitted by ticks. Eighty-two forestry workers employed in one forest inspectorate were examined for the presence of specific anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies. The correlation between individual items of the questionnaire was assessed by Spearman's test. Results of serological tests were assessed by Mann-Whitney test. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that the workers performing manual jobs in the forest are at the greatest risk of tick bite and contraction of tick-borne disease. They are aware of the risk, but use the improper method of removal of ticks with the fingers. Comparisons of the relationship between job category and the results of serologic study, expressed in BBU/ml, revealed that the serologic response was significantly greater in manual workers than in administrative workers (p=0.019). All other comparisons did not produce significant results. Therefore, providing a simple tweezer-like device to forest inspectorates seems to be an effective mean of protection against Lyme borreliosis and other tick-borne diseases.

  20. Is health a labour, citizenship or human right? Mexican seasonal agricultural workers in Leamington, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nielan

    2013-07-01

    Post-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade liberalisation combined with post-9/11 border securitisation means North America increasingly relies on pools of temporary foreign labour, particularly in the agricultural and service sectors. Despite being temporary, these workers often spend most of their years on foreign soil, living and working in isolated rural communities, far from their own families and communities. Migrants' mental and physical health suffers due to hazardous and stressful working conditions, sub-standard housing, lack of social support and limited access to health and social welfare services. Assuming access to health is a basic human right, who is responsible for the health of temporary foreign migrant workers? Is it the nation-state? or the Employers and/or unions? or Civil society? Research and practice show that a combined multisector approach is best; however, such initiatives are often uneven due to questions of sovereignty and citizenship rights. Community-based organisations (CBOs) have emerged to advocate for and serve migrants' social and welfare needs; analysis of CBO projects reveals an uneven application of rights to migrants. Using a comparative case study from Canada, this project contributes to understanding how civil-society helps to activate different types of health care rights for migrants, and to create an informed policy that provides migrant workers with access to a wider range of human and health rights.

  1. Is health a labour, citizenship or human right? Mexican seasonal agricultural workers in Leamington, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nielan

    2013-07-01

    Post-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade liberalisation combined with post-9/11 border securitisation means North America increasingly relies on pools of temporary foreign labour, particularly in the agricultural and service sectors. Despite being temporary, these workers often spend most of their years on foreign soil, living and working in isolated rural communities, far from their own families and communities. Migrants' mental and physical health suffers due to hazardous and stressful working conditions, sub-standard housing, lack of social support and limited access to health and social welfare services. Assuming access to health is a basic human right, who is responsible for the health of temporary foreign migrant workers? Is it the nation-state? or the Employers and/or unions? or Civil society? Research and practice show that a combined multisector approach is best; however, such initiatives are often uneven due to questions of sovereignty and citizenship rights. Community-based organisations (CBOs) have emerged to advocate for and serve migrants' social and welfare needs; analysis of CBO projects reveals an uneven application of rights to migrants. Using a comparative case study from Canada, this project contributes to understanding how civil-society helps to activate different types of health care rights for migrants, and to create an informed policy that provides migrant workers with access to a wider range of human and health rights. PMID:23672480

  2. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral performance in agricultural and non-agricultural Hispanic workers.

    PubMed

    Rothlein, Joan; Rohlman, Diane; Lasarev, Michael; Phillips, Jackie; Muniz, Juan; McCauley, Linda

    2006-05-01

    Our understanding of the health risks of farmworkers exposed to pesticides in their work and home environments is rapidly increasing, although studies designed to examine the possible neurobehavioral effects of low-level chronic pesticide exposure are limited. We measured dialkyl phosphate urinary metabolite levels, collected environmental dust samples from a subset of homes, obtained information on work practices, and conducted neurobehavioral tests on a sample of farmworkers in Oregon. Significant correlations between urinary methyl metabolite levels and total methyl organophosphate (azinphos-methyl, phosmet, malathion) house dust levels were observed. We found the neurobehavioral performance of Hispanic immigrant farmworkers to be lower than that observed in a nonagricultural Hispanic immigrant population, and within the sample of agricultural workers there was a positive correlation between urinary organophosphate metabolite levels and poorer performance on some neurobehavioral tests. These findings add to an increasing body of evidence of the association between low levels of pesticide exposure and deficits in neurobehavioral performance. PMID:16675422

  3. A Guide to State-Level Policies, Practices, and Procedures: Enhancing Employment Opportunities for Older Workers. Training and Employment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegria, Fernando L., Jr.

    This guide is intended for use by state officials as a guide to state policies, practices, and procedures that enhance employment opportunities for older workers. An executive summary highlights the problems--labor shortages and the strain on the retirement system--and a remedy--staying on the job longer. Examples of policies, practices, and…

  4. An ergonomic study on posture-related discomfort among preadolescent agricultural workers of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Das, Banibrata; Das, Tamal; Ghoshal, Goutam

    2005-01-01

    In India, particularly in West Bengal, preadolescents are primarily associated with agricultural work in rural areas. Owing to poor socio-economic conditions, they are compelled to carry out a considerable number of manual, rigorous tasks in agricultural fields. The main aim of this study was to investigate postures adopted by preadolescent agricultural workers during individual agricultural activities and to analyze the causes of discomfort related to those postures. Fifty male and 50 female preadolescent agricultural workers were randomly selected and a detailed posture analysis was performed with the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS). It was observed that those workers worked continuously in awkward postures during certain agricultural activities. Consequently they suffered from discomfort in different parts of their body. Even though they were very young, they were likely to suffer from serious musculoskeletal disorders in the future.

  5. Low-wage workers and health insurance coverage: can policymakers target them through their employers?

    PubMed

    Long, S H; Marquis, M S

    2001-01-01

    Many policy initiatives to increase health insurance coverage would subsidize employers to offer coverage or subsidize employees to participate in their employers' health plans. Using data from the 1997 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Employer Health Insurance Survey, we contrast "low-wage employers" with all other employers. Employees in low-wage businesses have significantly worse access to employment-based insurance than other employees do; they are less likely to work for an employer that offers insurance, less likely to be eligible if working in a business that offers insurance, and less likely to be enrolled if eligible. Low-wage employers contribute lower shares of premiums and offer less generous benefits than other employers do. Policies that would target subsidies to selected employers to increase insurance offers to low-wage workers are difficult to design, however, because several commonly mentioned employer characteristics (including firm size) are found to be poor indicators of low-wage worker concentration. Programs that would set minimum standards for employer plans to be eligible for "buy-ins" need to base these standards on the less generous terms offered by low-wage employers in order to effectively reach low-wage workers and their dependents.

  6. A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…

  7. Job insecurity and employability in fixed-term contractors, agency workers, and permanent workers: associations with job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    De Cuyper, Nele; Notelaers, Guy; De Witte, Hans

    2009-04-01

    This study investigates how job insecurity and employability relate to job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment in permanent workers, fixed-term contract workers, and temporary agency workers. The authors hypothesized that (a) job insecurity relates negatively to job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment, and this relationship is strongest in permanent workers and weakest in temporary agency workers; and that (b) employability relates positively to job satisfaction and negatively to affective organizational commitment, and this relationship is strongest in temporary agency workers and weakest in permanent workers. Hypotheses were tested in workers (permanent: n = 329; fixed term; n = 160; temporary agency: n = 89) from 23 Belgian organizations. The results show that job insecurity related negatively to the outcomes for permanent workers and temporary agency workers. This relationship was not significant for fixed-term contract workers. Employability related negatively to the outcomes for fixed-term contract workers and temporary agency workers, and this relationship was not significant for permanent workers. The 3 groups had different interpretations of what constitutes a stressor and about what signals a good employment relationship.

  8. HEALTH CONDITIONS AND SERVICES FOR DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS AND THEIR FAMILIES IN CALIFORNIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Public Health, Berkeley.

    FIELD INTERVIEWS WERE HELD WITH COMMUNITY LEADERS AND WITH SEVERAL HUNDRED WORKERS' FAMILIES. THE ACQUIRED INFORMATION SUPPLEMENTED A SURVEY OF PAST AND PRESENT CONDITIONS AND ASSISTED IN FORMULATING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION TO MEET THE ACUTE HEALTH NEEDS OF CALIFORNIA'S SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. THE HEALTH PROBLEM CAN BE MET BY LOCAL…

  9. Barriers to Employability of Non-White Workers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Lawrence; And Others

    This study is an attempt to examine barriers to employment and educational opportunity for black Americans in situations where social justice might be thought to prevail, the authors electing to investigate racial attitudes and behavior in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Attention is focused on youth, public schools, and Milwaukee Voluntary Equal Employment…

  10. Employability for the Workers--What Does This Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Brenda Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: UK government strategies for higher education (HE) continue to emphasise the promotion and enhancement of students' employability skills and subsequent graduate opportunities. The purpose of this paper is to explore what this means for those HE learners already in work. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the findings of a…

  11. Training Older Workers for Technology-Based Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chin Chin; Czaja, Sara J.; Sharit, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly aging workforce and advances in technology are changing work environments and structures. The continued employability of older adults, particularly those of lower socioeconomic status (SES), requires them to participate in training programs to ensure their competence in today's workplace. Focus groups with 37 unemployed adults…

  12. 78 FR 48467 - Wausau Paper, Brainerd Converting Operation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... February 22, 2013 (Volume 78 FR Pages 12361-12363). At the request of the State Workforce Office, the... Employment and Training Administration Wausau Paper, Brainerd Converting Operation, Including On-Site Leased... Paper, Brainerd Converting Operation, including on-site leased workers from Employment Resource...

  13. Escaping Poverty for Low-Wage Workers: The Role of Employer Characteristics and Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry J.; Lane, Julia I.; Vilhuber, Lars

    A study analyzed the extent to which escape from or entry into low-wage status among adult workers is associated with changes in employers and their characteristics. The research used a database that consisted of quarterly establishment records of the employment earnings of almost all individuals (11,207,031) who worked in Illinois from the first…

  14. Becoming Employable Students and "Ideal" Creative Workers: Exclusion and Inequality in Higher Education Work Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, K.; Quinn, J.; Hollingworth, S.; Rose, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore how the "employable" student and "ideal" future creative worker is prefigured, constructed and experienced through higher education work placements in the creative sector, based on a recent small-scale qualitative study. Drawing on interview data with students, staff and employers, we identify the discourses and practices…

  15. 29 CFR 778.419 - Hourly workers employed at two or more jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 778.419 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF... Type of Work Performed in Overtime Hours (secs. 7(g) (1) and (2)) § 778.419 Hourly workers employed at... work, for which different straight time hourly rates are established, may agree with his employer...

  16. Agricultural science and food policy for consumers and workers: recipes for public health successes or disasters?

    PubMed

    Watterson, A

    2000-01-01

    In the world of high speed globalization, the search for global food and water security has failed despite being driven by aggressive agribusiness and aided all too often by so-called Green Revolution research scientists and technologists. In the process, agricultural workers, rural communities, and food production workers face significant occupational and environmental hazards. Countervailing forces to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and agribusiness food strategies are needed. Critical to these forces will be Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) working toward non-toxic, nondestructive, community-based agriculture informed by integrated humanistic, scientifically cautious, worker-sensitive, and ecologically located principles.

  17. TRAINING OLDER WORKERS FOR TECHNOLOGY-BASED EMPLOYMENT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chin Chin; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly aging workforce and advances in technology are changing work environments and structures. The continued employability of older adults, particularly those of lower socioeconomic status (SES), requires them to participate in training programs to ensure their competence in today's workplace. Focus groups with 37 unemployed adults (51-76 years old) were conducted to gather information about barriers and obstacles for returning to work, training needs and formats, work experiences, and perceptions of the characteristics of an ideal job. Overall, results indicated that participants experienced age discrimination and lack of technology skills. They also expressed a desire to receive additional training on technology and a preference for classroom training.

  18. Massachusetts health reform: employers, lower-wage workers and universal coverage.

    PubMed

    Felland, Laurie; Draper, Debra; Liebhaber, Allison

    2007-07-01

    As Massachusetts' landmark effort to reach nearly universal health coverage unfolds, the state is now focusing on employers to take steps to increase coverage. All employers--except firms with fewer than 11 workers--face new requirements under the 2006 law, including establishing Section 125, or cafeteria, plans to allow workers to purchase insurance with pre-tax dollars and paying a $295 annual fee if they do not make a "fair and reasonable" contribution to the cost of workers' coverage. Through interviews with Massachusetts health care leaders (see Data Source), the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) examined how the law is likely to affect employer decisions to offer health insurance to workers and employee decisions to purchase coverage. Market observers believe many small firms may be unaware of specific requirements and that some could prove onerous. Moreover, the largest impact on small employers may come from the individual mandate for all residents to have a minimum level of health insurance. This mandate may add costs for firms if more workers take up coverage offers, seek more generous coverage or pressure employers to offer coverage. Despite reform of the individual and small group markets, including development of new insurance products, concerns remain about the affordability of coverage and the ability to stem rising health care costs.

  19. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of workers employed in textile dyeing factory in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sibel, O; Beyza, A; Murat, K; Fatma, E; Göksel, K; Sevin, B

    2012-08-01

    Dyes are known to be a causative agent of occupational asthma exposed to them. We evaluate respiratory symptoms among textile. The study population comprised 106 exposed workers and control (unexposed) group. Data were collected by a questionnaire. Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) were performed. Among the exposed workers 36.8% defined phlegm. Respiratory symptoms were not significantly different between two groups. The employment duration of the exposed workers with phlegm was longer than those without phlegm (p = 0.027). The mean % predicted of forced expiratory flow (FEF) 25-75 of the exposed workers was found to be significantly lower than the control (unexposed) group (p = 0.01). Our study suggests that textile dyeing might cause respiratory symptoms at workers.

  20. Mortality of workers employed at organochlorine pesticide manufacturing plants: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.

    1991-07-01

    A mortality study of workers at four organochlorine pesticide manufacturing factories was updated through 1987. The cohorts included all white male workers employed for at least 6 months before December 31, 1964 at the four factories. The workers had been exposed to the following organochlorine pesticides: chlordane, heptachlor, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Workers at one factory had been exposed to the organobromine pesticide dibromochloropropane. The total number of deaths for the period from 1976 through 1987 was 650. Mortality for all causes and all malignant neoplasms was lower than expected at each of the factories. Cerebrovascular disease mortality was elevated for three of the four factories. The most important result was the statistically significant increase in liver/biliary tract cancer among workers at the facility where aldrin and dieldrin were the primary organochlorine pesticides produced and the nonsignificant increase at the facility where DDT was manufactured.

  1. Employers' attitudes on hiring workers with intellectual disabilities in small and medium enterprises: an Italian research.

    PubMed

    Zappella, Emanuela

    2015-12-01

    Employers play a significant role in the process of hiring workers with intellectual disability. Through an in-depth interview, this research aims to investigate the attitudes of 30 representatives of small and medium-sized Italian companies involved in a process of recruitment. The data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. The results show that attitudes toward the disabled employee are influenced by three areas, namely, personal characteristics of employers, selection process, and concerns and opinions of employers.

  2. EXTENSION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES, A MANUAL FOR AGRICULTURAL AND HOME EXTENSION WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAVILE, A.H.

    A PRACTICAL GUIDE IS PROVIDED FOR TRAINERS OF ADVISORY AND EXTENSION WORKERS AND LOCAL LEADERS IN AGRICULTURE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING NATIONS. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, COMMUNITY SURVEY PROCEDURES, ELEMENTS OF PROGRAM PLANNING, AND PURPOSES AND METHODS OF PROGRAM EVALUATION ARE DESCRIBED. THEN FOLLOW TWO CHAPTERS…

  3. The health of women temporary agricultural workers in Canada: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Kathryn; Berman, Helene; Basok, Tanya; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2011-12-01

    Among high-income countries such as Canada, there is growing dependency on "low skilled" temporary foreign workers in a variety of sectors. The purpose of this review is to critically synthesize and analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on gendered and temporary migration in the context of globalization and the health of temporary agricultural workers, particularly women in Canadian programs. While the social sciences literature contains well-developed conceptualizations of gendered migration, the research has focused on women in feminized occupations such as domestic work. Multidisciplinary searches produced only 11 research and review publications on the gendered constraints or health of temporary agricultural workers in Canada. Further investigation is needed to explore and integrate the strengths, resiliencies, and health-care needs of women migrant agricultural workers in Canada, as well as the barriers they face, within the intersecting and gendered forces of inequities at all levels: local, national, and global.

  4. The health of women temporary agricultural workers in Canada: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Kathryn; Berman, Helene; Basok, Tanya; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2011-12-01

    Among high-income countries such as Canada, there is growing dependency on "low skilled" temporary foreign workers in a variety of sectors. The purpose of this review is to critically synthesize and analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on gendered and temporary migration in the context of globalization and the health of temporary agricultural workers, particularly women in Canadian programs. While the social sciences literature contains well-developed conceptualizations of gendered migration, the research has focused on women in feminized occupations such as domestic work. Multidisciplinary searches produced only 11 research and review publications on the gendered constraints or health of temporary agricultural workers in Canada. Further investigation is needed to explore and integrate the strengths, resiliencies, and health-care needs of women migrant agricultural workers in Canada, as well as the barriers they face, within the intersecting and gendered forces of inequities at all levels: local, national, and global. PMID:22435309

  5. Increased risk of lung cancer in pesticide-exposed male agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Barthel, E

    1981-01-01

    The cancer morbidity in a large group of male German agricultural workers exposed to pesticides was investigated through a retrospective cohort study. A total of 169 malignant tumors were diagnosed in 1658 men who began to work with pesticides between 1948 and 1972, and who continued this type of activity for at least 5 yr. The SMR (standardized mortality ratio) of 2.0 for lung cancer morbidity (mortality) in these pesticide-exposed subjects was significantly higher than that for the general male population of the German Democratic Republic. A positive correlation between the duration of employment and the mortality due to lung cancer (mainly undifferentiated and small-cell carcinomas) suggested a dose-effect relation. The smoking habits of the exposed men did not differ from those of the general male population of the German Democratic Republic. Because the subjects had been exposed to many different substances, the study does not permit any conclusions to be drawn in respect to the carcinogenicity of individual pesticides. The increased mortality due to lung cancer is presumably the result of an additive effect of different pesticide ingredients or of by-products whose carcinogenic effect has been definitely or tentatively established through experimental or epidemiologic studies (e.g. arsenic, asbestos, chlorinated dibenzodioxins, DDT). The results of the present investigation emphasize the need for effective measures to protect workers during occupational contact with pesticides.

  6. Supporting home care aides: what employers can do to assist their workers.

    PubMed

    Butler, Sandra S; Rowan, Noell

    2013-01-01

    The demand for personal care workers in home-based care is expected to double with the aging of the baby boomer population at the same time that home care agencies struggle with high rates of turnover. This article examines the job experience of 171 home care aides who remained on the job over 18 months of data collection in the longitudinal home care worker retention study. The three groups of themes that emerged from the analysis of telephone interviews with study participants-challenges of the job, compensating strategies, and potential employer interventions-provide insight on how to offer support to these valuable workers. PMID:24189019

  7. Employment Hardship Among Older Workers: Does Residential and Gender Inequality Extend Into Older Age?

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Tim; Jensen, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The realities of a rapidly aging society make the employment circumstances of older workers an increasingly important social issue. We examine the prevalence and correlates of underemployment among older Americans, with a special focus on residence and gender, to provide an assessment of the labor market challenges facing older workers. Methods. We analyzed data from the March Current Population Surveys for the years 2003, 2004, and 2005. We used descriptive statistics to explore the prevalence of underemployment among older workers and developed multivariate models to assess the impact of age, residence, and gender on the likelihood of underemployment, net of other predictors. Results. We found clear disadvantages for older workers relative to their middle-aged counterparts, and particular disadvantages for older rural residents and women. Multivariate models showed that the disadvantages of older age held net of other predictors. The results also indicated that much of the disadvantage faced by older rural workers and women was explained by factors other than age, particularly education. Discussion. In an aging society, underemployment among older workers comes at an increasing social cost. Policies aimed at supporting older workers and alleviating employment hardship among them are increasingly in the public interest. PMID:18332197

  8. 76 FR 69114 - Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... request for comments. SUMMARY: Section 14204 of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 (2008 Farm... from agricultural jobs. The Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration and Related... instruction, including ways of safeguarding the food supply of the United States; and Other such services...

  9. The Implications of Differences between Employer and Worker Employment/Earnings Reports for Policy Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Geoffrey L.; Haveman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Differences in administrative (UI) and survey (S) records on employment and earnings have substantial implications for assessing the impact of a variety of public interventions, such as welfare-to-work and employment training programs, and especially the state-oriented welfare reform legislation of 1996. We use data from the 1998 and 1999 waves of…

  10. [Employment of cross-border workers in the Federal Republic of Germany].

    PubMed

    Werner, H

    1993-01-01

    The author analyzes the cross-border movement of labor migrants in Germany. The impact of increased integration among European Community countries is considered, and the pressure of migration from neighboring Eastern European countries is discussed. "Employment of workers from border regions [provides the] possibility of meeting the labour demand in the region, of alleviating the pressure to migrate by legalizing inflows and of balancing the interests of employers and cross-border workers, thus avoiding some of the negative side-effects or social costs of traditional labour migration." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE AND RUS) PMID:12287302

  11. Occupational health and the rural worker: agriculture, mining, and logging.

    PubMed

    Pratt, D S

    1990-10-01

    More than 50 million Americans live in rural areas. These rural residents often work for small businesses or in the extraction industries (farming, mining, and logging). Because of the size of the businesses, the mandate of the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) does not cover these workers and they are seldom afforded the same protection as urban workers. This review focuses on the special health problems facing farm workers, farmers, miners, and loggers. Farm workers are often ill and are affected by psychological illness, injuries, parasites, skin diseases, and the dangers of agrichemicals. Farm owners also face the hazards of stress and have very high rates of suicide. In addition, they are often injured on the job and suffer the highest rate of job related fatality of any work group. The complex farm environment presents a continuous threat to the lungs. This danger has worsened with the increased use of confinement buildings for poultry, hogs, and cattle. As farming has changed with increased mechanization, attendant medical problems have arisen. These "illnesses of innovation" are important. Mining and logging also are dangerous occupations with acute and chronic problems including respiratory illness, vascular problems, and malignancy. The decade of the 1990s must be one of increased attention to rural occupational health care and research.

  12. Socioeconomic and health status of electronics workers employed in organized industry.

    PubMed

    Mathur, N; Gupta, B N; Rastogi, S K; Mahendra, P N; Pangtey, B S; Husain, T; Bharti, R S

    1993-02-01

    To study their socioeconomic and health status, 1,770 workers in the organized electronics industry in India were surveyed. Mean age of the workers employed in this industry was 32.5 +/- 6.01 years. The average per capita income/month was Rupees 333, indicating a higher socioeconomic status, compared with the status of the national population, as well as compared with their counterparts in the unorganized sectors. Respiratory symptoms and impairment rates were significantly higher in workers exposed to soldering fumes. The high prevalence of congested or inflamed throat was also related to chemical exposure specially among solderers and workers exposed to metal oxides. The ocular symptoms and signs were also related to chemical exposure. Musculoskeletal disorders were related to erratic ergonomic postures.

  13. Respiratory function and immunological status in workers employed in a latex glove manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Mustajbegovic, J; Kanceljak, B; Schachter, E N; Macan, J; Budak, A

    1998-02-01

    A study was performed in 17 female workers employed in a latex glove manufacturing plant. The mean age of these workers was 42 years and the mean duration of their employment was 19 years. The employees were primarily nonsmokers or light smokers. The presence of chronic respiratory symptoms and acute work-related symptoms was recorded for these workers. Ventilatory capacity was measured during the morning work shift by recording maximum expiratory flow-volume curves from which forced vital capacity (FVC), 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and maximum expiratory flow at 50%, and the last 25% of the vital capacity (FEF50, FEF75) were measured. A control group of 17 nonexposed women workers was also studied. The prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms was greater among latex workers than among control confectionary packer workers, varying from 5.9% (vs. 0% in controls) for occupational asthma to 58.8% (vs. 0% in controls) for dyspnea grades 3 or 4. There was also a high prevalence of acute work-related symptoms in this industry, in particular, eye irritation (76.5%), dryness of the nose (70.6%), throat burning (70.6%), dryness of the throat (64.7%), and cough (58.8%). Among exposed workers, measured ventilatory capacity data were significantly lower than among controls, particularly FEF75 (75.1% +/- 10.5%). One of the 17 studied workers (5.9%) had a positive skin reaction to latex and had symptoms compatible with occupational asthma. Our data suggest that in addition to occupational asthma, the manufacture of latex gloves is associated with frequent, nonspecific respiratory findings. PMID:9438050

  14. Seasonal and migrant agricultural workers: a neglected work force.

    PubMed

    Culp, Kennith; Umbarger, Michelle

    2004-09-01

    A desperate need exists to provide occupational health services to migrant and seasonal farm workers in the United States. There are unique challenges related to this endeavor, and the authors have attempted to explain some of the issues that have not been previously discussed in a forthright manner. In doing so, it is likely that some controversy related to the topic has been introduced. PMID:15469136

  15. Monitoring acetylcholinesterase levels in migrant agricultural workers and their children using a portable test kit.

    PubMed

    Higgins, G M; Muñiz, J F; McCauley, L A

    2001-02-01

    The EQM Research, Inc., portable test kit was evaluated as a surveillance tool for blood cholinesterase levels among migrant workers and their children. Laboratory validation demonstrated a linear relationship between the reference Ellman and kit methods (Ellman = 0.95 x kit result + 0.82, r2 = 0.98). Pre- and post-season cholinesterase levels measured in 70 farm workers were within normal ranges, but significantly different at 28.5 and 29.7 U/g Hb, respectively (paired t-test, p = 0.014). Results from 98 migrant farm worker children and a comparison group of 53 age-matched non-agricultural children showed that cholinesterase levels were not significantly different between the agricultural and non-agricultural children (ANOVA, p = 0.69). These data demonstrate that a portable test kit can provide useful data pesticide exposures when measurements are made in a temperature-controlled setting. PMID:11398901

  16. Employment Problems of Older Workers: A Review by the International Labor Organization Advisory Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Lloyd

    1975-01-01

    A subcommittee of the ILO Advisory Committee on Salaried Employees and Professional Workers, focusing attention in 1974 on problems and opportunities of employment and reemployment of older adults, discovered that U. S. policy compares favorably with that of other developed countries, urged studies of inflation's impact, and recommended flexible…

  17. Helping Displaced Older Workers Get Back into Employment: Good Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Victor J.; Bowman, Kaye

    2015-01-01

    This good practice guide is based on the report "Industry Restructuring and Job Loss: Helping Older Workers Get Back into Employment" by Victor J. Callan and Kaye Bowman. The aim of the research was to identify evidence-based practices that led to successful skills transfer, re-skilling, training and the attainment of new jobs for older…

  18. Research and Development Strategy on Employment-Related Problems of Older Workers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Harold L.; And Others

    The study reported here examines the employment-related problems of older workers and develops a research and development strategy for future federally funded projects. Following an introductory section, the content is in fifteen chapters. The first chapter covers a number of critical policy issues and the second concentrates on job-related…

  19. Educational Needs and Employment Trends of Environmental Hazardous Materials Technicians and Related Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudis, Paula M.; And Others

    A study was conducted to assess trends in the supply and demand for environmental hazardous materials (EHM) technical and related workers and to identify the skills and knowledge required of personnel in these positions. Information for the study was gathered through interviews, focus groups, and data from a mailed survey of employers of EHM…

  20. 29 CFR 778.419 - Hourly workers employed at two or more jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hourly workers employed at two or more jobs. 778.419 Section 778.419 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF... two or more jobs. (a) Under section 7(g)(2) an employee who performs two or more different kinds...

  1. 29 CFR 778.419 - Hourly workers employed at two or more jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hourly workers employed at two or more jobs. 778.419 Section 778.419 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF... two or more jobs. (a) Under section 7(g)(2) an employee who performs two or more different kinds...

  2. 29 CFR 778.419 - Hourly workers employed at two or more jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hourly workers employed at two or more jobs. 778.419 Section 778.419 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF... two or more jobs. (a) Under section 7(g)(2) an employee who performs two or more different kinds...

  3. Education Returns of Wage Earners and Self-Employed Workers: Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Mainar, Inmaculada; Montuenga-Gomez, Victor M.

    2009-01-01

    This is a response to [Jordahl, H., Poutvaara, P., & Tuomala, J. (2009). Comment on education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers. "Economics of Education Review" 28]. We acknowledge that econometrics have improved since the time our original paper was written, so that the choice of accurate instruments is now more deeply founded.…

  4. Education Returns of Wage Earners and Self-Employed Workers: Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordahl, Henrik; Poutvaara, Panu; Tuomala, Juha

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper, Garcia-Mainar and Montuenga-Gomez [Garcia-Mainar, I. & Montuenga-Gomez, V. M. (2005). Education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers: Portugal vs. Spain. "Economics of Education Review, 24"(2), 161-170] apply the generalized IV model of Hausman and Taylor to estimate education returns of wage earners and the…

  5. Education Returns of Wage Earners and Self-Employed Workers: Rejoinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordahl, Henrik; Poutvaara, Panu; Tuomala, Juha

    2009-01-01

    In their reply to our comment, Garcia-Mainar and Montuenga-Gomez [Garcia-Mainar, I., & Montuenga-Gomez, V. M. (2009). A response to the comment on education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers. "Economics of Education Review"] did not address our fundamental criticism that they have not provided the information necessary to replicate…

  6. A Comparison of Certain Knowledges in Agriculture Needed by Workers in Farming, in Grain Elevator Businesses, and in Agricultural Equipment Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiscus, Keith Eugene

    Questionnaires to determine the vocational and technical education needed by prospective workers in farming and in grain elevator and agricultural equipment businesses were administered to 20 workers in each of the jobs of (1) farm manager, (2) grain elevator manager, operator, salesman, and deliveryman, and (3) agricultural equipment manager,…

  7. Why do health workers in rural Tanzania prefer public sector employment?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe shortages of qualified health workers and geographical imbalances in the workforce in many low-income countries require the national health sector management to closely monitor and address issues related to the distribution of health workers across various types of health facilities. This article discusses health workers' preferences for workplace and their perceptions and experiences of the differences in working conditions in the public health sector versus the church-run health facilities in Tanzania. The broader aim is to generate knowledge that can add to debates on health sector management in low-income contexts. Methods The study has a qualitative study design to elicit in-depth information on health workers' preferences for workplace. The data comprise ten focus group discussions (FGDs) and 29 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with auxiliary staff, nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector and in a large church-run hospital in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. Results The study found a clear preference for public sector employment. This was associated with health worker rights and access to various benefits offered to health workers in government service, particularly the favourable pension schemes providing economic security in old age. Health workers acknowledged that church-run hospitals generally were better equipped and provided better quality patient care, but these concerns tended to be outweighed by the financial assets of public sector employment. In addition to the sector specific differences, family concerns emerged as important in decisions on workplace. Conclusions The preference for public sector employment among health workers shown in this study seems to be associated primarily with the favourable pension scheme. The overall shortage of health workers and the distribution between health facilities is a challenge in a

  8. Are Agricultural Graduates Meeting Employers' Expectations? A Perspective from Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alibeigi, Amir Hossein; Zarafshani, Kiumars

    2006-01-01

    A high level of personal capacity, the relevant professional competence and technical skills are essential for a graduate's successful transition to the workplace. The purpose of this survey was to identify the main competencies that higher agricultural education graduates should possess, based on the perceptions of potential agricultural…

  9. Employment and the Older Worker. A Summary of the Presentations. Statewide Conference (Columbus, Ohio, June 6-7, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Aging, Columbus.

    This publication contains summaries of the presentations from a conference on employment services for disadvantaged older workers. The opening remarks made by Joan A. Hammond and Kenneth M. Mahan are outlined. Summaries of the following papers are provided: "National Perspective on Older Worker Programs," by Ann Lordeman; "Older Worker Programs:…

  10. Work-related musculoskeletal discomfort of dairy farmers and employed workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dairy farming is physically demanding and associated with a high frequency of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). This study investigated and compared work-related MSD, ergonomic work factors and physical exertion in farmers and employed farm workers on dairy farms in Sweden. Methods The study comprised 66 dairy farmers, and 37 employed dairy farm workers. A modified version of the general Standardised Nordic Questionnaire was used for analyses of perceived MSD in nine different parts of the body. Perceived physical discomfort was assessed using questions concerning ergonomic work factors. A rating scale was used for analyses of perceived physical exertion. Information about participant demographics was also collected. The response rate amounted to 70%. Results The most frequently reported MSD in farmers and farm workers were located in the lower back (50% and 43%, respectively) and the shoulders (47% and 43%, respectively). MSD were also frequently reported in the neck (33%) among farmers, and in the hands/wrist (41%) among farm workers. MSD in the elbows (23%) and feet (21%) were significantly more frequently reported by farmers than farm workers (5%). Female farmers and farm workers both reported significantly higher frequencies of MSD in the neck (48% and 56%, respectively) and hands/wrists (44% and 61%, respectively) than their male colleagues (24% and 5%; 10% and 21%, respectively). In addition, female farm workers had significantly higher reported frequencies of MSD in the upper and lower back (39% and 61%, respectively) than their male counterparts (5% and 26%, respectively). Milking was perceived as a weakly to moderately physically demanding work task. Repetitive and monotonous work in dairy houses was the ergonomic work factor most frequently reported as causing physically discomfort among farmers (36%) and farm workers (32%), followed by lifting heavy objects (17% and 27%, respectively). Female workers had significantly more reported discomfort

  11. Agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among hired farm workers in California (the MICASA study).

    PubMed

    Rodriquez, Erik J; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Bennett, Deborah H; Tancredi, Daniel J; Schenker, Marc B

    2014-01-01

    Despite California's dependence on hired farm labor, scarce research has been conducted on the respiratory health of hired farm workers. Agricultural exposures to inorganic and organic dusts can adversely affect an individual's respiratory health and differ by farm type and job task. The purpose of the present analysis was to examine associations between agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among 450 California farm workers. Data were collected as part of the Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) study, a prospective cohort study examining occupational risk factors and health of hired farm worker families in Mendota, California. Time-weighted self-reported average (TWSRA) dust scores were calculated from assessments of past-12-month agricultural work history. Other dust exposure indicator variables included months worked in agriculture in the past 12 months and years worked in agriculture. Multiple linear regression modeled FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), FEF(25-75%) (forced midexpiratory flow rate), FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV6, FEV1/FVC, and FEV1/FEV6 separately. Seventy-six percent of participants had worked in agriculture in the past year. In models conducted for crops and tasks separately, high TWSRA dust score was associated with better FEV6. Crop and task models showed associations between greater months worked in agriculture in the past year and better FEV1, FEF(25-75%), and FEV6. Both models also found greater years worked in agriculture to be associated with worse FEV1/FEV6. Results were generally in the opposite direction as expected given past research but not uncommon. Future research should investigate relationships between pulmonary function and agricultural dust exposure over a lifetime and changes in pulmonary function over time.

  12. 76 FR 79221 - Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From QPS Employment Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on July 16, 2010 (75 FR 41526). At the request of the State... Employment and Training Administration Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers... Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, including on-site leased workers from QPS Employment Group and...

  13. Employment in Agricultural and Agribusiness Occupations. Region 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The handbook, representing results of phase 1 of the National Agribusiness Manpower Project, identifies and defines occupations and industries requiring agribusiness competencies in the southeastern States. Occupational data presented in the employment tables are separated into three sections which comprise the major portion of the document. The…

  14. Review of Pesticide Education Materials for Health Care Providers Providing Care to Agricultural Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiott, Ann E.; Quandt, Sara A.; Early, Julie; Jackson, David S.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Pesticide exposure is an important environmental and occupational health risk for agricultural workers and their families, but health care providers receive little training in it. Objective: To evaluate the medical resources available to providers caring for patients, particularly farmworkers, exposed to pesticides and to recommend a…

  15. Algonquin Portrait: A Study of the Rapid Lake Seasonal Agricultural Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Paul R.

    The study's purpose was to compile descriptive information about a small band of Algonquin Indian seasonal agricultural workers from Quebec, Canada who migrate annually into Ontario County, New York to work on the fur and poultry farms. Although these Indians have worked in the State since 1945, no "serious" study had been made which included…

  16. Rural Sociology in the South: 1972. Proceedings: Rural Sociology Section, Association of Southern Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voland, Maurice E., Ed.

    The papers presented in this collection are said to represent the major thrusts of research and other scholarly activities of rural sociologists in the South in 1972. Arranged in the order of their presentation at the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Agricultural Workers meetings, these papers discuss such topics as youth, social change in…

  17. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of Agricultural Workers Receiving Microcredit in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmud, Kazi Tanvir; Parvez, Asif; Hilton, David; Kabir, G. M. Shamsul; Wahid, Ishraat Saira

    2014-01-01

    The policy of providing microcredit and skill training to poor agricultural workers in developing countries is well-established. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the effectiveness of the training part of that policy. BRAC (formerly the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), the largest non-governmental organization in…

  18. The decision to exclude agricultural and domestic workers from the 1935 Social Security Act.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The Social Security Act of 1935 excluded from coverage about half the workers in the American economy. Among the excluded groups were agricultural and domestic workers-a large percentage of whom were African Americans. This has led some scholars to conclude that policymakers in 1935 deliberately excluded African Americans from the Social Security system because of prevailing racial biases during that period. This article examines both the logic of this thesis and the available empirical evidence on the origins of the coverage exclusions. The author concludes that the racial-bias thesis is both conceptually flawed and unsupported by the existing empirical evidence. The exclusion of agricultural and domestic workers from the early program was due to considerations of administrative feasibility involving tax-collection procedures. The author finds no evidence of any other policy motive involving racial bias.

  19. Organochlorine pesticide residues in blood samples of agriculture and sheep wool workers in Bangalore (rural), India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, V; Ravichandran, B; Rajmohan, H R

    2012-04-01

    To describe exposure level of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) among workers occupationally engaged in agriculture and sheep wool associated jobs, the present study was carried out in rural neighborhood of Bangalore city, India. Thirty participants were interviewed and obtained informed consent before blood sample collection. The maximum concentrations of OCP were detected in blood samples of agriculture workers than sheep wool workers. Among the metabolites of HCH and DDT, lindane (γ-HCH) and p,p'-DDE were the most contributed to the total OCP. There were no differences in pesticide residues found between sex and work groups. It was observed that about 30% of samples exceeded the tolerance limits of 10 μg/L prescribed for HCH under the prevention of food adulteration act. Therefore, the present study recommends continuous monitoring with larger sample size.

  20. African ILO meeting endorses efforts by employers' and workers' organizations to fight HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    2004-04-01

    In December 2003, the Tenth African International Labour Organization (ILO) Regional Meeting in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia adopted a resolution on HIV/AIDS calling on African governments to support the efforts of employers and workers to combat HIV/AIDS--by providing an enabling legal and policy framework for workplace action, by providing measures to oppose stigma and discrimination, and by strengthening national AIDS plans through the inclusion of a strategy for the world of work. The resolution also called on workers' and employers' organizations to increase their joint efforts to reduce the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS. Finally, the resolution called on the ILO to give greater priority to its efforts to combat the pandemic in Africa.

  1. 20 CFR 663.230 - What criteria must be used to determine whether an employed worker needs intensive services to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... whether an employed worker needs intensive services to obtain or retain employment leading to âself-sufficiencyâ? 663.230 Section 663.230 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... services to obtain or retain employment leading to “self-sufficiency”? State Boards or Local Boards...

  2. 77 FR 3500 - Reading Powder Coatings, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Berks and Beyond Employment Services and Gage Personnel Reading, PA; Amended Certification Regarding... Employment Services and Gage Personnel were employed on-site at the Reading, Pennsylvania location of Reading... include workers leased from Berks and Beyond Employment Services and Gage Personnel working on-site at...

  3. Continuing education in physical rehabilitation and health issues of agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Wilhite, Carla S; Jaco, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Limited attention has been devoted to the cultural and practice competencies needed by occupational therapy and physical therapy professionals who provide services to farming families impacted by chronic health or disability issues. Agricultural occupational safety and health should represent a continuum of services responsive to individuals, families, and agricultural communities across a life span and range of health status changes. Physical rehabilitation professionals have a key role in impacting an agricultural producer's sense of self-efficacy and capacities for returning to agricultural living and work. However, demonstration of competency is essential in providing person-centered rehabilitation services of assessment, evaluation, treatment planning, interventions, referrals, and discharge issues. The paper highlights methods utilized by a state AgrAbility program and a former National AgrAbility Project to develop a model of continuing education programming for occupational and physical therapists that evaluate and treat agricultural workers after acute injury or exacerbation of chronic health conditions.

  4. Corporate culture and employment of people with disabilities: role of social workers and service provider organizations.

    PubMed

    Samant, Deepti; Soffer, Michal; Hernandez, Brigida; Adya, Meera; Akinpelu, Omolara; Levy, Joel M; Repoli, Elizabeth; Kramer, Michael; Blanck, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Corporate culture reflects an organization's value system and impacts the recruitment, retention, and promotion of employees. Individuals with disabilities are positively impacted by a corporate culture that espouses and establishes a diverse workforce as a priority. This article provides an overview of corporate culture and the employment of individuals with disabilities, and presents a case example of the corporate culture of a large not-for-profit disability service organization. With an in-depth understanding of corporate culture and disability issues, social workers can be particularly helpful to applicants and employees with disabilities as well as employers.

  5. Pre-Employment Laboratory Training. General Agricultural Mechanics Volume II. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This course outline, the second volume of a two-volume set, consists of lesson plans for pre-employment laboratory training in general agricultural mechanics. Covered in the eight lessons included in this volume are cold metal work, soldering, agricultural safety programs, farm shops, farm structures, farm and ranch electrification, soil and water…

  6. 25 CFR 166.902 - How can I become an agriculture educational employment student?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... How can I become an agriculture educational employment student? (a) To be considered for selection... CFR part 308; and (2) Be accepted into or enrolled in a course of study at an accredited post-secondary institution which grants degrees in natural resources or agriculture-related curricula....

  7. 25 CFR 166.902 - How can I become an agriculture educational employment student?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... How can I become an agriculture educational employment student? (a) To be considered for selection... CFR part 308; and (2) Be accepted into or enrolled in a course of study at an accredited post-secondary institution which grants degrees in natural resources or agriculture-related curricula....

  8. 25 CFR 166.902 - How can I become an agriculture educational employment student?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 308; and (2) Be accepted into or enrolled in a course of study at an accredited post... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can I become an agriculture educational employment... WATER GRAZING PERMITS Agriculture Education, Education Assistance, Recruitment, and Training §...

  9. 25 CFR 166.902 - How can I become an agriculture educational employment student?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 308; and (2) Be accepted into or enrolled in a course of study at an accredited post... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How can I become an agriculture educational employment... WATER GRAZING PERMITS Agriculture Education, Education Assistance, Recruitment, and Training §...

  10. Designing and Implementing a Computerized Information Management System for Employment Demand Data in Agriculture/Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Arthur L.; Cooper, Gloria S.

    Planning for educational programs in agriculture/agribusiness demands knowledge of future employment demand for various occupations. At present, a functional and comprehensive occupational information system for agriculture/agribusiness does not exist. Systems that do exist, such as the Occupational Information System (OIS) and the Dictionary of…

  11. 25 CFR 166.902 - How can I become an agriculture educational employment student?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR part 308; and (2) Be accepted into or enrolled in a course of study at an accredited post... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How can I become an agriculture educational employment... WATER GRAZING PERMITS Agriculture Education, Education Assistance, Recruitment, and Training §...

  12. Your workers may be contingent but your liability for them is certain: Part III: other employment issues.

    PubMed

    Koen, Clifford M; Mitchell, Michael S; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal land mines that await the unsuspecting employer. This article, the concluding part of a 3-part examination of contingent employment, addresses additional issues including benefits, tax implications, workers' compensation, contract considerations, and the screening of potential staffing partners. PMID:20686392

  13. Factors associated with the recruitment and retention of social workers in Wales: employer and employee perspectives.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sherrill; Huxley, Peter

    2009-05-01

    Despite acute staffing shortages in social work, workforce planning within the UK social care sector is compromised by poor workforce intelligence. This study aimed to inform the evidence base providing new data on recruitment and retention in Wales, examining what personal and organizational characteristics are associated with intentions to leave, and what initiatives or incentives might mediate that effect. A multi-method design facilitated comparisons between two data sources--a census of all 22 Welsh local authority employers about recruitment and retention practices and a survey of all social workers and senior practitioners employed in social services (n = 998; response rate 45.9%) about demography, workforce characteristics, working patterns, morale and plans and reasons for leaving one's job. Vacancy (mean 14.4%) and turnover (mean 15%) rates were statistically significantly higher in children's services than in adult services; vacancy rates were also higher in authorities that offered higher starting salaries. The provision of certain types of traineeship might also be associated with higher vacancy rates but these results should be treated with some caution. There was little evidence that recruitment and retention initiatives were associated with lower vacancy or turnover rates, despite employers' perceptions about their effectiveness. Social workers derived a lot of satisfaction from their work, but more than a quarter wanted to leave their job within 6 months, and almost as many were actively seeking alternative employment. Intention to leave was explained by job and employer satisfaction, and negative feelings about pay. Senior practitioners and staff members with longer lengths of service were less likely to want to leave, even if they were dissatisfied with their job or employer. Job and employer dissatisfaction was associated with retention initiatives related to facilities, good caseload management and home-working, suggesting that dissatisfied

  14. 75 FR 67662 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Extension of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...-Agricultural Employment H- 2B Program; Extension of the Comment Period AGENCIES: Employment and Training Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On October 5, 2010, the Employment...-agricultural employment and the enforcement of the obligations applicable to employers of such...

  15. Mortality of workers exposed to methylene chloride employed at a plant producing cellulose triacetate film base.

    PubMed Central

    Tomenson, J A; Bonner, S M; Heijne, C G; Farrar, D G; Cummings, T F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study mortality among 1785 employees of a factory that produced cellulose triacetate film base at Brantham in the United Kingdom. Also, to investigate patterns of mortality after exposure to methylene chloride; in particular, mortality from liver and biliary tract cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and cardiovascular disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All male employees with a record of employment at the film factory in 1946-88. A total of 1473 subjects worked in jobs that entailed exposure to methylene chloride. The mean duration of exposure was nine years at 19 ppm (eight hour time weighted average). RESULTS: In the cohort, 334 deaths were identified up to 31 December 1994. Mortalities for the cohort were compared with national and local rates and expressed as standardised mortality ratios (SMR). In the subcohort of workers exposed to methylene chloride, substantially reduced mortalities compared with national and local rates were found for all causes, all cancers, and the principal cancer sites of interest. The significantly reduced lung cancer mortalities in exposed workers (SMR 48) seemed to reflect the restrictions on smoking at the workplace. In contrast, mortality from ischaemic heart disease in exposed workers, although lower than national rates (SMR 92), was slightly increased compared with local rates. However, mortality from ischaemic heart disease was lower in active employees (SMR 83) where a direct effect of exposure to methylene chloride should be concentrated. No in service mortality due to ischaemic heart disease was found in workers with the highest cumulative exposure (> or = 800 ppm-years). CONCLUSIONS: The study provided no indication that employment at the plant, or exposure to methylene chloride, had adversely affected the mortalities of workers. PMID:9282122

  16. Farmers as Employers. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of farmers as employers: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with employment of agriculture…

  17. Older Workers and Federal Work Programs: The Korean Senior Employment Program (KSEP).

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunhee

    2016-01-01

    Federal older worker programs are attracting attention due to the growing number of older workers across the world. They are uniquely situated to provide out-of-market work opportunities to older job seekers, who often find their age a barrier to securing desirable jobs. In 2004, the Korean government established its own program, the Korean Senior Employment Program (KSEP); however, literature for international readers on this innovative program is lacking. Thus, this article aims to provide an in-depth description of KSEP and a brief comparison between the Senior Community Service Employment Program in the U.S. and KSEP. The unique characteristics of KSEP include having the dual program foci on supplemental income and social participation; expanding work opportunities in the private sector beyond community-based jobs; accepting participants who are financially disadvantaged as well as those with a high desire for social participation regardless of their income; and broadening work opportunities for those with professional skills beyond repetitive, simple, and temporary jobs. This article may offer helpful insights to older worker advocates from various countries in creating or modifying their programs.

  18. Older Workers and Federal Work Programs: The Korean Senior Employment Program (KSEP).

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunhee

    2016-01-01

    Federal older worker programs are attracting attention due to the growing number of older workers across the world. They are uniquely situated to provide out-of-market work opportunities to older job seekers, who often find their age a barrier to securing desirable jobs. In 2004, the Korean government established its own program, the Korean Senior Employment Program (KSEP); however, literature for international readers on this innovative program is lacking. Thus, this article aims to provide an in-depth description of KSEP and a brief comparison between the Senior Community Service Employment Program in the U.S. and KSEP. The unique characteristics of KSEP include having the dual program foci on supplemental income and social participation; expanding work opportunities in the private sector beyond community-based jobs; accepting participants who are financially disadvantaged as well as those with a high desire for social participation regardless of their income; and broadening work opportunities for those with professional skills beyond repetitive, simple, and temporary jobs. This article may offer helpful insights to older worker advocates from various countries in creating or modifying their programs. PMID:26942833

  19. Agricultural Workers in Central California. Volume 1: In 1989; Volume 2: Phase II, 1990-91. California Agricultural Studies, 90-8 and 91-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Andrew J.; And Others

    Two surveys developed profiles of seasonal agricultural workers and their working conditions in central California. In 1989, a random sample of 347 seasonal workers was interviewed. The sample was 30 percent female and 87 percent Mexican-born. Average age was 35 years and average educational attainment was 5.9 years. Most had parents, spouses, or…

  20. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers living in poverty in Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Migrant agricultural workers are a group of people living in poverty with poor housing, sanitary conditions and hygiene practices. Little is known about the epidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers. Methods We investigated the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in 173 migrant workers hired for seasonal agricultural work in Durango State in northern Mexico using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results Of the 173 migrant workers (mean age 34.82 ± 14.01 years), 50 (28.9%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and 36 (20.8%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence was not influenced by gender, age, birth place, or educational level. In contrast, seroprevalence was significantly higher in workers residing in rural areas than those in urban or suburban areas. Migrant workers suffering from memory impairment, dizziness, or syncope had significantly higher seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies than those without such clinical features. Logistic regression analysis showed that T. gondii exposure was positively associated with consumption of unwashed raw vegetables (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.06-5.35; P = 0.03) and low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 3.87; 95% CI: 1.43-10.42; P = 0.007), and negatively associated with national trips (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.65; P = 0.003) and consumption of raw milk (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.18-0.87; P = 0.02). Other behavioral characteristics including consumption of meat or untreated water were not associated with T. gondii infection. Conclusions This is the first report of T. gondii infection in internal migrant agricultural workers living in poverty. Results deserve further investigation of causal relations between clinical symptoms and infection, and may be useful for optimal planning of preventive measures. PMID:23601076

  1. Survey of acute pesticide poisoning among agricultural workers in four Asian countries*

    PubMed Central

    Jeyaratnam, J.; Lun, K. C.; Phoon, W. O.

    1987-01-01

    The study investigated the extent of acute pesticide poisoning in selected agricultural communities in Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Thailand, as well as the contributing factors, because it is believed that this type of poisoning is a major problem in developing countries, but not in the industrialized countries, despite their extensive use of pesticides. The study confirmed the existence of this problem, which was found to be due to inadequate knowledge of the safe practices in the use of pesticides among users and to the lack of suitable protective clothing for use by agricultural workers in hot and humid climates. PMID:3500805

  2. 76 FR 73684 - Tiger Drylac USA, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on November 3, 2011 (76 FR 68220). At the request of the... Employment and Training Administration Tiger Drylac USA, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks... Adjustment Assistance on October 19, 2011, applicable to workers of Tiger Drylac USA, Inc.,...

  3. Contingency, Employment Intentions, and Retention of Vulnerable Low-Wage Workers: An Examination of Nursing Assistants in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Janette S.; Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Marshall, Victor W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: While theories of job turnover generally assume a strong correlation between job satisfaction, intention, and retention, such models may be limited in explaining turnover of low-wage health care workers. Low-wage workers likely have a lower ability to act on their employment intentions or plans due to a lack of resources that…

  4. Is temporary employment damaging to health? A longitudinal study on Italian workers.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Elena; Salvini, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Working conditions have changed dramatically over recent decades in all the countries of European Union: permanent full-time employment characterized by job security and a stable salary is replaced more and more by temporary work, apprenticeship contracts, casual jobs and part-time work. The consequences of these changes on the general well-being of workers and their health represent an increasingly important path of inquiry. We add to the debate by answering the question: are Italian workers on temporary contracts more likely to suffer from poor health than those with permanent jobs? Our analysis is based on a sample of men and women aged 16-64 coming from the Italian longitudinal survey 2007-2010 of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. We use the method of inverse-probability-of-treatment weights to estimate the causal effect of temporary work on self-rated health, controlling for selection effects. Our major findings can be summarized as follows: firstly, we show a negative association between temporary employment and health that results from a statistical causal effect in the work-to-health direction, and does not trivially derive from a selection of healthier individuals in the group of people who find permanent jobs (selection effect). Secondly, we find that temporary employment becomes particularly negative for the individual's health when it is prolonged over time. Thirdly, whereas temporary employment does not entail significant adverse consequences for men, the link between temporary employment and health is strongly harmful for Italian women. PMID:25461869

  5. Nerves as embodied metaphor in the Canada/Mexico seasonal agricultural workers program.

    PubMed

    Mysyk, Avis; England, Margaret; Gallegos, Juan Arturo Avila

    2008-01-01

    This article examines nerves among participants in the Canada/Mexico Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (C/MSAWP). Based on in-depth interviews with 30 Mexican farm workers in southwestern Ontario, we demonstrate that nerves embodies the distress of economic need, relative powerlessness, and the contradictions inherent in the C/MSAWP that result in various life's lesions. We also explore their use of the nerves idiom as an embodied metaphor for their awareness of the breakdown in self/society relations and, in certain cases, of the lack of control over even themselves. This article contributes to that body of literature that locates nerves at the "normal" end of the "normal/abnormal" continuum of popular illness categories because, despite the similarities in symptoms of nerves among Mexican farm workers and those of anxiety and/or mood disorders, medicalization has not occurred. If nerves has not been medicalized among Mexican farm workers, neither has it given rise to resistance to their relative powerlessness as migrant farm workers. Nonetheless, nerves does serve as an effective vehicle for expressing their distress within the context of the C/MSAWP.

  6. Nerves as embodied metaphor in the Canada/Mexico seasonal agricultural workers program.

    PubMed

    Mysyk, Avis; England, Margaret; Gallegos, Juan Arturo Avila

    2008-01-01

    This article examines nerves among participants in the Canada/Mexico Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (C/MSAWP). Based on in-depth interviews with 30 Mexican farm workers in southwestern Ontario, we demonstrate that nerves embodies the distress of economic need, relative powerlessness, and the contradictions inherent in the C/MSAWP that result in various life's lesions. We also explore their use of the nerves idiom as an embodied metaphor for their awareness of the breakdown in self/society relations and, in certain cases, of the lack of control over even themselves. This article contributes to that body of literature that locates nerves at the "normal" end of the "normal/abnormal" continuum of popular illness categories because, despite the similarities in symptoms of nerves among Mexican farm workers and those of anxiety and/or mood disorders, medicalization has not occurred. If nerves has not been medicalized among Mexican farm workers, neither has it given rise to resistance to their relative powerlessness as migrant farm workers. Nonetheless, nerves does serve as an effective vehicle for expressing their distress within the context of the C/MSAWP. PMID:18958786

  7. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition as an Indicator of Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning in Kenyan Agricultural Workers.

    PubMed

    Ohayo-Mitoko; Heederik; Kromhout; Omondi; Boleij

    1997-07-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was determined for 666 Kenyan agricultural workers; 390 (58.6%) mainly pesticide applicators exposed to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides and 276 (41.4%) unexposed controls from four rural agricultural areas during 1993 and 1994. Baseline levels were depressed in the exposed group (6.1 +/- 0.84; 4.09 +/- 0.84) but not in the unexposed group (5.83 +/- 0.91; 5.60 +/- 0.87). Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was found in all exposed individuals and led, on average, to a decrease of baseline acetylcholinesterase levels of 33% (+/-12%). The control groups had a nonsignificant decrease of only 4% (+/- 8%). The exposed subjects in Naivasha (flower growers) had the largest inhibition (36%), followed by Homabay (cotton growers) (35%) and Wundanyi (vegetable growers) (33%). Those in Migori (tobacco growers) had, by far, the least inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity (26%), indicating inherent factors that led to less inhibition. Acetylcholinesterase activity levels of 115 exposed individuals (29.6%) and no controls were depressed to values below 60% of baseline levels. The dramatic inhibition observed could lead to chronic clinical and subclinical intoxication. These findings show that acetylcholinesterase inhibition can be used as an indicator of organophosphate and carbamate poisoning in occupationally exposed agricultural workers. There is, therefore, an urgent need for primary prevention programs to monitor and address occupational exposures to these hazardous substances in agriculture in Kenya and other developing countries, as well as to use integrated pest management strategies in crop protection.

  8. Occupational health and safety for agricultural workers in Thailand: gaps and recommendations, with a focus on pesticide use.

    PubMed

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Woskie, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Over 16.7 million workers in Thailand (42 percent of the working population) are engaged in agriculture, disproportionately from the lower socioeconomic strata of Thai society. Most agricultural workers (over 93 percent) work in the informal sector without the protections of regulations or enforcement of labor or health and safety laws or enrollment in a social security system. Although Thailand's use of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides is growing, there is little regulation of the sale, use, or application of these potentially toxic chemicals. This paper summarizes the research to date on occupational health and safety for Thai agricultural workers, identifies gaps in pesticide regulations and the current systems for occupational health and safety and social support for Thai agricultural workers, and makes recommendations for future policy and research initiatives to fill the identified gaps.

  9. Agricultural injury in California Hispanic farm workers: MICASA follow-up survey.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, Stephen A; Xiao, Hong; Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Tancredi, Daniel J; Bennett, Deborah H; Schenker, Marc B

    2013-01-01

    The authors report here results from the first follow-up survey of the Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) cohort of community-dwelling immigrant Hispanic farm workers in California's Central Valley. Among 560 participants the authors observed cumulative 1-year injury incidence of 6.6% (all injuries) and 4.3% (agricultural injuries). Increased prospective injury risk was associated with males, US birth, years lived in the United States, family income, and poor self-rated health. Agricultural injuries were associated most frequently with being struck by an object, falls, and cutting instruments, whereas over two thirds of nonagricultural injuries involved motor vehicles. Prevention should focus on safe handling of tools and materials, falls, and motor vehicle safety. PMID:23301889

  10. Using a Training Video to Improve Agricultural Workers' Knowledge of On-Farm Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiasen, Lisa; Morley, Katija; Chapman, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A training video was produced and evaluated to assess its impact on the food safety knowledge of agricultural workers. Increasing food safety knowledge on the farm may help to improve the safety of fresh produce. Surveys were used to measure workers' food safety knowledge before and after viewing the video. Focus groups were used to determine…

  11. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?

    PubMed

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-12-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women. PMID:24319299

  12. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?*

    PubMed Central

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women. PMID:24319299

  13. [Working conditions and job-requirement of older industrial blue collar workers and the consequences in employment problems (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bäcker, G

    1978-07-01

    In the following passage the reduced vocational capacity of older workers will be discussed as a consequence of the intended high-capacity of workers as well as the non--human working--conditions in industry. The reduced personal sanity and working capacity of older workers point out the high rate of handicaps and the incapacity of vocational engagement. Problems of employment--and this could be pointed out by the high rates of unemployment amongst older workers--does not signify prejudice but indicates the low profitableness of older workers in the capitalistic production system. Finally discussed will be the contribution of a monetary--conpensatoric against a more prophylactic social policy for a better solution of the vocational problems of older blue-collar workers. PMID:27114

  14. Less-Educated Workers' Unstable Employment: Can the Safety Net Help? Fast Focus. No. 19-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Heather D.; Ybarra, Marci A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s, U.S. workers with less than a college education have faced increasing job instability at the same time that the safety net has become increasingly contingent on employment. The sources of instability are many, including variable schedules, not enough hours, and temporary employment. A policy forum hosted by the Employment…

  15. Employment Action Center's Demonstration Older Worker Project. Operated June 1, 1983 through November 31, 1983. Final Outcome Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Ann; Teschendorf, JoAnn

    The Older Worker Project was conducted to provide employment services to unemployed persons aged 45 and older who live in the western part of the Hennepin County (Minneapolis, Minnesota) area. Although the expected result was permanent employment of the participants, the intention of this demonstration project was to refine service approaches…

  16. A STUDY OF EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN ALABAMA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAKER, RICHARD A.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO ASCERTAIN THE NATURE AND EXTENT OF OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN THE STATE. BUSINESS FIRMS, OCCUPATIONS, OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND METHODS OF RECRUITMENT WERE IDENTIFIED. THE SAMPLES OF BUSINESS FIRMS WAS SELECTED FROM 20 SAMPLE COUNTIES. INTERVIEWERS CONTACTED 545 OF THE 638 FIRMS IN THE…

  17. VOCATIONAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED FOR EMPLOYMENT IN THE AGRICULTURAL-CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN MICHIGAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHRISTENSEN, MAYNARD; CLARK, RAYMOND M.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE VOCATIONAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED FOR EMPLOYMENT BELOW THE MANUFACTURING LEVEL IN THE AGRICULTURAL-CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN MICHIGAN. NINE FUNCTIONS PERFORMED IN THE INDUSTRY WERE LISTED--RESEARCH, TRANSPORTATION, PROCESSING, PUBLIC RELATIONS, SALES, SERVICE, OFFICE RECORDS AND MANAGEMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND…

  18. Agriculture and Related Businesses. Revised Summary Report: Technical Employment in Northeast Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William E.; And Others

    The document is one of five summary reports, all part of a Pre-Technical Curriculum Planning Project for secondary students who aspire to technical employment or post secondary technical education. This report represents the results of an assessment of the northeast Florida area's technical occupations in agriculture and related businesses. A…

  19. Farmers as Employers. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of farmers as employers: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication and numeracy skills…

  20. Employer Perception of the Preparation of Agricultural and Extension Education Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Donna L.

    Educational reform measures have forced schools to form partnerships with business and industry to achieve common goals of a prepared workforce. These partnerships have forced colleges of agriculture to examine its mission and update the curriculum. This study sought to provide benchmark data from employers on the skills and abilities deemed…

  1. COMPETENCIES IN AGRICULTURE NEEDED BY MALES EMPLOYED IN WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY DISTRIBUTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAXWELL, ROBERT HAWORTH

    LISTS OF 39 AGRICULTURAL AND 37 NONAGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES, ABILITIES, AND UNDERSTANDINGS NEEDED BY MALES EMPLOYED IN WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY DISTRIBUTION WERE DEVELOPED BY 18 SELECTED EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY FIRMS AND SENT IN QUESTIONNAIRE FORM TO 180 EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY FIRMS THAT WERE COOPERATING MEMBERS OF…

  2. Pre-Employment Laboratory Training. General Agricultural Mechanics Volume I. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This course outline, the first volume of a two-volume set, consists of lesson plans for pre-employment laboratory training in general agricultural mechanics. Covered in the 12 lessons included in this volume are selecting tractors and engines, diagnosing engine conditions, servicing electrical systems, servicing cooling systems, servicing fuel and…

  3. 76 FR 11286 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... the time the work is performed; (ii) the applicable prevailing wage; or (iii) the statutory minimum... Agriculture in the United States: 2011 Adverse Effect Wage Rates, Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers... Department of Labor (Department) is issuing this Notice to announce: (1) The 2011 Adverse Effect Wage...

  4. The Slowdown in Employer Insurance Cost Growth: Why Many Workers Still Feel the Pinch.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Radley, David C; Gunja, Munira Z; Beutel, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    Issue: Although predictions that the Affordable Care Act (ACA) would lead to reductions in employer-sponsored health coverage have not been realized, some of the law’s critics maintain the ACA is nevertheless driving higher premium and deductible costs for businesses and their workers. Goal: To compare cost growth in employer-sponsored health insurance before and after 2010, when the ACA was enacted, and to compare changes in these costs relative to changes in workers’ incomes. Methods: The authors analyzed federal Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data to compare cost trends over the 10-year period from 2006 to 2015. Key findings and conclusions: Compared to the five years leading up to the ACA, premium growth for single health insurance policies offered by employers slowed both in the nation overall and in 33 states and the District of Columbia. There has been a similar slowdown in growth in the amounts employees contribute to health plan costs. Yet many families feel pinched by their health care costs: despite a recent surge, income growth has not kept pace in many areas of the U.S. Employee contributions to premiums and deductibles amounted to 10.1 percent of U.S. median income in 2015, compared to 6.5 percent in 2006. These costs are higher relative to income in many southeastern and southern states, where incomes are below the national average.

  5. [Medical inventions: developments and approaches in employer-employee [correction of worker-employee] relations].

    PubMed

    Teff, Zvi

    2012-11-01

    The past twenty years have witnessed a huge increase in research activity on the government health system in Israel. Consequently, a number of questions of enhanced importance arise: to whom the resultant IP (intellectual property) belongs?--to the researcher or the employer? and what compensation should the researcher receive for his inventive efforts? The government found many cases where the IP was registered in the name of the inventor/researcher, thus denying the government ownership of the IP. In 2009, the government sued Omryx over ownership of such an IP. Following these developments, the government issued new rules for management of IP in the government health system. They came into effect in November 2010. In many respects, the new rules are more stringent than the Israeli Patent Law in respect of the inventor. However, the stipulation of awards to the inventor in the new rules is generous. In order for the new rules to be enforceable, the following guidelines are recommended: The new rules should be more aligned with the Patent Law and with the meaning given to the Law by the judicial system, and There is need for the assent and awareness of health system workers to the conditions set out in the new rules, preferably in the form of new work contracts that clearly and concurrently delineate the worker's duties, particularly those pertaining to IP. PMID:23367732

  6. [Medical inventions: developments and approaches in employer-employee [correction of worker-employee] relations].

    PubMed

    Teff, Zvi

    2012-11-01

    The past twenty years have witnessed a huge increase in research activity on the government health system in Israel. Consequently, a number of questions of enhanced importance arise: to whom the resultant IP (intellectual property) belongs?--to the researcher or the employer? and what compensation should the researcher receive for his inventive efforts? The government found many cases where the IP was registered in the name of the inventor/researcher, thus denying the government ownership of the IP. In 2009, the government sued Omryx over ownership of such an IP. Following these developments, the government issued new rules for management of IP in the government health system. They came into effect in November 2010. In many respects, the new rules are more stringent than the Israeli Patent Law in respect of the inventor. However, the stipulation of awards to the inventor in the new rules is generous. In order for the new rules to be enforceable, the following guidelines are recommended: The new rules should be more aligned with the Patent Law and with the meaning given to the Law by the judicial system, and There is need for the assent and awareness of health system workers to the conditions set out in the new rules, preferably in the form of new work contracts that clearly and concurrently delineate the worker's duties, particularly those pertaining to IP.

  7. Migration and the Employment and Wages of Native and Immigrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Franklin D.; Jaynes, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    A study of 1,200 white-collar and 1,436 blue-collar workers with less than postsecondary education showed that migrant and immigrant workers were not significantly associated with joblessness among native workers. Changes in the foreign-born composition of an industry sector were associated with increased unemployment for native workers. (SK)

  8. Outsourcing Elderly Care to Migrant Workers: The Impact of Gender and Class on the Experience of Male Employers

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Ester; Scrinzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    This article, based on semi-structured interviews, addresses masculinity in the international division of reproductive labour through an analysis of the impact of gender and class on the outsourcing of elderly care services to migrant care workers. In the Italian context, characterised by a limited provision of long-term care services and by cash-for-care benefits, the strategies of men as employers of migrant care workers are shaped by class and gender. The outsourcing of care to migrant workers reproduces hegemonic masculinity in so far as male employers are able to withdraw from the ‘dirty work’. At the same time, men engage with tasks which are, in principle, kept at a distance. The employers’ family status, combined with their class background, are crucial factors in shaping the heterogeneity of men’s experiences as employers and managers of care labour, and the ways in which they make sense of their masculinity. PMID:27041775

  9. Temporary variations in chromosomal aberrations in a group of agricultural workers exposed to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, E; Valbuena, A; Xamena, N; Creus, A; Marcos, R

    1995-10-01

    The induction of chromosomal aberrations (CA) was studied in the peripheral lymphocytes of 29 male agricultural workers occupationally exposed to several pesticides. To investigate possible exposure-related changes in the frequency of CA, a longitudinal study has been conducted. Two blood samples were taken from each individual: one in a period of high exposure (spring-summer) and the other in a period of lower exposure (autumn-winter). Simultaneously, two matched control groups constituted by 29 and 24 healthy men, without indication of exposure to pesticides, were analysed. During the period of major exposure, the group of agricultural workers showed a significant increase in the frequency of CA, mainly of chromatid-type, when compared to the unexposed control group; nevertheless, this increase in the expression of CA was not found in the period of minor exposure. This finding could indicate that the frequency of CA is related to the intensity of the pesticide exposure, and that CA have a relatively short-life, recovering the control value a few months later. In addition to the cytogenetic analysis, biochemical and haemotological blood parameters were also analysed and no significant variations were detected. PMID:7491130

  10. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Muniz, Juan F. McCauley, Linda; Scherer, J.; Lasarev, M.; Koshy, M.; Kow, Y.W.; Nazar-Stewart, Valle; Kisby, G.E.

    2008-02-15

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage have been proposed as mechanisms linking pesticide exposure to health effects such as cancer and neurological diseases. A study of pesticide applicators and farmworkers was conducted to examine the relationship between organophosphate pesticide exposure and biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urine samples were analyzed for OP metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Lymphocytes were analyzed for oxidative DNA repair activity and DNA damage (Comet assay), and serum was analyzed for lipid peroxides (i.e., malondialdehyde, MDA). Cellular damage in agricultural workers was validated using lymphocyte cell cultures. Urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in farmworkers and applicators (p < 0.001) when compared to controls. 8-OH-dG levels were 8.5 times and 2.3 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. Serum MDA levels were 4.9 times and 24 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. DNA damage (Comet assay) and oxidative DNA repair were significantly greater in lymphocytes from applicators and farmworkers when compared with controls. Markers of oxidative stress (i.e., increased reactive oxygen species and reduced glutathione levels) and DNA damage were also observed in lymphocyte cell cultures treated with an OP. The findings from these in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that organophosphate pesticides induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers. These biomarkers may be useful for increasing our understanding of the link between pesticides and a number of health effects.

  11. Estimates of acute pesticide poisoning in agricultural workers in less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, Melville H

    2005-01-01

    The benefits of crop protection products have to be balanced against the risks to farmers and other agricultural workers handling and applying them. The extent of acute pesticide poisoning in these workers, particularly in less developed countries, has often been based on inadequate information. A number of approaches have been taken by researchers to acquire information on pesticide poisoning. These have resulted in worldwide (global) estimates and regional, localised or field assessments. The methods include descriptive epidemiology, cross-sectional and case studies. Attempts to estimate global pesticide poisonings have often been based upon extrapolations and assumptions from chemical-related fatalities in a small number of countries; such estimates do not provide reliable data. Epidemiological studies, relying mainly on hospital and poison centre data, have been biased towards the more severe poisonings, whereas field studies indicate that occupational pesticide poisoning is associated with less severe and minor effects. Many reports do not adequately distinguish between intentional, accidental and occupational pesticide poisoning statistics or are dominated by cases of intentional (suicidal) poisoning which, by their nature, result in severe or fatal results. The majority of reports do not adequately describe whether individual cases are minor, moderate or severe poisonings. In order to assess information on acute pesticide poisoning in agricultural workers in less developed countries and to draw conclusions on the extent and severity of occupational poisoning, the most recent (post-1990) literature was reviewed. Data were also derived from the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Labour Office (ILO). The collected information was analysed to assess the extent and severity of occupational acute pesticide poisoning in less developed countries. Occupational acute pesticide poisonings in these

  12. Under-five mortality among mothers employed in agriculture: findings from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajvir; Tripathi, Vrijesh

    2015-01-01

    Background. India accounts for 24% to all under-five mortality in the world. Residence in rural area, poverty and low levels of mother's education are known confounders of under-five mortality. Since two-thirds of India's population lives in rural areas, mothers employed in agriculture present a particularly vulnerable population in the Indian context and it is imperative that concerns of this sizeable population are addressed in order to achieve MDG4 targets of reducing U5MR to fewer than 41 per 1,000 by 2015. This study was conducted to examine factors associated with under-five mortality among mothers employed in agriculture. Methods. Data was retrieved from National Family Household Survey-3 in India (2008). The study population is comprised of a national representative sample of single children aged 0 to 59 months and born to mothers aged 15 to 49 years employed in agriculture from all 29 states of India. Univariate and Multivariate Cox PH regression analysis was used to analyse the Hazard Rates of mortality. The predictive power of child mortality among mothers employed in agriculture was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results. An increase in mothers' ages corresponds with a decrease in child mortality. Breastfeeding reduces child mortality by 70% (HR 0.30, 0.25-0.35, p = 0.001). Standard of Living reduces child mortality by 32% with high standard of living (HR 0.68, 0.52-0.89, 0.001) in comparison to low standard of living. Prenatal care (HR 0.40, 0.34-0.48, p = 0.001) and breastfeeding health nutrition education (HR 0.45, 0.31-0.66, p = 0.001) are associated significant factors for child mortality. Birth Order five is a risk factor for mortality (HR 1.49, 1.05-2.10, p = 0.04) in comparison to Birth Order one among women engaged in agriculture while the household size (6-10 members and ≥ 11 members) is significant in reducing child mortality in comparison to ≤5 members in the house. Under

  13. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part I: employment status and Fair Labor Standards Act issues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal landmines that await the unsuspecting employer. The purpose of this article was to familiarize health care employers with some of the rapidly evolving legal issues that surround the use of contingent workers.

  14. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part I: employment status and fair labor standards act issues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal landmines that await the unsuspecting employer. The purpose of this article was to familiarize health care employers with some of the rapidly evolving legal issues that surround the use of contingent workers.

  15. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part I: employment status and fair labor standards act issues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal landmines that await the unsuspecting employer. The purpose of this article was to familiarize health care employers with some of the rapidly evolving legal issues that surround the use of contingent workers. PMID:20145467

  16. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part I: employment status and Fair Labor Standards Act issues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal landmines that await the unsuspecting employer. The purpose of this article was to familiarize health care employers with some of the rapidly evolving legal issues that surround the use of contingent workers. PMID:20733412

  17. Dislocated Workers. A Look Back at the Redwood Employment Training Programs. Briefing Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    A study examined implementation of the Redwood worker assistance programs implemented to help mitigate the loss of jobs by timber workers in Northern California upon expansion of the Redwood National Park in 1978. The benefits provided to workers under the Redwood Employee Protection Program (REPP) were generous. As of December 1988, REPP had…

  18. Sticky IT Workers: Discovering Why Information Technology Professionals Retain Their Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Phillip Mike

    2013-01-01

    In the current business climate and social technologies expansion era, Information Technology (IT) workers are important organization contributors that connect organizations into today's data-driven, highly social, and always-on global economy. Thus, organizations need IT workers. Unfortunately, as a class, IT workers have developed a reputation…

  19. Does the Form of Employment Make a Difference?--Commitment of Traditional, Temporary, and Self-Employed Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felfe, Jorg; Schmook, Renate; Schyns, Birgit; Six, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Increasing change in the labor market has produced new forms of employment. A growing number of people have temporary jobs or are self-employed freelancers. The aim of our study is to address these changes by introducing commitment to the form of employment as a new focus in commitment. In addition, we compare organizational commitment under…

  20. 26 CFR 301.6109-2 - Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to... the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes of the Food Stamp Act of 1977. (a) In general. The Secretary of Agriculture may require each applicant retail food...

  1. 26 CFR 301.6109-2 - Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to... the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes of the Food Stamp Act of 1977. (a) In general. The Secretary of Agriculture may require each applicant retail food...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6109-2 - Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to... the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes of the Food Stamp Act of 1977. (a) In general. The Secretary of Agriculture may require each applicant retail food...

  3. 26 CFR 301.6109-2 - Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to... the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes of the Food Stamp Act of 1977. (a) In general. The Secretary of Agriculture may require each applicant retail food...

  4. Credential Attainment by Older Workers: The Role of Community Colleges and the Dislocated Worker Program in Successful Employment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Phyllis Ann

    2013-01-01

    Workers are remaining in the labor force at older ages and despite their desire to work, those without jobs face unprecedented durations of unemployment. Many of the unemployed lack current skills for jobs in demand and need to either upgrade their skills or be trained for a new occupation to become reemployed. An aging workforce combined with…

  5. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF THE MOVEMENT OF SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT CHILDREN INTO WISCONSIN, EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN WISCONSIN, REPORT 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LINDSEY, HERBERT H.; AND OTHERS

    USEFUL MEANS OF ANTICIPATING THE MOVEMENTS OF MIGRANT CHILDREN INCLUDE ANALYSIS OF CROPS, THE HARVESTING OF WHICH REQUIRES OUT-OF-STATE WORKERS, DISTRIBUTIONAL MAPS OF CROP ACREAGE, NORMAL TIME SCHEDULES FOR CROPS, AND INFORMATION ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS. SUCH INFORMATION ASSISTS IN THE PLANNING OF SCHOOL PROGRAMS. IN WISCONSIN, MOST MIGRANT…

  6. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part II: Issues under federal employment and labor legislation.

    PubMed

    Koen, Clifford M; Mitchell, Michael S; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal land mines that await the unsuspecting employer. This article, the second part of a 3-part examination of contingent employment, addresses the effects of several key pieces of employment and labor legislation on the employment of contingent workers. PMID:20436333

  7. Agricultural work and chronic musculoskeletal pain among Latino farm workers: the MICASA Study

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hong; McCurdy, Stephen A.; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria; Li, Chin-Shang; Schenker, Marc B

    2013-01-01

    Background Agriculture poses varied dangers to hired farm workers in the U.S., but little information exists on occupational risks for chronic musculoskeletal pain. We examined common work positions, such as kneeling, carrying heavy loads, and repetitive motion that may increase the risk for chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods MICASA is a population-based study of occupational exposures and health in hired farm workers in California. This analysis includes 759 participants, 18–55 years old, engaged in farm work and residing in Mendota, CA. Chronic pain was defined as pain lasting six weeks or longer at specific body sites (back, knee, hip, etc.) over the entire farm work career. Results Mean age was 37.9 years. 65% participants were born in Mexico, 27.7% were born in El Salvador, and 4.2% were U.S-born. Chronic pain was associated with older age and female sex. After adjustment for age, years working in agriculture, and smoking, stooping/bending >30hrs/week among both men (OR=2.49, 95%CI:1.03–5.99) and women (OR=2.15, 95%CI:1.04–4.46) was associated with chronic hip pain. Driving tractors or other heavy farm equipment >60 hrs/week was associated with increased odds of chronic hip pain (OR=2.16 95%CI: 1.02–4.54) among men. We also observed significant associations with kneeling or crawling >35 hrs/week among women for both chronic back pain (OR=2.96 95%CI: 1.27–6.93) and knee pain (OR=3.02 95%CI: 1.07–8.50), respectively. Conclusions Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent among farm workers and is associated with common work positions. Further research should focus on developing preventive interventions for tasks associated with increased pain risk. These interventions should be targeted to specific types of agricultural tasks. PMID:23023585

  8. [Temporary loss of work capacity in connection with rheumatic diseases in workers of the agricultural-industrial complex].

    PubMed

    Doroshenko, Iu A; Bagirova, V V; Ivanova, I P; Kaĭsarov, G A

    1991-01-01

    The authors studied the morbidity rate accompanied by temporary incapacity for work in workers of the agricultural and industrial complex suffering from diseases of the joints. It has been established that rheumatic diseases take the first place as to their duration (number of days) and the second place at to their incidence (number of cases) per 100 workers. An annual rise in rheumatic disease prevalence, especially of a degenerative dystrophic nature was noted. Of importance are the age of patients service record in agriculture, intensity of load, nature of work, season. Machine operators were most liable to the mentioned disease. PMID:1839863

  9. The Effects of Economic Policies and Employment Assistance Programs on the Well-Being of Displaced Female Apparel Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Cynthia; Strand, Elizabeth B.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores how labor market trends and current employment assistance policies affect reemployment opportunities and emotional well-being in a sample of female dislocated apparel workers. The study follows the displaced women from the time the plant closed for 6 months to assess their financial and emotional well-being as they reentered…

  10. The approaches to learning of support workers employed in the care home sector: an evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Cowan, David T; Roberts, Julia D; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M; While, Alison E; Baldwin, Julie

    2004-02-01

    This study examined the approaches to learning of a cohort (n=76) of National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) Care Award candidates using the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students. The NVQ candidates were support workers (SWs) (sometimes called care assistants) employed in United Kingdom (UK) care homes for older people. The aim was to identify SWs' approaches to learning and to determine whether or not a preparatory six-week College-based course had any impact on these approaches. The findings were encouraging. The course had a positive impact with a statistically significant increase in orientation towards a deep learning approach, which is associated with desirable learning outcomes as well as self-directed and lifelong learning skills. The UK government recognises that lifelong learning enables people to continually develop their talents, thereby enhancing local communities and contributing to a civilised, cohesive society. In a health care environment, adopting a deep approach is likely to be beneficial. Those who use evidence to inform practice, who are able to relate elements of what they are taught to their working experiences and who are able to adapt to meet new challenges, are more likely to enhance their practice and become more effective carers. PMID:14769453

  11. The approaches to learning of support workers employed in the care home sector: an evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Cowan, David T; Roberts, Julia D; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M; While, Alison E; Baldwin, Julie

    2004-02-01

    This study examined the approaches to learning of a cohort (n=76) of National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) Care Award candidates using the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students. The NVQ candidates were support workers (SWs) (sometimes called care assistants) employed in United Kingdom (UK) care homes for older people. The aim was to identify SWs' approaches to learning and to determine whether or not a preparatory six-week College-based course had any impact on these approaches. The findings were encouraging. The course had a positive impact with a statistically significant increase in orientation towards a deep learning approach, which is associated with desirable learning outcomes as well as self-directed and lifelong learning skills. The UK government recognises that lifelong learning enables people to continually develop their talents, thereby enhancing local communities and contributing to a civilised, cohesive society. In a health care environment, adopting a deep approach is likely to be beneficial. Those who use evidence to inform practice, who are able to relate elements of what they are taught to their working experiences and who are able to adapt to meet new challenges, are more likely to enhance their practice and become more effective carers.

  12. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, Corie A.; Crane, Alice L.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Browne, Richard W.; Lein, Pamela J.; Olson, James R.

    2012-12-15

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.

  13. From agricultural fields to urban asphalt: the role of worker education to promote California's heat illness prevention standard.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kevin; Delp, Linda; Cornelio, Deogracia; Jacobs, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an innovative approach to reach and educate workers and worker advocates about California's outdoor heat illness prevention standard. In 2010, Cal/OSHA initiated a statewide education campaign to reduce heat-related illnesses and fatalities and increase awareness of the standard's requirements. In Southern California, the UCLA Labor Occupational Safety and Health Program (LOSH) focused on three principal strategies of community-based outreach, popular education, and organizational capacity building. Central to the LOSH approach was the integration of health promotores into core program planning and training activities and the expansion of campaign activities to a wide variety of rural and urban workers. We describe each of these strategies and analyze the possibilities and constraints of worker education to support implementation of this standard, particularly given the vulnerabilities of the impacted workforce, the often precarious nature of employment arrangements for these workers, and the resource limitations of Cal/OSHA.

  14. 1961 ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA DIRECTED TOWARD THE IMPROVEMENT OF HEALTH AMONG DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS AND THEIR FAMILIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1961

    A PROGRAM INSTITUTED IN 1961 TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH OF DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN CALIFORNIA AND THEIR FAMILIES WAS GIVEN. IT SOUGHT TO HELP LOCAL HEALTH AGENCIES BY PROVIDING--TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO COUNTIES TRYING TO DEVELOP FACILITIES AND SERVICES, EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR USE OF STATE FUNDS BY LOCAL…

  15. The Discursive Construction of the "Competent" Learner-Worker: From Key Competencies to "Employability Skills"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    The subjectivity of workers, articulated in terms of the personal attributes required in ongoing conditions of economic change, has been at the forefront of current discussions of generic skills in Australia. This article explores the discursive construction and reconstruction of the "competent" learner-worker from its initial elaboration in the…

  16. Employment-Related Problems of Older Workers: A Research Strategy. R&D Monograph 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Harold L.

    Based on an extensive search of the available literature on older workers and their problems, this monograph provides a careful assessment of this literature and highlights some areas where additional research is needed. This report examines demographic changes likely to influence the size and characteristics of the older worker population in the…

  17. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(1)-1 - Certain services performed by foreign agricultural workers, or performed before 1959 in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... agricultural workers, or performed before 1959 in connection with oleoresinous products. 31.3121(b)(1)-1 Section 31.3121(b)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... § 31.3121(b)(1)-1 Certain services performed by foreign agricultural workers, or performed before...

  18. A mortality study of vinyl chloride monomer workers employed in the United Kingdom in 1940-1974.

    PubMed

    Jones, R D; Smith, D M; Thomas, P G

    1988-06-01

    The mortality experience of 5,498 male workers employed for at least one year during 1940-1974 in the vinyl chloride industry of the United Kingdom was followed through to 31 December 1984. There was a significant excess of nonsecondary liver tumors with 11 deaths, of which seven were angiosarcomas. All the angiosarcoma deaths occurred in autoclave workers with a median latency of 25 years from date of first exposure. A strong healthy worker effect was seen. Other than that for liver cancer, no increased incidence of cancer deaths attributable to vinyl chloride monomer exposure was found. There was no evidence of increased mortality from chronic liver disease. The incidence of death from respiratory disease was low and was not affected by polyvinyl chloride dust exposure.

  19. The relationship between blood lead levels and morbidities among workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage battery.

    PubMed

    Kalahasthi, Ravi Babu; Barman, Tapu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and morbidities among 391 male workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage batteries. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect information on subjective health complaints and clinical observation made during a clinical examination. In addition to monitoring of BLL, other laboratory parameters investigated included hematological and urine-δ-aminolevulinic acid levels. Logistic regression method was used to evaluate the relationship between BLL and morbidities. The BLL among workers was associated with an odd ratio of respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and musculoskeletal (MSD) morbidities. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and packed cell volume variables were associated with respiratory problems. The variables of alcohol consumption and hematological parameters were associated with GI complaints. Systolic blood pressure was related to MSD in workers exposed to Pb during the manufacturing process.

  20. The effects of asthma on the quality of life and employment of construction workers.

    PubMed

    Sauni, R; Oksa, P; Vattulainen, K; Uitti, J; Palmroos, P; Roto, P

    2001-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the consequences of asthma for patients' work ability. In particular, the relationship between asthma and construction work has not been studied previously. The aim of this study was to determine how asthma affects construction workers' work ability and quality of life, and the most important conditions that cause respiratory symptoms in construction work. A questionnaire was sent to all construction workers examined in the pulmonary clinic of Tampere University Hospital between 1991 and 1995 who were diagnosed as having 'asthma bronchiale' (n = 104). In addition, 206 non-asthmatic construction workers were recruited from the register of the local trade union. Altogether, 73% of the asthmatic construction workers and 70% of the controls completed the questionnaire. Of the asthmatics, 48% were retired, whereas only 24% of the controls were receiving a pension. The asthmatics evaluated their work ability and general health as significantly worse than did the controls. The asthmatics had more limitations in their work and everyday life than the controls. Asthmatic construction workers had often changed work tasks and also occupation because of their illness. Building renovation, cleaning and insulation with mineral fibre materials were the most common causes of respiratory symptoms in the workplace, among both the asthmatics and the controls. Cold air, physical exercise and all types of dust and smoke caused the asthmatics to experience symptoms. It was concluded that asthma limits the work and everyday life of construction workers. Exposure to dusty, non-sensitizing agents is associated with asthmatic symptoms among construction workers.

  1. Serological evidence for avian H9N2 influenza virus infections among Romanian agriculture workers.

    PubMed

    Coman, Alexandru; Maftei, Daniel N; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Friary, John A; Chereches, Razvan M; Sirlincan, Emanuela; Bria, Paul; Dragnea, Claudiu; Kasler, Iosif; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, wild birds have introduced multiple highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infections in Romanian poultry. In 2005 HPAI infections were widespread among domestic poultry and anecdotal reports suggested domestic pigs may also have been exposed. We sought to examine evidence for zoonotic influenza infections among Romanian agriculture workers. Between 2009 and 2010, 363 adult participants were enrolled in a cross-sectional, seroepidemiological study. Confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) swine workers in Tulcea and small, traditional backyard farmers in Cluj-Napoca were enrolled, as well as a non-animal exposed control group from Cluj-Napoca. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of previous infection with 9 avian and 3 human influenza virus strains. Serologic assays showed no evidence of previous infection with 7 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses or with HPAI H5N1. However, 33 participants (9.1%) had elevated microneutralization antibody titers against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 5 with titers ≥ 1:80 whom all reported exposure to poultry. Moderate poultry exposure was significantly associated with elevated titers after controlling for the subjects' age (adjusted OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-12.1). There was no evidence that previous infection with human H3N2 or H2N2 viruses were confounding the H9N2 seroreactivity. These data suggest that H9N2 virus may have circulated in Romanian poultry and occasionally infected man. PMID:23999337

  2. Development of the Seasonal Migrant Agricultural Worker Stress Scale in Sanliurfa, Southeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Zeynep; Ersin, Fatma; Kirmizitoprak, Evin

    2016-01-01

    Stress is one of the main causes of health problems, especially mental disorders. These health problems cause a significant amount of ability loss and increase cost. It is estimated that by 2020, mental disorders will constitute 15% of the total disease burden, and depression will rank second only after ischemic heart disease. Environmental experiences are paramount in increasing the liability of mental disorders in those who constantly face sustained high levels of stress. The objective of this study was to develop a stress scale for seasonal migrant agricultural workers aged 18 years and older. The sample consisted of 270 randomly selected seasonal migrant agricultural workers. The average age of the participants was 33.1 ± 14, and 50.7% were male. The Cronbach alpha coefficient and test-retest methods were used for reliability analyses. Although the factor analysis was performed for the structure validity of the scale, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient and Bartlett test were used to determine the convenience of the data for the factor analysis. In the reliability analyses, the Cronbach alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .96, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was .81. In the exploratory factor analysis for validity of the scale, four factors were obtained, and the factors represented workplace physical conditions (25.7% of the total variance), workplace psychosocial and economic factors (19.3% of the total variance), workplace health problems (15.2% of the total variance), and school problems (10.1% of the total variance). The four factors explained 70.3% of the total variance. As a result of the expert opinions and analyses, a stress scale with 48 items was developed. The highest score to be obtained from the scale was 144, and the lowest score was 0. The increase in the score indicates the increase in the stress levels. The findings show that the scale is a valid and reliable assessment instrument that can be used in

  3. Development of the Seasonal Migrant Agricultural Worker Stress Scale in Sanliurfa, Southeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Zeynep; Ersin, Fatma; Kirmizitoprak, Evin

    2016-01-01

    Stress is one of the main causes of health problems, especially mental disorders. These health problems cause a significant amount of ability loss and increase cost. It is estimated that by 2020, mental disorders will constitute 15% of the total disease burden, and depression will rank second only after ischemic heart disease. Environmental experiences are paramount in increasing the liability of mental disorders in those who constantly face sustained high levels of stress. The objective of this study was to develop a stress scale for seasonal migrant agricultural workers aged 18 years and older. The sample consisted of 270 randomly selected seasonal migrant agricultural workers. The average age of the participants was 33.1 ± 14, and 50.7% were male. The Cronbach alpha coefficient and test-retest methods were used for reliability analyses. Although the factor analysis was performed for the structure validity of the scale, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient and Bartlett test were used to determine the convenience of the data for the factor analysis. In the reliability analyses, the Cronbach alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .96, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was .81. In the exploratory factor analysis for validity of the scale, four factors were obtained, and the factors represented workplace physical conditions (25.7% of the total variance), workplace psychosocial and economic factors (19.3% of the total variance), workplace health problems (15.2% of the total variance), and school problems (10.1% of the total variance). The four factors explained 70.3% of the total variance. As a result of the expert opinions and analyses, a stress scale with 48 items was developed. The highest score to be obtained from the scale was 144, and the lowest score was 0. The increase in the score indicates the increase in the stress levels. The findings show that the scale is a valid and reliable assessment instrument that can be used in

  4. Respiratory function of textile workers employed in dyeing cotton and wool fibers.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Mustajbegovic, J; Schachter, E N; Doko-Jelinic, J

    1997-03-01

    A group of 135 textile dyeing workers (97 male and 38 female) was studied for the prevalence of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function changes. Respiratory symptoms were elicited by a standardized questionnaire, and lung function testing was performed before and after the morning shift by recording maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves. In addition, 103 nonexposed control workers were studied. The prevalence of all chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in the exposed than in the control workers; in particular, the prevalence of occupational asthma was 6%. The exposed nonsmoking workers had more complaints than the controls who were nonsmokers. As expected, most of the symptoms were more prevalent in smokers than in nonsmokers. Nonsmokers with both long- and short-term work exposure had higher prevalences of dyspnea and rhinitis than control workers. Smokers exposed for 10 years or less had significantly higher prevalences of chronic phlegm than nonsmokers with the same duration of exposure (p < 0.05). In workers exposed for > 10 years, there were significantly higher prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, and chronic bronchitis in smokers than in nonsmokers (p < 0.01). A high prevalence of shift-related symptoms was found in exposed workers. Significant across-shift reductions of ventilatory capacity tests were documented in this cohort and varied from an average of 4.0% for FVC to 14.2% for FEF25. Preshift values of ventilatory capacity were significantly lower in this exposed population compared to predicted values suggesting a chromic effect. Our data suggest that textile dyeing workers develop acute and chronic respiratory impairment as a result of their exposures. These findings are exacerbated by cigarette smoking.

  5. Employer Evaluation for the Layout and Erection of Agriculture Pole Buildings, Dairy Equipment and Materials Handling. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Rodney; And Others

    To meet the need for trained personnel in the agriculture building industry, an agricultural building serviceman program was developed to prepare graduates for entry-level positions in this expanding field. The purpose of the study was to evaluate and improve the curriculum by determining the specific job skills required. Employers and former…

  6. 78 FR 1259 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... perform agricultural labor or services. AEWRs are the minimum wage rates the Department has determined... collective bargaining wage rate, if applicable; or (v) the Federal or State minimum wage rate, in effect at... Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Adverse Effect Wage Rates AGENCY: Employment and...

  7. Value-Added Workers Earn Less, Have Less Education Than Other Rural Manufacturing Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate that value-added industries, which tend to use raw lumber and agricultural products as inputs, employed one-third of all rural manufacturing workers in 1996. Compared to other rural manufacturing workers, value-added workers generally had lower occupational status, less education, and lower incomes, and were…

  8. Evaluation of DNA damage in agricultural workers exposed to pesticides using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Raminderjeet; Kaur, Satbir; Lata, Mukesh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops, but they pose a potential risk to farmers and environment. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relation between the occupational exposure to various pesticides and the presence of DNA damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples of 210 exposed workers (after a day of intense spraying) and 50 control subjects belonging to various districts of Punjab (India) were evaluated using Comet assay. Sixty workers who showed DNA damage were selected for follow up at 5-6 months after the first sampling during a low or null spraying period. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in DNA damage between freshly exposed workers and controls and freshly exposed and followed up cases. There was significant increase in the comet parameters viz. mean comet tail length and frequency of cells showing migration in exposed workers as compared to controls (72.22 ± 20.76 vs. 46.92 ± 8.17, P<0.001; 31.79 vs. 5.77, P<0.001). In the second samples, followed up cases showed significant decrease in frequency of damaged cells as compared to freshly exposed workers of first sampling (P<0.05). The confounding factors such as variable duration of pesticide exposure, age, smoking, drinking and dietary habits etc which were expected to modulate the damage, were instead found to have no significant effect on DNA fragmentation. CONCLUSION: The evidence of a genetic hazard related to exposure resulting from the intensive use of pesticides stresses the need for educational programs for agricultural workers to reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture. PMID:22345990

  9. Longitudinal Assessment of Chlorpyrifos Exposure and Effect Biomarkers in Adolescent Egyptian Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Alice L.; Abdel Rasoul, Gaafar; Ismail, Ahmed A.; Hendy, Olfat; Bonner, Matthew R.; Lasarev, Michael R.; Al-Batanony, Manal; Singleton, Steven T.; Khan, Khalid; Olson, James R.; Rohlman, Diane S.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is applied seasonally in Egypt by adolescent agricultural workers and the extent of occupational exposure and the potential for environmental CPF exposure in this population is poorly understood. Adolescent pesticide applicators (n=57; 12–21 years of age) and age matched non-applicators (n=38) from the same villages were followed for 10 months in 2010, spanning pre-application through post-application. Eight urine and 5 blood samples were collected from participants within this time period. Blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) (exposure/effect biomarker) and urine 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) (exposure biomarker) were used to assess occupational CPF exposures in pesticide applicators and environmental exposures in non-applicators. Applicators demonstrated significantly higher TCPy concentration and BChE depression than non-applicators throughout CPF application. This difference persisted for 4–7 weeks after the cessation of agricultural spraying. However, both groups exhibited significantly elevated TCPy and depressed BChE, compared to their respective baseline. The peak TCPy levels during the spray season (95% confidence interval) for non-applicators and applicators reached 16.8 (9.87–28.5) and 137 (57.4–329) ug/g creatinine, respectively. BChE levels (95% confidence intervals) during the spray were 1.47 (1.28–1.68) for non-applicators and 0.47 (0.24–0.94) U/ml for applicators. The longitudinal assessment of CPF biomarkers provided robust measures of exposure and effect throughout CPF application in adolescents and revealed significant exposures in both applicators and non-applicators. Biomarker data in the non-applicators, which mirrored that of the applicators, indicated that non-applicators received environmental CPF exposures. This suggests that similar exposures may occur in other residents of this region during periods of pesticide application. PMID:23321857

  10. What Employers Want and What Employers Do: Cumbrian Employers' Recruitment, Assessment and Provision of Education/Learning Opportunities for Their Young Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canny, Angela

    2004-01-01

    This article is based upon research which examined the youth labour market in Cumbria, a predominantly rural labour market located in north-west England. It argues that individual and structural considerations must be extended to incorporate employer behaviour and attitudes towards young men and women. Employers' assessment of young people's…

  11. 29 CFR 516.33 - Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a....33 Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act. (a) No... the number of weeks employed in agriculture during the preceding calendar year. (e) With respect...

  12. 29 CFR 516.33 - Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a....33 Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act. (a) No... the number of weeks employed in agriculture during the preceding calendar year. (e) With respect...

  13. 29 CFR 516.33 - Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a....33 Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act. (a) No... the number of weeks employed in agriculture during the preceding calendar year. (e) With respect...

  14. 76 FR 45667 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Amendment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... date of Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Final Rule, 76 FR... this Rule applies only to wages paid for work performed on or after January 1, 2012.'' 76 FR 3462, Jan... minimum wage, and the employer will pay the offered wage during the entire period of the approved...

  15. A Study of Employment Demand for Agriculture and Agribusiness in New York State. Phase I Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Arthur L.; And Others

    Phase 1 of a two-phase study on employment demand in Agriculture/Agribusiness for New York State focused on data collection. Four objectives were to (1) compile a preliminary listing of current occupations by industry emphasizing grade levels, (2) review cross-coding systems for employment demand data, (3) develop a preliminary system for periodic…

  16. THE ADVERSE-EFFECT POLICY FOR AGRICULTURAL LABOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DELLON, HOWARD N.

    THE BASIC PHILOSOPHY UNDERLYING THE REGULATION OF FOREIGN WORKER IMPORTATIONS INTO THE UNITED STATES FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IS THAT EMPLOYMENT OF SUCH WORKERS WILL NOT BE PERMITTED IF IT WILL HAVE AN ADVERSE EFFECT ON DOMESTIC WORKERS. THE "ADVERSE-EFFECT" POLICY HAS BEEN FOLLOWED SINCE THE ENACTMENT OF PUBLIC LAW 78 IN 1951 WHICH GOVERNED…

  17. A RESEARCH STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL TRAINING NEEDS IN VENTURA COUNTY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RODRIGUES, DONALD F.

    QUESTIONNAIRE RETURNS FROM 103 EMPLOYERS IN AGRICULTURE AND RELATED INDUSTRIES WERE COMBINED WITH 50 INTERVIEWS WITHIN THE SAME GROUP TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT AGRICULTURAL TRAINING NEEDS IN VENTURA COUNTY. MOST FIRMS EMPLOYED FEWER THAN 15 WORKERS ON A PERMANENT BASIS, SUPPLEMENTED BY LARGE MEMBERS OF SEASONAL WORKERS, ESPECIALLY IN THE…

  18. Investigation of mortality from cancer and other causes of death among workers employed at an east Texas chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.H.; Beaumont, J.J.; Waxweiler, R.J.; Halperin, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    The cause-specific mortality of 2,510 males employed at an east Texas chemical plant was examined in a historical prospective study to evaluate a suspected increase in deaths from multiple myeloma and brain cancer. Potential exposures from chemicals, either used in manufacturing processes or produced during the study period 1952-1977, included the fuel additive tetraethyl lead, ethylene dibromide and dichloride, inorganic lead, and vinyl chloride monomer. Overall mortality for all workers (156 observed vs. 211.14 expected) and for workers first employed between 1952 and 1959 (131 observed vs. 167.33 expected) when tetraethyl lead was the single major product was lower than expected when compared to the United States general population. There were no significant increases in mortality from malignancies or other causes of death. The deficits may be due to the small number of total deaths, and the low power for detecting excess risk of mortality from multiple myeloma (Z1-beta = 27, alpha = .05), brain cancer (Z1-beta = 31, alpha = .05), or other rare causes of death; lack of complete workplace exposure data for production workers; and the absence of historical measurements on the extent of environmental exposure to tetraethyl lead and other chemicals.

  19. Migrant labor in agriculture: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1985-01-01

    The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor.

  20. Employment and Training for Older Workers. Policy Leadership Series. Issue 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Michelle; Shulkin, Sandee; Casey, Judi; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie

    2006-01-01

    The aging of the baby boom generation and the increase in life expectancy has led to record numbers of older adults in the United States. Increasingly, older adults want or need to stay in the workforce. Older workers comprise a diverse group of individuals with various expectations, desires and abilities. As a result, definitions of exactly who…

  1. 78 FR 32464 - Amantea Nonwovens, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment Professionals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ..., Cincinnati, Ohio. The workers are engaged in activities related to the production of nonwoven diaper components. The notice was published in the Federal Register on March 26, 2013 (78 FR 18367). At the request... shift in the production of nonwoven diaper components to China. Based on these findings, the...

  2. B-WEST Regional Workforce Training Center. Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades. Employer Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Community Coll., OR.

    This guide, which was developed during the B-WEST (Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades) project, includes materials for use in training and providing on-site consultations to contractors, managers, supervisors, office/technical staff, and others in two areas: diversity in the workplace and sexual harassment in the workplace. Part 1, which…

  3. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined. PMID:27406110

  4. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.

  5. Pesticide Exposure Alters Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Levels in Mexican Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Recio, Rogelio; Ocampo-Gómez, Guadalupe; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Borja-Aburto, Victor; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Uribe, Marisela; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Cebrián, Mariano E.

    2005-01-01

    Organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) are suspected of altering reproductive function by reducing brain acetylcholinesterase activity and monoamine levels, thus impairing hypothalamic and/or pituitary endocrine functions and gonadal processes. Our objective was to evaluate in a longitudinal study the association between OP exposure and serum levels of pituitary and sex hormones. Urinary OP metabolite levels were measured by gas–liquid chromatography, and serum pituitary and sex hormone levels by enzymatic immunoassay and radioimmunoassay in 64 men. A total of 147 urine and blood samples were analyzed for each parameter. More than 80% of the participants had at least one OP metabolite in their urine samples. The most frequent metabolite found was diethylthiophosphate (DETP; 55%), followed by diethylphosphate (DEP; 46%), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP; 32%), and dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP; 31%). However, the metabolites detected at higher concentrations were DMTP, DEP, DMDTP, and dimethylphosphate. There was a high proportion of individuals with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations outside the range of normality (48%). The average FSH serum levels were higher during the heavy pesticide spraying season. However, a multivariate analysis of data collected in all periods showed that serum FSH levels were negatively associated with urinary concentrations of both DMTP and DMDTP, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH) was negatively associated with DMTP. We observed no significant associations between estradiol or testosterone serum levels with OP metabolites. The hormonal disruption in agricultural workers presented here, together with results from experimental animal studies, suggests that OP exposure disrupts the hypothalamic–pituitary endocrine function and also indicates that FSH and LH are the hormones most affected. PMID:16140621

  6. [Scrining workers employed at the weapons and military technology recycling and disposal facilitie].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    A screening study was performed to identify factors of the raised risk of cardiovascular and bronchopulmonary diseases among workers involved in weapons and military technology recycling and disposal. A high prevalence of risk factors such as smoking, excess body mass, adiposis, disorders of the carbohydrate, lipid and purine metabolism was found for workers aged 35 years and older. Circulatory, musculoskeletal, and eye diseases prevailed in the structure of first diagnosed diseases. Taking into account an unfavorable profile of risk factors, groups with the raised risk of cardiovascular and bronchopulmonary diseases were identified. An expansion of the standard scope of examination in the framework of regular medical monitoring in compliance with the applicable regulatory documents by inclusion of screening studies would provide additional opportunities for the early diagnosing and prevention of the above diseases.

  7. An Employment Initiative to Hire Workers with Moderate/Severe Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerlin, Sandra L.; And Others

    This project attempted to develop competitive employment opportunities for people with mental retardation with Greater Cincinnati (Ohio) businesses and industries. The Employment Initiatives Project was designed for persons with mental retardation, functioning in the moderate to severe range, who are located in either an adult work activity or…

  8. The relationship between employment status and self-rated health among wage workers in South Korea: the moderating role of household income.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyejin; Kimm, Heejin; Song, In Han

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate the relationship between employment status and self-rated health (SRH) and the moderating effect of household income among wage workers in South Korea. This research analyzed the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study, 2005 to 2008. Of the 10,494 respondents participating in the survey during the period, a total of 1,548 people whose employment status had remained either precarious or nonprecarious were selected. A moderated multiple regression model was used to examine the main effect of employment status on SRH and the moderating effect of total household income on the relationship between employment status and SRH. Among 343 precarious workers and 1,205 nonprecarious workers, after controlling for gender, age, education, smoking, and drinking, employment status was associated with SRH of wage workers, and household income was found to have a moderating effect on SRH in that higher income buffers the link between unstable employment status and low SRH. Unstable employment, combined with low income, was significantly related to precarious wage workers' perceived health. To promote public health, efforts may be needed to secure not only people's employment, but also their income. PMID:25665288

  9. 76 FR 18798 - Comment Request for Information Collection for The National Agricultural Workers Survey: Revision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) authorization for the current NAWS questionnaire will expire on... to ensure that requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and... Workers Survey (NAWS) regarding: (1) The amount of time per day farm workers are engaged working...

  10. The Learning Facilitation Role of Agricultural Extension Workers in the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by Tropical Fruit Growers in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…

  11. The Occupational Mobility of Current and Former Farm Workers: A Comparative Analysis in Two California Labor Markets. California Agricultural Studies, 91-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Susan; Goldring, Luin

    This report examines the occupational mobility of agricultural workers in two California labor markets and the effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act and individual, job, and labor-market characteristics on such mobility. Interviews were conducted among a randomly selected sample of 162 households, which included 401 workers in southern…

  12. Assessing the Animal Science Technical Skills Needed by Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates for Employment in the Animal Industries: A Modified Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2011-01-01

    Career and technical education courses, such as agricultural education, exist, in part, to assist students in acquiring the competencies needed to achieve employability. However, whether the current secondary agricultural education curriculum meets the needs of industry leaders who employ high school graduates of agricultural education programs is…

  13. 29 CFR 780.106 - Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment in âprimaryâ agriculture is farming regardless... for âprimaryâ Agriculture Generally § 780.106 Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed. When an employee is engaged in direct farming...

  14. 29 CFR 780.106 - Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment in âprimaryâ agriculture is farming regardless... for âprimaryâ Agriculture Generally § 780.106 Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed. When an employee is engaged in direct farming...

  15. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    PubMed

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. PMID:25995374

  16. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    PubMed

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage.

  17. Mortality of a cohort of U.S. workers employed in the crushed stone industry, 1940-1980.

    PubMed

    Costello, J; Castellan, R M; Swecker, G S; Kullman, G J

    1995-05-01

    The mortality of 3,246 males who had been employed 1 or more years during 1940-1980 at 20 crushed stone operations was evaluated for possible association between employment and death from lung cancer, pneumoconiosis, and other respiratory diseases. Four deaths were attributed to pneumoconiosis. Based on available work histories, at least two of these deaths were probably due to dust exposures in the crushed stone industry. Mortality attributed to pneumoconiosis and other nonmalignant respiratory diseases, including chronic obstructive lung disease, was significantly increased overall (SMR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.21-3.05), and especially so for a subcohort of crushed stone workers that processed granite (SMR: 7.26; 95% CI: 1.97-18.59). With regard to lung cancer, overall SMRs were elevated (although not statistically significant). Analyzed by rock type, there was a significantly elevated lung cancer SMR among granite workers with at least 20 years latency (SMR: 3.35; 95% CI: 1.34-6.90). Although not definitive, results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to respirable silica dust is a risk factor for lung cancer.

  18. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Agriculture Production (Program CIP: 01.0301--Agricultural Prod. Workers & Mgrs.). Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for agriculture production I and II. Presented first are a program…

  19. 29 CFR 780.106 - Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employment in âprimaryâ agriculture is farming regardless... DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture...

  20. 29 CFR 780.106 - Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment in âprimaryâ agriculture is farming regardless... DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture...

  1. 29 CFR 780.106 - Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment in âprimaryâ agriculture is farming regardless... DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture...

  2. Case-control study of nasal cancer in workers employed in wood-related industries.

    PubMed

    Viren, J R; Imbus, H R

    1989-01-01

    A case-control study of nasal cancer deaths in the states of Washington, Oregon, Mississippi, and North Carolina was undertaken to determine whether there was an excess of nasal cancer deaths occurring among workers in wood-related industries. This involved analysis of 536 cases of nasal cancer deaths occurring from 1962 to 1977, compared with 1,072 deaths matched for control. The study showed no overall excess of deaths from nasal cancer in wood-related industries, including furniture manufacturing. There was a statistically significant excess of deaths from nasal cancer occurring in lumber and wood products (risk ratio = 1.95, P less than .05); however, this was largely due to excess in these industries occurring in the states, of North Carolina and Mississippi. Summarizing the available evidence of this study, there seems to be no association between nasal cancer and industry/occupation normally identified with wood dust.

  3. 76 FR 82115 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... effective date of the rule amending 20 CFR part 655, published January 19, 2011, at 76 FR 3452, delayed at 76 FR 45667, August 1, 2011, and further delayed at 76 FR 59896, September 28, 2011, and 76 FR 73508...-agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Final Rule (the Wage Rule) on January 19, 2011, 76 FR 3452. The Wage...

  4. 76 FR 37686 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Amendment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...- agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Final Rule, 76 FR 3452, January 19, 2011, (the Wage Rule). The Wage Rule... January 1, 2012.'' 76 FR 3462, Jan. 19, 2011. B. The Need for New Rulemaking On January 24, 2011, the... likely result in transfers in excess of $100 million annually. See 76 FR 3468, Jan. 19, 2011....

  5. Skills Required by Agricultural Education Students of Colleges of Education for Employment in Compterized Office of Agribusiness Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugwuoke, Cajethan Uche; Onah, Benardine Ifeoma

    2015-01-01

    One of the major concerns of employers of labour in this information age is the recruitment of employees with requisite computerized office skills to fit into the various organization's jobs and positions. In Agricultural education, acquisition of these computerized office skills do not only depends on whether one is able to fulfill the paper…

  6. 26 CFR 301.6109-2 - Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes of the Food Stamp Act of 1977. 301.6109-2 Section 301.6109-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE...

  7. 77 FR 16157 - Changes to the Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... regulations at 20 CFR part 655, Subpart A. 76 FR 10038, Feb. 21, 2012. The rule becomes effective April 23...), and Other Technical Changes, 73 FR 78020, Dec. 19, 2008 (the current regulation), must be sent to the... Process for the Temporary Non- Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States;...

  8. Employability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This workbook contains seven units designed to help secondary-level vocational education students develop the employability skills necessary to find, keep, and advance in a job. Addressed in the individual units of the workbook are the following topics: assessing individual values, abilities, and interests; finding a job; developing basic…

  9. Enabling Self-Determination for Older Workers with Intellectual Disabilities in Supported Employment in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Shannon; Edwards, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Promoting self-determination is recognized to be an essential element of disability service provision; however, the extent to which older people with intellectual disability working in supported employment are enabled to make intentional decisions about retirement is not well understood. Methods: This research explored the views of…

  10. Identification and Utilization of Employer Requirements for Entry-Level Health Occupations Workers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukowski, James J.

    The purpose of a research project was to identify employer expectations regarding entry-level competency requirements for selected assistance-level health occupations. Physicians, dentists, and other health professionals reviewed lists of competencies associated with the performance of assistance-level employees in nursing, medical laboratory, and…

  11. Employment patterns of less-skilled workers: links to children's behavior and academic progress.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rucker C; Kalil, Ariel; Dunifon, Rachel E

    2012-05-01

    Using data from five waves of the Women's Employment Survey (WES; 1997-2003), we examine the links between low-income mothers' employment patterns and the emotional behavior and academic progress of their children. We find robust and substantively important linkages between several different dimensions of mothers' employment experiences and child outcomes. The pattern of results is similar across empirical approaches-including ordinary least squares and child fixed-effect models, with and without an extensive set of controls. Children exhibit fewer behavior problems when mothers work and experience job stability (relative to children whose mothers do not work). In contrast, maternal work accompanied by job instability is associated with significantly higher child behavior problems (relative to employment in a stable job). Children whose mothers work full-time and/or have fluctuating work schedules also exhibit significantly higher levels of behavior problems. However, full-time work has negative consequences for children only when it is in jobs that do not require cognitive skills. Such negative consequences are completely offset when this work experience is in jobs that require the cognitive skills that lead to higher wage growth prospects. Finally, fluctuating work schedules and full-time work in non-cognitively demanding jobs are each strongly associated with the probability that the child will repeat a grade or be placed in special education. PMID:22246798

  12. Do Employers Prefer Workers Who Attend For-Profit Colleges? Evidence from a Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darolia, Rajeev; Koedel, Cory; Martorell, Paco; Wilson, Katie; Perez-Arce, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports results from a resume-based field experiment designed to examine employer preferences for job applicants who attended for-profit colleges. For-profit colleges have seen sharp increases in enrollment in recent years despite alternatives, such as public community colleges, being much cheaper. We sent almost 9,000 fictitious…

  13. The Career Transition Process: A Qualitative Exploration of Korean Middle-Aged Workers in Postretirement Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seon-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Today's society, shaped by demographic changes and a global economy, has created different employment trends and work lives that result in adults' engaging in postretirement second careers. This phenomenon is a common occurrence in rapidly aging societies like Korea. This qualitative study examined the postretirement career transition…

  14. Pattern of use of personal protective equipments and measures during application of pesticides by agricultural workers in a rural area of Ahmednagar district, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Gupta, Mudit Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries for agricultural purposes. Objectives: To find various patterns of hardware use for spraying of insecticides, prevalent storage practice adopted by the user, types of personal protective equipments used for the handling of chemicals; to detect dangerous practices and the extent to which safety norms being followed by the users during the application/treatments, and finally their knowledge concerning the risks of pesticides. Materials and Methods: The agriculture workers who had been involved in pesticide application for agricultural purpose were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: Types, treatment equipment, use of personal protection and safety measures during the application/treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Hundred workers, aged between 21 and 60 years old, were included. Pesticides were mostly applied with manual equipment using Knapsack (70%) and only 5% farmers were using Tractor-mounted sprayer. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 65%). Majority of the workers/applicators used no personal protection measures or used it defectively/partially. Most of the workers/respondents (77%) did not bother for safety and health risks of pesticide exposure. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very poorly and defectively. Almost half of the applicators were not following right direction with respect to wind direction while spraying, thus it increase the risk of exposure. There is a clear need to develop specific training and prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on

  15. Optimization model for the allocation of water resources based on the maximization of employment in the agriculture and industry sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi Davijani, M.; Banihabib, M. E.; Nadjafzadeh Anvar, A.; Hashemi, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    In many discussions, work force is mentioned as the most important factor of production. Principally, work force is a factor which can compensate for the physical and material limitations and shortcomings of other factors to a large extent which can help increase the production level. On the other hand, employment is considered as an effective factor in social issues. The goal of the present research is the allocation of water resources so as to maximize the number of jobs created in the industry and agriculture sectors. An objective that has attracted the attention of policy makers involved in water supply and distribution is the maximization of the interests of beneficiaries and consumers in case of certain policies adopted. The present model applies the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm in order to determine the optimum amount of water allocated to each water-demanding sector, area under cultivation, agricultural production, employment in the agriculture sector, industrial production and employment in the industry sector. Based on the results obtained from this research, by optimally allocating water resources in the central desert region of Iran, 1096 jobs can be created in the industry and agriculture sectors, which constitutes an improvement of about 13% relative to the previous situation (non-optimal water utilization). It is also worth mentioning that by optimizing the employment factor as a social parameter, the other areas such as the economic sector are influenced as well. For example, in this investigation, the resulting economic benefits (incomes) have improved from 73 billion Rials at baseline employment figures to 112 billion Rials in the case of optimized employment condition. Therefore, it is necessary to change the inter-sector and intra-sector water allocation models in this region, because this change not only leads to more jobs in this area, but also causes an improvement in the region's economic conditions.

  16. Exposure of farm workers to electromagnetic radiation from cellular network radio base stations situated on rural agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Pascuzzi, Simone; Santoro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field (EMF) levels generated by mobile telephone radio base stations (RBS) situated on rural-agricultural lands were assessed in order to evaluate the exposure of farm workers in the surrounding area. The expected EMF at various distances from a mobile telephone RBS was calculated using an ad hoc numerical forecast model. Subsequently, the electric fields around some RBS on agricultural lands were measured, in order to obtain a good approximation of the effective conditions at the investigated sites. The viability of this study was tested according to the Italian Regulations concerning general and occupational public exposure to time-varying EMFs. The calculated E-field values were obtained with the RBS working constantly at full power, but during the in situ measurements the actual power emitted by RBS antennas was lower than the maximum level, and the E-field values actually registered were much lower than the calculated values.

  17. [Cytogenetical alterations in the workers of higher chemical hazard enterprises in accordance with duration of the employment period].

    PubMed

    Kharchenko, T V; Arzhavkina, L G; Sinyachkin, D A; Yazenok, A V

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetical examination was performed in 135 workers of higher chemical hazard enterprises with the duration of the employment period from 1 to 23 years. Weak, but statistically significant correlations were observed between indices: the total rate of chromosome aberrations (CA) (Tau = 0.14, p < 0.05), the rate of single fragments (Tau = 0.12, p = 0.01), the rate of ring chronosomes (Tau= 0.12, p = 0.04), the rate of double fragments (Tau = 0.13, p = 0.02), the rate of chromosomal exchange aberrations of chromosome type (Tau = 0.13, p < 0.03) and "the rate of multiaberrant metaphases" (Tau = 0.2, p = 0.0008) and the duration of the employment period at the higher chemical hazard enterprises. The rates of all types of CA was significantly higher in the group with duration of the employment period more than 5 years the significant exceedance of the control level was observed only for the total rate of CA and the rate of single fragments. Other CA types do not significantly exceed control indices. The ratio of carriers of CA of exchange type in the long standing group was significantly higher than in the short standing group, in that ring chromosomes were observed in the long standing group. Differences in the ratio of persons with the normal and increased levels of CA were statistically significant.

  18. NONFARM AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IN SOUTHEAST LOUISIANA--AREA IV--WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING TRAINING PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MONDART, C.L., SR.; AND OTHERS

    AS PART OF A STATEWIDE STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN LOUISIANA, AN INTERVIEW SURVEY OF 207 FARM-BASED FIRMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN AREA, EXCLUDING BATON ROUGE AND NEW ORLEANS, WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE (1) THE IDENTITY OF BUSINESSES AND ORGANIZATIONS HAVING EMPLOYEES WHO NEEDED AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES, (2) INFORMATION ABOUT JOBS, AND (3)…

  19. Genetic Technology and Agricultural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, William J.; Blase, Melvin G.

    1971-01-01

    Examines the nature, application, limits and potential of applied genetics in plant breeding as a factor in South Asian agricultural development. Concludes other factors were also present in recent agricultural growth, and indicates some economic implications of continued growth, including problems of employment of displaced rural workers. (AL)

  20. [Psychosocial risks, quality of employment, and workplace stress in Chilean wage-earning workers: a gender perspective].

    PubMed

    Ansoleaga, Elisa; Díaz, Ximena; Mauro, Amalia

    2016-07-21

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of work-related stress in Chile and its association with exposure to workplace psychosocial risks and quality of employment, considering gender differences. The cross-sectional study included a representative probabilistic national sample of 3,010 salaried workers (1,486 women and 1,524 men). Eighteen percent reported work-related stress (23.8% of women and 14.8% of men). People exposed to psychosocial risks had a higher probability of experiencing stress, and women were more likely to suffer stress than men. Women and men in precarious work showed increased likelihood of distress, compared to workers with less precarious jobs. However, women in precarious jobs were more likely to suffer stress than men in the same situation. The study concluded that women had more precarious jobs, experienced greater exposure to psychosocial risks, and suffered more stress than men. This is evidence of double discrimination (social and gender-based) in the Chilean labor market. PMID:27462856

  1. [Psychosocial risks, quality of employment, and workplace stress in Chilean wage-earning workers: a gender perspective].

    PubMed

    Ansoleaga, Elisa; Díaz, Ximena; Mauro, Amalia

    2016-07-21

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of work-related stress in Chile and its association with exposure to workplace psychosocial risks and quality of employment, considering gender differences. The cross-sectional study included a representative probabilistic national sample of 3,010 salaried workers (1,486 women and 1,524 men). Eighteen percent reported work-related stress (23.8% of women and 14.8% of men). People exposed to psychosocial risks had a higher probability of experiencing stress, and women were more likely to suffer stress than men. Women and men in precarious work showed increased likelihood of distress, compared to workers with less precarious jobs. However, women in precarious jobs were more likely to suffer stress than men in the same situation. The study concluded that women had more precarious jobs, experienced greater exposure to psychosocial risks, and suffered more stress than men. This is evidence of double discrimination (social and gender-based) in the Chilean labor market.

  2. Five-year longitudinal study of workers employed in a new toluene diisocyanate manufacturing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Diem, J.E.; Jones, R.N.; Hendrick, D.J.; Glindmeyer, H.W.; Dharmarajan, V.; Butcher, B.T.; Salvaggio, J.E.; Weill, H.

    1982-09-01

    The respiratory health of 277 workers in a new toluene diisocyanate (TDI) manufacturing plant was studied prospectively during 5 yr of exposure. Personal TDI monitors were used to continuously measure peak and 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations in over 2,000 samples. Longitudinal change in pulmonary function was assessed in 223 men in whom 3 or more data points allowed construction of individual slopes of annual change. Regression of annual change on smoking (pack-years), atopic status, and cumulative TDI exposure dichotomized at 68.2 parts per billion (ppb) months into low and high exposure groups showed significant effects of smoking on spirometric tests and lung volumes. After adjusting for pack-years of smoking, the 74 men in the high cumulative TDI exposure category had significantly larger declines in FEV1, %FEV, and FEF25--75% than did the 149 men in the low category. Annual change in FEV1 was then examined in 6 smoking-exposure categories: in never smokers, average annual decline was 38 ml/yr greater in those with higher cumulative TDI exposure. Current and previous cigarette smokers did not show this effect of cumulative TDI exposure. Analysis of FEV1 change by time above 20 ppb TDI yielded a similar result in never smokers, a 24 ml/yr excess average decline attributable to longer time above 20 ppb. In current cigarette smokers, those with longer time above 20 ppb had excess decline of 18 ml/yr (42 versus 24 ml/yr). our low and high cumulative exposure groups spent 2 and 15%, respectively, of their working time above 5 ppb TDI. The different health effects observed in these groups supports the NIOSH-recommended standard of 5 ppb TDI as an 8-h TWA.

  3. Actual cardiovascular disease risk and related factors: a cross-sectional study of Korean blue collar workers employed by small businesses.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Uk; Hong, Oi Saeng; Hwang, Won Ju

    2013-04-01

    Actual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and related factors among blue collar workers employed by small businesses were investigated. This cross-sectional study of 238 Korean blue collar workers used surveys, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, and blood sampling for lipid and glucose levels to answer the research questions. Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze study data. The prevalence of actual CVD risk among blue collar workers was 32 cases per 100 workers. A multiple regression model showed that a combination of individual, psychosocial, and work-related factors explained 34% of the variance in actual CVD risk. The significant predictors of actual CVD risk included knowledge of CVD risk, risk perception, job stress, and waist-to-hip ratio. It is important for clinicians to consider all of these significant predictors of actual CVD risk when designing an intervention program to reduce CVD among Korean blue collar workers.

  4. Analysis of Employment Flow of Landscape Architecture Graduates in Agricultural Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Xia; He, Linchun

    2012-01-01

    A statistical analysis of employment flow of landscape architecture graduates was conducted on the employment data of graduates major in landscape architecture in 2008 to 2011. The employment flow of graduates was to be admitted to graduate students, industrial direction and regional distribution, etc. Then, the features of talent flow and factors…

  5. A New Pre-employment Functional Capacity Evaluation Predicts Longer-Term Risk of Musculoskeletal Injury in Healthy Workers

    PubMed Central

    Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Peeters, Geeske

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. To determine if a job-specific pre-employment functional assessment (PEFA) predicts musculoskeletal injury risk in healthy mineworkers. Summary of Background Data. Traditional methods of pre-employment screening, including radiography and medical screenings, are not valid predictors of occupational musculoskeletal injury risk. Short-form job-specific functional capacity evaluations are increasing in popularity, despite limited evidence of their ability to predict injury risk in healthy workers. Methods. Participants were recruited from an Australian coal mine between 2002 and 2009 as part of the hiring process. At baseline, participants were screened with the JobFit System PEFA, and classified as PEFA 1 if they met job demands and PEFA>1, if not. Males who completed the PEFA and were employed were included. Injury data from company records were coded for body part, mechanism, and severity. The relationship between PEFA classification and time to first injury was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustments for department and post hoc stratification for time (0–1.3 yr, 1.3–6 yr). Results. Of the 600 participants (median age, 37 yr, range, 17.0–62.6 yr), 427 scored PEFA 1. One hundred ninety-six sprain/strain injuries were reported by 121 workers, including 35 back injuries from manual handling. Significant differences between PEFA groups were found in time to first injury for all injury types during the long term (any injury: adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.9; manual handling injury: HR = 3.3, CI = 1.6–7.2; any back injury: HR = 3.3, CI = 1.6–6.6; back injuries from manual handling HR = 5.8, CI = 2.0–16.7), but not during the short term. An area under the receiver operator curve value of 0.73 (CI = 0.61–0.86) demonstrated acceptable predictive ability for back injuries from manual handling during the long term. Conclusion. JobFit System

  6. Ischaemic heart disease incidence and mortality in an extended cohort of Mayak workers first employed in 1948–1982

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryeva, Evgeniya S; Haylock, Richard G E; Pikulina, Maria V; Moseeva, Maria B

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Incidence and mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was studied in an extended cohort of 22,377 workers first employed at the Mayak Production Association during 1948–82 and followed up to the end of 2008. Methods: Relative risks and excess relative risks per unit dose (ERR/Gy) were calculated based on the maximum likelihood using Epicure software (Hirosoft International Corporation, Seattle, WA). Dose estimates used in analyses were provided by an updated “Mayak Worker Dosimetry System—2008”. Results: A significant increasing linear trend in IHD incidence with total dose from external γ-rays was observed after having adjusted for non-radiation factors and dose from internal radiation {ERR/Gy = 0.10 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04 to 0.17]}. The pure quadratic model provided a better fit of the data than did the linear one. No significant association of IHD mortality with total dose from external γ-rays after having adjusted for non-radiation factors and dose from internal alpha radiation was observed in the study cohort [ERR/Gy = 0.06 (95% CI: <0 to 0.15)]. A significant increasing linear trend was observed in IHD mortality with total absorbed dose from internal alpha radiation to the liver after having adjusted for non-radiation factors and dose from external γ-rays in both the whole cohort [ERR/Gy = 0.21 (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.58)] and the subcohort of workers exposed at alpha dose <1.00 Gy [ERR/Gy = 1.08 (95% CI: 0.34 to 2.15)]. No association of IHD incidence with total dose from internal alpha radiation to the liver was found in the whole cohort after having adjusted for non-radiation factors and external gamma dose [ERR/Gy = 0.02 (95% CI: not available to 0.10)]. Statistically significant dose effect was revealed in the subcohort of workers exposed to internal alpha radiation at dose to the liver <1.00 Gy [ERR/Gy = 0.44 (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.85)]. Conclusion: This study provides strong evidence of IHD

  7. 76 FR 3451 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-agricultural Employment H-2B Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... revised its regulation governing the permanent program. 69 FR 77326, Dec. 27, 2004. These revisions... govern the H-2B temporary worker program. 73 FR 78020, Dec. 19, 2008 (the 2008 Final Rule). The 2008... NPRM in accordance with the court's order, allowing a 30-day comment period. 75 FR 61578, Oct. 5,...

  8. 75 FR 6883 - Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-12

    ... 1987 Rule until 2008. In 2008, the Department significantly revised these regulations at 73 FR 77110... in September 2009, 74 FR 45906, Sep. 4, 2009. B. Overview of Comments Received The Department... to domestic workers as determined by DOL. See 32 FR 4571, Mar. 28, 1967. The preamble to the 1979...

  9. 75 FR 61577 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... appointment to review the comments and/or obtain the rule in an alternate format, contact the Office of Policy... Department proposed and finalized regulations that currently govern the H-2B temporary worker program. 73 FR 29942, May 22, 2008; 73 FR 78020, Dec. 19, 2008 (the 2008 Final Rule). The 2008 Final Rule...

  10. PROMISING PRACTICES IN SUMMER SCHOOLS SERVING THE CHILDREN OF SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS, 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEFFERNAN, HELEN; AND OTHERS

    SPECIAL FEATURES OF FIVE SUMMER SCHOOL PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRANT WORKERS WERE PRESENTED. THE CERES ELEMENTARY SCHOOL DISTRICT GAVE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL WOODWORKING CLASSES TO FIFTH- AND SIXTH-GRADE GIRLS. INSTRUCTION IN COOKING AND SEWING WAS ENTHUSIASTICALLY RECEIVED BY THIRD- AND FOURTH-GRADE GIRLS BUT DID NOT APPEAL TO OLDER GIRLS. A…

  11. Employers' role in helping Latino workers obtain access to health care services: results of a community-based pilot demonstration project.

    PubMed

    Dembe, Allard E; Biehl, Jeffrey M; Smith, Alicia D; Garcia de Gutierrez, Teresa

    2013-06-01

    A coalition of employers in the hotel and restaurant industries collaborated with community-based organizations to undertake a unique demonstration project, called the Employed Latino Health Initiative, aimed at improving access to basic health care services for low-wage Latino workers in Columbus, Ohio. With grant funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the project developed and tested protocols allowing Latino workers from participating companies to obtain basic health care screenings, referrals to medical providers, health education training, and the services of a qualified community health navigator. Data from the pilot project indicated high screening participation rates, extensive referrals to providers for follow-up care, and a substantial need for facilitation services by community health navigators. The project provides a model for how employers can potentially promote their own interests in boosting work productivity through facilitating expanded access to basic medical services among vulnerable workers, despite the absence of conventional health insurance coverage.

  12. Emerging legal concerns with chronic diseases in the Australian workplace: pre-employment medicals, functional capacity evaluations, workers' compensation and disability discrimination.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Robert; Westaway, Jennifer

    2009-05-01

    Although considerable attention is paid to injury and disease sustained or contracted through work causes, by far the most prolific cause of diminished health in the Australian workplace is chronic illness, which is not caused by work but which may have significant effects upon the work environment. Employers' concerns in relation to loss of productivity through poor health are reflected in a number of practices such as pre-employment screening, on-the-job drug testing and other health and safety requirements. In turn, workers' concerns regarding discrimination, workers' compensation and privacy are frequently raised in relation to discussions on workplace fitness for work. This article reflects on the issues of chronic illness and the legal issues which arise through the interaction of employers' obligations for safety and efficiency and workers' concerns with fairness and privacy. PMID:19554861

  13. Evaluation of Dust Exposure among the Workers in Agricultural Industries in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Dewangan, Krishna N; Patil, Mahesh R

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to quantify dust exposure among the workers in four different industrial settings: rice mills, flour mills, oil mills, and tea factories and to compare the obtained data with the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of Indian Union Ministry of Labour as well as to compare the dust exposure across activities and seasons. RespiCon(TM) particle sampler was used for collecting dust concentration in the breathing zone of the workers. In total, 149 workers participated in the study and 204 samples were collected. Samples were collected in the vicinity of different processing operations. Samples in the rice mills were collected for two consecutive years in two seasons; however samples from other industries were collected for 1 year. The results indicate that geometric mean (GM) of dust exposure was significantly (P < 0.0001) different among industrial settings. Respirable dust were 8.22, 5.76, 2.98, and 6.34mg m(-3) and total dust exposure were 81.05, 111.02, 56.68, and 39.85mg m(-3) in the rice mills, oil mills, flour mills, and tea factories, respectively. Considerable variations in dust exposure were observed in different activities in the rice and oil mills; however variation was relatively less in the flour mills and tea factories. In the rice mills, dust concentration was higher in winter than those obtained in autumn and it is significantly different (P < 0.05) for inhalable dust and total dust. Positive correlation was obtained in thoracic dust (r (2) = 0.94) and inhalable dust (r (2) = 0.97) with total dust and thoracic dust with inhalable dust (r (2) = 0.89). The results show that majority of the workers are exposed to higher level of respirable dust as compared to the PEL, while total dust exposure to all the workers were higher than the PEL; thus, immediate reduction of dust exposure among the workers is necessary for preventing respiratory system impairment. PMID:26324828

  14. Determination of DDT and related compounds in blood samples from agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Guardino, X; Serra, C; Obiols, J; Rosell, M G; Berenguer, M J; López, F; Brosa, J

    1996-01-01

    An analytical method combining a solid-phase (C18) clean-up and GC-electron-capture detection using a capillary column, was implemented to determine p,p'-DDT and its metabolites (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), as well as other organochlorine pesticides in whole blood samples from 30 farmers and 24 non-occupationally exposed workers. The average concentrations for the quantified pesticides, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE, were 0.9, 1.5 and 8.0 micrograms/l whole blood for exposed workers and 0.3, 0.5 and 3.3 micrograms/l for unexposed workers, respectively. GC-MS was used to confirm the identity of the pesticides found. Solid-phase extraction and the protocol used give a cleaner analytical matrix, not only improving sensitivity and resolution, but also allowing analyses with smaller blood samples as compared to other methods.

  15. Farm Activities and Agricultural Injuries in Youth and Young Adult Workers.

    PubMed

    DeWit, Yvonne; Pickett, William; Lawson, Joshua; Dosman, James

    2015-01-01

    Youth and young adults who work in the agricultural sector experience high rates of injury. This study aimed to investigate relations between high-risk farm activities and the occurrence of agricultural injuries in these vulnerable groups. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using written questionnaire data from 1135 youth and young adults from the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort. The prevalence of agricultural injury was estimated at 4.9%/year (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7, 6.2). After adjustment for important covariates, duration of farm work was strongly associated with the occurrence of injury (risk ratio [RR] = 8.0 [95% CI: 1.7, 36.7] for 10-34 vs. <10 hours/week; RR = 10.3 [95% CI: 2.2, 47.5] for those working 35+ hours/week). Tractor maintenance, tractor operation, chores with large animals, herd maintenance activities, and veterinary activities were identified as risk factors for agricultural injury. Risks for agricultural injury among youth and young adults on farms relate directly to the amounts and types of farm work exposures that young people engage in. PMID:26237722

  16. 76 FR 16448 - Hach Company a Subsidiary of Danaher Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    .... The notice was published in the Federal Register on March 5, 2010 (75 FR 10320). At the request of the... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on January 20, 2010, applicable to workers of Hack Company,...

  17. Raising the profile of worker safety: highlights of the 2013 North American Agricultural Safety Summit.

    PubMed

    Nelson, William J; Heiberger, Scott; Lee, Barbara C

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 North American Agricultural Safety Summit, an unprecedented gathering of industry leaders and safety experts, was held September 25-27 in Minneapolis, MN. Hosted by the industry-led Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America (ASHCA), there were 250 attendees, 82 speakers, 76 abstracts with poster presentations, along with "best practices" videos, genius bars sessions, learning stations, exhibits, breakfast roundtable topics, and receptions. The event was a mix of knowledge, inspiration and networking to enable participants to influence the adoption of safety practices in their home/work settings. Given the agriculture industry's commitment to feed nine billion people, the projected world population by 2050, it is imperative that producers and agribusiness strive to do it safely, humanely and sustainably. Evaluation feedback was very positive, indicating ASHCA's original objectives for the Summit were achieved.

  18. NON-FARM AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES AND TRAINING NEEDS IN OHIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUM, HERBERT DUANE

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO IDENTIFY THE NUMBER AND CHARACTERISTICS OF OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN OHIO. A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS DEVELOPED, PRETESTED, AND MAILED TO 7,847 DIFFERENT FIRMS, AGENCIES, AND ORGANIZATIONS IN THE SAMPLE. RESPONSES WERE KEYED TO THE STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CODE INDEX SO THAT CENSUS DATA COULD BE USED AS A PROJECTION…

  19. 76 FR 65158 - Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program or “ACE”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ..., including ways of safeguarding the food supply of the United States; and Other such services the Secretary... States or are otherwise legally present in the United States and who meet the definition of ``United..., 2008) 2008 Farm Bill, 7 U.S.C. 2008q-1 authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to make grants to......

  20. OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN PENNSYLVANIA, EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION NEEDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOOVER, NORMAN K.; AND OTHERS

    OBJECTIVES WERE--(1) TO IDENTIFY AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS AND JOB TITLES IN PENNSYLVANIA AND TO ESTIMATE THE CURRENT NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES AND ANNUAL ENTRY OPPORTUNITIES, (2) TO LIST COMPETENCIES NEEDED FOR ENTRY AND ADVANCEMENT AND TO DETERMINE JOB CHARACTERISTICS SUCH AS SALARY, REQUIRED EDUCATION AND EXPERIENCE, AND DESIRED RESIDENTIAL…

  1. Agricultural Employment and Economic Growth in the Lower Rio Grande Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Conrad F.

    Using the basic input-output model developed by the Texas Input-Output Project for a 19 county South Texas Region, income transfer effects from the extension of unemployment insurance to the agricultural sector were derived. Total income transferred would have ranged from $1.5 million to $2.3 million depending upon coverage provisions. About…

  2. Teaching Competencies Needed by Extension Workers in Transferring Agricultural Technologies to Malaysian Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert A.; Sajilan, Sulaiman Bin

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the competencies related to teaching perceived to be needed by Malaysian Extension professionals in transferring new agricultural technologies to farmers in Malaysia. All competencies related to teaching were found to be important. (JOW)

  3. Act No. 89-488 of 10 July 1989 containing provisions concerning agreements relating to insurance allowances for workers deprived of employment, the professional equality of women and men, labour and manpower examiners, foreign workers, and illicit work.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Among other things, this French Act provides the following with respect to equality of opportunity in employment: 1) businesses with fewer than 300 workers may enter into agreements with the state permitting them to receive financial aid to carry out a study of their situation with respect to professional equality of women and men and measures that can be taken to restore equality of opportunity between women and men, such as temporary remedial plans that benefit only women; and 2) employers and workers' organizations are given 2 years to enter into collective bargaining to amend their contracts to remove all provisions that give special benefits to women, other than provisions establishing temporary remedial plans. The Act also strengthens the prohibitions on employing foreigners illegally in the following ways: 1) it provides that no person may directly or through another employ a foreigner without a work permit; 2) it makes it a crime, punishable by imprisonment for 2 months' to 2 years' and/or a fine of 2,000-200,000 francs for anyone other than an artist's agent to receive money, value, or personal property for bringing a foreign worker into France or arranging his or her hiring; 3) it raises the maximum penalty for using fraud or a false statement to obtain a work permit for a foreigner from 1 to 2 years' imprisonment for first offenders and from 3 to 4 years' imprisonment for repeat offenders; and 4) it raises penalties for lodging a foreigner illegally and for seeking from a foreign worker reimbursement for costs associated with bringing the worker to France and hiring him or her, or exacting from the worker a fee upon hiring.

  4. Act No. 89-488 of 10 July 1989 containing provisions concerning agreements relating to insurance allowances for workers deprived of employment, the professional equality of women and men, labour and manpower examiners, foreign workers, and illicit work.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Among other things, this French Act provides the following with respect to equality of opportunity in employment: 1) businesses with fewer than 300 workers may enter into agreements with the state permitting them to receive financial aid to carry out a study of their situation with respect to professional equality of women and men and measures that can be taken to restore equality of opportunity between women and men, such as temporary remedial plans that benefit only women; and 2) employers and workers' organizations are given 2 years to enter into collective bargaining to amend their contracts to remove all provisions that give special benefits to women, other than provisions establishing temporary remedial plans. The Act also strengthens the prohibitions on employing foreigners illegally in the following ways: 1) it provides that no person may directly or through another employ a foreigner without a work permit; 2) it makes it a crime, punishable by imprisonment for 2 months' to 2 years' and/or a fine of 2,000-200,000 francs for anyone other than an artist's agent to receive money, value, or personal property for bringing a foreign worker into France or arranging his or her hiring; 3) it raises the maximum penalty for using fraud or a false statement to obtain a work permit for a foreigner from 1 to 2 years' imprisonment for first offenders and from 3 to 4 years' imprisonment for repeat offenders; and 4) it raises penalties for lodging a foreigner illegally and for seeking from a foreign worker reimbursement for costs associated with bringing the worker to France and hiring him or her, or exacting from the worker a fee upon hiring. PMID:12344130

  5. Toxicologic studies associated with the agricultural use of municipal sewage sludge and health effects among sewage treatment plant workers.

    PubMed

    Babish, J G; Stoewsand, G S; Kranz, J M; Boyd, J N; Ahrens, V D; Lisk, D J

    1984-09-01

    The proposed use of municipal sewage sludges as soil amendments on agricultural land involves potential health risks. Sludges may contain toxic heavy metals, synthetic organics, and pathogens. Studies of animals inhabiting sludge-amended soils, or foraging on crops grown on such soils, have shown an increased deposition of cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls in animal tissues, hepatic microsomal enzyme induction, altered blood profiles, appearance of mutagens in blood and excreta, and lowered feed intake, feed efficiency, and milk production. Epidemiologic evidence of possible adverse health effects among sewage plant workers exposed to aerosolized pathogens or synthetic organic vapors during wastewater treatment or land spreading of sludge is still inconclusive. Other possible deleterious environmental effects include pollution of groundwater and toxicity to birds consuming worms or insects inhabiting sludge-treated soils.

  6. Using problem-based learning for occupational and environmental health nursing education: pesticide exposures among migrant agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Ivicek, Kristy; de Castro, A B; Salazar, Mary K; Murphy, Helen H; Keifer, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Problem-based learning, which emphasizes group collaboration to solve real-world case scenarios, is an instructional approach that is well suited to occupational and environmental health nursing education. Learners actively work through case studies rather than passively receive information presented through lectures. Problem-based learning methods promote critical thinking skills and motivate learning, preparing learners for professional practice in complex, ever-changing environments. Despite these advantages, problem-based learning is under-utilized in nursing education compared to more traditional lecture methods. This article presents key concepts of problem-based learning, discusses problem-based learning in educating occupational and environmental health nurses, and describes the development of a problem-based learning case aimed at increasing occupational and environmental health nurses capacity to address pesticide exposure among migrant and seasonal agricultural workers.

  7. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure. PMID:26423288

  8. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure.

  9. Explorations of Colleges, Universities, and Career Training Centers in Las Vegas, Nevada: Creating Educational and Training Programs for Displaced Workers to Learn Marketable Employment Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonyea, Jacob Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The city of Las Vegas, Nevada has experienced a slowdown in tourism, a drop in property taxes and consolidated tax revenue used to support the city's operating budget, and a lack of economic diversification. Because of these changes, the ability of displaced workers to learn marketable employment skills continues to be an important issue for…

  10. Mobility of Farm Workers; A Study of the Effects of Towns and Industrial Employment on the Supply of Farm Labour. Occasional Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasson, Ruth

    The study concerns the impact of nonfarm employment opportunities on the hired farm labor force and is based on surveys of labor on farms near one new, one expanded, and one old-established town in eastern England, supplemented with findings of other British studies on mobility of farm workers. The main questions considered are the influence of…

  11. Employer Best Practice Guidelines for the Return to Work of Workers on Mental Disorder–Related Disability Leave

    PubMed Central

    Trojanowski, Lucy; Joosen, Margot C. W.; Bonato, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There has been an increasing number of employer best practice guidelines (BPGs) for the return to work (RTW) from mental disorder–related disability leave. This systematic review addresses 2 questions: 1) What is the quality of the development and recommendations of these BPGs? and 2) What are the areas of agreement and discrepancy among the identified guidelines related to the RTW from mental illness–related disability leave? Method: A systematic literature search was performed using publically available grey literature and best practice portals. It focused on the RTW of workers with medically certified disability leave related to mental disorders. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) was used to assess the quality of the development and recommendations of these BPGs. Results: A total of 58 unique documents were identified for screening. After screening, 5 BPGs were appraised using AGREE II; 3 BPGs were included in the final set. There were no discrepancies among the 3, although they were from different countries. They all agreed there should be: 1) well-described organizational policies and procedures for the roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders, 2) a disability leave plan, and 3) work accommodations. In addition, one guideline suggested supervisor training and mental health literacy training for all staff. Conclusion: Although there were no discrepancies among the 3 BPGs, they emphasized different aspects of RTW and could be considered to be complementary. Together, they provide important guidance for those seeking to understand employer best practices for mental illness–related disability. PMID:27254093

  12. Animal Science Experts' Opinions on the Non-Technical Skills Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates Need for Employment in the Animal Science Industry: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Non-technical, employability skills are in high demand for entry-level job-seekers. As such, this study sought to describe the perceptions of Oklahoma's animal science industry leaders as it related to the employability skills needed for entry-level employment of high school graduates who had completed coursework in Oklahoma's Agricultural, Food…

  13. Curriculum Materials for Teaching Students the Competencies Needed for Employment in Nonfarm Agricultural Business. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L.; And Others

    Developed by means of a research project, this teaching guide includes five instructional modules in which competencies for agribusiness occupations are stressed. These competencies were identified from a review of the literature and evaluated by a jury of teachers and agribusinessmen in terms of qualifications needed for entry-level employment.…

  14. Evaluation of the peripheral nervous system among workers employed in the production of chemicals contaminated with 2,3,7. 8-tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.H.; Fingerhut, M.A.; Connally, L.B.; Hornung, R.

    1990-07-01

    The long term effects on the peripheral nervous system in workers with past exposure to production products contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1746016) (TCDD) were evaluated. The severity of the current neurologic status was compared to the levels of TCDD measured in the serum of study subjects. Workers who were employed at two chemical factories at which chemicals contaminated with TCDD were manufactured, and a group of unexposed referents were assessed in a cross sectional medical study in 1987 through 1988. Questionnaires were used to collect follow-up data. There were 281 workers and 260 referents who were interviewed and medically examined. Peripheral neuropathy was found in about 18% of workers and 19% of referents. Serum TCDD levels ranged from 2 to 3390 parts per trillion (ppt) for 272 workers and from 2 to 20ppt for 86 referents tested. No dose-response relationship was observed between TCDD levels present at the time of the examination and the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy in the previously exposed population. The authors conclude that exposure to TCDD caused no excess chronic peripheral neuropathy in a group of exposed workers compared to unexposed referents.

  15. Older Workers in the Market for Part-Time Employment. Research Report Series, RR-83-06.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jondrow, James M.; And Others

    Evidence from a number of data sets indicates that, despite statements by older workers that they have a strong interest in part-time work, in most cases retirement is sudden. Workers approaching retirement age are not spread evenly across industries. Construction, transportation, and finance/insurance/real estate have a higher-than-average…

  16. Environmental and occupational health risks among agricultural workers living in a rural community near petroleum refinery and motorway in Skopje region.

    PubMed

    Karadžinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sašo; Mijakoski, Dragan; Risteska-Kuc, Snežana; Milkovska, Snežana

    2010-12-01

    To assess health risks in agricultural workers associated with environmental exposure to pollutants released from a petroleum refinery and from traffic, we performed a cross-sectional study that included 119 randomly selected subjects divided in two groups. Group 1 included 60 agricultural workers living in a rural community near the petroleum refinery and a motorway overpass, whereas Group 2 consisted of 59 agricultural workers performing similar activities and living in a rural community with no exposure to industrial and traffic pollutants. Risk assessment included a questionnaire, blood pressure measurement, spirometry, laboratory tests, and toxicological analysis. The groups showed a similar prevalence of health problems, with exception of muscle pain in the extremities, headache, and fatigue, which were significantly more common in Group 1. Diastolic blood pressure was higher in Group 1, but not significantly (p=0.057). The same is true for blood carbon monoxide. Significantly higher in Group 1 were blood haemoglobin (p=0.001) and blood lead (p<0.001). Serum cholinesterase activity was similar in both groups. Our findings indicate the need of regular medical exams, ambient monitoring and environmental impact assessment in agricultural population in order to detect individuals at risk and to institute adequate preventive measures.

  17. Return to work of workers without a permanent employment contract, sick-listed due to a common mental disorder: design of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Workers without a permanent employment contract represent a vulnerable group within the working population. Mental disorders are a major cause of sickness absence within this group. Common mental disorders are stress-related, depressive and anxiety disorders. To date, little attention has been paid to effective return to work interventions for this type of sick-listed workers. Therefore, a participatory supportive return to work program has been developed. It combines elements of a participatory return to work program, integrated care and direct placement in a competitive job. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this program compared to care as usual. Methods/Design The cost-effectiveness of the participatory supportive return to work program will be examined in a randomised controlled trial with a follow-up of twelve months. The program strongly involves the sick-listed worker in the identification of obstacles for return to work and possible solutions, resulting in a consensus based action plan. This plan will be used as a starting point for the search of suitable competitive employment with support of a rehabilitation agency. During this process the insurance physician of the sick-listed worker contacts other caregivers to promote integrated care. Workers eligible to participate in this study have no permanent employment contract, have applied for a sickness benefit at the Dutch Social Security Agency and are sick-listed between two and fourteen weeks due to mental health problems. The primary outcome measure is the duration until first sustainable return to work in a competitive job. Outcomes are measured at baseline and after three, six, nine and twelve months. Discussion If the participatory supportive return to work program proves to be cost-effective, the social security system, the sick-listed worker and society as a whole will benefit. A cost

  18. 29 CFR 516.33 - Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act. 516.33 Section 516.33 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS Records Pertaining to Employees Subject to...

  19. Farm Labor Contractors in California. California Agricultural Studies, 92-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Howard R.; And Others

    Farm labor contractors (FLCs) have become increasingly important in California agriculture. This report examines FLC background characteristics, business practices, and relationships with employers and farm workers, many of whom are seasonal and migrant workers. Over 300 FLCs, farm workers, and growers were interviewed in five California regions.…

  20. Reducing workers' compensation costs.

    PubMed

    Killian, M J

    1994-01-01

    Employers can reduce their workers' compensation costs by encouraging internal communication and education before and after injuries occur. Comprehensive workers' compensation programs can be developed by integrating the management of employee benefits and workers' compensation claims. PMID:10133659

  1. 29 CFR 525.9 - Criteria for employment of workers with disabilities under certificates at special minimum wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... certificates at special minimum wage rates. 525.9 Section 525.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... special minimum wage rates. (a) In order to determine that special minimum wage rates are necessary in... at the special minimum wage rate; (3) The productivity of the workers with disabilities compared...

  2. 29 CFR 525.9 - Criteria for employment of workers with disabilities under certificates at special minimum wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... certificates at special minimum wage rates. 525.9 Section 525.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... special minimum wage rates. (a) In order to determine that special minimum wage rates are necessary in... at the special minimum wage rate; (3) The productivity of the workers with disabilities compared...

  3. 29 CFR 525.9 - Criteria for employment of workers with disabilities under certificates at special minimum wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... certificates at special minimum wage rates. 525.9 Section 525.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... special minimum wage rates. (a) In order to determine that special minimum wage rates are necessary in... at the special minimum wage rate; (3) The productivity of the workers with disabilities compared...

  4. 29 CFR 525.9 - Criteria for employment of workers with disabilities under certificates at special minimum wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certificates at special minimum wage rates. 525.9 Section 525.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... special minimum wage rates. (a) In order to determine that special minimum wage rates are necessary in... at the special minimum wage rate; (3) The productivity of the workers with disabilities compared...

  5. 29 CFR 525.9 - Criteria for employment of workers with disabilities under certificates at special minimum wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certificates at special minimum wage rates. 525.9 Section 525.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... special minimum wage rates. (a) In order to determine that special minimum wage rates are necessary in... at the special minimum wage rate; (3) The productivity of the workers with disabilities compared...

  6. Pre-training to improve workshop performance in supervisor skills: an exploratory study of Latino agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Austin, J; Alvero, A M; Fuchs, M M; Patterson, L; Anger, W K

    2009-07-01

    Employees with limited education may be excluded from advanced training due to assumptions that they might not learn rapidly. However, preparatory training may be able to overcome missing experience in education. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that computer-based training (CBT) in supervisor skills of Latino agricultural workers would improve subsequent performance in a workshop designed to teach supervisor skills. Ten men born and educated in Mexico participated in the study; all spoke Spanish, the language of the training. Five participants (mean 6.4 years of education) completed supervisor skills CBT, and five participants (mean 8.2 years of education) completed hazard communication (HazCom) CBT as a control condition. Following the CBT, all participants completed a two-day face-to-face workshop on supervisory skills conducted by an experienced behavior management consultant. Although the groups did not differ in their knowledge scores on a multiple-choice test before the face-to-face workshop, after the workshop the HazCom group had a mean test score of 51.2% (SD = 8.7) while the supervisor group had a higher mean test score of 65.2% (SD = 14.3). The difference was marginally significant by a t-test (p = 0.052), and the effect size was large (d = 1.16). The results suggest that computer-based training in supervisor skills can be effective in preparing participants with limited education to learn supervisor skills from a face-to-face workshop. This result suggests that limited educational attainment is not a barrier to learning the complex knowledge required to supervise employees, that pre-training may improve learning in a workshop format, and that training may be presented effectively in a computer-based format to employees with limited education.

  7. The relation between type of farming and prevalence of Parkinson's disease among agricultural workers in five French districts.

    PubMed

    Moisan, Frédéric; Spinosi, Johan; Dupupet, Jean-Luc; Delabre, Laurène; Mazurie, Jean-Louis; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen; Tzourio, Christophe; Elbaz, Alexis

    2011-02-01

    Retrospective assessment of pesticide exposure is complex; however, patterns of pesticide use strongly depend on farming type, which is easier to assess than pesticide exposure. Our aim was to estimate Parkinson's disease (PD) prevalence in five French districts in 2007 among affiliates of Mutualité Sociale Agricole (MSA) and to investigate the relation between PD prevalence and farming type. We identified PD cases from administrative files as persons who used levodopa and/or benefited from free health care for PD. Densities of 16 farming types were defined at the canton of residence level (1988 French agricultural census). We used logistic regression to study the relation between PD prevalence and density of farming types and a semi-Bayes approach to deal with correlated exposures. We identified 1,659 PD cases, yielding an age- and sex-standardized PD prevalence of 3.01/1,000. Prevalence increased with age and was higher in men than women. We found a higher PD prevalence among affiliates living in cantons characterized by a higher density of farms specialized in fruits and permanent crops (multivariable semi-Bayes model: OR(4+5 vs 1+2+3 quintiles) = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.08-1.36; test for trend, P = 0.035). In France, farms specialized in fruits and permanent crops rank first in terms of insecticide use per hectare. Our findings are consistent with studies reporting an association between PD and insecticide use and show that workers in farms specialized in fruits or permanent crops may be an occupational group at higher PD risk.

  8. Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Workers, 1972: S. 3762 -- To Extend the Program for Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Migrant Workers. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Subcommittee on Migratory Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 2d Session, August 1, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    On August 1, 1972, the Subcommittee heard testimony on bill S. 3762 which would extend the program for health services for domestic agricultural migrant workers. The bill would extend the migrant health program for 5 years, with $100 million authorized for fiscal year 1973 and a $25 million increase for each of the following years. S. 3762…

  9. The effect of the OSHA lead exposure in construction standard on blood lead levels among iron workers employed in bridge rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Levin, S M; Goldberg, M; Doucette, J T

    1997-03-01

    Over 50,000 workers are at risk of occupational exposure to lead in the course of renovating the nation's deteriorating infrastructure. In mid-1993, to control exposure to lead in the construction setting OSHA promulgated a Lead in Construction Standard. In this study, we assessed the effect of the mandated changes in exposure conditions which followed the introduction of this new standard. We analyzed changes in baseline and maximum blood lead concentrations and in maximum increments in blood lead levels before and after introduction of the standard among iron workers employed in the renovation of a large, lead-painted, steel bridge in New York City. Results indicated that baseline and maximum blood lead levels fell significantly after the implementation of the provisions of the standard, as did maximum increments in blood lead concentrations. Seventy-six percent of the workers maintained blood lead concentrations below 20 micrograms/dl after the OSHA standard, as compared with 66% prior to its implementation. Increments of 20 micrograms/dl or more occurred considerably more frequently before introduction of the standard (13% before vs. 4% after; p = 0.01). Evidence of decreased exposure to lead was observed among iron workers who were present both before and after the introduction of the OSHA standard, as well as among iron workers newly hired after the OSHA provisions were put in place. These findings document the effectiveness of the OSHA construction lead standard in controlling exposure to lead in this complex and variable environment. The data indicate the utility of blood lead determinations in assessing the outcome of industrial hygiene interventions to reduce exposures to lead in the construction setting.

  10. [Exposure to VHF and UHF electromagnetic fields among workers employed in radio and TV broadcast centers. I. Assessment of exposure].

    PubMed

    Zmyślony, M; Aniołczyk, H; Bortkiewicz, A

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, radio and television have become one of the areas of the human technical activity that develops most rapidly. Also ultra-short waves of VHF (30-300 MHz) and UHF (0.3-3 GHz) bands have proved to be the most important carriers of radio and TV-programs. In Poland, a network of radio and TV broadcast centers (RTCN) with high (over 200 m) masts was set up in the 1960s and 1970s. These centers concentrate the majority of stations broadcasting national and local programs (for areas within the RTCN range). At present, the RTCN established several decades ago are equally important. The assessment of the exposure to electromagnetic fields among workers of multi-program broadcast stations is complicated and feasible only to a certain degree of approximation because of changing conditions of exposure in individual stations during their long history, resulting from the changing numbers and types of transmitters installed. In this work, the method of retrospective estimation of exposure dose is described, and the results of the assessment carried out at three kinds of typical RTCN are discussed. The results of the analysis indicate that the workers of RTCN are exposed primarily to electromagnetic fields of VHF and UHF bands, but this exposure may be considered as admissible, hence it should not exert an adverse effect on the workers' health. PMID:11828845

  11. Carbon stocks quantification in agricultural systems employing succession and rotation of crops in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Michele K. C.; Marinho, Mara de A.; Denardin, José E.; Zullo, Jurandir, Jr.; Paz-González, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Soil and vegetation constitute respectively the third and the fourth terrestrial reservoirs of Carbon (C) on Earth. C sequestration in these reservoirs includes the capture of the CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and its storage as organic C. Consequently, changes in land use and agricultural practices affect directly the emissions of the greenhouse gases and the C sequestration. Several studies have already demonstrated that conservation agriculture, and particularly zero tillage (ZT), has a positive effect on soil C sequestration. The Brazilian federal program ABC (Agriculture of Low Carbon Emission) was conceived to promote agricultural production with environmental protection and represents an instrument to achieve voluntary targets to mitigate emissions or NAMAS (National Appropriated Mitigation Actions). With financial resources of about US 1.0 billion until 2020 the ABC Program has a target of expand ZT in 8 million hectares of land, with reduction of 16 to 20 million of CO2eq. Our objective was to quantify the C stocks in soil, plants and litter of representative grain crops systems under ZT in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two treatments of a long term experimental essay (> 20 years) were evaluated: 1) Crop succession with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril); 2) Crop rotation with wheat/soybean (1st year), vetch (Vicia sativa L.)/soybean (2nd year), and white oat (Avena sativa L.)/sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) (3rd year). C quantification in plants and in litter was performed using the direct method of biomass quantification. The soil type evaluated was a Humic Rhodic Hapludox, and C quantification was executed employing the method referred by "C mass by unit area". Results showed that soybean plants under crop succession presented greater C stock (4.31MgC ha-1) comparing with soybean plants cultivated under crop rotation (3.59 MgC ha-1). For wheat, however, greater C stock was quantified in plants under rotation

  12. The association between workers' employability and burnout in a reorganization context: longitudinal evidence building upon the conservation of resources theory.

    PubMed

    De Cuyper, Nele; Raeder, Sabine; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Wittekind, Anette

    2012-04-01

    This longitudinal study probes the relationship between employability and burnout among employees from a company undergoing reorganization. We advanced employability as a personal resource that relates negatively to burnout. We expected that this hypothesis would hold for different operationalizations of employability, including (1) job-related and (2) transferable skills, (3) willingness to change jobs and (4) to develop competences, (5) opportunity awareness, (6) self-esteem, and (7) self-perceived employability (i.e., perceived employment opportunities). In a similar vein, we expected that the hypothesis would hold for the different dimensions of burnout; namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. We used longitudinal Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) to test our hypotheses. Employees from a Swiss company undergoing a major reorganization were surveyed at three times with a total time lag of 19 months (Time 1: N = 287; Time 2: N = 128; Time 3: N = 107). Our results indicate that particularly self-esteem, but also job-related and transferable skills as indicators of one's employability were important predictors of burnout, with all relationships being negative.

  13. U.S. Farm and Farm-Related Employment in 1988. How Large, Important, and Regionally Different? Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 634.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majchrowicz, T. Alexander; Hopkins, David E.

    Farm and farm-related industries account for almost 18 percent of total U.S. employment in 1988. This share is based on a broad definition of the agricultural sector, including not only farm production but also industries that mine, manufacture, and sell farm inputs; process commodities; and sell consumer goods. Many jobs in industries that…

  14. Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external labor…

  15. Investigation of mortality from cancer and other causes of death among workers employed at an east Texas chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.H.; Beaumont, J.J.; Waxweiler, R.J.; Halperin, W.E.

    1984-10-01

    A historical prospective mortality study of chemical workers was conducted. The purpose of the study was to evaluate a suspected increase in deaths due to brain cancer and multiple myeloma. The cohort consisted of 2510 males who worked for at least 1 day at a chemical factory in East Texas between January 1, 1952 and December 31, 1977. The facility's major product was tetraethyllead. The cohort was traced through company, union, Social Security Administration, Internal Revenue Service, and state records. Death certificates were obtained from state vital statistics offices. The observed mortality was compared with predicted rates for all United States males. The authors conclude that no statistically significant increase in site specific mortality from cancer occurred. The small excess observed for brain and other cancers may have been due to chance associations.

  16. [Initial epidemiological data on the clinical effects in health workers employed in the manual lifting of patients in wards].

    PubMed

    Colombini, D; Riva, F; Luè, D; Nava, C; Petri, A; Basilico, S; Linzalata, M; Morselli, G; Cotroneo, L; Ricci, M G; Menoni, O; Battevi, N

    1999-01-01

    An investigation was carried out by teams from various centres coordinated by the EPM (Ergonomics of Posture and Movement) Research Unit on 54 different hospitals in various regions of northern and central Italy. The teams examined a total of 3341 health workers whose job involved manual handling of patients (553 male and 2788 females, 1568 working in hospitals and 1773 in geriatric residences). Numerous meetings were held to ensure that the methods of assessing the exposure indexes and spinal impairment were identical in the various teams. The final data were processed centrally at the EPM Research Unit. The sample analyzed may be considered as representative of the situation in hospitals in Italy, at least for northern and central Italy. The mean age was 36 years, mean length of service in the department 6 years and mean length of job duration not exceeding 10 years; staff turnover was high. Physical examination revealed that 8.4% of the workers had had at least one episode of acute low back pain in the previous 12 months: i.e., 4 times the values of the reference groups. Also in the case of clinical-functional spondyloarthropathies of the lumbosacral spine, in the females there was a significantly higher prevalence than in the reference groups. All disorders were more severe in sectors more at risk, i.e., old peoples homes, rehabilitation centres, orthopaedic and surgical departments, and in any case higher in old peoples homes and geriatric residences. The initial data concerning the ratio between presence of spinal disease and risk index were also positive.

  17. 75 FR 28296 - Denso Manufacturing of Michigan Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Employment Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on November 5, 2009 (74 FR 57338). At the request of the... Adecco Employment Services, Adecco Technical, Aerotec, Inc., Anchor Staffing, Capitol Software Systems, Donohue Computer Services, Historic Northside Family Practice, Scripture and Associates, Summit...

  18. Do Employers Prefer Workers Who Attend For-Profit Colleges? Evidence from a Field Experiment. Working Paper No. WR-1054

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darolia, Rajeev; Koedel, Cory; Martorell, Paco; Wilson, Katie; Perez-Arce, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports results from a resume-based field experiment designed to examine employer preferences for job applicants who attended for-profit colleges. For-profit colleges have seen sharp increases in enrollment in recent years despite alternatives such as public community colleges being much cheaper. We sent almost 9,000 fictitious resumes…

  19. A New Approach to Low-Wage Workers and Employers. Launching the Work Advancement and Support Center Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jacquelyn; Kato, Linda Yuriko; Riccio, James A.; Blank, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Since 1998, federally funded One-Stop Service Centers around the country have focused primarily on assisting the unemployed into work. WASC tests a strategy that expands that mission by targeting people who are already working, but at low wages. Through career coaching, skills training, and better connections with employers - and led by a newly…

  20. 20 CFR 645.270 - What procedures are there to ensure that currently employed workers may file grievances regarding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... developed by the State under the WIA nondiscrimination regulations at 29 CFR 37.70-37.80. ... gender discrimination? 645.270 Section 645.270 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... regarding displacement, health and safety standards and gender discrimination? (a) The State shall...

  1. 20 CFR 645.270 - What procedures are there to ensure that currently employed workers may file grievances regarding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... developed by the State under the WIA nondiscrimination regulations at 29 CFR 37.70-37.80. ... gender discrimination? 645.270 Section 645.270 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... regarding displacement, health and safety standards and gender discrimination? (a) The State shall...

  2. 20 CFR 645.270 - What procedures are there to ensure that currently employed workers may file grievances regarding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... developed by the State under the WIA nondiscrimination regulations at 29 CFR 37.70-37.80. ... gender discrimination? 645.270 Section 645.270 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... regarding displacement, health and safety standards and gender discrimination? (a) The State shall...

  3. 20 CFR 645.270 - What procedures are there to ensure that currently employed workers may file grievances regarding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... developed by the State under the WIA nondiscrimination regulations at 29 CFR 37.70-37.80. ... gender discrimination? 645.270 Section 645.270 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... regarding displacement, health and safety standards and gender discrimination? (a) The State shall...

  4. 20 CFR 645.270 - What procedures are there to ensure that currently employed workers may file grievances regarding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... developed by the State under the WIA nondiscrimination regulations at 29 CFR 37.70-37.80. ... gender discrimination? 645.270 Section 645.270 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... regarding displacement, health and safety standards and gender discrimination? (a) The State shall...

  5. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change from an industry perspective over the 2008-2018 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment in which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  6. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  7. 29 CFR 503.17 - Document retention requirements of H-2B employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... community-based organizations, if applicable, as specified in 20 CFR 655.45(a), (b) and (c); and (v... REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY NONIMMIGRANT NON-AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER... for Temporary Employment Certification requesting H-2B workers are required to retain the...

  8. 29 CFR 503.17 - Document retention requirements of H-2B employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... community-based organizations, if applicable, as specified in 20 CFR 655.45(a), (b) and (c); and (v... REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY NONIMMIGRANT NON-AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER... for Temporary Employment Certification requesting H-2B workers are required to retain the...

  9. Healthcare workers under a mandated H1N1 vaccination policy with employment termination penalty: a survey to assess employee perception.

    PubMed

    Winston, Lori; Wagner, Stephanie; Chan, Shu

    2014-08-20

    The ethical debate over mandatory healthcare worker (HCW) influenza vaccination is a heated one. Our study hospital instituted a mandatory employee influenza vaccination policy for the 2009-2010 influenza season during the highly publicized pandemic of the H1N1 "Swine Flu." Under this mandate there was no informed declination option, and termination of employment was the consequence for noncompliance. Our objective was to examine HCW perceptions of the H1N1 influenza virus, the vaccine, and the strict mandated vaccination policy. A survey was designed, distributed, and anonymously collected. In total, 202 completed questionnaires were obtained via accidental sampling by the investigators achieving a 100% response rate. Data analysis showed that 31.7% of surveyed HCWs felt the mandate was an infringement on their rights and 3.5% of HCWs would electively seek employment elsewhere. Significantly more nurses and clerks/technicians were opposed to the mandate compared to other types of employees. 96% felt that the mandating hospital should be liable should a significant adverse effect occur from receiving the vaccine. While the mandate helped to increase HCW influenza vaccination rates dramatically, the strict consequence of employment termination created negative feelings of coercion. Adopting a policy that includes a declination option with mandatory masking during influenza season might be a more widely acceptable and still adequate approach.

  10. 77 FR 24137 - Changes to the Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... FR 10038, Feb. 21, 2012. The Final Rule provides for an effective date of April 23, 2012, which is 60 days after the date of publication of the Final Rule. On March 20, 2012, 77 FR 16157, the Department... States (H-2B Workers), and Other Technical Changes, 73 FR ] 78020, December 19, 2008 (the...

  11. Actual conditions of work, fatigue and sleep in non-employed, home-based female information technology workers with preschool children.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Shun

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a study on time budget and fatigue feelings over a two-month period of 12 non-employed, home-based female workers using computers (mean age 35.2 yr). All of them had at least one preschool child. The actual amount of work done by these women and the related effects on the fatigue feelings and sleep were investigated. The results showed that the work done was characterized by involving many night hours, irrespective of the day of the week. The degree of subjective fatigue was not dependent on the number of hours worked, but affected by the time at which the work of the day was completed. This tendency was notable after one o'clock in the morning when the work was completed. Those who followed such a work pattern took daytime naps, although a quality of the subsequent nighttime sleep taken might be poor. They took a nap around 14:00 but not around 19:00. The sleep strategies were thus shown to be affected by home-based work. A need is suggested to support these workers in adjusting work time distribution and taking sleep patterns adapted to individual conditions. PMID:15732317

  12. 76 FR 73508 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Employment H-2B Program; Final Rule, 76 FR 3452, Jan. 19, 2011, (the Wage Rule) to January 1, 2012 in... 655, published at 76 FR 45667, August 1, 2011, as further amended at 76 FR 59896, September 28, 2011... Employment H-2B Program; Final Rule (the Wage Rule) on January 19, 2011, 76 FR 3452. The Wage Rule...

  13. 78 FR 15741 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...\\ Maximum Per Diem Rates for the Continental United States (CONUS), 77 FR 54578 (Sept. 5, 2012); see also... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens...

  14. The Effect of Continuing Education Participation on Outcomes of Male and Female Agricultural Workers in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Anita Alves

    2015-01-01

    Job training and employment assistance programs aim to assist migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their dependents locate steady employment and develop job skills. This study investigates effects of educational programs on wages, annual time allocations, and poverty of male and female farmworkers and their families using regression analysis in…

  15. Assessing the Teacher Self-Efficacy of Agriculture Instructors and Their Early Career Employment Status: A Comparison of Certification Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive-correlational study was to assess the level of teacher self-efficacy of first-year, secondary agricultural education teachers in Oklahoma at the beginning and end of their entry-year in the profession and describe their early career retention. This study found that these first-year teachers increased their level of…

  16. 78 FR 19019 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... State minimum wage, in effect at the time the work is performed, except where a special procedure has..., goatherding, and custom combine operations. 78 FR 1260 (Jan. 8, 2013) (``January 8 Notice''). These wages were... Agriculture in the United States: Prevailing Wage Rates for Certain Occupations Processed Under H-2A...

  17. Mexican Contract Workers and the U.S. Capitalist Agricultural Labor Process: The Formative Era, 1942-1964

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mize, Ronald L., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Rural sociologists have seemingly moved away from an active interest in the plight of migrant farmworkers and the centrality of their labor in the development of U.S. agribusiness. Answering Pfeffer's (1983) call to analyze the different forms of agricultural production, I focus on the key formative period of what I refer to as the U.S. capitalist…

  18. Innovative Older-Worker Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, Denise; Greenberg, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Describes program innovations to keep older workers employed: retraining, job sharing, flexible working hours, job redesign, and phased retirement. Addresses costs and savings, disincentives for workers and employers, and future trends. (SK)

  19. PON1Q192R genetic polymorphism modifies organophosphorous pesticide effects on semen quality and DNA integrity in agricultural workers from southern Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Herrera, N.; Polanco-Minaya, H. |; Salazar-Arredondo, E. |; Solis-Heredia, M.J.; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Rojas-Garcia, E.; Alvarado-Mejia, J.; Borja-Aburto, V.H.; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2008-07-15

    Pesticide exposure, including organophosphorous (OP) insecticides, has been associated with poor semen quality, and paraoxonase (PON1), an enzyme involved in OP deactivation, may have a role on their susceptibility, due to PON1 polymorphisms. Our objective was to evaluate the role of PON1Q192R polymorphism on the susceptibility to OP toxicity on semen quality and DNA integrity in agricultural workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in farmers with Mayan ascendancy from southeastern Mexico chronically exposed to pesticides; mostly OP. Fifty four agricultural workers (18-55 years old) were included, who provided semen and blood samples. Semen quality was evaluated according to WHO, sperm DNA damage by in situ-nick translation (NT-positive cells), PON1Q192R polymorphism by real-time PCR and serum PON1 activity by using phenylacetate and paraoxon. Two OP exposure indexes were created: at the month of sampling and during 3 months before sampling, representing the exposure to spermatids-spermatozoa and to cells at one spermatogenic cycle, respectively. PON1 192R and 192Q allele frequencies were 0.54 and 0.46, respectively. Significant associations were found between OP exposure at the month of sampling and NT-positive cells and sperm viability in homozygote 192RR subjects, and dose-effect relationships were observed between OP exposure during 3 months before sampling and sperm quality parameters and NT-positive cells in homozygote 192RR farmers. This suggests that cells at all stages of spermatogenesis are target of OP, and that there exists an interaction between OP exposure and PON1Q192R polymorphism on these effects; farmers featuring the 192RR genotype were more susceptible to develop reproductive toxic effects by OP exposure.

  20. A spatially distributed hydroeconomic model to assess the effects of drought on land use, farm profits, and agricultural employment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneta, M. P.; Torres, M. O.; Wallender, W. W.; Vosti, S.; Howitt, R.; Rodrigues, L.; Bassoi, L. H.; Panday, S.

    2009-11-01

    In this paper a high-resolution linked hydroeconomic model is demonstrated for drought conditions in a Brazilian river basin. The economic model of agriculture includes 13 decision variables that can be optimized to maximize farmers' yearly net revenues. The economic model uses a multi-input multioutput nonlinear constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function simulating agricultural production. The hydrologic component is a detailed physics-based three-dimensional hydrodynamic model that simulates changes in the hydrologic system derived from agricultural activity while in turn providing biophysical constraints to the economic system. The linked models capture the effects of the interactions between the hydrologic and the economic systems at high spatial and temporal resolutions, ensuring that the model converges to an optimal economic scenario that takes into account the spatial and temporal distribution of the water resources. The operation and usefulness of the models are demonstrated in a rural catchment area of about 10 km2 within the São Francisco River Basin in Brazil. Two droughts of increasing intensity are simulated to investigate how farmers behave under rain shortfalls of different severity. The results show that farmers react to rainfall shortages to minimize their effects on farm profits, and that the impact on farmers depends, among other things, on their location in the watershed and on their access to groundwater.

  1. 77 FR 12723 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Department) H-2A temporary labor certification program, Adverse Effect Wage Rates (AEWRs) are the minimum... bargaining wage, if applicable; or (v) the Federal or State minimum wage, in effect at the time the work is... Determining the Adverse Effect Wage Rate AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Department of...

  2. 78 FR 24047 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program, Part 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... challenge to DOL's rulemaking authority with respect to an H-2B wage rule issued on January 19, 2011 (76 FR... FR 3452, Jan. 19, 2011 (the 2011 Wage Rule). DOL determined that ``there are no significant skill...'s income.'' 76 FR 3463. The 2011 Wage Rule permitted the use of employer-submitted surveys only...

  3. 76 FR 15129 - Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    .... 1-95, 60 FR 7216, Feb. 7, 1995, which laid out the processing of applications, first at the State... application. ETA issued Training and Employment Guidance Letter (TEGL) No. 21-06, 72 FR 19961, Apr. 20, 2007.... 70 FR 3984, Jan. 27, 2005; 70 FR 3993, Jan. 27, 2005. This set of proposed rules suggested...

  4. 77 FR 24225 - Information Collection Approval; Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States; Final Rule. See 77 FR 10038, Feb. 21, 2012. DATES: On April 8....gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR Web site. Copies of this notice may be obtained..., 2012. See 77 FR 10038. The purpose of the Final Rule was to amend the H-2B regulations at 20 CFR...

  5. Self-reported Occupational Exposures Relevant for Cancer among 28,000 Offshore Oil Industry Workers Employed between 1965 and 1999

    PubMed Central

    Stenehjem, Jo S; Friesen, Melissa C; Eggen, Tone; Kjærheim, Kristina; Bråtveit, Magne; Grimsrud, Tom K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine self-reported frequency of occupational exposure reported by 28,000 Norwegian offshore oil workers in a 1998 survey. Predictors of self-reported exposure frequency were identified to aid future refinements of an expert-based job-exposure-time matrix (JEM). We focus here on reported frequencies for skin contact with oil and diesel, exposure to oil vapor from shaker, to exhaust fumes, vapor from mixing chemicals used for drilling, natural gas, chemicals used for water injection and processing, and to solvent vapor. Exposure frequency was reported by participants as the exposed proportion of the work shift, defined by six categories, in their current or last position offshore (between 1965 and 1999). Binary Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to examine the probabilities of reporting frequent exposure (≥¼ vs. <¼ of work shift) according to main activity, time period, supervisory position, type of company, type of installation, work schedule, and education. Holding a non-supervisory position, working shifts, being employed in the early period of the offshore industry, and having only compulsory education increased the probability of reporting frequent exposure. The identified predictors and group-level patterns may aid future refinement of the JEM previously developed for the present cohort. PMID:25671393

  6. Self-reported Occupational Exposures Relevant for Cancer among 28,000 Offshore Oil Industry Workers Employed between 1965 and 1999.

    PubMed

    Stenehjem, Jo S; Friesen, Melissa C; Eggen, Tone; Kjærheim, Kristina; Bråtveit, Magne; Grimsrud, Tom K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine self-reported frequency of occupational exposure reported by 28,000 Norwegian offshore oil workers in a 1998 survey. Predictors of self-reported exposure frequency were identified to aid future refinements of an expert-based job-exposure-time matrix (JEM). We focus here on reported frequencies for skin contact with oil and diesel; exposure to oil vapor from shaker, to exhaust fumes, vapor from mixing chemicals used for drilling, natural gas, chemicals used for water injection and processing, and to solvent vapor. Exposure frequency was reported by participants as the exposed proportion of the work shift, defined by six categories, in their current or last position offshore (between 1965 and 1999). Binary Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to examine the probabilities of reporting frequent exposure (≥¼ vs. <¼ of work shift) according to main activity, time period, supervisory position, type of company, type of installation, work schedule, and education. Holding a non-supervisory position, working shifts, being employed in the early period of the offshore industry, and having only compulsory education increased the probability of reporting frequent exposure. The identified predictors and group-level patterns may aid future refinement of the JEM previously developed for the present cohort.

  7. Self-reported Occupational Exposures Relevant for Cancer among 28,000 Offshore Oil Industry Workers Employed between 1965 and 1999.

    PubMed

    Stenehjem, Jo S; Friesen, Melissa C; Eggen, Tone; Kjærheim, Kristina; Bråtveit, Magne; Grimsrud, Tom K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine self-reported frequency of occupational exposure reported by 28,000 Norwegian offshore oil workers in a 1998 survey. Predictors of self-reported exposure frequency were identified to aid future refinements of an expert-based job-exposure-time matrix (JEM). We focus here on reported frequencies for skin contact with oil and diesel; exposure to oil vapor from shaker, to exhaust fumes, vapor from mixing chemicals used for drilling, natural gas, chemicals used for water injection and processing, and to solvent vapor. Exposure frequency was reported by participants as the exposed proportion of the work shift, defined by six categories, in their current or last position offshore (between 1965 and 1999). Binary Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to examine the probabilities of reporting frequent exposure (≥¼ vs. <¼ of work shift) according to main activity, time period, supervisory position, type of company, type of installation, work schedule, and education. Holding a non-supervisory position, working shifts, being employed in the early period of the offshore industry, and having only compulsory education increased the probability of reporting frequent exposure. The identified predictors and group-level patterns may aid future refinement of the JEM previously developed for the present cohort. PMID:25671393

  8. Lung cancer mortality in a cohort of workers employed at a cadmium recovery plant in the United States: an analysis with detailed job histories.

    PubMed Central

    Sorahan, T; Lancashire, R J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify and measure any relations between occupational exposure to cadmium compounds (oxide, sulphide, and sulphate) and the risk of mortality from lung cancer. METHODS: The mortality experience of 571 male production workers from a cadmium recovery facility in the United States was investigated for the period 1940-82. All study subjects were first employed in the period 1926-69; they had all been employed for at least six months between 1 January 1940 and 31 December 1969. Newly abstracted detailed job histories for the period 1926-76 were combined with assessments of exposures to cadmium over time to develop individual estimates of cumulative exposure to cadmium (total exposure and exposures received both in the presence and absence of "high" exposures to arsenic trioxide). Poisson regression was used to investigate risks of mortality from lung cancer in relation to four concentrations of cumulative exposure to cadmium (< 400, 400-999, 1000-1999, > 2000 mg.m-3.days). RESULTS: After adjustment for age attained, year of hire, and Hispanic ethnicity, there was a significant positive trend (P < 0.05) between cumulative exposure to cadmium and risks of mortality from lung cancer. Relative to a risk of unity for the lowest exposure category (first level), risks were 2.30 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.72 to 7.36), 2.83 (95% CI 0.75 to 10.72), and 3.88 (95% CI 1.04 to 14.46) for the second, third, and fourth categories, respectively. Similar findings were obtained after adjustment for age only. Trends were more pronounced when employment histories were lagged first by 10 years and then by 20 years. A separate analysis examined the independent effects of exposure to cadmium received in the presence of high exposures to arsenic trioxide (mainly cadmium oxide) and exposures to cadmium received without such exposure to arsenic (mainly cadmium sulphide and cadmium sulphate). A significant trend for a risk of lung cancer was found only for exposures to

  9. [Effects of occupational exposure to pesticides on semen quality of workers in an agricultural community of Merida state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Miranda-Contreras, Leticia; Cruz, Ibis; Osuna, Jesús A; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham; Colmenares, Melisa; Barreto, Silvio; Balza, Alirio; Morales, Yasmin; Zavala, Leisalba; Labarca, Emilitza; García, Nelly; Sanchez, Beluardi; Contreras, Carlos A; Andrade, Henry

    2015-06-01

    Numerous studies report adverse effects of pesticides on male reproductive health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether there is a relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and semen quality, and to determine whether chronic exposure to pesticides differentially affects semen quality in men of different ages. A comparative study of 64 farmers and 64 control men was performed. The farmers were interviewed to determine their occupational history and particularly, activities that may involve exposure to pesticides. Semen parameters were evaluated and a comparative analysis of semen variables between exposed and control groups, as well as between age groups: 18-29, 30-37 and 38-60 years was done. Significant alterations of some semen parameters in the exposed group were found, such as: decreases in sperm concentration, slow progressive motility and sperm membrane integrity; at the same time, increases in eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index. The results obtained by age groups showed significant differences between exposed and control groups for the parameters of membrane integrity, eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index, being the exposed group between 18-29 years that showed the highest altered cases of these parameters. Our results prove that occupational pesticide exposure is associated with alterations in sperm quality, creating a risk to farm workers in their reproductive capacity.

  10. Serum concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDE) in a sample of agricultural workers from Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Luis A; Freille, Sara M; Vaca-Pereira, Jasmin S; Cuellar, Miriam; Flores, Lizbeth; Mutch, Elaine; Olea, Nicolas; Arrebola, Juan P

    2013-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is still used for vector control in several tropical and subtropical areas of South America and there is evidence of recent illegal use in agriculture. Its main breakdown product in the environment and living organisms is p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), which is considered a marker of past exposure to DDT. The aim of the present study was to assess human exposure to p,p'-DDE in a sample of agricultural farmers from three rural communities in eastern Bolivia. In addition, o,p'-DDT was analyzed as a surrogate of a potential ongoing exposure to the pesticide. Face-to-face questionnaires were performed, and serum samples were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. p,p'-DDE was found in 100% of the samples, with a median concentration of 19.7ngmL(-1) (4788.7ng/g lipid), while o,p'-DDT was detected in 3 samples (4.3%). Serum p,p'-DDE concentrations were associated with time of residence in the study area, personal hygiene after work, and body mass index in adjusted multinomial logistic regression models with tertiles of p,p'-DDE as the dependent variable. The present results revealed high levels of exposure to p,p'-DDE, which might be derived from a heavily polluted local environment and past occupational exposure. These findings deserve further attention due to the potential associated health risks and point to the need for the continuous monitoring of these populations.

  11. Adverse Respiratory Health and Hematological Alterations among Agricultural Workers Occupationally Exposed to Organophosphate Pesticides: A Cross-Sectional Study in North India

    PubMed Central

    Fareed, Mohd.; Pathak, Manoj Kumar; Bihari, Vipin; Kamal, Ritul; Srivastava, Anup Kumar; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-protective work practices followed by farm workers during spraying of pesticides lead to occupational exposure among them. Objective This study is designed to explore the respiratory health and hematological profile of agricultural workers occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was undertaken among 166 pesticide sprayers working in mango orchards of Lucknow district in North India compared with 77 controls to assess the respiratory illness, lung functions, cholinesterase levels and hematological profile. A questionnaire based survey and clinical examination for respiratory health were conducted among study subjects. Lung function test was conducted among study subjects by using spirometer. Cholinesterase level as biomarker of OP pesticides and hematological profile of study subjects were investigated in the laboratory by following the standard protocols. Results Overall respiratory morbidity observed among exposed subjects was 36.75%. Symptoms for respiratory illness like dry cough, productive cough, wheezing, irritation of throat and blood stained sputum were found to be significantly more (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers than controls. Lung function parameters viz. PEFR, FEV1, %PEFR predicted, %FEV1 predicted and FEV1/FVC were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Exposure wise distribution of respiratory illness and lung functions among pesticide sprayers show that the exposure duration significantly elevates (p<0.05) the respiratory problems and significantly decreases (p<0.001) lung functions among pesticide sprayers. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were found to be significantly depleted (p<0.001) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls which show the exposure of OP pesticides among them. The hematological profile viz. RBC, WBC, monocytes, neutrophils, MCV, MCH, MCHC and platelet count were

  12. [Rural workers' health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Jessica Pronestino de Lima; Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2015-08-01

    Workers' health is a central theme in public health surveys, but the specificity of work activities should be considered. This study aimed to analyze the health of rural workers in Brazil that perform both agricultural and non-agricultural work, based on self-rated health and self-reported diseases. The Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 2008) was used, incorporating information from the complex sampling plan. Agricultural workers 18 years or older were selected, stratified according to those with and without non-agricultural work. Logistic regression was performed for self-rated health, and odds ratios were calculated for self-reported diseases. Exclusive agricultural work decreased the odds of reporting good health and increased the odds of reporting back pain, high blood pressure, and arthritis/rheumatism. Exclusive agricultural workers reported more diseases and worse living conditions. Self-rated health was generally better in workers with non-agricultural occupations. PMID:26375648

  13. Transcriptional profiling induced by pesticides employed in organic agriculture in a wild population of Chironomus riparius under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Lencioni, Valeria; Grazioli, Valentina; Rossaro, Bruno; Bernabò, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Copper (Cu) and azadirachtin (AZA-A+B) are pesticides allowed in organic agriculture whose environmental risk and toxicity for aquatic wildlife is only partially known. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to assess the molecular effect of acute and short-term exposure (3, 24h) of Cu (0.01, 0.05, 1, 10, 25mgl(-1)) and AZA-A+B (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 1mgl(-1)) on the expression of five candidate genes (hsp70, hsc70, hsp40, hsp10 and cyP450) in a non-target species, Chironomus riparius. Fourth-instar larvae were collected from a mountain stream polluted by agricultural land run-off. All genes were responsive to both pesticides but each gene had a specific response to the different experimental concentrations and exposure times. A few similarities in transcriptional profiling were observed, such as a linear concentration-dependent response of hsp70 after 24h of exposure (at ≥1mgl(-1) of Cu and ≥0.2mgl(-1) of AZA-A+B) and an up-regulation regardless of the concentration of hsc70 after 24h of exposure (at ≥0mgl(-1) of Cu and ≥0.2mgl(-1) of AZA-A+B and the up-regulation of hsp70 after 3h of exposure at ~LC50 (Cu-LC50=26.1±2.5mgl(-1), AZA-A+B-LC50=1.1±0.2mgl(-1)). According to the results, hsp40, hsp10 and cyP450 may be defined as pesticide-dependent (i.e., hsp40 and hsp10 seemed to responded mainly to AZA-A+B and cyP450 to Cu), while hsc70 as time-dependent regardless of the pesticide (i.e., hsc70 responded only after 24h of treatment with Cu and AZA-A+B). This study gives new insights on the potential role of the C. riparius's hsps and cyP450 genes as sensitive biomarkers for freshwater monitoring. PMID:26994805

  14. Transcriptional profiling induced by pesticides employed in organic agriculture in a wild population of Chironomus riparius under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Lencioni, Valeria; Grazioli, Valentina; Rossaro, Bruno; Bernabò, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Copper (Cu) and azadirachtin (AZA-A+B) are pesticides allowed in organic agriculture whose environmental risk and toxicity for aquatic wildlife is only partially known. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to assess the molecular effect of acute and short-term exposure (3, 24h) of Cu (0.01, 0.05, 1, 10, 25mgl(-1)) and AZA-A+B (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 1mgl(-1)) on the expression of five candidate genes (hsp70, hsc70, hsp40, hsp10 and cyP450) in a non-target species, Chironomus riparius. Fourth-instar larvae were collected from a mountain stream polluted by agricultural land run-off. All genes were responsive to both pesticides but each gene had a specific response to the different experimental concentrations and exposure times. A few similarities in transcriptional profiling were observed, such as a linear concentration-dependent response of hsp70 after 24h of exposure (at ≥1mgl(-1) of Cu and ≥0.2mgl(-1) of AZA-A+B) and an up-regulation regardless of the concentration of hsc70 after 24h of exposure (at ≥0mgl(-1) of Cu and ≥0.2mgl(-1) of AZA-A+B and the up-regulation of hsp70 after 3h of exposure at ~LC50 (Cu-LC50=26.1±2.5mgl(-1), AZA-A+B-LC50=1.1±0.2mgl(-1)). According to the results, hsp40, hsp10 and cyP450 may be defined as pesticide-dependent (i.e., hsp40 and hsp10 seemed to responded mainly to AZA-A+B and cyP450 to Cu), while hsc70 as time-dependent regardless of the pesticide (i.e., hsc70 responded only after 24h of treatment with Cu and AZA-A+B). This study gives new insights on the potential role of the C. riparius's hsps and cyP450 genes as sensitive biomarkers for freshwater monitoring.

  15. Biomonitoring short- and long-term exposure to the herbicide terbuthylazine in agriculture workers and in the general population using urine and hair specimens.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Rosa; Polledri, Elisa; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate short-term and long-term exposure to terbuthylazine (TBA) in agriculture workers (AW), rural residents (RR), and urban residents (UR) using urine and hair specimens. Twelve AW, 13 RR, and 17 UR were included in the study. Urine spot samples were collected with two different protocols. AW urine samples were collected before the application season (February, U0), at bedtime on the day of TBA application (March-May, U1), and prior to the next shift on the day after TBA application (U2). RR and UR urine samples were collected on any day during the application season (Ue). Hair samples were collected for all subjects before the application season (February, H0) and at the end of the season (June, H1). TBA and its metabolite desethylterbuthylazine (DET) were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection. DET was exclusively found in urine, while TBA was mostly found in the hair. In the AW, the urinary levels of DET were not detected in the U0 samples, and they increased to median levels of 1.81 and 2.94μg/L in the U1 and U2 samples, respectively (p<0.001). In the RR and UR, DET was not detected in the Ue samples. In the UR, TBA was not detected in the H0 samples, and the median levels of TBA were 0.01ng/mg hair in both the AW and RR. In the H1 samples, the median TBA levels were not detected, 0.01, and 0.08ng/mg hair in the UR, RR, and AW, respectively (p<0.001). Urinary DET and hair TBA are promising candidates for biomonitoring short- and long-term exposure to TBA. The use of this herbicide in agriculture leads to exposure in rural residents.

  16. Health and safety strategy in Swedish agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Peter; Svennefelt, Catharina Alwall

    2012-01-01

    In Sweden there is a joint focus on injury prevention in agriculture and this is coordinated through the Swedish Committee on Working Environment (LAMK). LAMK is a network working for a good, healthy and safe working environment in Swedish agriculture from the view of the enterprise with the humans in focus. It is a committee consisting of representatives of authorities, institutions, companies, research & education institutions and organisations referring to the green sector. Examples of on-going initiatives & partners are presented which are included in this mission against injuries in agriculture. It involves the Swedish Work Environment Authority,, the Federation of Swedish Farmers (LRF), the Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU, the Federation of Swedish Forestry and Agricultural Employers (SLA) and the Swedish Municipal Worker's Union. PMID:22317540

  17. On the Season, a Report of a Public Health Project Conducted Among Negro Migrant Agricultural Workers in Palm Beach County, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Robert H.; Northcutt, Travis J., Jr.

    A 5-year project to develop public health services for migrant workers was initiated in Florida in 1956. The project staff consisted of 8 public health personnel: 2 public health nurses, a public health educator, a public health nutritionist, a medical social worker, a part-time sanitarian, a liaison worker, and a secretary. Two practicing…

  18. Training While in Employment of Unskilled and Semi-Skilled Workers: The "Training Drive '95" Launched by the Ford Factory in Cologne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrendt, Erich; Hakenberg, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The Ford factory in Cologne, Germany, uses a variety of flexible learning methods to enable unskilled and semiskilled workers to acquire vocational qualifications. Methods include tutorials, simulations, micro worlds, and hypermedia databases. (SK)

  19. How To Train Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Because of the aging of the labor force and legislation designed to keep older workers on the job, employers will have to deal with increasing numbers of older workers. For this transition to be as smooth as possible, employers must first overcome age-related stereotypes that have taken hold since the 1930s. Dealing with older workers involves two…

  20. Pesticides and other chemicals: minimizing worker exposures.

    PubMed

    Keifer, Matthew; Gasperini, Frank; Robson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    Pesticides, ammonia, and sanitizers, all used in agricultural production present ongoing risks for exposed workers. Pesticides continue to poison workers despite elimination of some of the most toxic older products. Obligatory reporting of pesticide poisonings exists in 30 states and surveillance of poisoning occurs in only 12. Estimates of poisoning numbers have been based on sampling but funding for this is scant and in constant jeopardy. There appears to be a downward trend in poisonings nationally based on SENSOR data. Newer more pest-specific pesticides are generally less toxic and present less health risks but may have unpredicted health effects in humans that may not emerge until used widely. Internationally, older cheaper chemicals continue to be used with serious consequences in many developing countries. Monitoring workers for overexposure to pesticides broadly is impractical with the exception of the cholinesterase inhibitors. We can learn much from monitoring systems. Unfortunately, monitoring tools are economically inaccessible for most other chemical groups. New technologies for toxicity testing will necessitate new biomonitoring tools that should be supplied by the producers of these chemicals and made available for protecting worker and the public. Protection of workers from pesticides is primarily based on personal protective equipment use, which presents significant hardship for workers in hot environments and is generally considered the least effective approach on the hierarchy of controls in worker protection. Isolation through the use of closed systems has been employed, though rarely studied as to effectiveness in field use. Substitution or replacing harmful substances with safer ones is underway as more pest specific chemicals enter the pesticide portfolio and older ones drop out. This paper summarizes the panel presentation, "Minimizing Exposures to Pesticides and Other Chemicals," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America

  1. NURSERY WORKER, TEACHERS COPY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST IN THE PREPARATION OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS OVER 16 YEARS OF AGE AS NURSERY WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS WITH ASSISTANCE FROM SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS. UNITS ARE (1) INTRODUCTION TO HORTICULTURE, (2) CONSTRUCTING, MAINTAINING,…

  2. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  3. Dealing with Involuntary Job Loss. Northwest Dislocated Worker Projects Address More Than Retraining and Re-employment. Ideas for Action in Education and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. Education and Work Program.

    This issue discusses the problems that frequently accompany involuntary job loss. The types of problems experienced by dislocated workers are discussed under these categories: emotional, family, financial, physical health, job skill obsolescence, and lack of basic academic skills. The report also presents approaches that were taken by four…

  4. [Active measures for promoting the employment of aging workers--report of an inclusive European Union Specialty Congress in Turku, Finland].

    PubMed

    Naegele, G

    2000-08-01

    This article summarizes the most important results of the Turku Conference on active strategies for an aging workforce, which took place in Turku/Finland in 1999. About 140 experts from all EU-member states participated. The article can be seen as a contribution to the current change in the debate on labor market policy concerning older workers in Germany.

  5. Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  6. Adjustments Needed in Vocational Agriculture Programs To Meet the Employment Needs of the Food and Fiber System in the Next Decade. A Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Supervisors of Agricultural Education.

    The image of the instructional program in vocational agriculture must be changed to reflect a scientific and futuristic nature. The future of vocational agriculture depends upon a willingness of the agricultural education profession to analyze current programs and adjust them to meet the changes of today's rapidly advancing biotechnology and…

  7. DETERMINING COMPETENCIES FOR INITIAL EMPLOYMENT IN THE DAIRY FARM EQUIPMENT BUSINESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GARDNER, HARRISON

    DEVELOPED WITHIN A LARGER AND MORE INCLUSIVE FRAMEWORK, A METHOD OF IDENTIFYING COMPETENCIES AND INFORMATION ESSENTIAL TO OFF-FARM AGRICULTURE WORKERS WHO HAVE DIRECT CONTACT WITH FARMERS WAS DEMONSTRATED. UPON THE BASIS OF A REVIEW OF LITERATURE, A LIST OF 129 COMPETENCIES BELIEVED NECESSARY FOR THOSE EMPLOYED TO SELL, INSTALL, OR MAINTAIN BULK…

  8. Mortality among rubber workers: VII. Aerospace workers.

    PubMed

    Delzell, E; Monson, R R

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluated cause-specific mortality among 3,161 men who were employed in the aerospace division of a rubber manufacturing company. Compared to other production workers at the plant, aerospace workers in deicer and fuel cell manufacturing jobs experienced a 60% excess of deaths from lung cancer. Deicer and fuel cell workers who were under 65 years of age had lung cancer rates that were approximately twice those of other rubber workers of comparable age. Aerospace division employees also had elevated rates of bladder cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. However, detailed analyses suggested that, with the exception of lung cancer, these cancer excesses were not likely to be attributable to employment in the aerospace division.

  9. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  10. Office Workers Stress Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Occupational Safety and Health Project, Durham.

    A survey of office workers employed by North Carolina telephone companies was conducted to determine the extent and types of health problems experienced by office workers who use video display terminals (VDTs). Data were gathered by questionnaires mailed to 2,478 office workers, with 966 responses. Questions concerning a wide range of health…

  11. Age Discrimination in Employment--The Bona Fide Occupational Qualification Defense--Balancing the Interest of the Older Worker in Acquiring and Continuing Employment against the Interest in Public Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Janet C.; Obee, John A.

    1978-01-01

    The judicial interpretations of age as a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 are examined. The applications, extension, and results of these interpretations, and alternate approaches to BFOQ analysis in age discrimination cases are discussed. (BH)

  12. RECENT ADVANCES IN BIOCONVERSION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS TO BUTANOL BY FERMENTATION: EMPLOYING POTENTIAL OF AVAILABLE RENEWABLE RESOURCES TO PRODUCE A SUPERIOR BIOFUEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of a sharp increase in gasoline/petroleum prices we, at the USDA’s National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, have intensified our research program on bioconversion of agricultural biomass such as corn stover, corn fiber, rice and wheat straw, rice hulls, switch grass, and mi...

  13. A Comparison of the Employment Experiences of Childcare Workers in Non-Profit and Privately-Owned Childcare Centres: Some Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Jocelyn Grace

    A comparative study of the employment experiences of staff at nonprofit and privately owned childcare centers was conducted in the Christchurch, New Zealand, area. A total of 23 staff members at 3 nonprofit centers and 9 staff members at 2 privately owned centers responded to a survey concerning their qualifications, work history, current working…

  14. Employment Policy and Territories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthet, Thierry; Cuntigh, Philippe; Guitton, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    France's employment policy has historically been governed by a strategy of interventions aimed at specific categories of individuals, including victims of industrial restructuring, entry workers, the long-term unemployed, and the disabled. Since the 1980s, France has had the following main lines of employment policy: (1) assistance to victims of…

  15. Northeast Texas Agricultural Literacy Network (A-Lit-NeT: A Rural College Partnership Project). Handbook for Customizing Workplace Literacy to Employer Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, John

    Problems associated with the poor academic and technical preparation of many workers can be addressed through the use of occupational analysis techniques coupled with the development of curricula based on the results of such analyses. This workplace literacy handbook describes five stages in analyzing business literacy needs and developing…

  16. The Farm Worker In A Changing Agriculture. Part I In A Series On Technological Change And Farm Labor Use, Kern County, California, 1961. Research Report No. 277.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, William H.

    To investigate the effect of technological change upon farm labor use, a stratified random sample of 696 farm workers from a population of 12,215 in Kern County, California, provided a basis for analysis. Some major findings were: (1) The high peak of seasonal labor use has been eliminated, (2) The need for migratory labor is decreasing, (3)…

  17. [Acute exposure to vanadium-containing dusts: the health effects and biological monitoring in a group of workers employed in boiler maintenance].

    PubMed

    Todaro, A; Bronzato, R; Buratti, M; Colombi, A

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe an episode of acute intoxication due to inhalation of vanadium-containing dusts in a group of 10 workers during maintenance work inside a boiler of an oil-fired electricity power station. Historical, clinical and biological monitoring data concerning the acute exposure phase and subsequent checks are presented. The appearance of irritative symptoms of the upper airways, green tongue (in 6 out of 10 subjects) and the values of urinary excretion of vanadium (means = 92, D.S. = 47 micrograms/l: limits 20-270 micrograms/l) indicated acute vanadium exposure. With the use of appropriate individual protection devices and shorter shifts, 2 weeks after the episode there was a complete remission of the symptoms and a return of urinary vanadium concentrations to 38, D.S. = 26 micrograms/l. Checks made 6 months, 1 and 2 years later did not reveal any alterations in the general blood chemistry parameters and the urinary vanadium concentrations were below 1 microgram/l (reference value). As already often reported in the literature, this episode confirms the danger involved in working in the presence of fuel oil residues or ashes and the need to adopt appropriate prevention measures. PMID:1770872

  18. [Indian workers in Oman].

    PubMed

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  19. 78 FR 32470 - Employment and Training Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment..., the Director of the Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, has... Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Room...

  20. The occupational health status of hired farm workers.

    PubMed

    Villarejo, D; Baron, S L

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. hired farm work force presently is two-thirds foreign-born: mostly young Mexican men with low educational attainment who neither read nor write English. Sixty percent earn so little that they and their families live in poverty. Four of ten migrate to find work, 33% are not authorized to work in the U.S., and 25% work for a labor market intermediary, usually a labor contractor. Few hired farm workers have health insurance of any kind and, despite low incomes, relatively few seek or receive government benefits. Government regulation of the workplace exempts agricultural employers from numerous provisions that apply to other industries; for example, agriculture is exempt from portions of the Fair Labor Standards Act, allowing children as young as age 12 to work in the fields, and employers with 10 or fewer employees are exempt from OSHA regulation. Only 12 states require farm employers to carry workers' compensation insurance. While hired farm workers face significant safety and health risks, there are major gaps in existing research covering this occupational group. An ad hoc task force convened by NIOSH developed a prioritized agenda for occupational safety research in this population: musculoskeletal disorders, pesticide-related conditions, traumatic injuries, respiratory conditions, dermatitis, infectious diseases, cancer, eye conditions, and mental health.

  1. A Schooling Model for Working Children in Mexico: The Case of Children of Indian Origin Working as Agricultural Workers during the Harvest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taracena, Elvia

    2003-01-01

    Draws on interviews and observations from the Mexican state of Oaxaca to analyze labor done by children of Indian origin in northern Mexico agriculture and the problem of schooling. Focuses on the conditions favoring child labor and objectives of experimental educational programs specifically for children of migrant families. Asserts that working…

  2. Sugarcane workers: morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Miller, F D; Reed, D M; Banta, J

    1993-11-01

    Sugarcane is, after pineapple, the largest agricultural industry in Hawaii. There have been reports that this industry poses certain health hazards. To investigate this possible hazard in Hawaii, the relationship of employment on a sugarcane plantation to total mortality, the development of definite coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, cancer, lung cancer and certain risk factors were examined in men of Japanese ancestry participating in the Honolulu Heart Program. After 18 years of follow-up, those men who indicated one or more years working on sugarcane plantations had no significant difference in age-adjusted mortality, nor incidence of CHD, stroke, cancer, or lung cancer. There were no differences in risk factors compared to participants who were never employed on sugarcane plantations, nor were there differences in lung function as measured by FEV1. These findings were unchanged after adjusting for several potential confounding variables. No cases of mesothelioma were observed among those with a history of defined exposure. These findings were not due to a "healthy worker bias" and indicate that employment on a sugarcane plantation in Hawaii is not associated with elevated rates of chronic diseases.

  3. Duality of female employment in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kazi, S; Raza, B

    1991-01-01

    The trends in the level and pattern of women's employment in Pakistan in terms of supply and demand factors which influence women's participation in the labor market are discussed. Women's labor participation is underestimated in official sources such as the Labor Force Survey (LFS) and the Population Census. Figures which were obtained from micro level surveys and the Agricultural Census, show the duality of employment at the top and bottom socioeconomically. LFS data show the female share of the professional work force to have risen from 15.5% to 18.3% between 1984-95 and 1987-88, which translates to 33% of teachers and 25% of physicians being women. Urban female participation rates have increased only slightly from 3 to 5% between 1971 and 72 and 1987-88, based on LFS data, while informal sector surveys have shown an increase of workers who are women who have never worked before in the formal sector. In manufacturing, the female work force remains low at 5% in factories in the Punjab and Sindh, but only 20% were in regular employment compared with 50% of men. Agricultural work on the family farm has increased from 35% in 1972 and 42% in 1980. Increases are also shown in more recent LF surveys. Constraints on both male and female employment are the recent (1978-79 and 1986-87) shift to capital investment in agriculture with tubewells and tractors and in manufacturing. Women's movement into agriculture may be precipitated by men's out migration to urban areas or the Gulf region into other nonfarm occupations. In manufacturing there is exploitation of workers through low overhead costs of temporary or part time help. Supply constraints for women involve cultural restrictions, household responsibilities, and low levels of education and skills. Women enter the work force out of financial need. Data on female-headed households are scarce, but a Karachi survey finds that most female-headed households belong to the poorest strata and women work when family size

  4. Worker Dislocation. Case Studies of Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Robert F., Ed.

    Case studies were made of the following dislocated worker programs: Cummins Engine Company Dislocated Worker Project; GM-UAW Metropolitan Pontiac Retraining and Employment Program; Minnesota Iron Range Dislocated Worker Project; Missouri Dislocated Worker Program Job Search Assistance, Inc.; Hillsborough, North Carolina, Dislocated Worker Project;…

  5. Employer's Pocket Guide on Youth Employment. Youth Rules!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Labor, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Through the YouthRules! initiative, the U.S. Department of Labor and its strategic partners seek to promote positive and safe work experiences for young workers. YouthRules! strives to educate teens, parents, educators, employers and the public on Federal and State rules regarding young workers. Components of the initiative include a website…

  6. [The evolution of employment in Mexico: 1895-1980].

    PubMed

    Rendon, T; Salas, C

    1987-01-01

    Employment figures from the Mexican national census are the basis for this analysis of employment changes in Mexico between 1895-1980. The work identifies longterm trends in the volume and composition of employment and distinguishes 3 main periods in the evolution of employment. The first period, from 1895-1930, marked the end of a stage of development lasting until about 1907 in which sufficient internal stability was achieved to support Mexico's entrance into the world market. Export of agricultural products and metals was the principal focus of economic growth. Construction of roads and railroads was a central element of progress. But economic and social problems manifested in regional disparities, concentration of wealth, conflicts between economic sectors, low pay for agricultural workers, and fierce social and political control characterized the period and culminated in the Mexican Revolution. After the first decade of the 20th century the ability of the economy to absorb new workers began to decline, and the falling of crude activity rates was not reversed until the 1940s. During the 1920s, total employment increased less than 6%, reflecting a net increase of 403,000 male workers and a decrease of 110,000 female workers. The second major period of employment from 1930-1970 saw the change from an economy based on export of primary products to one based on manufacturing for the internal market. There were 2 subperiods, a stage of transition from 1930-50, the economy registered marked fluctuations, but by the 1940s the consolidation of state power and important reforms permitting expansion of the internal market were factors in an accelerated growth of employment relative to the preceding intercensal period. Despite considerable increases in agricultural employment, the relative share of the agricultural sector in total employment was beginning a decline. Employment registered the highest growth rates of the century in the 1940s and exceeded population growth

  7. [The evolution of employment in Mexico: 1895-1980].

    PubMed

    Rendon, T; Salas, C

    1987-01-01

    Employment figures from the Mexican national census are the basis for this analysis of employment changes in Mexico between 1895-1980. The work identifies longterm trends in the volume and composition of employment and distinguishes 3 main periods in the evolution of employment. The first period, from 1895-1930, marked the end of a stage of development lasting until about 1907 in which sufficient internal stability was achieved to support Mexico's entrance into the world market. Export of agricultural products and metals was the principal focus of economic growth. Construction of roads and railroads was a central element of progress. But economic and social problems manifested in regional disparities, concentration of wealth, conflicts between economic sectors, low pay for agricultural workers, and fierce social and political control characterized the period and culminated in the Mexican Revolution. After the first decade of the 20th century the ability of the economy to absorb new workers began to decline, and the falling of crude activity rates was not reversed until the 1940s. During the 1920s, total employment increased less than 6%, reflecting a net increase of 403,000 male workers and a decrease of 110,000 female workers. The second major period of employment from 1930-1970 saw the change from an economy based on export of primary products to one based on manufacturing for the internal market. There were 2 subperiods, a stage of transition from 1930-50, the economy registered marked fluctuations, but by the 1940s the consolidation of state power and important reforms permitting expansion of the internal market were factors in an accelerated growth of employment relative to the preceding intercensal period. Despite considerable increases in agricultural employment, the relative share of the agricultural sector in total employment was beginning a decline. Employment registered the highest growth rates of the century in the 1940s and exceeded population growth

  8. 29 CFR 516.33 - Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards Act (29 U.S.C. 201 et seq.) set forth and define the term “man-day.” (b) If it can reasonably be... of the employer's immediate family as defined in section 13(a)(6)(B) of the Act, (ii) Hand harvest laborers as defined in section 13(a)(6) (C) or (D), and (iii) Employees principally engaged in the...

  9. Developing Good Workers. Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robert M.

    Developing the productive capacities of students is a valid function of schooling and is not in conflict or competition with other educational purposes, such as academic excellence. Employers and young workers in the San Francisco Bay area noted attributes that workers need for success in entry-level unskilled or junior professional jobs. These…

  10. 29 CFR 500.70 - Scope of worker protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of worker protections. 500.70 Section 500.70 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General § 500.70 Scope of worker protections....

  11. Disability Employment 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Business is about productivity and maintaining a competitive advantage. To do this, business needs qualified workers. Hiring people with disabilities adds value to a business and will attract new customers. Disability is not inability. Employers can make sound business decisions and gain a competitive advantage by using this guide to increase the…

  12. Technology and employment

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.H.

    1983-07-22

    The influence of technology on today's high unemployment picture is discussed. Employment in the high-technology sector is seen by some to be a panacea for workers who have lost their jobs due to irreversible structural causes. Some federal, regional, state, and local efforts being made to ease structural adjustment are included. 28 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Why Public Workers Stay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Charles; Haskew, Barbara

    1976-01-01

    This study of state employees pursues the hypothesis that inertia accounts for most workers' continuing employment. (Available from Public Personnel Management, Room 240, 1313 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637; $15.00 annually, $3.00 single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  14. Population pressure and agricultural productivity in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, R H

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between population pressure or density and agricultural productivity is examined by analyzing the changes in the land-man ratio and the changes in the level of land yield in the 17 districts of Bangladesh from 1961-64 and 1974-77. The earlier years were pre-Green Revolution, whereas in the later years new technology had been introduced in some parts of the country. Net sown area, value of total agricultural output, and number of male agricultural workers were the main variables. For the country as a whole, agricultural output grew by 1.2%/year during 1961-64 to 1974-77, while the number of male agricultural workers grew at 1.5%/year. The major source of agricultural growth during the 1960s was found to be increased land-yield associated with a higher ratio of labor to land. The findings imply that a more intensified pattern of land use, resulting in both higher yield and higher labor input/unit of land, is the main source of growth of output and employment in agriculture. There is very little scope for extending the arable area in Bangladesh; increased production must come from multiple cropping, especially through expansion of irrigation and drainage, and from increases in per acre yields, principly through adoption of high yield variants, which explained 87% of the variation in output per acre during the 1970s. Regional variation in output was also associated with variation in cropping intensity and proportion of land given to high yield variants. There is considerable room for modernizing agricultural technology in Bangladesh: in 1975-76 less than 9% of total crop land was irrigated and only 12% of total acreage was under high yield variants. The adoption of new food-grain technology and increased use of high yield variants in Bangladesh's predominantly subsistence-based agriculture would require far-reaching institutional and organizational changes and more capital. Without effective population control, expansion of area under high yield

  15. 20 CFR 655.510 - Employer attestations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... particular port to be performed by alien crewmembers. For each port, a prevailing practice can exist for any... EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Attestations by Employers Using Alien Crewmembers for... attestations? An employer (or the employer's designated U.S. agent or representative) seeking to employ...

  16. 20 CFR 655.940 - Employer attestations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employer attestations. 655.940 Section 655.940 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Attestations by Employers Using F-1 Students in Off-Campus Work § 655.940 Employer attestations. (a)...

  17. 7 CFR 1485.19 - Employment practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment practices. 1485.19 Section 1485.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF FOREIGN MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURAL...

  18. EPA’s proposed Worker Protection Standard and the burdens of the past

    PubMed Central

    Bohme, Susanna Rankin

    2015-01-01

    Background: An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendation for extensive changes to the Agency’s 40-year-old Worker Protection Standard is currently stalled in the “proposed rule” stage. The proposal, which was available for public comment until 18 August, would improve safety, training, and hazard communication policies for agricultural pesticides. Exposure to hazards, including high heat, heavy machinery, stoop labor, and pesticides, makes occupational illness uncommonly common among the USA’s estimated 2.5 million farm workers. Objectives: To consider the proposed revisions’ likelihood of addressing historical gaps in farmworker protection. Methods: The proposal was compared to the existing Worker Protection Standard, and key aspects were analyzed in relation to existing science on farm labor hazards, as well as historic occupational health, labor and immigration policy. Results: US law historically has left farm workers largely unprotected. These exclusions and delays have been tolerated in part thanks to the myth of the independent family farmer, but more significant is the stingy nativism that presumes to benefit from immigrant labor without assuming any responsibility to protect the humans who provide it. In the first half of the 1970s, workers lobbied for robust protections, but rule making was impeded by lack of data and by the disproportionate influence of agricultural employers who sought minimal regulation. In 1974, the EPA passed the first Worker Protection Standard for farm workers. Key aspects of the proposed revision include stronger protections against drift and re-entry exposures, better information provision and training, and increased protections for workers under 16 years. Conclusions: The proposed changes represent an improvement over existing legislation, but do not go far enough. The revision should be strengthened along lines suggested by farm workers themselves, and other labor laws must also be amended to give the men

  19. The older worker.

    PubMed

    Fulks, J S; Fallon, L F

    2001-01-01

    About one person in eight remains employed past 65, the average age for retirement in the U.S. These persons tend to be highly reliable. They can adapt and learn new technology, but may require extra time to do so. Older workers have particular needs in the workplace due to physiological changes that accompany aging. They may require more lighting, and they may have decreased mobility, physical strength, and dexterity. These factors often have no impact on their ability to accomplish job duties. This chapter underscores the significant contributions that older workers often provide, and also addresses retirement planning.

  20. Worker Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yiziang, Zeng; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes worker education in China as an important part of the national educational plan and an indispensible foundation for the work of developing enterprisers. Basic tasks are the development of the mind, preparation of specialists, improving workers, and modernization of socialist enterprises. (JOW)

  1. 22 CFR 41.53 - Temporary workers and trainees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.53 Temporary workers and trainees... or training), including agriculture, commerce, communication, finance, government,...

  2. 22 CFR 41.53 - Temporary workers and trainees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.53 Temporary workers and trainees... or training), including agriculture, commerce, communication, finance, government,...

  3. 22 CFR 41.53 - Temporary workers and trainees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.53 Temporary workers and trainees... or training), including agriculture, commerce, communication, finance, government,...

  4. Considerations and Outcomes in Transitional Supported Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Ross, Robert; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Employment Retention Program is a supported employment program involved in job placement and intensive worksite training of graduating handicapped youth, emphasizing retention strategies that transfer supervision to nonhandicapped co-workers and that promote social interactions between handicapped employees and co-workers. At followup, 60…

  5. Employer Attitudes toward Hiring the Learning Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minskoff, Esther H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Employers (N=326) from six states were surveyed about their attitudes toward hiring the handicapped in general and the learning disabled in particular. While employers were conditionally willing to make special allowances for handicapped workers, only about one-half stated they would hire learning disabled workers. (Author/JW)

  6. Employability Skills. At a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wibrow, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    In a competitive workforce it is not just having the right qualification or technical skills that will land an individual a job; it could very well be their interpersonal skills. How someone communicates is often the first impression an employer has of a possible worker. Yet, it is precisely communication skills that employers feel applicants are…

  7. Workers Dislocated by Economic Change: Toward New Institutions for Midcareer Worker Transformation. Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendick, Marc, Jr.

    The federal government needs to provide employment and training assistance to help dislocated workers to become reemployed. Worker mobility assistance should not be focused upon as a major thrust of reemployment programs, since American workers are remarkably resistant to pressures to move to more promising labor markets. Efficient and effective…

  8. Occupational exposure to particulate matter from three agricultural crops in California.

    PubMed

    Moran, Rebecca E; Bennett, Deborah H; Garcia, John; Schenker, Marc B

    2014-03-01

    Agricultural work is a major contributor to California's and the nation's economy and employs a large number of workers. However, agricultural work can have numerous risks, such as exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) and other airborne pollutants with potential adverse health effects. To determine the magnitude of occupational exposures, PM levels were assessed for 89 workers from three major crops in California; almonds, melons and tomatoes. Personal samples were collected for PM2.5 and inhalable PM using personal sampling equipment. Geometric mean concentrations from personal exposure for workers in almonds (inhalable PM=4368 μg/m(3), PM2.5=122 μg/m(3), N=5), tomatoes (inhalable PM=1410 μg/m(3), PM2.5=12 μg/m(3), N=33), and melons (inhalable PM=1118 μg/m(3), PM2.5=19 μg/m(3), N=51) showed high PM exposure when working with these three crops. Large exposure differences by crop were more common than by task (i.e. harvesting, packing and weeding) among the three crops studied. This is the largest study of agricultural workers engaged in hand harvesting, a significant employer of farm labor, and relatively high levels of exposure to PM were measured.

  9. Sociological analysis of migration of agricultural labourers from eastern to north-western region of India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Arora, D R; Aggarwal, B K

    1988-04-01

    The authors examine rural-to-rural migration of agricultural workers from eastern to northwestern India. "The specific objectives of this study were: (a) to identify the socio-economic characteristics of the immigrant farm workers; (b) to explicate the causes of migration; (c) to analyse the impact of migration on the pattern of employment, wages, acculturation and interpersonal relations; and (d) to examine the socio-cultural and economic impact of migration on the migrants' families." Data are from a 1984-1986 survey. PMID:12283667

  10. Family services for migrant and seasonal farm workers: the Redlands Christian Migrant Association (RCMA) model.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Amy K; Mainster, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural employers and work supervisors strive to keep children out of worksites, but oftentimes migrating farm worker parents lack accessible or affordable options for childcare in a trusted environment. Thus, children may not have a safe, appropriate place to be while their parents are conducting agricultural work. Redlands Christian Migrant Association (RCMA) of Florida is a community development organization that creates and fosters opportunities for the children of migrant and other low-income rural families. To better understand the RCMA system, an in-depth assessment of its program was undertaken to identify both its standard and unique features. Results revealed many attributes contributing to RCMA's success. Based upon RCMA's 48-year track record, employers, agribusinesses, and communities are encouraged to adopt strategies to meet local and regional childcare needs where parents are working in agriculture.

  11. Family services for migrant and seasonal farm workers: the Redlands Christian Migrant Association (RCMA) model.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Amy K; Mainster, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural employers and work supervisors strive to keep children out of worksites, but oftentimes migrating farm worker parents lack accessible or affordable options for childcare in a trusted environment. Thus, children may not have a safe, appropriate place to be while their parents are conducting agricultural work. Redlands Christian Migrant Association (RCMA) of Florida is a community development organization that creates and fosters opportunities for the children of migrant and other low-income rural families. To better understand the RCMA system, an in-depth assessment of its program was undertaken to identify both its standard and unique features. Results revealed many attributes contributing to RCMA's success. Based upon RCMA's 48-year track record, employers, agribusinesses, and communities are encouraged to adopt strategies to meet local and regional childcare needs where parents are working in agriculture. PMID:24911688

  12. Educating Worker-Citizens: Visions and Divisions in Curriculum Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka; Lappalainen, Sirpa; Lahelma, Elina

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are interested in how employment--or employability--is connected to citizenship, and how the ideal subjectivity of worker-citizens is discursively constructed in curriculum texts. The "worker-citizen" is a social construction that connects closely the notion of worker and the notion of citizen. Our analysis is based…

  13. [Old age workers].

    PubMed

    Izmerov, N F

    2012-01-01

    The author demonstrates that in conditions of demographic aging an important contribution in solving the task set in "Strategy 2020" on more efficient usage of working resources could be involvement of occupational potential of old age workers, e.g. through changeable working schedules, outwork and distance work. With that, employment level at old age should consider performance level, health state and psycho-physiologic potential of the certain age group.

  14. Clandestine migrant workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, T

    1992-01-01

    The author assesses the problem of illegal labor migration to Japan. "Labor policies, regulations, types of immigration violations, and the role of the recruitment industry are described. Most of the estimated 200,000 illegal workers are employed in small and medium sized enterprises, especially construction and manufacturing, which pay them wages well below the normal rate. A key issue is the infringement of human rights of these illegal workers, who lack the protection of labor laws and the social security system."

  15. "Atypical" Employment and the Failure of Labour Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Increased casual employment and contract labor challenge the protective nature of Australian labor law. Laws and social policies should not cause casual and self-employed workers to be denied benefits nor allow employers to evade standards. (SK)

  16. The dismissal of injured workers and workers' compensation arrangements in Australia.

    PubMed

    Purse, K

    2000-01-01

    In Australia, as in Canada and to a lesser extent the United States, the vocational rehabilitation of injured workers is an integral part of workers' compensation arrangements. An essential feature of the return-to-work process is the provision of suitable employment by employers for workers able to resume work following a work-related injury. This article highlights the importance of employment security measures within workers' compensation legislation for injured workers and of scheme management. The author examines the major approaches adopted by the various Australian jurisdictions, critically reviews the issue of compliance with employment security legislation, and suggests a number of proposals for reform. Given the number of similarities between Australian and North American workers' compensation schemes, policy lessons drawn from the Australian experiences may be relevant to the labor movement and legislators in Canada and the United States.

  17. SAW Employment Data and the Need for RAWs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Howard R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes provisions of Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) allowing for Special Agricultural Workers (SAWs) and Replenishment Agricultural Workers (RAWs), to replace SAWs who leave the workforce. Describes government policy for implementing RAW program, determining need and supply, immigrant reporting requirements, eligibility…

  18. 22 CFR 41.53 - Temporary workers and trainees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary workers and trainees. 41.53 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.53 Temporary workers and trainees..., or by the Department of Labor in the case of temporary agricultural workers, of a petition to...

  19. Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Basher, A; Nath, P; Siddique, Z S; Rahman, M H; Rubel, M A; Sayed, M S; Ahmad, S A; Mondol, G D; Bhuiyan, M R

    2015-01-01

    Farming is a large and main industry in Bangladesh. Large numbers of people are directly involved in farming and have very unique exposure compare to other sectors. Musculoskeletal problems among farmer population are not infrequent. This study was carried out among 200 farmers in one selected district. The study revealed that musculoskeletal problems were common among the farmers working in a traditional way. All the respondents were male. The age of all respondents lie between 20-60 years. Among them 22.5% farmers were illiterate, about 45.5% below Class V. About half (42%) of the respondents had reported pain in different parts of the body at least one or more times during working in land. And about two third (65.5%) of the farmers had history of joint pain and stiffness in last 12 month. Most of the farmers who suffered from musculoskeletal symptoms were 41-60 years. Specially who worked more then 20 years (82.6%) and average 6 hours per day (66.7%). The occurrence of musculoskeletal problems in various part of the body included Knee pain - 48.1%, Back pain (back ache) - 22.9%, Waist pain (low back ache) - 13.3%, Neck pain - 18.3% and shoulder pain - 10.7%. Length of work in year and daily average working hours were found significant association with musculoskeletal pain. It was found that musculoskeletal pain were more common among the farmers when they worked in squatting position (52%) and specially during weeding of plants (31%). Among them only 22% also engaged in other business. Most of the farmers complained dull aching pain (40.6%), only 2.3% noticed severe acute pain, but about 86% farmers' temporary stop their work for pain and 80% get relief after discontinue of work. About 75% respondents visited doctors for their pain which was statistically significant (p=0.001). It was found that the rates of musculoskeletal complaints are more among those individuals who worked relatively bad ergonomic condition, such as body position probably play an important role. PMID:25725661

  20. Harvest of confusion: immigration reform and California agriculture.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1990-01-01

    "Agriculture was a major stumbling block to immigration reform [in the United States], largely because Congress was unwilling to assign explicit priorities to the competing goals of protecting American workers and admitting supplemental immigrant farmworkers. This article describes the Special Agricultural Worker or SAW legalization program that generated 700,000 applications in California and the hypothetical calculations required to determine whether Replenishment Agricultural Workers or RAWs will be admitted to the United States to do farmwork. The paper concludes that immigration reform did not resolve the century-old debate over agriculture's 'need' for alien workers; instead, SAWs and RAWs have contributed to the harvest of confusion on farm labor."

  1. Harvest of confusion: immigration reform and California agriculture.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1990-01-01

    "Agriculture was a major stumbling block to immigration reform [in the United States], largely because Congress was unwilling to assign explicit priorities to the competing goals of protecting American workers and admitting supplemental immigrant farmworkers. This article describes the Special Agricultural Worker or SAW legalization program that generated 700,000 applications in California and the hypothetical calculations required to determine whether Replenishment Agricultural Workers or RAWs will be admitted to the United States to do farmwork. The paper concludes that immigration reform did not resolve the century-old debate over agriculture's 'need' for alien workers; instead, SAWs and RAWs have contributed to the harvest of confusion on farm labor." PMID:12316220

  2. Research and dissemination needs for ergonomics in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Baron, Sherry; Steege, Andrea L

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health convened a conference of researchers interested in the ergonomics of agricultural workers. Participants included 20 representatives from universities, state governments, private agricultural and insurance companies, migrant worker organizations, agricultural industry organizations, and the Agricultural Extension Service. The attendees divided into three groups and brainstormed about research ideas and dissemination methods related to ergonomics for farm workers. The groups separately reported that interventions, cost-benefit analyses, and cultural belief systems were the main topics that needed to be researched to reduce physical risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. The participants also presented ideas for disseminating information to farm owners and workers. PMID:12500960

  3. Worker Retraining. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on H.R. 26 and H.R. 1219.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This Congressional report contains the testimony presented at a hearing focusing on two bills dealing with worker retraining. The two bills, H.R. 26 and H.R. 1219, are intended to establish a system of individual training accounts in the Unemployment Trust Fund, amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to provide that certain contributions to such…

  4. Introduction to Medical Terminology for Claretian Medical Center Worker Education Program of Northeastern Illinois University's Chicago Teachers' Center in Partnership with the Union of Needletrades, Industrial, Textile Employers (UNITE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex Community Coll., MD.

    This manual consists of glossaries and descriptions of medical terminology for use in a workplace literacy program for hospital workers. The sections are as follows: hospital patient care areas; hospital departments; medical specialists; word elements (root, prefix, suffix, combining vowel, compound word); surgical procedures; diseases and…

  5. America's Training Needs. Hearing on Reviewing the Subject of Training and Retraining of American Workers before the Subcommittee on Employment and Productivity of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This congressional report contains the testimony that was given at joint hearings to debate the passage of the Economic Dislocation and Worker Adjustment Assistance Act. The report contains testimony that was given by representatives of the following agencies and organizations: the American Society for Training and Development; the United Auto…

  6. Young fire ant workers feign death and survive aggressive neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassill, Deby L.; Vo, Kim; Becker, Brandie

    2008-07-01

    Feigning death is a method of self-defense employed among a wide range of prey species when threatened by predator species. This paper reports on death-feigning behavior by the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, during intraspecific aggression among neighboring fire ant workers. Days-old workers responded to aggression by death feigning, weeks-old workers responded by fleeing and months-old workers responded by fighting back. By feigning death, days-old workers were four times more likely to survive aggression than older workers. From a proximate perspective, retaliation by young workers against aggressive older workers is certain to fail. With their relatively soft exoskeleton, young workers would be prone to injury and death and unable to execute an effective attack of biting or stinging older workers with harder exoskeletons. From an ultimate perspective, death feigning allows young workers to survive and contribute to brood care and colony growth, both of which are essential to queen survival and fitness.

  7. The new political economy of food and agricultural development.

    PubMed

    Mellor, J W; Adams Rh

    1986-11-01

    This paper emphasizes the benefits of an agricultural strategy of development in developing countries. It begins by analyzing the close links between food and employment in the development process. In an underdeveloped country, food production is minimal, but demand is as well because of the small population growth. After development begins, income rises and food demand outstrips production. Only at later stages of development can food production meet demand. The middle stage of development describes most developing countries, which have averaged annual growth rates of 3% per capita in 1966-80. The growth in food demand must be met through technological advance in agriculture: high-yield seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation, which, for example, helped India increase cereal yields 29% between 1954-55 and 1964-65. The rate of growth in cropped areas has declined between 1961-1980, making increased yields more necessary. Growth in employment and income leads to higher food demand, which leads to higher prices and labor costs and a tendency towards capital-intensive agriculture. As the rural sector becomes wealthier, there is also more opportunity for non-agricultural rural workers, creating still more demand. In the final development stage, agricultural products can generate foreign exchange. In Asia, the priority is to ensure efficient outcomes of capital allocations, while in Africa, technology must be instituted. Public investment has been shown to be essential to rapid development in Japan, Taiwan, and the Punjab of India. The absence of this investment in Africa, partly because of an overemphasis on urban sector investment, is largely responsible for the backward state of African agriculture. Often rural areas are overtaxed, agricultural experts are lacking, and there is a growing presence of urban bureaucrats. Both experts in the donor community and farmers themselves must become more vocal in demanding investment in the agricultural sector.

  8. Institutional Discrimination in Agricultural Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, William C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examines history of discrimination within U.S. agricultural programs, specifically in U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Compares USDA employment and grant allocations for Blacks and Whites since Civil Rights Act of 1964. Cites other examples of institutional discrimination in federal agriculture programs. Calls for development of policy…

  9. Employment Considerations of AIDS in Dental Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumpler, Diane C.; Carey, Moses

    1987-01-01

    Policies governing the employment of health care workers with AIDS, and the AIDS employment issue facing dental practitioners, administrators, and educators are discussed. Legal considerations of AIDS in the workplace are addressed as to HIV testing, employee rights to gain and/or retain employment, economic considerations, and confidentiality…

  10. TANF Education and Training: Nebraska's Employment First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Lavanya

    2014-01-01

    Nebraska's Employment First (EF) program allows parents who receive TANF cash assistance to pursue education and training that improves their ability to secure employment and long-term economic success. A parent must negotiate and sign an Employment First contract, facilitated by a case worker, between the participating parent and the state of…

  11. Workplace Basics: The Skills Employers Want.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; And Others

    A two-year research project was conducted to determine the skills employers consider necessary for the workplace. Recent changes in the economy have made employers begin to realize that they must assist their current and future workers in achieving competency in workplace basics if they are to be competitive. Employers have come to realize the…

  12. 20 CFR 702.111 - Employer's records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employer's records. 702.111 Section 702.111 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR... § 702.111 Employer's records. Every employer shall maintain adequate records of injury sustained...

  13. Bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J; Barrett, M

    2015-04-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis has been described in mushrooms workers caused by exposure to mushroom or fungal spores in the compost used to grow mushrooms. We describe two mushroom workers who developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to exposure to avian proteins found in poultry manure which was used in producing mushroom compost. Both workers were employed in the compost production area. Both presented with typical features of HP. Both workers had negative serological and precipitin studies to Apergillus fumigatus, Saccarhopolyspora rectivirgula and thermophilic actinomycetes but had positive responses to poultry antibodies. Neither was exposed to mushroom spores. Both workers required initial therapy with corticosteroids. Relocation with avoidance of further exposure resulted in complete cure in one worker and change in work practice with the use of personal protections equipment resulted in the second workerclinical stabilisation. These are the first reported cases of bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers. PMID:26016305

  14. Bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J; Barrett, M

    2015-04-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis has been described in mushrooms workers caused by exposure to mushroom or fungal spores in the compost used to grow mushrooms. We describe two mushroom workers who developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to exposure to avian proteins found in poultry manure which was used in producing mushroom compost. Both workers were employed in the compost production area. Both presented with typical features of HP. Both workers had negative serological and precipitin studies to Apergillus fumigatus, Saccarhopolyspora rectivirgula and thermophilic actinomycetes but had positive responses to poultry antibodies. Neither was exposed to mushroom spores. Both workers required initial therapy with corticosteroids. Relocation with avoidance of further exposure resulted in complete cure in one worker and change in work practice with the use of personal protections equipment resulted in the second workerclinical stabilisation. These are the first reported cases of bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

  15. Contingent workers: Workers' compensation data analysis strategies and limitations.

    PubMed

    Foley, Michael; Ruser, John; Shor, Glenn; Shuford, Harry; Sygnatur, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The growth of the contingent workforce presents many challenges in the occupational safety and health arena. State and federal laws impose obligations and rights on employees and employers, but contingent work raises issues regarding responsibilities to maintain a safe workplace and difficulties in collecting and reporting data on injuries and illnesses. Contingent work may involve uncertainty about the length of employment, control over the labor process, degree of regulatory, or statutory protections, and access to benefits under workers' compensation. The paper highlights differences in regulatory protections and benefits among various types of contingent workers and how these different arrangements affect safety incentives. It discusses challenges caused by contingent work for accurate data reporting in existing injury and illness surveillance and benefit programs, differences between categories of contingent work in their coverage in various data sources, and opportunities for overcoming obstacles to effectively using workers' compensation data.

  16. Engaging a hard-to-reach population in research: sampling and recruitment of hired farm workers in the MICASA study.

    PubMed

    Stoecklin-Marois, M T; Hennessy-Burt, T E; Schenker, M B

    2011-10-01

    Hired farm workers provide the majority of the workforce for California's labor-intensive agricultural sector Agriculture is one of the most hazardous occupations, but there has been little research into the etiology of poor health outcomes that occur disproportionately in hired farm worker populations. MICASA is a cohort investigation of occupational and environmental health risks in hired farm worker households in Mendota, California, that employed a two-stage sampling process, including random selection of census blocks and door-to-door enumeration. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the success of the sampling process and compare demographics of the enumerated population to other regional samples of Latino populations. In the enumeration, 1257 addresses were mapped and 729 hired farm worker households were enumerated. Findings showed no significant differences between the enumerated population and the resulting MICASA study sample; however, the MICASA population was more likely to be male, from Central America, work in agriculture, and have fewer years residency in the U.S. than California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) respondents. Additionally, 9.4% of the enumerated dwellings were back houses or unofficial dwellings and may have been missed by the U.S. Census 2000. Demographic comparisons between the enumerated population, census data, and CHIS data highlight the differences in these sampling methods and suggest possible demographic changes in hired farm workers in California. While difficulties in accessing hired farm workers often account for the lack of population-based research, the MICASA cohort provides an opportunity to examine occupational health patterns relevant to other farm worker populations. PMID:22164460

  17. Agricultural Modernization and Economic Inequality: The Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Aruna Nayyar

    1978-01-01

    Argues that agriculture production in developing nations should be organized to ensure economic viability. Government policy must emphasize participants' productive capacities and integrate agricultural workers into the new organization of production. (Author/DB)

  18. Educational Mismatch and Self-Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Keith A.; Roche, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on educational mismatch concentrates on estimating its labor market consequences but with a focus on wage and salary workers. This paper examines the far less studied influence of mismatch on the self-employed. Using a sample of workers in science and engineering fields, results show larger earnings penalties for mismatch among…

  19. Identifying the Needs of Newly Unemployed Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Margaret A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed newly unemployed workers (N=171) regarding their needs for information and community services. Workers rated items relating directly to employment and financial concerns (i.e., information on job search methods, food, family budgeting) as most important, and rated pamphlets as the preferred method for obtaining information on most items.…

  20. The Legal ABCs of Hiring Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This article explains briefly how the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967 applies to certain hiring practices. The four sections of the paper cover the following: (1) the scope of the ADEA, including coverage, prohibited conduct, and legal remedies for workers who feel they have suffered discrimination; (2) hiring older workers,…