Science.gov

Sample records for agricultural worker employment

  1. Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is aimed at reducing the risk of pesticide poisoning and injury among agricultural workers and pesticide handlers. It places specific requirements on employers of such workers.

  2. MANPOWER NEEDS AND EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WORKERS NEEDING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL IN AGRICULTURE. TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN AND FOR RURAL AREAS, REPORT NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WARMBROD, J. ROBERT

    THREE TYPES OF FIRMS IN A 14-COUNTY AREA WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF WORKERS WITH AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES REQUIRED IN THE OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS AND TO COMPARE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN FARM AND OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS. OF 77,868 WORKERS IN 384 FIRMS IN AREAS OF LESS THAN 25,000 POPULATION, 18 PERCENT WERE IN…

  3. Findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) 1990. A Demographic and Employment Profile of Perishable Crop Farm Workers. Research Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mines, Richard; And Others

    This report provides information on the characteristics and work patterns of United States agricultural workers performing seasonal agricultural services (SAS) during fiscal year 1990. SAS crops include the majority of nursery products, cash grains, field crops, and all fruits and vegetables. More than 2,000 personal interviews with SAS workers…

  4. 75 FR 7293 - Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Workers in the United States: 2010 Adverse Effect Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... collective bargaining rate, or the Federal or State minimum wage rate, in effect at the time work is...: 2010 Adverse Effect Wage Rates, Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals, and Maximum Travel... Department of Labor (Department) is issuing this Notice to announce the new 2010 Adverse Effect Wage Rates...

  5. Do the socioeconomic impacts of antiretroviral therapy vary by gender? A longitudinal study of Kenyan agricultural worker employment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Larson, Bruce A; Fox, Mathew P; Rosen, Sydney; Bii, Margret; Sigei, Carolyne; Shaffer, Douglas; Sawe, Fredrick; McCoy, Kelly; Wasunna, Monique; Simon, Jonathan L

    2009-07-15

    As access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has grown in Africa, attention has turned to evaluating the socio-economic impacts of ART. One key issue is the extent to which improvements in health resulting from ART allows individuals to return to work and earn income. Improvements in health from ART may also be associated with reduced impaired presenteeism, which is the loss of productivity when an ill or disabled individual attends work but accomplishes less at his or her usual tasks or shifts to other, possibly less valuable, tasks. Longitudinal data for this analysis come from company payroll records for 97 HIV-infected tea estate workers (the index group, 56 women, 41 men) and a comparison group of all workers assigned to the same work teams (n = 2485, 1691 men, 794 women) for a 37-month period covering two years before and one year after initiating ART. We used nearest neighbour matching methods to estimate the impacts of HIV/AIDS and ART on three monthly employment outcomes for tea estate workers in Kenya--days plucking tea, days assigned to non-plucking assignments, and kilograms harvested when plucking. The female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea monthly than the matched female comparison group during the final 9 months pre-ART. They also worked 87% more days on non-plucking assignments. While the monthly gap between the two groups narrowed after beginning ART, the female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea and about 100% more days on non-plucking tasks than the comparison group after one year on ART. The male index group was able to maintain a similar pattern of work as their comparison group except during the initial five months on therapy. Significant impaired presenteeism continued to exist among the female index group after one year on ART. Future research needs to explore further the socio-economic implications of HIV-infected female workers on ART being less productive than the general female workforce over sustained periods of

  6. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers lawfully admitted to the United States on a temporary basis to do farm work is not covered as employment. The...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers lawfully admitted to the United States on a temporary basis to do farm work is not covered as employment. The...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers lawfully admitted to the United States on a temporary basis to do farm work is not covered as employment. The...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers lawfully admitted to the United States on a temporary basis to do farm work is not covered as employment. The...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers lawfully admitted to the United States on a temporary basis to do farm work is not covered as employment. The...

  11. Young Agricultural Workers in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Michele Gonzalez; Kurre, Laura

    This report examines the extent to which young people work in California agriculture and describes work-related hazards and injuries among young agricultural workers. Data were gathered through a literature review; discussion groups with parents, community groups, and English-as-a-second-language students in the San Joaquin Valley; surveys of 295…

  12. Findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS), 1997-1998: A Demographic and Employment Profile of United States Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Kala; Gabbard, Susan M.; Barrat, Vanessa; Lewis, Melissa; Carroll, Daniel; Mines, Richard

    This report presents current information on the characteristics and work patterns of hired laborers who perform crop work in the United States. Information was obtained from interviews with 4,199 workers in 85 counties between October 1, 1996 and September 30, 1998. Chapters 1-3 provide information about the farmworkers themselves, including…

  13. Housing for Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J. W.; And Others

    Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…

  14. Developing a model policy on youth employment in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mary E; Lee, Barbara C

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a model policy that agricultural employers could adopt specific to youth employment, including age-appropriate assignments, training needs for adolescent workers, ideal supervision, and mentoring by adult workers. Methods included discussions at a national conference of agricultural employers, a survey of employers' perspectives on young workers, forming a task force to draft a model policy, and finalizing the policy document. The process resulted in a template that can be used by agricultural employers for immediate adoption, or to be customized and adapted for their unique company. Given new trends in agriculture to use certification systems, safety audits, and voluntary safety standards in addition to the regulatory process, there is value in having a voluntary "best practice" model policy that can be adopted in settings where safeguarding young farm workers is a priority.

  15. Changing Employment Patterns of Organized Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Larry T.

    1985-01-01

    This article discusses the employment of organized workers in May 1980 with averages for the year ended in September 1984. Data indicate that the total number of U.S. workers rose while the number of employed workers who were members of unions or employee associations fell. Statistical tables and charts are included. (CT)

  16. The impact of biotechnology on agricultural worker safety and health.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M

    2002-08-01

    Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here.

  17. Ischaemic heart disease among livestock and agricultural workers

    PubMed Central

    Sjogren, B; Weiner, J; Larsson, K

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To compare the occurrence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) among male and female livestock and agricultural workers with gainfully employed men and women in Sweden. Methods: Male and female livestock and agricultural workers were identified in the Swedish National Censuses of 1970 and 1990 and were followed until the end of 1995. The IHD mortality among the livestock and agricultural workers was compared with that of gainfully employed men and women. Information of smoking habits was gathered from a previous national survey. Results: Male as well as female livestock workers had slightly higher standardised mortality ratios (SMR) regarding IHD compared with all gainfully employed men and women in Sweden. The SMR for male workers was 1.06 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.18). The SMR for female workers was 1.10 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.23). Agricultural workers had lower SMRs. Adjustments for smoking habits would further increase the SMRs by about 9% in male workers and about 5% in female workers. Conclusion: The present data suggest a slightly increased risk for IHD among both male and female livestock workers, which may be the result of organic dust exposure. PMID:12883028

  18. Preventing heat-related illness among agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Larry L; Rosenberg, Howard R

    2010-07-01

    Hyperthermia from exertion and environmental conditions during agricultural work manifests itself by various symptoms and may lead to death. From 1992 through 2006, 68 workers employed in crop production and related services died from heat-related illness. The crop worker fatality rate averaged 4 heat-related deaths per one million workers per year-20 times higher than the 0.2 rate for US civilian workers overall. Many of the agricultural workers who died were foreign-born. Foreign-born workers tend to have limited English language skills and often are not acclimatized to exertion in hot weather when beginning seasonal jobs. Increased recognition of heat hazards to agricultural workers, in particular, has stimulated concern among employers, workers, and public policy makers. California and Washington have led the nation in adopting workplace safety standards designed to prevent heat-related illnesses. These state regulations include new specific requirements for employer provision of drinking water, shade for rest or other sufficient means to recover from heat, worker and supervisor training, and written heat safety plans. Agricultural employers face practical challenges in fulfilling the purpose and complying with these standards. By their very nature the standards impose generic requirements in a broad range of circumstances and may not be equally protective in all agricultural work settings. It is vital that employers and supervisors have a thorough knowledge of heat illness prevention to devise and implement safety measures that suit local conditions. Ongoing risk-based assessment of current heat conditions by employers is important to this safety effort. Workers need training to avoid heat illness and recognize the symptoms in themselves and coworkers. Innovative management practices are joining time-honored approaches to controlling heat stress and strain. Research targeted to answer questions about heat accumulation and dissipation during agricultural work

  19. Agricultural health and safety: incorporating the worker perspective.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Amy K; Augustave, Wilson

    2010-07-01

    This commentary offers a worker's perspective on agricultural health and safety and describes (1) the historical exemption of agriculture from regulatory oversight and barriers encountered due to lack of regulations and poor enforcement of the existing standards; (2) the effect of immigration status on worker protections; and (3) the basic desire for economic survival and how this impacts worker health and safety. The commentary describes two models to reduce hazards at work that illustrate how workers' perspectives can be incorporated successfully at the policy level and during the intervention development process and puts forth recommendations for employers, researchers, and funding agencies to facilitate the integration of workers' perspectives into occupational health and safety in agriculture. Ultimately, improved worker protection requires systemic policy and regulatory changes as well as strong enforcement of existing regulations. This commentary summarizes the presentation, "Ground View: Perspectives of Hired Workers," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.

  20. Older Workers Training and Employment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John F. Kennedy Family Service Center, Inc., Charlestown, MA.

    The John F. Kennedy Service Center in Charlestown, Massachusetts, was set up to help older workers find employment and it coordinates health, education, employment, and welfare services and legal aid. The Federation of Charlestown Organizations, area colleges and universities, public and private industry, and social agencies have contributed to…

  1. Affective Skills of Selected Agricultural Workers and Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Gregory C.; Stewart, Bob R.

    1982-01-01

    Significant differences exist between agribusiness workers and agricultural production workers in Missouri in the affective work skills they demonstrate. Significant differences also appear between agricultural supervisors and workers. (SK)

  2. Case studies of violations of workers' freedom of association: migrant agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    As part of its report "Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards," Human Rights Watch conducted a series of case studies in a dozen states, covering a variety of industries and employment sectors, analyzing the U.S. experience in the light of both national law and international human rights and labor rights norms. Presented here are the case studies of migrant agricultural workers.

  3. Employer Concerns Regarding Workers with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Reed; Johnson, Virginia Anne

    More than 90 surveys conducted during the past 40 years covering a variety of disabling conditions and employers' concerns regarding workers with these conditions were reviewed. The goal of this review is to identify, develop, test, and disseminate interventions for rehabilitation practitioners to use in job development and placement. The review…

  4. 78 FR 15741 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  5. 77 FR 13635 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  6. 77 FR 12882 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  7. Acute pesticide poisoning among agricultural workers in the United States, 1998-2005.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Geoffrey M; Karnik, Jennifer; Mehler, Louise; Beckman, John; Morrissey, Barbara; Sievert, Jennifer; Barrett, Rosanna; Lackovic, Michelle; Mabee, Laura; Schwartz, Abby; Mitchell, Yvette; Moraga-McHaley, Stephanie

    2008-12-01

    Approximately 75% of pesticide usage in the United States occurs in agriculture. As such, agricultural workers are at greater risk of pesticide exposure than non-agricultural workers. However, the magnitude, characteristics and trend of acute pesticide poisoning among agricultural workers are unknown. We identified acute pesticide poisoning cases in agricultural workers between the ages of 15 and 64 years that occurred from 1998 to 2005. The California Department of Pesticide Regulation and the SENSOR-Pesticides program provided the cases. Acute occupational pesticide poisoning incidence rates (IR) for those employed in agriculture were calculated, as were incidence rate ratios (IRR) among agricultural workers relative to non-agricultural workers. Of the 3,271 cases included in the analysis, 2,334 (71%) were employed as farmworkers. The remaining cases were employed as processing/packing plant workers (12%), farmers (3%), and other miscellaneous agricultural workers (19%). The majority of cases had low severity illness (N = 2,848, 87%), while 402 (12%) were of medium severity and 20 (0.6%) were of high severity. One case was fatal. Rates of illness among various agricultural worker categories were highly variable but all, except farmers, showed risk for agricultural workers greater than risk for non-agricultural workers by an order of magnitude or more. Also, the rate among female agricultural workers was almost twofold higher compared to males. The findings from this study suggest that acute pesticide poisoning in the agricultural industry continues to be an important problem. These findings reinforce the need for heightened efforts to better protect farmworkers from pesticide exposure. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. 45 CFR 1626.11 - H-2 agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false H-2 agricultural workers. 1626.11 Section 1626.11... ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural workers. (a) Nonimmigrant agricultural workers admitted under the provisions of 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(h)(ii), commonly called H-2 workers, may be...

  9. Foreign and Undocumented Workers in California Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Edward; Espenshade, Thomas J.

    The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 contains controversial provisions to allow temporary "replenishment" farmworkers to enter the United States to harvest perishable crops. This paper describes the role of legal and illegal foreign workers in California agriculture in relation to these provisions and the assumptions on which…

  10. Foreign and Undocumented Workers in California Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Edward; Espenshade, Thomas J.

    The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 contains controversial provisions to allow temporary "replenishment" farmworkers to enter the United States to harvest perishable crops. This paper describes the role of legal and illegal foreign workers in California agriculture in relation to these provisions and the assumptions on which…

  11. Migrant Workers in Agriculture: A View from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Daniell, William

    2016-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the global movement of workers during the last few decades. As Thailand has developed rapidly over the past 20 years, it has attracted laborers (both authorized and unauthorized) from the neighboring countries of Myanmar, People's Democratic Republic of Lao (Lao PDR), and Cambodia. Given that agriculture has been Thailand's most important industry, its continued growth has been dependent on migrant workers. Both crop agriculture and animal-production agriculture have employed migrant labor. Migrants have been hired to plant, weed, fertilize, spray pesticides, and harvest crops such as rice, corn, sugar cane, and cassava. They have worked at rubber and coffee plantations, as well as in the production of ornamental crops. Also, migrants have labored on pig, beef, and duck farms. There have been numerous documented health problems among migrant workers, including acute diarrhea, malaria, and fever of unknown causes. Occupational illness and injury have been a significant concern, and there has been limited health and safety training. This article reviewed the demographic changes in Thailand, studied the agricultural crops and animal production that are dependent on migrant labor, discussed the health status and safety challenges pertaining to migrant workers in agriculture, and described several recommendations. Among the recommendations, the conclusions of this study have suggested that addressing the cost for health care and solutions to health care access for migrant labor are needed.

  12. Agricultural Leaders' Influence on the Safety Culture of Workers.

    PubMed

    Gasperini, Frank A

    2017-01-01

    Most US farmers are small, independent owner-operators, many of whom are exempt from safety regulation and enforcement, as well as age restrictions relative to family members performing hazardous tasks. These smaller farms account for a disproportionate share of the total fatality and injury statistics from farming incidents, contributing to an agriculture-industry death rate that is seven times greater than all occupations combined. In contrast, large agricultural enterprises that employ larger numbers of non-family workers are more regulated and more highly incentivized by economic, supply chain, and societal factors to implement cultures of safety, and are more readily influenced by agricultural opinion leaders, agribusinesses, farm organizations, and agricultural media. These agricultural influencer institutions must find ways to play more significant roles in changing the culture on operations that use only family labor. They will find willing partners in safety organizations such as the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America (ASHCA), Agricultural Extension, and other health and safety advocates, including the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded agricultural research centers. The overall workplace injury statistics for agriculture remain alarming; however, with leadership from the larger farm operations, and help from ASHCA, academia, the healthcare community, and others, the current culture of workplace safety and health in agriculture can be impacted in positive ways.

  13. An Analysis of Employer Evaluations of Workers with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Michael S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Written employer evaluations of workers with mental retardation were analyzed regarding their relationship to employment retention and three such factors were identified: (1) workers' attendance, (2) punctuality patterns, and (3) consistency in task performance. (Author/DB)

  14. An Analysis of Employer Evaluations of Workers with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Michael S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Written employer evaluations of workers with mental retardation were analyzed regarding their relationship to employment retention and three such factors were identified: (1) workers' attendance, (2) punctuality patterns, and (3) consistency in task performance. (Author/DB)

  15. Dual Support in Contract Workers' Triangular Employment Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buch, Robert; Kuvaas, Bard; Dysvik, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the interplay between perceived investment in contract worker development by the "client" organization and contract workers' perceived organizational support from their temporary employment "agency." A study among 2021 contract workers from three temporary employment agencies in Norway showed that the…

  16. Dual Support in Contract Workers' Triangular Employment Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buch, Robert; Kuvaas, Bard; Dysvik, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the interplay between perceived investment in contract worker development by the "client" organization and contract workers' perceived organizational support from their temporary employment "agency." A study among 2021 contract workers from three temporary employment agencies in Norway showed that the…

  17. 45 CFR 1626.11 - H-2 agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false H-2 agricultural workers. 1626.11 Section 1626.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural workers. (a) Nonimmigrant agricultural...

  18. 45 CFR 1626.11 - H-2 agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false H-2 agricultural workers. 1626.11 Section 1626.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural workers. (a) Nonimmigrant agricultural...

  19. 45 CFR 1626.11 - H-2 agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false H-2 agricultural workers. 1626.11 Section 1626.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural workers. (a) Nonimmigrant agricultural...

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of Employers' Experiences with Visually Impaired Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolffe, Karen E.; Candela, Anthony R.

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with nine employers who have hired, accommodated, and trained workers with visual impairments found that the majority expressed positive attitudes toward their workers. A few employers had shared their knowledge with other hiring managers. A model for enhancing the employment rate of job seekers with visual impairments is proposed.…

  1. Employers' Perceptions of Recent Agricultural Communications Graduates' Workplace Habits and Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irlbeck, Erica Goss; Akers, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural communications programs should frequently review their curriculum to ensure students receive the highest quality of education possible (Akers, 2000). This research is a nationwide look at recent agricultural communications graduates' employers and/or co-workers. The purpose of this study was to determine which workplace habits and…

  2. The Structural Disempowerment of Eastern European Migrant Farm Workers in Norwegian Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik; Andrzejewska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2004 EU enlargement established one European common labour market, a large number of Eastern Europeans have taken up seasonal employment as hired farm workers in Norwegian agriculture. Much attention in the public has been given to the potential for "social dumping" of these migrating workers, as they are considered prone to…

  3. The Structural Disempowerment of Eastern European Migrant Farm Workers in Norwegian Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik; Andrzejewska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2004 EU enlargement established one European common labour market, a large number of Eastern Europeans have taken up seasonal employment as hired farm workers in Norwegian agriculture. Much attention in the public has been given to the potential for "social dumping" of these migrating workers, as they are considered prone to…

  4. [Foreign agricultural proletariat and seasonal migrations: Haitian workers in the Dominican agriculture].

    PubMed

    Lozano, W

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the massive entry of Haitian agricultural workers into rice, coffee, and other agricultural production in the Dominican Republic over the past 15 years are analyzed using data from surveys conducted in 1985 and 1987. Unlike the classic Latin American cases of labor migration, the movement of Haitian workers to the Dominican Republic crosses national borders and involves a landless proletariat rather than peasant farmers seeking to supplement their subsistence. Most of the Haitians finding work in coffee and rice cultivation were former sugar cane workers with several years of residence in the Dominican Republic who were forced out of sugar cane cutting by the collapse of the industry in the 1980s. Although Haitians have been employed in Dominican agriculture since the early 1900s, their massive movement to crops of great labor demand other than sugar began in the 1980s. Most of the Haitian workers in rice and coffee are illiterate men with no more than 3 years of primary education. Their average age is 28.4 years for coffee and 29.1 for rice workers. 40% of coffee workers and 53% of rice workers had children. The survey found a greater proportion of migrants from the North zone of Haiti than have previous studies, probably because of the accelerating crisis in the peasant economy in the North and the curtailment of movement to the Bahamas. The technical and social organization of agricultural work goes far in explaining migratory flows. Rice cultivation has heavy labor demands year round, while demand for labor in coffee cultivation is concentrated between August-December. The more complex and better paying jobs in rice cultivation are performed primarily by Dominican workers, who have formed a landless agricultural proletariat in place for at least 2 generations. Dominican workers thus meet the condition of staying in place all year that is not completely possible for Haitian workers. No such ethnic separation occurs in the coffee harvest, and

  5. 20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... date of need is provided for all workers requested by the application and the combination of job... Application for Temporary Employment Certification, a completed job offer on the ETA Form 790 Agricultural and... of applications. The CO shall promptly transmit the job order, on behalf of the employer, to the...

  6. 20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... date of need is provided for all workers requested by the application and the combination of job... Application for Temporary Employment Certification, a completed job offer on the ETA Form 790 Agricultural and... of applications. The CO shall promptly transmit the job order, on behalf of the employer, to the...

  7. 20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... date of need is provided for all workers requested by the application and the combination of job... Application for Temporary Employment Certification, a completed job offer on the ETA Form 790 Agricultural and... of applications. The CO shall promptly transmit the job order, on behalf of the employer, to the...

  8. 20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... date of need is provided for all workers requested by the application and the combination of job... Application for Temporary Employment Certification, a completed job offer on the ETA Form 790 Agricultural and... of applications. The CO shall promptly transmit the job order, on behalf of the employer, to the...

  9. 20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... date of need is provided for all workers requested by the application and the combination of job... Application for Temporary Employment Certification, a completed job offer on the ETA Form 790 Agricultural and... of applications. The CO shall promptly transmit the job order, on behalf of the employer, to the...

  10. Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume II. Extension Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Peter; And Others

    This training manual, the second volume in a four-volume series of curriculum guides for use in training Peace Corps agricultural development workers, deals with extension skills. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the extension skills component of the agricultural development worker training series.…

  11. Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume III. Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, David; And Others

    This training manual, the third volume in a four-volume series of curriculum guides for use in training Peace Corps agricultural development workers, deals with crops. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the crops component of the agricultural development worker training series. Included in the second…

  12. Actinic cheilitis among agricultural workers in Campinas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, J L R; Bönecker, M; Furuse, C; Morais, P de Camargo; Flório, F M; Cury, P R; Araújo, V C

    2011-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of Actinic Cheilitis (AC) among agricultural workers and analyze its risk factors. A cross sectional epidemiological study. A lip lesion was defined as an abnormal change on the lip mucosa surface, such as erythematous pigmented, ulcerative or swelling (Cataldo and Doku, 1981). Data were gathered according to age group, gender, ethnicity-time and frequency of occupational sunlight exposure, smoking habits, drinking habits and socio-economic status. Sugar-cane plantation farms in Brazil. Full-time workers of both genders employed at sugar-cane plantation farms for at least six months. Correlations between AC prevalence, demographic and socioeconomic risk factors. 202 people were examined and the prevalence of AC was 39.6%. Results revealed that being black (0.15-0.88- 95% CI; OR = 0.36; p = 0.025) or mulatto (0.21-0.82- 95% CI; OR = 0.42; p =0.011) decreased the risk for AC, while age and gender sex had no effect. In relation to socioeconomic variables, formal education and more than four years of education (0.07-0.68- 95% CI; OR = 0.22; p = 0.009) decreased the risk for AC. Moreover, drinking alcohol was a risk for AC (1.05-3.37- 95% CI; OR = 1.88; p = 0.034), while tobacco smoking was not (0.60-2.02- 95% CI; OR = 1.10; p = 0.763). The prevalence of AC is high in agricultural workers who were fairskinned, had low education and high alcohol intake. Prevention and early diagnosis are required for workers exposed to sunlight.

  13. Overcoming language and literacy barriers in safety and health training of agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Estrada, Jorge M; Quandt, Sara A

    2010-07-01

    The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the United States to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented.

  14. Overcoming Language and Literacy Barriers in Safety and Health Training of Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Estrada, Jorge M.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, “Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture,” is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the US to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented. PMID:20665309

  15. 76 FR 69146 - Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program; Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of Advocacy and Outreach 7 CFR Part 2502 RIN 0503-AA49 Agricultural Career and Employment Grants... withdrawing its proposed rule of October 27, 2011, entitled ``Agricultural Career and Employment...

  16. TRAINING METHODS FOR OLDER WORKERS. EMPLOYMENT OF OLDER WORKERS, 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BELBIN, R.M.

    A SURVEY WAS PRESENTED OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE ON AGE CHANGES IN HUMAN CAPACITIES, ESPECIALLY IN LEARNING ABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY, AND DESCRIBED VARIOUS METHODS USED TO TRAIN WORKERS OVER 40. THE ROLE OF MEMORY, MOTIVATION, RIGIDITY, AND INTELLIGENCE IN DETERMINING THE LEARNING EFFICIENCY OF MATURE ADULTS WAS ASSESSED, ALSO DIFFICULTIES CAUSED BY…

  17. TRAINING METHODS FOR OLDER WORKERS. EMPLOYMENT OF OLDER WORKERS, 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BELBIN, R.M.

    A SURVEY WAS PRESENTED OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE ON AGE CHANGES IN HUMAN CAPACITIES, ESPECIALLY IN LEARNING ABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY, AND DESCRIBED VARIOUS METHODS USED TO TRAIN WORKERS OVER 40. THE ROLE OF MEMORY, MOTIVATION, RIGIDITY, AND INTELLIGENCE IN DETERMINING THE LEARNING EFFICIENCY OF MATURE ADULTS WAS ASSESSED, ALSO DIFFICULTIES CAUSED BY…

  18. Employer Factors Related to Workers' Compensation Claims and Disability Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habeck, Rochelle V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Explored empirical relationship between employer disability prevention and management practices and their workers' compensation claims experience. Data from 124 firms revealed high variability among firms within same industry and operating under same state workers' compensation statute. Findings support assumption that significant portion of…

  19. Illinois Agricultural Occupations: An Occupational Employment Study of Agricultural Service Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana.

    In response to a need for additional data on agriculturally related employment, the Illinois State Board of Education funded a research project with two objectives: to collect additional agricultural employment data and to identify employment in agriculturally related industries in Illinois under the Standard Industrial Classification system. The…

  20. Agricultural Extension Workers' Roles in Canada and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeshewalul, Ayele; Griffith, William S.

    1984-01-01

    This research examined the effects of government and the university organizational models and of performing regulatory functions on American and Canadian agricultural extension workers' role perception and role performance. (Author/SSH)

  1. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  2. Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume IV. Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Neil; And Others

    This training manual, the last volume in a four-volume series for use in training Peace Corps workers, deals with livestock. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the livestock component of the agricultural development worker training course. Included in the second chapter are lesson plans covering the…

  3. Mexican Workers and U.S. Agriculture: The Revolving Door.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Discusses agriculture and farming factors affecting immigration and integration policies. Examines seasonality, wages, and guest workers; the Immigration Reform and Control Act; and the search for seasonal workers. Data suggest that first generation immigrants age out of seasonal farm work with few skills to enable them to climb any job ladder,…

  4. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  5. Injury and employment patterns among Hispanic construction workers.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J T; Hunting, K L; Welch, L S

    2000-02-01

    This article describes non-fatal injuries among Hispanic construction workers treated at an emergency department from 1990 to 1998. Medical and interview data were analyzed to evaluate and explain the workers' apparently inflated risk of injury. The majority of the injured Hispanic workers were employed in the less-skilled trades. Compared with other injured workers, Hispanics had a higher proportion of serious injuries and were disadvantaged in terms of training and union status. With the exception of union status, these differences largely disappeared after controlling for trade. The physical, financial, and emotional consequences were more apparent 1 year later for injured Hispanics, even after controlling for trade. These observations suggest that minority status is a predictor of trade and that trade is a predictor of injury risk. In addition to reducing injury hazards, interventions should address the limited employment and union membership options that are available to minority workers in the construction industry.

  6. MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JORGENSON, JANET M.; AND OTHERS

    FIELD STUDIES WERE CONDUCTED IN 1960 IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS AND IN IOWA TO AUGMENT INFORMATION ON MIGRATORY WORKERS. FACULTY-STUDENT TEAM FIELD TRIPS FOUND MANY FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN PROVIDING A CONSTRUCTIVE APPROACH TO THE PROBLEMS OF THE MIGRANT WORKER. CHILDREN OF THE MIGRANTS ARE NOT GETTING THE EDUCATION THEY NEED TO BREAK…

  7. MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JORGENSON, JANET M.; AND OTHERS

    FIELD STUDIES WERE CONDUCTED IN 1960 IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS AND IN IOWA TO AUGMENT INFORMATION ON MIGRATORY WORKERS. FACULTY-STUDENT TEAM FIELD TRIPS FOUND MANY FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN PROVIDING A CONSTRUCTIVE APPROACH TO THE PROBLEMS OF THE MIGRANT WORKER. CHILDREN OF THE MIGRANTS ARE NOT GETTING THE EDUCATION THEY NEED TO BREAK…

  8. [The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in agricultural workers].

    PubMed

    Komleva, N E; Spirin, V F; Trubetskov, A D; Zaikina, I V

    2012-01-01

    Among agricultural workers is common gastroesophageal reflux disease. On a professional factors affecting agricultural labor (physical activity, weight lifting, carrying heavy loads, frequent and/or long slopes). These factors contribute to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease and severe course.

  9. Part-Time Employment by Secondary Agricultural Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Harry N., Jr.; Scarbrough, Connie; Gartin, Stacy A.; Boone, Deborah A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare secondary agricultural educators' perceptions of the benefits and problems associated with teaching agricultural education and being involved in other part-time employment activities. The sample consisted of 107 agricultural educators nonrandomly selected from three states. Sixty-nine usable questionnaires…

  10. Part-Time Employment by Secondary Agricultural Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Harry N., Jr.; Scarbrough, Connie; Gartin, Stacy A.; Boone, Deborah A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare secondary agricultural educators' perceptions of the benefits and problems associated with teaching agricultural education and being involved in other part-time employment activities. The sample consisted of 107 agricultural educators nonrandomly selected from three states. Sixty-nine usable questionnaires…

  11. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment in agriculture. 780.605 Section 780.605 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for...

  12. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment in agriculture. 780.605 Section 780.605 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for...

  13. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment in agriculture. 780.605 Section 780.605 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for...

  14. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment in agriculture. 780.605 Section 780.605 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for...

  15. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employment in agriculture. 780.605 Section 780.605 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for...

  16. Language, Employment, and Settlement: Temporary Meat Workers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piller, Ingrid; Lising, Loy

    2014-01-01

    Australia is one of the world's largest beef exporters. However, meat processing jobs are widely considered undesirable and are increasingly filled with employer-sponsored migrant workers on temporary long-stay visas. Against this background, our paper explores the role of language in the employment and migration trajectories of a group of meat…

  17. The Employer's Voice: Frontline Workers and Workforce Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, Boston, MA.

    Seventeen small and mid-sized employers from Annie E. Casey Foundation Jobs Initiative sites addressed the challenges of recruiting, retaining, and promoting frontline workers. Employers shared collaboration experiences with Jobs Initiatives sites to develop effective, efficient strategies to prepare and support low-income residents. Firms relied…

  18. Language, Employment, and Settlement: Temporary Meat Workers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piller, Ingrid; Lising, Loy

    2014-01-01

    Australia is one of the world's largest beef exporters. However, meat processing jobs are widely considered undesirable and are increasingly filled with employer-sponsored migrant workers on temporary long-stay visas. Against this background, our paper explores the role of language in the employment and migration trajectories of a group of meat…

  19. [Morbidity patterns of workers employed in pharmaceutical-chemical industry].

    PubMed

    Milovanović, Aleksandar; Jakovljević, Branko; Milovanović, Jovica; Paunović, Katarina; Ilić, Dragan; Torbica, Nikola; Corac, Aleksandar; Samardzic, Svetomir; Blagojević, Tatjana

    2007-01-01

    Work in pharmaceutical-chemical industry is characterized by exposure to numerous hazards, both physical (microclimate, illumination, noise) and chemical (organic solvents). Organic solvents can cause damage to many organic systems and have carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects. The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of chronic morbidity of workers employed in pharmaceutical-chemical industry during 2002. The study was conducted in the pharmaceutical-chemical industry "Zdravlje" Leskovac in 2002. A total of 143 workers in workplaces with special working conditions exposed to chemical hazards as well as 40 workers from control group took part in the study. The physical examinations of the participants were performed at the Department of Occupational Health in Health Center, Leskovac. Heart diseases were the most frequent both among exposed workers (17.8%) and in control group (33.3%). Respiratory diseases were at the second place (16.9% in the exposed group, and 7.4% in control group). Arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 14.7% workers occupationally exposed to hazards, and in 12.5% workers from control group (p > 0.05). Chronic bronchitis was diagnosed in 175% of the exposed workers and in only 5.0% of controls (p > 0.05). The highest prevalence of diseases in both groups was observed among workers aged 40-49 years, with 20-29 years of exposure working time. 73.4% of the exposed workers and 85% of control workers were capable of work (p > 0.05). Workers occupationally exposed to hazards in pharmaceutical-chemical industry have higher prevalence of various diseases compared to non-exposed workers, which can be the result of work, working conditions and work activity. Preventive measures should be directed towards the decrease of occupational hazards and unfavorable working conditions and increase of work protection. Regular physical examinations of workers are of prime importance for the prevention of occupational morbidity, traumatism and

  20. Are employers changing their behavior toward older workers? An analysis of employers' surveys 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Conen, Wieteke S; Henkens, Kène; Schippers, Joop J

    2011-04-01

    This article addresses possible changes in Dutch employers' behavior regarding the recruitment and retention of older workers during the last decade. The authors analyze surveys administered to Dutch employers in 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2009. The results show that efforts to recruit older workers are changing, congruous with the economic climate, while retention behavior shows a clear and rather gradual time effect. The authors conclude that the position of older workers has improved between 2000 and 2008 and has done so in comparison with other underrepresented groups in the labor market. During the recession, recruitment of older workers declined substantially, while efforts to retain older workers are in both absolute and relative terms higher than in 2000. With respect to organizational policies, the authors conclude that throughout the period under observation these policies are dominated by measures that "spare" older workers.

  1. Respiratory diseases among agricultural industry workers in India: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Singh, A B; Singh, A; Pandit, T

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiological survey for respiratory diseases among agricultural industry workers, such as bakeries, poultry farms, granaries and a sugar refinery was carried out using a medical questionnaire on various respiratory symptoms such as cough, breathlessness, rhinitis. The questionnaire was filled up by two doctoral students during personal visits to these work environments. The survey revealed that 40-59% of workers in different occupational work environments suffered from one or more respiratory ailments. As much as 36-40% of the workers reported work-related symptoms which is close to similar data from Western countries. A higher incidence of respiratory disorders was recorded in workers with longer duration of employment. Older workers suffered more than the young ones. Family history of atopy was found to have least effect on the incidence of cough, breathlessness and rhinitis in the workers. Smoking was found to have definite impact on the incidence of cough and breathlessness

  2. Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act: Forestry contractors' model operating plan

    Treesearch

    Dan Bremer

    2007-01-01

    The Model Operating Plan for forestry contractors is a voluntary plan for compliance with the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act (MSPA) of 1983, with amendments passed in 1996 and 1997. This plan is designed as a guide for forestry contractors who wish to comply with all federal, state, and local rules and regulations that govern their employer/...

  3. Cancer mortality among US workers employed in semiconductor wafer fabrication.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D; Marano, Donald E; Munro, Heather M; Chadda, Bandana K; Signorello, Lisa B; Tarone, Robert E; Blot, William J; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate potential cancer risks in the US semiconductor wafer fabrication industry. A cohort of 100,081 semiconductor workers employed between 1968 and 2002 was studied. Standardized mortality ratios and relative risks (RRs) were estimated. Standardized mortality ratios were similar and significantly low among fabrication and nonfabrication workers for all causes (0.54 and 0.54) and all cancers (0.74 and 0.72). Internal comparisons also showed similar overall cancer risks among fabrication workers (RR = 0.98), including process equipment operators and process equipment service technicians (OP/EST) employed in cleanrooms (RR = 0.97), compared with nonfabrication workers. Nonsignificantly elevated RRs were observed for a few cancer sites among OP/EST workers, but the numbers of deaths were small and there were no trends of increasing risk with duration of employment. Work in the US semiconductor industry, including semiconductor wafer fabrication in cleanrooms, was not associated with increased cancer mortality overall or mortality from any specific form of cancer. However, due to the young average age of this cohort and its associated relatively low numbers of deaths, regular mortality updates of this semiconductor worker cohort are warranted.

  4. Structural shifts in the employment of foreign workers in Austria.

    PubMed

    Biffl, G

    1985-03-01

    The full economic importance of immigration becomes clear only when one examines the concentration of immigrant workers in certain industries and occupations, and this is done in the case of Austria to show the degree of segmentation of the labor market between indigenous and foreign labor. In the course of the 1960s the employment of foreign labor gained importance in Austria. As a consequence, bilateral agreements with the major recruiting countries were made, e.g., with Spain in 1962 and 1969, with Turkey in 1964, and with Yugoslavia in 1966. The reason for the increasing demand for foreign labor was the short supply of indigenous labor due to increasing participation rates and strong economic growth. The demand-pull for foreign labor gained momentum with the onset of the economic boom in 1970, so that by the end of 1973 the number of foreign workers had doubled in comparison to 1970. The 226,800 foreign workers accounted for 8.7% of total employment. The 1974-75 recession and the weak economic development ever since resulted in a decreasing demand for labor. At the same time, the supply of indigenous labor increased as a consequence of a demographic effect and because of increasing participation rates of women. From 1981 to the present, foreign employment decreased again due to the unusually long period of economic stagnation. During 1983, 145,300 foreign workers were engaged, i.e., 5.3% of total employment. The structure for foreign employment now differs greatly from that in the 1960s. The share of women in foreign employment has increased steadily from some 20% in the early 1960s to 31% in 1973 and 40% in 1983 -- a value comparable to the Austrian female share in employment. The reduction of foreign employment since 1973 affected, above all, Yugoslav men. the share of Yugoslavs in foreign employment decreased from 196,300 or 79% in 1973 to 92,200 or 61.7% in 1983. With the duration of foreign employment rising, the disribution of foreign labor over economic

  5. Cumulative Incidence of Acute Kidney Injury in California's Agricultural Workers.

    PubMed

    Moyce, Sally; Joseph, Jill; Tancredi, Daniel; Mitchell, Diane; Schenker, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease in Central America suggests that agricultural work is potentially harmful to the kidneys. We investigated the cumulative incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) over one work shift among agricultural workers in California. Serum creatinine was measured both before and after a work shift to estimate AKI. Associations of incident AKI with traditional and occupational risk factors were tested using Chi-square and trend tests and logistic regression. In 295 agricultural workers, AKI after a summer work shift was detected in 35 participants (11.8%). Piece-rate work was associated with 4.52 adjusted odds of AKI (95% confidence interval 1.61 to 12.70). The cumulative incidence of AKI after a single day of summer agricultural work is alarming due to an increased risk of long-term kidney damage and mortality.

  6. The Development of Employability Skills in Novice Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Comyn, Paul

    This research study attempts to determine how teenage workers develop their employability skills in their first formal jobs. Case studies were carried out in 12 Australian enterprises of varying sizes and drawn from different industry areas. In each case study the following staff were interviewed: senior managers and/or human resources management…

  7. Older Workers in the Market for Part-Time Employment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    that the statistics in Tables l and 2 are derived from information reported directly by the worker. Those who say * .they are retired are counted as...Lewis, H.G., "Interes del Employeador en las Horas de Tobajo del Empleado," "The Employer Interest in Employees’ Hours of Work," Cuadernos de Economia

  8. Employment Practices with Entry-Level Workers. Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatham, Karen M.

    Personnel officers and first-line supervisors in eight Bay Area corporations were interviewed in fall and winter 1981 to study the range and diversity of employer experience in dealing with young workers. Respondents indicated various primary sources of applicants for entry-level jobs. Approximately two applicants out of every three were…

  9. The Development of Employability Skills in Novice Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Comyn, Paul

    This research study attempts to determine how teenage workers develop their employability skills in their first formal jobs. Case studies were carried out in 12 Australian enterprises of varying sizes and drawn from different industry areas. In each case study the following staff were interviewed: senior managers and/or human resources management…

  10. Capping the tax exclusion for employment-based health coverage: implications for employers and workers.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul

    2009-01-01

    HEALTH CARE TAX CAP: With health reform a major priority of the new 111th Congress and President Barack Obama, this Issue Briefexamines the administrative and implementation issues that arise from one of the major reform proposals: Capping the exclusion of employment-based health coverage from workers' taxable income. The amount that employers contribute toward workers' health coverage is generally excluded, without limit, from workers' taxable income. In addition, workers whose employers sponsor flexible spending accounts are able to pay out-of-pocket expenses with pretax dollars. Employers can also make available a premium conversion arrangement, which allows workers to pay their share of the premium for employment-based coverage with pretax dollars. In 2005, a presidential advisory board concluded that limiting the amount of tax-preferred health coverage could lower overall private-sector health spending. The panel recommended a cap on the amount of employment-based health coverage individuals can exclude from their income tax, as a way to reduce health spending. In his 2008 "Call to Action" for health care reform, Sen. Max Baucus (D-MT), chairman of the Senate Finance Committee, states that "Congress should explore ways to restructure the current tax incentives to encourage more efficient spending on health and to target our tax dollars more effectively and fairly." While a tax cap on health coverage sounds simple, for many employers, it could be difficult to administer and results would vary by employer based on the type of health benefit plan, the size and demographics of their work force, and even where the workers live. The change would be especially difficult for self-insured employers that do not pay insurance premiums, since they would have to set the "premium equivalent" for each worker. This would not only be costly for employers, depending upon the requirements set out by law, but could also create fairness and tax issues for many affected workers

  11. 76 FR 70639 - Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of Advocacy and Outreach 7 CFR Part 2502 RIN 0503-AA49 Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program; Correction AGENCY: Office of Advocacy and Outreach, Departmental Management, USDA....

  12. Task Lists for Agricultural Occupations, 1988: Cluster Matrices for Agricultural Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepple, Jerry

    This document contains four publications for agricultural occupations in Illinois. "Task Lists for Agricultural Occupations" provide lists of employability skills for the following: park aide; hand sprayer; gardener/groundskeeper; salesperson, parts, agricultural equipment; and dairy processing equipment operator. Each list contains skills…

  13. Task Lists for Agricultural Occupations, 1988: Cluster Matrices for Agricultural Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepple, Jerry

    This document contains four publications for agricultural occupations in Illinois. "Task Lists for Agricultural Occupations" provide lists of employability skills for the following: park aide; hand sprayer; gardener/groundskeeper; salesperson, parts, agricultural equipment; and dairy processing equipment operator. Each list contains skills…

  14. 76 FR 82115 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB61 Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non... delaying the effective date of the Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-agricultural Employment H-2B... Rule revised the methodology by which we calculate the prevailing wages to be paid to H-2B workers...

  15. 77 FR 60040 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB61 Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non... delaying the effective date of the Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-agricultural Employment H-2B... methodology by which the Department calculates the prevailing wages to be paid to H-2B workers and...

  16. A Study of New Mexico Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrego, John G.; And Others

    The intent of this report, as stated, is to bring about an awareness of the kinds of problems faced by migrant agricultural workers (Mexican Americans and Navajos), by farmers, and by agencies offering services to these migrants in New Mexico. An overview of the national and state migrant situation is presented, as well as case studies of various…

  17. PROGRAM GUIDELINES FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGOWEN, DEWEY, JR.

    THE CHILDREN OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT WORKERS ARE EDUCATIONALLY AND SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED. IN ORDER TO PROVIDE AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR THESE YOUNGSTERS, FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES SHOULD BE CONSIDERED-- (1) AFFECTION IS A BASIC NEED OF CHILDREN, (2) EVERY INDIVIDUAL HAS THE POTENTIAL TO GROW IN HIS OWN WAY, (3) GROWTH IS INTERRELATED WITH READINESS,…

  18. Proceedings: Rural Sociology Section. Association of Southern Agricultural Workers, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Twenty-seven papers relating to rural sociology which were presented at the 1970 annual meeting of the Association of Southern Agricultural Workers are compiled in this volume. Areas emphasized are the educational and occupational aspirations of rural youth, community development and regional planning, and the racial composition and…

  19. Barriers to Participatory Extension in Egypt: Agricultural Workers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…

  20. Barriers to Participatory Extension in Egypt: Agricultural Workers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…

  1. Risk of malignant lymphoma in Swedish agricultural and forestry workers.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, K; Lindefors, B M; Holm, L E

    1988-01-01

    The risk of malignant lymphoma after possible exposure to phenoxy acid herbicides was studied in 354,620 Swedish men who, according to a national census in 1960, were employed in agriculture or forestry. The cohort was divided into subcohorts according to assumed exposure and compared with 1,725,645 Swedish men having other economic activities. All were followed up in the Cancer-Environment Register between 1961 and 1979. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was found in 861 men in the study cohort. The relative risk was not significantly increased in any subcohort, did not differ significantly between the subcohorts, and showed no time related increase in the total cohort or any subcohort. Hodgkin's disease was found in 355 men in the study cohort. Relative risks significantly higher than unity were found among fur farming and silviculture workers where the relative risks were 4.45 and 2.26, respectively. All five cases in the former group were engaged in mink farming. A time related rising trend in relative risk was found in the silviculture subcohort. Elsewhere the relative risk did not diverge from unity and no time related trend was discernible.

  2. Agricultural "killing fields": the poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers.

    PubMed

    Sass, R

    2000-01-01

    The poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers by multinational corporations' excessive use of pesticides is not a local issue; it is embedded in a dominant ideology expressed by the phenomenon of globalization. This ideology seeps into every aspect of our social institutions--economic, political, and legal. The practice of this ideological perspective is evident in the industrialization of global agriculture and the shift from "developmentalism"--liberal welfarism, industrialization, and urbanization--to a dominant, undemocratic, global financial elite with "economism" and a neoliberal political agenda overriding the nation-state polis. A specific effect is to transform the agricultural workers of developing countries, such as Costa Rican banana workers, into politically superfluous flesh-and-blood human beings.

  3. [Health risk among workers employed in rubber footwear plant].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Z; Wilczyńska, U; Sobala, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the health risk of workers performing specific jobs in the process of the rubber footwear production by defining the cause and length of temporary work disability, as well as mortality causes and level. The analysis was carried out in the groups of workers performing the following jobs: mixing, mill operation, pressing and vulcanizing (A); semi-product preparation and calendaring (B); finishing and sorting (C); production of polyvinyl chloride footwear (D); and auxiliary works (E). The sickness absence study covered all workers (208 men and 315 women) employed in a large rubber footwear company and performing all above-listed jobs in 1995. Standardized sick days ratio was used to analyze the risk of temporary work disability. Mortality rate was estimated on the basis of the results of the cohort study performed in the same company among workers who had worked at least three months during the years 1945-1985. The follow-up continued until 31 December 1997. The present study included sub-cohorts composed of 5628 men and 7197 women, performing jobs listed above. The results of both studies indicated the enhanced risk of cardiovascular diseases among workers employed in the basic phases of the production process. The increased risk of the diseases of the digestive system was observed in men and women employed in: finishing, sorting and packing of the products (group C); in men involved in mixing, pressing and vulcanizing (group A); and in women engaged in auxiliary works (group E). In addition, the enhanced risk of sickness absence due to the diseases of the respiratory, digestive, or genitourinary systems was related to the enhanced risk of death from malignant neoplasms in a given site. The analysis showed that the temporary work disability may be regarded as a parameter useful in early assessment of health effects of the work environmental hazards.

  4. New employment regimes in cities: the impact on immigrant workers.

    PubMed

    Sassen, S

    1996-10-01

    "The major cities of highly developed countries exhibit marked changes in job supplies and employment relations. It is frequently held that post-industrial societies require plentiful supplies of highly educated workers and will hold no openings for the low skilled. It is this latter category of jobs that immigrants have tended to fill in recent decades. Empirical data on major cities in advanced economies negate this supposition, revealing that there is an ongoing demand for immigrant labour and a continuing stream of employment opportunities which do not require high educational levels and which pay low wages. The article examines whether this job supply is merely a residue, to some extent augmented by the supply of low wage workers themselves, or whether it is a feature of a reconfigured labour market in advanced urban economies, i.e. a systemic development."

  5. Needlestick Injuries in Agriculture Workers and Prevention Programs.

    PubMed

    Buswell, Minden L; Hourigan, Mary; Nault, André J; Bender, Jeffrey B

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of biologics, vaccines, antibiotics, and hormones used in animal agriculture. Depending upon the procedure or pharmaceutical used, accidental injections or product exposures can result in mild to severe injuries. Needlestick injury (NSI) prevention, research, and education for veterinarians and agriculture workers is limited. The objective of this study was to collect and review published case reports and case series/surveys on human needlestick exposure to veterinary biologics and to summarize needlestick prevention strategies for agricultural workers/veterinarians. A search was conducted of PubMed and Centre for Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI) databases. References were reviewed to identify additional articles. NSI among agricultural workers were primarily included in this review. Thirty articles were applicable to exposures in agricultural settings. Relevant literature consisted of case reports, survey/case series articles, prevention documents, and background articles. Fifty-nine case patients were identified. Most of these cases were associated with exposures to specific vaccines or veterinary products. Injury location was identified from 36 individuals: 24 (67%) NSI to the hands, 10 (28%) injuries to the legs, and 2 to other body locations. Of the 59 cases, 20 (34%) involved oil-adjuvant vaccines. Evidence of hospitalization was recorded for 30 case patients. The length of hospitalization was available from 11 case patients. Median length of hospitalization was 3 days (range: 1-4). Surgical intervention was reported in 25 case patients. Outcome information was available on 30 case patients. Fifteen made a complete recovery within 2 weeks of treatment, 14 had residual sequelae attributed to the injury, and there was 1 reported death. Of the 13 survey/case series articles: 2 focused on oil-adjuvant products, 1 on Brucellosis RB-51 vaccine, 3 on tilmicosin, 1 on Salmonella enteritidis vaccine, 1 on high-pressure injection, and 5

  6. Using the Experience of a Lifetime. NOWIS: An Employer-to-Employer Data Base of Programs Utilizing Experienced Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC. Work Force Programs Dept.

    This publication gives examples of employment programs for experienced workers taken from the National Older Workers Information System (NOWIS), a computerized system of information on more than 140 experienced worker employment programs in public and private sector organizations. (Maintained by the Business Partnerships Program of the American…

  7. Return on investment from employment of community health workers.

    PubMed

    Rush, Carl H

    2012-01-01

    Community Health Workers (CHWs) are gaining acceptance in the US health care system, but have been subject to challenges as to their "cost-effectiveness." This situation is shifting, with a growing body of published evidence as to the effectiveness of CHWs, but much of the evidence of cost savings from employing CHWs is still unpublished. Return on investment analysis for CHWs must consider a range of possible CHW roles and stakeholder points of view. Current trends suggest we may be entering a new era of acceptance in which a generally lower threshold of evidence is required in proposing the employment of CHWs.

  8. Mortality of workers employed in two asbestos cement manufacturing plants.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J M; Weill, H; Hammad, Y Y

    1987-03-01

    In a study of the mortality experience of 6931 employees of two New Orleans asbestos cement products manufacturing plants over 95% were traced. Chrysotile was the primary fibre used in both plants. Plant 1 also used small amounts of amosite and, later, crocidolite irregularly whereas plant 2 used crocidolite steadily in pipe production. Previously reported exposure concentration estimates were revised, based on additional air sampling data and re-evaluation of these data. Workers in the two plants had similar duration of employment (overall, a mean of 3.8 years) and estimated exposure concentration (a mean of 7.6 million particles per cubic foot (mppcf)). Mortality was similar for these plants and comparable with Louisiana rates for all causes combined, nonmalignant causes, and primary cancers of specified sites other than lung. Short term workers from both plants showed raised and similar risk of lung cancer, but risk among longer term workers differed--for example, for workers employed over one year there was no excess in plant 1 (16 observed, 17.2 expected) but a significant excess in plant 2 (52 observed, 28.9 expected, p less than 0.001). After excluding short term workers, risk of lung cancer in plant 2 showed a significant trend with estimated cumulative asbestos exposure; using a conversion of 1.4 fibres/ml = 1 mppcf, the slope of the line was 0.0076. The slope for plant 1 was 0.0003. Among all workers (the 6931, plus 167 early employees) ten mesotheliomas had occurred up to 1984: two from plant 1, eight from plant 2. In plant 2 a case-control analysis found a relation between risk of mesothelioma and duration of employment (p less than 0.01) and proportion of time spent in the pipe area (p less than 0.01), thus adding to the evidence of a greater risk of mesothelioma from crocidolite than chrysotile asbestos. A review of the mortality findings of eight cohorts of asbestos cement workers is presented.

  9. Mortality of workers employed in two asbestos cement manufacturing plants.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J M; Weill, H; Hammad, Y Y

    1987-01-01

    In a study of the mortality experience of 6931 employees of two New Orleans asbestos cement products manufacturing plants over 95% were traced. Chrysotile was the primary fibre used in both plants. Plant 1 also used small amounts of amosite and, later, crocidolite irregularly whereas plant 2 used crocidolite steadily in pipe production. Previously reported exposure concentration estimates were revised, based on additional air sampling data and re-evaluation of these data. Workers in the two plants had similar duration of employment (overall, a mean of 3.8 years) and estimated exposure concentration (a mean of 7.6 million particles per cubic foot (mppcf)). Mortality was similar for these plants and comparable with Louisiana rates for all causes combined, nonmalignant causes, and primary cancers of specified sites other than lung. Short term workers from both plants showed raised and similar risk of lung cancer, but risk among longer term workers differed--for example, for workers employed over one year there was no excess in plant 1 (16 observed, 17.2 expected) but a significant excess in plant 2 (52 observed, 28.9 expected, p less than 0.001). After excluding short term workers, risk of lung cancer in plant 2 showed a significant trend with estimated cumulative asbestos exposure; using a conversion of 1.4 fibres/ml = 1 mppcf, the slope of the line was 0.0076. The slope for plant 1 was 0.0003. Among all workers (the 6931, plus 167 early employees) ten mesotheliomas had occurred up to 1984: two from plant 1, eight from plant 2. In plant 2 a case-control analysis found a relation between risk of mesothelioma and duration of employment (p less than 0.01) and proportion of time spent in the pipe area (p less than 0.01), thus adding to the evidence of a greater risk of mesothelioma from crocidolite than chrysotile asbestos. A review of the mortality findings of eight cohorts of asbestos cement workers is presented. PMID:3828242

  10. [Psychotropic medication use by French active self-employed workers].

    PubMed

    Ha-Vinh, Philippe; Régnard, Pierre; Sauze, Laurent

    2011-04-01

    INTERESTS OF THE STUDY: In the self-employed workers population (shop keepers, craft men, industrialists and liberal professions), psychotropic medications use and discrepancies between occupational situations have never been evaluated before. It is nevertheless a prerequisite in preventive actions against addictions, stress and injuries caused by disorders of attentiveness at work. The French Self Employed Workers Health Care Insurance Fund affiliate members data base was analysed for active workers from 18 to 60 years of age living in the Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur Region. From this population the cases were defined as having refunded ambulatory prescription of behind the counter psychotropic treatment during the year 2009 (anxiolytic, antidepressant, hypnotic, neuroleptic, lithium, alcoholic or opioid dependance therapy) and the randomised control sample was constituted by drawing the key of the social security number. A case-control multivariate logistic regression adjusted for gender, age and place of abode was used for searching discrepancy between occupational situations. Anxiolytic, antidepressant or hypnotic consumers are the most numerous (906; 557 and 446 consumers per 10 000 persons-year respectively). Antidepressant, neuroleptic and opioid dependance therapy are the three main posts of expense for the health insurance (584 505; 169 947 and 151 201 € per year respectively). When compared to workers of the construction sector, workers of retail trade of clothes had an Odd Ratio of 2,04 [95%CI 1,46-2,85] for anxiolytics consumption and 2,29 [95%CI 1,67-3,14] for antidepressants consumption, workers in the sector of the hotel and catering had an Odd Ratio of 1,62 [95%CI 1,19-2,22] for alcoholic dependance therapy medicines consumption, workers in the accountant, legal and financial sector had an Odd Ratio of 0,05 [95%CI 0,01-0,32] for opioid dependence therapy medicines consumption. Occupations associated with increased psychotropic medicines

  11. Worker Satisfaction Following Employment Restructuring: Effects of Nonstandard Workers and Downsizing on Job Satisfaction in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Jyh-Jer Roger; Yeh, Ying-Jung Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, many employment relationships in Taiwan have evolved from regular and long-term to contingent and short-term, with widespread downsizing adding a considerable amount of instability. Since these changes are part of a global trend, there is a growing literature concerning their influences on worker attitudes and work life quality.…

  12. Worker Satisfaction Following Employment Restructuring: Effects of Nonstandard Workers and Downsizing on Job Satisfaction in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Jyh-Jer Roger; Yeh, Ying-Jung Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, many employment relationships in Taiwan have evolved from regular and long-term to contingent and short-term, with widespread downsizing adding a considerable amount of instability. Since these changes are part of a global trend, there is a growing literature concerning their influences on worker attitudes and work life quality.…

  13. Healthy worker survivor analysis in an occupational cohort study of Dutch agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Spierenburg, E A J; Smit, L A M; Heederik, D; Robbe, P; Hylkema, M N; Wouters, I M

    2015-11-01

    High microbial exposures in farmers and agricultural workers are associated with less atopy. Although it has been speculated that healthy worker survival could be an explanation, this has not been studied so far. Therefore, we investigated the presence of healthy worker survival in a five-year follow-up study of an occupational cohort of Dutch farmers and agricultural industry (company) workers. We compared baseline demographic characteristics, respiratory health, atopy and endotoxin exposure of 259 workers followed up with 124 workers lost to follow-up. Additionally, baseline health status of 31 participants who had changed to lower exposure jobs at follow-up was compared to those with similar or higher exposure jobs at follow-up. In general, no major healthy worker survival effect was found. Nonetheless, small differences were observed between subjects included in follow-up and those lost to follow-up. Those lost to follow-up were older, had a lower peak expiratory flow, and were less often raised on a farm. Company workers lost to follow-up with a farm childhood had more often self-reported allergy, but this was not observed for subjects with atopic sensitization or other respiratory symptoms. No differences were found for any of the studied characteristics in participants with lower exposure at follow-up compared to participants with similar or higher exposure at follow-up. No major healthy worker survival is present in this organic dust exposed cohort. Differences between participants lost to follow-up and participants included in follow-up with regard to health characteristics are small and unlikely to explain the previously reported inverse associations between endotoxin exposure and atopy.

  14. Disease prevalence and mortality among agricultural workers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Jin; Cha, Eun Shil; Moon, Eun Kyeong

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of mortality and disease prevalence related to occupational diseases among agricultural workers in Korea. We evaluated the age-standardized mortality rates and the prevalence of chronic diseases and compared them with those of other populations using death registration data from 2004 through 2008 and the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In addition, we conducted a literature review on published articles examining the health status of farmers in Korea. Agricultural workers have a significantly higher mortality of cancer, tuberculosis, chronic respiratory diseases, liver diseases, suicide, motor and non-motor vehicle accidents. Compared to other populations, farmers have higher prevalence rates of arthritis and intervertebral disc disorders. The literature review revealed a number of work-related diseases among farmers, such as musculoskeletal diseases, pesticide poisoning, infections, and respiratory and neurologic diseases. Korean farmers demonstrate a distinct pattern of mortality and disease prevalence compared to other populations. Although lifestyle factors remain important contributors to those deaths and diseases, our study suggests that occupation is a major determinant as well. Intensive programs such as surveillance systems, therefore, should be developed in order to identify and prevent work-related diseases among agricultural workers in Korea.

  15. Employers, workers, and the future of employment-based health benefits.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Stephen

    2010-02-01

    EBRI'S BIANNUAL POLICY FORUM: This Issue Brief summarizes presentations at EBRI's 65th biannual policy forum, held in Washington, DC, on Dec. 10, 2009, on the topic, "Employers, Workers, and the Future of Employment-Based Health Benefits." The forum brought together a wide range of economic, benefits, management, and labor experts to share their expertise at a time when major health reform legislation was being debated in Congress. The focus: How might this affect the way that the vast majority of Americans currently get their health insurance coverage? THE EMPLOYMENT-BASED HEALTH INSURANCE SYSTEM: Most people who have health insurance coverage in the United States get it through their job: In 2008, about 61 percent of the nonelderly population had employment-based health benefits, 19 percent were covered by public programs, 6 percent had individual coverage, and 17 percent were uninsured. Not surprisingly, given the deep conflicts that exist over President Obama's health reform plan and the different bills that have passed the House and Senate, benefits experts also do not agree on what "health reform" will mean for either workers or employers. Views ranged from "Will anyone notice?" to predictions of great upheaval for workers and their employers, patients and health care providers, and the entire U.S. health care system. One point of consensus among both labor and management representatives: Imposing a tax on health benefits is likely to cause major cuts in health benefits and might result in structural changes in the employment-based benefits system. A common disappointment voiced at the forum was that the initial effort to reform the delivery and cost of health care in America gradually became focused on just financing and coverage of health insurance. The ever-rising cost of health insurance affects different employers and workers in different ways--with small employers and low-wage workers being the most disadvantaged. With health premiums having risen

  16. 20 CFR 663.705 - What are the requirements for OJT contracts for employed workers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements for OJT contracts for employed workers? OJT contracts may be written for eligible employed workers..., introduction to new production or service procedures, upgrading to new jobs that require additional skills...

  17. 20 CFR 663.705 - What are the requirements for OJT contracts for employed workers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements for OJT contracts for employed workers? OJT contracts may be written for eligible employed workers..., introduction to new production or service procedures, upgrading to new jobs that require additional skills...

  18. Mortality among workers employed in petroleum refining and petrochemical plants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T L; Decoufle, P; Moure-Eraso, R

    1980-02-01

    The cause-specific mortality experience of 3,105 members of the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union was examined to determine if there were unusual patterns of fatal disease that may be indicative of hazardous agents in the work environment. Deaths among active Union members that were reported by locals in Texas between 1947 and 1977 were identified through membership records, and proportionate mortality was analyzed in several broad industrial categories. PMRs for cancers of the liver and biliary passages, pancreas, lung and skin were elevated among refinery and petrochemical plant workers; however, risks did not increase with length of membership. Increased relative frequencies of stomach cancer, cancer of the brain, leukemia and multiple myeloma were confined to white males in the same category who had been Union members for 10 or more years. Excess deaths from stomach cancer and brain cancer were found among white male members employed at one specific oil refinery and petrochemical plant. Observed numbers of deaths from cancer of the stomach were greater than expected among whites and nonwhites, and an elevated PMR for lung cancer among nonwhites was found at an additional plant. Findings suggest that workers in this industry may be at increased risk of certain cancers and indicate areas for further investigation.

  19. Brain Cancer in Workers Employed at a Laboratory Research Facility

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James J.; Bender, Thomas John; Bonner, Eileen M.; Bodner, Kenneth M.; Kreft, Alisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Background An earlier study of research facility workers found more brain cancer deaths than expected, but no workplace exposures were implicated. Methods Adding four additional years of vital-status follow-up, we reassessed the risk of death from brain cancer in the same workforce, including 5,284 workers employed between 1963, when the facility opened, and 2007. We compared the work histories of the brain cancer decedents in relationship to when they died and their ages at death. Results As in most other studies of laboratory and research workers, we found low rates of total mortality, total cancers, accidents, suicides, and chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes. We found no new brain cancer deaths in the four years of additional follow-up. Our best estimate of the brain cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 1.32 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.66–2.37), but the SMR might have been as high as 1.69. Deaths from benign brain tumors and other non-malignant diseases of the nervous system were at or below expected levels. Conclusion With the addition of four more years of follow-up and in the absence of any new brain cancers, the updated estimate of the risk of brain cancer death is smaller than in the original study. There was no consistent pattern among the work histories of decedents that indicated a common causative exposure. PMID:25493437

  20. 76 FR 59896 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Postponement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB61 Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non...) is postponing the effective date of the Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non- Agricultural... methodology by which we calculate the prevailing wages to be paid to H-2B workers and United States...

  1. Cancer survivorship, health insurance, and employment transitions among older workers.

    PubMed

    Tunceli, Kaan; Short, Pamela Farley; Moran, John R; Tunceli, Ozgur

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of job-related health insurance on employment transitions (labor force exits, reductions in hours, and job changes) of older working cancer survivors. Using multivariate models, we compared longitudinal data for the period 1997-2002 from the Penn State Cancer Survivor Study to similar data for workers with no cancer history in the Health and Retirement Study, who were also ages 55 to 64 at follow-up. The interaction of cancer survivorship with health insurance at diagnosis was negative and significant in predicting labor force exits, job changes, and transitions to part-time employment for both genders. The differential effect of job-related health insurance on the labor market dynamics of cancer survivors represents an additional component of the economic and psychosocial burden of cancer on survivors.

  2. Cancer Survivorship, Health Insurance, and Employment Transitions among Older Workers

    PubMed Central

    Tunceli, Kaan; Short, Pamela Farley; Moran, John R.; Tunceli, Ozgur

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of job-related health insurance on employment transitions (labor force exits, reductions in hours, and job changes) of older working cancer survivors. Using multivariate models, we compared longitudinal data for the period 1997–2002 from the Penn State Cancer Survivor Study to similar data for workers with no cancer history in the Health and Retirement Study, who were also ages 55 to 64 at follow up. The interaction of cancer survivorship with health insurance at diagnosis was negative and significant in predicting labor force exits, job changes, and transitions to part-time employment for both genders. The differential effect of job-related health insurance on the labor market dynamics of cancer survivors represents an additional component of the economic and psychosocial burden of cancer on survivors. PMID:19489481

  3. [Sick leave among workers employed in restructured enterprise].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    increase due to mental pathologies (from 3 to 12% in males and from 4 to 7% in women) were recorded. The changes observed in sickness absence result mainly from the changes in the magnitude and structure of employment in the restructured enterprise and related organizational modifications, which arise stressogenic situations among workers, more intensified at risk of unemployment.

  4. Problems associated with the use of chemicals by agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Baloch, U K

    1985-01-01

    The agricultural productivity in Pakistan is hampered by insects, diseases, and weeds, which are reported causing losses ranging up to 50%, estimated at a total value of over 900 million U.S. dollars. The use of pesticides in Pakistan started in 1954 with 254 metric tons of formulation, increasing to the level of 16,226 metric tons in 1976-77. Since the import and use of pesticides was in the public sector, the promulgation of the Agricultural Pesticides Ordinance was delayed to 1971 and the Rules to 1973. Under these Rules exist provisions necessary for the registration, marketing, and safe use of pesticides. Through the Agricultural Pesticides Technical Advisory Committee consisting of members drawn from the various Federal and Provincial agencies relevant to the subject, the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Cooperatives, Government of Pakistan, is responsible for its implementation, but no regular agency for monitoring the implementation of the Rules exists. The extent of health hazards to agricultural workers as a result of exposure to pesticides, among other things, depends on the socioeconomic and educational background of their society, the local laws governing registration, and the scientific and regulatory institutional setup of the country. The above factors, of particular relevance to Pakistan, are discussed.

  5. Agricultural Products Sales and Service Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for agricultural products sales and service occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies,…

  6. 45 CFR 1626.11 - H-2 agricultural and forestry workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false H-2 agricultural and forestry workers. 1626.11... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural and forestry workers. (a... section. (b) Nonimmigrant forestry workers admitted to, or permitted to remain in, the United States under...

  7. Family Structure and Employment Characteristics Differentiate Poor from Near-Poor Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagata, Elizabeth M.

    1997-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate that rural workers were more likely than urban workers to be poor or near-poor. Poor and near-poor rural workers were more likely than other workers to be southern, young, and in a minority group. Barriers to livable-wage employment included low educational attainment, being a single mother, and having young…

  8. A Look into the Temporary Employment Industry and Its Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.; Belovics, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a brief overview of the contingent worker industry and its employees. In addition to defining temporary worker, the authors describe the importance of the temporary worker industry to the U.S. economy and the forces that have driven this industry's rapid growth. The changing profile of temporary workers, the benefits and…

  9. Pesticide, Gene Polymorphisms and Bladder Cancer among Egyptian Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Amr, Sania; Dawson, Rebecca; Saleh, Doa’a A.; Magder, Laurence S.; St. George, Diane Marie; El-Daly, Mai; Squibb, Katherine; Mikhail, Nabiel N.; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Khaled, Hussein; Loffredo, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the associations between pesticide exposure, genetic polymorphisms for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase I (NQO1) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), and urinary bladder cancer risk among male agricultural workers in Egypt. We used logistic regression to analyze data from a multi-center case-control study and estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI (confidence interval) Exposure to pesticides was associated with increased bladder cancer risk (1.68 (1.23–2.29)) in a dose-dependent manner. The association was slightly stronger for urothelial (1.79 (1.25–2.56) than for squamous cell carcinoma (1.55 (1.03–2.31)), and among participants with combined genotypes for low NQO1 and high SOD2 (2.14 (1.19–3.85) activities as compared to those with high NQO1 and low SOD2 genotypes (1.53 (0.73–3.25)). In conclusion, among male agricultural workers in Egypt, pesticide exposure is associated with bladder cancer risk and possibly modulated by genetic polymorphism. PMID:24219772

  10. Decreased kidney function among agricultural workers in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Peraza, Sandra; Wesseling, Catharina; Aragon, Aurora; Leiva, Ricardo; García-Trabanino, Ramón Antonio; Torres, Cecilia; Jakobsson, Kristina; Elinder, Carl Gustaf; Hogstedt, Christer

    2012-04-01

    An epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown cause has emerged along the Pacific coast of Central America, particularly in relatively young male sugarcane workers. In El Salvador, we examined residence and occupations at different altitudes as surrogate risk factors for heat stress. Cross-sectional population-based survey. Populations aged 20-60 years of 5 communities in El Salvador, 256 men and 408 women (participation, 73%): 2 coastal communities with current sugarcane and past cotton production and 3 communities above 500 m with sugarcane, coffee, and service-oriented economies. Participant sex, age, residence, occupation, agricultural history by crop and altitude, and traditional risk factors for CKD. Serum creatinine (SCr) level greater than the normal laboratory range for sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and proteinuria categorized as low (protein excretion ≥ 30-< 300 mg/dL) and high grade (≥ 300 mg/dL). Of the men in the coastal communities, 30% had elevated SCr levels and 18% had eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared with 4% and 1%, respectively, in the communities above 500 m. For agricultural workers, prevalences of elevated SCr levels and eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were highest for coastal sugarcane and cotton plantation workers, but were not increased in sugarcane workers at 500 m or subsistence farmers. Women followed a weaker but similar pattern. Proteinuria was infrequent, of low grade, and not different among communities, occupations, or sexes. The adjusted ORs of decreased kidney function for 10-year increments of coastal sugarcane or cotton plantation work were 3.1 (95% CI, 2.0-5.0) in men and 2.3 (95% CI, 1.4-3.7) in women. The cross-sectional nature of the study limits etiologic interpretations. Agricultural work on lowland sugarcane and cotton plantations was associated with decreased kidney function in men and women, possibly related to strenuous work in hot environments with repeated volume depletion

  11. Prevalence of chromosomal aberrations in Argentinean agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Graciela Eugenia; Suarez, Eva; Cazon, Lauro; de la Puente, Teresita Beatriz; Ahrendts, Marcelo Rafael Benitez; De Luca, Julio César

    2017-07-21

    Little is known about biosecurity measures and toxic effects during pesticide application in the province of Jujuy, Argentina, particularly concerning the protective measures and mixture of pesticides used by rural workers. We carried out an observational study of agricultural workers from Jujuy (76 exposed subjects and 53 controls) to investigate the prevalence of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in human lymphocytes as well as the activity level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in red blood cell erythrocytes. Whole blood samples (5 mL) were collected in heparinized Vacutainer tubes for cytogenetic analysis and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity determination according to Ellman's method. Cytogenetic results showed a significant CA increase in pesticide-exposed individuals as compared with controls (4.20 ± 0.15 vs. 1.00 ± 0.05, respectively; p < 0.001), suggesting that pesticides are clastogenic agents causing DNA damage. Erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was significantly lower in exposed individuals, evidencing the possible occurrence of perturbations in blood as well as neurotoxicity in pesticide sprayers. These results suggest the need for periodic biomonitoring of these biomarkers together with education and training of occupational workers for the safe application of potentially harmful pesticides.

  12. 40 CFR 170.224 - Notice of applications to agricultural employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notice of applications to agricultural... applications to agricultural employers. Before the application of any pesticide on or in an agricultural establishment, the handler employer shall provide the following information to any agricultural employer for the...

  13. 40 CFR 170.224 - Notice of applications to agricultural employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of applications to agricultural... applications to agricultural employers. Before the application of any pesticide on or in an agricultural establishment, the handler employer shall provide the following information to any agricultural employer for the...

  14. 40 CFR 170.224 - Notice of applications to agricultural employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notice of applications to agricultural... applications to agricultural employers. Before the application of any pesticide on or in an agricultural establishment, the handler employer shall provide the following information to any agricultural employer for the...

  15. 40 CFR 170.224 - Notice of applications to agricultural employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notice of applications to agricultural... applications to agricultural employers. Before the application of any pesticide on or in an agricultural establishment, the handler employer shall provide the following information to any agricultural employer for the...

  16. 40 CFR 170.224 - Notice of applications to agricultural employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice of applications to agricultural... applications to agricultural employers. Before the application of any pesticide on or in an agricultural establishment, the handler employer shall provide the following information to any agricultural employer for the...

  17. SUPERVISED TRAINING FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT FOR STUDENTS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IN ARKANSAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WAY, DARREL

    INFORMATION TO ASSIST LOCAL ADMINISTRATORS, TEACHERS, COUNSELORS, ADVISORY COMMITTEEMEN, AND TRAINING CENTER REPRESENTATIVES IN OPERATING A PROGRAM OF SUPERVISED TRAINING FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IS PROVIDED. THE MAJOR SECTIONS ARE--(1) THE NEED FOR THE PROGRAM, (2) ADVANTAGES OF THE PROGRAM, (3) ORGANIZATIONAL PROCEDURES, (4) PROGRAM POLICIES,…

  18. Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and health conditions in agricultural and non-agricultural workers from Maule, Chile.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris; Iglesias, Verónica; Levy, Karen; Muñoz, María Pía; Achú, Eduardo; Cornejo, Claudia; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the characteristics of exposure to OP pesticides and health status in Chilean farm workers from the Maule Region. An occupational health questionnaire was administered in 207 agricultural and non-agricultural workers. For the group of agricultural workers, we asked about specific occupational exposure history and symptoms of OP pesticide poisoning. The main health problem of the exposed group was previous OP pesticide poisoning (p < 0.001). Fifty-six percent of agricultural workers reported symptoms consistent with acute OP pesticide poisoning. The use of respiratory personal protective equipment and younger age were protective against these symptoms, and number of years of OP pesticide exposure was positively associated with reporting symptoms of poisoning. Of the pesticide applicators 47 % reported using chlorpyrifos. The regulations regarding use and application of pesticides should be strengthened, as should training and intervention with workers to improve the use of personal protective equipment.

  19. Cyclical absenteeism among private sector, public sector and self-employed workers.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2013-03-01

    This research note analyzes differences in the number of absent working days and doctor visits and in their cyclicality between private sector, public sector and self-employed workers. For this purpose, I used large-scale German survey data for the years 1995 to 2007 to estimate random effects negative binomial (count data) models. The main findings are as follows. (i) Public sector workers have on average more absent working days than private sector and self-employed workers. Self-employed workers have fewer absent working days and doctor visits than dependent employed workers. (ii) The regional unemployment rate is on average negatively correlated with the number of absent working days among private and public sector workers as well as among self-employed men. The correlations between regional unemployment rate and doctor visits are only significantly negative among private sector workers.

  20. Petition for Rulemaking to Amend Agricultural Worker Protection Standard Effective Date

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This petition from the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture and the American Farm Bureau Federation, dated December 21, 2016, asks that the Agency amend the Agricultural Worker Protection Standard by postponing the effective date.

  1. Assessing the Employment-Related Interpersonal Competence of Mildly Mentally Retarded Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullis, Michael; Foss, Gilbert

    1986-01-01

    The Test of Interpersonal Competence for Employment (TICE) designed to assess a mildly retarded worker's knowledge of interpersonal skills in the employment setting, was developed based on analysis of problems that mildly retarded workers experience and identification of correct responses to those problems by competitive employers. Initial…

  2. Effective Employment-Based Training Models for Childcare Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Sarojni; Haukka, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Childcare workers play a significant role in the learning and development of children in their care. This has major implications for the training of workers. Under new reforms of the childcare industry, the Australian government now requires all workers to obtain qualifications from a vocational education and training provider (e.g. Technical and…

  3. Mature Age "White Collar" Workers' Training and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymock, Darryl; Billett, Stephen; Klieve, Helen; Johnson, Greer Cavallaro; Martin, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Global concerns about the growing impact of ageing populations on workplace productivity and on welfare budgets have led to a range of government-supported measures intended to retain and upskill older workers. Yet, a consistent theme in the research literature is that older workers are reluctant and harder to train than younger workers, and that,…

  4. Mature Age "White Collar" Workers' Training and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymock, Darryl; Billett, Stephen; Klieve, Helen; Johnson, Greer Cavallaro; Martin, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Global concerns about the growing impact of ageing populations on workplace productivity and on welfare budgets have led to a range of government-supported measures intended to retain and upskill older workers. Yet, a consistent theme in the research literature is that older workers are reluctant and harder to train than younger workers, and that,…

  5. 75 FR 66797 - Watts Regulator, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Employment Control, D/B/A Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Watts Regulator, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Employment Control, D/B/A Employment Staffing, Inc., Spindale, NC; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To... amended (``Act''), 19 U.S.C. 2273, the Department of Labor issued a Certification of Eligibility to...

  6. Perceptions of environmental and occupational health hazards among agricultural workers in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Crowe, Jennifer; Postma, Julie; Ybarra, Vickie; Keifer, Matthew C

    2009-09-01

    This study describes agricultural workers' perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues. Interviews were conducted with 389 agricultural workers in the Yakima Valley of central Washington State in the summers of 2004 and 2005. Undergraduate students from the community conducted interviews in Spanish or English. Environmental and occupational health issues were ranked by frequency of concern, and differences by demographics were evaluated using multivariate analyses. In both 2004 and 2005, agricultural workers expressed high levels of concern about working in hot weather, agricultural injuries, pesticides, and pediatric asthma. Agricultural workers' perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues differed by specific demographics, particularly age and ethnicity. Consideration should be given to these issues when designing research studies, creating educational materials, and developing interventions related to environmental and occupational hazards among agricultural workers.

  7. Perceptions of Environmental and Occupational Health Hazards Among Agricultural Workers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Crowe, Jennifer; Postma, Julie; Ybarra, Vickie; Keifer, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers. Interviews were conducted with 389 agricultural workers in the Yakima Valley in central Washington State in the summers of 2004 and 2005. Undergraduate students from the community conducted interviews in Spanish or English. Environmental and occupational health issues were ranked by frequency of concern, and differences by demographic characteristics were evaluated using multivariate analyses. In both 2004 and 2005, agricultural workers expressed high levels of concern about working in hot weather, agricultural injuries, pesticides, and pediatric asthma. Perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers differed by certain demographic characteristics, particularly age and ethnicity. Consideration should be given to these issues when designing research studies, creating educational materials, and developing interventions related to environmental and occupational hazards among agricultural workers. PMID:19715263

  8. Sex workers in agricultural areas: Their drugs, their children.

    PubMed

    Bletzer, Keith V

    2005-01-01

    Most research on female sex workers is urban-based, emphasizing economic necessity and risk-taking. Few authors discuss sex workers and their children. The objective of the present study was to ethnographically explore the influence of street life on childrearing by women involved in sex work in agricultural areas of the southeastern USA. Interviews took place with 38 women. Findings suggest that the sampled women followed the usual paths into substance use. Most began using substances before they began sex work, at which time use escalated to crack-cocaine. Children of 32 of the 34 women who were mothers were living separately from their mothers. None the less, mothers took an interest in children's wellbeing, and many visited them whenever possible. Their principal concern was assuring that children were raised in the best way available. One daughter followed her mother into sex work, and a few older children drank moderately. Several children had experienced abuse from persons other than parents, but the long-term effects of this abuse are unknown.

  9. Cancer mortality in workers employed at a transformer manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Yassi, A; Tate, R; Fish, D

    1994-03-01

    This study examined mortality to December 31, 1989 in a cohort of 2,222 males employed between 1947 and 1975 at a transformer manufacturing plant in Canada, where there had been extensive use of transformer fluid, some containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A combined cohort list of 2,222 names was independently obtained from plant management and union officials. Mortality of 1,939 workers with known birthdates was ascertained by record linkage with the Canadian Mortality Data-base. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for different criteria for acceptance of the death certificate link and for cohort membership (based on work history) ranged from .71-1.05. There was no significant increase in overall cancer deaths. The only significant site-specific increased mortality was pancreatic cancer (11 deaths), with SMRs ranging from 2.92-7.64 and higher mortality risk in those who entered the cohort prior to 1960. All but one of these deaths had a latency period of at least 10 years, and greatest SMRs were found in departments with the greatest exposure to transformer fluid. Several previous studies have found excess pancreatic cancers in association with oil exposures and electrical equipment manufacturing. The need to further investigate pancreatic cancer in transformer manufacturing and related exposures is evident.

  10. 75 FR 6031 - Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Fields, and Pesticides with No Food Uses; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural Fields, and Pesticides with No Food Uses,'' that describes how the Agency plans to use revised methods in conducting risk assessments for pesticide...

  11. Characterization of α-cypermethrin Exposure in Egyptian Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Steven T.; Lein, Pamela J.; Farahat, Fayssal M.; Farahat, Taghreed; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Olson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides that exert their effects by prolonging the open time of sodium channels, which increases the duration of neuronal excitation. α-cypermethrin (αCM) is derived from the 8-stereoisomers that together make up the pyrethroid cypermethrin, which is one of the most common pyrethroids being used in agriculture throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure to αCM in a cohort of Egyptian agriculture workers (n=37) before, during and after 6 to 10 consecutive days of application of αCM to cotton fields. Daily spot urine specimens were collected and analyzed by GC-MS NCI for the αCM metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and cis-3-(2’,2’-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA). Prior to αCM application, median urinary levels of 3-PBA (4.59 nmol/g creatinine) were greater than cis-DCCA (0.33 nmole/g creatinine) demonstrating low background exposures to pyrethroids. During the application period for αCM, median urinary levels of both biomarkers increased (13.44 nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 7.76 nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine) and ranged from 2.3–93.96 nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 0.09–90.94 nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine, demonstrating that workers had a wide range of exposures to αCM. The data also demonstrate that pesticide applicators had greater exposures to αCM than workers who play a supporting role in the seasonal application of pesticides on the cotton crop. Urinary cis-DCCA and 3-PBA concentrations were elevated at 7–11 days after the cessation of αCM application, compared to baseline levels. This study is the first to use these biomarkers to quantify occupational exposures specifically to αCM. This urinary biomarker data will be useful for estimating daily internal dose, comparing exposures across job categories within the Egyptian pesticide application teams, and for modeling human exposures to αCM. PMID:24269189

  12. Occupational health and safety of workers in agriculture and horticulture.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, P

    2000-01-01

    Working in agriculture and horticulture gives considerable job satisfaction. The tasks are often interesting; you can see the result of your own work, watch your crop grow and mature; you have an affinity with nature and can follow the changes in the seasons. However, today it is a dangerous work environment fraught with occupational injuries and diseases due to hazardous situations and to physiological, physical, biological, chemical, psychological, and sociological factors. The ongoing rapid development may, on the other hand, bring about many changes during the next decades with more farmers and growers switching to organic production. Moreover, increased awareness of animal welfare also may lead to improved working conditions. Large-scale operations with fewer family-operated agricultural businesses might mean fewer injuries among children and older farmers. A consequence of large-scale operations may also be better regulation of working conditions. The greater use of automation technology eliminates many harmful working postures and movements when milking cows and carrying out other tasks. Information technology offers people the opportunity to gain more knowledge about their work. Labeling food produced in a worker-friendly work environment may give the consumers a chance to be involved in the process.

  13. Chronic Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Agricultural Workers - Influence of Exposure Duration and Smoking.

    PubMed

    Stoleski, Saso; Minov, Jordan; Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka

    2015-03-15

    Job exposure in agricultural workers often leads to respiratory impairment. To assess the influence of exposure duration and smoking on chronic respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity in agricultural workers. A cross-sectional study covered 75 agricultural workers, compared with an equal number of office workers matched by age, exposure duration and smoking status. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain data on chronic respiratory symptoms, job and smoking history. Lung functional testing was performed by spirometry. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher in agricultural workers, with significant difference for cough (P = 0.034), and dyspnea (P = 0.028). Chronic respiratory symptoms among agricultural workers were significantly associated with duration of exposure (P < 0.05) and daily smoking (P < 0.01), as well as with daily smoking in controls (P < 0.01). The average values of spirometric parameters in exposed workers were significantly different for MEF50 (P = 0.002), MEF75 (P = 0.000), and MEF25-75 (P = 0.049). Obstructive changes in small airways in exposed workers were strongly related to exposure duration (P < 0.05) and smoking (P < 0.01). Agricultural workers with job exposure more than 15 years had more expressed adverse respiratory symptoms and lung function decline. The results confirmed the influence of agricultural exposure and daily smoking on chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation, primarily targeting the small airways.

  14. 78 FR 48467 - Wausau Paper, Brainerd Converting Operation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Workers From Employment Resource Center, Securitas and Marsden, Brainerd, Minnesota; Amended Certification... of uncoated free sheet paper. The state reports that workers leased from Securitas and Marsden were... workers leased from Securitas and Marsden working on-site at the Brainerd, Minnesota location of...

  15. The Employability of Older Workers as Teleworkers: An Appraisal of Issues and an Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharit, Joseph; Czaja, Sara J.; Hernandez, Mario A.; Nair, Sankaran N.

    2009-01-01

    The aging of the population and, concomitantly, of the workforce has a number of important implications for governments, businesses, and workers. In this article, we examine the prospects for the employability of older workers as home-based teleworkers. This alternative work could accommodate many of the needs and preferences of older workers and at the same time benefit organizations. However, before telework can be considered a viable work option for many older workers there are a number of issues to consider, including the ability of older workers to adapt to the technological demands that are typically associated with telework jobs and managerial attitudes about older workers and about telework. Through an integrated examination of these and other issues, our goal is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the challenges associated with employing older workers as teleworkers. We also present findings from a questionnaire study that assessed managers’ perceptions of worker attributes desirable for telework and how older workers compare to younger workers on these attributes. The sample included 314 managers with varying degrees of managerial experience from a large variety of companies in the United States. The results presented a mixed picture with respect to the employability of older workers as teleworkers, and strongly suggested that less experienced managers would be more resistant to hiring older people as teleworkers. We conclude with a number of recommendations for improving the prospects for employment of older workers for this type of work arrangement. PMID:20090856

  16. The Employability of Older Workers as Teleworkers: An Appraisal of Issues and an Empirical Study.

    PubMed

    Sharit, Joseph; Czaja, Sara J; Hernandez, Mario A; Nair, Sankaran N

    2009-01-01

    The aging of the population and, concomitantly, of the workforce has a number of important implications for governments, businesses, and workers. In this article, we examine the prospects for the employability of older workers as home-based teleworkers. This alternative work could accommodate many of the needs and preferences of older workers and at the same time benefit organizations. However, before telework can be considered a viable work option for many older workers there are a number of issues to consider, including the ability of older workers to adapt to the technological demands that are typically associated with telework jobs and managerial attitudes about older workers and about telework. Through an integrated examination of these and other issues, our goal is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the challenges associated with employing older workers as teleworkers. We also present findings from a questionnaire study that assessed managers' perceptions of worker attributes desirable for telework and how older workers compare to younger workers on these attributes. The sample included 314 managers with varying degrees of managerial experience from a large variety of companies in the United States. The results presented a mixed picture with respect to the employability of older workers as teleworkers, and strongly suggested that less experienced managers would be more resistant to hiring older people as teleworkers. We conclude with a number of recommendations for improving the prospects for employment of older workers for this type of work arrangement.

  17. The Co-Worker Training Model: Outcomes of an Open Employment Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Bryan; Stancliffe, Roger J.

    2001-01-01

    A pilot study evaluated the viability of trained co-workers (n=12) providing direct job training and support to 10 individuals with mental retardation. Employment outcomes for consumers with co-worker support were as good as for those with job coach support. Consumers also experienced high levels of involvement with co-workers. (Contains…

  18. Changes in the Employment Patterns of College-Educated Workers, 1950-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, A. J.; Froomkin, Joseph

    The employment of college-educated workers at the start of their careers and promotion patterns for older workers were studied. Attention was directed to the following concerns: the types of jobs available to young college-educated workers in the 1970s compared to the situation for their peers in the 1950s and 1960s; the effect of increased…

  19. Technical Guidelines and References: Crops Training Component. From: Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume III: Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This reference manual for training Peace Corps agricultural development workers deals with crops. The document begins with common units of area, length, weight, volume, and conversions between them. A practice problem is worked and other conversion problems are given. The second section is intended to show agricultural field workers how to survey…

  20. 75 FR 6883 - Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-12

    ... employees of H-2A employers, applying H-2A protections only to newly- hired workers and the H-2A workers.... Further, as one commenter observed, since newly-hired employees are entitled to the AEWR, a longtime employee may quit his current employment and re-apply for the same job with the same employer to obtain the...

  1. Industrial Characteristics and Employment of Older Manufacturing Workers in the Early-Twentieth-Century United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how industry-specific technological, organizational, and managerial features affected the employment of old male manufacturing workers in the early twentieth-century United States. Industrial characteristics favorably related to the employment of old industrial workers include high labor productivity, less capital- and material-intensive production, short workdays, low intensity of work, high job flexibility, and formalized employment relationship. Results show that aged industrial workers were heavily concentrated in “unfavorable” industries, suggesting that the contemporary argument of “industrial scrap heap” was applicable for most of the manufacturing workers in the early twentieth century United States. PMID:26989273

  2. Workers at Risk: Increased Numbers in Contingent Employment Lack Insurance, Other Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Worker Protection Should they lose their jobs, many workers in nontraditional employment Programs, Labor Laws will find it either difficult or...federal labor laws to many nontraditional workers is also limited. For example, independent contractors are not covered by minimum wage laws and health and...safety regulations. Under current labor laws , unions face greater difficulties organizing part-time and temporary workers into bargaining units

  3. A survey of anthropometry of rural agricultural workers in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obi, Okey Francis; Ugwuishiwu, Boniface O; Adeboye, Busayo S

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, large amount of anthropometric data are available for reference purposes; however, anthropometric data of Nigerian populace are lacking. As a result, most agricultural machines and equipment used are designed using anthropometric data from other populations of the world. A total of 377 rural agricultural workers within the age limit of 18-45 years, who are involved in different agricultural activities, were selected from six rural agriculture-based communities in Enugu state. Thirty-six anthropometric body dimensions were measured including age and body weight. A comparison between the male and female data indicated that data obtained from male agricultural workers were higher than that obtained from their female counterparts in all body dimensions except chest (bust) depth, abdominal breadth and hip breadth (sitting). In terms of design parameters, it was observed that the data from Nigerian agricultural workers were different from that obtained from agricultural workers in north-eastern India. Practitioner Summary. Anthropometric data of Nigeria populace are lacking. As a result, most agricultural machines and equipment used are designed using anthropometric data from other populations of the world. It was observed that the data from Nigerian agricultural workers were different from that obtained from agricultural workers in north-eastern India.

  4. Training and Development for Transitional Employment in Mature-Aged Manual Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the current article was to explore perceptions of transitional employment and training and development amongst blue collar workers employed in technical, trade, operations or physical and labour-intensive occupations within the local government system. Methods: The responses of manual workers to two national surveys…

  5. An Analysis of Workers' Choice between Employment in the Public and Private Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Rebecca M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper estimates the extent to which workers with different personal characteristics are likely to be employed in the public versus the private sector. Results show that government employment is preferred by veterans, nonwhites, and women; and that highly educated and more experienced workers are more likely to choose the public sector. (CT)

  6. EEOC says temporary workers qualify for ADA protection. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

    PubMed

    1998-01-23

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) issued guidelines clarifying that both employers and staffing agencies can be held liable for discrimination and harassment of temporary or contingent workers. These workers are often viewed as independent contractors, and not employees. The guidance clarifies the employee-employer relationship, holding both the employment firm and the client accountable for discrimination and harassment and offering protection for this class of worker under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and other anti-discrimination statutes. The guidance also contains two case examples of how the ADA applies to contractual workers with HIV. The staffing firm and client each must count every worker with whom there is an employment relationship, and are prohibited from discriminating against each other's employees.

  7. Employer-Led Organizations and Skill Supply Chains: Linking Worker Advancement with the Skill Needs of Employers. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jack; Prince, Heath

    Skill supply chains apply a chain strategy to human resources to make the labor market more efficient. They link the multiple skill levels in a given labor market within a network of recruitment pathways for employers and advancement pathways for workers. Skill supply chains are based on employers' actual skill needs and on the principle that…

  8. A Case-Crossover Study of Heat Exposure and Injury Risk in Outdoor Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Bonauto, David K.; Sheppard, Lianne; Busch-Isaksen, Tania; Calkins, Miriam; Adams, Darrin; Lieblich, Max; Fenske, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that heat exposure may increase the risk of traumatic injuries. Published heat-related epidemiological studies have relied upon exposure data from individual weather stations. Objective To evaluate the association between heat exposure and traumatic injuries in outdoor agricultural workers exposed to ambient heat and internal heat generated by physical activity using modeled ambient exposure data. Methods A case-crossover study using time-stratified referent selection among 12,213 outdoor agricultural workers with new Washington State Fund workers’ compensation traumatic injury claims between 2000 and 2012 was conducted. Maximum daily Humidex exposures, derived from modeled meteorological data, were assigned to latitudes and longitudes of injury locations on injury and referent dates. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of injury for a priori daily maximum Humidex categories. Results The mean of within-stratum (injury day and corresponding referent days) standard deviations of daily maximum Humidex was 4.8. The traumatic injury odds ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.22), 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.25), and 1.10 (95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.20) for daily maximum Humidex of 25–29, 30–33, and ≥34, respectively, compared to < 25, adjusted for self-reported duration of employment. Stronger associations were observed during cherry harvest duties in the June and July time period, compared to all duties over the entire study period. Conclusions Agricultural workers laboring in warm conditions are at risk for heat-related traumatic injuries. Combined heat-related illness and injury prevention efforts should be considered in high-risk populations exposed to warm ambient conditions in the setting of physical exertion. PMID:27716794

  9. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma among Brazilian agricultural workers: A death certificate case-control study.

    PubMed

    Boccolini, Patricia de Moraes Mello; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; Chrisman, Juliana de Rezende; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Meyer, Armando

    2017-05-04

    To estimate the non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) mortality risk among agricultural workers in Brazil's southern states, we used death certificates to identify cases of NHL between the ages of 20 and 69 years from residents of nonurban municipalities between 1996 and 2005 (n = 1,317). Controls were randomly selected from those whose underlying cause of death did not include neoplasm or hematological diseases and paired with cases by sex, age, year of death, and state of residence (n = 2,634). Odds of being an agricultural worker among cases and controls were estimated by conditional logistic regression, stratified and adjusted by sex, state, education, and race. An increased risk of death by NHL was observed among agricultural workers 20-39 years old (ORadj = 2.06; 95% CI 95%, 1.20-3.14). Our results suggest that the young agricultural workers from southern Brazil were more likely to die of NHL compared to nonagricultural workers.

  10. Protecting young workers in agriculture: participation in tractor certification training.

    PubMed

    Heaney, C A; Wilkins, J R; Dellinger, W; McGonigle, H; Elliott, M; Bean, T L; Jepsen, S D

    2006-08-01

    Tractor-related injuries among youth are an important public health problem. The major objectives of this study were to (1) provide a rigorous estimate of the number of youth operating tractors in Ohio and (2) assess the extent to which these youth are participating in federally mandated tractor safety training. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by approximately 4,000 students ages 14 or 15 years who were enrolled in a stratified cluster sample of 99 Ohio schools. Almost one-third of the youth (30%) reported having operated tractors, with 19% having operated a tractor on a farm not owned by a parent or guardian. More than half of the youth (52%) reported having operated a tractor and/or other hazardous machinery, with 25% having operated the machinery on a farm not owned or operated by a parent or guardian. Extrapolating from 4-H records and Ohio census data, fewer than 1% of the youth who are operating tractors or other hazardous machinery have participated in tractor certification training. Increasing participation in mandated training may be an important step in protecting the health of our nation's young agricultural workers.

  11. Dynamic Changes in DNA Damage and Repair Biomarkers with Employment Length among Nickel Smelting Workers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan; Bai, Ya Na; Pu, Hong Quan; He, Jie; Zheng, Tong Zhang; Li, Hai Yan; Dai, Min; Cheng, Ning

    2015-09-01

    Our study explored the dynamic changes in and the relationship between the DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and the DNA repair marker 8-hydroxyguanine DNA glycosidase 1 (hOGG1) according to the length of occupational employment in nickel smelting workers. One hundred forty nickel-exposed smelting workers and 140 age-matched unexposed office workers were selected from the Jinchang cohort. The 8-OHdG levels in smelting workers was significantly higher than in office workers (Z=-8.688, P<0.05) and the 8-OHdG levels among nickel smelting workers in the 10-14 y employment length category was significantly higher than among all peers. The hOGG1 levels among smelting workers were significantly lower than those of non-exposed workers (Z=-8.948, P<0.05). There were significant differences between employment length and hOGG1 levels, with subjects employed in nickel smelting for 10-14 y showing the highest levels of hOGG1. Correlation analysis showed positive correlations between 8-OHdG and hOGG1 levels (r=0.413; P<0.01). DNA damage was increased with employment length among nickel smelting workers and was related to the inhibition of hOGG1 repair capacity.

  12. Workforce Training: Employed Worker Programs Focus on Business Needs, But Revised Performance Measures Could Improve Access for Some Workers. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined publicly supported training programs for employed workers, including low-wage workers. The GAO surveyed local workforce boards nationwide and received responses from 470 boards. Two-thirds of the responding boards provided assistance to train employed workers, including partnering with employers to…

  13. Nutra-ergonomics: influence of nutrition on physical employment standards and the health of workers.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jane; Graham, Terry E; Skinner, Tina L

    2016-06-01

    The importance of ergonomics across several scientific domains, including biomechanics, psychology, sociology, and physiology, have been extensively explored. However, the role of other factors that may influence the health and productivity of workers, such as nutrition, is generally overlooked. Nutra-ergonomics describes the interface between workers, their work environment, and performance in relation to their nutritional status. It considers nutrition to be an integral part of a safe and productive workplace that encompasses physical and mental health as well as the long-term wellbeing of workers. This review explores the knowledge, awareness, and common practices of nutrition, hydration, stimulants, and fortified product use employed prior to physical employment standards testing and within the workplace. The influence of these nutra-ergonomic strategies on physical employment standards, worker safety, and performance will be examined. Further, the roles, responsibilities, and implications for the applicant, worker, and the employer will be discussed within the context of nutra-ergonomics, with reference to the provision and sustainability of an environment conducive to optimize worker health and wellbeing. Beyond physical employment standards, workplace productivity, and performance, the influence of extended or chronic desynchronization (irregular or shift work) in the work schedule on metabolism and long-term health, including risk of developing chronic and complex diseases, is discussed. Finally, practical nutra-ergonomic strategies and recommendations for the applicant, worker, and employer alike will be provided to enhance the short- and long-term safety, performance, health, and wellbeing of workers.

  14. Factors associated with agricultural work performed by adolescents from an immigrant farm worker population (MICASA study).

    PubMed

    Hennessy-Burt, T E; Stoecklin-Marois, M T; McCurdy, S A; Schenker, M B

    2013-07-01

    While studies have looked at the relationship of adolescent employment with health outcomes and risk behaviors, few have focused on children of hired farm workers. These children face unique challenges affecting their health and work environment. Exploring the frequency and nature of agricultural work characteristics among adolescent children of Hispanic hired farm workers is important for assessing the potential risks they face. MICASA is a population-based study of settled immigrant Hispanic farm working families in Mendota, California. We selected a cross-sectional random sample of adolescents (ages 11 to 18). Interviews assessed work history, place of birth, and acculturation. 38% of participants were female and 62% were male; 55% were born in the U.S., 38% in Mexico, and 7% in El Salvador; and 49% worked for pay during the last year. Among those who worked, farm work was most frequently reported (73.5%). Among those who had done farm work, the mean age at initiation was 14 years, and they worked a mean of 4.3 weeks during the previous year. Hoeing, picking, and packing/sorting were the most common tasks. In models adjusted for age and sex, low-acculturated adolescents were more likely than moderately acculturated to have worked in the past 12 months, to start work younger than age 14 years, and to do farm work. Farm work is common among adolescents in this Hispanic agricultural community and is strongly associated with foreign birth and low acculturation.

  15. 25 CFR 166.902 - How can I become an agriculture educational employment student?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can I become an agriculture educational employment... WATER GRAZING PERMITS Agriculture Education, Education Assistance, Recruitment, and Training § 166.902 How can I become an agriculture educational employment student? (a) To be considered for...

  16. 25 CFR 166.902 - How can I become an agriculture educational employment student?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How can I become an agriculture educational employment... WATER GRAZING PERMITS Agriculture Education, Education Assistance, Recruitment, and Training § 166.902 How can I become an agriculture educational employment student? (a) To be considered for...

  17. 25 CFR 166.902 - How can I become an agriculture educational employment student?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How can I become an agriculture educational employment... WATER GRAZING PERMITS Agriculture Education, Education Assistance, Recruitment, and Training § 166.902 How can I become an agriculture educational employment student? (a) To be considered for...

  18. 25 CFR 166.902 - How can I become an agriculture educational employment student?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How can I become an agriculture educational employment... WATER GRAZING PERMITS Agriculture Education, Education Assistance, Recruitment, and Training § 166.902 How can I become an agriculture educational employment student? (a) To be considered for...

  19. 25 CFR 166.902 - How can I become an agriculture educational employment student?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How can I become an agriculture educational employment... WATER GRAZING PERMITS Agriculture Education, Education Assistance, Recruitment, and Training § 166.902 How can I become an agriculture educational employment student? (a) To be considered for...

  20. Is health a labour, citizenship or human right? Mexican seasonal agricultural workers in Leamington, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nielan

    2013-07-01

    Post-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade liberalisation combined with post-9/11 border securitisation means North America increasingly relies on pools of temporary foreign labour, particularly in the agricultural and service sectors. Despite being temporary, these workers often spend most of their years on foreign soil, living and working in isolated rural communities, far from their own families and communities. Migrants' mental and physical health suffers due to hazardous and stressful working conditions, sub-standard housing, lack of social support and limited access to health and social welfare services. Assuming access to health is a basic human right, who is responsible for the health of temporary foreign migrant workers? Is it the nation-state? or the Employers and/or unions? or Civil society? Research and practice show that a combined multisector approach is best; however, such initiatives are often uneven due to questions of sovereignty and citizenship rights. Community-based organisations (CBOs) have emerged to advocate for and serve migrants' social and welfare needs; analysis of CBO projects reveals an uneven application of rights to migrants. Using a comparative case study from Canada, this project contributes to understanding how civil-society helps to activate different types of health care rights for migrants, and to create an informed policy that provides migrant workers with access to a wider range of human and health rights.

  1. Employer provision of personal protective equipment to Latino workers in North Carolina residential construction.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Quandt, Sara A; Mills, Thomas; Marín, Antonio; Summers, Phillip; Lang, Wei; Evia, Carlos; Arcury, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    Despite federal regulations requiring provision of personal protective equipment (PPE) without cost to workers in the United States, very little is known about whether immigrant Latino construction workers receive no-cost PPE from their employers, and the role that employer provision plays in regular use of PPE. This study used cross-sectional data from a community-based sample of 119 Latino construction workers in western North Carolina to document receipt of employer-provided PPE by construction workers, investigate sources of variation in the receipt of employer-paid PPE, and delineate associations of employer-paid PPE with workers' regular use of PPE. The results suggest that the residential construction subsector generally fails to provide workers with PPE at no cost, as is required by regulation. Analyses also suggest that recent immigrants are least likely to receive no-cost, employer-provided PPE, and that when employers do provide no-cost PPE, Latino construction workers are more likely to use it regularly.

  2. Factors influencing Australian agricultural workers' self-efficacy using chemicals in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Ian R

    2012-11-01

    A hypothetical model was formulated to explore which factors can simultaneously influence the self-reported ability of agricultural employees to embrace chemical safety practices. Eight variables were considered in the study, including the employees' gender, age, duration of current employment status, and whether they were employed full-time or part-time. The self-efficacy measures of 169 participants were then estimated by measuring their self-rated ability to understand and perform different chemical safety practices. Models identifying employee self-efficacy pathways leading to worker readiness to engage in chemical safety were then tested using Partial Least Squares Path Analysis. Study results suggest that employees' self-efficacy to successfully engage in safe chemical practices in their workplace can be directly predicted by four variables, with additional indirect effects offered by one other variable, which cumulatively account for 41% of the variance of employees' chemical safety self-efficacy scores. The most significant predictor variables that directly influenced employees' self-efficacy in adopting chemical safety practices in the workplace were worker age, gender, years of employment, and concurrent confidence (self-efficacy) arising from prior experience using chemicals in the workplace. The variables of employees' prior knowledge and understanding about the use of administrative controls and personal protective equipment to protect workers from chemical exposure had no direct influence on self-efficacy to handle chemical emergencies. Employees' unfamiliarity with risk control strategies and reliance on material safety data sheets for information suggest that ongoing and targeted training are necessary if chemical safety issues are to be addressed.

  3. An ergonomic study on posture-related discomfort among preadolescent agricultural workers of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Das, Banibrata; Das, Tamal; Ghoshal, Goutam

    2005-01-01

    In India, particularly in West Bengal, preadolescents are primarily associated with agricultural work in rural areas. Owing to poor socio-economic conditions, they are compelled to carry out a considerable number of manual, rigorous tasks in agricultural fields. The main aim of this study was to investigate postures adopted by preadolescent agricultural workers during individual agricultural activities and to analyze the causes of discomfort related to those postures. Fifty male and 50 female preadolescent agricultural workers were randomly selected and a detailed posture analysis was performed with the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS). It was observed that those workers worked continuously in awkward postures during certain agricultural activities. Consequently they suffered from discomfort in different parts of their body. Even though they were very young, they were likely to suffer from serious musculoskeletal disorders in the future.

  4. Employer Experiences and Expectations: Finding, Training, and Keeping Qualified Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perron, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The graying of the labor force, together with the recession of 2008-2010, has forced employers and prognosticators to take a hard look at workforce preparation, training, and planning. This employer research survey is one component of a larger project that explores the workforce, labor force projections, and employer views on training,…

  5. Youth Employment Laws: A Handbook for Supervisors of Young Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerber, Gaer C.

    Prepared by an attorney, this guide is intended for school personnel involved in the work placement of students. Pertinent youth employment laws are condensed and interpreted, providing a reference guide for both school personnel and employers. Information is provided about the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, the Hittle Juvenile Employment Act,…

  6. 75 FR 9438 - Hardinge, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers of Manpower and Employment Solutions, Elmira, NY...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hardinge, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers of Manpower and... November 5, 2009, applicable to workers of Hardinge, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Manpower...- site leased workers from Manpower and Employment Solutions, who became totally or partially separated...

  7. Reducing barriers associated with delivering health care services to migratory agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Schmalzried, Hans D; Fallon, L Fleming

    2012-01-01

    Between one and two million migratory agricultural workers (MAWs), primarily from Mexico and Central America, leave their homes each year to plant, cultivate, harvest and pack fruits, vegetables, and nuts in the USA. While in the USA, most lack health insurance, a permanent residence, and a regular healthcare provider. Publications over the past two decades in the USA have reported that a majority of MAWs encounter barriers to receiving medical services. Migratory agricultural workers experience high rates of occupational illness and injury. Poor access to medical care continues to exacerbate health problems among members of this population related to their working environments. In most studies concerning healthcare access issues for this population, researchers collected their information from healthcare service providers; rarely have they included input from migratory agricultural workers. This study was different in that opinions about healthcare access issues were collected directly from MAWs. The primary purpose of this study was to describe issues related to barriers associated with the delivery of healthcare services to migratory agricultural workers. A secondary purpose was to suggest strategies for reducing these barriers. In this study, data from focus group sessions were used to develop a survey questionnaire. Four certified bilingual interpreters were trained to administer the questionnaire. A total of 157 usable questionnaires were returned from MAWs living in employer-provided camps in Northwest Ohio. The statistical analyses were primarily descriptive. The most significant barriers hampering access to medical services among the 157 respondents were cost (n=113; 72.0%), crop demands (n=102; 65.0%), the lack of an interpreter (n=98; 62.4%), travel distance (n=88; 56.1%) and transportation (n=82; 52.2%). Approximately half (n=82; 52.2%) said that they had access to transportation for traveling to a medical clinic. As a group, respondents were willing to

  8. Risk of tick-borne diseases in various categories of employment among forestry workers in eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Cisak, Ewa; Zając, Violetta; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Among the zoonotic agents causing occupational diseases, those transmitted by ticks are very important, in particular the spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi which are the common cause of occupational Lyme borreliosis in forestry and agricultural workers. The objective of this study was an evaluation of the exposure of forestry workers employed at individual workplaces to infection with tick-borne pathogens (especially Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes), based on epidemiological investigation and serologic tests. Epidemiological studies covered 111 forestry employees from eastern Poland employed in 4 randomly-selected forest inspectorates which replied to questions in the area of epidemiology and prophylaxis of diseases transmitted by ticks. Eighty-two forestry workers employed in one forest inspectorate were examined for the presence of specific anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies. The correlation between individual items of the questionnaire was assessed by Spearman's test. Results of serological tests were assessed by Mann-Whitney test. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that the workers performing manual jobs in the forest are at the greatest risk of tick bite and contraction of tick-borne disease. They are aware of the risk, but use the improper method of removal of ticks with the fingers. Comparisons of the relationship between job category and the results of serologic study, expressed in BBU/ml, revealed that the serologic response was significantly greater in manual workers than in administrative workers (p=0.019). All other comparisons did not produce significant results. Therefore, providing a simple tweezer-like device to forest inspectorates seems to be an effective mean of protection against Lyme borreliosis and other tick-borne diseases.

  9. Employment among Older Workers and Inequality of Gender and Education: Evidence from a Taiwanese National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was twofold: to examine the prevalence of employment and under-employment among Taiwanese older workers (aged 50 and above), and to explore personal correlates of their employment status, in particular gender and education. Using a national representative sample, we found that: 1) a rather substantial percentage of people…

  10. Employment among Older Workers and Inequality of Gender and Education: Evidence from a Taiwanese National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was twofold: to examine the prevalence of employment and under-employment among Taiwanese older workers (aged 50 and above), and to explore personal correlates of their employment status, in particular gender and education. Using a national representative sample, we found that: 1) a rather substantial percentage of people…

  11. 78 FR 69541 - Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States, 75 FR 6884 (Feb. 12, 2010). The effect of... rulemaking (NPRM). 74 FR 45906 (Sept. 4, 2009). After considering comments from the public on the...

  12. Low-Income workers with employer-sponsored insurance: who's at risk when employer coverage is no longer an option?

    PubMed

    Long, Sharon K; Shen, Yu-Chu

    2004-12-01

    A firm's decision to drop the offer of employer-sponsored insurance (ESI), reduce eligibility for ESI, or significantly increase employee costs would have serious implications for the health insurance status of currently covered low-income workers. The authors find that at least a third of currently covered low-income workers do not have affordable insurance options outside of the group market. Furthermore, a simulation analysis shows that 54 percent of those workers would become uninsured if their employers were to drop ESI. This would result in an additional 1 million uninsured adults if 10 percent of low-income workers lost their ESI offer, and at least 350,000 uninsured adults if 10 percent of workers in firms with fewer than 100 employees (the firms most likely to drop coverage) lost their ESI. The authors also find that expanding public programs to cover low-income workers would reduce the high uninsurance rate by half, but substantial minorities would remain uninsured.

  13. Applicant Age as a Subjective Employability Factor: A Study of Workers over and under Age Fifty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, Catherine Sabin; Hansvick, Christine L.

    1999-01-01

    Three hundred employers in a suburban area of the Pacific Northwest were surveyed for their perceptions of older (ages 50 and over) and younger (aged 49 and under) workers on 12 attributes. In contrast to previous research, this study found more favorable ratings for older workers overall, including categories such as attendance and salary…

  14. A Human Resource Development Performance Improvement Model for Workers with Mental Retardation in Supported Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra; Rosenberg, Howard; Rocco, Tonette S.; Gallagher, Jo

    2006-01-01

    This literature review discusses the factors for successful job retention of adult workers with mental retardation (MR) including external factors related to work environments and internal issues of the individual worker. Through the synthesis of the literature, a performance improvement model for supported employment (SE) is discussed based on…

  15. "At This Point Now": Older Workers' Reflections on Their Current Employment Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the frequently referenced graying of the U.S. workforce, we know relatively little about the work-related concerns and experiences of older workers--those aged 55+. This qualitative study addresses that gap by examining the current employment situations of a purposive sample of 37 older workers. Thematic content analysis revealed a vast…

  16. Skill Improvement Training among Currently Employed Workers. Indicator of the Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    Between 1991 and 1995, the percentage of employed workers participating in skill improvement training (SIT) for their current job increased from 30 to 32%. Participation in SIT increased for full- and part-time workers alike. In 1995, participation for a current job was highest among females and individuals in the 35-54 age group. Participation…

  17. Using a Training Video to Improve Agricultural Workers' Knowledge of On-Farm Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiasen, Lisa; Morley, Katija; Chapman, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A training video was produced and evaluated to assess its impact on the food safety knowledge of agricultural workers. Increasing food safety knowledge on the farm may help to improve the safety of fresh produce. Surveys were used to measure workers' food safety knowledge before and after viewing the video. Focus groups were used to determine…

  18. HEALTH CONDITIONS AND SERVICES FOR DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS AND THEIR FAMILIES IN CALIFORNIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Public Health, Berkeley.

    FIELD INTERVIEWS WERE HELD WITH COMMUNITY LEADERS AND WITH SEVERAL HUNDRED WORKERS' FAMILIES. THE ACQUIRED INFORMATION SUPPLEMENTED A SURVEY OF PAST AND PRESENT CONDITIONS AND ASSISTED IN FORMULATING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION TO MEET THE ACUTE HEALTH NEEDS OF CALIFORNIA'S SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. THE HEALTH PROBLEM CAN BE MET BY LOCAL…

  19. HEALTH CONDITIONS AND SERVICES FOR DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS AND THEIR FAMILIES IN CALIFORNIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Public Health, Berkeley.

    FIELD INTERVIEWS WERE HELD WITH COMMUNITY LEADERS AND WITH SEVERAL HUNDRED WORKERS' FAMILIES. THE ACQUIRED INFORMATION SUPPLEMENTED A SURVEY OF PAST AND PRESENT CONDITIONS AND ASSISTED IN FORMULATING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION TO MEET THE ACUTE HEALTH NEEDS OF CALIFORNIA'S SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. THE HEALTH PROBLEM CAN BE MET BY LOCAL…

  20. Using a Training Video to Improve Agricultural Workers' Knowledge of On-Farm Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiasen, Lisa; Morley, Katija; Chapman, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A training video was produced and evaluated to assess its impact on the food safety knowledge of agricultural workers. Increasing food safety knowledge on the farm may help to improve the safety of fresh produce. Surveys were used to measure workers' food safety knowledge before and after viewing the video. Focus groups were used to determine…

  1. 76 FR 66656 - Agricultural Career and Employment Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... activity defined as ``agriculture'' in Section 3(f) or the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, 29 U.S.C. 203...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Section 14204 of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 authorizes the... supply, stability, safety, and training of the agricultural labor force. Such grants may be made to...

  2. Ethnic Enclave Residence, Employment, and Commuting of Latino Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Cathy Yang

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of living in ethnic enclaves in different parts of a metropolitan area on low-skilled Latino immigrants' employment accessibility. It does so by comparing the employment status and commuting times of Latinos living in and out of ethnic neighborhoods in central city, inner-ring suburbs, and outer-ring suburbs in…

  3. Ethnic Enclave Residence, Employment, and Commuting of Latino Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Cathy Yang

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of living in ethnic enclaves in different parts of a metropolitan area on low-skilled Latino immigrants' employment accessibility. It does so by comparing the employment status and commuting times of Latinos living in and out of ethnic neighborhoods in central city, inner-ring suburbs, and outer-ring suburbs in…

  4. Chronic exposures to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides adversely affect respiratory health of agricultural workers in India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sreeparna; Mukherjee, Sayali; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Siddique, Shabana; Lahiri, Twisha; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    The impact of long term exposure to cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (C) pesticides on the respiratory health of agricultural workers in India was investigated. Three hundred and seventy-six nonsmoking agricultural workers (median age 41 yr) from eastern India who sprayed OP and C pesticides in the field and 348 age- and sex-matched control subjects with non-agricultural occupations from the same locality were enrolled. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms was obtained by questionnaire survey, and pulmonary function tests were carried out by spirometry. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was diagnosed by the Global Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria, and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was measured by the Ellman method. Agricultural workers had greater prevalences of upper and lower respiratory symptoms, and appreciable reduction in spirometric measurements. Overall, lung function reduction was noted in 48.9% of agricultural workers compared with 22.7% of control, and a restrictive type of deficit was predominant. COPD was diagnosed in 10.9% of agricultural workers compared with 3.4% of controls (p<0.05 in chi(2) test), and the severity of the disease was greater in agricultural workers. Red blood cell (RBC) AChE was lowered by 34.2% in agricultural workers, and the fall in AChE level was positively associated with respiratory symptoms, lung function decrement and COPD after controlling for education and income as potential confounders. Long-term exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting agricultural pesticides currently in use in India is associated with a reduction in lung function, COPD and a rise in respiratory symptoms.

  5. 78 FR 24047 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program, Part 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... the prevailing wages to be paid to H-2B workers and U.S. workers recruited in connection with the...'s advice to DHS that the employer has tried unsuccessfully to recruit sufficient U.S. workers at a... employer has provided assurance that it will pay its H-2B workers and any successfully recruited U.S...

  6. Low-wage workers and health insurance coverage: can policymakers target them through their employers?

    PubMed

    Long, S H; Marquis, M S

    2001-01-01

    Many policy initiatives to increase health insurance coverage would subsidize employers to offer coverage or subsidize employees to participate in their employers' health plans. Using data from the 1997 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Employer Health Insurance Survey, we contrast "low-wage employers" with all other employers. Employees in low-wage businesses have significantly worse access to employment-based insurance than other employees do; they are less likely to work for an employer that offers insurance, less likely to be eligible if working in a business that offers insurance, and less likely to be enrolled if eligible. Low-wage employers contribute lower shares of premiums and offer less generous benefits than other employers do. Policies that would target subsidies to selected employers to increase insurance offers to low-wage workers are difficult to design, however, because several commonly mentioned employer characteristics (including firm size) are found to be poor indicators of low-wage worker concentration. Programs that would set minimum standards for employer plans to be eligible for "buy-ins" need to base these standards on the less generous terms offered by low-wage employers in order to effectively reach low-wage workers and their dependents.

  7. Unauthorized workers and immigration reform: what can we ascertain from employers?.

    PubMed

    Lowell, B L; Jing, Z

    1994-01-01

    The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 attempts to curb unauthorized migration by requiring employers to screen the authorizing documents of all workers. Many different documents may be used, with employers required to simply attest to the face validity of workers' documents upon an I-9 form. The authors report findings from their study estimating the unauthorized US labor force and exploring employers' initial reactions to the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986. The findings are based upon hiring practices information supplied by a sample of businesses in an evaluation of the IRCA impact. A selectivity correction model is used to impute 2.6 million unauthorized workers in the entire sample. The estimate, which compares favorably with other estimates, is tabulated by questions about IRCA. Findings suggest that a large proportion of the unauthorized labor force uses fraudulent documents, many without the knowledge of their employer. It appears that Immigration and Naturalization Service-targeted establishments hire 20% of unauthorized workers and that the employers of unauthorized workers are no more likely than other employers to believe that they can be sanctioned under IRCA. This may be associated with the apparent lack of marked change in patterns of unauthorized hiring in the period immediately following IRCA passage. There was some change in hiring behaviors in establishments hiring unauthorized workers, affecting wage offers and documentation, but US employers do not seem to perceive changes in the supply or availability of authorized workers. Study findings indicate only marginal IRCA-related changes in the characteristics of unauthorized hires during the very initial phase of IRCA's implementation. The combination of readily available fraudulent documents, the difficulty in detecting such documents, and the steady demand for low-skilled workers creates conditions which are not conducive to markedly changed hiring

  8. Employment among older workers and inequality of gender and education: evidence from a Taiwanese national survey.

    PubMed

    Lu, Luo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was twofold: to examine the prevalence of employment and under-employment among Taiwanese older workers (aged 50 and above), and to explore personal correlates of their employment status, in particular gender and education. Using a national representative sample, we found that: 1) a rather substantial percentage of people continued to work well into their older years; 2) the underemployment rates were substantial in the older age, and less-educated workers and women were more at risk; and 3) multivariate analysis confirmed that age, gender, personal health, spousal health, and family income were significant predictors of continued employment after age 50. Gender and education were also significantly related to the risk of under-employment. Our results highlight the importance and urgency of more concerted research to inform public labor policies, especially in an aging developing society where older workers are faced with a double challenge of economic and societal restructuring.

  9. Employer differences in upper-body musculoskeletal disorders and pain among immigrant Latino poultry processing workers.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Mora, Dana C; Arcury, Thomas A; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A

    2014-01-01

    Between-employer differences in working conditions may lead to variable injury rates. The objective of this paper is to assess the difference in the prevalence of epicondylitis, rotator cuff syndrome, and low back pain among immigrant Latino poultry workers at plants of three different employers. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study among 286 poultry processing workers. Community-based sampling was used to recruit participants in western North Carolina. Rotator cuff syndrome (26.7%) and low back pain (27.9%) were more prevalent among employees of one specific employer. Multivariate analysis showed significant associations of low back pain and rotator cuff syndrome with age, task performed in the processing line, and employer. Employer is a major predictor of musculoskeletal disorders and pain. Line speed and work pace may account for these differences and provide an opportunity for regulation and intervention to protect the health of workers.

  10. EXTENSION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES, A MANUAL FOR AGRICULTURAL AND HOME EXTENSION WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAVILE, A.H.

    A PRACTICAL GUIDE IS PROVIDED FOR TRAINERS OF ADVISORY AND EXTENSION WORKERS AND LOCAL LEADERS IN AGRICULTURE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING NATIONS. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, COMMUNITY SURVEY PROCEDURES, ELEMENTS OF PROGRAM PLANNING, AND PURPOSES AND METHODS OF PROGRAM EVALUATION ARE DESCRIBED. THEN FOLLOW TWO CHAPTERS…

  11. EXTENSION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES, A MANUAL FOR AGRICULTURAL AND HOME EXTENSION WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAVILE, A.H.

    A PRACTICAL GUIDE IS PROVIDED FOR TRAINERS OF ADVISORY AND EXTENSION WORKERS AND LOCAL LEADERS IN AGRICULTURE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING NATIONS. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, COMMUNITY SURVEY PROCEDURES, ELEMENTS OF PROGRAM PLANNING, AND PURPOSES AND METHODS OF PROGRAM EVALUATION ARE DESCRIBED. THEN FOLLOW TWO CHAPTERS…

  12. Farm Labor Developments. Employment and Wage Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Estimated employment, wage rates, and origin of seasonal hired agricultural workers in selected activities are presented in tabular form. Employment information was obtained by the Bureau of Employment Security from 269 agricultural reporting areas throughout the country. Agricultural workers were defined as those engaged in the production of…

  13. Farm Labor Developments. Employment and Wage Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Estimated employment, wage rates, and origin of seasonal hired agricultural workers in selected activities are presented in tabular form. Employment information was obtained by the Bureau of Employment Security from 269 agricultural reporting areas throughout the country. Agricultural workers were defined as those engaged in the production of…

  14. Deliberately casual? Workers' agency, health, and nonstandard employment relations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Keuskamp, Dominic; Mackenzie, Catherine R M; Ziersch, Anna M; Baum, Fran E

    2013-06-01

    We explored Australian workers' experiences of nonstandard employment, how it related to health and well-being, and the role that Bourdieu's forms of capital (cultural, economic, and social resources) played in underpinning workers' agency. Qualitative data from semistructured interviews with 32 causal workers were analyzed on the basis of framework analysis. Most participants were "deliberate casuals" who had chosen casual over permanent employment, with half of that group naming improved health and well-being as motivation. Those with greater access to capital felt more able to exercise choice, whereas those with fewer capital resources felt constrained to be casual. Gendered structures and labor market dynamics were also significant in shaping agency. Access to capital and a buoyant labor market underpinned workers' agency in Australia, enabling some to gain health and well-being benefits from nonstandard employment.

  15. Education, Employment and Income of High School Vocational Agriculture Graduates. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesada, R. M.; Seaver, S. K.

    In order to evaluate vocational agriculture education in 21 Connecticut high schools for the purposes of developing or updating curriculums, this study intended to: (1) determine employment rates of vocational agriculture graduates in agricultural areas, (2) determine post-secondary educational attainment levels, (3) determine variables affecting…

  16. Increased risk of agricultural injury among African-American farm workers from Alabama and Mississippi.

    PubMed

    McGwin, G; Enochs, R; Roseman, J M

    2000-10-01

    Research on the epidemiology of agriculture-related injuries has largely ignored African-Americans and farm workers. This cohort study is the first to estimate injury rates and to evaluate prospectively risk factors for agriculture-related injuries and compare them among African-American and Caucasian farmers and African-American farm workers. A total of 1,246 subjects (685 Caucasian owners, 321 African-American owners, and 240 African-American workers) from Alabama and Mississippi were selected from Agricultural Statistics Services databases and other sources and were enrolled between January 1994 and June 1996. Baseline data included detailed demographic, farm and farming, and behavioral information. From January 1994 to April 1998, subjects were contacted biannually to ascertain the occurrence of an agriculture-related injury. Injury rates were 2.9 times (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0, 4.3) higher for African-American farm workers compared with Caucasian and African-American owners. Part-time farming (relative risk (RR) = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3, 2.5), prior agricultural injury (RR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1), and farm machinery in fair/poor condition (RR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7) were also independently associated with injury rates. The results demonstrate the increased frequency of agricultural injury among farm workers and identify a number of possible ways of reducing them.

  17. Workers compensation and occupational health and safety in the Australian agricultural industry.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Robert; Westaway, Jennifer; Goldacre, Lisa

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the available workers compensation and occupational health and safety data and the legal framework in relation to the agricultural industry to explore whether any factors highlight the need to pay special attention to the particular circumstances of those engaged in the industry. This paper explores some of the special features of the agricultural industry, looking first at agricultural worker fatalities and injuries as a matter of ongoing concern for all participants in this industry, government, as well as occupational health and workers compensation authorities. The paper analyses how occupational health and workers compensation laws may have special application to this industry. Finally, the paper considers some workers compensation provisions that have particular application to the agricultural industry. Our survey of the available data and literature leads to the conclusion that the dangerous nature of agricultural work and the special legal and economic framework in which that work is undertaken identify the agricultural industry as presenting Australian Governments and specialist authorities with particular challenges in relation to improving workplace safety and reducing workplace injury.

  18. New technologies and worker safety in western agriculture.

    PubMed

    Fenske, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    The New Paths: Health and Safety in Western Agriculture conference, November 11-13, 2008, highlighted the role of technological innovation in agricultural production. The tree fruit industry in the Pacific Northwest has adopted a "technology road map" to reduce production costs and improve efficiency. An agricultural tour provided field demonstrations and discussions on such topics as mobile work platforms in orchards, traumatic and musculoskeletal injuries, and new pest control technologies. Occupational safety and health research will need to adapt to and keep pace with rapid changes in agricultural production processes.

  19. Value of Supervised Occupational Experience Programs as Perceived by Parents, Employers, and Vocational Agriculture Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    A survey to determine value of supervised occupational experience (SOE) programs obtained responses from 551 (of 1,008) parents, 95 (of 201) employers, and 65 (of 76) vocational agricultural instructors of graduates of Idaho vocational agriculture programs from 1981-1986. Data show parents and employers recognize the benefits of SOE programs and…

  20. Employability for the Workers--What Does This Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Brenda Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: UK government strategies for higher education (HE) continue to emphasise the promotion and enhancement of students' employability skills and subsequent graduate opportunities. The purpose of this paper is to explore what this means for those HE learners already in work. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the findings of a…

  1. Employability for the Workers--What Does This Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Brenda Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: UK government strategies for higher education (HE) continue to emphasise the promotion and enhancement of students' employability skills and subsequent graduate opportunities. The purpose of this paper is to explore what this means for those HE learners already in work. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the findings of a…

  2. Employment Contexts and Disadvantaged Workers. Phase 1, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Social Science Research, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The first phase of a two-phase study of the employment success of welfare recipients trained and placed under the Work-Incentive (WIN) program is summarized. During this phase the methodology for the study was developed, including questionnaire structure, model field procedures, and study design. Preliminary instruments and procedures were tested…

  3. Training Older Workers for Technology-Based Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chin Chin; Czaja, Sara J.; Sharit, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly aging workforce and advances in technology are changing work environments and structures. The continued employability of older adults, particularly those of lower socioeconomic status (SES), requires them to participate in training programs to ensure their competence in today's workplace. Focus groups with 37 unemployed adults…

  4. A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…

  5. A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…

  6. Determinants of Sunburn and Sun Protection of Agricultural Workers During Occupational and Recreational Activities.

    PubMed

    Backes, Claudine; Milon, Antoine; Koechlin, Alice; Vernez, David; Bulliard, Jean-Luc

    2017-08-30

    The aim of this study was to identify determinants of occupational sunburn in agricultural workers and assess their occupational and recreational sun protection habits. Specific surveys of agricultural workers in Switzerland and France were conducted (N = 1538). Multivariate logistic regressions identified occupational sunburn determinants. Occupational and recreational sun protection habits were estimated and correlated. One-year occupational and recreational sunburn prevalences were 19.8% and 11.5%, respectively. Occupational sunburn increased with having a recent recreational sunburn, highly sensitive skin, young age, high perceived skin cancer risk, using sunscreen, and not wearing a hat. Correlation between protection habits during work and leisure was substantial (rs 0.5 to 0.7). Skin health knowledge was high and pro-tanning attitude moderate. Potentially modifiable sunburn determinants and suboptimal recreational and occupational sun protection practices were identified in agricultural workers. Refining and tailoring sun protection messages targeting the agricultural sector are needed.

  7. A comparative study of health-promoting lifestyles in agricultural and non-agricultural workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Chen; Wei, Chang-Nian; Fukumoto, Kumiko; Harada, Koichi; Ueda, Kimiyo; Minamoto, Keiko; Ueda, Atsushi

    2011-03-01

    To clarify the difference in health-promoting lifestyles between agricultural and non-agricultural workers in Japan, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 627 residents living in a town with a mixed rural-urban population. The subjects were divided into 8 groups by job (agricultural and non-agricultural), age (young and old), and gender (male and female). To evaluate the subjects' lifestyles, the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II) was applied. The Bartlett test and the Kendall rank test were performed for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference in the overall score of the HPLP-II between the two job groups. However, for the HPLP-II subscales, a significantly higher score for "spiritual growth" and a significantly lower score for "physical activity" were seen in the agricultural group than in the non-agricultural group. In general, the old and female groups showed higher scores than the corresponding groups, regardless of job type. It was determined that the major countermeasures to maintain a healthy lifestyle in agricultural workers should be associated with how to introduce daily activities that maintain and enhance "spiritual growth" and improve "physical activity".

  8. Job insecurity and employability in fixed-term contractors, agency workers, and permanent workers: associations with job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    De Cuyper, Nele; Notelaers, Guy; De Witte, Hans

    2009-04-01

    This study investigates how job insecurity and employability relate to job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment in permanent workers, fixed-term contract workers, and temporary agency workers. The authors hypothesized that (a) job insecurity relates negatively to job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment, and this relationship is strongest in permanent workers and weakest in temporary agency workers; and that (b) employability relates positively to job satisfaction and negatively to affective organizational commitment, and this relationship is strongest in temporary agency workers and weakest in permanent workers. Hypotheses were tested in workers (permanent: n = 329; fixed term; n = 160; temporary agency: n = 89) from 23 Belgian organizations. The results show that job insecurity related negatively to the outcomes for permanent workers and temporary agency workers. This relationship was not significant for fixed-term contract workers. Employability related negatively to the outcomes for fixed-term contract workers and temporary agency workers, and this relationship was not significant for permanent workers. The 3 groups had different interpretations of what constitutes a stressor and about what signals a good employment relationship.

  9. Why don't employers hire and retain workers with disabilities?

    PubMed

    Kaye, H Stephen; Jans, Lita H; Jones, Erica C

    2011-12-01

    Despite persistently low employment rates among working-age adults with disabilities, prior research on employer practices and attitudes toward workers with disabilities paints a generally rosy picture of successfully accommodated workers in a welcoming environment. Findings from previous studies might have been biased because of either employer self-selection or social desirability, yielding non-representative or artificially positive conclusions. In this study, a novel approach was used to survey human resource professionals and supervisors working for employers known or reputed to be resistant to complying with the ADA's employment provisions. Attendees of employer-requested ADA training sessions were asked to assess various possible reasons that employers in general might not hire, retain, or accommodate workers with disabilities and to rate strategies and policy changes that might make it more likely for employers to do so. As cited by respondents, the principal barriers to employing workers with disabilities are lack of awareness of disability and accommodation issues, concern over costs, and fear of legal liability. With regard to strategies employers might use to increase hiring and retention, respondents identified increased training and centralized disability and accommodation expertise and mechanisms. Public policy approaches preferred by respondents include no-cost external problem-solving, subsidized accommodations, tax breaks, and mediation in lieu of formal complaints or lawsuits. Findings suggest straightforward approaches that employers might use to facilitate hiring and retention of workers with disabilities, as well as new public programs or policy changes that could increase labor force participation among working-age adults who have disabilities.

  10. Escaping Poverty for Low-Wage Workers: The Role of Employer Characteristics and Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry J.; Lane, Julia I.; Vilhuber, Lars

    A study analyzed the extent to which escape from or entry into low-wage status among adult workers is associated with changes in employers and their characteristics. The research used a database that consisted of quarterly establishment records of the employment earnings of almost all individuals (11,207,031) who worked in Illinois from the first…

  11. Employing and Accommodating Workers with Psychiatric Disabilities. Implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Laura L.

    This brief paper summarizes requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 related to employing and accommodating workers with psychiatric disabilities. The following topics are addressed: (1) what is meant by a psychiatric disability under the ADA, its severity, and its effect on the employment of the individual; (2) popular…

  12. Esophageal cancer among Brazilian agricultural workers: case-control study based on death certificates.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Armando; Alexandre, Pedro Celso Braga; Chrisman, Juliana de Rezende; Markowitz, Steven B; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio

    2011-03-01

    Several studies suggest that agricultural workers are at higher risk to develop and die by certain types of cancer. Esophageal cancer is not commonly listed among these types. However, some recent studies indicated that if there is an association between agricultural working and esophageal cancer, it s more likely to be observed among workers highly exposed to pesticides. In the present study, the magnitude of the association between agricultural working and esophageal cancer mortality was evaluated in a high pesticide use area in Brazil, through a death certificate-based case-control study. Cases were individuals from both genders, 30-59 years old, for whom basic cause of death was ascertained as cancer of the esophagus. For each case, one control was randomly selected from all possible controls for which the basic cause of death was ascertained as different from neoplasm and diseases of the digestive system. In addition, controls matched their cases by sex, age, year of death, and state of residence. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were then calculated to estimate the magnitude of the risk. Results showed that, in general, agricultural workers were at significantly higher risk to die by esophageal cancer, when compared to non-agricultural workers. Stratified analysis also revealed that the magnitude of such risk was slightly higher among illiterate agricultural workers, and simultaneous adjustment for several covariates showed that the risk was quantitatively higher among younger southern agricultural workers. These results suggest the esophageal cancer may be included among those types of cancer etiologically associated to agricultural working. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Occupational health policy and immigrant workers in the agriculture, forestry, and fishing sector.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Amy K; Wiggins, Melinda F; Fraser, Clermont; Levin, Jeffrey; Sidebottom, Jill; Arcury, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    Immigrant workers make up an important portion of the hired workforce in the Agricultural, Forestry and Fishing (AgFF) sector, one of the most hazardous industry sectors in the US. Despite the inherent dangers associated with this sector, worker protection is limited. This article describes the current occupational health and safety policies and regulatory standards in the AgFF sector and underscores the regulatory exceptions and limitations in worker protections. Immigration policies and their effects on worker health and safety are also discussed. Emphasis is placed on policies and practices in the Southeastern US. Worker protection in the AgFF sector is limited. Regulatory protections are generally weaker than other industrial sectors and enforcement of existing regulations is woefully inadequate. The vulnerability of the AgFF workforce is magnified by worker immigration status. Agricultural workers in particular are affected by a long history of "exceptionalism" under the law as many regulatory protections specifically exclude this workforce. A vulnerable workforce and high-hazard industries require regulatory protections that, at a minimum, are provided to workers in other industries. A systematic policy approach to strengthen occupational safety and health in the AgFF sector must address both immigration policy and worker protection regulations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. 20 CFR 663.230 - What criteria must be used to determine whether an employed worker needs intensive services to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... whether an employed worker needs intensive services to obtain or retain employment leading to âself... Intensive Services § 663.230 What criteria must be used to determine whether an employed worker needs intensive services to obtain or retain employment leading to “self-sufficiency”? State Boards or...

  15. 20 CFR 663.230 - What criteria must be used to determine whether an employed worker needs intensive services to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... whether an employed worker needs intensive services to obtain or retain employment leading to âself... Intensive Services § 663.230 What criteria must be used to determine whether an employed worker needs intensive services to obtain or retain employment leading to “self-sufficiency”? State Boards or...

  16. 20 CFR 663.230 - What criteria must be used to determine whether an employed worker needs intensive services to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... whether an employed worker needs intensive services to obtain or retain employment leading to âself... Services § 663.230 What criteria must be used to determine whether an employed worker needs intensive services to obtain or retain employment leading to “self-sufficiency”? State Boards or Local Boards...

  17. 20 CFR 663.230 - What criteria must be used to determine whether an employed worker needs intensive services to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... whether an employed worker needs intensive services to obtain or retain employment leading to âself... Intensive Services § 663.230 What criteria must be used to determine whether an employed worker needs intensive services to obtain or retain employment leading to “self-sufficiency”? State Boards or...

  18. 20 CFR 663.230 - What criteria must be used to determine whether an employed worker needs intensive services to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... whether an employed worker needs intensive services to obtain or retain employment leading to âself... Services § 663.230 What criteria must be used to determine whether an employed worker needs intensive services to obtain or retain employment leading to “self-sufficiency”? State Boards or Local Boards...

  19. Full-time workers with precarious employment face lower protection for receiving annual health check-ups.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mariko; Tsurugano, Shinobu; Nishikitani, Mariko; Yano, Eiji

    2012-10-01

    Precarious employment is one of the social determinants of health. In 2010, 34.4% of Japanese workers fell into this employment category. The purpose of our study was to assess whether the use of annual health check-ups varied by worker contract type. Using 2007 nationally representative survey data, we compared the annual health check-up compliance of permanently employed full-time workers versus that of precariously employed workers (hourly, dispatched, and fixed-term workers). Dispatched workers and hourly workers received health check-ups less often compared with permanent workers. Hourly young male workers received health check-ups five times less frequently than permanent workers. The percentage of workers who consulted a physician after receiving advice to do so did not differ by employment types, except in older men. In Japan, workers with precarious employment, most notably hourly and dispatched workers, had a lower rate of health check-ups compared with full-time workers in permanent positions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Are Agricultural Graduates Meeting Employers' Expectations? A Perspective from Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alibeigi, Amir Hossein; Zarafshani, Kiumars

    2006-01-01

    A high level of personal capacity, the relevant professional competence and technical skills are essential for a graduate's successful transition to the workplace. The purpose of this survey was to identify the main competencies that higher agricultural education graduates should possess, based on the perceptions of potential agricultural…

  1. Off-Farm Agricultural Occupations in Montana: Employment and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaney, Donald S.

    Data were obtained by interview with managers in a random sample of 161 businesses in 10 selected Montana trade and service centers to (1) identify present and emerging off-farm agricultural occupations, (2) estimate present and anticipated numbers of employees, (3) estimate annual entry opportunities, (4) determine needed competencies, and (5)…

  2. Are Agricultural Graduates Meeting Employers' Expectations? A Perspective from Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alibeigi, Amir Hossein; Zarafshani, Kiumars

    2006-01-01

    A high level of personal capacity, the relevant professional competence and technical skills are essential for a graduate's successful transition to the workplace. The purpose of this survey was to identify the main competencies that higher agricultural education graduates should possess, based on the perceptions of potential agricultural…

  3. [Acute inorganic lead poisoning in workers employed on building renovation].

    PubMed

    Liberatori, Roberta; Romeo, R; Restieri, Rosetta; Sarrini, Daniela; Parducci, A D; Puccetti, Monica; Loi, F; Sartorelli, P

    2010-01-01

    Occupationally, there are a number of work processes that constitute a long-term risk as sources of exposure to lead. In these processes the presence of lead is not evident but represents a hidden risk of poisoning. Study of two cases of hidden exposure to lead that were discovered during renovation work on a historical building. Acute lead poisoning symptoms appeared in the 2 workers. The current protocol for treatment of lead poisoning was applied, which consisted in administration of a chelating agent (EDTA), with subsequent monitoring of indicators of dose (PbB. blood lead level, PbU: urinary lead level) and indicators of effect (erythrocyte Protoporphyrin IX, urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-U), urinary coproporphyrins). The lead colic and anaemia appeared at PbB values (102 microg/dl e 104 microg/dl) that were higher than the PbB action value (40 microg/dl) and higher than the limit value (60 microg/dl). The gravity of the symptoms, the high number of persons potentially involved, the difficulty of reclamation and probable urban contamination, with relative consequences concerning particularly infants and women infertile age, are sufficient grounds to require effective legislative action and improvement in the services available at the hospitals involved.

  4. 76 FR 30393 - Bush Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment Professionals and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ..., 2011, applicable to workers of Bush Industries, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Express... Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment Professionals and Labor Ready, Erie, PA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance...

  5. PREPARING STUDENTS FOR EMPLOYMENT IN AGRICULTURE, AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS INSTITUTE, WORKSHOP REPORT (JUNE 7-JULY 16, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater. Research Foundation.

    THIRTY VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS FROM 10 STATES ATTENDED A WORKSHOP TO DEVELOP THEIR ABILITIES TO INSTRUCT, SUPERVISE, AND COORDINATE STUDENT ACTIVITIES AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL IN AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS. THEIR ACTIVITIES RESULTED IN THIS REPORT, INTENDED AS A GUIDE FOR AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN INITIATING INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS FOR THE…

  6. Primary prevention of ocular injury in agricultural workers with safety eyewear.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Agrawal, Deepshikha

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of preventing eye injury with the use of safety eyewear in agriculture workers. A sample group of 575 agricultural workers (Group A) engaged in harvesting paddy were provided with goggles with side covers. Following harvesting, a questionnaire-based survey was carried out to determine the frequency of their eye injuries. Workers with goggles were asked about the duration for which they used the goggles and also list barriers or difficulties with the same. The frequency of eye injuries in this group was compared with another group of agriculture workers (Group B) who did not use any safety eyewear. The frequency of eye injuries in Group A was 4 (0.7%) and Group B was 61 (11.3%) which was highly significant (P = 0.0001). The relative risk calculated was 0.06 (95% confidence interval: 0.02-0.2). Agricultural workers in Group A had 94% less risk of ocular trauma compared to those in Group B. Injuries in both groups were caused by parts of the paddy plant. A significant number (76.2%) of workers used the goggles all or most of the time during work. Impaired vision when wearing goggles was the most frequent barrier reported by the workers. Other barriers were discomfort, shyness, forgetfulness, apathy, slowing of work pace, awkward appearance, and breakages. Safety eyewear conferred significant protection against work-related eye injuries in agriculture. Although safety eyewear was widely adopted by the workers, barriers reported by them will need to be addressed to make such programs more effective.

  7. 75 FR 879 - Sanford, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Holland Employment and Willstaff, Lewisburg, TN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Sanford, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Holland Employment and... Alternative Trade Adjustment Assistance on February 3, 2009, applicable to workers of Sanford, including on... workers leased from Willstaff working on-site at the Lewisburg, Tennessee location of Sanford. The amended...

  8. 75 FR 452 - Applied Materials, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Employment Services, Aerotek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Materials, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Employment Services, Aerotek, Inc., CDI IT... Materials, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Adecco Employment Services, Aerotek, Inc., CDI IT.... Information shows that on-site leased workers from CDI IT Solution, Inc. had their wages reported under a...

  9. 76 FR 79221 - Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From QPS Employment Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers... Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, including on-site leased workers from QPS Employment Group and Spherion... Android Industries Belvidere, LLC. The Department has determined that these workers were...

  10. Employer perceptions of the employability of workers in a social business.

    PubMed

    Krupa, Terry; Howell-Moneta, Angela; Lysaght, Rosemary; Kirsh, Bonnie

    2016-06-01

    This study examined employer perceptions of employability of job candidates working in a social business for people with mental illnesses. Using an analogue research design, 99 employers participated in a simulated job hiring process, rating 2 applicants on potential to do the job, fit with workplace culture and likelihood of hiring. One job applicant worked in a social business, and the second was either (a) working in a conventional business, (b) with employment lapse attributable to mental health issues, or (c) with an unexplained employment lapse. Paired samples t tests were used to compare ratings. Qualitative data were collected regarding the rationale for rankings and a content analysis was conducted. Employer rankings were significantly higher for the applicant working in a social business compared to either applicant with an employment lapse. Employers rated the candidate working in a conventional business significantly higher compared with the candidate in a social business only on ratings of likelihood to hire. Employers valued the recency of work experience in the social business, citing concerns about risks associated with employment lapses. Their comments suggested a lack of understanding of the nature of social business. Experience in a social business appears to lessen the disadvantage of unemployment in the job hiring process, but does not appear to be ranked on par with experience in the conventional workforce. The social business sector could benefit from considering ways to publically portray these work opportunities to enhance acceptance and inclusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. TRAINING OLDER WORKERS FOR TECHNOLOGY-BASED EMPLOYMENT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chin Chin; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly aging workforce and advances in technology are changing work environments and structures. The continued employability of older adults, particularly those of lower socioeconomic status (SES), requires them to participate in training programs to ensure their competence in today's workplace. Focus groups with 37 unemployed adults (51-76 years old) were conducted to gather information about barriers and obstacles for returning to work, training needs and formats, work experiences, and perceptions of the characteristics of an ideal job. Overall, results indicated that participants experienced age discrimination and lack of technology skills. They also expressed a desire to receive additional training on technology and a preference for classroom training.

  12. Massachusetts health reform: employers, lower-wage workers and universal coverage.

    PubMed

    Felland, Laurie; Draper, Debra; Liebhaber, Allison

    2007-07-01

    As Massachusetts' landmark effort to reach nearly universal health coverage unfolds, the state is now focusing on employers to take steps to increase coverage. All employers--except firms with fewer than 11 workers--face new requirements under the 2006 law, including establishing Section 125, or cafeteria, plans to allow workers to purchase insurance with pre-tax dollars and paying a $295 annual fee if they do not make a "fair and reasonable" contribution to the cost of workers' coverage. Through interviews with Massachusetts health care leaders (see Data Source), the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) examined how the law is likely to affect employer decisions to offer health insurance to workers and employee decisions to purchase coverage. Market observers believe many small firms may be unaware of specific requirements and that some could prove onerous. Moreover, the largest impact on small employers may come from the individual mandate for all residents to have a minimum level of health insurance. This mandate may add costs for firms if more workers take up coverage offers, seek more generous coverage or pressure employers to offer coverage. Despite reform of the individual and small group markets, including development of new insurance products, concerns remain about the affordability of coverage and the ability to stem rising health care costs.

  13. Pregnancy rates among Myanmar migrant workers who pursue employment in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Ekawong, Prapawadee

    2007-01-01

    Urine pregnancy diagnostic test is easily available. It is a requirement of the screening program for Myanmar workers who pursue employment in Thailand. Only a few studies have estimated population pregnancy rates using objective and laboratory-based criteria. Here, the authors performed a study on laboratory-measured pregnancy rates among Myanmar workers who pursue employment in Thailand from an experience in a tertiary hospital in Thailand. The data from medical records of the female Myanmar migrant workers who got a diagnostic urine pregnancy test at Division of Laboratory Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, from July 2004 to June 2005 were reviewed. A total of 263 medical records were reviewed in this study. There were 17 positive cases of the overall 263. The diagnostic test results were negative in 246 cases (93.5%) and positive in 17 (6.5%). Screening for the urine pregnancy among these migrant workers can help decrease the improper antenatal care.

  14. Mortality of workers employed at organochlorine pesticide manufacturing plants: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.

    1991-07-01

    A mortality study of workers at four organochlorine pesticide manufacturing factories was updated through 1987. The cohorts included all white male workers employed for at least 6 months before December 31, 1964 at the four factories. The workers had been exposed to the following organochlorine pesticides: chlordane, heptachlor, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Workers at one factory had been exposed to the organobromine pesticide dibromochloropropane. The total number of deaths for the period from 1976 through 1987 was 650. Mortality for all causes and all malignant neoplasms was lower than expected at each of the factories. Cerebrovascular disease mortality was elevated for three of the four factories. The most important result was the statistically significant increase in liver/biliary tract cancer among workers at the facility where aldrin and dieldrin were the primary organochlorine pesticides produced and the nonsignificant increase at the facility where DDT was manufactured.

  15. California Nursery Workers and the Nursery Industry. California Agricultural Studies, 92-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Employment Development, Sacramento.

    This report examines conditions in the California nursery industry and develops a comprehensive baseline of labor force requirements and practices. A telephone survey was conducted with 167 randomly selected nurseries in a 10-county area. Additionally, 455 workers and 85 employers participated in on-site interviews. Workers were classified as…

  16. TRAINING OLDER WORKERS FOR TECHNOLOGY-BASED EMPLOYMENT

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chin Chin; Czaja, Sara J.; Sharit, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly aging workforce and advances in technology are changing work environments and structures. The continued employability of older adults, particularly those of lower socioeconomic status (SES), requires them to participate in training programs to ensure their competence in today’s workplace. Focus groups with 37 unemployed adults (51–76 years old) were conducted to gather information about barriers and obstacles for returning to work, training needs and formats, work experiences, and perceptions of the characteristics of an ideal job. Overall, results indicated that participants experienced age discrimination and lack of technology skills. They also expressed a desire to receive additional training on technology and a preference for classroom training. PMID:20351795

  17. Precarious employment associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adult wage workers.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Man; Chang, Jisoon; Won, Eunsoo; Lee, Min-Soo; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2017-08-15

    Precarious employment is one of the most important indicators of social disadvantage and is associated with poor mental health. This study aimed to investigate the association of precarious employment with depressive mood and suicidal ideation in adult wage workers, and the possible mediating or moderating effect of socioeconomic factors in the association between precarious work and mental health status. Data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V) conducted between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed. Among the 24,173 participants, 6266 adult wage workers (3206 precarious and 3060 non-precarious workers) aged ≥19 years were included. Socioeconomic and health-related characteristics as well as depressive mood and suicidal ideation were investigated. Precarious employment was significantly associated with depressive mood in the logistic regression analyses adjusting for all potential confounding factors as covariates. The socioeconomic variables including age, gender, education level, marital status, household income, and occupation type were significantly related with depressive mood and suicidal ideation in adult wage workers. We also found that gender and household income had possible moderating effects on the association between precarious employment and suicidal ideation. Precarious work was associated with suicidal ideation only for male workers and worker with low or middle-lower income levels. Our study is based on a cross-sectional design, thus, we could not elucidate the causal relationship between the variables. Our study suggested that precarious employment plays a pivotal role in the mental health status of adult wage workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Comparison of Certain Knowledges in Agriculture Needed by Workers in Farming, in Grain Elevator Businesses, and in Agricultural Equipment Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiscus, Keith Eugene

    Questionnaires to determine the vocational and technical education needed by prospective workers in farming and in grain elevator and agricultural equipment businesses were administered to 20 workers in each of the jobs of (1) farm manager, (2) grain elevator manager, operator, salesman, and deliveryman, and (3) agricultural equipment manager,…

  19. A Comparison of Certain Knowledges in Agriculture Needed by Workers in Farming, in Grain Elevator Businesses, and in Agricultural Equipment Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiscus, Keith Eugene

    Questionnaires to determine the vocational and technical education needed by prospective workers in farming and in grain elevator and agricultural equipment businesses were administered to 20 workers in each of the jobs of (1) farm manager, (2) grain elevator manager, operator, salesman, and deliveryman, and (3) agricultural equipment manager,…

  20. Promoting and protecting worker health and safety in the Republic of Korea agricultural sector.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Geoffrey M; Lee, Kyungsuk; Roh, Sangchul; Davis, Kermit G; Tak, SangWoo

    2012-01-01

    With the exception of agriculture, all other Republic of Korea industrial sectors have comprehensive systems in place for workplace surveillance (i.e., disease, injury, and exposure), research, and targeted interventions. However, because few statistics are available on the occupational health and safety conditions in the Republic of Korea agricultural sector, there is little information to guide interventions to prevent hazardous agricultural exposures. The scant information that is currently available suggests that agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries in the Republic of Korea. Building on information obtained at the International Symposium on Development of Prevention Strategies for Agricultural Health and Safety held in Suwon, Republic of Korea, in 2005, and embellished with examples of surveillance, research, and intervention activities conducted in the United States and elsewhere, this article provides guidance to promote and protect the health of Korean agricultural workers. This information can also guide other countries to reduce agricultural hazards.

  1. The health of U.S. agricultural worker families: A descriptive study of over 790,000 migratory and seasonal agricultural workers and dependents.

    PubMed

    Boggess, Bethany; Bogue, Hilda Ochoa

    2016-01-01

    Migratory and seasonal agricultural workers (MSAWs) are a historically under-served population that experience poor access to health care. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic, socioeconomic, and health status of U.S. agricultural workers and their dependents who were patients of a Migrant Health Center in 2012. The authors used the Uniform Data System to examine demographic, socioeconomic, and health variables for 793,188 patients of 164 Migrant Health Centers during 2012. Means, proportions, and period prevalence was calculated for all variables. Results showed that 80% of MSAWs earned family incomes below 100% of federal poverty level. Among the reported diagnoses, the most common were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and mental health conditions. Fifty-three percent of all MSAWs and 71% of adult MSAWs were uninsured, indicating that Migrants Health Centers continue to play a vital role in providing access to primary health care for MSAWs and their families.

  2. Employment in Agricultural and Agribusiness Occupations. Region 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The handbook, representing results of phase 1 of the National Agribusiness Manpower Project, identifies and defines occupations and industries requiring agribusiness competencies in the southeastern States. Occupational data presented in the employment tables are separated into three sections which comprise the major portion of the document. The…

  3. Employment in Agricultural and Agribusiness Occupations. Region 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The handbook, representing results of phase 1 of the National Agribusiness Manpower Project, identifies and defines occupations and industries requiring agribusiness competencies in the southeastern States. Occupational data presented in the employment tables are separated into three sections which comprise the major portion of the document. The…

  4. Older Workers and Care-Giving in England: the Policy Context for Older Workers' Employment Patterns.

    PubMed

    Yeandle, Sue; Buckner, Lisa

    2017-08-04

    This article considers recent changes in the incidence of caring among people aged 50-64 in England and the policy context in which these have occurred. After introducing the topic, research questions addressed and methods used, it outlines findings from other research on how older workers experience and manage caring roles. It then sets out relevant public policy developments since carers were first accorded rights to recognition and services in 1995, focusing on workplace support, local services and financial help for people who reduce or quit their paid work to care. The article presents new analyses of the population censuses conducted in England in 2001 and 2011, focusing on people aged 50-64 and especially on those aged 60-64, the group in which the largest changes were seen. Theses show growth in caring at higher levels of intensity for older workers, and increases in the incidence of caring alongside paid work. To deepen understanding of these changes, the analysis also draws on data from a government survey of carers conducted in 2009-10. The concluding discussion argues that although the modest policy changes implemented since 1995 have provided some support to older workers managing work and care, more policy attention needs to be given following the sharp increase in the incidence of caring seen among people aged 50-64 in England between 2001 and 2011.

  5. Displaced workers and employer-provided health insurance: evidence of a wage/fringe benefit tradeoff?

    PubMed

    Simon, K I

    2001-01-01

    Job changes that result from plant closings and mass layoffs provide an opportunity to see how workers respond to an employment shock that is arguably exogenous to individual productivity. Comparing compensation packages of displaced workers on their old and new jobs is a potentially promising method to infer a tradeoff between wages and non-wage benefits. Although displaced worker data overcomes many of the pitfalls to estimating wage/fringe tradeoffs by controlling for time-invariant unobserved productivity, time-varying unobservables could still bias estimates. In this analysis, I investigate the compensating wage differential for one particularly valuable benefit, employer-provided health insurance. I find that even after controlling for an extensive set of productivity factors, I obtain results indicating a wrong-signed tradeoff. Those who lose health insurance through the job change also lose wages relative to other displaced workers, while those who gain health insurance also gain in wages. Individuals expected to incur higher health care costs (older workers and workers who are likely to buy family coverage) do not experience steeper wage/health insurance tradeoffs as would be expected if employers were able to pass health care costs on to workers according to individual costs. Although this exercise fails to isolate a wage/fringe tradeoff, the strong correlation between changes in wages and changes in fringe benefits has important implications for public policy towards displaced workers. Further research is needed to understand the true magnitude and distribution of the costs of job displacement taking changes in fringe benefits into account.

  6. Determinants of health insurance status for children of Latino immigrant and other US farm workers: findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Roberto L; Elliott, Marc N; Vestal, Katherine D; Suttorp, Marika J; Schuster, Mark A

    2008-12-01

    To characterize the health insurance status of farm workers' children, an understudied topic. A population-based multistage survey. Employer-based study conducted in the continental United States from 2000 to 2002. A total of 3136 parents with children younger than 18 years and no children residing outside of the United States who participated in the US Department of Labor's National Agricultural Workers Survey, which is administered to a national probability sample of US farm workers. Children's parent-reported health insurance status. Of the farm workers who were parents, 87% were Latino, 81% were foreign born, 15% were migrant workers, 55% had less than a sixth-grade education, and 68% reported little to no English language proficiency. Thirty-two percent of all farm-worker parents, including 45% of migrant-worker parents, reported that their children were uninsured. In multivariate analyses, older parental age (odds ratio [OR] for parents aged 30-39 years, 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.50; OR for parents aged >/=40 years, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.99-4.74), less parental education (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.09-2.10), less time in the United States (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.56-0.91 per 10 years in the United States), being a migrant worker (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.31-2.93), and living in the Southeast (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 2.00-5.02) or Southwest (OR, 3.91; 95% CI, 2.32-6.57) were significantly associated with having uninsured children. Farm workers' children were uninsured at roughly 3 times the rate of all other children and almost twice the rate of those at or near the federal poverty level. Programs aimed at extending insurance coverage for children should consider the unique social barriers that characterize this vulnerable population of US children. Moreover, there is significant regional variation that may reflect varying levels of insurance resources and eligibility from state to state.

  7. 78 FR 45167 - Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture; Pesticides, Agricultural Worker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 170 RIN 2070-AJ22 Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture...). ACTION: Notification of submission to the Secretary of Agriculture. SUMMARY: This document notifies the... Administrator has forwarded to the Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) a...

  8. Agricultural practices and personal hygiene among agricultural workers in a rural area of Howrah district, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Das, D K; Dey, T K

    2005-01-01

    The study attempted to assess agricultural practices and personal hygiene among 100 agricultural workers in a rural area of West Bengal in 1999. 69% of the study population was marginal farmer with less than 2 acres of land. Organophosphorus group of pesticides were most commonly used pesticides (68%); spraying was irregular in nature (98%), through semiautomatic sprayer (99%) and only 5% used any special dress while spraying pesticides. 40% of workers used to store pesticides either in living room or in food storage area. 88% of them did not take any food during work with pesticides, only 37% used to take regular bath after working with pesticides but regular hand washing was practiced by all of them.

  9. Employment effects of active labor market programs for sick-listed workers.

    PubMed

    Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Kristin Storck; Houlberg, Helle Sofie Bøje

    2017-01-30

    We use register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers in Denmark over the period 2008-2011 to investigate the effect of active labor market programs on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over-time variation in the use of active labor market programs in 98 job centers and time-to- event. We find that ordinary education and subsidized job training have significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, positive effect on the transition into employment but no effect on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition into employment. The latter effect is the result of two opposing effects, a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock-in effect, with low re-employment chances during program participation.

  10. Revisiting cancer 15 years later: Exploring mortality among agricultural and non-agricultural workers in the Serrana Region of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Noa; de Souza Espíndola Santos, Aline; Lima, Jaime; Meyer, Armando

    2017-01-01

    Background Agricultural production has expanded dramatically throughout Brazil. Previous research in the Serrana Region found that from 1979 to 1998, agricultural workers experienced high mortality rates from certain cancers compared to non-agricultural workers [Meyer et al. (2003): Environ Res 93:264-271]. New data were obtained for 1999-2013 and Mortality Odds Ratios (MORs) were utilized to compare cancer and other mortality between male agricultural workers in the Serrana Region and non-agricultural workers in the Serrana Region, Rio de Janeiro, and Porto Alegre, and to compare mortality odds to previous decades. Respectively, compared to aforementioned reference-groups, agricultural workers experienced highest MORs for stomach (1.55 [95%CI: 1.13-2.12], 2.30 [95%CI: 1.72-3.08], 2.28 [95%CI: 1.69-3.08]) and esophageal cancers (95%CI: 1.93 [1.38-2.7], 1.93 [95%CI: 1.38-2.71], 3.12 [95%CI: 2.30-4.24]), greater than reported in previous decades. Agricultural workers experienced higher mortality for external-causes, respiratory, and cardiovascular problems compared to urban reference-groups. Agricultural workers may be at increasing risk for cancer and other mortality. Efforts are needed to investigate distinct risk-factors among this group. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:77-86, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Precarious employment in Chile: psychometric properties of the Chilean version of Employment Precariousness Scale in private sector workers.

    PubMed

    Vives-Vergara, Alejandra; González-López, Francisca; Solar, Orielle; Bernales-Baksai, Pamela; González, María José; Benach, Joan

    2017-04-20

    The purpose of this study is to perform a psychometric analysis (acceptability, reliability and factor structure) of the Chilean version of the new Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES). The data is drawn from a sample of 4,248 private salaried workers with a formal contract from the first Chilean Employment Conditions, Work, Health and Quality of Life (ENETS) survey, applied to a nationally representative sample of the Chilean workforce in 2010. Item and scale-level statistics were performed to assess scaling properties, acceptability and reliability. The six-dimensional factor structure was examined with confirmatory factor analysis. The scale exhibited high acceptability (roughly 80%) and reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.83) and the factor structure was confirmed. One subscale (rights) demonstrated poorer metric properties without compromising the overall scale. The Chilean version of the Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES-Ch) demonstrated good metric properties, pointing to its suitability for use in epidemiologic and public health research.

  12. Large employers see scenarios under which they could move workers and retirees to exchanges.

    PubMed

    Kramer, William E

    2012-02-01

    Large employers are thinking about how they might use the health insurance exchanges created by the Affordable Care Act. In the short term, from 2014 to 2016, many of these employers are giving serious consideration to using the exchanges to help provide coverage for part-time workers and for retirees not yet eligible for Medicare. In the long term, beginning in 2017, some large employers are considering using the exchanges to provide coverage for all of their employees. Costs, human resources strategies, and competitive pressures, as well as state and federal policy, will be the likely drivers of large employers' decisions about whether-and how-to use the exchanges.

  13. Agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among hired farm workers in California (the MICASA study).

    PubMed

    Rodriquez, Erik J; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Bennett, Deborah H; Tancredi, Daniel J; Schenker, Marc B

    2014-01-01

    Despite California's dependence on hired farm labor, scarce research has been conducted on the respiratory health of hired farm workers. Agricultural exposures to inorganic and organic dusts can adversely affect an individual's respiratory health and differ by farm type and job task. The purpose of the present analysis was to examine associations between agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among 450 California farm workers. Data were collected as part of the Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) study, a prospective cohort study examining occupational risk factors and health of hired farm worker families in Mendota, California. Time-weighted self-reported average (TWSRA) dust scores were calculated from assessments of past-12-month agricultural work history. Other dust exposure indicator variables included months worked in agriculture in the past 12 months and years worked in agriculture. Multiple linear regression modeled FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), FEF(25-75%) (forced midexpiratory flow rate), FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV6, FEV1/FVC, and FEV1/FEV6 separately. Seventy-six percent of participants had worked in agriculture in the past year. In models conducted for crops and tasks separately, high TWSRA dust score was associated with better FEV6. Crop and task models showed associations between greater months worked in agriculture in the past year and better FEV1, FEF(25-75%), and FEV6. Both models also found greater years worked in agriculture to be associated with worse FEV1/FEV6. Results were generally in the opposite direction as expected given past research but not uncommon. Future research should investigate relationships between pulmonary function and agricultural dust exposure over a lifetime and changes in pulmonary function over time.

  14. The impact of crude-oil price volatility on agricultural employment in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-12-31

    This study focuses on the impact of fluctuations in the price of crude oil on agricultural employment in the United States. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between agricultural employment and crude oil price volatility is established using Granger causality. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impacts of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in agricultural employment are exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in agricultural employment and the volatility of the price of crude oil, the percentage changes in expected net farm income, realized technological innovation, and the wage rate is examined.

  15. Cancer mortality in cohorts of workers in the European rubber manufacturing industry first employed since 1975.

    PubMed

    Boniol, M; Koechlin, A; Świątkowska, B; Sorahan, T; Wellmann, J; Taeger, D; Jakobsson, K; Pira, E; Boffetta, P; La Vecchia, C; Pizot, C; Boyle, P

    2016-05-01

    Increased cancer risk has been reported among workers in the rubber manufacturing industry employed before the 1960s. It is unclear whether risk remains increased among workers hired subsequently. The present study focused on risk of cancer mortality for rubber workers first employed since 1975 in 64 factories. Anonymized data from cohorts of rubber workers employed for at least 1 year from Germany, Italy, Poland, Sweden, and the UK were pooled. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), based on country-specific death rates, were reported for bladder and lung cancer (primary outcomes of interest), for other selected cancer sites, and for cancer sites with a minimum of 10 deaths in men or women. Analyses stratified by type of industry, period, and duration of employment were carried out. A total of 38 457 individuals (29 768 men; 8689 women) contributed to 949 370 person-years. No increased risk of bladder cancer was observed [SMR = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46; 1.38]. The risk of lung cancer death was reduced (SMR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.70; 0.94). No statistically significant increased risk was observed for any other cause of death. A reduced risk was evident for total cancer mortality (SMR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.76; 0.87). Risks were lower for workers in the tyre industry compared with workers in the general rubber goods sector. Analysis by employment duration showed a negative trend with SMRs decreasing with increasing duration of employment. In an analysis of secondary end points, when stratified by type of industry and period of first employment, excess risks of myeloma and gastric cancer were observed each due, essentially, to results from one centre. No consistent increased risk of cancer death was observed among rubber workers first employed since 1975, no overall analysis of the pooled cohort produced significantly increased risk. Continued surveillance of the present cohorts is required to confirm the absence of long-term risk. © The Author 2016. Published by

  16. Pre-Employment Laboratory Training. General Agricultural Mechanics Volume II. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This course outline, the second volume of a two-volume set, consists of lesson plans for pre-employment laboratory training in general agricultural mechanics. Covered in the eight lessons included in this volume are cold metal work, soldering, agricultural safety programs, farm shops, farm structures, farm and ranch electrification, soil and water…

  17. Pre-Employment Laboratory Training. General Agricultural Mechanics Volume II. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This course outline, the second volume of a two-volume set, consists of lesson plans for pre-employment laboratory training in general agricultural mechanics. Covered in the eight lessons included in this volume are cold metal work, soldering, agricultural safety programs, farm shops, farm structures, farm and ranch electrification, soil and water…

  18. EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES AND NEEDED COMPETENCIES IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN MASSACHUSETTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JUDGE, HOMER V.

    THE CHANGING NATURE AND PURPOSES OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN AGRICULTURE PROMPTED THIS STUDY OF OCCUPATIONS IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURE. OBJECTIVES WERE TO DEVELOP INFORMATION IN REGARD TO EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES, REQUIRED COMPETENCIES, AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION NEEDS FOR JOB ENTRY AND ADVANCEMENT. REPRESENTING A 10 PERCENT RANDOM SAMPLE OF EACH OF 13…

  19. EEOC policy statement aids workers seeking to avoid arbitration. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

    PubMed

    1997-09-19

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) issued a policy statement condemning a prevalent practice among U.S. employers--new hires are asked to sign an agreement obligating them to submit Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) claims to binding arbitration. By signing the clause, an employee virtually forfeits his or her rights to bring an ADA claim to court. The EEOC compares these employment clauses to conditions of employment rather than voluntary agreements between worker and employer. Employers argue that the binding arbitration process is fast and equitable. Opponents argue that the process is unfair. The EEOC instructed its investigators to proceed with administrative charges regardless of whether or not the complainant signed a binding arbitration agreement. The EEOC policy statement argues against mandatory arbitration clauses, noting that the arbitration process limits the rights of employees and weighs heavily in favor of employers.

  20. Return-to-Work Program for Injured Workers: Factors of Successful Return to Employment.

    PubMed

    Awang, Halimah; Shahabudin, Sharifah Muhairah; Mansor, Norma

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the factors of successful return to employment among participants in the return to work program (RTW) following work-related injury. Data were obtained from the Social Security Organization database containing 9850 injured workers who underwent RTW in 2010 to 2013. About 65% had successfully returned to employment. Significant factors of successful return include gender, employer interest, motivation, age, intervention duration, and type of injury. Male and motivated employees were more likely to return to employment compared with female and unmotivated employees, respectively. Participants from interested employers were 23.22 times more likely to return to work than those from uninterested employers, whereas participants whose intervention period exceeded 5 months were 41% less likely to return to work compared with those whose intervention period was within 3 months. Appropriate strategy and enhanced collaboration between the stakeholders would improve the proportion of successful return to employment. © 2016 APJPH.

  1. The effectiveness of rehabilitation on pain-free farming in agriculture workers with low back pain in India.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Shankar; Chhabra, Deepak; Kumari, Nitika

    2016-10-17

    Studies have shown that farming is associated with many agricultural workers experiencing low back pain (LBP). The rehabilitation of these workers should facilitate their functioning, activities and level of participation in an adequate way. The objectives of this study were to identify the health components associated with LBP and to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions in returning agricultural workers with LBP to their vocation using the International Classification of Function (ICF) -based tools. Thirty-one full time agricultural workers from 3 different Indian states were prospectively assessed using the ICF core set for LBP. ICF core sets permitted analysis of limitations of function from both the participant and rehabilitation team's perspectives. Each ICF category was rated using an ICF qualifier. The components identified were linked to the ICF categorical profile and assessment sheet. The clinicians identified the global, service program and cycle goals based on ICF. The participants' functioning was followed over a 4-month period. After intervention, the participants were able to undergo their routine activities without increases in pain. However, on returning to active farming, participants noted few improvements in the components d410 (changing basic body position), d415 (maintaining body position), d430 (lifting and carrying objects), d465 (moving around using equipment), d850 (remunerative employment) and d859 (work and employment, other specified and unspecified). The results of the study conclude that the current interventions for LBP are not effective in returning agriculture workers with LBP in India to pain-free farming. There is an urgent need to individualize the health needs of agriculture workers.

  2. Modernization and Age Management in France: French Older Workers and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaullier, Xavier; Thomas, Charles

    In the new context of economic recovery, employment creation, new technologies, and labor shortages in some sectors, France cannot sustain a systematic policy of rejecting aging workers. This policy has led gradually to the recognition that early retirement was merely an easy way out of the problem that has many substantially adverse effects on…

  3. Education Returns of Wage Earners and Self-Employed Workers: Rejoinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordahl, Henrik; Poutvaara, Panu; Tuomala, Juha

    2009-01-01

    In their reply to our comment, Garcia-Mainar and Montuenga-Gomez [Garcia-Mainar, I., & Montuenga-Gomez, V. M. (2009). A response to the comment on education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers. "Economics of Education Review"] did not address our fundamental criticism that they have not provided the information…

  4. Education Returns of Wage Earners and Self-Employed Workers: Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordahl, Henrik; Poutvaara, Panu; Tuomala, Juha

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper, Garcia-Mainar and Montuenga-Gomez [Garcia-Mainar, I. & Montuenga-Gomez, V. M. (2005). Education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers: Portugal vs. Spain. "Economics of Education Review, 24"(2), 161-170] apply the generalized IV model of Hausman and Taylor to estimate education returns of wage earners…

  5. 29 CFR 778.419 - Hourly workers employed at two or more jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Type of Work Performed in Overtime Hours (secs. 7(g) (1) and (2)) § 778.419 Hourly workers employed at... advance of the performance of the work that he will be paid during overtime hours at a rate not less than... hours standard. (b) An hourly rate will be regarded as a bona fide rate for a particular kind of work it...

  6. 75 FR 3251 - Applied Materials, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Employment Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Employment Services, Aerotek, Inc., CDI IT Solutions (CDI Corporation), D&Z Microelectronics, Pentagon... Services, Aerotek, Inc., CDI IT Solutions, D&Z Microelectronics, Pentagon Technology, Proactive Business... semiconductor equipment. Information shows that on-site leased workers from CDI IT Solutions had their wages...

  7. Helping Displaced Older Workers Get Back into Employment: Good Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Victor J.; Bowman, Kaye

    2015-01-01

    This good practice guide is based on the report "Industry Restructuring and Job Loss: Helping Older Workers Get Back into Employment" by Victor J. Callan and Kaye Bowman. The aim of the research was to identify evidence-based practices that led to successful skills transfer, re-skilling, training and the attainment of new jobs for older…

  8. Employers' Attitudes on Hiring Workers with Intellectual Disabilities in Small and Medium Enterprises: An Italian Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappella, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Employers play a significant role in the process of hiring workers with intellectual disability. Through an in-depth interview, this research aims to investigate the attitudes of 30 representatives of small and medium-sized Italian companies involved in a process of recruitment. The data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. The results…

  9. 29 CFR 778.419 - Hourly workers employed at two or more jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hourly workers employed at two or more jobs. 778.419 Section 778.419 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF... two or more jobs. (a) Under section 7(g)(2) an employee who performs two or more different kinds of...

  10. 29 CFR 778.419 - Hourly workers employed at two or more jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hourly workers employed at two or more jobs. 778.419 Section 778.419 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF... two or more jobs. (a) Under section 7(g)(2) an employee who performs two or more different kinds of...

  11. 29 CFR 778.419 - Hourly workers employed at two or more jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hourly workers employed at two or more jobs. 778.419 Section 778.419 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF... two or more jobs. (a) Under section 7(g)(2) an employee who performs two or more different kinds of...

  12. Employers' Attitudes on Hiring Workers with Intellectual Disabilities in Small and Medium Enterprises: An Italian Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappella, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Employers play a significant role in the process of hiring workers with intellectual disability. Through an in-depth interview, this research aims to investigate the attitudes of 30 representatives of small and medium-sized Italian companies involved in a process of recruitment. The data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. The results…

  13. Project PLANTWORK: A Horticulture Employment Initiative for Workers with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Therapy and Rehabilitation through Horticulture, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD.

    Intended for persons establishing job development programs for developmentally disabled individuals, this training manual details the structure and procedures of Project PLANTWORK, a 21-month demonstration program which placed approximately 70 workers with developmental disabilities into employment in horticulture industry firms or into…

  14. Education Returns of Wage Earners and Self-Employed Workers: Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Mainar, Inmaculada; Montuenga-Gomez, Victor M.

    2009-01-01

    This is a response to [Jordahl, H., Poutvaara, P., & Tuomala, J. (2009). Comment on education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers. "Economics of Education Review" 28]. We acknowledge that econometrics have improved since the time our original paper was written, so that the choice of accurate instruments is now more…

  15. Re-employment for Dislocated Workers: The Jobs Training Partnership Act Experience in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Janet Stern

    A study examined the effectiveness of Title III of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) in providing employment and training assistance for dislocated workers in Maryland. Four areas--participants, program content, funding, and performance--were assessed. Despite its imperfections, JTPA seemed to do a good job of establishing a partnership of…

  16. 29 CFR 778.419 - Hourly workers employed at two or more jobs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hourly workers employed at two or more jobs. 778.419 Section 778.419 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Exceptions From the Regular Rate...

  17. County Profile of Agricultural Migrant Workers in Illinois. A Report of the Committee on Agricultural Migrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Committee on Agricultural Migrant Workers, Springfield.

    A survey was conducted in Illinois to determine services available for the health, education, day care, housing, and welfare of agricultural migrant families. Further purposes of the survey were to determine changes in migration patterns within the State, and to examine the effect of family services on the recruiting and holding of migrant…

  18. Sustainable employability for older workers: an explorative survey of belgian companies.

    PubMed

    Verbrugghe, Mathieu; Kuipers, Yoline; Vriesacker, Bart; Peeters, Ilse; Mortelmans, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) is developing an online e-guide, which will provide tips and practical information for each EU country (in their national language(s)) on ageing and occupational health and safety. The e-guide will be launched in 2016 as part of the EU-OSHA campaign on Healthy Workplaces for all ages. The e-guide will present evidence, tools and practical examples of how companies can take action and effectively promote sustainable employability. As part of the development of the e-guide, a cross-sectional study was conducted to survey Belgian employers in April 2015 to determine their specific needs concerning older workers' occupational health and safety issues. Researchers from Milieu Ltd. (Brussels, Belgium), the consultancy company coordinating the e-guide project, and Mensura Occupational Health Services (Brussels, Belgium) developed a 13-item questionnaire. The survey addressed the needs and importance given to sustainable employability of older workers in Belgian companies and evaluated corporate knowledge regarding relevant national policies. The questionnaire was distributed electronically to the management of 22,084 private-sector companies affiliated with Mensura. Ten percent (n = 2133) of recipients opened the e-mail, and 37 % (n = 790) of these completed the questionnaire. In 89 % of the responding companies, sustainable employability of workers aged ≥55 years plays an important role; 70 % have no active sustainable employability policy/initiative; 18 % experience difficulties promoting sustainable employability; and 86 % indicate no need for support to promote sustainable employability. Respondents noted the following health complaints among workers aged ≥55 years: work-related health problems (31 %), stress (26 %), work agreements/type of work (17 %), work/life balance (15 %), and career development and/or training (9 %). Topics concerning health and well-being of workers aged ≥55

  19. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of Agricultural Workers Receiving Microcredit in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmud, Kazi Tanvir; Parvez, Asif; Hilton, David; Kabir, G. M. Shamsul; Wahid, Ishraat Saira

    2014-01-01

    The policy of providing microcredit and skill training to poor agricultural workers in developing countries is well-established. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the effectiveness of the training part of that policy. BRAC (formerly the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), the largest non-governmental organization in…

  20. A SCHOOL AND HEALTH RECORD TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR MIGRATORY CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS (CALIFORNIA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    THE CALIFORNIA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION HAS ADOPTED A UNIFORM TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. EACH SCHOOL DISTRICT ENROLLING MIGRANT CHILDREN MUST COMPLETE A STANDARDIZED FORM FOR EACH MIGRANT CHILD AND FORWARD IT WITH THE PUPIL WHEN HE WITHDRAWS FROM SCHOOL. A COPY ALSO MUST BE FORWARDED TO THE STATE…

  1. Rural Sociology in the South: 1972. Proceedings: Rural Sociology Section, Association of Southern Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voland, Maurice E., Ed.

    The papers presented in this collection are said to represent the major thrusts of research and other scholarly activities of rural sociologists in the South in 1972. Arranged in the order of their presentation at the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Agricultural Workers meetings, these papers discuss such topics as youth, social change in…

  2. The Health Needs of Black Agricultural Workers in Mid-Delta Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omishakin, M. Ademola

    1982-01-01

    Presents results of a survey on housing conditions, knowledge of health hazards, use of health facilities, and health needs among Black agricultural workers in Leflore County, Mississippi. Indicates the need for health education, better medical coverage, and community involvement in health care delivery, to improve health conditions in the county.…

  3. Algonquin Portrait: A Study of the Rapid Lake Seasonal Agricultural Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Paul R.

    The study's purpose was to compile descriptive information about a small band of Algonquin Indian seasonal agricultural workers from Quebec, Canada who migrate annually into Ontario County, New York to work on the fur and poultry farms. Although these Indians have worked in the State since 1945, no "serious" study had been made which…

  4. HOME EDUCATION LIVELIHOOD PROGRAM IN NEW MEXICO FOR UNDEREMPLOYED SEASONAL AGRICULTURE WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Home Education Livelihood Program, Albuquerque, NM.

    THE HOME EDUCATION LIVELIHOOD PROGRAM (HELP) IN NEW MEXICO PROVIDES EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES TO ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED SPANISH AMERICAN AND MEXICAN AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. THE BASIS OF THE HELP PROGRAM IS ADULT AND FAMILY EDUCATION INCLUDING BASIC CHILD CARE AND REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION. HELP PRODUCES SOME OF ITS OWN INSTRUCTIONAL…

  5. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of Agricultural Workers Receiving Microcredit in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmud, Kazi Tanvir; Parvez, Asif; Hilton, David; Kabir, G. M. Shamsul; Wahid, Ishraat Saira

    2014-01-01

    The policy of providing microcredit and skill training to poor agricultural workers in developing countries is well-established. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the effectiveness of the training part of that policy. BRAC (formerly the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), the largest non-governmental organization in…

  6. Review of Pesticide Education Materials for Health Care Providers Providing Care to Agricultural Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiott, Ann E.; Quandt, Sara A.; Early, Julie; Jackson, David S.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Pesticide exposure is an important environmental and occupational health risk for agricultural workers and their families, but health care providers receive little training in it. Objective: To evaluate the medical resources available to providers caring for patients, particularly farmworkers, exposed to pesticides and to recommend a…

  7. Review of Pesticide Education Materials for Health Care Providers Providing Care to Agricultural Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiott, Ann E.; Quandt, Sara A.; Early, Julie; Jackson, David S.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Pesticide exposure is an important environmental and occupational health risk for agricultural workers and their families, but health care providers receive little training in it. Objective: To evaluate the medical resources available to providers caring for patients, particularly farmworkers, exposed to pesticides and to recommend a…

  8. Mitigation of musculoskeletal problems and body discomfort of agricultural workers through educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Rekha

    2012-01-01

    Farming is a physically arduous occupation that places farm workers' at potential risk of musculoskeletal disorders, which has been observed to impose a greater impact on their health. Each activity in agriculture brings about certain stress and strain on bones and muscles leading to work-related musculoskeletal disorders which can lead to several permanent diseases and disabilities. The purpose of analyzing musculoskeletal problems among male and female workers engaged in agriculture was to know about the risk factors dangerous to health so that interventions can be planned for mitigating them thereby increasing the efficiency of work. Educational intervention included audio-visual aids as well as printed literature. It was hoped that awareness of these factors through dissemination of information would contribute at preventing hazards amongst farmers and their families. The results revealed that the workers reported very severe to severe pain in low back while performing agricultural activities. Weeding was the most strenuous activity for females and threshing crop for males. Training and education on MSDs through educational intervention proved that the knowledge of the farm workers could be enhanced and can help reduce risk of many musculoskeletal problems. It can be help in empowering the community and mitigate MSDs in agriculture.

  9. Estimation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers in Iowa, Kansas, Missouri and Nebraska: Public Health Service Region VII. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Cautley, Eleanor

    This research project estimated migrant and seasonal agricultural workers in four Midwestern States in 1988, using the Public Health Service's definitions of such workers. Researchers collected federal agricultural data and state reports on migrant education programs and crop patterns, and considered other potential data sources. Numerous…

  10. Occupational health outcomes for workers in the agriculture, forestry and fishing sector: implications for immigrant workers in the southeastern US.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Kucera, Kristen L; Haynes, Courtney; Klein, Bradley G; Langley, Ricky; Agnew, Michael; Levin, Jeffrey L; Howard, Timothy; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2013-08-01

    Workers in the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (AgFF) sector experience exposures directly related to the work itself, as well as the physical environment in which the work occurs. Health outcomes vary from immediate to delayed, and from acute to chronic. We reviewed existing literature on the health outcomes of work in the AgFF sector and identified areas where further research is needed to understand the impact of these exposures on immigrant Latino workers in the southeastern US. Outcomes related to specific body systems (e.g., musculoskeletal, respiratory) as well as particular exposure sources (e.g., pesticides, noise) were reviewed. The most extensive evidence exists for agriculture, with a particular focus on chemical exposures. Little research in the southeastern US has examined health outcomes of exposures of immigrant workers in forestry or fisheries. As the AgFF labor force includes a growing number of Latino immigrants, more research is needed to characterize a broad range of exposures and health outcomes experienced by this population, particularly in forestry and fisheries. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Agricultural Business Feed and Grain Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This comprehensive and verified employer competency list was developed from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This competency list contains nine units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the…

  12. The decision to exclude agricultural and domestic workers from the 1935 Social Security Act.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The Social Security Act of 1935 excluded from coverage about half the workers in the American economy. Among the excluded groups were agricultural and domestic workers-a large percentage of whom were African Americans. This has led some scholars to conclude that policymakers in 1935 deliberately excluded African Americans from the Social Security system because of prevailing racial biases during that period. This article examines both the logic of this thesis and the available empirical evidence on the origins of the coverage exclusions. The author concludes that the racial-bias thesis is both conceptually flawed and unsupported by the existing empirical evidence. The exclusion of agricultural and domestic workers from the early program was due to considerations of administrative feasibility involving tax-collection procedures. The author finds no evidence of any other policy motive involving racial bias.

  13. Reports of work related musculoskeletal injury among home care service workers compared with nursery school workers and the general population of employed women in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Y; Lagerström, M; Hagberg, M; Lindén, A; Malker, B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To describe the nationwide occurrence of work related musculoskeletal injuries among all home care service workers in Sweden, and to identify relative risks and risk factors of the injuries. METHODS--The study was based on work related injuries reported to the Swedish occupational injury information system in 1990-1. The work related musculoskeletal injuries were divided into overexertion accidents and musculoskeletal diseases. The incidence of the injuries in female home care service workers was compared with those in nursery school workers and all other employed women in Sweden. RESULTS--In home care service workers, the annual incidence of injury from overexertion accidents and musculoskeletal diseases were 19.2 and 15.1 per 1000 workers, respectively, which was higher than those in nursery school workers and all employed women in Sweden. For five injury locations including the back, all the age standardised relative risks (SRR) of overexertion accidents exceeded 4.0, and most of those for musculoskeletal diseases were 1.5 or more in home care service workers compared with all other employed women in Sweden. Total duration of sick leave due to overexertion accidents was 7.7 times, and musculoskeletal diseases 3.5 times, longer than in nursery school workers. National loss due to sick leave resulting from only musculoskeletal injuries in home care service workers was about 8.2% of the total work related sick leave in all employed women in Sweden, although the number of home care service workers represented only some 5% of this population. Lifting other people was most frequently reported as the main risk cause of overexertion accidents in both kinds of workers. CONCLUSIONS--The results support the hypothesis that home care service workers have higher annual injury incidence of musculoskeletal injuries than nursery school workers due to physically stressful tasks that are far less common in nursery school workers. PMID:7489060

  14. 75 FR 30064 - Stanley Furniture Company, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ameristaff Employment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Employment and Training Administration Stanley Furniture Company, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From... related to the production of household furniture and furnishings. Workers of the subject firm were... applicable to the TA-W-72,861 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of Stanley Furniture Company,...

  15. Suicide mortality among agricultural workers in a region with intensive tobacco farming and use of pesticides in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Noa; Meyer, Armando; Fonseca, Maíra; Lima, Jaime

    2014-09-01

    To investigate whether suicide risk among agricultural workers is higher in regions with heavier pesticide use and/or presence of tobacco farming. Suicide mortality data were gathered from residents of the Brazilian state of Alagoas. Agricultural census data were used to arrange and classify Alagoas cities into distribution groups on the basis of variables concerning pesticide use and/or tobacco farming. Mortality odds ratio calculations were then used to compare suicide risk among agricultural and nonagricultural workers in different groups. Suicide risk was higher among agricultural workers than among nonagricultural workers, elevated in regions that used more pesticides, and greatest in regions that produced more tobacco. This is one of the first studies of its kind to suggest that combined effects of pesticide and tobacco exposure may be linked to higher suicide risk among agricultural workers.

  16. Suicide Mortality Among Agricultural Workers in a Region With Intensive Tobacco Farming and Use of Pesticides in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Noa; Meyer, Armando; Fonseca, Maira; Lima, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether suicide risk among agricultural workers is higher in regions with heavier pesticide use and/or presence of tobacco farming. Methods Suicide mortality data were gathered from residents of the Brazilian state of Alagoas. Agricultural census data were used to arrange and classify Alagoas cities into distribution groups on the basis of variables concerning pesticide use and/or tobacco farming. Mortality odds ratio calculations were then used to compare suicide risk among agricultural and nonagricultural workers in different groups. Results Suicide risk was higher among agricultural workers than among nonagricultural workers, elevated in regions that used more pesticides, and greatest in regions that produced more tobacco. Conclusions This is one of the first studies of its kind to suggest that combined effects of pesticide and tobacco exposure may be linked to higher suicide risk among agricultural workers. PMID:25046321

  17. Employment Opportunities in Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations in the Metropolitan Area of Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hollie B.; Neavill, Arthur

    Based on questionnaire data collected from a sample of employers, this phase of a larger research project ascertained employment opportunities in the area of applied biological and agricultural occupations in the metropolitan area of Chicago. Specific fields of business surveyed by stratified random sample were animal care, animal health care,…

  18. Farmers as Employers. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of farmers as employers: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with employment of agriculture…

  19. Work, Health, And Worker Well-Being: Roles And Opportunities For Employers.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Robert K

    2017-02-01

    Work holds the promise of supporting and promoting health. It also carries the risk of injury, illness, and death. In addition to harms posed by traditional occupational health hazards, such as physically dangerous workplaces, work contributes to health problems with multifactorial origins such as unhealthy lifestyles, psychological distress, and chronic disease. Not only does work affect health, but the obverse is true: Unhealthy workers are more frequently disabled, absent, and less productive, and they use more health care resources, compared to their healthy colleagues. The costs of poor workforce health are collectively borne by workers, employers, and society. For business as well as altruistic reasons, employers may strive to cost-effectively achieve the safest, healthiest, and most productive workforce possible. Narrowly focused health goals are giving way to a broader concept of employee well-being. This article explores the relationship between health and work, outlines opportunities for employers to make this relationship health promoting, and identifies areas needing further exploration.

  20. [Mortality study in a cohort of workers employed in a plant producing sulphuric acid ].

    PubMed

    Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Consonni, D; Rubagotti, Maurizia; Bonzini, M; Catalano, P; Bertazzi, P A

    2006-01-01

    In 1992, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified sulphuric acid mists as human carcinogen, based primarily on human data showing increased risk for larynx cancer. Uncertainties still exist about other respiratory cancers. We carried out a historical mortality study among workers ofa plant producing sulphuric acid in Tuscany, Italy. We reconstructed a cohort of 1372 male and 37female workers with at least one year of employment at the plant in the period 1962-97; 46% ofthe workers had previously been working in pyrite mines in the area where rocks have a high silica content. Environmental measurements of sulphuric acid and sulphur dioxide from the 1970's were generally below the TLVs. Mortality was investigated as of August 2000; Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) were calculated using Tuscany reference rates. Overall mortality was below expectation (SMR 77). In labourers, larynx cancer deaths were 4 vs 3.1 expected (SMR 130, 95% CI 35-333), while mortality from lung cancer was below expectation (27/32.8, SMR 82, 95% CI 54-120). An excess of myeloid leukaemia was observed mainly in workers without previous experience in mines (3/0.6, SMR 523, 95% CI 108-1527). Mortality from silicosis, but not from lung cancer, was remarkably high among workers with previous employment in mines. Among workers employed in sulphuric acid production, with or without previous experience in mines, we did not observe increased mortality from larynx or lung cancer. The increased mortality from myeloid leukaemia cannot be attributed to any of the exposures documented in the study plant and requires further investigation.

  1. Job control, psychological demand, and farmworker health: evidence from the national agricultural workers survey.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Alterman, Toni; Gabbard, Susan; Shen, Rui; Nakamoto, Jorge; Carroll, Daniel J; Muntaner, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Improve understanding of the potential occupational health impact of how agricultural jobs are organized. Exposure to low job control, high psychological demands, and high job strain were hypothesized to have greater risk for poor self-rated physical health and elevated depressive symptoms. Cross-sectional data (N = 3691) obtained using the Work Organization and Psychosocial Factors module of the US National Agricultural Workers Survey fielded in 2009-2010. More than one fifth (22.4%) of farmworkers reported fair/poor health, and 8.7% reported elevated depressive symptoms. High psychological demand was associated with increased risk of fair/poor health (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 2.2) and elevated depressive symptoms (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 3.8). The organization of work in field agriculture may pose risks for poor occupational health outcomes among a vulnerable worker population.

  2. Continuing education in physical rehabilitation and health issues of agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Wilhite, Carla S; Jaco, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Limited attention has been devoted to the cultural and practice competencies needed by occupational therapy and physical therapy professionals who provide services to farming families impacted by chronic health or disability issues. Agricultural occupational safety and health should represent a continuum of services responsive to individuals, families, and agricultural communities across a life span and range of health status changes. Physical rehabilitation professionals have a key role in impacting an agricultural producer's sense of self-efficacy and capacities for returning to agricultural living and work. However, demonstration of competency is essential in providing person-centered rehabilitation services of assessment, evaluation, treatment planning, interventions, referrals, and discharge issues. The paper highlights methods utilized by a state AgrAbility program and a former National AgrAbility Project to develop a model of continuing education programming for occupational and physical therapists that evaluate and treat agricultural workers after acute injury or exacerbation of chronic health conditions.

  3. Immunomodulatory effects of the fungicide Mancozeb in agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Corsini, Emanuela; Birindelli, Sarah; Fustinoni, Silvia; De Paschale, Gioia; Mammone, Teresa; Visentin, Sara; Galli, Corrado L; Marinovich, Marina; Colosio, Claudio

    2005-10-15

    Available data suggest that ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs) may have immunomodulatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the immunological profile of farmers exposed to Mancozeb, an EBDC fungicide, through the determination of several serum, cellular, and functional immune parameters. Twenty-six healthy subjects entered the study, 13 vineyards exposed to Mancozeb and 13 unexposed controls. Exposure was assessed through the determination of ethylentiourea (ETU) in urine. Complete and differential blood count, serum immunoglobulins, complement fractions, autoantibodies, lymphocyte subpopulations, proliferative response to mitogens, natural killer (NK) activity, and cytokine production were measured. Post-exposure samples showed ETU urine concentration significantly higher than pre-exposure and control groups. A significant increase in CD19+ cells, both percentage and absolute number, and a significant decrease in the percentage of CD25+ cells were found in post-exposure samples compared to controls. A statistically significant increase in the proliferative response to phorbol myristate acetate plus ionomycin (PMA + ionomycin) was observed in the post-exposure group compared to controls and baseline, while a significant reduction in LPS-induced TNF-alpha release in post-exposure samples was observed. Overall, our results suggest that low-level exposure to Mancozeb has slight immunomodulatory effects, and point out a method adequate to reveal immune-modifications in workers occupationally exposed to potential immunotoxic compounds, based on a whole blood assay.

  4. 76 FR 73684 - Tiger Drylac USA, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Tiger Drylac USA, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks... Adjustment Assistance on October 19, 2011, applicable to workers of Tiger Drylac USA, Inc., Reading.../Robert Half International were employed on- site at the Reading, Pennsylvania location of Tiger Drylac...

  5. Biomechanical and organisational stressors and associations with employment withdrawal among pregnant workers: evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Gemmill, Alison; MacDonald, Leslie A

    2016-12-01

    The distribution of exposure to biomechanical and organisational job stressors (BOJS) and associations with employment withdrawal (antenatal leave, unemployment) was examined in a case-control study of 1114 pregnant workers in California. We performed descriptive and multivariate logistic and multinomial regression analyses. At pregnancy onset, 57% were exposed to one or more biomechanical stressors, including frequent bending, heavy lifting and prolonged standing. One-third were simultaneously exposed to BOJS. Exposure to biomechanical stressors declined as pregnancy progressed and cessation often (41%) coincided with employment withdrawal (antenatal leave and unemployment). In multivariate modelling, whether we adjusted for or considered organisational stressors as coincident exposures, results showed that pregnant workers exposed to biomechanical stressors had increased employment withdrawal compared to the unexposed. Work schedule accommodations moderate this association. Paid antenatal leave, available to few US women, was an important strategy for mitigating exposure to BOJS. Implications for science and policy are discussed. Practitioner Summary: This case-control study showed that exposure to biomechanical stressors decline throughout pregnancy. Antenatal leave was an important strategy used for mitigating exposure among sampled California women with access to paid benefits. Employment withdrawal among workers exposed to BJOS may be reduced by proactive administrative and engineering efforts applied early in pregnancy.

  6. Trends and Characteristics of Occupational Suicide and Homicide in Farmers and Agriculture Workers, 1992-2010.

    PubMed

    Ringgenberg, Wendy; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Donham, Kelley; Ramirez, Marizen

    2017-05-02

    We examined work-related homicides and suicides among farm operators/workers in the United States from 1992 to 2010. Work-related homicide and suicide cases from 1992 to 2010 were obtained from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. To calculate rates, denominator data on the US working population were also obtained from 2003 to 2010 Current Population Survey. Logistic regression was used to identify factors that were differentially associated with homicide and suicide. Over these 19 years, 171 farm operators/workers died from homicide and 230 died from suicide. When compared to rates of all workers, suicide rates were higher while homicide rates were lower among farm operators/workers. Males (OR = 6.1), whites (OR = 4.7), and 35- to 54-year-old (OR = 2.3) farm operators/workers had increased odds of suicide over homicide compared with their respective counterparts (ie, females, nonwhites, <35-year-olds). Those working in smaller farm operations with <11 employees had 1.7 times the odds of suicide over homicide. Suicide and homicide are both present in the agricultural industry, with suicide being more common than homicide. Translation of suicide prevention programs should be explored for the agricultural industry. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  7. Knowledge attitude and practice of pesticide use among agricultural workers in Puducherry, South India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Behera, Basanta Kumar; Jena, Saubhagya Kumar; Srikanth, S; Mogane, C; Samal, Soumya; Behera, Anugya Aparajita

    2013-11-01

    To study the level of knowledge and practice related to pesticides and their adverse effects among agricultural workers. A cross sectional study among 100 randomly selected agricultural workers, using or ever used pesticide within last one year was conducted in Puducherry, South India. The questionnaire was adapted from WHO field surveys of 'Exposure to Pesticides Standard Protocol' and similar studies. Data were collected by face to face interview. All the participants were male with mean age of 54.3 yrs. While 70% of respondents perceived pesticide spraying affects a person's health, only 40% were aware that it affects the environment. Two thirds of the respondents (62%) were aware that pesticide enters the body through nose and affects lungs. Awareness on other modes of entry was less. Majority (76%) of them was aware of training programs conducted by government agriculture department on pest management. About 42% of farmers had good knowledge regarding pesticide. Between 40% and 70% of respondents were not using any protective equipments during pesticide spraying. Around 68% of farmers indiscriminately disposed empty containers while 48% buried the leftover pesticides. Significant association (p < 0.05) was observed between knowledge of the farmers and their practices related to pesticides. Overall awareness of agricultural workers on pesticide was inadequate. Improper disposal of pesticides and its container can produce harm to the environment. The findings of the study emphasize the need to educate agricultural workers regarding safe and adequate use of pesticides to prevent health and environmental hazards. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. PubMed search strings for the study of agricultural workers' diseases.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Stefano; Gori, Davide; Di Gregori, Valentina; Ricotta, Lara; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Farioli, Andrea; Zanardi, Francesca; Galletti, Stefania; Colosio, Claudio; Curti, Stefania; Violante, Francesco S

    2013-12-01

    Several optimized search strategies have been developed in Medicine, and more recently in Occupational Medicine. The aim of this study was to identify efficient PubMed search strategies to retrieve articles regarding putative occupational determinants of agricultural workers' diseases. We selected the Medical Subjects Heading (MeSH) term agricultural workers' diseases and six MeSH terms describing farm work (agriculture, agrochemicals NOT pesticides, animal husbandry, pesticides, rural health, rural population) alongside 61 other promising terms. We estimated proportions of articles containing potentially pertinent information regarding occupational etiology to formulate two search strategies (one "more specific," one "more sensitive"). We applied these strategies to retrieve information on the possible occupational etiology among agricultural workers of kidney cancer, knee osteoarthritis, and multiple sclerosis. We evaluated the number of needed to read (NNR) abstracts to identify one potentially pertinent article in the context of these pathologies. The "more specific" search string was based on the combination of terms that yielded the highest proportion (40%) of potentially pertinent abstracts. The "more sensitive" string was based on use of broader search fields and additional coverage provided by other search terms under study. Using the "more specific" string, the NNR to find one potentially pertinent article were: 1.1 for kidney cancer; 1.4 for knee osteoarthritis; 1.2 for multiple sclerosis. Using the sensitive strategy, the NNR were 1.4, 3.6, and 6.3, respectively. The proposed strings could help health care professionals explore putative occupational etiology for agricultural workers' diseases (even if not generally thought to be work related). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 78 FR 1259 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Adverse Effect Wage Rates AGENCY: Employment and...

  10. 76 FR 79711 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Adverse Effect Wage Rates AGENCY: Employment and...

  11. A mortality study of workers employed in a German rock wool factory.

    PubMed

    Claude, J; Frentzel-Beyme, R

    1984-06-01

    As part of a coordinated European study including 13 plants, 2,096 workers employed in rock wool production, packing, and maintenance activities in a German factory were followed until 1979 for cause-specific mortality. There were no consistent differences between the observed and expected deaths in the study cohort on the basis of the experience of the general population. The separate analysis of persons engaged in rock wool production and packing and those engaged in maintenance yielded an excess of lung cancer deaths with borderline significance for occurrence among the maintenance workers and an elevation in standardized mortality ratio for stomach cancer related to time since first employment in the production group. Comparison with a factory-based reference cohort did not show any increased health risk for the exposed cohort. An extension of the follow-up for five years is planned in an attempt to clarify the present findings.

  12. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers.

    PubMed

    van Holland, Berry J; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    2017-03-24

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In total 305 workers participated in the trial. Outcomes were retrieved during a WHS program, by multiple questionnaires, and from company registries. Primary outcomes were sickness absence, work ability, and productivity. Secondary outcomes were health, vitality, and psychosocial workload. Data were analyzed with linear and logistic multilevel models. Cost-benefit analyses from the employer's perspective were performed as well. Results Primary outcomes sickness absence (OR = 1.40), work ability (B = -0.63) and productivity (OR = 0.71) were better in the control condition. Secondary outcomes did not or minimally differ between conditions. Of the 12 secondary outcomes, the only outcome that scored better in the experimental condition was meaning of work (B = 0.18). Controlling for confounders did not or minimally change the results. However, our stepped wedge design did not enable adjustment for confounding in the last two periods of the trial. The WHS program resulted in higher costs for the employer on the short and middle term. Conclusions Primary outcomes did not improve after program implementation and secondary outcomes remained equal after implementation. The program was not cost-beneficial after 1-3 year follow-up. Main limitation that may have contributed to absence of positive effects may be program failure, because interventions were not deployed as intended.

  13. Agricultural Workers in Central California. Volume 1: In 1989; Volume 2: Phase II, 1990-91. California Agricultural Studies, 90-8 and 91-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Andrew J.; And Others

    Two surveys developed profiles of seasonal agricultural workers and their working conditions in central California. In 1989, a random sample of 347 seasonal workers was interviewed. The sample was 30 percent female and 87 percent Mexican-born. Average age was 35 years and average educational attainment was 5.9 years. Most had parents, spouses, or…

  14. Recharging or Retiring Older Workers? Uncovering the Age-Based Strategies of European Employers.

    PubMed

    van Dalen, Hendrik P; Henkens, Kène; Wang, Mo

    2015-10-01

    We offer an empirically based taxonomy of the human resource policies of European employers in relation to older workers. In particular, 3 age-based strategies are discussed and analyzed in a simultaneous fashion: a focus on exit through retirement, workplace accommodation measures, and employee development measures. A sample of 3,638 organizations in 6 European countries (Denmark, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden) is analyzed to discover which of the 7 antecedents investigated herein are associated with the implementation of these human resource strategies. The key predictors are the proportion of older workers (aged 50 or older), organization size, seniority-based compensation, labor union involvement, training requirement, recruitment problems, and knowledge intensity. Structural equation modeling is used to assess whether these predictors are associated with the 3 latent factors. The 7 key predictors of the 3 strategies show that these strategies are used simultaneously, but that the employers clearly use exit policies more intensively than they use development measures. Organizations thus use a dual approach to managing the employment of older workers. They may sort older workers either upwards (e.g., by encouraging career development and training) or outwards (by promoting early retirement). The same division can be detected when examining the effects of labor union involvement and seniority-based wages. When recruitment problems are encountered, more effort is directed toward accommodation and investment. Despite the warnings of policymakers about the possible consequences of an aging population, European employers are not yet formulating strategies that promote active aging, often still opting for the easy way out, via exit strategies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A comparison of blood lead levels between migrant and native lead workers before and after implementation of a new employment permit system for migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2011-01-01

    We compared the blood lead and other lead biomarkers between migrant and native workers with a focus on the impact of the legal employment permit system that was effective from 2003, which required employers to provide mandatory annual health examinations for migrant workers on lead biomarkers in 1997 and 2005. The mean blood lead level of migrant workers was 59.5 ± 19.4 μg/dl, yielding 47% of lead poisoning cases, which was significantly higher than that of native workers (36.8 ± 14.5 μg/dl; 11% of lead poisoning cases) in 1997 before enactment of the act. The overall mean blood ZPP levels and ALAU of migrant workers were significantly higher than those of native workers. In 2005, after new migrant worker regulations were instituted, the mean value of above lead biomarkers workers was still significantly higher than that of native workers, but the magnitude of the differences was smaller compared with the difference in 1997. We confirmed that the 2003 regulations played an important role in improving the health of migrant workers in the lead industry in terms of their blood lead levels and other lead biomarkers.

  16. Is temporary employment damaging to health? A longitudinal study on Italian workers.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Elena; Salvini, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Working conditions have changed dramatically over recent decades in all the countries of European Union: permanent full-time employment characterized by job security and a stable salary is replaced more and more by temporary work, apprenticeship contracts, casual jobs and part-time work. The consequences of these changes on the general well-being of workers and their health represent an increasingly important path of inquiry. We add to the debate by answering the question: are Italian workers on temporary contracts more likely to suffer from poor health than those with permanent jobs? Our analysis is based on a sample of men and women aged 16-64 coming from the Italian longitudinal survey 2007-2010 of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. We use the method of inverse-probability-of-treatment weights to estimate the causal effect of temporary work on self-rated health, controlling for selection effects. Our major findings can be summarized as follows: firstly, we show a negative association between temporary employment and health that results from a statistical causal effect in the work-to-health direction, and does not trivially derive from a selection of healthier individuals in the group of people who find permanent jobs (selection effect). Secondly, we find that temporary employment becomes particularly negative for the individual's health when it is prolonged over time. Thirdly, whereas temporary employment does not entail significant adverse consequences for men, the link between temporary employment and health is strongly harmful for Italian women.

  17. Survey of acute pesticide poisoning among agricultural workers in four Asian countries*

    PubMed Central

    Jeyaratnam, J.; Lun, K. C.; Phoon, W. O.

    1987-01-01

    The study investigated the extent of acute pesticide poisoning in selected agricultural communities in Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Thailand, as well as the contributing factors, because it is believed that this type of poisoning is a major problem in developing countries, but not in the industrialized countries, despite their extensive use of pesticides. The study confirmed the existence of this problem, which was found to be due to inadequate knowledge of the safe practices in the use of pesticides among users and to the lack of suitable protective clothing for use by agricultural workers in hot and humid climates. PMID:3500805

  18. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers living in poverty in Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Migrant agricultural workers are a group of people living in poverty with poor housing, sanitary conditions and hygiene practices. Little is known about the epidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers. Methods We investigated the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in 173 migrant workers hired for seasonal agricultural work in Durango State in northern Mexico using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results Of the 173 migrant workers (mean age 34.82 ± 14.01 years), 50 (28.9%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and 36 (20.8%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence was not influenced by gender, age, birth place, or educational level. In contrast, seroprevalence was significantly higher in workers residing in rural areas than those in urban or suburban areas. Migrant workers suffering from memory impairment, dizziness, or syncope had significantly higher seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies than those without such clinical features. Logistic regression analysis showed that T. gondii exposure was positively associated with consumption of unwashed raw vegetables (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.06-5.35; P = 0.03) and low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 3.87; 95% CI: 1.43-10.42; P = 0.007), and negatively associated with national trips (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.65; P = 0.003) and consumption of raw milk (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.18-0.87; P = 0.02). Other behavioral characteristics including consumption of meat or untreated water were not associated with T. gondii infection. Conclusions This is the first report of T. gondii infection in internal migrant agricultural workers living in poverty. Results deserve further investigation of causal relations between clinical symptoms and infection, and may be useful for optimal planning of preventive measures. PMID:23601076

  19. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers living in poverty in Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Campillo-Ruiz, Federico; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2013-04-20

    Migrant agricultural workers are a group of people living in poverty with poor housing, sanitary conditions and hygiene practices. Little is known about the epidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers. We investigated the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in 173 migrant workers hired for seasonal agricultural work in Durango State in northern Mexico using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Of the 173 migrant workers (mean age 34.82 ± 14.01 years), 50 (28.9%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and 36 (20.8%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence was not influenced by gender, age, birth place, or educational level. In contrast, seroprevalence was significantly higher in workers residing in rural areas than those in urban or suburban areas. Migrant workers suffering from memory impairment, dizziness, or syncope had significantly higher seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies than those without such clinical features. Logistic regression analysis showed that T. gondii exposure was positively associated with consumption of unwashed raw vegetables (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.06-5.35; P = 0.03) and low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 3.87; 95% CI: 1.43-10.42; P = 0.007), and negatively associated with national trips (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.65; P = 0.003) and consumption of raw milk (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.18-0.87; P = 0.02). Other behavioral characteristics including consumption of meat or untreated water were not associated with T. gondii infection. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in internal migrant agricultural workers living in poverty. Results deserve further investigation of causal relations between clinical symptoms and infection, and may be useful for optimal planning of preventive measures.

  20. Factors associated with the recruitment and retention of social workers in Wales: employer and employee perspectives.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sherrill; Huxley, Peter

    2009-05-01

    Despite acute staffing shortages in social work, workforce planning within the UK social care sector is compromised by poor workforce intelligence. This study aimed to inform the evidence base providing new data on recruitment and retention in Wales, examining what personal and organizational characteristics are associated with intentions to leave, and what initiatives or incentives might mediate that effect. A multi-method design facilitated comparisons between two data sources--a census of all 22 Welsh local authority employers about recruitment and retention practices and a survey of all social workers and senior practitioners employed in social services (n = 998; response rate 45.9%) about demography, workforce characteristics, working patterns, morale and plans and reasons for leaving one's job. Vacancy (mean 14.4%) and turnover (mean 15%) rates were statistically significantly higher in children's services than in adult services; vacancy rates were also higher in authorities that offered higher starting salaries. The provision of certain types of traineeship might also be associated with higher vacancy rates but these results should be treated with some caution. There was little evidence that recruitment and retention initiatives were associated with lower vacancy or turnover rates, despite employers' perceptions about their effectiveness. Social workers derived a lot of satisfaction from their work, but more than a quarter wanted to leave their job within 6 months, and almost as many were actively seeking alternative employment. Intention to leave was explained by job and employer satisfaction, and negative feelings about pay. Senior practitioners and staff members with longer lengths of service were less likely to want to leave, even if they were dissatisfied with their job or employer. Job and employer dissatisfaction was associated with retention initiatives related to facilities, good caseload management and home-working, suggesting that dissatisfied

  1. Endotoxin exposure and inflammation markers among agricultural workers in Colorado and Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Burch, James B; Svendsen, Erik; Siegel, Paul D; Wagner, Sara E; von Essen, Susanna; Keefe, Thomas; Mehaffy, John; Martinez, Angelica Serrano; Bradford, Mary; Baker, Laura; Cranmer, Brian; Saito, Rena; Tessari, John; Linda, Prinz; Andersen, Colene; Christensen, Opal; Koehncke, Niels; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    The adverse respiratory effects of agricultural dust inhalation are mediated in part by endotoxin, a constituent of gram-negative bacterial cell walls. This study quantified personal work-shift exposures to inhalable dust, endotoxin, and its reactive 3-hydroxy fatty acid (3-OHFA) constituents among workers in grain elevators, cattle feedlots, dairies, and on corn farms. Exposures were compared with post-work-shift nasal lavage fluid inflammation markers and respiratory symptoms. Breathing-zone personal air monitoring was performed over one work shift to quantify inhalable dust (Institute of Medicine samplers), endotoxin (recombinant factor C [rFC] assay), and 3-OHFA (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry). Post-shift nasal lavage fluids were assayed for polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin 8 (IL-8), albumin, and eosinophilic cation protein (ECP) concentrations. The geometric mean (GSD) of endotoxin exposure (rFC assay) among the 125 male participants was 888 +/- (6.5) EU/m(3), and 93% exceeded the proposed exposure limit (50 EU/m(3)). Mean PMN, MPO, albumin, and ECP levels were two- to threefold higher among workers in the upper quartile of 3-OHFA exposure compared to the lowest exposure quartile. Even numbered 3-OHFA were most strongly associated with nasal inflammation. Symptom prevalence was not elevated among exposed workers, possibly due to endotoxin tolerance or a healthy worker effect in this population. This is the first study to evaluate the relationship between endotoxin's 3-OHFA constituents in agricultural dust and nasal airway inflammation. More research is needed to characterize the extent to which these agents contribute to respiratory disease among agricultural workers.

  2. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Agricultural Workers towards Tetanus Vaccine: a Field Report.

    PubMed

    Riccò, M; Razio, B; Panato, C; Poletti, L; Signorelli, C

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural Workers are both more exposed to tetanus and at higher risk to be inadequately immunized than other usual recipients of the same vaccine. Our cross-sectional questionnaire-based study aimed to evaluate tetanus vaccination status, knowledge, attitudes and practices in Agricultural Workers in North-Eastern Italy. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify, from individual and work-related characteristics, factors significantly associated with appropriate vaccination status. Among 707 participants, 58.4% had an up-to-date immunization status. In 33.1%, last booster was performed by an Emergency Department. The main reason for inadequate immunization was having forgotten the recommended periodic booster (146/707; 20.7%). Attitude towards tetanus vaccination was somehow favourable in 79.5% of participants, and 72.7% correctly identified tetanus vaccination as mandatory for Agricultural Workers. A lower degree of false beliefs and better knowledge of official recommendations were significant predictors of vaccine propensity. The main predictor for an appropriate vaccination status was interaction with a healthcare provider, in general (adjusted Odds Ratio, adjOR 2.516 95%CI 1.707-3.710), and specifically regarding vaccine counseling, (adjOR 6.275 3.184-12.367 and adjOR 9.739 95%CI 3.933-24.111 for general practitioners and occupational physicians, respectively). Our study enlightens the key role of healthcare providers in recalling and promoting vaccination policies, as well in increasing the general awareness of Agricultural Workers regarding vaccines and official recommendations.

  3. Neurobehavioral performance among agricultural workers and pesticide applicators: a meta-analytic study.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A A; Bodner, T E; Rohlman, D S

    2012-07-01

    Chronic low level exposure of agricultural workers and applicators to pesticides has been found to be associated with different degrees of decrement in cognitive and psychomotor functions. The goal of this study was to use meta-analysis to (1) identify and quantify neurobehavioral deficits among agricultural workers and pesticide applicators, and (2) analyse the potential confounders or moderators of these neurobehavioral deficits. Seventeen studies, reporting on 21 independent cohort groups, were included in the meta-analysis. These studies involved 16 neuropsychological tests providing 23 different performance measures that constitute the neurobehavioral constructs. All tests and measures of the neurobehavioral functions of attention, visuomotor integration, verbal abstraction and perception constructs showed significant decrements for exposed participants. One out of three tests of memory, two of five tests of sustained attention, and four of eight tests of motor speed constructs also showed significant decrements. Nine out of these 15 effect size distributions demonstrated significant heterogeneity across cohorts. A search for cohort-level variables (eg, agricultural workers vs applicators, duration of exposure, age and percentage of male participants) to explain this heterogeneity was largely unsuccessful. However, for one test, Block Design, the duration of exposure was positively associated with performance decrements. Furthermore, it was also found that performance decrements on this test were smaller for older participants. Increasing the number of studies and using more consistent methodologies in field studies are needed.

  4. Transitions in the labor market after cancer: a comparison of self-employed workers and salaried staff.

    PubMed

    Tison, Aurélia; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Sansonetti, Caroline; Blatier, Jean-François; Paraponaris, Alain

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the labor market mobility of a population of cancer survivors 2 years after diagnosis differed compared to the French general population by focusing on the differences between self-employed workers and salaried staff. Coarsened exact matching was implemented to reduce the sampling bias introduced by the comparison of individuals from two different surveys. Then, labor market mobility was analyzed by estimating transition probability matrices from 2010 to 2012 under the framework of a continuous-time Markov technique and by estimating a two-step model. Salaried employees and self-employed workers from the general population were more likely to remain employed 2 years after 2010 compared to salaried employees and self-employed workers who survived cancer. There was no major difference between salaried and self-employed workers surviving cancer in terms of job retention. French workers surviving cancer face the same difficulties that were observed in the National Cancer Survey of 2004: unemployment and inactivity caused by the diagnosis of cancer. Among cancer survivors, self-employed workers do not seem to be particularly more affected by inactivity than salaried staff. However, unemployment insurance is not compulsory for them, contrary to salaried staff. In this regard, self-employed workers might be a more vulnerable group.

  5. [Occupational exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields in workers employed in various jobs].

    PubMed

    Gobba, F; Roccatto, L; Vandelli, Anna Maria; Besutti, G; Ghersi, R; Nicolini, O

    2004-01-01

    Information on occupational exposure to ELF magnetic fields (MF) in workers is largely insufficient, and is mostly based on results obtained in Scandinavian countries and North America. Accordingly, the collection of further data is needed, especially in workers exposed in other countries, including in Italy. One hundred and fifty workers (84 males and 66 females) employed in 28 different jobs in the Emilia-Romagna Region of Italy were examined. Individual exposure was measured using personal monitors worn on the hip in a belted pouch during three whole work-shifts (8 hours each) of a normal working week. A sampling interval of 10 seconds was adopted, resulting in the collection of more than 8600 measurements for each worker. The individual Time-Weighted Average (TWA) occupational exposure of workers was calculated as the arithmetic mean of all measurements during each work-shift. Environmental non-occupational exposure was also measured. The 50 degrees percentile of individual TWA in the whole group was 0.15 microT, and the 5 degrees - 95 degrees percentile was respectively 0.02-1.45 microT. Job-related exposure (expressed as the mean of the TWA measured in all workers engaged in that job) was highest in substation electric power plant workers (1.12 microT) and in sewing machine workers (0.84 microT), but was lower than 0.2 microT in more than the 70% of the examined jobs. Considering the geometric mean of individual TWA are 27 out of 28 the jobs inducing an exposure lower than 0.2 microT. The lowest exposure was observed in infant school teachers. A high variability was observed among different workers engaged in the same occupation, mainly in substation electric power plant workers, machine testers and grinders in the engineering industry and in sewing machine workers and quality control in garment production. A marked variability of the pattern of exposure during the work-shift was also observed The overall environmental (non-occupational) exposure was 0

  6. Long-Term Effects of Cancer Survivorship on the Employment of Older Workers

    PubMed Central

    Short, Pamela Farley; Vasey, Joseph J; Moran, John R

    2008-01-01

    Objective To estimate the long-term effects of cancer survivorship on the employment of older workers. Data Sources Primary data for 504 subjects who were 55–65 in 2002 and were working when diagnosed with cancer in 1997–1999, and secondary data for a comparison group of 3,903 similarly aged workers in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in 2002. Study Design Three employment outcomes (working, working full time, usual hours per week) were compared between the two groups. Both Probit/Tobit regressions and propensity score matching were used to adjust for potentially confounding differences between groups. Sociodemographic characteristics, baseline employment characteristics, and the presence of other health conditions were included as covariates. Data Collection Methods Four telephone interviews were conducted annually with cancer survivors identified from tumor registries at four large hospitals in Pennsylvania and Maryland. Many of the questions were taken from the HRS to facilitate comparisons. Principal Findings Cancer survivors of both genders worked an average of 3–5 hours less per week than HRS controls. For females, we found significant effects of survivorship on the probability of working, the probability of working full-time, and hours. For males, survivorship affected the probability of full-time employment and hours without significantly reducing the probability of working. For both genders, these effects were primarily attributable to new cancers. There were no significant effects on the employment of cancer-free survivors. Conclusions Survivors with recurrences or second primary tumors may particularly benefit from employment support services and workplace accommodation. Reassuringly, any long-term effects on the employment of cancer-free survivors are fairly small. PMID:18211525

  7. Older Workers and Federal Work Programs: The Korean Senior Employment Program (KSEP).

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunhee

    2016-01-01

    Federal older worker programs are attracting attention due to the growing number of older workers across the world. They are uniquely situated to provide out-of-market work opportunities to older job seekers, who often find their age a barrier to securing desirable jobs. In 2004, the Korean government established its own program, the Korean Senior Employment Program (KSEP); however, literature for international readers on this innovative program is lacking. Thus, this article aims to provide an in-depth description of KSEP and a brief comparison between the Senior Community Service Employment Program in the U.S. and KSEP. The unique characteristics of KSEP include having the dual program foci on supplemental income and social participation; expanding work opportunities in the private sector beyond community-based jobs; accepting participants who are financially disadvantaged as well as those with a high desire for social participation regardless of their income; and broadening work opportunities for those with professional skills beyond repetitive, simple, and temporary jobs. This article may offer helpful insights to older worker advocates from various countries in creating or modifying their programs.

  8. Nerves as embodied metaphor in the Canada/Mexico seasonal agricultural workers program.

    PubMed

    Mysyk, Avis; England, Margaret; Gallegos, Juan Arturo Avila

    2008-01-01

    This article examines nerves among participants in the Canada/Mexico Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (C/MSAWP). Based on in-depth interviews with 30 Mexican farm workers in southwestern Ontario, we demonstrate that nerves embodies the distress of economic need, relative powerlessness, and the contradictions inherent in the C/MSAWP that result in various life's lesions. We also explore their use of the nerves idiom as an embodied metaphor for their awareness of the breakdown in self/society relations and, in certain cases, of the lack of control over even themselves. This article contributes to that body of literature that locates nerves at the "normal" end of the "normal/abnormal" continuum of popular illness categories because, despite the similarities in symptoms of nerves among Mexican farm workers and those of anxiety and/or mood disorders, medicalization has not occurred. If nerves has not been medicalized among Mexican farm workers, neither has it given rise to resistance to their relative powerlessness as migrant farm workers. Nonetheless, nerves does serve as an effective vehicle for expressing their distress within the context of the C/MSAWP.

  9. COMPETENCIES IN AGRICULTURE NEEDED BY MALES EMPLOYED IN WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY DISTRIBUTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAXWELL, ROBERT HAWORTH

    LISTS OF 39 AGRICULTURAL AND 37 NONAGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES, ABILITIES, AND UNDERSTANDINGS NEEDED BY MALES EMPLOYED IN WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY DISTRIBUTION WERE DEVELOPED BY 18 SELECTED EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY FIRMS AND SENT IN QUESTIONNAIRE FORM TO 180 EMPLOYEES OF WHOLESALE FARM MACHINERY FIRMS THAT WERE COOPERATING MEMBERS OF…

  10. Pre-Employment Laboratory Training. General Agricultural Mechanics Volume I. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This course outline, the first volume of a two-volume set, consists of lesson plans for pre-employment laboratory training in general agricultural mechanics. Covered in the 12 lessons included in this volume are selecting tractors and engines, diagnosing engine conditions, servicing electrical systems, servicing cooling systems, servicing fuel and…

  11. A STUDY OF EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN ALABAMA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAKER, RICHARD A.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO ASCERTAIN THE NATURE AND EXTENT OF OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN THE STATE. BUSINESS FIRMS, OCCUPATIONS, OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND METHODS OF RECRUITMENT WERE IDENTIFIED. THE SAMPLES OF BUSINESS FIRMS WAS SELECTED FROM 20 SAMPLE COUNTIES. INTERVIEWERS CONTACTED 545 OF THE 638 FIRMS IN THE…

  12. Pre-Employment Laboratory Training. General Agricultural Mechanics Volume I. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This course outline, the first volume of a two-volume set, consists of lesson plans for pre-employment laboratory training in general agricultural mechanics. Covered in the 12 lessons included in this volume are selecting tractors and engines, diagnosing engine conditions, servicing electrical systems, servicing cooling systems, servicing fuel and…

  13. Farmers as Employers. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of farmers as employers: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication and numeracy skills…

  14. NONFARM AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IN LOUISIANA WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING TRAINING PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CURTIS, C.M.; MONDART, C.L., SR.

    THE COMBINED RESULTS OF THE STUDIES OF SEVEN METROPOLITAN CENTERS AND 90 SEMI-URBAN AND RURAL TOWNS IN LOUISIANA SHOWED (1) THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE EMPLOYED, NUMBER NEEDING AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES, EXPECTED NUMBER TO BE HIRED, AND NUMBER OF JOB TITLES, (2) CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPLOYEES SUCH AS AGE, EDUCATION, BACKGROUND, AND SALARY, AND (3)…

  15. Agriculture and Related Businesses. Revised Summary Report: Technical Employment in Northeast Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William E.; And Others

    The document is one of five summary reports, all part of a Pre-Technical Curriculum Planning Project for secondary students who aspire to technical employment or post secondary technical education. This report represents the results of an assessment of the northeast Florida area's technical occupations in agriculture and related businesses. A…

  16. VOCATIONAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED FOR EMPLOYMENT IN THE AGRICULTURAL-CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN MICHIGAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHRISTENSEN, MAYNARD; CLARK, RAYMOND M.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE VOCATIONAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED FOR EMPLOYMENT BELOW THE MANUFACTURING LEVEL IN THE AGRICULTURAL-CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN MICHIGAN. NINE FUNCTIONS PERFORMED IN THE INDUSTRY WERE LISTED--RESEARCH, TRANSPORTATION, PROCESSING, PUBLIC RELATIONS, SALES, SERVICE, OFFICE RECORDS AND MANAGEMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND…

  17. Evaluation of reproductive health criteria in seasonal agricultural workers: a sample from Eskisehir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, Tugce; Metintas, Selma; Ayhan, Emine; Oz, Fatih; Bugrul, Necati; Gokler, Mehmet E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine reproductive health outcomes of seasonal agricultural female workers in rural areas of Eskisehir, Turkey, and to compare such identified outcomes with the country-wide data. Data in respect of this cross-sectional study were collected during a field visit in July 2012. The study group was formed by all of the distribution camps located in rural areas of Eskisehir. Each tent was considered as a domestic dwelling and the census method was used. First, a household questionnaire about sociodemographic characteristics was administered. The '15-49 year old married women questionnaire' was applied only if there was a married woman in the household in the age range of 15-49 years. The said questionnaire comprised information on marriage, childbirth and family planning. The 2008 Turkey Demographic and Health Survey was utilized for the comparison between the data attained from the rural sample and those of the general population. A total of 192 married women aged 15-49 years, inhabiting the 133 tents, were included in the study group. The mean age at first marriage and at first pregnancy were significantly lower in the female seasonal agricultural workers compared to the general Turkish population. Compared with the overall Turkish population, the crude birth rate and general fertility rate of the female seasonal agricultural workers were 2.5 times higher whereas the total fertility rate was 3.9 times higher and the completed fertility rate 2.3 times higher. With the exception of the 45-49 year age group, the age-specific fertility rates were 2-24 times higher. Female seasonal agricultural workers have higher fertility rates than the general population. According to the results of the present study, reproductive and maternal health status is significantly lower in female seasonal agricultural workers compared to the general Turkish population. There is a need towards multidisciplinary approaches in order for the provision of

  18. Occupational health and safety for agricultural workers in Thailand: gaps and recommendations, with a focus on pesticide use.

    PubMed

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Woskie, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Over 16.7 million workers in Thailand (42 percent of the working population) are engaged in agriculture, disproportionately from the lower socioeconomic strata of Thai society. Most agricultural workers (over 93 percent) work in the informal sector without the protections of regulations or enforcement of labor or health and safety laws or enrollment in a social security system. Although Thailand's use of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides is growing, there is little regulation of the sale, use, or application of these potentially toxic chemicals. This paper summarizes the research to date on occupational health and safety for Thai agricultural workers, identifies gaps in pesticide regulations and the current systems for occupational health and safety and social support for Thai agricultural workers, and makes recommendations for future policy and research initiatives to fill the identified gaps.

  19. The impact of health care reform on older workers, retirees and employers.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Anna M; Wojcik, Steven; Baxter, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 impacts everyone who uses or pays for the health care system. Among the new law's effects will be changes in older workers' health care choices as they transition from full-time employees to part-time work or other jobs and, ultimately, to retirement, and the retiree health benefit choices facing their employers. This article reviews the major issues surrounding these changes, including those affecting retiree health benefits, benefits for Medicare-eligible retirees and health care options for older Americans not yet eligible for Medicare. The authors conclude that although employers will be reacting in 2010 and 2011 with regard to some issues surrounding FASB ASC 715-60 and the early retiree reinsurance program, employers should consider waiting to make major changes until regulations are issued and the health plans for active employees have been fully vetted.

  20. Reasons for Training: Why Australian Employers Train Their Workers. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Oczkowski, Eddie; Hill, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Analysing data from the 2005 National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) Survey of Employer Use and Views of the Vocational Education and Training (VET) System, this report looks at the reasons why employers train their workers. Four different types of training are focused on: vocational qualifications; the employment of apprentices…

  1. Contingency, Employment Intentions, and Retention of Vulnerable Low-Wage Workers: An Examination of Nursing Assistants in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Janette S.; Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Marshall, Victor W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: While theories of job turnover generally assume a strong correlation between job satisfaction, intention, and retention, such models may be limited in explaining turnover of low-wage health care workers. Low-wage workers likely have a lower ability to act on their employment intentions or plans due to a lack of resources that…

  2. 77 FR 3500 - Reading Powder Coatings, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...] Reading Powder Coatings, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment Services... Powder Coatings, Inc., Reading, Pennsylvania. The workers are engaged in activities related to the production of powder coatings. The notice was published in the Federal Register on November 3, 2011 (76...

  3. Contingency, Employment Intentions, and Retention of Vulnerable Low-Wage Workers: An Examination of Nursing Assistants in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Janette S.; Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Marshall, Victor W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: While theories of job turnover generally assume a strong correlation between job satisfaction, intention, and retention, such models may be limited in explaining turnover of low-wage health care workers. Low-wage workers likely have a lower ability to act on their employment intentions or plans due to a lack of resources that…

  4. 29 CFR 525.9 - Criteria for employment of workers with disabilities under certificates at special minimum wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... relate to the individuals' productivity; (2) The prevailing wages of experienced employees not disabled... at the special minimum wage rate; (3) The productivity of the workers with disabilities compared to... (see § 525.12(h)) or the productivity of experienced nondisabled workers employed in the vicinity...

  5. 29 CFR 525.9 - Criteria for employment of workers with disabilities under certificates at special minimum wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... relate to the individuals' productivity; (2) The prevailing wages of experienced employees not disabled... at the special minimum wage rate; (3) The productivity of the workers with disabilities compared to... (see § 525.12(h)) or the productivity of experienced nondisabled workers employed in the vicinity...

  6. Deaf Workers in Restaurant, Retail, and Hospitality Sector Employment: Harnessing Research to Promote Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Stokar, Hayley

    2017-09-06

    A quarter century after the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1990), workplace accommodation is still a struggle for deaf employees and their managers. Many challenges are the result of communication barriers that can be overcome through much needed-though often absent-advocacy and training. The current article highlights the literature on the employment of deaf individuals in the United States service industries of food service, retail, and hospitality conducted from 2000-2016. Exploring dimensions of both hiring and active workplace accommodation, suggestions are made for how social work advocates can harness information and strengthen their approaches for educating managers and supporting workers.

  7. Interventions to reduce injuries among older workers in agriculture: A review of evaluated intervention projects.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Kerstin

    2016-10-17

    The number of older workers is increasing throughout the industrialised world and older workers are known to be more frequent in the injury-prone agricultural sector. This paper sought to extend knowledge by reviewing evaluated intervention studies intended to decrease risks and work injuries among older workers in agriculture. A systematic literature review regarding: evaluated intervention projects on injury prevention, including participants aged 55 years and older, and working in agriculture. This review identified evaluated intervention projects regarding: i) intervention in injury prevention; ii) interventions to increase knowledge in health and safety tasks and practice; and iii) interventions to increase the use of safety equipment in work. The evaluations reviewed showed that the interventions were less successful in involving older agricultural workers than their younger counterparts. The evaluations also showed that the outcome of interventions was generally less positive or brought about no significant difference in risk awareness and behaviour change among older agricultural workers. Many articles and statistics describe injuries in agriculture. Especially older farm workers are one of the groups with most work injuries and deaths. Despite this, an important finding in this review was shortage of implemented and evaluated intervention studies orientated toward reduce injuries among older workers in agriculture. This review also found that no intervention project in the evaluations studied had a clear positive effect. Many intervention studies have problems with or lack of evaluation in the study design. Based on the results in this review, important future research tasks are to improve the design of interventions, devise implementation methods and formulate appropriate evaluation methods to measure the outcome of the interventions. Intervention programmes also need to involve older workers specific physical and cognitive age aspects in the design to

  8. A STUDY OF THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS FOR WORKERS ENGAGED IN OCCUPATIONS IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL BUSINESSES IN ALABAMA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAKER, RICHARD A.

    IN ORDER TO DETERMINE PREEMPLOYMENT EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ENTERING NONPROFESSIONAL OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS, THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO IDENTIFY EMPLOYING FIRMS, EXISTING OCCUPATIONS, DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF BEGINNING EMPLOYEES, EMPLOYERS' FAMILIARITY WITH VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS, EMPLOYERS'…

  9. Job dissatisfaction and the older worker: baseline findings from the Health and Employment After Fifty study.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Stefania; Coggon, David; Harris, E Clare; Linaker, Cathy; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Gale, Catharine R; Evandrou, Maria; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cooper, Cyrus; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T

    2016-08-01

    Demographic changes are requiring people to work longer. Labour force participation might be promoted by tackling sources of job dissatisfaction. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of job dissatisfaction in older British workers, to explore which perceptions of work contribute most importantly, and to assess possible impacts on health. Participants aged 50-64 years were recruited from 24 English general practices. At baseline, those currently in work (N=5437) reported on their demographic and employment circumstances, overall job satisfaction, perceptions of their work that might contribute to dissatisfaction, and their general health, mood and well-being. Associations of job dissatisfaction with risk factors and potential health outcomes were assessed cross-sectionally by logistic regression, and the potential contributions of different negative perceptions to overall dissatisfaction were summarised by population attributable fractions (PAFs). Job dissatisfaction was more common among men, below age 60 years, those living in London and the South East, in the more educated and in those working for larger employers. The main contributors to job dissatisfaction among employees were feeling unappreciated and/or lacking a sense of achievement (PAF 55-56%), while in the self-employed, job insecurity was the leading contributor (PAF 79%). Job dissatisfaction was associated with all of the adverse health outcomes examined (ORs of 3-5), as were most of the negative perceptions of work that contributed to overall dissatisfaction. Employment policies aimed at improving job satisfaction in older workers may benefit from focussing particularly on relationships in the workplace, fairness, job security and instilling a sense of achievement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Job dissatisfaction and the older worker: baseline findings from the Health and Employment After Fifty study

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Stefania; Coggon, David; Harris, E Clare; Linaker, Cathy; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Gale, Catharine R; Evandrou, Maria; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cooper, Cyrus; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Demographic changes are requiring people to work longer. Labour force participation might be promoted by tackling sources of job dissatisfaction. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of job dissatisfaction in older British workers, to explore which perceptions of work contribute most importantly, and to assess possible impacts on health. Methods Subjects aged 50-64 years were recruited from 24 English general practices. At baseline, those currently in work (N=5,437) reported on their demographic and employment circumstances, overall job satisfaction, perceptions of their work that might contribute to dissatisfaction, and their general health, mood and well-being. Associations of job dissatisfaction with risk factors and potential health outcomes were assessed cross-sectionally by logistic regression and the potential contributions of different negative perceptions to overall dissatisfaction were summarised by population attributable fractions (PAFs). Results Job dissatisfaction was more common among men, below age 60 years, those living in London and the South East, in the more educated and in those working for larger employers. The main contributors to job dissatisfaction among employees were feeling unappreciated and/or lacking a sense of achievement (PAF 55%-56%), while in the self-employed, job insecurity was the leading contributor (PAF 79%). Job dissatisfaction was associated with all of the adverse health outcomes examined (odds ratios of 3-5), as were most of the negative perceptions of work that contributed to overall dissatisfaction. Conclusions Employment policies aimed at improving job satisfaction in older workers may benefit from focussing particularly on relationships in the workplace, fairness, job security and instilling a sense of achievement. PMID:27152012

  11. Employment and environmental hazard: women workers and strategies of resistance in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Theobald, S

    1996-10-01

    This case study explores women's awareness of health and environmental dangers associated with employment in electronics factories in export processing zones (EPZs) in Thailand. The author illustrates with two examples of alliances between women and two nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) the constraints of formal alliances. Data are obtained from participatory research conducted among women employed in the electronics industry in 1995 in the Northern Regional Industrial Estate (NRIE) in Lamphun in rural northern Thailand. This article discusses whether the emphasis on women's employment in EPZs really results in the greater good for women or whether it is exploitation. Women working in the NRIE were aware of the environmental hazards of their jobs. Many women workers migrated to EPZs from rural areas in order to create income to support a family or pay educational expenses. Another reason for seeking work at NRIE was to earn high wages for a limited period that could be used as capital to start their own business. Although women expressed interest in reducing the environmental hazards of their jobs, women put a stronger priority on not jeopardizing their employment status. Labor is in great supply, and women trouble-makers are likely to lose their jobs. The Center for the Advancement of Lanna Women (CALW) is an NGO that was set up by academics from Chiangmai University. CALW encourages women to speak out about health and working conditions, but workers did not know how far to go in protests before losing their jobs, and this undermined the alliance building and potential for change. It is urged that the Thai government acknowledge NGOs legally and open up dialogue. Civil participation can only be actualized, if there is formal recognition of the role of the state and its relationship to industry and industry's goals of profit.

  12. Heat strain, volume depletion and kidney function in California agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Moyce, Sally; Mitchell, Diane; Armitage, Tracey; Tancredi, Daniel; Joseph, Jill; Schenker, Marc

    2017-06-01

    Agricultural work can expose workers to increased risk of heat strain and volume depletion due to repeated exposures to high ambient temperatures, arduous physical exertion and limited rehydration. These risk factors may result in acute kidney injury (AKI). We estimated AKI cumulative incidence in a convenience sample of 283 agricultural workers based on elevations of serum creatinine between preshift and postshift blood samples. Heat strain was assessed based on changes in core body temperature and heart rate. Volume depletion was assessed using changes in body mass over the work shift. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of AKI with traditional risk factors (age, diabetes, hypertension and history of kidney disease) as well as with occupational risk factors (years in farm work, method of payment and farm task). 35 participants were characterised with incident AKI over the course of a work shift (12.3%). Workers who experienced heat strain had increased adjusted odds of AKI (1.34, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.74). Piece rate work was associated with 4.24 odds of AKI (95% CI 1.56 to 11.52). Females paid by the piece had 102.81 adjusted odds of AKI (95% CI 7.32 to 1443.20). Heat strain and piece rate work are associated with incident AKI after a single shift of agricultural work, though gender differences exist. Modifications to payment structures may help prevent AKI. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?*

    PubMed Central

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women. PMID:24319299

  14. NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers: Training and Awareness of Employer Safety Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Steege, Andrea L.; Boiano, James M.; Sweeney, Marie H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers describes current practices used to minimize chemical exposures and barriers to using recommended personal protective equipment for the following: antineoplastic drugs, anesthetic gases, high level disinfectants, surgical smoke, aerosolized medications (pentamidine, ribavirin, and antibiotics), and chemical sterilants. Methods Twenty-one healthcare professional practice organizations collaborated with NIOSH to develop and implement the web-based survey. Results Twelve thousand twenty-eight respondents included professional, technical, and support occupations which routinely come in contact with the targeted hazardous chemicals. Chemical-specific safe handling training was lowest for aerosolized antibiotics (52%, n = 316), and surgical smoke (57%, n = 4,747). Reported employer procedures for minimizing exposure was lowest for surgical smoke (32%, n = 4,746) and anesthetic gases (56%, n = 3,604). Conclusions Training and having procedures in place to minimize exposure to these chemicals is one indication of employer and worker safety awareness. Safe handling practices for use of these chemicals will be reported in subsequent papers. PMID:24549581

  15. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?

    PubMed

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-12-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women.

  16. Understanding employers' hiring intentions in relation to qualified workers with disabilities: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Robert T; Johnson, Kurt; Hebert, James; Ajzen, Icek; Copeland, Jana; Brown, Pat; Chan, Fong

    2010-12-01

    As part of the planning process for a larger survey study to examine factors affecting employers' intention to hire and hiring of people with disabilities, a series of three semi-structured focus groups were held with key hiring decision makers, such as Human Resources directors, Chief Operating Officers (COOs), or Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of small, medium, and large Seattle area companies. The chief goals of the focus groups were to elicit and refine the participants' beliefs, normative influences, and perceived control relative to hiring workers with disabilities. Narrative data obtained from the focus group discussion were examined using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to identify themes expressed by the focus group participants within the context of company size. Themes did vary by company size, but a prevailing concern across all companies related to questions about the efficiency/effectiveness of contact with vocational rehabilitation agencies. For both small- and mid-sized companies, there was a belief that people with disabilities could not do the work or were somehow less qualified. For large companies, convincing departmental and team managers that outreaching workers with disabilities would be a worthwhile hiring practice remained a challenge. The themes derived from this study can be used to help occupational rehabilitation professionals develop educational and marketing interventions to improve employers' attitudes toward hiring and retaining individuals with disabilities.

  17. Under-five mortality among mothers employed in agriculture: findings from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajvir; Tripathi, Vrijesh

    2015-01-01

    Background. India accounts for 24% to all under-five mortality in the world. Residence in rural area, poverty and low levels of mother's education are known confounders of under-five mortality. Since two-thirds of India's population lives in rural areas, mothers employed in agriculture present a particularly vulnerable population in the Indian context and it is imperative that concerns of this sizeable population are addressed in order to achieve MDG4 targets of reducing U5MR to fewer than 41 per 1,000 by 2015. This study was conducted to examine factors associated with under-five mortality among mothers employed in agriculture. Methods. Data was retrieved from National Family Household Survey-3 in India (2008). The study population is comprised of a national representative sample of single children aged 0 to 59 months and born to mothers aged 15 to 49 years employed in agriculture from all 29 states of India. Univariate and Multivariate Cox PH regression analysis was used to analyse the Hazard Rates of mortality. The predictive power of child mortality among mothers employed in agriculture was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results. An increase in mothers' ages corresponds with a decrease in child mortality. Breastfeeding reduces child mortality by 70% (HR 0.30, 0.25-0.35, p = 0.001). Standard of Living reduces child mortality by 32% with high standard of living (HR 0.68, 0.52-0.89, 0.001) in comparison to low standard of living. Prenatal care (HR 0.40, 0.34-0.48, p = 0.001) and breastfeeding health nutrition education (HR 0.45, 0.31-0.66, p = 0.001) are associated significant factors for child mortality. Birth Order five is a risk factor for mortality (HR 1.49, 1.05-2.10, p = 0.04) in comparison to Birth Order one among women engaged in agriculture while the household size (6-10 members and ≥ 11 members) is significant in reducing child mortality in comparison to ≤5 members in the house. Under

  18. Prevalence of Violence: Male and Female Seasonal Agricultural Workers' Approach to Violence in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Zeynep; Kara, Burcu; Ersin, Fatma; Ökten, Şevket; Yıldırımkaya, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the male and female seasonal agricultural workers' perception of violence, prevalence of violence, frequency of victimization, and their related factors. Quantitative and qualitative data were used, and 89.5% of women were exposed to violence that included the restriction of their human rights. The sample consisted of 1,211 women and 1,064 men. Their marital status, duration of work, and attention to their health affected the violence exposure. Arabic people who were unmarried, had a poor educational background, and poor health perception approved of the physical violence.

  19. 76 FR 3451 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-agricultural Employment H-2B Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... prevailing wages to be paid to H-2B workers and United States (U.S.) workers recruited in connection with a... offer and pay at least the prevailing wage to the H-2B workers and those U.S. workers recruited in... guest workers and U.S. workers recruited and hired as part of the labor certification process is...

  20. Implementing a community-based social marketing project to improve agricultural worker health.

    PubMed

    Flocks, J; Clarke, L; Albrecht, S; Bryant, C; Monaghan, P; Baker, H

    2001-06-01

    The Together for Agricultural Safety project is a community-based social marketing project working to reduce the adverse health effects of pesticide exposure among fernery and nursery workers in Florida. In 3 years, the collaboration between university and community researchers has embodied many of the principles of community-based research while completing multiple stages of formative data collection required for a social marketing project. This hybrid approach to developing a health intervention for a minority community has been successful in its early stages because the community partners are organized, empowered, and motivated to execute research activities with the assistance of academic partners. However, this work has also been labor intensive and costly. This article describes the lessons learned by project partners and considers the limitations of this approach for agricultural health research.

  1. Implementing a community-based social marketing project to improve agricultural worker health.

    PubMed Central

    Flocks, J; Clarke, L; Albrecht, S; Bryant, C; Monaghan, P; Baker, H

    2001-01-01

    The Together for Agricultural Safety project is a community-based social marketing project working to reduce the adverse health effects of pesticide exposure among fernery and nursery workers in Florida. In 3 years, the collaboration between university and community researchers has embodied many of the principles of community-based research while completing multiple stages of formative data collection required for a social marketing project. This hybrid approach to developing a health intervention for a minority community has been successful in its early stages because the community partners are organized, empowered, and motivated to execute research activities with the assistance of academic partners. However, this work has also been labor intensive and costly. This article describes the lessons learned by project partners and considers the limitations of this approach for agricultural health research. PMID:11427397

  2. 76 FR 11286 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2011 Adverse Effect Wage Rates, Allowable Charges for Agricultural...

  3. 20 CFR 655.172 - Withdrawal of job order and application for temporary employment certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post...

  4. Employment Action Center's Demonstration Older Worker Project. Operated June 1, 1983 through November 31, 1983. Final Outcome Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Ann; Teschendorf, JoAnn

    The Older Worker Project was conducted to provide employment services to unemployed persons aged 45 and older who live in the western part of the Hennepin County (Minneapolis, Minnesota) area. Although the expected result was permanent employment of the participants, the intention of this demonstration project was to refine service approaches…

  5. Less-Educated Workers' Unstable Employment: Can the Safety Net Help? Fast Focus. No. 19-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Heather D.; Ybarra, Marci A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s, U.S. workers with less than a college education have faced increasing job instability at the same time that the safety net has become increasingly contingent on employment. The sources of instability are many, including variable schedules, not enough hours, and temporary employment. A policy forum hosted by the Employment…

  6. Less-Educated Workers' Unstable Employment: Can the Safety Net Help? Fast Focus. No. 19-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Heather D.; Ybarra, Marci A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s, U.S. workers with less than a college education have faced increasing job instability at the same time that the safety net has become increasingly contingent on employment. The sources of instability are many, including variable schedules, not enough hours, and temporary employment. A policy forum hosted by the Employment…

  7. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Muniz, Juan F. McCauley, Linda; Scherer, J.; Lasarev, M.; Koshy, M.; Kow, Y.W.; Nazar-Stewart, Valle; Kisby, G.E.

    2008-02-15

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage have been proposed as mechanisms linking pesticide exposure to health effects such as cancer and neurological diseases. A study of pesticide applicators and farmworkers was conducted to examine the relationship between organophosphate pesticide exposure and biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urine samples were analyzed for OP metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Lymphocytes were analyzed for oxidative DNA repair activity and DNA damage (Comet assay), and serum was analyzed for lipid peroxides (i.e., malondialdehyde, MDA). Cellular damage in agricultural workers was validated using lymphocyte cell cultures. Urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in farmworkers and applicators (p < 0.001) when compared to controls. 8-OH-dG levels were 8.5 times and 2.3 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. Serum MDA levels were 4.9 times and 24 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. DNA damage (Comet assay) and oxidative DNA repair were significantly greater in lymphocytes from applicators and farmworkers when compared with controls. Markers of oxidative stress (i.e., increased reactive oxygen species and reduced glutathione levels) and DNA damage were also observed in lymphocyte cell cultures treated with an OP. The findings from these in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that organophosphate pesticides induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers. These biomarkers may be useful for increasing our understanding of the link between pesticides and a number of health effects.

  8. Associations between poor living conditions and multi-morbidity among Syrian migrant agricultural workers in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Mikati, Diana; Hojeij, Safa; El Asmar, Khalil; Chaaya, Monique; Zurayk, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Background: Syrian migrant farmworkers are among the most marginalized populations in Lebanon, living in poverty, lacking basic legal protections and frequent targets of discrimination. These realities produce living conditions that undermine their basic health and wellbeing. This study explores associations between household living conditions and acute and chronic health problems among Syrian migrant agricultural workers in the Bekaa region of Lebanon. Methods: A survey was carried out in summer of 2011 with a sample of 290 migrant agriculture workers and members of their household living in a migrant farmworker camp. The survey assessed participants living conditions, assets and health conditions. Regression analyses were carried out to examine associations between multi-morbidity and quality of household and neighborhood living conditions. Results: The mean age for the population was 20 years. Forty-seven percent of participants reported health problems. Almost 20% reported either one acute or chronic illness, 15% reported two health problems and 13% reported three or more. The analysis showed a significant positive association between multi-morbidity and poor housing and infrastructure conditions among study participants. Conclusion: The situation for migrant communities in Lebanon has likely further deteriorated since the study was conducted, as hundreds of thousands of new migrants have entered Lebanon since the outbreak of the Syrian armed conflict in 2011. These findings should inspire multi-faceted community development initiatives that provide basic minimums of neighborhood infrastructure and housing quality for Syrian migrant informal settlements across Lebanon, safeguarding the health and wellbeing of community residents. PMID:27402635

  9. Reducing barriers for migratory agricultural workers to receive oral health care services.

    PubMed

    Fallon, L Fleming; Schmalzried, Hans D; Earlie-Royer, Rebecca

    2012-09-01

    Between one and two million migratory agricultural workers leave their homes each year to plant, cultivate, harvest and pack fruits, vegetables and nuts in the United States. While in the United States, most lack dental insurance and have no regular dentist. The primary purpose of this study was to describe issues associated with barriers to access and receiving oral health care from the perspective of migratory agricultural workers rather than the perspective of providers. Views and experiences regarding their use of oral health care services were collected from focus groups. Information from focus groups was used to design a questionnaire. Among the 157 respondents the most significant barriers hampering access to oral health care services were crop demands, travel distance, and transportation. Cost and the lack of an interpreter were ranked as the top two barriers to receiving oral health care. The most convenient times for respondents to visit a dentist were between 1 and 6 p.m. The most convenient day was Monday, followed by Sunday and Saturday.

  10. Assessment of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in blood plasma of agriculture workers

    PubMed Central

    Dhananjayan, V.; Ravichandran, B.; Anitha, N.; Rajmohan, H. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cholinesterase determination indicates whether the person has been under pesticide exposure is not. It is recommended that the worker′s cholinesterase level should be assessed for workers at a pesticide applied region. Hence, cholinesterase activities in blood samples of agricultural workers exposed to vegetables and grape cultivation with age matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to pesticides, were estimated. Methods: The detailed occupational history and lifestyle characters were obtained by questionnaire. Cholinesterase activity was determined by the method of Ellman as modified by Chambers and Chambers. Results: AChE was ranging from 1.65 to 3.54μmoles/min/ml in exposed subjects where as it was ranged from 2.22 to 3.51μmoles/min/ml in control subjects. BChE activity was ranging from 0.16 to 5.2μmoles/min/ml among exposed subjects, where as it was ranged from 2.19 to 5.06μmoles/min/ml in control subjects. The results showed statistically significant reduction in enzyme activities (AChE 14%; BChE 56%) among exposed subjects. Conclusion: It was concluded that the reduction in cholinesterase activity may lead to varieties of effects. Hence it is compulsory to use protective gadgets during pesticide spray. Further a continuous biomonitoring study is recommended to assess pesticide exposure. PMID:23776322

  11. Occupational health profile of workers employed in the manufacturing sector of India.

    PubMed

    Suri, Shivali; Das, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    The occupational health scenario of workers engaged in the manufacturing sector in India deserves attention for their safety and increasing productivity. We reviewed the status of the manufacturing sector, identified hazards faced by workers, and assessed the existing legislations and healthcare delivery mechanisms. From October 2014 to March 2015, we did a literature review by manual search of pre-identified journals, general electronic search, electronic search of dedicated websites/databases and personal communication with experts of occupational health. An estimated 115 million workers are engaged in the manufacturing sector, though the Labour Bureau takes into account only one-tenth of them who work in factories registered with the government. Most reports do not mention the human capital employed neither their quality of life, nor occupational health services available. The incidence of accidents were documented till 2011, and industry-wise break up of data is not available. Occupational hazards reported include hypertension, stress, liver disease, diabetes, tuberculosis, eye/ hearing problems, cancers, etc. We found no studies for manufacturing industries in glass, tobacco, computer and allied products, etc. The incidence of accidents is decreasing but the proportion of fatalities is increasing. Multiple legislations exist which cover occupational health, but most of these are old and have not been amended adequately to reflect the present situation. There is a shortage of manpower and occupational health statistics for dealing with surveillance, prevention and regulation in this sector. There is an urgent need of a modern occupational health legislation and an effective machinery to enforce it, preferably through intersectoral coordination between the Employees' State Insurance Corporation, factories and state governments. Occupational health should be integrated with the general health services.

  12. Employers' paradoxical views about temporary foreign migrant workers' health: a qualitative study in rural farms in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Narushima, Miya; Sanchez, Ana Lourdes

    2014-09-10

    The province of Ontario hosts nearly a half of Canada's temporary foreign migrant farm workers (MFWs). Despite the essential role played by MFWs in the economic prosperity of the region, a growing body of research suggests that the workers' occupational safety and health are substandard, and often neglected by employers. This study thus explores farm owners' perceptions about MFWs occupational safety and general health, and their attitudes towards health promotion for their employees. Using modified grounded theory approach, we collected data through in-depth individual interviews with farm owners employing MFWs in southern Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed following three steps (open, axial, and selective coding) to identify thematic patterns and relationships. Nine employers or their representatives were interviewed. Four major overarching categories were identified: employers' dependence on MFWs; their fragmented view of occupational safety and health; their blurring of the boundaries between the work and personal lives of the MFWs on their farms; and their reluctance to implement health promotion programs. The interaction of these categories suggests the complex social processes through which employers come to hold these paradoxical attitudes towards workers' safety and health. There is a fundamental contradiction between what employers considered public versus personal. Despite employers' preference to separate MFWs' workplace safety from personal health issues, due to the fact that workers live within their employers' property, workers' private life becomes public making their personal health a business-related concern. Farmers' conflicting views, combined with a lack of support from governing bodies, hold back timely implementation of health promotion activities in the workplace. In order to address the needs of MFWs in a more integrated manner, an ecological view of health, which includes the social and psychological determinants of health, by employers

  13. The Slowdown in Employer Insurance Cost Growth: Why Many Workers Still Feel the Pinch.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sara R; Radley, David C; Gunja, Munira Z; Beutel, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    Issue: Although predictions that the Affordable Care Act (ACA) would lead to reductions in employer-sponsored health coverage have not been realized, some of the law’s critics maintain the ACA is nevertheless driving higher premium and deductible costs for businesses and their workers. Goal: To compare cost growth in employer-sponsored health insurance before and after 2010, when the ACA was enacted, and to compare changes in these costs relative to changes in workers’ incomes. Methods: The authors analyzed federal Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data to compare cost trends over the 10-year period from 2006 to 2015. Key findings and conclusions: Compared to the five years leading up to the ACA, premium growth for single health insurance policies offered by employers slowed both in the nation overall and in 33 states and the District of Columbia. There has been a similar slowdown in growth in the amounts employees contribute to health plan costs. Yet many families feel pinched by their health care costs: despite a recent surge, income growth has not kept pace in many areas of the U.S. Employee contributions to premiums and deductibles amounted to 10.1 percent of U.S. median income in 2015, compared to 6.5 percent in 2006. These costs are higher relative to income in many southeastern and southern states, where incomes are below the national average.

  14. [Medical inventions: developments and approaches in employer-employee [correction of worker-employee] relations].

    PubMed

    Teff, Zvi

    2012-11-01

    The past twenty years have witnessed a huge increase in research activity on the government health system in Israel. Consequently, a number of questions of enhanced importance arise: to whom the resultant IP (intellectual property) belongs?--to the researcher or the employer? and what compensation should the researcher receive for his inventive efforts? The government found many cases where the IP was registered in the name of the inventor/researcher, thus denying the government ownership of the IP. In 2009, the government sued Omryx over ownership of such an IP. Following these developments, the government issued new rules for management of IP in the government health system. They came into effect in November 2010. In many respects, the new rules are more stringent than the Israeli Patent Law in respect of the inventor. However, the stipulation of awards to the inventor in the new rules is generous. In order for the new rules to be enforceable, the following guidelines are recommended: The new rules should be more aligned with the Patent Law and with the meaning given to the Law by the judicial system, and There is need for the assent and awareness of health system workers to the conditions set out in the new rules, preferably in the form of new work contracts that clearly and concurrently delineate the worker's duties, particularly those pertaining to IP.

  15. Migration and the Employment and Wages of Native and Immigrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Franklin D.; Jaynes, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    A study of 1,200 white-collar and 1,436 blue-collar workers with less than postsecondary education showed that migrant and immigrant workers were not significantly associated with joblessness among native workers. Changes in the foreign-born composition of an industry sector were associated with increased unemployment for native workers. (SK)

  16. Value of social media in reaching and engaging employers in Total Worker Health.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Heidi; Hall, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    To describe the initial use of social media by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Total Worker Health™ (TWH) Program and the University of Iowa Healthier Workforce Center for Excellence (HWCE) Outreach Program. Social media analytics tools and process evaluation methods were used to derive initial insights on the social media strategies used by the NIOSH and the HWCE. The on-line community size for the NIOSH TWH Program indicated 100% growth in 6 months; however, social media platforms have been slow to gain participation among employers. The NIOSH TWH Program and the HWCE Outreach Program have found social media tools as an effective way to expand reach, foster engagement, and gain understanding of audience interests around TWH concepts. More needs to be known about how to best use social media to reach and engage target audiences on issues relevant to TWH.

  17. EEOC sues freight company for inducing worker with HIV to quit. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

    PubMed

    1998-04-17

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) sued a Japanese freight company, Nippon Express USA, for putting [name removed] into a do-nothing job and forcing him to quit. [Name removed] revealed his HIV status to a supervisor in 1990 while working as a trainer and customer troubleshooter. When his management changed shortly afterwards, he was transferred from Chicago to Indianapolis, presumably for a promotion. However, his responsibilities were reduced, his telephone and computer were taken away from him, and co-workers were ordered not to speak to him. Following surgery, a supervisor told [name removed] that his appearance was causing problems. The lawsuit was filed under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and seeks unspecified damages, training programs for managers and staff in dealing with HIV-positive employees, and guaranteed health care coverage for the rest of [name removed]'s life.

  18. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Corie A; Crane, Alice L; Bonner, Matthew R; Knaak, James B; Browne, Richard W; Lein, Pamela J; Olson, James R

    2012-12-15

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n=120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P≤0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P≤0.05) and PON1 192 (P≤0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. PON1 Status Does Not Influence Cholinesterase Activity in Egyptian Agricultural Workers Exposed to Chlorpyrifos

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Corie A.; Crane, Alice L.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Browne, Richard W.; Lein, Pamela J.; Olson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt’s Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (p ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (p ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (p ≤ 0.001) genotype had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. PMID:22975224

  20. Sleep disturbance and the older worker: findings from the Health and Employment after Fifty study.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Keith T; D'Angelo, Stefania; Harris, E Clare; Linaker, Cathy; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Gale, Catharine R; Evandrou, Maria; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cooper, Cyrus; Coggon, David

    2017-03-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to characterize the descriptive epidemiology of insomnia in midlife and explore the relative importance of different occupational risk factors for insomnia among older workers. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to all adults aged 50-64 years registered with 24 English general practices. Insomnia was defined as having at least one of four problems with sleep severely in the past three months. Subjects were also asked about employment conditions, feelings concerning work, and their health. Associations were assessed by logistic regression and population attributable fractions (PAF) calculated. Results Analysis was based on 8067 respondents (5470 in paid work), 18.8% of whom reported insomnia. It was more common among women, smokers, obese individuals, those living alone, and those in financial hardship, and less prevalent among the educated, those in South-East England, and those with friendships and leisure-time pursuits. Occupational risk factors included unemployment, shift working, lack of control and support at work, job insecurity, job dissatisfaction and several of its determinants (lacking a sense of achievement, feeling unappreciated, having difficult work colleagues, feeling unfairly criticized). Population burden of insomnia was associated more strongly with difficulties in coping with work demands, job insecurity, difficult colleagues, and lack of friendships at work [population attributable fraction (PAF) 15-33%] than shift work and lack of autonomy or support (PAF 5-7%). It was strongly associated with seven measures of poorer self-assessed health. Conclusions Employment policies aimed at tackling insomnia among older workers may benefit from focusing particularly on job-person fit, job security and relationships in the workplace.

  1. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF THE MOVEMENT OF SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT CHILDREN INTO WISCONSIN, EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN WISCONSIN, REPORT 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LINDSEY, HERBERT H.; AND OTHERS

    USEFUL MEANS OF ANTICIPATING THE MOVEMENTS OF MIGRANT CHILDREN INCLUDE ANALYSIS OF CROPS, THE HARVESTING OF WHICH REQUIRES OUT-OF-STATE WORKERS, DISTRIBUTIONAL MAPS OF CROP ACREAGE, NORMAL TIME SCHEDULES FOR CROPS, AND INFORMATION ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS. SUCH INFORMATION ASSISTS IN THE PLANNING OF SCHOOL PROGRAMS. IN WISCONSIN, MOST MIGRANT…

  2. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF THE MOVEMENT OF SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT CHILDREN INTO WISCONSIN, EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN WISCONSIN, REPORT 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LINDSEY, HERBERT H.; AND OTHERS

    USEFUL MEANS OF ANTICIPATING THE MOVEMENTS OF MIGRANT CHILDREN INCLUDE ANALYSIS OF CROPS, THE HARVESTING OF WHICH REQUIRES OUT-OF-STATE WORKERS, DISTRIBUTIONAL MAPS OF CROP ACREAGE, NORMAL TIME SCHEDULES FOR CROPS, AND INFORMATION ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS. SUCH INFORMATION ASSISTS IN THE PLANNING OF SCHOOL PROGRAMS. IN WISCONSIN, MOST MIGRANT…

  3. [Polysystemic assessment of the state of sanogenesis in workers employed in nuclear fuel plants. The analysis of metabolism regulation processes].

    PubMed

    Karganov, M Iu; Kovaleva, O I; Khlebnikova, N N; Dmitrieva, O S; Saenko, S A; Dovgusha, L V; Landa, S B

    2004-01-01

    Using the method of laser correlation spectroscopy of biological fluids (blood serum, urine, oropharyngeal washout fluid) we studied the types of metabolic shifts in workers employed in nuclear fuel complex plant. In was found that the incidence of catabolic shifts considerably increased in workers with higher level of occupational exposure. In individuals contacting with open radiation sources we found the contribution of anabolic immunomodifying shifts with predominance of autoimmune sensibilization. A risk group for blood diseases was identified.

  4. [Health-related absenteeism among workers employed in various work environments].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Z; Makowiec-Dabrowska, T; Sobala, W

    1999-01-01

    The state of health in working people is determined by a number of factors among which working conditions and the kind of job performed play undoubtedly a crucial role. The observation and analysis of trends in sick absenteeism may provide indirect information on health problems of the occupationally active population. The aim of the analysis presented was to define the magnitude and the causes of temporary work disability among workers employed in individual branches of the national economy, and finally to identify high risk groups of workers because of their employment in specific working conditions. The statistical material used as the basis for the calculation of absenteeism indicators embraced the data on the number of work disability days, derived from a 15 representative sample of punched cards, concerning certificates of temporary work disability. In order to accomplish the objectives of the analysis, the trends in sick absenteeism observed before 1989, the period preceding the structural changes and the transformation of Polish economy were taken into consideration. The analysis indicates that the level of sick absenteeism in the branches of the national economy (forestry, building construction, transport, industry) and the proportion of chronic diseases in its structure prove the effect of working conditions on the workers' health. Considering individual branches of industry, the highest levels of sick absenteeism are observed in the following branches: mining for men (5.61), non-ferrous metals for women (10.04) and men (4.95), ferrous metallurgy for women (9.99) and men (4.93), and petroleum products for women (11.76). The analysis of sick absenteeism in the branches selected in view of hazardous working conditions shows that: (1) in many branches chemical hazards in the work environment are responsible for an increased sick absenteeism due to diseases of the circulatory system, particularly among men, mental disorders and neoplasms, both among men and

  5. Incidence of sickness absence by type of employment contract: one year follow-up study in Spanish salaried workers.

    PubMed

    Zaballa, Elena; Martínez, José Miguel; Duran, Xavier; Albertí, Constança; Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, David; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    To examine the differences in the incidence of registered sickness absence by type of employment contract in a large representative sample of salaried workers in Spain in 2009. A study of 653,264 salaried workers covered by the Social Security system who had 133,724 sickness absence episodes in 2009. Crude and adjusted rate ratios and their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with Poisson regression models. The incidence rate per 100 workers-year of sickness absence for temporary workers (IR = 32.2) was slightly higher than that of permanent workers (IR = 28.9). This pattern was observed in both men (RR = 1.12; 95 % CI 1.10-1.14) and women (RR 1.11; 95 % CI 1.09-1.12). However, after adjusting for age, company size, and occupational category, the differences disappeared in men (aRR = 1.01; 95 % CI 0.99-1.02) and decreased in women (aRR = 1.06; 95 % CI 1.04-1.07). Our findings provide evidence on the independence of sickness absence benefits from the type of employment contract as well as on the nonexistence of incentives for taking sickness absence in workers with a permanent employment contract. In the context of increasing market flexibility, these results show a positive functioning of the Social Security system.

  6. Pesticide Worker Protection Standard “How to Comply” Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The “How to Comply” manual provides information for employers on complying with the worker protection standard for agricultural workers. It has been updated to cover the 2015 revisions to the WPS.

  7. Outsourcing Elderly Care to Migrant Workers: The Impact of Gender and Class on the Experience of Male Employers

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Ester; Scrinzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    This article, based on semi-structured interviews, addresses masculinity in the international division of reproductive labour through an analysis of the impact of gender and class on the outsourcing of elderly care services to migrant care workers. In the Italian context, characterised by a limited provision of long-term care services and by cash-for-care benefits, the strategies of men as employers of migrant care workers are shaped by class and gender. The outsourcing of care to migrant workers reproduces hegemonic masculinity in so far as male employers are able to withdraw from the ‘dirty work’. At the same time, men engage with tasks which are, in principle, kept at a distance. The employers’ family status, combined with their class background, are crucial factors in shaping the heterogeneity of men’s experiences as employers and managers of care labour, and the ways in which they make sense of their masculinity. PMID:27041775

  8. Agricultural work and chronic musculoskeletal pain among Latino farm workers: the MICASA Study

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hong; McCurdy, Stephen A.; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria; Li, Chin-Shang; Schenker, Marc B

    2013-01-01

    Background Agriculture poses varied dangers to hired farm workers in the U.S., but little information exists on occupational risks for chronic musculoskeletal pain. We examined common work positions, such as kneeling, carrying heavy loads, and repetitive motion that may increase the risk for chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods MICASA is a population-based study of occupational exposures and health in hired farm workers in California. This analysis includes 759 participants, 18–55 years old, engaged in farm work and residing in Mendota, CA. Chronic pain was defined as pain lasting six weeks or longer at specific body sites (back, knee, hip, etc.) over the entire farm work career. Results Mean age was 37.9 years. 65% participants were born in Mexico, 27.7% were born in El Salvador, and 4.2% were U.S-born. Chronic pain was associated with older age and female sex. After adjustment for age, years working in agriculture, and smoking, stooping/bending >30hrs/week among both men (OR=2.49, 95%CI:1.03–5.99) and women (OR=2.15, 95%CI:1.04–4.46) was associated with chronic hip pain. Driving tractors or other heavy farm equipment >60 hrs/week was associated with increased odds of chronic hip pain (OR=2.16 95%CI: 1.02–4.54) among men. We also observed significant associations with kneeling or crawling >35 hrs/week among women for both chronic back pain (OR=2.96 95%CI: 1.27–6.93) and knee pain (OR=3.02 95%CI: 1.07–8.50), respectively. Conclusions Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent among farm workers and is associated with common work positions. Further research should focus on developing preventive interventions for tasks associated with increased pain risk. These interventions should be targeted to specific types of agricultural tasks. PMID:23023585

  9. Agricultural work and chronic musculoskeletal pain among Latino farm workers: the MICASA study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hong; McCurdy, Stephen A; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Li, Chin-Shang; Schenker, Marc B

    2013-02-01

    Agriculture poses varied dangers to hired farm workers in the U.S., but little information exists on occupational risks for chronic musculoskeletal pain. We examined common work positions, such as kneeling, carrying heavy loads, and repetitive motion that may increase the risk for chronic musculoskeletal pain. MICASA is a population-based study of occupational exposures and health in hired farm workers in California. This analysis includes 759 participants, 18-55 years old, engaged in farm work and residing in Mendota, CA. Chronic pain was defined as pain lasting 6 weeks or longer at specific body sites (back, knee, hip, etc.) over the entire farm work career. Mean age was 37.9 years. Sixty-five percent participants were born in Mexico, 27.7% were born in El Salvador, and 4.2% were U.S-born. Chronic pain was associated with older age and female sex. After adjustment for age, years working in agriculture, and smoking, stooping/bending >30 hr/week among both men (OR = 2.49, 95% CI: 1.03-5.99) and women (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.04-4.46) was associated with chronic hip pain. Driving tractors or other heavy farm equipment >60 hr/week was associated with increased odds of chronic hip pain (OR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.02-4.54) among men. We also observed significant associations with kneeling or crawling >35 hr/week among women for both chronic back pain (OR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.27-6.93) and knee pain (OR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.07-8.50), respectively. Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent among farm workers and is associated with common work positions. Further research should focus on developing preventive interventions for tasks associated with increased pain risk. These interventions should be targeted to specific types of agricultural tasks. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Does the Form of Employment Make a Difference?--Commitment of Traditional, Temporary, and Self-Employed Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felfe, Jorg; Schmook, Renate; Schyns, Birgit; Six, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Increasing change in the labor market has produced new forms of employment. A growing number of people have temporary jobs or are self-employed freelancers. The aim of our study is to address these changes by introducing commitment to the form of employment as a new focus in commitment. In addition, we compare organizational commitment under…

  11. Does the Form of Employment Make a Difference?--Commitment of Traditional, Temporary, and Self-Employed Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felfe, Jorg; Schmook, Renate; Schyns, Birgit; Six, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Increasing change in the labor market has produced new forms of employment. A growing number of people have temporary jobs or are self-employed freelancers. The aim of our study is to address these changes by introducing commitment to the form of employment as a new focus in commitment. In addition, we compare organizational commitment under…

  12. Dental utilization by children in Hispanic agricultural worker families in California

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Tracy L.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Shain, Sara G.; Weintraub, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Agricultural worker families encounter multiple barriers to accessing all needed dental care. This study investigated predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with children's past year dental utilization among Hispanic agricultural worker families in central California. Methods Oral health survey and clinical data were collected from families participating in a larger, population-based study in 2006-7. Generalized estimating equation logit regression assessed effects on a dental visit among children aged 0-17 (n=405). Analyses adjusted for clustering of children in the same household. Predisposing (sociodemographics), enabling (child's dental insurance, usual source of dental care, caregiver past year dental visit, acculturation level, income and education), and need (caregiver's oral health rating, perception of cavities, and clinically-determined treatment urgency) factors were examined. Results Half (51%) the children had a past year dental visit, while 23% had never been to a dentist. In the final model, children were less likely to have a past year dental visit if they were foreign-born, male, had caregivers that thought they had cavities or were unsure, and if the dentist recommended treatment ‘at earliest convenience’. Children aged 6-12, with a regular dental care source, and whose caregivers had a recent dentist visit were more likely to have a past year dental visit. Conclusions Children were more likely to have a past year dental visit if they had a usual source of dental care (OR =4.78, CI=2.51-9.08), and if the caregiver had a past year dental visit (OR=1.88, CI=1.04-3.38). Emphasis should be placed on these two modifiable factors to increase children's dental utilization. PMID:25621285

  13. Dental utilization by children in Hispanic agricultural worker families in California.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Tracy L; Gansky, Stuart A; Shain, Sara G; Weintraub, Jane A

    Agricultural worker families encounter multiple barriers to accessing all needed dental care. This study investigated predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with children's past year dental utilization among Hispanic agricultural worker families in central California. Oral health survey and clinical data were collected from families participating in a larger, population-based study in 2006-7. Generalized estimating equation logit regression assessed effects on a dental visit among children aged 0-17 (n=405). Analyses adjusted for clustering of children in the same household. Predisposing (sociodemographics), enabling (child's dental insurance, usual source of dental care, caregiver past year dental visit, acculturation level, income and education), and need (caregiver's oral health rating, perception of cavities, and clinically-determined treatment urgency) factors were examined. Half (51%) the children had a past year dental visit, while 23% had never been to a dentist. In the final model, children were less likely to have a past year dental visit if they were foreign-born, male, had caregivers that thought they had cavities or were unsure, and if the dentist recommended treatment 'at earliest convenience'. Children aged 6-12, with a regular dental care source, and whose caregivers had a recent dentist visit were more likely to have a past year dental visit. Children were more likely to have a past year dental visit if they had a usual source of dental care (OR =4.78, CI=2.51-9.08), and if the caregiver had a past year dental visit (OR=1.88, CI=1.04-3.38). Emphasis should be placed on these two modifiable factors to increase children's dental utilization.

  14. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part I: employment status and fair labor standards act issues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal landmines that await the unsuspecting employer. The purpose of this article was to familiarize health care employers with some of the rapidly evolving legal issues that surround the use of contingent workers.

  15. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part I: employment status and Fair Labor Standards Act issues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal landmines that await the unsuspecting employer. The purpose of this article was to familiarize health care employers with some of the rapidly evolving legal issues that surround the use of contingent workers.

  16. Genotoxic biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticides in the north of Sinaloa State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Alvarez-Torres, Armando

    2009-11-01

    Genotoxic damage was evaluated in 70 agricultural workers, 25 women and 45 men, exposed to pesticides in Las Grullas, Ahome, Sinaloa, Mexico, with an average of 7 years of exposure. The effect was detected through the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in lymphocytes of peripheral blood and micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear anomalies (NA) in buccal exfoliated cells. Also, the influence on cellular proliferation kinetics (CPK) was studied by means of the replication index (RI) and the cytotoxic effect was examined with the mitotic index (MI). The non-exposed group consisted of 70 other persons, 21 women and 47 men from the city of Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico. Significant differences between the exposed and the non-exposed groups were observed in SCE, CPK, MI, MN and NA. Analysis of variance revealed that age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption did not have a significant effect on genetic damage. However, there was a correlation between exposure time to pesticides and SCE frequency. These results could have been due to the exposure of workers to pesticides containing different chemical compounds. This study afforded valuable data to estimate the possible risk to health associated with pesticide exposure.

  17. Australian employer usage of the practice of offering reduced working hours to workers close to retirement: Extent and determinants.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Philip; Earl, Catherine; McLoughlin, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine factors associated with the implementation by employers of the practice of offering reduced working hours for workers nearing retirement. Data came from a survey of 2000 employers of more than 50 employees each (30% response rate). A minority (33%) of employers offered reduced working hours to older workers nearing retirement. Factors associated with offering reduced working hours were: expecting workforce ageing to cause a loss of staff to retirement; being a large employer; being a public/not-for-profit sector employer; not experiencing difficulties recruiting labourers; having a larger proportion of workers aged over 50; experiencing national competition for labour; not experiencing difficulties recruiting machinery operators/drivers; not expecting workforce ageing to increase workplace injuries; and experiencing difficulties with the quality of candidates. A minority of employers were found to offer reduced working hours to those nearing retirement. Factors associated with their propensity to do so included industry sector, size of employer, concerns about labour supply and the effects of workforce ageing. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  18. Cancer risks in a population-based study of 70,570 agricultural workers: results from the Canadian census health and Environment cohort (CanCHEC).

    PubMed

    Kachuri, Linda; Harris, M Anne; MacLeod, Jill S; Tjepkema, Michael; Peters, Paul A; Demers, Paul A

    2017-05-19

    Agricultural workers may be exposed to potential carcinogens including pesticides, sensitizing agents and solar radiation. Previous studies indicate increased risks of hematopoietic cancers and decreased risks at other sites, possibly due to differences in lifestyle or risk behaviours. We present findings from CanCHEC (Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort), the largest national population-based cohort of agricultural workers. Statistics Canada created the cohort using deterministic and probabilistic linkage of the 1991 Canadian Long Form Census to National Cancer Registry records for 1992-2010. Self-reported occupations were coded using the Standard Occupational Classification (1991) system. Analyses were restricted to employed persons aged 25-74 years at baseline (N = 2,051,315), with follow-up until December 31, 2010. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were modeled using Cox proportional hazards for all workers in agricultural occupations (n = 70,570; 70.8% male), stratified by sex, and adjusted for age at cohort entry, province of residence, and highest level of education. A total of 9515 incident cancer cases (7295 in males) occurred in agricultural workers. Among men, increased risks were observed for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.00-1.21), prostate (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.06-1.16), melanoma (HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.02-1.31), and lip cancer (HR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.70-2.70). Decreased risks in males were observed for lung, larynx, and liver cancers. Among female agricultural workers there was an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (HR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.07-1.72). Increased risks of melanoma (HR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.17-2.73), leukemia (HR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.24-3.25) and multiple myeloma (HR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.16-4.37) were observed in a subset of female crop farmers. Exposure to pesticides may have contributed to increased risks of hematopoietic cancers, while increased risks of lip cancer

  19. Cognitive impairment in agricultural workers and nearby residents exposed to pesticides in the Coquimbo Region of Chile.

    PubMed

    Corral, Sebastián A; de Angel, Valeria; Salas, Natalia; Zúñiga-Venegas, Liliana; Gaspar, Pablo A; Pancetti, Floria

    2017-07-01

    Chronic exposure to organophosphate pesticides is a worldwide public health concern associated with several psychiatric disorders and dementia. Most existing studies on the effects of pesticides only evaluate agricultural workers. Therefore, this study sought to establish if individuals indirectly exposed to pesticides, such as residents in agricultural areas, also suffer cognitive impairments. Neuropsychological evaluations were carried out on three groups (n=102): agricultural workers directly exposed to pesticides (n=32), individuals living in agricultural areas indirectly (i.e. environmentally) exposed to pesticides (n=32), and an unexposed control group (n=38). The assessed cognitive processes included memory, executive functions, attention, language praxis, and visuoconstruction. The direct exposure group performed significantly lower in executive function, verbal fluency, and visual and auditory memory tests than the indirect exposure group, which, in turn, performed worse than the unexposed group. Even after adjusting for age, gender, and educational level, both exposure groups showed higher rates of cognitive deficit than control individuals. In conclusion, both direct and indirect chronic exposure to pesticides affects cognitive functioning in adults and, consequently, actions should be taken to protect the health of not only agricultural workers, but also of residents in agricultural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sticky IT Workers: Discovering Why Information Technology Professionals Retain Their Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Phillip Mike

    2013-01-01

    In the current business climate and social technologies expansion era, Information Technology (IT) workers are important organization contributors that connect organizations into today's data-driven, highly social, and always-on global economy. Thus, organizations need IT workers. Unfortunately, as a class, IT workers have developed a reputation…

  1. Sticky IT Workers: Discovering Why Information Technology Professionals Retain Their Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Phillip Mike

    2013-01-01

    In the current business climate and social technologies expansion era, Information Technology (IT) workers are important organization contributors that connect organizations into today's data-driven, highly social, and always-on global economy. Thus, organizations need IT workers. Unfortunately, as a class, IT workers have developed a reputation…

  2. Credential Attainment by Older Workers: The Role of Community Colleges and the Dislocated Worker Program in Successful Employment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Phyllis Ann

    2013-01-01

    Workers are remaining in the labor force at older ages and despite their desire to work, those without jobs face unprecedented durations of unemployment. Many of the unemployed lack current skills for jobs in demand and need to either upgrade their skills or be trained for a new occupation to become reemployed. An aging workforce combined with…

  3. Effect of informal employment on the relationship between psychosocial work risk factors and musculoskeletal pain in Central American workers.

    PubMed

    Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, David; Rojas Garbanzo, Marianela; Aragón, Aurora; Carmenate-Milián, Lino; Benavides, Fernando G

    2017-09-01

    The constant increase on the psychosocial demands experienced at work seems to contribute to the increase in health problems such as musculoskeletal pain (MSP). This association may be especially important in low-income and middle-income countries, where there is a large proportion of informal workers among whom there is little research. We analysed the association between psychosocial work risk factors and MSP among formal and informal workers using the First Central American Survey of Working Conditions and Health. This is a representative sample (n=12 024) of the economically active population of the six Spanish-speaking countries of Central America. Prevalence ratios (PR) and corresponding 95% CIs from Poisson regression models were used to estimate the association between psychosocial work risk factors and the MSP. Compared with formal workers, informal workers reported higher prevalence of MPS in the body regions analysed (ie, cervicodorsal, lumbosacral, upper extremities) and higher exposure to psychosocial work risk factors. However, on the whole, the associations between the exposure to psychosocial work risk factors and the prevalence of MSP were similar for both formal and informal workers. Only the association between exposure to high demands and MSP in the upper extremities was higher (p=0.012) among formal (PR=1.69, 95% CI 1.46 to 1.96) than among informal workers (PR=1.40; 95% CI 1.30 to 1.51). Exposure to adverse levels of psychosocial work risk factors is associated with higher prevalence of MPS among both formal and informal workers. However, the role of employment informality in this association is complex and requires further examination. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Mortality of older construction and craft workers employed at department of energy (DOE) nuclear sites: follow-up through 2011.

    PubMed

    Ringen, Knut; Dement, John; Welch, Laura; Bingham, Eula; Quinn, Patricia; Chen, Anna; Haas, Scott

    2015-02-01

    The Building Trades National Medical Screening Program (BTMed) was established in 1996 to provide occupational medicine screening examinations for construction workers who have worked at US Department of Energy nuclear sites. Workers participating in BTMed between 1998 and 2011 were followed to determine their vital status and mortality experience through December 31, 2011. The cohort includes 18,803 BTMed participants and 2,801 deaths. Cause-specific Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on US death rates. Mortality was elevated for all causes, all cancers, cancers of the trachea, bronchus, and lung and lymphatic and hematopoietic system, mesothelioma, COPD, and asbestosis. Construction workers employed at DOE sites have a significantly increased risk for occupational illnesses. Risks are associated with employment during all time periods covered including after 1980. The cancer risks closely match the cancers identified for DOE compensation from radiation exposures. Continued medical surveillance is important. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 1961 ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA DIRECTED TOWARD THE IMPROVEMENT OF HEALTH AMONG DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS AND THEIR FAMILIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1961

    A PROGRAM INSTITUTED IN 1961 TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH OF DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN CALIFORNIA AND THEIR FAMILIES WAS GIVEN. IT SOUGHT TO HELP LOCAL HEALTH AGENCIES BY PROVIDING--TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO COUNTIES TRYING TO DEVELOP FACILITIES AND SERVICES, EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR USE OF STATE FUNDS BY LOCAL…

  6. Project CHOICE: #100. A Career Unit for Grades 3 and 4. Ecology Workers. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Occupations Career Cluster).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This teaching unit, Ecology Workers, is one in a series of career guides developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking third and fourth grade elementary classroom experiences with the world of work. Part of the Agriculture and Ecological…

  7. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, Corie A.; Crane, Alice L.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Browne, Richard W.; Lein, Pamela J.; Olson, James R.

    2012-12-15

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.

  8. 76 FR 16448 - Hach Company a Subsidiary of Danaher Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... From Express Employment Profesionals, Grants Pass, OR; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To... subsidiary of Danaher, Grants Pass, Oregon. The workers produce devices used to test air and water quality... Pass, Oregon location of Hach Company, s subsidiary of Danaher. The Department has determined...

  9. The Effects of Economic Policies and Employment Assistance Programs on the Well-Being of Displaced Female Apparel Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Cynthia; Strand, Elizabeth B.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores how labor market trends and current employment assistance policies affect reemployment opportunities and emotional well-being in a sample of female dislocated apparel workers. The study follows the displaced women from the time the plant closed for 6 months to assess their financial and emotional well-being as they reentered…

  10. The Effects of Economic Policies and Employment Assistance Programs on the Well-Being of Displaced Female Apparel Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Cynthia; Strand, Elizabeth B.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores how labor market trends and current employment assistance policies affect reemployment opportunities and emotional well-being in a sample of female dislocated apparel workers. The study follows the displaced women from the time the plant closed for 6 months to assess their financial and emotional well-being as they reentered…

  11. The approaches to learning of support workers employed in the care home sector: an evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Cowan, David T; Roberts, Julia D; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M; While, Alison E; Baldwin, Julie

    2004-02-01

    This study examined the approaches to learning of a cohort (n=76) of National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) Care Award candidates using the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students. The NVQ candidates were support workers (SWs) (sometimes called care assistants) employed in United Kingdom (UK) care homes for older people. The aim was to identify SWs' approaches to learning and to determine whether or not a preparatory six-week College-based course had any impact on these approaches. The findings were encouraging. The course had a positive impact with a statistically significant increase in orientation towards a deep learning approach, which is associated with desirable learning outcomes as well as self-directed and lifelong learning skills. The UK government recognises that lifelong learning enables people to continually develop their talents, thereby enhancing local communities and contributing to a civilised, cohesive society. In a health care environment, adopting a deep approach is likely to be beneficial. Those who use evidence to inform practice, who are able to relate elements of what they are taught to their working experiences and who are able to adapt to meet new challenges, are more likely to enhance their practice and become more effective carers.

  12. 29 CFR 516.33 - Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a....33 Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act. (a) No... the number of weeks employed in agriculture during the preceding calendar year. (e) With respect...

  13. 29 CFR 516.33 - Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a....33 Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act. (a) No... the number of weeks employed in agriculture during the preceding calendar year. (e) With respect...

  14. 29 CFR 516.33 - Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a....33 Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act. (a) No... the number of weeks employed in agriculture during the preceding calendar year. (e) With respect...

  15. 29 CFR 516.33 - Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a....33 Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act. (a) No... the number of weeks employed in agriculture during the preceding calendar year. (e) With respect...

  16. 29 CFR 516.33 - Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a....33 Employees employed in agriculture pursuant to section 13(a)(6) or 13(b)(12) of the Act. (a) No... the number of weeks employed in agriculture during the preceding calendar year. (e) With respect...

  17. From agricultural fields to urban asphalt: the role of worker education to promote California's heat illness prevention standard.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kevin; Delp, Linda; Cornelio, Deogracia; Jacobs, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an innovative approach to reach and educate workers and worker advocates about California's outdoor heat illness prevention standard. In 2010, Cal/OSHA initiated a statewide education campaign to reduce heat-related illnesses and fatalities and increase awareness of the standard's requirements. In Southern California, the UCLA Labor Occupational Safety and Health Program (LOSH) focused on three principal strategies of community-based outreach, popular education, and organizational capacity building. Central to the LOSH approach was the integration of health promotores into core program planning and training activities and the expansion of campaign activities to a wide variety of rural and urban workers. We describe each of these strategies and analyze the possibilities and constraints of worker education to support implementation of this standard, particularly given the vulnerabilities of the impacted workforce, the often precarious nature of employment arrangements for these workers, and the resource limitations of Cal/OSHA.

  18. Impact of employment contract changes on workers' quality of working life, job insecurity, health and work-related attitudes.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Alfred F; Kompier, Michiel A J; Houtman, Irene L D; van den Bossche, Seth N J; Taris, Toon W

    2012-01-01

    Changes in employment contracts may impact the quality of working life, job insecurity, health and work-related attitudes. We examined the validity of two partly competing theoretical approaches. Based upon a segmentation approach, we expected no change in scores among stable trajectories, whereas upward trajectories were expected to be for the better and downward trajectories to be for the worse (Hypothesis 1). As turnover theories suggest that this hypothesis may only apply to workers who do not change employer, we also examined these contract trajectories stratified for a change of employer (Hypothesis 2). Drawing on the 2007 and 2008 waves of the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (N=9,688), repeated measures analysis of covariance showed little across-time change in the criterion variables, thus largely disconfirming our first hypothesis. These results could (at least partly) be explained by employer change; this was generally associated with improved scores among all contract trajectories (Hypothesis 2). However, workers receiving a less stable contract from the same employer were found to be at risk for health and well-being problems. Segmentation theory-based assumptions on contract trajectories primarily apply to stable and downward contract trajectories at the same employer, whereas assumptions from turnover theories better apply to contract trajectories combined with a change of employer. Future research should focus more closely on factors predicting "involuntary" downward trajectories into precarious temporary employment or unemployment.

  19. 77 FR 16157 - Changes to the Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB58 Changes to the Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Non- Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States;...

  20. 77 FR 24137 - Changes to the Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB58 Changes to the Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Non- Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States; Revisions...

  1. 76 FR 73509 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Wage and Hour Division 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB61 Wage Methodology... effective date of the Wage Methodology for Temporary Non-agricultural Employment H-2B Program Final Rule, 76... based on a previous effective date of the new prevailing wage methodology. This guidance is intended...

  2. 76 FR 82116 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB61 Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non... delayed the effective date of the Wage Methodology for Temporary Non-agricultural Employment H-2B Program... based on a previous effective date of the new prevailing wage methodology. This guidance...

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS AND THE EDUCATION NEEDED FOR EMPLOYMENT IN THESE OCCUPATIONS IN DELAWARE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARWICK, RALPH P.

    THE PURPOSES OF THE STUDY WERE TO (1) IDENTIFY PRESENT AND EMERGING OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS, (2) ESTIMATE THE NUMBER EMPLOYED, (3) ESTIMATE THE NUMBER TO BE EMPLOYED IN THE FUTURE, AND (4) DETERMINE COMPETENCIES NEEDED IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONAL FAMILIES. A DISPROPORTIONATE RANDOM SAMPLE OF 267 BUSINESSES OR SERVICES WAS DRAWN FROM A LIST…

  4. Profile of the musculoskeletal pain suffered by textile tufting workers handling thread cones according to work, age and employment duration.

    PubMed

    Montreuil, S; Laflamme, L; Tellier, C

    1996-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between some socio-professional characteristics of workers (e.g. age, actual work done, experience in the job, overall time on job market, height) carrying out thread-cone handling tasks and their musculoskeletal pain profiles. Interviews were carried out with foremen and workers, and task analysis was performed. Self-administered questionnaires on work-related pain were filled out by 114 machine operators and creelers in four carpet-manufacturing companies. Statistics on nine individual and 25 pain-symptom characteristics were compiled. For data treatment, two statistical methods complemented one another: the Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC) and the Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC). Four classes of workers showing large differences one to another regarding time of employment on the job market, age, seniority in the company, and job experience were portrayed. No remarkable differences were found between the classes in relation to the proportion of workers showing body pain symptoms; it is greater than 50% in all classes (12 months). Moreover, in all classes, for several workers, the first region of pain (out of three possible) was reported as one persisting over the weekend. The group of workers from 25 to 35 years of age appears to be the one most seriously affected by musculoskeletal pain.

  5. Psychosocial factors at work and perceived health among agricultural meat industry workers in France.

    PubMed

    Cohidon, Christine; Morisseau, Patrick; Derriennic, Francis; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the perceived health status of the meat industry employees--i.e., working in the slaughtering, cutting, and boning of large animals and poultry--and its relation to their organisational and psychosocial constraints at work. This postal survey included all 3,000 employees of the meat industry (beef, pork and poultry) in four districts in Brittany, France, whose companies were affiliated with the agricultural branch of the national health insurance fund. The questionnaire asked for social and demographic data and information describing their job and the organisation of their work. The psychosocial factors at work were described according to Karasek's questionnaire (demand, latitude and social support at work). Perceived health was measured with the Nottingham Health Profile perceived health indicator. This study shows the high prevalence of poor health reported by the workers in this industry. This poor perceived health was worse in women and increased regularly with age. Among the psychosocial factors studied, high quantitative and qualitative demand at work, inadequate resources for good work and to a lesser extent, inadequate prospects for promotion appear especially associated with poor perceived health. Other factors often associated with poor perceived health included young age at the first job and work hours that disrupt sleep rhythms (especially for women). Our results show that this population of workers is especially vulnerable from the point of view of perceived physical and psychological health and is exposed to strong physical, organisational and psychosocial constraints at work. They also demonstrate that poor perceived health is associated with some psychosocial (such as high psychological demand and insufficient resources) and organisational factors at work. These results, in conjunction with those from other disciplines involved in studying this industry, may help the companies to develop preventive

  6. Serological evidence for avian H9N2 influenza virus infections among Romanian agriculture workers.

    PubMed

    Coman, Alexandru; Maftei, Daniel N; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Friary, John A; Chereches, Razvan M; Sirlincan, Emanuela; Bria, Paul; Dragnea, Claudiu; Kasler, Iosif; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, wild birds have introduced multiple highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infections in Romanian poultry. In 2005 HPAI infections were widespread among domestic poultry and anecdotal reports suggested domestic pigs may also have been exposed. We sought to examine evidence for zoonotic influenza infections among Romanian agriculture workers. Between 2009 and 2010, 363 adult participants were enrolled in a cross-sectional, seroepidemiological study. Confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) swine workers in Tulcea and small, traditional backyard farmers in Cluj-Napoca were enrolled, as well as a non-animal exposed control group from Cluj-Napoca. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of previous infection with 9 avian and 3 human influenza virus strains. Serologic assays showed no evidence of previous infection with 7 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses or with HPAI H5N1. However, 33 participants (9.1%) had elevated microneutralization antibody titers against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 5 with titers ≥ 1:80 whom all reported exposure to poultry. Moderate poultry exposure was significantly associated with elevated titers after controlling for the subjects' age (adjusted OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-12.1). There was no evidence that previous infection with human H3N2 or H2N2 viruses were confounding the H9N2 seroreactivity. These data suggest that H9N2 virus may have circulated in Romanian poultry and occasionally infected man.

  7. Contingency, Employment Intentions, and Retention of Vulnerable Low-wage Workers: An Examination of Nursing Assistants in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Janette S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: While theories of job turnover generally assume a strong correlation between job satisfaction, intention, and retention, such models may be limited in explaining turnover of low-wage health care workers. Low-wage workers likely have a lower ability to act on their employment intentions or plans due to a lack of resources that serve to cushion higher wage workers. In this study, we examine the relationship between job satisfaction, intention, and retention of nursing assistants in nursing homes and the role that “contingency factors” play in employment intentions and retention. We conceptualize “contingency factors” as resource-related constraints (e.g., being a single mother) that likely influence employment trajectories of individuals but can be independent of job satisfaction or intent. Design and Methods: We use survey data from 315 nursing assistants in 18 nursing homes in a U.S. southern state to model employment intentions and retention. Results: We find that job satisfaction and other perceived job characteristics (e.g., workload and perceived quality of care) are significant predictors of an individual’s intent to stay in their job, the occupation of nursing assistant, and the field of long-term care. However, we find that job satisfaction and employment intentions are not significant predictors of retention. Instead, “contingency factors” such as being a primary breadwinner and individual characteristics (e.g., tenure and past health care experience) appear to be stronger factors in the retention of nursing assistants. Implications: Our findings have implications for understanding turnover among low-wage health care workers and the use of proxies such as employment intentions in measuring turnover. PMID:22875015

  8. Mood disorders hospitalizations, suicide attempts, and suicide mortality among agricultural workers and residents in an area with intensive use of pesticides in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Armando; Koifman, Sergio; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Moreira, Josino Costa; de Rezende Chrisman, Juliana; Abreu-Villaca, Yael

    2010-01-01

    As suicide rates have increased in rural areas in Brazil, it was postulated that pesticide exposure may play a role in this phenomenon. Our study compared the suicide mortality rates observed among agricultural workers from a pesticide-intensive area in Brazil to the suicide mortality frequency noted in three reference populations. In addition, hospitalization rates attributed to suicide attempts and mood disorders including depression in residents of the same agricultural area were compared to two reference populations. Finally, data on pesticide sales per agricultural worker were obtained for each city of Rio de Janeiro State and suicide mortality risk was then calculated according to the quartiles of pesticide sales per agricultural workers, using the first quartile as reference. Agricultural workers were at greater risk for lethality due to suicide when compared to all three reference populations. In addition, residents of the same study area showed higher hospitalization rates by suicide attempts and mood disorders than observed in comparison populations. Results also showed that the risk of death by suicide was significantly higher among agricultural workers who lived in areas of Rio de Janeiro State displaying higher rates of pesticide expenditure per agricultural worker. These results suggest that pesticide exposure may indeed increase the risk of suicide frequency, especially among agricultural workers.

  9. Development of the Seasonal Migrant Agricultural Worker Stress Scale in Sanliurfa, Southeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Zeynep; Ersin, Fatma; Kirmizitoprak, Evin

    2016-01-01

    Stress is one of the main causes of health problems, especially mental disorders. These health problems cause a significant amount of ability loss and increase cost. It is estimated that by 2020, mental disorders will constitute 15% of the total disease burden, and depression will rank second only after ischemic heart disease. Environmental experiences are paramount in increasing the liability of mental disorders in those who constantly face sustained high levels of stress. The objective of this study was to develop a stress scale for seasonal migrant agricultural workers aged 18 years and older. The sample consisted of 270 randomly selected seasonal migrant agricultural workers. The average age of the participants was 33.1 ± 14, and 50.7% were male. The Cronbach alpha coefficient and test-retest methods were used for reliability analyses. Although the factor analysis was performed for the structure validity of the scale, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient and Bartlett test were used to determine the convenience of the data for the factor analysis. In the reliability analyses, the Cronbach alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .96, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was .81. In the exploratory factor analysis for validity of the scale, four factors were obtained, and the factors represented workplace physical conditions (25.7% of the total variance), workplace psychosocial and economic factors (19.3% of the total variance), workplace health problems (15.2% of the total variance), and school problems (10.1% of the total variance). The four factors explained 70.3% of the total variance. As a result of the expert opinions and analyses, a stress scale with 48 items was developed. The highest score to be obtained from the scale was 144, and the lowest score was 0. The increase in the score indicates the increase in the stress levels. The findings show that the scale is a valid and reliable assessment instrument that can be used in

  10. Effects of Occupational Health and Safety on Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors of Workers Employed in a Private Company in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ulutasdemir, Nilgun; Kilic, Meryem; Zeki, Özge; Begendi, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that inappropriate working conditions and unsafe environments at construction sites, longer working hours, and inadequate workplaces adversely affect the health behaviors of workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of occupational health and safety (OHS) practices on healthy lifestyle behaviors of workers employed at a construction site of a private company in Gaziantep, Turkey. The sampling size of this descriptive study consisted of 400 employees working at the construction site between December 2014 and January 2015. In all, 341 employees still working or participating in the study during the period of this questionnaire study were included in the sampling. Data from the survey were derived from responses to questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, OHS applications, health state, and working conditions, as well as to the questions in on the Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale (HLBS), under direct surveillance. Male workers with a mean age of 30.61 ± 8.68 years constituted the study population. Of the workers, 41.9% had a primary school education. The majority received professional and OHS training (65.7% and 79.2%, respectively). Although 83.9% reported using personal protective equipment (PPE), only 2.1% said they had experienced an occupational accident. Total mean score of HLBS scale was 116.91 ± 25.62 points. Workers who had positive thoughts about their jobs demonstrated healthy lifestyle behaviors (P = .0001). A positive direct correlation was detected between the training the workers received and the use of PPE (P = .0001). In all, 38.1% of the workers reported experiencing work stress at the time of the study. Mean HLBS scores of those experiencing work stress were lower than the scores for workers not experiencing stress (P < .05). Receiving OHS and professional training and using of PPE favorably affect healthy lifestyle behaviors. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Prediction of employer-employee relationships from sociodemographic variables and social values in Brunei public and private sector workers.

    PubMed

    Mundia, Lawrence; Mahalle, Salwa; Matzin, Rohani; Nasir Zakaria, Gamal Abdul; Abdullah, Nor Zaiham Midawati; Abdul Latif, Siti Norhedayah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the sociodemographic variables and social value correlates and predictors of employer-employee relationship problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public and private sector workers of both genders. A quantitative field survey design was used and data were analyzed by correlation and logistic regression. The rationale and justification for using this approach is explained. The main sociodemographic correlates and predictors of employer-employee relationship problems in this study were educational level and the district in which the employee resided and worked. Other correlates, but not necessarily predictors, of employer-employee relationship problems were seeking help from the Bomo (traditional healer); obtaining help from online social networking; and workers with children in the family. The two best and most significant social value correlates and predictors of employer-employee relationship problems included interpersonal communications; and self-regulation and self-direction. Low scorers on the following variables were also associated with high likelihood for possessing employer-employee relationship problems: satisfaction with work achievements; and peace and security, while low scorers on work stress had lower odds of having employer-employee relationship problems. Other significant social value correlates, but not predictors of employer-employee relationship problems were self-presentation; interpersonal trust; peace and security; and general anxiety. Consistent with findings of relevant previous studies conducted elsewhere, there were the variables that correlated with and predicted employer-employee relationship problems in Brunei public and private sector workers. Having identified these, the next step, efforts and priority should be directed at addressing the presenting issues via counseling and psychotherapy with affected employees. Further research is recommended to understand better the problem and its

  12. The Discursive Construction of the "Competent" Learner-Worker: From Key Competencies to "Employability Skills"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    The subjectivity of workers, articulated in terms of the personal attributes required in ongoing conditions of economic change, has been at the forefront of current discussions of generic skills in Australia. This article explores the discursive construction and reconstruction of the "competent" learner-worker from its initial…

  13. The Discursive Construction of the "Competent" Learner-Worker: From Key Competencies to "Employability Skills"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    The subjectivity of workers, articulated in terms of the personal attributes required in ongoing conditions of economic change, has been at the forefront of current discussions of generic skills in Australia. This article explores the discursive construction and reconstruction of the "competent" learner-worker from its initial…

  14. 20 CFR 655.20 - Applications for temporary employment certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Enforcement of Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers) § 655.20 Applications for temporary employment certification...

  15. 20 CFR 655.20 - Applications for temporary employment certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Enforcement of Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers) § 655.20 Applications for temporary employment certification...

  16. Migrant labor in agriculture: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1985-01-01

    The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor.

  17. Absence of t(14;18) chromosome translocation in agricultural workers after short-term exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Matera, Serena; Fago, Lucrezia; Arrabito, Giorgio; Falzone, Luca; Marconi, Andrea; Libra, Massimo; Loreto, Carla

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to pesticides represents a potential health risk for the general population and for agricultural workers in particular. Some researchers observed that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with risk of non‑Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities in NHL. The aim of this study was to detect the effects of pesticides on t(14;18) chromosome translocation in agricultural workers after short-term exposure. Fifty-two workers occupationally exposed to pesticides (fungicides and insecticides) and 52 non-exposed were recruited. The farm workers were on average exposed to pesticides for ~3.7 h a day for 5 years. The frequency of BCL2-IGH t(14;18) translocation in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides was 10% (5 of 52) vs. 8% (4 of 52) in the control group. Overall, these data suggest that no significant association between occupational exposure to pesticides and an increased frequency of the chromosomal translocation BCL2-IGH t(14;18) in farmers was observed. However, further studies with a higher number of subjects exposed to pesticides are necessary to confirm this observation.

  18. Biological monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide exposure among children of agricultural workers in central Washington State.

    PubMed Central

    Loewenherz, C; Fenske, R A; Simcox, N J; Bellamy, G; Kalman, D

    1997-01-01

    Children up to 6 years of age who lived with pesticide applicators were monitored for increased risk of pesticide exposure: 48 pesticide applicator and 14 reference families were recruited from an agricultural region of Washington State in June 1995. A total of 160 spot urine samples were collected from 88 children, including repeated measures 3-7 days apart. Samples were assayed by gas chromatography flame photometric detector for dimethylphosphate metabolites. Dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) was the dominant metabolite. DMTP levels were significantly higher in applicator children than in reference children (p = 0.015), with median concentrations of 0.021 and 0.005 microg/ml, respectively; maximum concentrations were 0.44 and 0.10 microg/ml, respectively. Percentages of detectable samples were 47% for applicator children and 27% for reference children. A marginally significant trend of increasing concentration was observed with decreasing age among applicator children (p = 0.060), and younger children within these families had significantly higher concentrations when compared to their older siblings (p = 0.040). Applicator children living less than 200 feet from an orchard were associated with higher frequency of detectable DMTP levels than nonproximal applicator children (p =0.036). These results indicate that applicator children experienced higher organophosphorus pesticide exposures than did reference children in the same community and that proximity to spraying is an important contributor to such exposures. Trends related to age suggest that child activity is an important variable for exposure. It is unlikely that any of the observed exposures posed a hazard of acute intoxication. This study points to the need for a more detailed understanding of pesticide exposure pathways for children of agricultural workers. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9405329

  19. 20 CFR 655.1305 - Assurances and obligations of H-2A employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1305 Assurances and obligations..., including employment-related health and safety laws; (2) Provide for or secure housing for those workers who...

  20. 20 CFR 655.1305 - Assurances and obligations of H-2A employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1305 Assurances and obligations..., including employment-related health and safety laws; (2) Provide for or secure housing for those workers who...

  1. 20 CFR 655.1305 - Assurances and obligations of H-2A employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1305 Assurances and obligations..., including employment-related health and safety laws; (2) Provide for or secure housing for those workers who...

  2. 20 CFR 655.1305 - Assurances and obligations of H-2A employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1305 Assurances and obligations..., including employment-related health and safety laws; (2) Provide for or secure housing for those workers who...

  3. Evaluation of DNA damage in agricultural workers exposed to pesticides using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Raminderjeet; Kaur, Satbir; Lata, Mukesh

    2011-09-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops, but they pose a potential risk to farmers and environment. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relation between the occupational exposure to various pesticides and the presence of DNA damage. Blood samples of 210 exposed workers (after a day of intense spraying) and 50 control subjects belonging to various districts of Punjab (India) were evaluated using Comet assay. Sixty workers who showed DNA damage were selected for follow up at 5-6 months after the first sampling during a low or null spraying period. Significant differences were found in DNA damage between freshly exposed workers and controls and freshly exposed and followed up cases. There was significant increase in the comet parameters viz. mean comet tail length and frequency of cells showing migration in exposed workers as compared to controls (72.22 ± 20.76 vs. 46.92 ± 8.17, P<0.001; 31.79 vs. 5.77, P<0.001). In the second samples, followed up cases showed significant decrease in frequency of damaged cells as compared to freshly exposed workers of first sampling (P<0.05). The confounding factors such as variable duration of pesticide exposure, age, smoking, drinking and dietary habits etc which were expected to modulate the damage, were instead found to have no significant effect on DNA fragmentation. The evidence of a genetic hazard related to exposure resulting from the intensive use of pesticides stresses the need for educational programs for agricultural workers to reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture.

  4. NONFARM AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IN NORTHWEST LOUISIANA--AREA I--WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING TRAINING PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MONDART, C.L., SR.; AND OTHERS

    AS PART OF A STATEWIDE STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN LOUISIANA, AN INTERVIEW SURVEY OF 233 AGRICULTURAL BUSINESSES AND AGENCIES IN THE 10-PARISH AREA IN THE NORTHWESTERN SECTION WAS CONDUCTED TO (1) IDENTIFY AND CLASSIFY FIRMS WITH EMPLOYEES NEEDING AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES, (2) IDENTIFY AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED FOR ENTRY AND…

  5. A RESEARCH STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL TRAINING NEEDS IN VENTURA COUNTY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RODRIGUES, DONALD F.

    QUESTIONNAIRE RETURNS FROM 103 EMPLOYERS IN AGRICULTURE AND RELATED INDUSTRIES WERE COMBINED WITH 50 INTERVIEWS WITHIN THE SAME GROUP TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT AGRICULTURAL TRAINING NEEDS IN VENTURA COUNTY. MOST FIRMS EMPLOYED FEWER THAN 15 WORKERS ON A PERMANENT BASIS, SUPPLEMENTED BY LARGE MEMBERS OF SEASONAL WORKERS, ESPECIALLY IN THE…

  6. Allergic alveolitis among agricultural workers in eastern Poland: a study of twenty cases.

    PubMed

    Milanowski, J; Dutkiewicz, J; Potoczna, H; Kuś, L; Urbanowicz, B

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the specific agents which caused extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) in the selected group of 20 agricultural workers from eastern Poland. The microbiological analysis of the samples of plant materials or dusts reported by the patients as causing symptoms has been carried out, followed by allergological tests (inhalation challenge, agar-gel precipitation test, inhibition of leukocyte migration, skin test) with extrinsic microbial antigens. It was found that the causative agents of allergic alveolitis in the examined group of patients were mesophilic, non-branching bacteria associated with grain dust, mostly Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans) and Arthrobacter globiformis (each in eight cases). The remaining agents were Alcaligenes faecalis (in two cases), and Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis (in one case each). On the basis of the clinical picture, the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and allergological tests, the diagnosis of the chronic form of the disease was stated in 14 patients and an acute form - in 6 patients. EAA patients demonstrated in the BAL fluid a typical lymphocytic alveolitis both in terms of percentage and absolute number of lymphocytes. Also, the numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly higher in EAA patients.

  7. Interaction of CD14 haplotypes and soluble CD14 on pulmonary function in agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    LeVan, Tricia D; Smith, Lynette M; Heires, Art J; Mikuls, Ted R; Meza, Jane L; Weissenburger-Moser, Lisa A; Romberger, Debra J

    2017-03-16

    Agricultural environments are contaminated with organic dusts containing bacterial components. Chronic inhalation of organic dusts is implicated in respiratory diseases. CD14 is a critical receptor for gram-negative lipopolysaccharide; however, its association with respiratory disease among agricultural workers is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine if serum soluble CD14 (sCD14) levels are associated with lung function among agricultural workers and if this association is modified by genetic variants in CD14. This cross-sectional study included 584 veterans with >2 years of farming experience and that were between the ages of 40 and 80 years. Participants underwent spirometry and were genotyped for four tagging CD14 polymorphisms (CD14/-2838, rs2569193; CD14/-1720, rs2915863; CD14/-651, rs5744455; and CD14/-260, rs2569190). Serum sCD14 was assayed by ELISA. Subjects were 98% white males with a mean age 64.5 years. High soluble CD14 levels (> median sCD14) were associated decreased lung function (FEV1/FVC, p = 0.011; % predicted FEV1, p = 0.03). When stratified by COPD (yes/no) and smoking status (ever/never), high sCD14 levels (> median sCD14) were associated with low lung function among ever smokers with COPD (% predicted FEV1, padj = 0.0008; FEV1/FVC, padj = 0.0002). A similar trend was observed for never smokers with COPD; however, results did not reach statistical significance due to small sample size. There was a significant sCD14 x COPD/smoking interaction with lung function (% predicted FEV1, pinter = 0.0498; FEV1/FVC, pinter = 0.011). Regression models were adjusted for age, body mass index, education, sex, race and years worked on a farm. No association was found between CD14 polymorphisms/haplotypes (CD14/-2838; CD14/-1720; CD14/-651; CD14/-260) and sCD14 levels. The final model included the variables sCD14 and haplotypes and a haplotype x sCD14 interaction term. Individuals with the GTTG haplotype (CD14

  8. 78 FR 32464 - Amantea Nonwovens, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment Professionals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ..., Cincinnati, Ohio. The workers are engaged in activities related to the production of nonwoven diaper... shift in the production of nonwoven diaper components to China. Based on these findings, the...

  9. Organization of work in the agricultural, forestry, and fishing sector in the US southeast: implications for immigrant workers' occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Lipscomb, Hester J; Casanova, Vanessa; Neis, Barbara; Fraser, Clermont; Monaghan, Paul; Vallejos, Quirina M

    2013-08-01

    There is widespread agreement that work organization is an important element of occupational safety and health, but the health effects of many aspects of work organization are likely to vary considerably across different sectors of work and geographies. We examined existing employment policies and work organization-related research relevant specifically to immigrant workers in the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing (AgFF) Sector of the US workforce focusing, when possible, on the southeastern US. A number of specific aspects of work organization within AgFF subsectors have been described, but most of this literature exists outside the purview of occupational health. There are few studies that directly examine how attributes of work organization relevant to the AgFF Sector affect workers', much less immigrant workers', occupational health exposures and outcomes. In contrast to the broader literature, research linking occupational health outcomes to work organization in the AgFF Sector is limited and weak. A systematic program of research and intervention is needed to develop strategies that eliminate or substantially mitigate the deleterious health effects of occupational exposures whose origins likely lie in the organization of AgFF work. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Time courses and variability of pyrethroid biomarkers of exposure in a group of agricultural workers in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ratelle, Mylène; Côté, Jonathan; Bouchard, Michèle

    2016-07-01

    Cypermethrin is a pyrethroid pesticide widely used in agriculture. Exposure can be assessed through biomonitoring. However, interpretation of results requires a proper knowledge of the toxicokinetics of the exposure biomarkers of interest. This study aimed at characterizing typical urinary time courses of biomarkers of exposure to cypermethrin in farm workers in Quebec following an exposure episode, distribution of values and variability, and predictors of elevated excretion levels. Workers provided total voids before seasonal spraying and during three consecutive days following an exposure period. Personal factors, professional tasks, and exposure conditions were documented by questionnaire. The urinary metabolites cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) were quantified. Time courses showed significant variations of metabolite levels through time, although a clear profile typical of an acute exposure episode was not observed for several workers. However, maximum urinary levels in most exposed workers were generally reached 18-32 h following the onset of an exposure episode. Group comparison showed that applicators had higher excretions than workers performing inspection, harvest, or weeding. Time-dependent variations in excretions indicate the importance of serial urinary collections for a proper interpretation of a worker exposure pattern. In the context of group comparison, the alternative based on observed time courses and peak levels in most exposed workers would be the collection of urine samples prior to an exposure episode, at the end-of-shift after exposure onset and following morning void. When spot samples can only be collected for population exposure assessment, Monte Carlo simulations showed that iterative random selection of single urinary values from individual time courses observed in this study to predict distribution of values in the group of workers converged to

  11. Assessing the Animal Science Technical Skills Needed by Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates for Employment in the Animal Industries: A Modified Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2011-01-01

    Career and technical education courses, such as agricultural education, exist, in part, to assist students in acquiring the competencies needed to achieve employability. However, whether the current secondary agricultural education curriculum meets the needs of industry leaders who employ high school graduates of agricultural education programs is…

  12. 29 CFR 780.106 - Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment in âprimaryâ agriculture is farming regardless... for âprimaryâ Agriculture Generally § 780.106 Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed. When an employee is engaged in direct farming...

  13. 29 CFR 780.106 - Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment in âprimaryâ agriculture is farming regardless... for âprimaryâ Agriculture Generally § 780.106 Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed. When an employee is engaged in direct farming...

  14. 29 CFR 780.106 - Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employment in âprimaryâ agriculture is farming regardless... for âprimaryâ Agriculture Generally § 780.106 Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed. When an employee is engaged in direct farming...

  15. 29 CFR 780.106 - Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment in âprimaryâ agriculture is farming regardless... for âprimaryâ Agriculture Generally § 780.106 Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed. When an employee is engaged in direct farming...

  16. 29 CFR 780.106 - Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment in âprimaryâ agriculture is farming regardless... for âprimaryâ Agriculture Generally § 780.106 Employment in “primary” agriculture is farming regardless of why or where work is performed. When an employee is engaged in direct farming...

  17. NONFARM AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IN NORTHEAST LOUISIANA--AREA II--WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING TRAINING PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MONDART, C.L., SR.; AND OTHERS

    AS PART OF A STATEWIDE STUDY OF NONFARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN LOUISIANA, 480 FIRMS IN 14 PARISHES WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, THE AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED, AND JOB CHARACTERISTICS. OF THE 6,087 EMPLOYEES, 3,119 NEEDED AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES IN 597 DIFFERENT JOB TITLES. NEARLY 60 PERCENT OF THE EMPLOYEES…

  18. A STUDY OF EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES AND TRAINING NEEDS IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN OKLAHOMA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEVENSON, WILLIAM W.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO IDENTIFY PRESENT AND EMERGING OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS, THE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, TURNOVER AND JOB OPPORTUNITIES, NEED FOR AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES, BEGINNING AND MAXIMUM SALARIES, AGE FOR JOB ENTRY EDUCATION, AND SO FORTH. THERE WERE 1,879 MAJOR BUSINESSES CONSIDERED TO BE AGRICULTURALLY RELATED, AND 719…

  19. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.

  20. Decontamination Supplies Under the Worker Protection Standard

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Employers at agricultural establishments must make sure that decontamination supplies for washing off pesticides and pesticide residues are available to workers and handlers. Learn about specific requirements for the type and location of these supplies.

  1. Lateralized Basal Ganglia Vulnerability to Pesticide Exposure in Asymptomatic Agricultural Workers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mechelle M; Sterling, Nicholas W; Du, Guangwei; Lee, Eun-Young; Shyu, Grace; Goldenberg, Michael; Allen, Thomas; Stetter, Christy; Kong, Lan; Amy Snipes, Shedra; Jones, Byron C; Chen, Honglei; Mailman, Richard B; Huang, Xuemei

    2017-09-01

    Pesticide exposure is linked to Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder marked by dopamine cell loss in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia (BG) that often presents asymmetrically. We previously reported that pesticide-exposed agricultural workers (AW) have nigral diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) changes. The current study sought to confirm this finding, and explore its hemisphere and regional specificity within BG structures using an independent sample population. Pesticide exposure history, standard neurological exam, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (T1/T2-weighted and DTI), and [123I]ioflupane SPECT images (to quantify striatal dopamine transporters) were obtained from 20 AW with chronic pesticide exposure and 11 controls. Based on median cumulative days of pesticide exposure, AW were subdivided into high (AWHi, n = 10) and low (AWLo, n = 10) exposure groups. BG (nigra, putamen, caudate, and globus pallidus [GP]) fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and striatal [123I]ioflupane binding in each hemisphere were quantified, and compared across exposure groups using analysis of variance. Left, but not right, nigral and GP FA were significantly lower in AW compared with controls (p's < .029). None of the striatal (putamen and caudate) DTI or [123I]ioflupane binding measurements differed between AW and controls. Subgroup analyses indicated that significant left nigral and GP DTI changes were present only in the AWHi (p ≤ .037) but not the AWLo subgroup. AW, especially those with higher pesticide exposure history, demonstrate lateralized microstructural changes in the nigra and GP, whereas striatal areas appear relatively unaffected. Future studies should elucidate how environmental toxicants cause differential lateralized- and regionally specific brain vulnerability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  2. Dental utilization among Hispanic adults in agricultural worker families in California's Central Valley.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Tracy L; Gansky, Stuart A; Shain, Sara G; Weintraub, Jane A

    2010-01-01

    To examine past-year dental visits among underserved, Hispanic farm-worker families using the Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization, which posits that predisposing, enabling, and need factors influence care-seeking behavior. Oral health survey and clinical data were collected in 2006-2007 from families in Mendota, California (Fresno County) as part of a larger, population-based study. Generalized estimating equation logit regression assessed effects of factors on having a dental visit among adults (N = 326). Predisposing variables included sociodemographic characteristics, days worked in agriculture, self-rated health status, and dental beliefs. Enabling factors included resources to obtain services (dental insurance, income, acculturation level, regular dental care source). Need measures included perceived need for care and reported symptoms, along with clinically determined untreated caries and bleeding on probing. Only 34% of adults had a past-year dental visit, despite 44% reporting a regular dental care source. Most (66%) lacked dental insurance, and nearly half (46%) had untreated caries. Most (86%) perceived having current needs, and on average, reported a mean of 4.2 dental symptoms (of 12 queried). Regression analyses indicated those with more symptoms were less likely to have a past-year dental visit. Those who would ask a dentist for advice and had a regular dental care source were more likely to have a past-year dental visit. The final model included predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Despite low utilization and prevalent symptoms, having a regular source of care helps break this pattern and should be facilitated.

  3. Pesticide Exposure Alters Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Levels in Mexican Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Recio, Rogelio; Ocampo-Gómez, Guadalupe; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Borja-Aburto, Victor; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Uribe, Marisela; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Cebrián, Mariano E.

    2005-01-01

    Organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) are suspected of altering reproductive function by reducing brain acetylcholinesterase activity and monoamine levels, thus impairing hypothalamic and/or pituitary endocrine functions and gonadal processes. Our objective was to evaluate in a longitudinal study the association between OP exposure and serum levels of pituitary and sex hormones. Urinary OP metabolite levels were measured by gas–liquid chromatography, and serum pituitary and sex hormone levels by enzymatic immunoassay and radioimmunoassay in 64 men. A total of 147 urine and blood samples were analyzed for each parameter. More than 80% of the participants had at least one OP metabolite in their urine samples. The most frequent metabolite found was diethylthiophosphate (DETP; 55%), followed by diethylphosphate (DEP; 46%), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP; 32%), and dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP; 31%). However, the metabolites detected at higher concentrations were DMTP, DEP, DMDTP, and dimethylphosphate. There was a high proportion of individuals with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations outside the range of normality (48%). The average FSH serum levels were higher during the heavy pesticide spraying season. However, a multivariate analysis of data collected in all periods showed that serum FSH levels were negatively associated with urinary concentrations of both DMTP and DMDTP, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH) was negatively associated with DMTP. We observed no significant associations between estradiol or testosterone serum levels with OP metabolites. The hormonal disruption in agricultural workers presented here, together with results from experimental animal studies, suggests that OP exposure disrupts the hypothalamic–pituitary endocrine function and also indicates that FSH and LH are the hormones most affected. PMID:16140621

  4. Modulatory role of GSTM1 null genotype on the frequency of micronuclei in pesticide-exposed agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Savranoglu, Seda; Atmaca, Pelin; Terzioglu, Gulsum; Sen, Alaattin; Arslan, Sevki

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the extent of genotoxic risk and the association between null GSTM1/GSTT1 and GSTP1 Ile105Val variants and cellular DNA damage, as measured by micronucleus (MN) assay in a group of agricultural workers from Denizli, Turkey. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 116 subjects, including 58 workers who were occupationally exposed to pesticides and 58 healthy unexposed controls. The MN frequencies of each individual were assessed by cytokinesis-blocked micronuclei assays on lymphocytes. Genotypes for different GST variants were determined using polymerase chain reaction-based methods. A significant 3.4-fold increase in MN frequency was observed in workers compared with the controls (p < 0.001). Among the GST genotypes, only the GSTM1 null genotype was found to be significantly associated with an increased MN frequency in workers (p = 0.01). Individuals with a concomitant null GSTM1/GSTT1 genotype demonstrated a significant (p = 0.01) increase in MN frequency compared with those with functional isozymes in the exposed worker group. The association of the GSTM1 null genotype with higher MN frequency suggests that it may be a modifier of genotoxic risk in individuals exposed to pesticides and may thus be a candidate susceptibility biomarker for human biomonitoring studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Educational Inequalities in Exit from Paid Employment among Dutch Workers: The Influence of Health, Lifestyle and Work

    PubMed Central

    Robroek, Suzan J. W.; Rongen, Anne; Arts, Coos H.; Otten, Ferdy W. H.; Burdorf, Alex; Schuring, Merel

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with lower socioeconomic status are at increased risk of involuntary exit from paid employment. To give sound advice for primary prevention in the workforce, insight is needed into the role of mediating factors between socioeconomic status and labour force participation. Therefore, it is aimed to investigate the influence of health status, lifestyle-related factors and work characteristics on educational differences in exit from paid employment. Methods 14,708 Dutch employees participated in a ten-year follow-up study during 1999–2008. At baseline, education, self-perceived health, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, sports, BMI) and psychosocial (demands, control, rewards) and physical work characteristics were measured by questionnaire. Employment status was ascertained monthly based on tax records. The relation between education, health, lifestyle, work-characteristics and exit from paid employment through disability benefits, unemployment, early retirement and economic inactivity was investigated by competing risks regression analyses. The mediating effects of these factors on educational differences in exit from paid employment were tested using a stepwise approach. Results Lower educated workers were more likely to exit paid employment through disability benefits (SHR:1.84), unemployment (SHR:1.74), and economic inactivity (SHR:1.53) but not due to early retirement (SHR:0.92). Poor or moderate health, an unhealthy lifestyle, and unfavourable work characteristics were associated with disability benefits and unemployment, and an unhealthy lifestyle with economic inactivity. Educational differences in disability benefits were explained for 40% by health, 31% by lifestyle, and 12% by work characteristics. For economic inactivity and unemployment, up to 14% and 21% of the educational differences could be explained, particularly by lifestyle-related factors. Conclusions There are educational differences in exit from paid employment, which are

  6. Educational Inequalities in Exit from Paid Employment among Dutch Workers: The Influence of Health, Lifestyle and Work.

    PubMed

    Robroek, Suzan J W; Rongen, Anne; Arts, Coos H; Otten, Ferdy W H; Burdorf, Alex; Schuring, Merel

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with lower socioeconomic status are at increased risk of involuntary exit from paid employment. To give sound advice for primary prevention in the workforce, insight is needed into the role of mediating factors between socioeconomic status and labour force participation. Therefore, it is aimed to investigate the influence of health status, lifestyle-related factors and work characteristics on educational differences in exit from paid employment. 14,708 Dutch employees participated in a ten-year follow-up study during 1999-2008. At baseline, education, self-perceived health, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, sports, BMI) and psychosocial (demands, control, rewards) and physical work characteristics were measured by questionnaire. Employment status was ascertained monthly based on tax records. The relation between education, health, lifestyle, work-characteristics and exit from paid employment through disability benefits, unemployment, early retirement and economic inactivity was investigated by competing risks regression analyses. The mediating effects of these factors on educational differences in exit from paid employment were tested using a stepwise approach. Lower educated workers were more likely to exit paid employment through disability benefits (SHR:1.84), unemployment (SHR:1.74), and economic inactivity (SHR:1.53) but not due to early retirement (SHR:0.92). Poor or moderate health, an unhealthy lifestyle, and unfavourable work characteristics were associated with disability benefits and unemployment, and an unhealthy lifestyle with economic inactivity. Educational differences in disability benefits were explained for 40% by health, 31% by lifestyle, and 12% by work characteristics. For economic inactivity and unemployment, up to 14% and 21% of the educational differences could be explained, particularly by lifestyle-related factors. There are educational differences in exit from paid employment, which are partly mediated by health, lifestyle and work

  7. Skills Required by Agricultural Education Students of Colleges of Education for Employment in Compterized Office of Agribusiness Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugwuoke, Cajethan Uche; Onah, Benardine Ifeoma

    2015-01-01

    One of the major concerns of employers of labour in this information age is the recruitment of employees with requisite computerized office skills to fit into the various organization's jobs and positions. In Agricultural education, acquisition of these computerized office skills do not only depends on whether one is able to fulfill the paper…

  8. 26 CFR 301.6109-2 - Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... collect employer identification numbers for purposes of the Food Stamp Act of 1977. 301.6109-2 Section 301... administration of section 9 of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2018) (relating to the determination of the qualifications of applicants under the Food Stamp Act). (b) Limited purpose. The Secretary of Agriculture may...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6109-2 - Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... collect employer identification numbers for purposes of the Food Stamp Act of 1977. 301.6109-2 Section 301... administration of section 9 of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2018) (relating to the determination of the qualifications of applicants under the Food Stamp Act). (b) Limited purpose. The Secretary of Agriculture may...

  10. 26 CFR 301.6109-2 - Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... collect employer identification numbers for purposes of the Food Stamp Act of 1977. 301.6109-2 Section 301... administration of section 9 of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2018) (relating to the determination of the qualifications of applicants under the Food Stamp Act). (b) Limited purpose. The Secretary of Agriculture may...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6109-2 - Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... collect employer identification numbers for purposes of the Food Stamp Act of 1977. 301.6109-2 Section 301... administration of section 9 of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2018) (relating to the determination of the qualifications of applicants under the Food Stamp Act). (b) Limited purpose. The Secretary of Agriculture may...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6109-2 - Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... collect employer identification numbers for purposes of the Food Stamp Act of 1977. 301.6109-2 Section 301... administration of section 9 of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2018) (relating to the determination of the qualifications of applicants under the Food Stamp Act). (b) Limited purpose. The Secretary of Agriculture may...

  13. 76 FR 73508 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB61 Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non... (Department) is delaying the effective date of the Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-agricultural..., or enforce the Wage Rule before January 1, 2012. The Wage Rule revised the methodology by which...

  14. Investigation of mortality from cancer and other causes of death among workers employed at an east Texas chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.H.; Beaumont, J.J.; Waxweiler, R.J.; Halperin, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    The cause-specific mortality of 2,510 males employed at an east Texas chemical plant was examined in a historical prospective study to evaluate a suspected increase in deaths from multiple myeloma and brain cancer. Potential exposures from chemicals, either used in manufacturing processes or produced during the study period 1952-1977, included the fuel additive tetraethyl lead, ethylene dibromide and dichloride, inorganic lead, and vinyl chloride monomer. Overall mortality for all workers (156 observed vs. 211.14 expected) and for workers first employed between 1952 and 1959 (131 observed vs. 167.33 expected) when tetraethyl lead was the single major product was lower than expected when compared to the United States general population. There were no significant increases in mortality from malignancies or other causes of death. The deficits may be due to the small number of total deaths, and the low power for detecting excess risk of mortality from multiple myeloma (Z1-beta = 27, alpha = .05), brain cancer (Z1-beta = 31, alpha = .05), or other rare causes of death; lack of complete workplace exposure data for production workers; and the absence of historical measurements on the extent of environmental exposure to tetraethyl lead and other chemicals.

  15. Cancer incidence in cohorts of workers in the rubber manufacturing industry first employed since 1975 in the UK and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Boniol, M; Koechlin, A; Sorahan, T; Jakobsson, K; Boyle, P

    2017-06-01

    Increased cancer risks have been reported among workers in the rubber manufacturing industry employed before the 1960s, but it is unclear for workers hired subsequently. The present study focused on cancer incidence among rubber workers first employed after 1975 in Sweden and the UK. Two cohorts of rubber workers employed for at least 1 year were analysed. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), based on country-specific and period-specific incidence rates, were analysed for all cancers combined (except non-melanoma skin), bladder, lung, stomach cancer, leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Exploratory analyses were conducted for other cancers with a minimum of 10 cases in both genders combined. 16 026 individuals (12 441 men; 3585 women) contributed to 397 975 person-years of observation, with 846 cancers observed overall (437 in the UK, 409 in Sweden). No statistically significant increased risk was observed for any site of cancer. A reduced risk was evident for all cancers combined (SIR=0.83, 95% CI (0.74 to 0.92)), lung cancer (SIR=0.74, 95% CI (0.59 to 0.93)), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR=0.67, 95% CI (0.45 to 1.00)) and prostate cancer (SIR=0.77, 95% CI (0.64 to 0.92)). For stomach cancer and multiple myeloma, SIRs were 0.93 (95% CI (0.61 to 1.43)) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.44 to 1.91), respectively. No increased risk of bladder cancer was observed (SIR=0.88, 95% CI (0.61 to 1.28)). No significantly increased risk of cancer incidence was observed in the combined cohort of rubber workers first employed since 1975. Continued surveillance of the present cohorts is required to confirm absence of long-term risk and confirmatory findings from other cohorts would be important. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. B-WEST Regional Workforce Training Center. Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades. Employer Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Community Coll., OR.

    This guide, which was developed during the B-WEST (Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades) project, includes materials for use in training and providing on-site consultations to contractors, managers, supervisors, office/technical staff, and others in two areas: diversity in the workplace and sexual harassment in the workplace. Part 1, which…

  17. Reasons for Job Loss: A Review of Employment Termination Studies of Mentally Retarded Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzberg, Charles L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A review of 13 studies examining job loss in mentally retarded workers found reasons for loss broadly distributed across both social and nonsocial domains. Factors included job responsibility (poor attendance and punctuality), task production (inadequate quality and work rate), social skill deficits, and personal-social inadequacies. Training…

  18. Reasons for Job Loss: A Review of Employment Termination Studies of Mentally Retarded Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzberg, Charles L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A review of 13 studies examining job loss in mentally retarded workers found reasons for loss broadly distributed across both social and nonsocial domains. Factors included job responsibility (poor attendance and punctuality), task production (inadequate quality and work rate), social skill deficits, and personal-social inadequacies. Training…

  19. Addressing Needs of Employers, Older Workers, and Retirees: An Educational Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrist, Kathleen A.; Tell, Brian; Byrd, Vicki; Perkins, Susie

    2007-01-01

    The Retirement Research Foundation of Chicago supported a collaborative to collect demographic data about working and aging, conduct a survey of older job seekers, and interview businesses in the region to assess their awareness and attitudes about mature workers. The 2005 project was titled the 60 + Success Project. A regional task force oversaw…

  20. Occupational health risks among the workers employed in leather tanneries at Kanpur

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Subodh Kumar; Pandey, Amit; Tripathi, Sachin

    2008-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, a random sample of 197 male workers drawn from different sections of 10 leather tanneries in Kanpur were selected for the assessment of health risks. A control group comprising of 117 male subjects belonging to a similar age group and socioeconomic strata, who never had any occupational exposure in the leather tanneries, were also examined for the comparison purpose. The findings revealed a significantly higher prevalence of morbidity among the exposed workers in contrast to that observed in the controls (40.1% vs. 19.6%). The respiratory diseases (16.7%) were mainly responsible for a higher morbidity among the exposed workers whereas the gastrointestinal tract problems were predominant in the control group. The urinary and blood samples collected from the exposed group showed significantly higher levels of chromium, thereby reflecting the body burden of Cr in the exposed workers as a result of a high concentration of environmental Cr at the work place. PMID:20040972