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Sample records for agricultural workers housing

  1. Housing for Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J. W.; And Others

    Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…

  2. Young Agricultural Workers in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Michele Gonzalez; Kurre, Laura

    This report examines the extent to which young people work in California agriculture and describes work-related hazards and injuries among young agricultural workers. Data were gathered through a literature review; discussion groups with parents, community groups, and English-as-a-second-language students in the San Joaquin Valley; surveys of 295…

  3. Affective Skills of Selected Agricultural Workers and Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Gregory C.; Stewart, Bob R.

    1982-01-01

    Significant differences exist between agribusiness workers and agricultural production workers in Missouri in the affective work skills they demonstrate. Significant differences also appear between agricultural supervisors and workers. (SK)

  4. 45 CFR 1626.11 - H-2 agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false H-2 agricultural workers. 1626.11 Section 1626.11... ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural workers. (a) Nonimmigrant agricultural workers admitted under the provisions of 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(h)(ii), commonly called H-2 workers, may...

  5. Foreign and Undocumented Workers in California Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Edward; Espenshade, Thomas J.

    The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 contains controversial provisions to allow temporary "replenishment" farmworkers to enter the United States to harvest perishable crops. This paper describes the role of legal and illegal foreign workers in California agriculture in relation to these provisions and the assumptions on which they rest.…

  6. 1. VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 502 ASKEW AVE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 502 ASKEW AVE. HOUSE IS 1 1/2 STORY, 3 BAY SIDE GABLE WITH REAR KITCHEN ELL AND PORCH EXTENDING FROM FRONT. LOCKWOOD GREENE ENGINEERS BUILT THIS AND 128 OTHER NEW HOUSES FOR NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILLS IN 1923-1924. THE PREEXISTING MILL VILLAGE NEEDED TO BE EXPANDED TO ACCOMODATE WORKERS FOR THEIR NEW STARK MILL IN HOGANSVILLE. THIS HOUSE WAS BUILT WITH INDOOR PLUMBING, AND ELECTRICITY AT A COST OF APPROXIMATELY $430 PER ROOM. - 502 Askew Avenue (House), 502 Askew Avenue, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  7. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements. PMID:26237715

  8. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements.

  9. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL WORKER HOUSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL WORKER HOUSES ALONG AVENUES G, H, I AND J AND MORGAN ROAD (BOTTOM, RUNNING LEFT TO RIGHT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  10. The energy expenditure of Iranian agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Brun, T A; Geissler, C A; Mirbagheri, I; Hormozdiary, H; Bastani, J; Hedayat, H

    1979-10-01

    The energy cost of agricultural and standard activities and the daily energy expenditure of male agricultural workers were measured during different seasons in Iranian villages to assess the validity of past and present Food and Agricultural Organization recommended energy allowances for that population. Studies included low income farmers in a village representative of those around the central desert where harvesting takes place under conditions of extreme summer heat. Measurements were also made during the Moslem fasting period when no food may be eaten between dawn and dusk. Energy cost of typical activities was measured by indirect calorimetry using the Max-Planck respirometer and daily energy expenditure was assessed using these figures combined with a diary of activities throughout the 24-hr period. Results of individual activity values are compared with other published figures. Comparison of daily energy expenditure of fasting subjects and nonfasting after Ramazan showed no significant difference. No significant difference was found between values of standardized activities at high summer temperatures and moderate temperatures. Mean values of daily energy expenditure during winter when activity is low are around 2600 kcal/day and for the other seasons of high activity 3400 kcal/day. These figures suggest that past and present Food and Agricultural Organization standards are low for this population. PMID:484535

  11. Respiratory disease in agricultural workers: mortality and morbidity statistics.

    PubMed

    Greskevitch, Mark; Kullman, Greg; Bang, Ki Moon; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2007-01-01

    To quantify the respiratory disease burden among agricultural workers, we examined the 1988-1998 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) "Multiple Cause of Death Data" and the 1988-1994 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (NHANES III). Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were determined for 11 respiratory conditions among 6 agricultural groups: crop farm workers, livestock farm workers, farm managers, landscape and horticultural workers, forestry workers, and fishery workers. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were determined for 12 respiratory conditions among 3 agricultural groups: farm workers, farm managers, and other agricultural workers. Disease categories groups were based on the 9th International Classification of Diseases and the agricultural groups on the NCHS or NHANES III industry and occupation codes, respectively. Crop farm workers and livestock farm workers had significantly elevated mortality for several respiratory conditions, with mortality for hypersensitivity pneumonitis being 10 and 50 times higher than expected. Landscape and horticultural workers had significantly elevated mortality for abscess of the lung and mediastinum and chronic airways obstruction. Forestry workers had significantly elevated mortality for pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic airways obstruction, and pneumonia. Prevalence of wheeze was elevated for female farm workers, shortness of breath was elevated for farm workers who had ever smoked, and hay fever was elevated for black, non-Hispanic farm workers. Prevalence of asthma was elevated for other agricultural workers who had ever smoked. Farm workers had a PR of 173 for obstructive respiratory abnormality. Continued improvement in occupational health surveillance systems for agriculture is essential to help guide prevention efforts for respiratory disease.

  12. Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume III. Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, David; And Others

    This training manual, the third volume in a four-volume series of curriculum guides for use in training Peace Corps agricultural development workers, deals with crops. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the crops component of the agricultural development worker training series. Included in the second…

  13. Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume II. Extension Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Peter; And Others

    This training manual, the second volume in a four-volume series of curriculum guides for use in training Peace Corps agricultural development workers, deals with extension skills. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the extension skills component of the agricultural development worker training series.…

  14. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 107 GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 107 GREEN STREET HOUSE IS A WOOD-FRAME DUPLEX WITH A PYRAMIDAL ROOF, KITCHEN ELL IN REAR, AND A PORCH EXTENDING FROM THE FRONT. NOTE 105 GREEN STREET TO RIGHT. THESE DWELLINGS WERE CONSTRUCTED BY HOGANSVILLE MANUFACTURING COMPANY c. 1900. THE MILL WAS LOCATED ON THE OTHER SIDE OF GREEN STREET UNTIL IT WAS DEMOLISHED IN THE 1970S. CURRENTLY THE SITE IS AN EMPTY LOT SURROUNDED BY A FENCE. - 107 Green Street (House), 107 Green Street, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  15. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 109 GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 109 GREEN STREET. HOUSE IS 1 1/2 STORY WITH A CENTER CHIMNEY, KITCHEN ELL IN REAR, AND PORCH EXTENDING FROM THE FRONT. THIS DWELLING WAS CONSTRUCTED BY THE HOGANSVILLE MANUFACTURING COMPANY c. 1900. THE HOGANSVILLE MILL WAS LOCATED ON THE OTHER SIDE OF GREEN STREET UNTIL IT WAS DEMOLISHED IN THE 1970S. CURRENTLY THE SITE IS AN EMPTY LOT SURROUNDED BY A FENCE. - 109 Green Street (House), 109 Green Street, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  16. Housing Seasonal Workers for the Minnesota Processed Vegetable Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziebarth, Ann

    2006-01-01

    The place where we live and work is a reflection of a complex set of economic conditions and social relationships. Very little information is available regarding housing for Minnesota's migrant workers. It is estimated that approximately 20,000 people migrate to Minnesota each summer to work in the production and processing of green peas and sweet…

  17. The impact of biotechnology on agricultural worker safety and health.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M

    2002-08-01

    Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here. PMID:12363179

  18. The impact of biotechnology on agricultural worker safety and health.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M

    2002-08-01

    Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here.

  19. Agricultural health and safety: incorporating the worker perspective.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Amy K; Augustave, Wilson

    2010-07-01

    This commentary offers a worker's perspective on agricultural health and safety and describes (1) the historical exemption of agriculture from regulatory oversight and barriers encountered due to lack of regulations and poor enforcement of the existing standards; (2) the effect of immigration status on worker protections; and (3) the basic desire for economic survival and how this impacts worker health and safety. The commentary describes two models to reduce hazards at work that illustrate how workers' perspectives can be incorporated successfully at the policy level and during the intervention development process and puts forth recommendations for employers, researchers, and funding agencies to facilitate the integration of workers' perspectives into occupational health and safety in agriculture. Ultimately, improved worker protection requires systemic policy and regulatory changes as well as strong enforcement of existing regulations. This commentary summarizes the presentation, "Ground View: Perspectives of Hired Workers," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. PMID:20665305

  20. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral performance in agricultural and non-agricultural Hispanic workers.

    PubMed

    Rothlein, Joan; Rohlman, Diane; Lasarev, Michael; Phillips, Jackie; Muniz, Juan; McCauley, Linda

    2006-05-01

    Our understanding of the health risks of farmworkers exposed to pesticides in their work and home environments is rapidly increasing, although studies designed to examine the possible neurobehavioral effects of low-level chronic pesticide exposure are limited. We measured dialkyl phosphate urinary metabolite levels, collected environmental dust samples from a subset of homes, obtained information on work practices, and conducted neurobehavioral tests on a sample of farmworkers in Oregon. Significant correlations between urinary methyl metabolite levels and total methyl organophosphate (azinphos-methyl, phosmet, malathion) house dust levels were observed. We found the neurobehavioral performance of Hispanic immigrant farmworkers to be lower than that observed in a nonagricultural Hispanic immigrant population, and within the sample of agricultural workers there was a positive correlation between urinary organophosphate metabolite levels and poorer performance on some neurobehavioral tests. These findings add to an increasing body of evidence of the association between low levels of pesticide exposure and deficits in neurobehavioral performance. PMID:16675422

  1. Agricultural Extension Workers' Roles in Canada and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeshewalul, Ayele; Griffith, William S.

    1984-01-01

    This research examined the effects of government and the university organizational models and of performing regulatory functions on American and Canadian agricultural extension workers' role perception and role performance. (Author/SSH)

  2. MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JORGENSON, JANET M.; AND OTHERS

    FIELD STUDIES WERE CONDUCTED IN 1960 IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS AND IN IOWA TO AUGMENT INFORMATION ON MIGRATORY WORKERS. FACULTY-STUDENT TEAM FIELD TRIPS FOUND MANY FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN PROVIDING A CONSTRUCTIVE APPROACH TO THE PROBLEMS OF THE MIGRANT WORKER. CHILDREN OF THE MIGRANTS ARE NOT GETTING THE EDUCATION THEY NEED TO BREAK…

  3. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 404.1016 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers...

  4. Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume IV. Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Neil; And Others

    This training manual, the last volume in a four-volume series for use in training Peace Corps workers, deals with livestock. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the livestock component of the agricultural development worker training course. Included in the second chapter are lesson plans covering the…

  5. Mexican Workers and U.S. Agriculture: The Revolving Door.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Discusses agriculture and farming factors affecting immigration and integration policies. Examines seasonality, wages, and guest workers; the Immigration Reform and Control Act; and the search for seasonal workers. Data suggest that first generation immigrants age out of seasonal farm work with few skills to enable them to climb any job ladder,…

  6. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers lawfully admitted to the United States on a temporary basis to do farm work is not covered as employment. The excluded work includes any services connected with farm operations....

  7. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers lawfully admitted to the United States on a temporary basis to do farm work is not covered as employment. The excluded work includes any services connected with farm operations....

  8. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers lawfully admitted to the United States on a temporary basis to do farm work is not covered as employment. The excluded work includes any services connected with farm operations....

  9. 20 CFR 404.1016 - Foreign agricultural workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers lawfully admitted to the United States on a temporary basis to do farm work is not covered as employment. The excluded work includes any services connected with farm operations....

  10. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  11. [The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in agricultural workers].

    PubMed

    Komleva, N E; Spirin, V F; Trubetskov, A D; Zaikina, I V

    2012-01-01

    Among agricultural workers is common gastroesophageal reflux disease. On a professional factors affecting agricultural labor (physical activity, weight lifting, carrying heavy loads, frequent and/or long slopes). These factors contribute to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease and severe course.

  12. 29 CFR 500.135 - Certificate of housing inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Housing... this section, a facility or real property to be used for housing a migrant agricultural worker...

  13. Migrant Workers in Agriculture: A View from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Daniell, William

    2016-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the global movement of workers during the last few decades. As Thailand has developed rapidly over the past 20 years, it has attracted laborers (both authorized and unauthorized) from the neighboring countries of Myanmar, People's Democratic Republic of Lao (Lao PDR), and Cambodia. Given that agriculture has been Thailand's most important industry, its continued growth has been dependent on migrant workers. Both crop agriculture and animal-production agriculture have employed migrant labor. Migrants have been hired to plant, weed, fertilize, spray pesticides, and harvest crops such as rice, corn, sugar cane, and cassava. They have worked at rubber and coffee plantations, as well as in the production of ornamental crops. Also, migrants have labored on pig, beef, and duck farms. There have been numerous documented health problems among migrant workers, including acute diarrhea, malaria, and fever of unknown causes. Occupational illness and injury have been a significant concern, and there has been limited health and safety training. This article reviewed the demographic changes in Thailand, studied the agricultural crops and animal production that are dependent on migrant labor, discussed the health status and safety challenges pertaining to migrant workers in agriculture, and described several recommendations. Among the recommendations, the conclusions of this study have suggested that addressing the cost for health care and solutions to health care access for migrant labor are needed. PMID:26479089

  14. A Study of New Mexico Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrego, John G.; And Others

    The intent of this report, as stated, is to bring about an awareness of the kinds of problems faced by migrant agricultural workers (Mexican Americans and Navajos), by farmers, and by agencies offering services to these migrants in New Mexico. An overview of the national and state migrant situation is presented, as well as case studies of various…

  15. Barriers to Participatory Extension in Egypt: Agricultural Workers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…

  16. 78 FR 45167 - Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture; Pesticides, Agricultural Worker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...This document notifies the public as required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) that the EPA Administrator has forwarded to the Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) a draft regulatory document concerning Pesticides; Agricultural Worker Protection Standard Revisions. The draft regulatory document is not available to the public until......

  17. Agricultural "killing fields": the poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers.

    PubMed

    Sass, R

    2000-01-01

    The poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers by multinational corporations' excessive use of pesticides is not a local issue; it is embedded in a dominant ideology expressed by the phenomenon of globalization. This ideology seeps into every aspect of our social institutions--economic, political, and legal. The practice of this ideological perspective is evident in the industrialization of global agriculture and the shift from "developmentalism"--liberal welfarism, industrialization, and urbanization--to a dominant, undemocratic, global financial elite with "economism" and a neoliberal political agenda overriding the nation-state polis. A specific effect is to transform the agricultural workers of developing countries, such as Costa Rican banana workers, into politically superfluous flesh-and-blood human beings.

  18. Case studies of violations of workers' freedom of association: migrant agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    As part of its report "Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards," Human Rights Watch conducted a series of case studies in a dozen states, covering a variety of industries and employment sectors, analyzing the U.S. experience in the light of both national law and international human rights and labor rights norms. Presented here are the case studies of migrant agricultural workers.

  19. Oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Kisby, Glen E; Muniz, Juan F; Scherer, Jennifer; Lasarev, Michael R; Koshy, Mary; Kow, Yoke W; McCauley, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage have been proposed as mechanisms linking pesticide exposure to health effects such as cancer and neurological diseases. A pilot study of pesticide applicators and farm workers working in the fruit orchards of Oregon (i.e., apples, pears) was conducted to examine the relationship between organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure and oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urine samples were analyzed for OP metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Lymphocytes were analyzed for oxidative DNA repair activity and DNA damage (Comet assay) and serum analyzed for lipid peroxides (i.e., malondialdehyde [MDA]). Cellular DNA damage in agricultural workers was validated using lymphocyte cell cultures. Urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in farm workers and applicators (p < .001) when compared to controls. 8-OH-dG levels were 8.5 times and 2.3 times higher in farm workers and applicators, respectively, than in controls. Serum MDA levels were 4.9 times and 24 times higher in farm workers and applicators, respectively, than in controls. DNA damage and oxidative DNA repair were significantly greater in lymphocytes from applicators and farm workers when compared with controls. A separate field study showed that DNA damage was also significantly greater (p < .001) in buccal cells (i.e., leukocytes) collected from migrant farm workers working with fungicides in the berry crops in Oregon. Markers of oxidative stress (i.e., reactive oxygen species, reduced levels of glutathione) and oxidative DNA damage were also observed in lymphocyte cell cultures treated with an OP. The findings from these in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that pesticides induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers. These biomarkers may be useful for increasing our understanding of the link between pesticides and cancer. PMID:19437279

  20. Needlestick Injuries in Agriculture Workers and Prevention Programs.

    PubMed

    Buswell, Minden L; Hourigan, Mary; Nault, André J; Bender, Jeffrey B

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of biologics, vaccines, antibiotics, and hormones used in animal agriculture. Depending upon the procedure or pharmaceutical used, accidental injections or product exposures can result in mild to severe injuries. Needlestick injury (NSI) prevention, research, and education for veterinarians and agriculture workers is limited. The objective of this study was to collect and review published case reports and case series/surveys on human needlestick exposure to veterinary biologics and to summarize needlestick prevention strategies for agricultural workers/veterinarians. A search was conducted of PubMed and Centre for Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI) databases. References were reviewed to identify additional articles. NSI among agricultural workers were primarily included in this review. Thirty articles were applicable to exposures in agricultural settings. Relevant literature consisted of case reports, survey/case series articles, prevention documents, and background articles. Fifty-nine case patients were identified. Most of these cases were associated with exposures to specific vaccines or veterinary products. Injury location was identified from 36 individuals: 24 (67%) NSI to the hands, 10 (28%) injuries to the legs, and 2 to other body locations. Of the 59 cases, 20 (34%) involved oil-adjuvant vaccines. Evidence of hospitalization was recorded for 30 case patients. The length of hospitalization was available from 11 case patients. Median length of hospitalization was 3 days (range: 1-4). Surgical intervention was reported in 25 case patients. Outcome information was available on 30 case patients. Fifteen made a complete recovery within 2 weeks of treatment, 14 had residual sequelae attributed to the injury, and there was 1 reported death. Of the 13 survey/case series articles: 2 focused on oil-adjuvant products, 1 on Brucellosis RB-51 vaccine, 3 on tilmicosin, 1 on Salmonella enteritidis vaccine, 1 on high-pressure injection, and 5

  1. Pyrethroids in house dust from the homes of farm worker families in the MICASA study.

    PubMed

    Trunnelle, Kelly J; Bennett, Deborah H; Tancredi, Daniel J; Gee, Shirley J; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E; Hammock, Bruce D; Schenker, Marc B

    2013-11-01

    Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly for pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families, who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields and are faced with poor housing conditions, potentially causing high pest infestation and pesticide use. We investigate levels of pyrethroids in the house dust of farm worker family homes in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA, within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pesticide use data and levels of pyrethroid pesticides in indoor dust collected in 2009 as measured by questionnaires and a GC/MS analysis of the pyrethroids cis- and trans-permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and resmethrin in single dust samples collected from 55 households. Cis- and trans-permethrin had the highest detection frequencies at 67%, with median concentrations of 244 and 172ng/g dust, respectively. Cypermethrin was detected in 52% of the homes and had a median concentration of 186ng/g dust. Esfenvalerate, resmethrin and deltamethrin were detected in less than half the samples. We compared the pyrethroid concentrations found in our study to other studies looking at both rural and urban homes and daycares. Lower detection frequencies and/or lower median concentrations of cis- and trans-permethrin and cypermethrin were observed in our study as compared to those studies. However, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and resmethrin were detected more frequently in the house dust from our study than in the other studies. Because households whose children had higher urinary pyrethroid metabolite levels were more likely to be analyzed in this study, a positive bias in our estimates of household pyrethroid levels may be expected. A positive association was observed with reported outdoor pesticide use and cypermethrin levels

  2. Agricultural employers' hiring and safety practices for adolescent workers.

    PubMed

    Lee, B C; Westaby, J D; Chyou, P H; Purschwitz, M A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the "Safety Training for Employers and Supervisors of Adolescent Farmworkers" initiative is to improve the occupational health and safety knowledge and practices of agricultural employers and supervisors responsible for employees, ages 14 to 17 years. Surveys were sent to members of the National Council of Agricultural Employers and the Washington Growers League to measure attitudes regarding adolescent employees, current hiring and training practices, and future intentions. More than half of the respondents hire adolescents. Two-thirds were male, nearly three-quarters of the respondents had college or post-graduate degrees, and more than half were 50 years or older. The majority of respondents had positive perceptions of adolescents in terms of dependability, helpfulness, and work ethic. Among those who currently hire young workers, the most common reasons were to provide a job for children of friends and family and because they can work part-time to fill a labor demand. Among those not hiring adolescents, the most common reason was concern about child labor regulations and associated tasks (e.g., paperwork, monitoring hours). Respondents use a variety of safety training resources, especially posters and safety meetings. For the future, they expect to need more handout materials and training videos. Study results provide insights into barriers to the employment of young workers and suggest methods by which agricultural safety specialists can best assist those employers and producers who are willing to hire adolescents into agricultural work settings. PMID:17370911

  3. [Foreign agricultural proletariat and seasonal migrations: Haitian workers in the Dominican agriculture].

    PubMed

    Lozano, W

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the massive entry of Haitian agricultural workers into rice, coffee, and other agricultural production in the Dominican Republic over the past 15 years are analyzed using data from surveys conducted in 1985 and 1987. Unlike the classic Latin American cases of labor migration, the movement of Haitian workers to the Dominican Republic crosses national borders and involves a landless proletariat rather than peasant farmers seeking to supplement their subsistence. Most of the Haitians finding work in coffee and rice cultivation were former sugar cane workers with several years of residence in the Dominican Republic who were forced out of sugar cane cutting by the collapse of the industry in the 1980s. Although Haitians have been employed in Dominican agriculture since the early 1900s, their massive movement to crops of great labor demand other than sugar began in the 1980s. Most of the Haitian workers in rice and coffee are illiterate men with no more than 3 years of primary education. Their average age is 28.4 years for coffee and 29.1 for rice workers. 40% of coffee workers and 53% of rice workers had children. The survey found a greater proportion of migrants from the North zone of Haiti than have previous studies, probably because of the accelerating crisis in the peasant economy in the North and the curtailment of movement to the Bahamas. The technical and social organization of agricultural work goes far in explaining migratory flows. Rice cultivation has heavy labor demands year round, while demand for labor in coffee cultivation is concentrated between August-December. The more complex and better paying jobs in rice cultivation are performed primarily by Dominican workers, who have formed a landless agricultural proletariat in place for at least 2 generations. Dominican workers thus meet the condition of staying in place all year that is not completely possible for Haitian workers. No such ethnic separation occurs in the coffee harvest, and

  4. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers living in poverty in Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Migrant agricultural workers are a group of people living in poverty with poor housing, sanitary conditions and hygiene practices. Little is known about the epidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers. Methods We investigated the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in 173 migrant workers hired for seasonal agricultural work in Durango State in northern Mexico using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results Of the 173 migrant workers (mean age 34.82 ± 14.01 years), 50 (28.9%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and 36 (20.8%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence was not influenced by gender, age, birth place, or educational level. In contrast, seroprevalence was significantly higher in workers residing in rural areas than those in urban or suburban areas. Migrant workers suffering from memory impairment, dizziness, or syncope had significantly higher seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies than those without such clinical features. Logistic regression analysis showed that T. gondii exposure was positively associated with consumption of unwashed raw vegetables (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.06-5.35; P = 0.03) and low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 3.87; 95% CI: 1.43-10.42; P = 0.007), and negatively associated with national trips (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.65; P = 0.003) and consumption of raw milk (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.18-0.87; P = 0.02). Other behavioral characteristics including consumption of meat or untreated water were not associated with T. gondii infection. Conclusions This is the first report of T. gondii infection in internal migrant agricultural workers living in poverty. Results deserve further investigation of causal relations between clinical symptoms and infection, and may be useful for optimal planning of preventive measures. PMID:23601076

  5. 45 CFR 1626.11 - H-2 agricultural and forestry workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false H-2 agricultural and forestry workers. 1626.11... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural and forestry workers. (a... section. (b) Nonimmigrant forestry workers admitted to, or permitted to remain in, the United States...

  6. Is health a labour, citizenship or human right? Mexican seasonal agricultural workers in Leamington, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nielan

    2013-07-01

    Post-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade liberalisation combined with post-9/11 border securitisation means North America increasingly relies on pools of temporary foreign labour, particularly in the agricultural and service sectors. Despite being temporary, these workers often spend most of their years on foreign soil, living and working in isolated rural communities, far from their own families and communities. Migrants' mental and physical health suffers due to hazardous and stressful working conditions, sub-standard housing, lack of social support and limited access to health and social welfare services. Assuming access to health is a basic human right, who is responsible for the health of temporary foreign migrant workers? Is it the nation-state? or the Employers and/or unions? or Civil society? Research and practice show that a combined multisector approach is best; however, such initiatives are often uneven due to questions of sovereignty and citizenship rights. Community-based organisations (CBOs) have emerged to advocate for and serve migrants' social and welfare needs; analysis of CBO projects reveals an uneven application of rights to migrants. Using a comparative case study from Canada, this project contributes to understanding how civil-society helps to activate different types of health care rights for migrants, and to create an informed policy that provides migrant workers with access to a wider range of human and health rights.

  7. Is health a labour, citizenship or human right? Mexican seasonal agricultural workers in Leamington, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nielan

    2013-07-01

    Post-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade liberalisation combined with post-9/11 border securitisation means North America increasingly relies on pools of temporary foreign labour, particularly in the agricultural and service sectors. Despite being temporary, these workers often spend most of their years on foreign soil, living and working in isolated rural communities, far from their own families and communities. Migrants' mental and physical health suffers due to hazardous and stressful working conditions, sub-standard housing, lack of social support and limited access to health and social welfare services. Assuming access to health is a basic human right, who is responsible for the health of temporary foreign migrant workers? Is it the nation-state? or the Employers and/or unions? or Civil society? Research and practice show that a combined multisector approach is best; however, such initiatives are often uneven due to questions of sovereignty and citizenship rights. Community-based organisations (CBOs) have emerged to advocate for and serve migrants' social and welfare needs; analysis of CBO projects reveals an uneven application of rights to migrants. Using a comparative case study from Canada, this project contributes to understanding how civil-society helps to activate different types of health care rights for migrants, and to create an informed policy that provides migrant workers with access to a wider range of human and health rights. PMID:23672480

  8. Perceptions of Environmental and Occupational Health Hazards Among Agricultural Workers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Crowe, Jennifer; Postma, Julie; Ybarra, Vickie; Keifer, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers. Interviews were conducted with 389 agricultural workers in the Yakima Valley in central Washington State in the summers of 2004 and 2005. Undergraduate students from the community conducted interviews in Spanish or English. Environmental and occupational health issues were ranked by frequency of concern, and differences by demographic characteristics were evaluated using multivariate analyses. In both 2004 and 2005, agricultural workers expressed high levels of concern about working in hot weather, agricultural injuries, pesticides, and pediatric asthma. Perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers differed by certain demographic characteristics, particularly age and ethnicity. Consideration should be given to these issues when designing research studies, creating educational materials, and developing interventions related to environmental and occupational hazards among agricultural workers. PMID:19715263

  9. 75 FR 6031 - Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... AGENCY Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural... Register of December 9, 2009, making available for comment a policy paper entitled ``Revised Risk... uses and exposures not governed by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). Implementing...

  10. Characterization of α-cypermethrin Exposure in Egyptian Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Steven T.; Lein, Pamela J.; Farahat, Fayssal M.; Farahat, Taghreed; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Olson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides that exert their effects by prolonging the open time of sodium channels, which increases the duration of neuronal excitation. α-cypermethrin (αCM) is derived from the 8-stereoisomers that together make up the pyrethroid cypermethrin, which is one of the most common pyrethroids being used in agriculture throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure to αCM in a cohort of Egyptian agriculture workers (n=37) before, during and after 6 to 10 consecutive days of application of αCM to cotton fields. Daily spot urine specimens were collected and analyzed by GC-MS NCI for the αCM metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and cis-3-(2’,2’-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA). Prior to αCM application, median urinary levels of 3-PBA (4.59 nmol/g creatinine) were greater than cis-DCCA (0.33 nmole/g creatinine) demonstrating low background exposures to pyrethroids. During the application period for αCM, median urinary levels of both biomarkers increased (13.44 nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 7.76 nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine) and ranged from 2.3–93.96 nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 0.09–90.94 nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine, demonstrating that workers had a wide range of exposures to αCM. The data also demonstrate that pesticide applicators had greater exposures to αCM than workers who play a supporting role in the seasonal application of pesticides on the cotton crop. Urinary cis-DCCA and 3-PBA concentrations were elevated at 7–11 days after the cessation of αCM application, compared to baseline levels. This study is the first to use these biomarkers to quantify occupational exposures specifically to αCM. This urinary biomarker data will be useful for estimating daily internal dose, comparing exposures across job categories within the Egyptian pesticide application teams, and for modeling human exposures to αCM. PMID:24269189

  11. Characterization of α-cypermethrin exposure in Egyptian agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Steven T; Lein, Pamela J; Farahat, Fayssal M; Farahat, Taghreed; Bonner, Matthew R; Knaak, James B; Olson, James R

    2014-01-01

    Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides that exert their effects by prolonging the open time of sodium channels, which increases the duration of neuronal excitation. α-cypermethrin (αCM) is derived from the 8-stereoisomers that together make up the pyrethroid cypermethrin, which is one of the most common pyrethroids being used in agriculture throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure to αCM in a cohort of Egyptian agriculture workers (n=37) before, during and after 6-10 consecutive days of application of αCM to cotton fields. Daily spot urine specimens were collected and analyzed by GC-MS NCI for the αCM metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and cis-3-(2',2'-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA). Prior to αCM application, median urinary levels of 3-PBA (4.59nmol/g creatinine) were greater than cis-DCCA (0.33nmole/g creatinine) demonstrating low background exposures to pyrethroids. During the application period for αCM, median urinary levels of both biomarkers increased (13.44nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 7.76nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine) and ranged from 2.3-93.96nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 0.09-90.94nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine, demonstrating that workers had a wide range of exposures to αCM. The data also demonstrate that pesticide applicators had greater exposures to αCM than workers who play a supporting role in the seasonal application of pesticides on the cotton crop. Urinary cis-DCCA and 3-PBA concentrations were elevated at 7-11 days after the cessation of αCM application, compared to baseline levels. This study is the first to use these biomarkers to quantify occupational exposures specifically to αCM. This urinary biomarker data will be useful for estimating daily internal dose, comparing exposures across job categories within the Egyptian pesticide application teams, and for modeling human exposures to αCM.

  12. Technical Guidelines and References: Crops Training Component. From: Agricultural Development Workers Training Manual. Volume III: Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This reference manual for training Peace Corps agricultural development workers deals with crops. The document begins with common units of area, length, weight, volume, and conversions between them. A practice problem is worked and other conversion problems are given. The second section is intended to show agricultural field workers how to survey…

  13. Microstructural changes in the substantia nigra of asymptomatic agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Du, Guangwei; Lewis, Mechelle M; Sterling, Nicholas W; Kong, Lan; Chen, Honglei; Mailman, Richard B; Huang, Xuemei

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is marked by the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Although the exact etiology is unknown, sporadic PD is hypothesized to be a result of genetic susceptibility interacting with environmental insult. Epidemiological studies suggest that pesticide exposure is linked to higher PD risk, but there are no studies demonstrating SN changes with chronic pesticide exposure in human subjects. Thus, high resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor (DTI) images were obtained from 12 agricultural workers with chronic pesticide exposure, 12 controls, and 12 PD subjects. Neither controls nor pesticide-exposed subjects, had any parkinsonian symptoms. Exposure history to pesticides was assessed by a structured questionnaire. DTI measures in the SN, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), were obtained for all subjects and compared among groups. Compared to controls, PD patients showed the expected significant changes in all DTI measurements in the SN. The pesticide-exposed subjects, compared to controls, had significantly lower FA values (p=0.022, after multiple comparisons correction), but no significant differences in RD, MD, or AD measures. The study is the first to demonstrate microstructural changes in the SN of human subjects with chronic pesticide exposure. The changes detected by MRI may mark "one of the hits" leading to PD, and underlie the increased risk of PD in pesticide users found in epidemiological studies. Further human studies assisted by these imaging markers may be useful in understanding the etiology of PD.

  14. Risk of malignant lymphoma in Swedish agricultural and forestry workers.

    PubMed Central

    Wiklund, K; Lindefors, B M; Holm, L E

    1988-01-01

    The risk of malignant lymphoma after possible exposure to phenoxy acid herbicides was studied in 354,620 Swedish men who, according to a national census in 1960, were employed in agriculture or forestry. The cohort was divided into subcohorts according to assumed exposure and compared with 1,725,645 Swedish men having other economic activities. All were followed up in the Cancer-Environment Register between 1961 and 1979. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was found in 861 men in the study cohort. The relative risk was not significantly increased in any subcohort, did not differ significantly between the subcohorts, and showed no time related increase in the total cohort or any subcohort. Hodgkin's disease was found in 355 men in the study cohort. Relative risks significantly higher than unity were found among fur farming and silviculture workers where the relative risks were 4.45 and 2.26, respectively. All five cases in the former group were engaged in mink farming. A time related rising trend in relative risk was found in the silviculture subcohort. Elsewhere the relative risk did not diverge from unity and no time related trend was discernible. PMID:3342183

  15. 29 CFR 500.131 - Exclusion from housing safety and health requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Housing Safety and Health § 500.131 Exclusion from housing safety and health...

  16. An ergonomic study on posture-related discomfort among preadolescent agricultural workers of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Das, Banibrata; Das, Tamal; Ghoshal, Goutam

    2005-01-01

    In India, particularly in West Bengal, preadolescents are primarily associated with agricultural work in rural areas. Owing to poor socio-economic conditions, they are compelled to carry out a considerable number of manual, rigorous tasks in agricultural fields. The main aim of this study was to investigate postures adopted by preadolescent agricultural workers during individual agricultural activities and to analyze the causes of discomfort related to those postures. Fifty male and 50 female preadolescent agricultural workers were randomly selected and a detailed posture analysis was performed with the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS). It was observed that those workers worked continuously in awkward postures during certain agricultural activities. Consequently they suffered from discomfort in different parts of their body. Even though they were very young, they were likely to suffer from serious musculoskeletal disorders in the future.

  17. Workers' Housing Estates In Postindustrial Cities - Modernization Or Revitalization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaweł, Dariusz

    2015-09-01

    The article presents a part of the results on the physiognomy of a postindustrial city under conditions of economic transformation in Poland. The study area encompasses industrial centers located in the region of the Central Industrial District (Centralny Okręg Przemysłowy - COP) in the Świętokrzystkie and Mazowieckie voivodeships (districts). The specific urban structure of the industrial city and unemployment among its inhabitants resulting from ownership transformations generate various problems. The workers' neighborhoods and colonies, which sprouted up so quickly at the beginning of the XX century, were a supply base for the rapidly developing industrial centers. Their clear urban structure and cultural potential they possess predispose them to developing necessary repair programs. Thus, the article draws attention to this form of settlement on the one hand, and on the other characterizes the activities assumed by gminas (municipalities) in the scope of modernizing and revitalizing these areas.

  18. Overcoming Language and Literacy Barriers in Safety and Health Training of Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Estrada, Jorge M.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, “Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture,” is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the US to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented. PMID:20665309

  19. Overcoming language and literacy barriers in safety and health training of agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Estrada, Jorge M; Quandt, Sara A

    2010-07-01

    The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the United States to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented. PMID:20665309

  20. HEALTH CONDITIONS AND SERVICES FOR DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS AND THEIR FAMILIES IN CALIFORNIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Public Health, Berkeley.

    FIELD INTERVIEWS WERE HELD WITH COMMUNITY LEADERS AND WITH SEVERAL HUNDRED WORKERS' FAMILIES. THE ACQUIRED INFORMATION SUPPLEMENTED A SURVEY OF PAST AND PRESENT CONDITIONS AND ASSISTED IN FORMULATING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION TO MEET THE ACUTE HEALTH NEEDS OF CALIFORNIA'S SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. THE HEALTH PROBLEM CAN BE MET BY LOCAL…

  1. The Structural Disempowerment of Eastern European Migrant Farm Workers in Norwegian Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik; Andrzejewska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2004 EU enlargement established one European common labour market, a large number of Eastern Europeans have taken up seasonal employment as hired farm workers in Norwegian agriculture. Much attention in the public has been given to the potential for "social dumping" of these migrating workers, as they are considered prone to exploitation…

  2. Agricultural science and food policy for consumers and workers: recipes for public health successes or disasters?

    PubMed

    Watterson, A

    2000-01-01

    In the world of high speed globalization, the search for global food and water security has failed despite being driven by aggressive agribusiness and aided all too often by so-called Green Revolution research scientists and technologists. In the process, agricultural workers, rural communities, and food production workers face significant occupational and environmental hazards. Countervailing forces to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and agribusiness food strategies are needed. Critical to these forces will be Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) working toward non-toxic, nondestructive, community-based agriculture informed by integrated humanistic, scientifically cautious, worker-sensitive, and ecologically located principles.

  3. EXTENSION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES, A MANUAL FOR AGRICULTURAL AND HOME EXTENSION WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAVILE, A.H.

    A PRACTICAL GUIDE IS PROVIDED FOR TRAINERS OF ADVISORY AND EXTENSION WORKERS AND LOCAL LEADERS IN AGRICULTURE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING NATIONS. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, COMMUNITY SURVEY PROCEDURES, ELEMENTS OF PROGRAM PLANNING, AND PURPOSES AND METHODS OF PROGRAM EVALUATION ARE DESCRIBED. THEN FOLLOW TWO CHAPTERS…

  4. The health of women temporary agricultural workers in Canada: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Kathryn; Berman, Helene; Basok, Tanya; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2011-12-01

    Among high-income countries such as Canada, there is growing dependency on "low skilled" temporary foreign workers in a variety of sectors. The purpose of this review is to critically synthesize and analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on gendered and temporary migration in the context of globalization and the health of temporary agricultural workers, particularly women in Canadian programs. While the social sciences literature contains well-developed conceptualizations of gendered migration, the research has focused on women in feminized occupations such as domestic work. Multidisciplinary searches produced only 11 research and review publications on the gendered constraints or health of temporary agricultural workers in Canada. Further investigation is needed to explore and integrate the strengths, resiliencies, and health-care needs of women migrant agricultural workers in Canada, as well as the barriers they face, within the intersecting and gendered forces of inequities at all levels: local, national, and global.

  5. The health of women temporary agricultural workers in Canada: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Kathryn; Berman, Helene; Basok, Tanya; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2011-12-01

    Among high-income countries such as Canada, there is growing dependency on "low skilled" temporary foreign workers in a variety of sectors. The purpose of this review is to critically synthesize and analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on gendered and temporary migration in the context of globalization and the health of temporary agricultural workers, particularly women in Canadian programs. While the social sciences literature contains well-developed conceptualizations of gendered migration, the research has focused on women in feminized occupations such as domestic work. Multidisciplinary searches produced only 11 research and review publications on the gendered constraints or health of temporary agricultural workers in Canada. Further investigation is needed to explore and integrate the strengths, resiliencies, and health-care needs of women migrant agricultural workers in Canada, as well as the barriers they face, within the intersecting and gendered forces of inequities at all levels: local, national, and global. PMID:22435309

  6. Occupational health and the rural worker: agriculture, mining, and logging.

    PubMed

    Pratt, D S

    1990-10-01

    More than 50 million Americans live in rural areas. These rural residents often work for small businesses or in the extraction industries (farming, mining, and logging). Because of the size of the businesses, the mandate of the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) does not cover these workers and they are seldom afforded the same protection as urban workers. This review focuses on the special health problems facing farm workers, farmers, miners, and loggers. Farm workers are often ill and are affected by psychological illness, injuries, parasites, skin diseases, and the dangers of agrichemicals. Farm owners also face the hazards of stress and have very high rates of suicide. In addition, they are often injured on the job and suffer the highest rate of job related fatality of any work group. The complex farm environment presents a continuous threat to the lungs. This danger has worsened with the increased use of confinement buildings for poultry, hogs, and cattle. As farming has changed with increased mechanization, attendant medical problems have arisen. These "illnesses of innovation" are important. Mining and logging also are dangerous occupations with acute and chronic problems including respiratory illness, vascular problems, and malignancy. The decade of the 1990s must be one of increased attention to rural occupational health care and research.

  7. Seasonal and migrant agricultural workers: a neglected work force.

    PubMed

    Culp, Kennith; Umbarger, Michelle

    2004-09-01

    A desperate need exists to provide occupational health services to migrant and seasonal farm workers in the United States. There are unique challenges related to this endeavor, and the authors have attempted to explain some of the issues that have not been previously discussed in a forthright manner. In doing so, it is likely that some controversy related to the topic has been introduced. PMID:15469136

  8. Monitoring acetylcholinesterase levels in migrant agricultural workers and their children using a portable test kit.

    PubMed

    Higgins, G M; Muñiz, J F; McCauley, L A

    2001-02-01

    The EQM Research, Inc., portable test kit was evaluated as a surveillance tool for blood cholinesterase levels among migrant workers and their children. Laboratory validation demonstrated a linear relationship between the reference Ellman and kit methods (Ellman = 0.95 x kit result + 0.82, r2 = 0.98). Pre- and post-season cholinesterase levels measured in 70 farm workers were within normal ranges, but significantly different at 28.5 and 29.7 U/g Hb, respectively (paired t-test, p = 0.014). Results from 98 migrant farm worker children and a comparison group of 53 age-matched non-agricultural children showed that cholinesterase levels were not significantly different between the agricultural and non-agricultural children (ANOVA, p = 0.69). These data demonstrate that a portable test kit can provide useful data pesticide exposures when measurements are made in a temperature-controlled setting. PMID:11398901

  9. Constant Temperature Storage House Heated by the Respiration Heat of Agricultural Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobiyama, Masayoshi; Takegata, Kiyohide; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Kawamoto, Syuroh; Ohno, Syozi

    HIMURO type storage house, cooled by natural snow/ice, has been practically applied by means of its good storing condition and of the easy handling. As this type storage house is constructed by enough insulation structure, it can been used not only for a cool house in the summer but also a constant temperature storage house in the winter. In this paper, the authors suggested that the HIMURO type storage house might be used as the constant temperature house in the severe cold winter season after the theoretical investigation on the thermal characteristics of it. In general, the conventional type constant temperature storage house is heated by heater throughout storing period, that of this paper is self heated by the respiration heat of agricultural products stored in this house, so the house proposed in this paper look forward to smaller heat addition than that of conventional house. The practical experiment was performed to verify the theoretical investigation and to observe the storing condition of the product and we obtained enough results.

  10. Gastrointestinal parasitoses discovered in agricultural workers in South Bohemia, Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed

    Stĕrba, J; Ditrich, O; Prokopic, J; Kadlcík, K

    1988-01-01

    In the years from 1975 to 1982 1,750 persons, mostly employed by agricultural enterprises in the South Bohemian Region in Czechoslovakia, were examined. We discovered seven species of parasites: Taenia saginata in 0.3%, Enterobius vermicularis in 10.1%, Giardia lamblia in 1.0%, Endolimax nana in 0.8%, Entamoeba coli in 0.7%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 0.2%, and Chilomastix mesnili in 0.5%. The greatest number of parasites was found in students of the Secondary agricultural and technical school. Only two species of parasites were diagnosed in children of the employees. The incidence of E. vermicularis was 75% in children, in adult employees of agricultural enterprises, however, only 9.8%. PMID:3169645

  11. A Comparison of Certain Knowledges in Agriculture Needed by Workers in Farming, in Grain Elevator Businesses, and in Agricultural Equipment Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiscus, Keith Eugene

    Questionnaires to determine the vocational and technical education needed by prospective workers in farming and in grain elevator and agricultural equipment businesses were administered to 20 workers in each of the jobs of (1) farm manager, (2) grain elevator manager, operator, salesman, and deliveryman, and (3) agricultural equipment manager,…

  12. Agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among hired farm workers in California (the MICASA study).

    PubMed

    Rodriquez, Erik J; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Bennett, Deborah H; Tancredi, Daniel J; Schenker, Marc B

    2014-01-01

    Despite California's dependence on hired farm labor, scarce research has been conducted on the respiratory health of hired farm workers. Agricultural exposures to inorganic and organic dusts can adversely affect an individual's respiratory health and differ by farm type and job task. The purpose of the present analysis was to examine associations between agricultural work exposures and pulmonary function among 450 California farm workers. Data were collected as part of the Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) study, a prospective cohort study examining occupational risk factors and health of hired farm worker families in Mendota, California. Time-weighted self-reported average (TWSRA) dust scores were calculated from assessments of past-12-month agricultural work history. Other dust exposure indicator variables included months worked in agriculture in the past 12 months and years worked in agriculture. Multiple linear regression modeled FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), FEF(25-75%) (forced midexpiratory flow rate), FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV6, FEV1/FVC, and FEV1/FEV6 separately. Seventy-six percent of participants had worked in agriculture in the past year. In models conducted for crops and tasks separately, high TWSRA dust score was associated with better FEV6. Crop and task models showed associations between greater months worked in agriculture in the past year and better FEV1, FEF(25-75%), and FEV6. Both models also found greater years worked in agriculture to be associated with worse FEV1/FEV6. Results were generally in the opposite direction as expected given past research but not uncommon. Future research should investigate relationships between pulmonary function and agricultural dust exposure over a lifetime and changes in pulmonary function over time.

  13. Calculation of the store house worker dose in a lost wax foundry using MCNP-4C.

    PubMed

    Alegría, Natalia; Legarda, Fernando; Herranz, Margarita; Idoeta, Raquel

    2005-01-01

    Lost wax casting is an industrial process which permits the transmutation into metal of models made in wax. The wax model is covered with a silicaceous shell of the required thickness and once this shell is built the set is heated and wax melted. Liquid metal is then cast into the shell replacing the wax. When the metal is cool, the shell is broken away in order to recover the metallic piece. In this process zircon sands are used for the preparation of the silicaceous shell. These sands have varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenics. The zircon sand is distributed in bags of 50 kg, and 30 bags are on a pallet, weighing 1,500 kg. The pallets with the bags have dimensions 80 cm x 120 cm x 80 cm, and constitute the radiation source in this case. The only pathway of exposure to workers in the store house is external radiation. In this case there is no dust because the bags are closed and covered by plastic, the store house has a good ventilation rate and so radon accumulation is not possible. The workers do not touch with their hands the bags and consequently skin contamination will not take place. In this study all situations of external irradiation to the workers have been considered; transportation of the pallets from vehicle to store house, lifting the pallets to the shelf, resting of the stock on the shelf, getting down the pallets, and carrying the pallets to production area. Using MCNP-4C exposure situations have been simulated, considering that the source has a homogeneous composition, the minimum stock in the store house is constituted by 7 pallets, and the several distances between pallets and workers when they are at work. The photons flux obtained by MCNP-4C is multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air by conversion factor to Effective Dose by Kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons. Those conversion factors are obtained of ICRP 74 table 1 and table 17 respectively. This

  14. An Electronic Worker Service System of the Pig House Based on ATmega16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liu-An; Jin, Tian-Ming; Yu, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Hong, Tao

    Pork is very important for people in daily life. Quality of livestock environment is closely related to the growth of animals. To improve environmental quality, the paper designed an electronic worker service system of the pig house based on ATmega16, which consisted of 6 detection modules, wireless data collecting, GSM, time circuit, display, anti-th alarm and music player, etc. A small LAN was constructed by wireless transceiver module to test and collect data of temperature, humidity and harmful gas concentration in the pig house. If one detection point exists that harmful pollutant gases concentration exceeds the standard value, GSM module took a message for livestock farmers, so that farmers can promptly arrive at the pig house to ventilate or deal with manure in the pig house, which can effectively prevent from bad things. Time of pyroelectric detector deployment can be freely set, and intrusion information was timely sent to the users. The anti-th alarm function was achieved by the auxiliary light. The music playing module is open by timer module in order to soothing pigs' life state. All are suitable for small farms and can save human resources.

  15. Review of Pesticide Education Materials for Health Care Providers Providing Care to Agricultural Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiott, Ann E.; Quandt, Sara A.; Early, Julie; Jackson, David S.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Pesticide exposure is an important environmental and occupational health risk for agricultural workers and their families, but health care providers receive little training in it. Objective: To evaluate the medical resources available to providers caring for patients, particularly farmworkers, exposed to pesticides and to recommend a…

  16. Algonquin Portrait: A Study of the Rapid Lake Seasonal Agricultural Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Paul R.

    The study's purpose was to compile descriptive information about a small band of Algonquin Indian seasonal agricultural workers from Quebec, Canada who migrate annually into Ontario County, New York to work on the fur and poultry farms. Although these Indians have worked in the State since 1945, no "serious" study had been made which included…

  17. Rural Sociology in the South: 1972. Proceedings: Rural Sociology Section, Association of Southern Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voland, Maurice E., Ed.

    The papers presented in this collection are said to represent the major thrusts of research and other scholarly activities of rural sociologists in the South in 1972. Arranged in the order of their presentation at the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Agricultural Workers meetings, these papers discuss such topics as youth, social change in…

  18. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of Agricultural Workers Receiving Microcredit in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmud, Kazi Tanvir; Parvez, Asif; Hilton, David; Kabir, G. M. Shamsul; Wahid, Ishraat Saira

    2014-01-01

    The policy of providing microcredit and skill training to poor agricultural workers in developing countries is well-established. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the effectiveness of the training part of that policy. BRAC (formerly the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), the largest non-governmental organization in…

  19. The decision to exclude agricultural and domestic workers from the 1935 Social Security Act.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The Social Security Act of 1935 excluded from coverage about half the workers in the American economy. Among the excluded groups were agricultural and domestic workers-a large percentage of whom were African Americans. This has led some scholars to conclude that policymakers in 1935 deliberately excluded African Americans from the Social Security system because of prevailing racial biases during that period. This article examines both the logic of this thesis and the available empirical evidence on the origins of the coverage exclusions. The author concludes that the racial-bias thesis is both conceptually flawed and unsupported by the existing empirical evidence. The exclusion of agricultural and domestic workers from the early program was due to considerations of administrative feasibility involving tax-collection procedures. The author finds no evidence of any other policy motive involving racial bias.

  20. Organochlorine pesticide residues in blood samples of agriculture and sheep wool workers in Bangalore (rural), India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, V; Ravichandran, B; Rajmohan, H R

    2012-04-01

    To describe exposure level of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) among workers occupationally engaged in agriculture and sheep wool associated jobs, the present study was carried out in rural neighborhood of Bangalore city, India. Thirty participants were interviewed and obtained informed consent before blood sample collection. The maximum concentrations of OCP were detected in blood samples of agriculture workers than sheep wool workers. Among the metabolites of HCH and DDT, lindane (γ-HCH) and p,p'-DDE were the most contributed to the total OCP. There were no differences in pesticide residues found between sex and work groups. It was observed that about 30% of samples exceeded the tolerance limits of 10 μg/L prescribed for HCH under the prevention of food adulteration act. Therefore, the present study recommends continuous monitoring with larger sample size.

  1. Rural Housing Site Planning in North Carolina. Agricultural Extension Publication 105.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Randolph T., Jr.; And Others

    Addressing the problems of rural housing site selection and development in North Carolina, this guide is designed for cooperative and coordinated use by: technical assistance personnel employed by the Farmers Home Administration; local lending institutions; Health Departments; the Agricultural Extension Service; the Soil Conservation Service; and…

  2. Asbestos Exposure among Construction Workers During Demolition of Old Houses in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    KAKOOEI, Hossein; NORMOHAMMADI, Mohhammad

    2013-01-01

    Air quality in demolition practices has seldom been evaluated in Iran. Accordingly, we evaluated asbestos exposure among Tehran construction workers during the demolition of old houses. To identify possible sources of asbestos exposure, including thermal insulations, chimney pipes and cement sheets, were all sampled. This study also were taken the personal air samples to evaluate any asbestos exposure during the demolition. The asbestos fibers found in the samples were analyzed by phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) methods. Personal monitoring of asbestos fiber levels indicated a range from 0.01 to 0.15 PCM f/ml (0.02–0.42 SEM f/ml). The geometric mean concentrations were 0.07 PCM f/ml (0.20 SEM f/ml), which is considerably higher than the threshold limit value (TLV) proposed by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH), which is 0.1 f/ml. The analysis showed a presence in the bulk samples only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of the other type asbestos. Therefore, it might be expected that workers who worked in the demolition of old houses will suffer from negative effects of exposing to the asbestos fibers. PMID:24292876

  3. Continuing education in physical rehabilitation and health issues of agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Wilhite, Carla S; Jaco, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Limited attention has been devoted to the cultural and practice competencies needed by occupational therapy and physical therapy professionals who provide services to farming families impacted by chronic health or disability issues. Agricultural occupational safety and health should represent a continuum of services responsive to individuals, families, and agricultural communities across a life span and range of health status changes. Physical rehabilitation professionals have a key role in impacting an agricultural producer's sense of self-efficacy and capacities for returning to agricultural living and work. However, demonstration of competency is essential in providing person-centered rehabilitation services of assessment, evaluation, treatment planning, interventions, referrals, and discharge issues. The paper highlights methods utilized by a state AgrAbility program and a former National AgrAbility Project to develop a model of continuing education programming for occupational and physical therapists that evaluate and treat agricultural workers after acute injury or exacerbation of chronic health conditions.

  4. 29 CFR 500.132 - Applicable Federal standards: ETA and OSHA housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agricultural worker, the construction of which was begun on or after April 3, 1980, and which was not under a... for housing any migrant agricultural worker which was completed or under construction prior to April 3..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety...

  5. 29 CFR 500.132 - Applicable Federal standards: ETA and OSHA housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agricultural worker, the construction of which was begun on or after April 3, 1980, and which was not under a... for housing any migrant agricultural worker which was completed or under construction prior to April 3..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety...

  6. 29 CFR 500.132 - Applicable Federal standards: ETA and OSHA housing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agricultural worker, the construction of which was begun on or after April 3, 1980, and which was not under a... for housing any migrant agricultural worker which was completed or under construction prior to April 3..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety...

  7. Agricultural Workers in Central California. Volume 1: In 1989; Volume 2: Phase II, 1990-91. California Agricultural Studies, 90-8 and 91-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Andrew J.; And Others

    Two surveys developed profiles of seasonal agricultural workers and their working conditions in central California. In 1989, a random sample of 347 seasonal workers was interviewed. The sample was 30 percent female and 87 percent Mexican-born. Average age was 35 years and average educational attainment was 5.9 years. Most had parents, spouses, or…

  8. Findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) 1990. A Demographic and Employment Profile of Perishable Crop Farm Workers. Research Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mines, Richard; And Others

    This report provides information on the characteristics and work patterns of United States agricultural workers performing seasonal agricultural services (SAS) during fiscal year 1990. SAS crops include the majority of nursery products, cash grains, field crops, and all fruits and vegetables. More than 2,000 personal interviews with SAS workers…

  9. Survey of acute pesticide poisoning among agricultural workers in four Asian countries*

    PubMed Central

    Jeyaratnam, J.; Lun, K. C.; Phoon, W. O.

    1987-01-01

    The study investigated the extent of acute pesticide poisoning in selected agricultural communities in Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Thailand, as well as the contributing factors, because it is believed that this type of poisoning is a major problem in developing countries, but not in the industrialized countries, despite their extensive use of pesticides. The study confirmed the existence of this problem, which was found to be due to inadequate knowledge of the safe practices in the use of pesticides among users and to the lack of suitable protective clothing for use by agricultural workers in hot and humid climates. PMID:3500805

  10. 20 CFR 654.404 - Housing site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing site. 654.404 Section 654.404 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.404...

  11. Nerves as embodied metaphor in the Canada/Mexico seasonal agricultural workers program.

    PubMed

    Mysyk, Avis; England, Margaret; Gallegos, Juan Arturo Avila

    2008-01-01

    This article examines nerves among participants in the Canada/Mexico Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (C/MSAWP). Based on in-depth interviews with 30 Mexican farm workers in southwestern Ontario, we demonstrate that nerves embodies the distress of economic need, relative powerlessness, and the contradictions inherent in the C/MSAWP that result in various life's lesions. We also explore their use of the nerves idiom as an embodied metaphor for their awareness of the breakdown in self/society relations and, in certain cases, of the lack of control over even themselves. This article contributes to that body of literature that locates nerves at the "normal" end of the "normal/abnormal" continuum of popular illness categories because, despite the similarities in symptoms of nerves among Mexican farm workers and those of anxiety and/or mood disorders, medicalization has not occurred. If nerves has not been medicalized among Mexican farm workers, neither has it given rise to resistance to their relative powerlessness as migrant farm workers. Nonetheless, nerves does serve as an effective vehicle for expressing their distress within the context of the C/MSAWP.

  12. Nerves as embodied metaphor in the Canada/Mexico seasonal agricultural workers program.

    PubMed

    Mysyk, Avis; England, Margaret; Gallegos, Juan Arturo Avila

    2008-01-01

    This article examines nerves among participants in the Canada/Mexico Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (C/MSAWP). Based on in-depth interviews with 30 Mexican farm workers in southwestern Ontario, we demonstrate that nerves embodies the distress of economic need, relative powerlessness, and the contradictions inherent in the C/MSAWP that result in various life's lesions. We also explore their use of the nerves idiom as an embodied metaphor for their awareness of the breakdown in self/society relations and, in certain cases, of the lack of control over even themselves. This article contributes to that body of literature that locates nerves at the "normal" end of the "normal/abnormal" continuum of popular illness categories because, despite the similarities in symptoms of nerves among Mexican farm workers and those of anxiety and/or mood disorders, medicalization has not occurred. If nerves has not been medicalized among Mexican farm workers, neither has it given rise to resistance to their relative powerlessness as migrant farm workers. Nonetheless, nerves does serve as an effective vehicle for expressing their distress within the context of the C/MSAWP. PMID:18958786

  13. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition as an Indicator of Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning in Kenyan Agricultural Workers.

    PubMed

    Ohayo-Mitoko; Heederik; Kromhout; Omondi; Boleij

    1997-07-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was determined for 666 Kenyan agricultural workers; 390 (58.6%) mainly pesticide applicators exposed to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides and 276 (41.4%) unexposed controls from four rural agricultural areas during 1993 and 1994. Baseline levels were depressed in the exposed group (6.1 +/- 0.84; 4.09 +/- 0.84) but not in the unexposed group (5.83 +/- 0.91; 5.60 +/- 0.87). Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was found in all exposed individuals and led, on average, to a decrease of baseline acetylcholinesterase levels of 33% (+/-12%). The control groups had a nonsignificant decrease of only 4% (+/- 8%). The exposed subjects in Naivasha (flower growers) had the largest inhibition (36%), followed by Homabay (cotton growers) (35%) and Wundanyi (vegetable growers) (33%). Those in Migori (tobacco growers) had, by far, the least inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity (26%), indicating inherent factors that led to less inhibition. Acetylcholinesterase activity levels of 115 exposed individuals (29.6%) and no controls were depressed to values below 60% of baseline levels. The dramatic inhibition observed could lead to chronic clinical and subclinical intoxication. These findings show that acetylcholinesterase inhibition can be used as an indicator of organophosphate and carbamate poisoning in occupationally exposed agricultural workers. There is, therefore, an urgent need for primary prevention programs to monitor and address occupational exposures to these hazardous substances in agriculture in Kenya and other developing countries, as well as to use integrated pest management strategies in crop protection.

  14. Occupational health and safety for agricultural workers in Thailand: gaps and recommendations, with a focus on pesticide use.

    PubMed

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Woskie, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Over 16.7 million workers in Thailand (42 percent of the working population) are engaged in agriculture, disproportionately from the lower socioeconomic strata of Thai society. Most agricultural workers (over 93 percent) work in the informal sector without the protections of regulations or enforcement of labor or health and safety laws or enrollment in a social security system. Although Thailand's use of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides is growing, there is little regulation of the sale, use, or application of these potentially toxic chemicals. This paper summarizes the research to date on occupational health and safety for Thai agricultural workers, identifies gaps in pesticide regulations and the current systems for occupational health and safety and social support for Thai agricultural workers, and makes recommendations for future policy and research initiatives to fill the identified gaps.

  15. Agricultural injury in California Hispanic farm workers: MICASA follow-up survey.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, Stephen A; Xiao, Hong; Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Tancredi, Daniel J; Bennett, Deborah H; Schenker, Marc B

    2013-01-01

    The authors report here results from the first follow-up survey of the Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) cohort of community-dwelling immigrant Hispanic farm workers in California's Central Valley. Among 560 participants the authors observed cumulative 1-year injury incidence of 6.6% (all injuries) and 4.3% (agricultural injuries). Increased prospective injury risk was associated with males, US birth, years lived in the United States, family income, and poor self-rated health. Agricultural injuries were associated most frequently with being struck by an object, falls, and cutting instruments, whereas over two thirds of nonagricultural injuries involved motor vehicles. Prevention should focus on safe handling of tools and materials, falls, and motor vehicle safety. PMID:23301889

  16. Using a Training Video to Improve Agricultural Workers' Knowledge of On-Farm Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiasen, Lisa; Morley, Katija; Chapman, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A training video was produced and evaluated to assess its impact on the food safety knowledge of agricultural workers. Increasing food safety knowledge on the farm may help to improve the safety of fresh produce. Surveys were used to measure workers' food safety knowledge before and after viewing the video. Focus groups were used to determine…

  17. 75 FR 7293 - Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Workers in the United States: 2010 Adverse Effect Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... collective bargaining rate, or the Federal or State minimum wage rate, in effect at the time work is... rates for field and livestock workers (combined), as computed by USDA quarterly wage surveys. 54 FR...: 2010 Adverse Effect Wage Rates, Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals, and Maximum...

  18. A Case-Crossover Study of Heat Exposure and Injury Risk in Outdoor Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Bonauto, David K.; Sheppard, Lianne; Busch-Isaksen, Tania; Calkins, Miriam; Adams, Darrin; Lieblich, Max; Fenske, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that heat exposure may increase the risk of traumatic injuries. Published heat-related epidemiological studies have relied upon exposure data from individual weather stations. Objective To evaluate the association between heat exposure and traumatic injuries in outdoor agricultural workers exposed to ambient heat and internal heat generated by physical activity using modeled ambient exposure data. Methods A case-crossover study using time-stratified referent selection among 12,213 outdoor agricultural workers with new Washington State Fund workers’ compensation traumatic injury claims between 2000 and 2012 was conducted. Maximum daily Humidex exposures, derived from modeled meteorological data, were assigned to latitudes and longitudes of injury locations on injury and referent dates. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of injury for a priori daily maximum Humidex categories. Results The mean of within-stratum (injury day and corresponding referent days) standard deviations of daily maximum Humidex was 4.8. The traumatic injury odds ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.22), 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.25), and 1.10 (95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.20) for daily maximum Humidex of 25–29, 30–33, and ≥34, respectively, compared to < 25, adjusted for self-reported duration of employment. Stronger associations were observed during cherry harvest duties in the June and July time period, compared to all duties over the entire study period. Conclusions Agricultural workers laboring in warm conditions are at risk for heat-related traumatic injuries. Combined heat-related illness and injury prevention efforts should be considered in high-risk populations exposed to warm ambient conditions in the setting of physical exertion. PMID:27716794

  19. Region of birth, sex, and agricultural work of immigrant Latino farm workers: the MICASA study.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, S A; Stoecklin-Marois, M T; Tancredi, D J; Bennett, D H; Schenker, M B

    2014-04-01

    Agricultural work is hazardous, and immigrant workers perform the majority of production tasks, yet there are few data describing agricultural work and use of protective measures by demographic characteristics. We examined cross-sectionally the influence of region of birth (Mexico vs. Central America) and sex on agricultural work and use of protective measures in the MICASA cohort of immigrant Latino farm workers in Mendota, California. Of 445 participants, 293 (65.8%) were born in Mexico (163 men, 130 women) and 152 (34.2%) were born in Central America (80 men, 72 women). Men worked on average 74.4 more days than women (95% CI 62.0, 86.9) and were more likely to perform tasks requiring high levels of training or strength, such as machine operation, pruning, picking, planting, and irrigation; more likely to work in dusty conditions; and more likely to work directly with pesticides. Women predominated in packing. Respondents from Mexico were more likely to work with tomatoes and less likely to work with melon and lettuce. Central America-born respondents were less likely to engage in planting, irrigation, and pesticide use. Use of task-appropriate personal protective measures on at least a half-time basis was rare, with the exception of persons working with pesticides (a group limited to men) and for facial scarves among Central American women. Further work should focus on identifying barriers to use of preventive measures and programs to further their use. Educational models accounting for cultural factors and driving social norm change, employer engagement, and use of community health workers (promotores) may be helpful in promoting use of preventive measures.

  20. Region of birth, sex, and agricultural work of immigrant Latino farm workers: the MICASA study.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, S A; Stoecklin-Marois, M T; Tancredi, D J; Bennett, D H; Schenker, M B

    2014-04-01

    Agricultural work is hazardous, and immigrant workers perform the majority of production tasks, yet there are few data describing agricultural work and use of protective measures by demographic characteristics. We examined cross-sectionally the influence of region of birth (Mexico vs. Central America) and sex on agricultural work and use of protective measures in the MICASA cohort of immigrant Latino farm workers in Mendota, California. Of 445 participants, 293 (65.8%) were born in Mexico (163 men, 130 women) and 152 (34.2%) were born in Central America (80 men, 72 women). Men worked on average 74.4 more days than women (95% CI 62.0, 86.9) and were more likely to perform tasks requiring high levels of training or strength, such as machine operation, pruning, picking, planting, and irrigation; more likely to work in dusty conditions; and more likely to work directly with pesticides. Women predominated in packing. Respondents from Mexico were more likely to work with tomatoes and less likely to work with melon and lettuce. Central America-born respondents were less likely to engage in planting, irrigation, and pesticide use. Use of task-appropriate personal protective measures on at least a half-time basis was rare, with the exception of persons working with pesticides (a group limited to men) and for facial scarves among Central American women. Further work should focus on identifying barriers to use of preventive measures and programs to further their use. Educational models accounting for cultural factors and driving social norm change, employer engagement, and use of community health workers (promotores) may be helpful in promoting use of preventive measures. PMID:24897916

  1. MANPOWER NEEDS AND EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WORKERS NEEDING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL IN AGRICULTURE. TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN AND FOR RURAL AREAS, REPORT NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WARMBROD, J. ROBERT

    THREE TYPES OF FIRMS IN A 14-COUNTY AREA WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF WORKERS WITH AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES REQUIRED IN THE OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS AND TO COMPARE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN FARM AND OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS. OF 77,868 WORKERS IN 384 FIRMS IN AREAS OF LESS THAN 25,000 POPULATION, 18 PERCENT WERE IN…

  2. Temporary variations in chromosomal aberrations in a group of agricultural workers exposed to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, E; Valbuena, A; Xamena, N; Creus, A; Marcos, R

    1995-10-01

    The induction of chromosomal aberrations (CA) was studied in the peripheral lymphocytes of 29 male agricultural workers occupationally exposed to several pesticides. To investigate possible exposure-related changes in the frequency of CA, a longitudinal study has been conducted. Two blood samples were taken from each individual: one in a period of high exposure (spring-summer) and the other in a period of lower exposure (autumn-winter). Simultaneously, two matched control groups constituted by 29 and 24 healthy men, without indication of exposure to pesticides, were analysed. During the period of major exposure, the group of agricultural workers showed a significant increase in the frequency of CA, mainly of chromatid-type, when compared to the unexposed control group; nevertheless, this increase in the expression of CA was not found in the period of minor exposure. This finding could indicate that the frequency of CA is related to the intensity of the pesticide exposure, and that CA have a relatively short-life, recovering the control value a few months later. In addition to the cytogenetic analysis, biochemical and haemotological blood parameters were also analysed and no significant variations were detected. PMID:7491130

  3. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Muniz, Juan F. McCauley, Linda; Scherer, J.; Lasarev, M.; Koshy, M.; Kow, Y.W.; Nazar-Stewart, Valle; Kisby, G.E.

    2008-02-15

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage have been proposed as mechanisms linking pesticide exposure to health effects such as cancer and neurological diseases. A study of pesticide applicators and farmworkers was conducted to examine the relationship between organophosphate pesticide exposure and biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urine samples were analyzed for OP metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Lymphocytes were analyzed for oxidative DNA repair activity and DNA damage (Comet assay), and serum was analyzed for lipid peroxides (i.e., malondialdehyde, MDA). Cellular damage in agricultural workers was validated using lymphocyte cell cultures. Urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in farmworkers and applicators (p < 0.001) when compared to controls. 8-OH-dG levels were 8.5 times and 2.3 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. Serum MDA levels were 4.9 times and 24 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. DNA damage (Comet assay) and oxidative DNA repair were significantly greater in lymphocytes from applicators and farmworkers when compared with controls. Markers of oxidative stress (i.e., increased reactive oxygen species and reduced glutathione levels) and DNA damage were also observed in lymphocyte cell cultures treated with an OP. The findings from these in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that organophosphate pesticides induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers. These biomarkers may be useful for increasing our understanding of the link between pesticides and a number of health effects.

  4. Estimates of acute pesticide poisoning in agricultural workers in less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, Melville H

    2005-01-01

    The benefits of crop protection products have to be balanced against the risks to farmers and other agricultural workers handling and applying them. The extent of acute pesticide poisoning in these workers, particularly in less developed countries, has often been based on inadequate information. A number of approaches have been taken by researchers to acquire information on pesticide poisoning. These have resulted in worldwide (global) estimates and regional, localised or field assessments. The methods include descriptive epidemiology, cross-sectional and case studies. Attempts to estimate global pesticide poisonings have often been based upon extrapolations and assumptions from chemical-related fatalities in a small number of countries; such estimates do not provide reliable data. Epidemiological studies, relying mainly on hospital and poison centre data, have been biased towards the more severe poisonings, whereas field studies indicate that occupational pesticide poisoning is associated with less severe and minor effects. Many reports do not adequately distinguish between intentional, accidental and occupational pesticide poisoning statistics or are dominated by cases of intentional (suicidal) poisoning which, by their nature, result in severe or fatal results. The majority of reports do not adequately describe whether individual cases are minor, moderate or severe poisonings. In order to assess information on acute pesticide poisoning in agricultural workers in less developed countries and to draw conclusions on the extent and severity of occupational poisoning, the most recent (post-1990) literature was reviewed. Data were also derived from the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Labour Office (ILO). The collected information was analysed to assess the extent and severity of occupational acute pesticide poisoning in less developed countries. Occupational acute pesticide poisonings in these

  5. Lung cancer risk among workers exposed to man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) in the Swedish prefabricated house industry.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, P; Plato, N; Axelson, O; Brage, H N; Hogstedt, C; Ringbäck, G; Tornling, G; Wingren, G

    1992-01-01

    Mortality and cancer incidence was investigated among 2,807 workers, employed for at least one year before 1972, at 11 Swedish companies manufacturing prefabricated wooden houses. A total of 1,068 workers had been exposed to man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) used for insulation. Mortality was followed from 1969 to 1988 and cancer incidence from 1969 to 1985. Exposure conditions were investigated at all plants. There were 14 deaths from lung cancer in the total cohort, whereas 20.7 would be expected (SMR = 68; 95% CI:37-113), based on regional mortality. After a latency of 20 years of more, two lung cancer cases had occurred among all workers exposed to MMMF, whereas 4.3 would be expected (SMR = 46; 95% CI: 5-168). The exposure levels that have prevailed do not seem to be associated with an increased lung cancer rate, but extended follow-up is necessary for a definitive evaluation. PMID:1621690

  6. Assessing habitat quality of farm-dwelling house sparrows in different agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    von Post, Maria; Borgström, Pernilla; Smith, Henrik G; Olsson, Ola

    2012-04-01

    Having historically been abundant throughout Europe, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) has in recent decades suffered severe population declines in many urban and rural areas. The decline in rural environments is believed to be caused by agricultural intensification, which has resulted in landscape simplification. We used giving-up densities (GUDs) of house sparrows feeding in artificial food patches placed in farmlands of southern Sweden to determine habitat quality during the breeding season at two different spatial scales: the landscape and the patch scale. At the landscape scale, GUDs were lower on farms in homogeneous landscapes dominated by crop production compared to more heterogeneous landscapes with mixed farming or animal husbandry. At the patch level, feeding patches with a higher predation risk (caused by fitting a wall to the patch to obstruct vigilance) had higher GUDs. In addition, GUDs were positively related to population size, which strongly implies that GUDs reflect habitat quality. However, the increase followed different patterns in homogeneous and heterogeneous landscapes, indicating differing population limiting mechanisms in these two environments. We found no effect of the interaction between patch type and landscape type, suggesting that predation risk was similar in both landscape types. Thus, our study suggests that simplified landscapes constitute a poorer feeding environment for house sparrows during breeding, that the population-regulating mechanisms in the landscapes differ, but that predation risk is the same across the landscape types.

  7. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF THE MOVEMENT OF SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT CHILDREN INTO WISCONSIN, EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN WISCONSIN, REPORT 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LINDSEY, HERBERT H.; AND OTHERS

    USEFUL MEANS OF ANTICIPATING THE MOVEMENTS OF MIGRANT CHILDREN INCLUDE ANALYSIS OF CROPS, THE HARVESTING OF WHICH REQUIRES OUT-OF-STATE WORKERS, DISTRIBUTIONAL MAPS OF CROP ACREAGE, NORMAL TIME SCHEDULES FOR CROPS, AND INFORMATION ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS. SUCH INFORMATION ASSISTS IN THE PLANNING OF SCHOOL PROGRAMS. IN WISCONSIN, MOST MIGRANT…

  8. Agricultural work and chronic musculoskeletal pain among Latino farm workers: the MICASA Study

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hong; McCurdy, Stephen A.; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria; Li, Chin-Shang; Schenker, Marc B

    2013-01-01

    Background Agriculture poses varied dangers to hired farm workers in the U.S., but little information exists on occupational risks for chronic musculoskeletal pain. We examined common work positions, such as kneeling, carrying heavy loads, and repetitive motion that may increase the risk for chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods MICASA is a population-based study of occupational exposures and health in hired farm workers in California. This analysis includes 759 participants, 18–55 years old, engaged in farm work and residing in Mendota, CA. Chronic pain was defined as pain lasting six weeks or longer at specific body sites (back, knee, hip, etc.) over the entire farm work career. Results Mean age was 37.9 years. 65% participants were born in Mexico, 27.7% were born in El Salvador, and 4.2% were U.S-born. Chronic pain was associated with older age and female sex. After adjustment for age, years working in agriculture, and smoking, stooping/bending >30hrs/week among both men (OR=2.49, 95%CI:1.03–5.99) and women (OR=2.15, 95%CI:1.04–4.46) was associated with chronic hip pain. Driving tractors or other heavy farm equipment >60 hrs/week was associated with increased odds of chronic hip pain (OR=2.16 95%CI: 1.02–4.54) among men. We also observed significant associations with kneeling or crawling >35 hrs/week among women for both chronic back pain (OR=2.96 95%CI: 1.27–6.93) and knee pain (OR=3.02 95%CI: 1.07–8.50), respectively. Conclusions Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent among farm workers and is associated with common work positions. Further research should focus on developing preventive interventions for tasks associated with increased pain risk. These interventions should be targeted to specific types of agricultural tasks. PMID:23023585

  9. [Temporary loss of work capacity in connection with rheumatic diseases in workers of the agricultural-industrial complex].

    PubMed

    Doroshenko, Iu A; Bagirova, V V; Ivanova, I P; Kaĭsarov, G A

    1991-01-01

    The authors studied the morbidity rate accompanied by temporary incapacity for work in workers of the agricultural and industrial complex suffering from diseases of the joints. It has been established that rheumatic diseases take the first place as to their duration (number of days) and the second place at to their incidence (number of cases) per 100 workers. An annual rise in rheumatic disease prevalence, especially of a degenerative dystrophic nature was noted. Of importance are the age of patients service record in agriculture, intensity of load, nature of work, season. Machine operators were most liable to the mentioned disease. PMID:1839863

  10. Increased risk of lung cancer in pesticide-exposed male agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Barthel, E

    1981-01-01

    The cancer morbidity in a large group of male German agricultural workers exposed to pesticides was investigated through a retrospective cohort study. A total of 169 malignant tumors were diagnosed in 1658 men who began to work with pesticides between 1948 and 1972, and who continued this type of activity for at least 5 yr. The SMR (standardized mortality ratio) of 2.0 for lung cancer morbidity (mortality) in these pesticide-exposed subjects was significantly higher than that for the general male population of the German Democratic Republic. A positive correlation between the duration of employment and the mortality due to lung cancer (mainly undifferentiated and small-cell carcinomas) suggested a dose-effect relation. The smoking habits of the exposed men did not differ from those of the general male population of the German Democratic Republic. Because the subjects had been exposed to many different substances, the study does not permit any conclusions to be drawn in respect to the carcinogenicity of individual pesticides. The increased mortality due to lung cancer is presumably the result of an additive effect of different pesticide ingredients or of by-products whose carcinogenic effect has been definitely or tentatively established through experimental or epidemiologic studies (e.g. arsenic, asbestos, chlorinated dibenzodioxins, DDT). The results of the present investigation emphasize the need for effective measures to protect workers during occupational contact with pesticides.

  11. 29 CFR 500.122 - Adjustments in insurance requirements when workers' compensation coverage is provided under State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Insurance § 500.122 Adjustments in insurance...

  12. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, Corie A.; Crane, Alice L.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Browne, Richard W.; Lein, Pamela J.; Olson, James R.

    2012-12-15

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.

  13. 1961 ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA DIRECTED TOWARD THE IMPROVEMENT OF HEALTH AMONG DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS AND THEIR FAMILIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1961

    A PROGRAM INSTITUTED IN 1961 TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH OF DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN CALIFORNIA AND THEIR FAMILIES WAS GIVEN. IT SOUGHT TO HELP LOCAL HEALTH AGENCIES BY PROVIDING--TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO COUNTIES TRYING TO DEVELOP FACILITIES AND SERVICES, EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR USE OF STATE FUNDS BY LOCAL…

  14. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(1)-1 - Certain services performed by foreign agricultural workers, or performed before 1959 in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... agricultural workers, or performed before 1959 in connection with oleoresinous products. 31.3121(b)(1)-1 Section 31.3121(b)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... § 31.3121(b)(1)-1 Certain services performed by foreign agricultural workers, or performed before...

  15. Serological evidence for avian H9N2 influenza virus infections among Romanian agriculture workers.

    PubMed

    Coman, Alexandru; Maftei, Daniel N; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Friary, John A; Chereches, Razvan M; Sirlincan, Emanuela; Bria, Paul; Dragnea, Claudiu; Kasler, Iosif; Gray, Gregory C

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, wild birds have introduced multiple highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infections in Romanian poultry. In 2005 HPAI infections were widespread among domestic poultry and anecdotal reports suggested domestic pigs may also have been exposed. We sought to examine evidence for zoonotic influenza infections among Romanian agriculture workers. Between 2009 and 2010, 363 adult participants were enrolled in a cross-sectional, seroepidemiological study. Confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) swine workers in Tulcea and small, traditional backyard farmers in Cluj-Napoca were enrolled, as well as a non-animal exposed control group from Cluj-Napoca. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of previous infection with 9 avian and 3 human influenza virus strains. Serologic assays showed no evidence of previous infection with 7 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses or with HPAI H5N1. However, 33 participants (9.1%) had elevated microneutralization antibody titers against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 5 with titers ≥ 1:80 whom all reported exposure to poultry. Moderate poultry exposure was significantly associated with elevated titers after controlling for the subjects' age (adjusted OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-12.1). There was no evidence that previous infection with human H3N2 or H2N2 viruses were confounding the H9N2 seroreactivity. These data suggest that H9N2 virus may have circulated in Romanian poultry and occasionally infected man. PMID:23999337

  16. Development of the Seasonal Migrant Agricultural Worker Stress Scale in Sanliurfa, Southeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Zeynep; Ersin, Fatma; Kirmizitoprak, Evin

    2016-01-01

    Stress is one of the main causes of health problems, especially mental disorders. These health problems cause a significant amount of ability loss and increase cost. It is estimated that by 2020, mental disorders will constitute 15% of the total disease burden, and depression will rank second only after ischemic heart disease. Environmental experiences are paramount in increasing the liability of mental disorders in those who constantly face sustained high levels of stress. The objective of this study was to develop a stress scale for seasonal migrant agricultural workers aged 18 years and older. The sample consisted of 270 randomly selected seasonal migrant agricultural workers. The average age of the participants was 33.1 ± 14, and 50.7% were male. The Cronbach alpha coefficient and test-retest methods were used for reliability analyses. Although the factor analysis was performed for the structure validity of the scale, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient and Bartlett test were used to determine the convenience of the data for the factor analysis. In the reliability analyses, the Cronbach alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .96, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was .81. In the exploratory factor analysis for validity of the scale, four factors were obtained, and the factors represented workplace physical conditions (25.7% of the total variance), workplace psychosocial and economic factors (19.3% of the total variance), workplace health problems (15.2% of the total variance), and school problems (10.1% of the total variance). The four factors explained 70.3% of the total variance. As a result of the expert opinions and analyses, a stress scale with 48 items was developed. The highest score to be obtained from the scale was 144, and the lowest score was 0. The increase in the score indicates the increase in the stress levels. The findings show that the scale is a valid and reliable assessment instrument that can be used in

  17. Development of the Seasonal Migrant Agricultural Worker Stress Scale in Sanliurfa, Southeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Zeynep; Ersin, Fatma; Kirmizitoprak, Evin

    2016-01-01

    Stress is one of the main causes of health problems, especially mental disorders. These health problems cause a significant amount of ability loss and increase cost. It is estimated that by 2020, mental disorders will constitute 15% of the total disease burden, and depression will rank second only after ischemic heart disease. Environmental experiences are paramount in increasing the liability of mental disorders in those who constantly face sustained high levels of stress. The objective of this study was to develop a stress scale for seasonal migrant agricultural workers aged 18 years and older. The sample consisted of 270 randomly selected seasonal migrant agricultural workers. The average age of the participants was 33.1 ± 14, and 50.7% were male. The Cronbach alpha coefficient and test-retest methods were used for reliability analyses. Although the factor analysis was performed for the structure validity of the scale, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient and Bartlett test were used to determine the convenience of the data for the factor analysis. In the reliability analyses, the Cronbach alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .96, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was .81. In the exploratory factor analysis for validity of the scale, four factors were obtained, and the factors represented workplace physical conditions (25.7% of the total variance), workplace psychosocial and economic factors (19.3% of the total variance), workplace health problems (15.2% of the total variance), and school problems (10.1% of the total variance). The four factors explained 70.3% of the total variance. As a result of the expert opinions and analyses, a stress scale with 48 items was developed. The highest score to be obtained from the scale was 144, and the lowest score was 0. The increase in the score indicates the increase in the stress levels. The findings show that the scale is a valid and reliable assessment instrument that can be used in

  18. Evaluation of DNA damage in agricultural workers exposed to pesticides using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Raminderjeet; Kaur, Satbir; Lata, Mukesh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops, but they pose a potential risk to farmers and environment. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relation between the occupational exposure to various pesticides and the presence of DNA damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples of 210 exposed workers (after a day of intense spraying) and 50 control subjects belonging to various districts of Punjab (India) were evaluated using Comet assay. Sixty workers who showed DNA damage were selected for follow up at 5-6 months after the first sampling during a low or null spraying period. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in DNA damage between freshly exposed workers and controls and freshly exposed and followed up cases. There was significant increase in the comet parameters viz. mean comet tail length and frequency of cells showing migration in exposed workers as compared to controls (72.22 ± 20.76 vs. 46.92 ± 8.17, P<0.001; 31.79 vs. 5.77, P<0.001). In the second samples, followed up cases showed significant decrease in frequency of damaged cells as compared to freshly exposed workers of first sampling (P<0.05). The confounding factors such as variable duration of pesticide exposure, age, smoking, drinking and dietary habits etc which were expected to modulate the damage, were instead found to have no significant effect on DNA fragmentation. CONCLUSION: The evidence of a genetic hazard related to exposure resulting from the intensive use of pesticides stresses the need for educational programs for agricultural workers to reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture. PMID:22345990

  19. Longitudinal Assessment of Chlorpyrifos Exposure and Effect Biomarkers in Adolescent Egyptian Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Alice L.; Abdel Rasoul, Gaafar; Ismail, Ahmed A.; Hendy, Olfat; Bonner, Matthew R.; Lasarev, Michael R.; Al-Batanony, Manal; Singleton, Steven T.; Khan, Khalid; Olson, James R.; Rohlman, Diane S.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is applied seasonally in Egypt by adolescent agricultural workers and the extent of occupational exposure and the potential for environmental CPF exposure in this population is poorly understood. Adolescent pesticide applicators (n=57; 12–21 years of age) and age matched non-applicators (n=38) from the same villages were followed for 10 months in 2010, spanning pre-application through post-application. Eight urine and 5 blood samples were collected from participants within this time period. Blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) (exposure/effect biomarker) and urine 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) (exposure biomarker) were used to assess occupational CPF exposures in pesticide applicators and environmental exposures in non-applicators. Applicators demonstrated significantly higher TCPy concentration and BChE depression than non-applicators throughout CPF application. This difference persisted for 4–7 weeks after the cessation of agricultural spraying. However, both groups exhibited significantly elevated TCPy and depressed BChE, compared to their respective baseline. The peak TCPy levels during the spray season (95% confidence interval) for non-applicators and applicators reached 16.8 (9.87–28.5) and 137 (57.4–329) ug/g creatinine, respectively. BChE levels (95% confidence intervals) during the spray were 1.47 (1.28–1.68) for non-applicators and 0.47 (0.24–0.94) U/ml for applicators. The longitudinal assessment of CPF biomarkers provided robust measures of exposure and effect throughout CPF application in adolescents and revealed significant exposures in both applicators and non-applicators. Biomarker data in the non-applicators, which mirrored that of the applicators, indicated that non-applicators received environmental CPF exposures. This suggests that similar exposures may occur in other residents of this region during periods of pesticide application. PMID:23321857

  20. Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M T; Voroney, R P; Khalid, M

    2010-01-01

    Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG) emissions by saving energy to be used for the production of the same amount of industrial fertilizer N required for the growth of corn crop. Application of OFW at 10Mg solid ha(-1)y(-1) conserved 68 kg N ha(-1)y(-1) which ultimately saved 134 L diesel ha(-1)y(-1), which would otherwise be used for the production of fertilizer N as urea. Average fossil energy substitution value (FESV) of N conserved/recycled was calculated to be 93 US$ ha(-1)y(-1), which is about 13 million US$y(-1). Potential amount of GHG mitigation through the application of OFW to agricultural soils in Canada is estimated to be 57 Gg CO(2)Eq y(-1).

  1. Green house gas emissions from open field burning of agricultural residues in India.

    PubMed

    Murali, S; Shrivastava, Rajnish; Saxena, Mohini

    2010-10-01

    In India, about 435.98 MMT of agro-residues are produced every year, out of which 313.62 MMT are surplus. These residues are either partially utilized or un-utilised due to various constraints. To pave the way for subsequent season for agriculture activity, the excess crop residues are burnt openly in the fields, unmindful of their ill effects on the environment. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the severity of air pollution through emission of green house gases (GHGs) due to open field burning of agro-residues in India. Open field burning of surplus agro-residues in India results in the emission of GHG. Emissions of CH4 and N2O in 1997-98 and 2006-07 have been 3.73 and 4.06 MMT CO2 equivalent, which is an increase of 8.88% over a decade. About three-fourths of GHG emissions from agro-residues burning were CH4 and the remaining one-fourth were N2O. Burning of wheat and paddy straws alone contributes to about 42% of GHGs. These GHG emissions can be avoided once the agro-residues are employed for sustainable, cost-effective and environment- friendly options like power generation.

  2. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined. PMID:27406110

  3. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.

  4. Pesticide Exposure Alters Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Levels in Mexican Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Recio, Rogelio; Ocampo-Gómez, Guadalupe; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Borja-Aburto, Victor; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Uribe, Marisela; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Cebrián, Mariano E.

    2005-01-01

    Organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) are suspected of altering reproductive function by reducing brain acetylcholinesterase activity and monoamine levels, thus impairing hypothalamic and/or pituitary endocrine functions and gonadal processes. Our objective was to evaluate in a longitudinal study the association between OP exposure and serum levels of pituitary and sex hormones. Urinary OP metabolite levels were measured by gas–liquid chromatography, and serum pituitary and sex hormone levels by enzymatic immunoassay and radioimmunoassay in 64 men. A total of 147 urine and blood samples were analyzed for each parameter. More than 80% of the participants had at least one OP metabolite in their urine samples. The most frequent metabolite found was diethylthiophosphate (DETP; 55%), followed by diethylphosphate (DEP; 46%), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP; 32%), and dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP; 31%). However, the metabolites detected at higher concentrations were DMTP, DEP, DMDTP, and dimethylphosphate. There was a high proportion of individuals with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations outside the range of normality (48%). The average FSH serum levels were higher during the heavy pesticide spraying season. However, a multivariate analysis of data collected in all periods showed that serum FSH levels were negatively associated with urinary concentrations of both DMTP and DMDTP, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH) was negatively associated with DMTP. We observed no significant associations between estradiol or testosterone serum levels with OP metabolites. The hormonal disruption in agricultural workers presented here, together with results from experimental animal studies, suggests that OP exposure disrupts the hypothalamic–pituitary endocrine function and also indicates that FSH and LH are the hormones most affected. PMID:16140621

  5. Farmworker Housing in Crisis: How Rural Communities Can Learn from the Arvin Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Examines how officials in Arvin, a small rural California community, developed a family housing project to reduce the housing shortage among agricultural workers. Suggested guidelines for similar programs include assessing area needs; matching housing types to needs; maintaining affordability; supervising construction; consulting with local…

  6. Lessons Learnt From the Model of Instructional System for Training Community Health Workers in Rural Health Houses of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammadreza; Ahmadi, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many experts believe that the “health houses” of Iran have had major effects in increasing health status of Iranian rural community. One of the factors, which was critical to this success is the employment of young women and men from rural communities who serve as multipurpose health workers. They participate in a two-year task-oriented training course. Objectives: The purpose of this article was to describe the model of training behvarzes as the community health workers who deliver health services to the health houses of Iran. This description included the specific method of recruiting these CHWs, strategies and methods of their training which is different from general academic education. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study design was utilized for this analysis in six areas. These areas have been selected according to the expert opinions and experiences of the Center for Health Networks Management. Results: The results showed the specific method of student selection and clear objectives and standards of training related to the health needs of the community. Recruitment of native human resources, the relationship between training and performance are the characteristics, which have been made this system more efficient and responsive to the health system needs. Conclusions: Development of the job and task analysis to ensure providing the right training needs, applying more evidences through different studies for reforms, more decentralized equipped system with decision-making tools have been proposed for development. PMID:25838935

  7. 76 FR 18798 - Comment Request for Information Collection for The National Agricultural Workers Survey: Revision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) authorization for the current NAWS questionnaire will expire on... to ensure that requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and... Workers Survey (NAWS) regarding: (1) The amount of time per day farm workers are engaged working...

  8. The Learning Facilitation Role of Agricultural Extension Workers in the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by Tropical Fruit Growers in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…

  9. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(1)-1 - Certain services performed by foreign agricultural workers, or performed before 1959 in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... agricultural worker lawfully admitted to the United States from the Bahamas, Jamaica, or the other British West... worker lawfully admitted to the United States from any foreign country or possession thereof, including... employment” included also horticultural employment, cotton ginning, compressing and storing, crushing of...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(1)-1 - Certain services performed by foreign agricultural workers, or performed before 1959 in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... agricultural worker lawfully admitted to the United States from the Bahamas, Jamaica, or the other British West... worker lawfully admitted to the United States from any foreign country or possession thereof, including... employment” included also horticultural employment, cotton ginning, compressing and storing, crushing of...

  11. The Occupational Mobility of Current and Former Farm Workers: A Comparative Analysis in Two California Labor Markets. California Agricultural Studies, 91-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Susan; Goldring, Luin

    This report examines the occupational mobility of agricultural workers in two California labor markets and the effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act and individual, job, and labor-market characteristics on such mobility. Interviews were conducted among a randomly selected sample of 162 households, which included 401 workers in southern…

  12. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Agriculture Production (Program CIP: 01.0301--Agricultural Prod. Workers & Mgrs.). Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for agriculture production I and II. Presented first are a program…

  13. Pattern of use of personal protective equipments and measures during application of pesticides by agricultural workers in a rural area of Ahmednagar district, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Gupta, Mudit Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries for agricultural purposes. Objectives: To find various patterns of hardware use for spraying of insecticides, prevalent storage practice adopted by the user, types of personal protective equipments used for the handling of chemicals; to detect dangerous practices and the extent to which safety norms being followed by the users during the application/treatments, and finally their knowledge concerning the risks of pesticides. Materials and Methods: The agriculture workers who had been involved in pesticide application for agricultural purpose were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: Types, treatment equipment, use of personal protection and safety measures during the application/treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Hundred workers, aged between 21 and 60 years old, were included. Pesticides were mostly applied with manual equipment using Knapsack (70%) and only 5% farmers were using Tractor-mounted sprayer. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 65%). Majority of the workers/applicators used no personal protection measures or used it defectively/partially. Most of the workers/respondents (77%) did not bother for safety and health risks of pesticide exposure. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very poorly and defectively. Almost half of the applicators were not following right direction with respect to wind direction while spraying, thus it increase the risk of exposure. There is a clear need to develop specific training and prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on

  14. Exposure of farm workers to electromagnetic radiation from cellular network radio base stations situated on rural agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Pascuzzi, Simone; Santoro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field (EMF) levels generated by mobile telephone radio base stations (RBS) situated on rural-agricultural lands were assessed in order to evaluate the exposure of farm workers in the surrounding area. The expected EMF at various distances from a mobile telephone RBS was calculated using an ad hoc numerical forecast model. Subsequently, the electric fields around some RBS on agricultural lands were measured, in order to obtain a good approximation of the effective conditions at the investigated sites. The viability of this study was tested according to the Italian Regulations concerning general and occupational public exposure to time-varying EMFs. The calculated E-field values were obtained with the RBS working constantly at full power, but during the in situ measurements the actual power emitted by RBS antennas was lower than the maximum level, and the E-field values actually registered were much lower than the calculated values.

  15. PROMISING PRACTICES IN SUMMER SCHOOLS SERVING THE CHILDREN OF SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS, 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEFFERNAN, HELEN; AND OTHERS

    SPECIAL FEATURES OF FIVE SUMMER SCHOOL PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRANT WORKERS WERE PRESENTED. THE CERES ELEMENTARY SCHOOL DISTRICT GAVE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL WOODWORKING CLASSES TO FIFTH- AND SIXTH-GRADE GIRLS. INSTRUCTION IN COOKING AND SEWING WAS ENTHUSIASTICALLY RECEIVED BY THIRD- AND FOURTH-GRADE GIRLS BUT DID NOT APPEAL TO OLDER GIRLS. A…

  16. Evaluation of Dust Exposure among the Workers in Agricultural Industries in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Dewangan, Krishna N; Patil, Mahesh R

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to quantify dust exposure among the workers in four different industrial settings: rice mills, flour mills, oil mills, and tea factories and to compare the obtained data with the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of Indian Union Ministry of Labour as well as to compare the dust exposure across activities and seasons. RespiCon(TM) particle sampler was used for collecting dust concentration in the breathing zone of the workers. In total, 149 workers participated in the study and 204 samples were collected. Samples were collected in the vicinity of different processing operations. Samples in the rice mills were collected for two consecutive years in two seasons; however samples from other industries were collected for 1 year. The results indicate that geometric mean (GM) of dust exposure was significantly (P < 0.0001) different among industrial settings. Respirable dust were 8.22, 5.76, 2.98, and 6.34mg m(-3) and total dust exposure were 81.05, 111.02, 56.68, and 39.85mg m(-3) in the rice mills, oil mills, flour mills, and tea factories, respectively. Considerable variations in dust exposure were observed in different activities in the rice and oil mills; however variation was relatively less in the flour mills and tea factories. In the rice mills, dust concentration was higher in winter than those obtained in autumn and it is significantly different (P < 0.05) for inhalable dust and total dust. Positive correlation was obtained in thoracic dust (r (2) = 0.94) and inhalable dust (r (2) = 0.97) with total dust and thoracic dust with inhalable dust (r (2) = 0.89). The results show that majority of the workers are exposed to higher level of respirable dust as compared to the PEL, while total dust exposure to all the workers were higher than the PEL; thus, immediate reduction of dust exposure among the workers is necessary for preventing respiratory system impairment. PMID:26324828

  17. Determination of DDT and related compounds in blood samples from agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Guardino, X; Serra, C; Obiols, J; Rosell, M G; Berenguer, M J; López, F; Brosa, J

    1996-01-01

    An analytical method combining a solid-phase (C18) clean-up and GC-electron-capture detection using a capillary column, was implemented to determine p,p'-DDT and its metabolites (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), as well as other organochlorine pesticides in whole blood samples from 30 farmers and 24 non-occupationally exposed workers. The average concentrations for the quantified pesticides, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE, were 0.9, 1.5 and 8.0 micrograms/l whole blood for exposed workers and 0.3, 0.5 and 3.3 micrograms/l for unexposed workers, respectively. GC-MS was used to confirm the identity of the pesticides found. Solid-phase extraction and the protocol used give a cleaner analytical matrix, not only improving sensitivity and resolution, but also allowing analyses with smaller blood samples as compared to other methods.

  18. Farm Activities and Agricultural Injuries in Youth and Young Adult Workers.

    PubMed

    DeWit, Yvonne; Pickett, William; Lawson, Joshua; Dosman, James

    2015-01-01

    Youth and young adults who work in the agricultural sector experience high rates of injury. This study aimed to investigate relations between high-risk farm activities and the occurrence of agricultural injuries in these vulnerable groups. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using written questionnaire data from 1135 youth and young adults from the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort. The prevalence of agricultural injury was estimated at 4.9%/year (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7, 6.2). After adjustment for important covariates, duration of farm work was strongly associated with the occurrence of injury (risk ratio [RR] = 8.0 [95% CI: 1.7, 36.7] for 10-34 vs. <10 hours/week; RR = 10.3 [95% CI: 2.2, 47.5] for those working 35+ hours/week). Tractor maintenance, tractor operation, chores with large animals, herd maintenance activities, and veterinary activities were identified as risk factors for agricultural injury. Risks for agricultural injury among youth and young adults on farms relate directly to the amounts and types of farm work exposures that young people engage in. PMID:26237722

  19. Raising the profile of worker safety: highlights of the 2013 North American Agricultural Safety Summit.

    PubMed

    Nelson, William J; Heiberger, Scott; Lee, Barbara C

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 North American Agricultural Safety Summit, an unprecedented gathering of industry leaders and safety experts, was held September 25-27 in Minneapolis, MN. Hosted by the industry-led Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America (ASHCA), there were 250 attendees, 82 speakers, 76 abstracts with poster presentations, along with "best practices" videos, genius bars sessions, learning stations, exhibits, breakfast roundtable topics, and receptions. The event was a mix of knowledge, inspiration and networking to enable participants to influence the adoption of safety practices in their home/work settings. Given the agriculture industry's commitment to feed nine billion people, the projected world population by 2050, it is imperative that producers and agribusiness strive to do it safely, humanely and sustainably. Evaluation feedback was very positive, indicating ASHCA's original objectives for the Summit were achieved.

  20. Teaching Competencies Needed by Extension Workers in Transferring Agricultural Technologies to Malaysian Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert A.; Sajilan, Sulaiman Bin

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the competencies related to teaching perceived to be needed by Malaysian Extension professionals in transferring new agricultural technologies to farmers in Malaysia. All competencies related to teaching were found to be important. (JOW)

  1. Toxicologic studies associated with the agricultural use of municipal sewage sludge and health effects among sewage treatment plant workers.

    PubMed

    Babish, J G; Stoewsand, G S; Kranz, J M; Boyd, J N; Ahrens, V D; Lisk, D J

    1984-09-01

    The proposed use of municipal sewage sludges as soil amendments on agricultural land involves potential health risks. Sludges may contain toxic heavy metals, synthetic organics, and pathogens. Studies of animals inhabiting sludge-amended soils, or foraging on crops grown on such soils, have shown an increased deposition of cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls in animal tissues, hepatic microsomal enzyme induction, altered blood profiles, appearance of mutagens in blood and excreta, and lowered feed intake, feed efficiency, and milk production. Epidemiologic evidence of possible adverse health effects among sewage plant workers exposed to aerosolized pathogens or synthetic organic vapors during wastewater treatment or land spreading of sludge is still inconclusive. Other possible deleterious environmental effects include pollution of groundwater and toxicity to birds consuming worms or insects inhabiting sludge-treated soils.

  2. Using problem-based learning for occupational and environmental health nursing education: pesticide exposures among migrant agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Ivicek, Kristy; de Castro, A B; Salazar, Mary K; Murphy, Helen H; Keifer, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Problem-based learning, which emphasizes group collaboration to solve real-world case scenarios, is an instructional approach that is well suited to occupational and environmental health nursing education. Learners actively work through case studies rather than passively receive information presented through lectures. Problem-based learning methods promote critical thinking skills and motivate learning, preparing learners for professional practice in complex, ever-changing environments. Despite these advantages, problem-based learning is under-utilized in nursing education compared to more traditional lecture methods. This article presents key concepts of problem-based learning, discusses problem-based learning in educating occupational and environmental health nurses, and describes the development of a problem-based learning case aimed at increasing occupational and environmental health nurses capacity to address pesticide exposure among migrant and seasonal agricultural workers.

  3. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure. PMID:26423288

  4. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure.

  5. 76 FR 30972 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Housing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... additional information, see the related notice published in the Federal Register on March 21, 2011 (76 FR...; Housing Occupancy Certificate--Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act ACTION: Notice... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Housing Occupancy Certificate--Migrant and...

  6. 1890 Land-Grant Colleges Facilities. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Department Operations, Research, and Foreign Agriculture of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session on H.R. 1309.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    The Committee on Agriculture hearing in the U.S. House of Representatives on H.R. 1309, which pertains to land-grant colleges and research facilities, including the text of the bill and witness statements, are presented. The bill would provide grants to the 1890 land-grant colleges, including Tuskegee Institute, for the purpose of assisting these…

  7. Effects of agricultural tillage practise on green house gas balance of an arable soil in a long term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munch, Jean Charles; Schilling, Rolf; Ruth, Bernhard; Fuss, Roland

    2010-05-01

    Soils are an important part of the global carbon cycle. A large proportion of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is released from soils, though carbon sequestration occurs. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of soils are also believed to contribute significantly to the green house effect as well as the stratospheric ozone depletion. An important source of N2O emissions is denitrification of nitrate from nitrogen fertilized soils. Although it is desirable to minimize these emissions while maintaining high crop yields it is still poorly understood how green house gas emissions may be steered by agricultural management practise, i.e. tillage and fertilization systems . In an ongoing long term field experiment at the research farm Scheyern, Bavaria, a arable field with one homogenous soil formation was transformed into plots in a randomized design 14 years ago. Since then, they are managed using conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) as well as low and high fertilization. A conventional crop rotation is maintained on the field. Starting 2007, CO2 and N2O emissions were monitored continuously for 2.5 years. Furthermore water content, temperature and redox potential were measured in-situ as they are major factors on microbial activity and denitrification. Soil was sampled from the Ap horizons of the plots about twice a month and extracts from these soil samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonium, nitrate/nitrite, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). According to the results soil density and hydrology are clearly affected by tillage practise. DOC is more affected by tillage while concentration of nitrogen species is controlled mainly by fertilization. There are distinct differences in redox potential between CT and NT plots with CT plots having more anaerobic periods. CO2 and N2O emissions exhibit a clear seasonal pattern and are affected by both tillage system and fertilization

  8. Environmental and occupational health risks among agricultural workers living in a rural community near petroleum refinery and motorway in Skopje region.

    PubMed

    Karadžinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sašo; Mijakoski, Dragan; Risteska-Kuc, Snežana; Milkovska, Snežana

    2010-12-01

    To assess health risks in agricultural workers associated with environmental exposure to pollutants released from a petroleum refinery and from traffic, we performed a cross-sectional study that included 119 randomly selected subjects divided in two groups. Group 1 included 60 agricultural workers living in a rural community near the petroleum refinery and a motorway overpass, whereas Group 2 consisted of 59 agricultural workers performing similar activities and living in a rural community with no exposure to industrial and traffic pollutants. Risk assessment included a questionnaire, blood pressure measurement, spirometry, laboratory tests, and toxicological analysis. The groups showed a similar prevalence of health problems, with exception of muscle pain in the extremities, headache, and fatigue, which were significantly more common in Group 1. Diastolic blood pressure was higher in Group 1, but not significantly (p=0.057). The same is true for blood carbon monoxide. Significantly higher in Group 1 were blood haemoglobin (p=0.001) and blood lead (p<0.001). Serum cholinesterase activity was similar in both groups. Our findings indicate the need of regular medical exams, ambient monitoring and environmental impact assessment in agricultural population in order to detect individuals at risk and to institute adequate preventive measures.

  9. Evaluation of a hybrid constructed wetland for treating domestic sewage from individual housing units surrounding agricultural villages in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong Cheol; DeLaune, Ronald D; Park, Woo Young; Lim, Jong Sir; Seo, Jeoung Yoon; Lee, Do Jin; Cho, Ju Sik; Heo, Jong Soo

    2009-01-01

    The treatment efficiency of 2- and 3-stage constructed wetlands (CWs) was evaluated for treating domestic sewage from houses surrounding agricultural villages. The optimum depth of filter media was 90 cm. The optimum volume ratio of vertical flow (VF) and horizontal flow (HF) beds was 1:2, and the optimum filter medium was broken stone in the VF-HF 2-stage hybrid CWs. Based on the above optimum conditions, removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (T-N), and total phosphorus (T-P) were 99, 98, 99, 68, and 72%, respectively. However to utilize constructed wetlands (CWs) for treating domestic sewage for an individual house, would require downsizing of the 2-stage hybrid CWs. In addition, the low removal efficiency of T-N and T-P in 2-stage hybrid CWs would require improvements necessary to meet acceptable water quality discharge standards. Thus, to reduce the CWs' area and improve the T-N and T-P removal efficiencies, VF-HF 2-stage hybrid CW was modified into VF/HF(I)-HF(II) and VF/HF(I)-HF(III) 3-stage hybrid CW. The optimum reduced size of 3-stage hybrid CW was the VF/HF(I)-HF(II) configuration which also increased T-N removal. Using this system, removal efficiency of BOD, COD, SS, T-N, and T-P were 99, 98, 99, 83, and 75%, respectively. In VF/HF(I)-HF(II) CW, the removal velocity of BOD, COD and SS was rapid on the order of VF (1st stage) > HF(II) (3rd stage) > or = HF(I) (2nd stage), VF (1st stage) > HF(II) (3rd stage) > HF(I) (2nd stage) and VF (1st stage) > HF(I) (2nd stage) > HF(II) (3rd stage), respectively. The removal velocity of T-N and T-P in VF/HF(I)-HF(II) CWs was rapid on the order of HF(I) (2nd stage) > HF(II) (3rd stage) > or = VF (1st stage) and VF (1st stage) > HF(I) (2nd stage) > HF(II) (3rd stage), respectively.

  10. Pre-training to improve workshop performance in supervisor skills: an exploratory study of Latino agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Austin, J; Alvero, A M; Fuchs, M M; Patterson, L; Anger, W K

    2009-07-01

    Employees with limited education may be excluded from advanced training due to assumptions that they might not learn rapidly. However, preparatory training may be able to overcome missing experience in education. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that computer-based training (CBT) in supervisor skills of Latino agricultural workers would improve subsequent performance in a workshop designed to teach supervisor skills. Ten men born and educated in Mexico participated in the study; all spoke Spanish, the language of the training. Five participants (mean 6.4 years of education) completed supervisor skills CBT, and five participants (mean 8.2 years of education) completed hazard communication (HazCom) CBT as a control condition. Following the CBT, all participants completed a two-day face-to-face workshop on supervisory skills conducted by an experienced behavior management consultant. Although the groups did not differ in their knowledge scores on a multiple-choice test before the face-to-face workshop, after the workshop the HazCom group had a mean test score of 51.2% (SD = 8.7) while the supervisor group had a higher mean test score of 65.2% (SD = 14.3). The difference was marginally significant by a t-test (p = 0.052), and the effect size was large (d = 1.16). The results suggest that computer-based training in supervisor skills can be effective in preparing participants with limited education to learn supervisor skills from a face-to-face workshop. This result suggests that limited educational attainment is not a barrier to learning the complex knowledge required to supervise employees, that pre-training may improve learning in a workshop format, and that training may be presented effectively in a computer-based format to employees with limited education.

  11. The relation between type of farming and prevalence of Parkinson's disease among agricultural workers in five French districts.

    PubMed

    Moisan, Frédéric; Spinosi, Johan; Dupupet, Jean-Luc; Delabre, Laurène; Mazurie, Jean-Louis; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen; Tzourio, Christophe; Elbaz, Alexis

    2011-02-01

    Retrospective assessment of pesticide exposure is complex; however, patterns of pesticide use strongly depend on farming type, which is easier to assess than pesticide exposure. Our aim was to estimate Parkinson's disease (PD) prevalence in five French districts in 2007 among affiliates of Mutualité Sociale Agricole (MSA) and to investigate the relation between PD prevalence and farming type. We identified PD cases from administrative files as persons who used levodopa and/or benefited from free health care for PD. Densities of 16 farming types were defined at the canton of residence level (1988 French agricultural census). We used logistic regression to study the relation between PD prevalence and density of farming types and a semi-Bayes approach to deal with correlated exposures. We identified 1,659 PD cases, yielding an age- and sex-standardized PD prevalence of 3.01/1,000. Prevalence increased with age and was higher in men than women. We found a higher PD prevalence among affiliates living in cantons characterized by a higher density of farms specialized in fruits and permanent crops (multivariable semi-Bayes model: OR(4+5 vs 1+2+3 quintiles) = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.08-1.36; test for trend, P = 0.035). In France, farms specialized in fruits and permanent crops rank first in terms of insecticide use per hectare. Our findings are consistent with studies reporting an association between PD and insecticide use and show that workers in farms specialized in fruits or permanent crops may be an occupational group at higher PD risk.

  12. Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Workers, 1972: S. 3762 -- To Extend the Program for Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Migrant Workers. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Subcommittee on Migratory Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 2d Session, August 1, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    On August 1, 1972, the Subcommittee heard testimony on bill S. 3762 which would extend the program for health services for domestic agricultural migrant workers. The bill would extend the migrant health program for 5 years, with $100 million authorized for fiscal year 1973 and a $25 million increase for each of the following years. S. 3762…

  13. From agricultural fields to urban asphalt: the role of worker education to promote California's heat illness prevention standard.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kevin; Delp, Linda; Cornelio, Deogracia; Jacobs, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an innovative approach to reach and educate workers and worker advocates about California's outdoor heat illness prevention standard. In 2010, Cal/OSHA initiated a statewide education campaign to reduce heat-related illnesses and fatalities and increase awareness of the standard's requirements. In Southern California, the UCLA Labor Occupational Safety and Health Program (LOSH) focused on three principal strategies of community-based outreach, popular education, and organizational capacity building. Central to the LOSH approach was the integration of health promotores into core program planning and training activities and the expansion of campaign activities to a wide variety of rural and urban workers. We describe each of these strategies and analyze the possibilities and constraints of worker education to support implementation of this standard, particularly given the vulnerabilities of the impacted workforce, the often precarious nature of employment arrangements for these workers, and the resource limitations of Cal/OSHA.

  14. 77 FR 3998 - U.S. Department of Agriculture Multi-Family Housing Program 2012 Industry Forums-Open...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ...--Open Teleconference and/or Web Conference Meetings AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ] ACTION: Announcement of meetings. SUMMARY: This Notice announces a series of teleconferences and/or Web conference meetings regarding the USDA Multi-Family Housing Program. The teleconference and/or Web conference...

  15. 78 FR 12032 - U.S. Department of Agriculture Multi-Family Housing Program 2013 Industry Forums-Open...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...--Open Teleconference and/or Web Conference Meetings AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces a series of Teleconferences and/or Web Conference Meetings regarding the USDA Multi-Family Housing Program. The Teleconference and/or Web Conference Meetings will be...

  16. Findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS), 1997-1998: A Demographic and Employment Profile of United States Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Kala; Gabbard, Susan M.; Barrat, Vanessa; Lewis, Melissa; Carroll, Daniel; Mines, Richard

    This report presents current information on the characteristics and work patterns of hired laborers who perform crop work in the United States. Information was obtained from interviews with 4,199 workers in 85 counties between October 1, 1996 and September 30, 1998. Chapters 1-3 provide information about the farmworkers themselves, including…

  17. 78 FR 36520 - U.S. Department of Agriculture Multi-Family Housing Section 515-Underserved Counties and Colonias...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Counties and Colonias and Non-Profits AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Through...-aside amounts will be available for Section 515 program non-profits and underserved areas. This Notice... October 12, 2012, 9 percent of which will be set-aside for the Section 515 program's non-profits...

  18. [Ethological basis for the evaluation of animal welfare in housing systems for agricultural animals and laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Stauffacher, M

    1992-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Act on Animal Protection (1978) requires the sale of mass-produced housing systems for farm animals to be authorized by the Federal Veterinary Office. Authorization is only granted for housing systems that safeguard the animals' welfare. A concept for the assessment of Animal Welfare has to provide a high forensic value. The capacity of farm animals to adapt to an intensive housing system can be directly examined, whereas the existence and extent of subjective feelings can only be assumed. In our concept the examination focuses on the interaction of individuals with their artificial environment. The main question is whether or not the individuals are able to cope with given nonspecific (e.g. temperature, humidity) and specific (e.g. drinking troughs, behaviour of conspecifics) stimuli in order to reach the immediate (e.g. drinking, make way for) and ultimate (survival, reproduction success) goals. Animals of the same breed are observed in a highly diverse environment in order to determine normal behaviour. Whether behavioural expressions which differ significantly from normal behaviour are adaptive to the restrictive housing conditions is judged by the behaviours' consequences for both, the individuals and the environment. Many studies prove the concept's high forensic value and the authorities prefer conclusions based on this concept to others referring to the animals' motivational and emotional state. However more research has to be done with respect to animal welfare in farm and laboratory animal breeding as well as in the use of laboratory animals for experimental studies.

  19. Asthma, Airway Symptoms and Rhinitis in Office Workers in Malaysia: Associations with House Dust Mite (HDM) Allergy, Cat Allergy and Levels of House Dust Mite Allergens in Office Dust

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Fang Lee; Hashim, Zailina; Than, Leslie Thian Lung; Md Said, Salmiah; Hisham Hashim, Jamal; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695). The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM) and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH) were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus) and Der f 1 (from D. farinae) allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035), any airway symptoms (p= 0.032), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005), current asthma (p= 0.007), current rhinitis (p= 0.021) and rhinoconjuctivitis (p< 0.001). Cat allergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021), wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033), any airway symptoms (p= 0.034), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010), current asthma (p= 0.020) and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042). Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033) especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (p< 0.001) and inversely correlated with RH (p< 0.001). In conclusion, HDM and cat allergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness. PMID:25923543

  20. 7 CFR 3560.623 - Housing management and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Housing management and operations. 3560.623 Section 3560.623 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.623 Housing management and operations....

  1. 7 CFR 3560.626 - Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. 3560.626 Section 3560.626 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.626 Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing...

  2. 7 CFR 3560.623 - Housing management and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Housing management and operations. 3560.623 Section 3560.623 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.623 Housing management and operations....

  3. 7 CFR 3560.577 - Tenant priorities for labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tenant priorities for labor housing. 3560.577 Section 3560.577 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.577 Tenant priorities for labor housing....

  4. Food Assistance: School Milk Contract Bid-Rigging. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    In the late 1980s, the Department of Justice began a campaign of prosecuting dairy companies and individuals associated with these companies for colluding on contract bids to supply milk to schools and military installations. Data were derived from: (1) interviews with officials from the Departments of Defense, Agriculture, and Justice; (2) a…

  5. To Authorize a Limited Waiver of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 with Respect to Certain Agricultural Hand Harvest Laborers. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Agricultural Labor of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 94th Congress, 1st Session on H.R.632 (Washington, D.C., April 18, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    On April 18, 1975, the House Subcommittee on Agricultural Labor heard testimony regarding H.R. 632 which would establish procedures for the Secretary of Labor to waive the child labor provisions of the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act for employment in agriculture of children under 12 years of age. Several conditions would have to be met before the…

  6. Mexican Contract Workers and the U.S. Capitalist Agricultural Labor Process: The Formative Era, 1942-1964

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mize, Ronald L., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Rural sociologists have seemingly moved away from an active interest in the plight of migrant farmworkers and the centrality of their labor in the development of U.S. agribusiness. Answering Pfeffer's (1983) call to analyze the different forms of agricultural production, I focus on the key formative period of what I refer to as the U.S. capitalist…

  7. PON1Q192R genetic polymorphism modifies organophosphorous pesticide effects on semen quality and DNA integrity in agricultural workers from southern Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Herrera, N.; Polanco-Minaya, H. |; Salazar-Arredondo, E. |; Solis-Heredia, M.J.; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Rojas-Garcia, E.; Alvarado-Mejia, J.; Borja-Aburto, V.H.; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2008-07-15

    Pesticide exposure, including organophosphorous (OP) insecticides, has been associated with poor semen quality, and paraoxonase (PON1), an enzyme involved in OP deactivation, may have a role on their susceptibility, due to PON1 polymorphisms. Our objective was to evaluate the role of PON1Q192R polymorphism on the susceptibility to OP toxicity on semen quality and DNA integrity in agricultural workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in farmers with Mayan ascendancy from southeastern Mexico chronically exposed to pesticides; mostly OP. Fifty four agricultural workers (18-55 years old) were included, who provided semen and blood samples. Semen quality was evaluated according to WHO, sperm DNA damage by in situ-nick translation (NT-positive cells), PON1Q192R polymorphism by real-time PCR and serum PON1 activity by using phenylacetate and paraoxon. Two OP exposure indexes were created: at the month of sampling and during 3 months before sampling, representing the exposure to spermatids-spermatozoa and to cells at one spermatogenic cycle, respectively. PON1 192R and 192Q allele frequencies were 0.54 and 0.46, respectively. Significant associations were found between OP exposure at the month of sampling and NT-positive cells and sperm viability in homozygote 192RR subjects, and dose-effect relationships were observed between OP exposure during 3 months before sampling and sperm quality parameters and NT-positive cells in homozygote 192RR farmers. This suggests that cells at all stages of spermatogenesis are target of OP, and that there exists an interaction between OP exposure and PON1Q192R polymorphism on these effects; farmers featuring the 192RR genotype were more susceptible to develop reproductive toxic effects by OP exposure.

  8. Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  9. [Effects of occupational exposure to pesticides on semen quality of workers in an agricultural community of Merida state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Miranda-Contreras, Leticia; Cruz, Ibis; Osuna, Jesús A; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham; Colmenares, Melisa; Barreto, Silvio; Balza, Alirio; Morales, Yasmin; Zavala, Leisalba; Labarca, Emilitza; García, Nelly; Sanchez, Beluardi; Contreras, Carlos A; Andrade, Henry

    2015-06-01

    Numerous studies report adverse effects of pesticides on male reproductive health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether there is a relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and semen quality, and to determine whether chronic exposure to pesticides differentially affects semen quality in men of different ages. A comparative study of 64 farmers and 64 control men was performed. The farmers were interviewed to determine their occupational history and particularly, activities that may involve exposure to pesticides. Semen parameters were evaluated and a comparative analysis of semen variables between exposed and control groups, as well as between age groups: 18-29, 30-37 and 38-60 years was done. Significant alterations of some semen parameters in the exposed group were found, such as: decreases in sperm concentration, slow progressive motility and sperm membrane integrity; at the same time, increases in eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index. The results obtained by age groups showed significant differences between exposed and control groups for the parameters of membrane integrity, eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index, being the exposed group between 18-29 years that showed the highest altered cases of these parameters. Our results prove that occupational pesticide exposure is associated with alterations in sperm quality, creating a risk to farm workers in their reproductive capacity.

  10. National Office for Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Agricultural Labor of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 93rd Congress, 2nd Session on H.R. 12257, September 26, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Categorical programs presently delivering services to migrant and seasonal farmworkers are diffusely spread throughout several departments and agencies of the Federal Government. On September 26, 1974, the House of Representatives Subcommittee on Agricultural Labor of the Committee on Education and Labor met to hear testimony on H.R. 12257 and…

  11. Serum concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDE) in a sample of agricultural workers from Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Luis A; Freille, Sara M; Vaca-Pereira, Jasmin S; Cuellar, Miriam; Flores, Lizbeth; Mutch, Elaine; Olea, Nicolas; Arrebola, Juan P

    2013-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is still used for vector control in several tropical and subtropical areas of South America and there is evidence of recent illegal use in agriculture. Its main breakdown product in the environment and living organisms is p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), which is considered a marker of past exposure to DDT. The aim of the present study was to assess human exposure to p,p'-DDE in a sample of agricultural farmers from three rural communities in eastern Bolivia. In addition, o,p'-DDT was analyzed as a surrogate of a potential ongoing exposure to the pesticide. Face-to-face questionnaires were performed, and serum samples were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. p,p'-DDE was found in 100% of the samples, with a median concentration of 19.7ngmL(-1) (4788.7ng/g lipid), while o,p'-DDT was detected in 3 samples (4.3%). Serum p,p'-DDE concentrations were associated with time of residence in the study area, personal hygiene after work, and body mass index in adjusted multinomial logistic regression models with tertiles of p,p'-DDE as the dependent variable. The present results revealed high levels of exposure to p,p'-DDE, which might be derived from a heavily polluted local environment and past occupational exposure. These findings deserve further attention due to the potential associated health risks and point to the need for the continuous monitoring of these populations.

  12. Adverse Respiratory Health and Hematological Alterations among Agricultural Workers Occupationally Exposed to Organophosphate Pesticides: A Cross-Sectional Study in North India

    PubMed Central

    Fareed, Mohd.; Pathak, Manoj Kumar; Bihari, Vipin; Kamal, Ritul; Srivastava, Anup Kumar; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-protective work practices followed by farm workers during spraying of pesticides lead to occupational exposure among them. Objective This study is designed to explore the respiratory health and hematological profile of agricultural workers occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was undertaken among 166 pesticide sprayers working in mango orchards of Lucknow district in North India compared with 77 controls to assess the respiratory illness, lung functions, cholinesterase levels and hematological profile. A questionnaire based survey and clinical examination for respiratory health were conducted among study subjects. Lung function test was conducted among study subjects by using spirometer. Cholinesterase level as biomarker of OP pesticides and hematological profile of study subjects were investigated in the laboratory by following the standard protocols. Results Overall respiratory morbidity observed among exposed subjects was 36.75%. Symptoms for respiratory illness like dry cough, productive cough, wheezing, irritation of throat and blood stained sputum were found to be significantly more (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers than controls. Lung function parameters viz. PEFR, FEV1, %PEFR predicted, %FEV1 predicted and FEV1/FVC were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Exposure wise distribution of respiratory illness and lung functions among pesticide sprayers show that the exposure duration significantly elevates (p<0.05) the respiratory problems and significantly decreases (p<0.001) lung functions among pesticide sprayers. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were found to be significantly depleted (p<0.001) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls which show the exposure of OP pesticides among them. The hematological profile viz. RBC, WBC, monocytes, neutrophils, MCV, MCH, MCHC and platelet count were

  13. [Rural workers' health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Jessica Pronestino de Lima; Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2015-08-01

    Workers' health is a central theme in public health surveys, but the specificity of work activities should be considered. This study aimed to analyze the health of rural workers in Brazil that perform both agricultural and non-agricultural work, based on self-rated health and self-reported diseases. The Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 2008) was used, incorporating information from the complex sampling plan. Agricultural workers 18 years or older were selected, stratified according to those with and without non-agricultural work. Logistic regression was performed for self-rated health, and odds ratios were calculated for self-reported diseases. Exclusive agricultural work decreased the odds of reporting good health and increased the odds of reporting back pain, high blood pressure, and arthritis/rheumatism. Exclusive agricultural workers reported more diseases and worse living conditions. Self-rated health was generally better in workers with non-agricultural occupations. PMID:26375648

  14. 7 CFR 3560.577 - Tenant priorities for labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tenant priorities for labor housing. 3560.577 Section 3560.577 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  15. 7 CFR 3560.619 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. 3560.619 Section 3560.619 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.619 Supplemental requirements...

  16. 7 CFR 3560.569 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. 3560.569 Section 3560.569 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.569 Supplemental...

  17. 7 CFR 3560.623 - Housing management and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Housing management and operations. 3560.623 Section 3560.623 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing §...

  18. 7 CFR 3560.619 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. 3560.619 Section 3560.619 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.619 Supplemental requirements...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.578 Financial management of labor...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.577 - Tenant priorities for labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tenant priorities for labor housing. 3560.577 Section 3560.577 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  1. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.578 Financial management of labor...

  2. 7 CFR 3560.569 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. 3560.569 Section 3560.569 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.569 Supplemental...

  3. 7 CFR 3560.623 - Housing management and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Housing management and operations. 3560.623 Section 3560.623 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing §...

  4. 7 CFR 3560.619 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.619 Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. On-farm labor housing loan...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.619 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.619 Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. On-farm labor housing loan...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.619 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.619 Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. On-farm labor housing loan...

  7. Biomonitoring short- and long-term exposure to the herbicide terbuthylazine in agriculture workers and in the general population using urine and hair specimens.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Rosa; Polledri, Elisa; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate short-term and long-term exposure to terbuthylazine (TBA) in agriculture workers (AW), rural residents (RR), and urban residents (UR) using urine and hair specimens. Twelve AW, 13 RR, and 17 UR were included in the study. Urine spot samples were collected with two different protocols. AW urine samples were collected before the application season (February, U0), at bedtime on the day of TBA application (March-May, U1), and prior to the next shift on the day after TBA application (U2). RR and UR urine samples were collected on any day during the application season (Ue). Hair samples were collected for all subjects before the application season (February, H0) and at the end of the season (June, H1). TBA and its metabolite desethylterbuthylazine (DET) were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection. DET was exclusively found in urine, while TBA was mostly found in the hair. In the AW, the urinary levels of DET were not detected in the U0 samples, and they increased to median levels of 1.81 and 2.94μg/L in the U1 and U2 samples, respectively (p<0.001). In the RR and UR, DET was not detected in the Ue samples. In the UR, TBA was not detected in the H0 samples, and the median levels of TBA were 0.01ng/mg hair in both the AW and RR. In the H1 samples, the median TBA levels were not detected, 0.01, and 0.08ng/mg hair in the UR, RR, and AW, respectively (p<0.001). Urinary DET and hair TBA are promising candidates for biomonitoring short- and long-term exposure to TBA. The use of this herbicide in agriculture leads to exposure in rural residents.

  8. On the Season, a Report of a Public Health Project Conducted Among Negro Migrant Agricultural Workers in Palm Beach County, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Robert H.; Northcutt, Travis J., Jr.

    A 5-year project to develop public health services for migrant workers was initiated in Florida in 1956. The project staff consisted of 8 public health personnel: 2 public health nurses, a public health educator, a public health nutritionist, a medical social worker, a part-time sanitarian, a liaison worker, and a secretary. Two practicing…

  9. Elevation of house built at 3315 Alpine St., SW for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of house built at 3315 Alpine St., SW for Merrimack Mill workers. Originally a duplex, this structure has been converted into a single family house - 3315 Alpine Street, Southwest (House), Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. The Evaluation of Federal Programs in Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Resource Conservation, Research, and Forestry of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session (March 27, May 14, July 17, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    Three House of Representatives' subcommittee hearings were held in March, May, and July 1996 to evaluate the goals, priority setting, and advisory mechanisms of federal programs in agricultural research, education, and extension. To become competitive in global markets, farmers will need to rely on the research community to provide up-to-date…

  11. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED)...

  12. 7 CFR 3560.579 - Servicing off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Servicing off-farm labor housing. 3560.579 Section 3560.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.579 Servicing off-farm labor housing....

  13. 7 CFR 3560.579 - Servicing off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Servicing off-farm labor housing. 3560.579 Section 3560.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.579 Servicing off-farm labor housing....

  14. NURSERY WORKER, TEACHERS COPY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST IN THE PREPARATION OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS OVER 16 YEARS OF AGE AS NURSERY WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS WITH ASSISTANCE FROM SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS. UNITS ARE (1) INTRODUCTION TO HORTICULTURE, (2) CONSTRUCTING, MAINTAINING,…

  15. Economic Recovery and Assistance to Workers. Hearing before the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (November 14, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document reports on a Congressional hearing on assistance to workers dislocated or unemployed due to the serious economic deterioration impacting the country, partly due to the events of September 11, 2001. Testimony includes statements of United States Representatives John Boehner and George Miller; Michael Hannah, representing Local 13358,…

  16. Hearing on the Impact of Deregulation on the American Workers. Hearing before the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (Miami, Florida).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This congressional report includes testimony pertaining to the impact of the Reagan administration's policy of increased deregulation on American workers. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact that deregulation has had on specific occupations, industries (including plant closings), wage structures, and organized labor. The following…

  17. New Business Perspectives on the Older Worker. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document contains testimony from a congressional hearing to explore the latest developments in corporate policies affecting older workers. Testimony includes statements and prepared statements from individuals representing United States corporations, such as Mutual of Omaha Companies; The Aerospace Corporation; ACS America, Inc.; Grumman…

  18. 7 CFR 3560.626 - Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. 3560.626 Section 3560.626 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.626 Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. On-farm labor housing must meet the requirements...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.626 - Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. 3560.626 Section 3560.626 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.626 Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. On-farm labor housing must meet the requirements...

  20. Aerial dust concentration in cage-housed, floor-housed, and aviary facilities for laying hens.

    PubMed

    Le Bouquin, S; Huneau-Salaün, A; Huonnic, D; Balaine, L; Martin, S; Michel, V

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural workers, and pig and poultry farmers in particular, are exposed to airborne contaminants including organic dusts, gases, fungi, bacteria, and endotoxins that can have adverse effects on their respiratory health. To date, data comparing the aerial dust concentrations in the different hen-housing systems used by commercial poultry farmers are scarce. An epidemiological study was conducted in commercial housing facilities for laying hens, half of which were housed in a cage system without litter and the remaining half on an on-floor system with litter. The aims were to measure and compare the ambient dust concentrations in the different housing systems and identify any factors in building design and hen management that could influence the dust burden. An average concentration of respirable ambient dusts (≤4 μm) of 0.37 mg/m(3) (95% CI [0.31-0.42]) was measured in the on-floor system, and this value was higher than average values in the cage system {0.13 mg/m(3) (95% CI [0.11-0.14]) P = 0.01}. The highest dust concentration was observed in aviaries (1.19 mg/m(3) [0.80-1.59]). The type of housing and the presence of litter therefore had a preponderant effect on air quality. Dust concentrations in caged buildings were influenced by cage design and rearing practices, whereas litter management, the age of hens, and temperature control were determining factors for dust levels in on-floor houses. This study underlines the need for information and preventive measures to reduce the exposure of poultry workers to bioaerosols, particularly in alternative systems where high levels of ambient dust were observed. PMID:24135584

  1. 7 CFR 3560.569 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.569 Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. The requirements established...

  2. 7 CFR 3560.569 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.569 Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. The requirements established...

  3. 7 CFR 3560.569 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.569 Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. The requirements established...

  4. 7 CFR 3560.56 - Processing section 515 housing proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing section 515 housing proposals. 3560.56 Section 3560.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.56 Processing section 515...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.626 - Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. 3560.626 Section 3560.626 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.626 - Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. 3560.626 Section 3560.626 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.70 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. 3560.70 Section 3560.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.70...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.70 - Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for manufactured housing. 3560.70 Section 3560.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.70...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.56 - Processing section 515 housing proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing section 515 housing proposals. 3560.56 Section 3560.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.56 Processing section 515...

  11. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor...

  12. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  13. 7 CFR 3565.353 - Affirmative fair housing marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affirmative fair housing marketing. 3565.353 Section 3565.353 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.353...

  14. 7 CFR 3565.353 - Affirmative fair housing marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affirmative fair housing marketing. 3565.353 Section 3565.353 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.353...

  15. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  16. 7 CFR 3565.353 - Affirmative fair housing marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affirmative fair housing marketing. 3565.353 Section 3565.353 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.353...

  17. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  18. 7 CFR 3565.353 - Affirmative fair housing marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affirmative fair housing marketing. 3565.353 Section 3565.353 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.353...

  19. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  20. 7 CFR 3565.352 - Preservation of affordable housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preservation of affordable housing. 3565.352 Section 3565.352 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.352...

  1. TENANT HOUSE, WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH FRONT, LOOKING SOUTH Irvine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TENANT HOUSE, WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH FRONT, LOOKING SOUTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  2. Housing: rural roots to urban problems.

    PubMed

    Amaya, S

    1979-09-01

    An analysis of housing and urban underdevelopment in Colombia shows the connection between urban problems and the countryside. In the 20th century, industrialization slowed down the modernization of agriculture and placed it in a secondary position. Small farmers were forced to migrate to the city in search of work. The cities could not absorb the large supply of unskilled labor. The low wage situation was exacerbated by industry's adoption of capital-intensive, labor saving techniques that limited job opportunities. High rents and costly land prices produce progressive crowding and a housing shortage. The construction industry further aggravates the problem. With the modern technology came monopolistic prices that are beyond the means of most low wage earners. Limited capital and credit are available. The Integral Project for the Urban Development of the Eastern Sector of Bogota had to be abandoned because of the serious consequences it would have in uprooting thousands of low income families. New development and transportation projects are being implemented just when workers need housing. It is estimated that the housing shortage affects as much as 75% of the economically active population in the main cities of Colombia, and 66% in Bogota.

  3. Administration's Plan to Eliminate Older Workers Jobs Program. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Retirement Income and Employment of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session (Washington, DC, February 25, 1982; Boston, MA, February 19, 1982; Astoria, NY, February 22, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    The Subcommittee on Aging of the House of Representatives was provided with information on the administration's plan to eliminate the older workers jobs program authorized by Title V, Older Americans Act. Testimony for each hearing begins with opening statements by members of the subcommittee. Statements follow from approximately 40 witnesses and…

  4. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  5. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HPG funds; (3) Must meet all applicable requirements of 7 CFR 3550.57; and (4) May not be sold within... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  6. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HPG funds; (3) Must meet all applicable requirements of 7 CFR 3550.57; and (4) May not be sold within... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  7. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HPG funds; (3) Must meet all applicable requirements of 7 CFR 3550.57; and (4) May not be sold within... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  8. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HPG funds; (3) Must meet all applicable requirements of 7 CFR 3550.57; and (4) May not be sold within... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.568 - Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... housing. 3560.568 Section 3560.568 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.568 Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing. For...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.568 - Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... housing. 3560.568 Section 3560.568 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.568 Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing. For...

  11. 7 CFR 3560.568 - Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... housing. 3560.568 Section 3560.568 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.568 Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing. For...

  12. 7 CFR 3560.579 - Servicing off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Servicing off-farm labor housing. 3560.579 Section 3560.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  13. 7 CFR 3560.555 - Eligibility requirements for off-farm labor housing loans and grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligibility requirements for off-farm labor housing loans and grants. 3560.555 Section 3560.555 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  14. 7 CFR 3560.579 - Servicing off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing off-farm labor housing. 3560.579 Section 3560.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  15. 7 CFR 3560.568 - Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing. 3560.568 Section 3560.568 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.568...

  16. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. 3560.618 Section 3560.618 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental...

  17. 7 CFR 3560.568 - Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for seasonal off-farm labor housing. 3560.568 Section 3560.568 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.568...

  18. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. 3560.618 Section 3560.618 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.579 - Servicing off-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Servicing off-farm labor housing. 3560.579 Section 3560.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.555 - Eligibility requirements for off-farm labor housing loans and grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility requirements for off-farm labor housing loans and grants. 3560.555 Section 3560.555 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Off-Farm Labor Housing §...

  1. 7 CFR 3565.354 - Fair housing accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.354 Fair housing... in the development of the property, the selection of applicants for housing, and ongoing...

  2. 7 CFR 3565.354 - Fair housing accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.354 Fair housing... in the development of the property, the selection of applicants for housing, and ongoing...

  3. 7 CFR 3565.354 - Fair housing accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.354 Fair housing... in the development of the property, the selection of applicants for housing, and ongoing...

  4. 7 CFR 3565.354 - Fair housing accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.354 Fair housing... in the development of the property, the selection of applicants for housing, and ongoing...

  5. 7 CFR 3565.354 - Fair housing accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Project Management § 3565.354 Fair housing... in the development of the property, the selection of applicants for housing, and ongoing...

  6. The Farm Worker In A Changing Agriculture. Part I In A Series On Technological Change And Farm Labor Use, Kern County, California, 1961. Research Report No. 277.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, William H.

    To investigate the effect of technological change upon farm labor use, a stratified random sample of 696 farm workers from a population of 12,215 in Kern County, California, provided a basis for analysis. Some major findings were: (1) The high peak of seasonal labor use has been eliminated, (2) The need for migratory labor is decreasing, (3)…

  7. Differences in Housing Credit Terms and Usage Between Metro and Nonmetro Areas in the United States, 1971. Agricultural Economic Report No. 305.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spurlock, Hughes H.

    In 1971, a U.S. Census of Housing surveyed the financing of homeowners and rental properties, including characteristics of mortgages, properties, and homeowners. Data were obtained on places located outside Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA) and in places of less than 10,000 population, and on rural areas located outside SMSA's. These…

  8. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.578 Financial management of labor housing. The requirements established in subpart G of this...

  9. 7 CFR 1924.115 - Single Family Housing site evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Single Family Housing site evaluation. 1924.115 Section 1924.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Work § 1924.115 Single Family Housing site evaluation. (a) Site review. The site approval official...

  10. House physicians. Accountabilities and possibilities.

    PubMed

    La Puma, J

    Current house physicians' practice, responsibilities, and earnings are reviewed. House physicians are licensed, ordinarily institutionally based, typically salaried physician employees of 1 or more hospitals or systems. Many are hourly workers, often foreign medical graduates or physicians in training, with little professional status and less visibility. Yet managed care sees a new, creative role for house physicians that makes them masters of quality and models of service. No longer dependent beings shielded by an institution's coverage, house physicians can emerge as efficient, educated champions of inpatient medicine. To produce hospital generalist physicians for the patient's good, physician availability, institutional financial incentives, and patient values must align.

  11. Main elevation of 33123314 Alpine St., SW. This house was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main elevation of 3312-3314 Alpine St., SW. This house was built for use by workers from nearby Merrimack Mill (now demolished) - 3312-3314 Alpine Street, Southwest (House), 3312-3314 Alpine Street, Southwest, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  12. View of twofamily house at 520522 Rison Ave., NE, originally ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of two-family house at 520-522 Rison Ave., NE, originally occupied by workers in nearby mills. Note original asbestos shingle roof - 520-522 Rison Avenue, Northeast (House), Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  13. Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act of 1994. Committee on Agriculture Report To Accompany H.R. 8. House of Representatives, 103D Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This report discusses amendments offered by the Committee on Agriculture to H.R. 8, the Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act, which reauthorizes and improves the nutrition programs under the National School Lunch (NSL) Act and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966. The amendments deal with: (1) the amount of commodities provided to schools under the…

  14. The Impact of Federal Commodity Donations on the School Lunch Program. Department of Agriculture. Report to the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Department of Agriculture's program for purchasing and distributing commodities for the school lunch program was reviewed in 15 school districts, one very large, one medium sized, and one small school district in each of five states--California, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. The objectives of the review were to (1) assess the…

  15. 7 CFR 1940.578 - Housing Preservation Grant (HPG) program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Housing Preservation Grant (HPG) program. 1940.578 Section 1940.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM...

  16. Review of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Proposed Rule, "Nutrition Objectives for School Meals." Hearing before the Subcommittee on Department Operations and Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    These hearing transcripts provide testimony on a rule proposed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), "Nutrition Objectives for School Meals," that would require meals served under the national school lunch program to be consistent with federal dietary guidelines. The majority of the testimony addressed the content of school meals…

  17. A Schooling Model for Working Children in Mexico: The Case of Children of Indian Origin Working as Agricultural Workers during the Harvest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taracena, Elvia

    2003-01-01

    Draws on interviews and observations from the Mexican state of Oaxaca to analyze labor done by children of Indian origin in northern Mexico agriculture and the problem of schooling. Focuses on the conditions favoring child labor and objectives of experimental educational programs specifically for children of migrant families. Asserts that working…

  18. 7 CFR 1955.113 - Price (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Price (housing). 1955.113 Section 1955.113 Agriculture... § 1955.113 Price (housing). Real property will be offered or listed for its present market value, as adjusted by any administrative price reductions provided for in this section. Market value will be...

  19. Problems of Younger Workers in the USSR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotlyar, Alexander

    1974-01-01

    Young workers, persons from sixteen to thirty years old, have problems relating to occupational choice, vocational guidance, vocational training and other educational opportunities, job satisfaction, and housing, complicating their search for an occupational and social identity. (AG)

  20. [Indian workers in Oman].

    PubMed

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    savings. Working and living conditions are difficult: the hours are long, the weather is hot, housing conditions are primitive and provide no relief from the heat, the food supply is the minimum required, and almost no diversions are available. There are no unions even among Omani workers, and troublemakers are quickly repatriated. The Indian embassy occasionally intercedes for workers, brief work stoppages may occur if pay is delayed, and some conflicts are settled individually. Resistence among Indian workers may take less visible forms, especially absenteeism and requests for leave.

  1. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. The management plan for...

  2. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. The management plan for...

  3. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. The management plan for...

  4. House calls.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Brian K; Tatum, Paul E

    2011-04-15

    House calls provide a unique perspective on patients' environment and health problems. The demand for house calls is expected to increase considerably in future decades as the U.S. population ages. Although study results have been inconsistent, house calls involving multidisciplinary teams may reduce hospital readmissions and long-term care facility stays. Common indications for house calls are management of acute or chronic illnesses, and palliative care. Medicare beneficiaries must meet specific criteria to be eligible for home health services. The INHOMESSS mnemonic provides a checklist for components of a comprehensive house call. In addition to performing a clinical assessment, house calls may involve observing the patient performing daily activities, reconciling medication discrepancies, and evaluating home safety. House calls can be integrated into practice with careful planning, including clustering house calls by geographic location and coordinating visits with other health care professionals and agencies.

  5. 75 FR 33573 - Rural Housing Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service Notice of Acceptance of Proposals for the Section 538 Multi...; Correction AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Rural Housing Service (RHS) published a document in the Federal Register of May 10, 2010, announcing the...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.454 - Special servicing actions related to housing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special servicing actions related to housing operations. 3560.454 Section 3560.454 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Special Servicing, Enforcement, Liquidation, and...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.57 - Designated places for section 515 housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated places for section 515 housing. 3560.57 Section 3560.57 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.69 - Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group homes. 3560.69 Section 3560.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination §...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.57 - Designated places for section 515 housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designated places for section 515 housing. 3560.57 Section 3560.57 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.57 - Designated places for section 515 housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designated places for section 515 housing. 3560.57 Section 3560.57 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.57 Designated places for...

  11. 7 CFR 3560.57 - Designated places for section 515 housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designated places for section 515 housing. 3560.57 Section 3560.57 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant...

  12. 7 CFR 3560.57 - Designated places for section 515 housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designated places for section 515 housing. 3560.57 Section 3560.57 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.57 Designated places for...

  13. 7 CFR 3560.454 - Special servicing actions related to housing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special servicing actions related to housing operations. 3560.454 Section 3560.454 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Special Servicing, Enforcement, Liquidation, and...

  14. Cooking and Eating Facilities in Migrant Farmworker Housing in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Phillip; Bischoff, Werner E.; Chen, Haiying; Wiggins, Melinda F.; Spears, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to (1) describe observed cooking and eating facilities in migrant farmworker camps, (2) compare observed conditions with existing farmworker housing regulations, and (3) examine associations of violations with camp characteristics. Methods. We collected data in 182 farmworker camps in eastern North Carolina during the 2010 agricultural season. We compared our observations with 15 kitchen-related housing regulations specified by federal and state housing standards. Results. We observed violations of 8 regulations in at least 10% of camps: improper refrigerator temperature (65.5%), cockroach infestation (45.9%), contaminated water (34.4%), rodent infestation (28.9%), improper flooring (25.8%), unsanitary conditions (21.2%), improper fire extinguisher (19.9%), and holes or leaks in walls (12.1%). Logistic regression showed that violations were related to the time of the agricultural season, housing type, number of dwellings and residents, and presence of workers with H-2A visas. Conclusions. Cooking and eating facilities for migrant farmworkers fail to comply with regulations in a substantial number of camps. Greater enforcement of regulations, particularly during occupancy during the agricultural season, is needed to protect farmworkers. PMID:23327274

  15. 29 CFR 500.70 - Scope of worker protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of worker protections. 500.70 Section 500.70 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General § 500.70 Scope of worker protections....

  16. Value-Added Workers Earn Less, Have Less Education Than Other Rural Manufacturing Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate that value-added industries, which tend to use raw lumber and agricultural products as inputs, employed one-third of all rural manufacturing workers in 1996. Compared to other rural manufacturing workers, value-added workers generally had lower occupational status, less education, and lower incomes, and were…

  17. 7 CFR 3560.102 - Housing project management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing project management. 3560.102 Section 3560.102... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Borrower Management and Operations Responsibilities § 3560.102 Housing project management. (a) General. Borrowers hold final responsibility for...

  18. H.R. 2339: A Bill to amend the Agricultural Act of 1949 to permit producers to adopt integrated, site-specific farm management plans that provide for resource-conserving crop rotation, special conservation practices, rotational grazing, and biomass production operations and practices. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains H.R. 2339, A Bill to amend the Agricultural Act of 1949 to permit producers to adopt integrated, site-specific farm management plans that provide for resource-conserving crop rotation, special conservation practices, rotational grazing, and biomass production operations and practices. This Bill was introduced in the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, First Session, September 14, 1995.

  19. Migrant labor in agriculture: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1985-01-01

    The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor.

  20. Evaluation of respiratory symptoms and respiratory protection behavior among poultry workers in small farming operations.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Gregory D; Shaw, Robert; Prentice, Matthew; Tutor-Marcom, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers who work in enclosed poultry operations are at increased risk of respiratory exposure to atmospheric contaminants, including dusts, endotoxins, particulate from feathers, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from animal excrement. Given the relatively large number of small, family-run poultry farms in North Carolina, there has been relatively little research in the area documenting human lung function and perception of using respiratory protection among poultry workers. This study assesses respiratory health, knowledge, and perception of wearing respiratory protection among a sample of poultry workers attending a regional farm show in North Carolina. Lung function (spirometry), airway inflammation (exhaled nitric oxide), self-reported respiratory symptoms, and behavior of wearing respiratory protection were evaluated. Overall, mean lung function values were slightly lower than normal predicted values. The majority of participants ranked using respiratory protection as very important (51.9%); however, actual self-reported behavior was low (16.7%). In bivariate analysis, associations between the importance of wearing respiratory protection and the number of poultry houses (P=.04), as well as using a respirator and the number of poultry houses (P=.01) were statistically significant. Improved educational opportunities, including fit-testing and proper respiratory selection, should be emphasized for workers at small, poultry farm operations.

  1. Concentrations of the urinary pyrethroid metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in farm worker families in the MICASA study

    SciTech Connect

    Trunnelle, Kelly J.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Ahn, Ki Chang; Schenker, Marc B.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Gee, Shirley J.; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-05-01

    Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly from pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields, and are faced with poor housing conditions, causing higher pest infestation and more pesticide use. We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) levels among 105 women and 103 children. The median urinary 3PBA levels (children=2.56 ug/g creatinine, mothers=1.46 ug/g creatinine) were higher than those reported in population based studies for the United States general population, but similar to or lower than studies with known high levels of pyrethroid exposure. A positive association was evident between poor housing conditions and the urinary metabolite levels, showing that poor housing conditions are a contributing factor to the higher levels of 3PBA seen in the urine of these farm worker families. Further research is warranted to fully investigate sources of exposure. - Highlights: • We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids. • We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary 3PBA levels. • 3PBA levels were higher than those reported for the U.S. general population. • Poor housing conditions may be associated with pyrethroid exposure.

  2. 76 FR 31217 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... / Tuesday, May 31, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service...-AC83 Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program AGENCIES: Rural Housing Service, Rural Business... final rule implements two changes in the regulations for the Rural Housing Service (RHS) Section...

  3. Passive solar hen house--Second year

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, E.A.

    1980-12-01

    This paper describes the second year's study of a passive solar hen house. The first year's study demonstrated that a small flock of hens living in a solar heated environment can produce more eggs at a better feed efficiency than that predicted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) for hens housed in standard hen housing. For this second year's work a new flock of Rhode Island Reds was raised and then divided in two groups - one housed in the solar hen house; the other in a barn. The solar housed group showed slightly better feed efficiency, but the barn housed group had better egg production. Both groups produced consistently heavier eggs than comparative commercial hens. However, the commercial hens showed higher feed efficiency than either the barn housed or the solar housed group for the 15 week test.

  4. Worker Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yiziang, Zeng; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes worker education in China as an important part of the national educational plan and an indispensible foundation for the work of developing enterprisers. Basic tasks are the development of the mind, preparation of specialists, improving workers, and modernization of socialist enterprises. (JOW)

  5. Rental Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC. Consumer Housing Information Service for Seniors.

    This is one of a series of booklets prepared as a resource for trained Housing Information Volunteers to provide impartial information to older people who have questions of concern about how to find safe, comfortable, affordable housing; how to cut household expenses or use their homes to earn extra income; home maintenance and home improvement;…

  6. Clay Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  7. Housing Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Reilly

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, summarizes the implications of a study done at the Joint Center for Urban Studies of the number and characteristics of families that will buy a house, and what kind of housing problems they have, for the relative status of blacks or whites or other…

  8. 22 CFR 41.53 - Temporary workers and trainees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.53 Temporary workers and trainees... or training), including agriculture, commerce, communication, finance, government,...

  9. 22 CFR 41.53 - Temporary workers and trainees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.53 Temporary workers and trainees... or training), including agriculture, commerce, communication, finance, government,...

  10. 22 CFR 41.53 - Temporary workers and trainees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.53 Temporary workers and trainees... or training), including agriculture, commerce, communication, finance, government,...

  11. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, EAST (FRONT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, EAST (FRONT), LOOKING WEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  12. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, WEST (REAR), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  13. TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, LIVING ROOM, SOUTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, LIVING ROOM, SOUTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM CENTER OF ROOM - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  14. TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, LIVING ROOM, NORTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, LIVING ROOM, NORTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING NORTH FROM CENTER OF ROOM - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  15. TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, DOOR DETAIL, FRONT ENTRANCE INTO LIVING ROOM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, DOOR DETAIL, FRONT ENTRANCE INTO LIVING ROOM, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  16. TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, KITCHEN, SOUTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, KITCHEN, SOUTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM CENTER OF ROOM - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  17. TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, KITCHEN, NORTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, KITCHEN, NORTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM CENTER OF ROOM - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  18. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, EAST (FRONT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, EAST (FRONT) AND WEST SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  19. GARAGE (L) IN RELATION TO TENANT HOUSE (R), LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE (L) IN RELATION TO TENANT HOUSE (R), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  20. Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Everett Weinreb, Photographer, April 1989 GARAGE BEHIND HOUSE, SOUTH SIDE AND WEST (REAR) FACADES, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  1. Engaging a hard-to-reach population in research: sampling and recruitment of hired farm workers in the MICASA study.

    PubMed

    Stoecklin-Marois, M T; Hennessy-Burt, T E; Schenker, M B

    2011-10-01

    Hired farm workers provide the majority of the workforce for California's labor-intensive agricultural sector Agriculture is one of the most hazardous occupations, but there has been little research into the etiology of poor health outcomes that occur disproportionately in hired farm worker populations. MICASA is a cohort investigation of occupational and environmental health risks in hired farm worker households in Mendota, California, that employed a two-stage sampling process, including random selection of census blocks and door-to-door enumeration. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the success of the sampling process and compare demographics of the enumerated population to other regional samples of Latino populations. In the enumeration, 1257 addresses were mapped and 729 hired farm worker households were enumerated. Findings showed no significant differences between the enumerated population and the resulting MICASA study sample; however, the MICASA population was more likely to be male, from Central America, work in agriculture, and have fewer years residency in the U.S. than California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) respondents. Additionally, 9.4% of the enumerated dwellings were back houses or unofficial dwellings and may have been missed by the U.S. Census 2000. Demographic comparisons between the enumerated population, census data, and CHIS data highlight the differences in these sampling methods and suggest possible demographic changes in hired farm workers in California. While difficulties in accessing hired farm workers often account for the lack of population-based research, the MICASA cohort provides an opportunity to examine occupational health patterns relevant to other farm worker populations. PMID:22164460

  2. Tech House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The members of the Swain family- Dr. Charles "Bill" Swain, wife Elaine, daughter Carol, 17, son "Chuck", 12, and dog Susie have an interesting assignment. They are active participants in an important NASA research program involving the application of space-age technology to home construction. b' Transplanted Floridians, the Swains now reside in NASA's Tech House, loatedat Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Their job is to use and help evaluate the variety of advanced technology systems in Tech House. A contemporary three-bedroom home, Tech House incorporates NASA technology, the latest commercial building techniques and other innovations, all designed to reduce energy and water consumption and to provide new levels of comfort, convenience, security and fire safety. Tech House equipment performed well in initial tests, but a house is not a home until it has people. That's where the Swains come in. NASA wants to see how the various systems work under actual living conditions, to confirm the effectiveness of the innovations or to determine necessary modifications for improvement. The Swains are occupying the house for a year, during which NASA engineers are computer monitoring the equipment and assembling a record of day-to-day performance. . Tech House is a laboratory rather than a mass production prototype, but its many benefits may influence home design and construction. In a period of sharply rising utility costs, widespread adoption of Tech House features could provide large-scale savings to homeowners and potentially enormous national benefit in resources conservation. Most innovations are aerospace spinoffs: Some of the equipment is now commercially available; other systems are expected to be in production within a few years. Around 1980, a Tech House-type of home could be built for $45-50,000 (1 976 dollars). It is estimated that the homeowner would save well over $20,000 (again 1976 dollars) in utility costs over the average mortgage span of 20 years.

  3. 7 CFR 3560.454 - Special servicing actions related to housing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special servicing actions related to housing...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Special... housing operations. (a) Changing rents or revising budgets. The Agency may approve a borrower request...

  4. 7 CFR 3560.454 - Special servicing actions related to housing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special servicing actions related to housing...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Special... housing operations. (a) Changing rents or revising budgets. The Agency may approve a borrower request...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.454 - Special servicing actions related to housing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special servicing actions related to housing...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Special... housing operations. (a) Changing rents or revising budgets. The Agency may approve a borrower request...

  6. Long-Term Farm Policy to Succeed the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981 (Research, Extension, and Teaching). Part 5. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Departmental Operations, Research, and Foreign Agriculture of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (June 6, 7, 12, and 13, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This congressional hearing is the fifth of five volumes examining various aspects of agricultural research, extension, and teaching as a prelude to determining what changes are to be made in Title XIV of the farm bill. Focuses are the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) biotechnology program plans and regulatory concerns and the public benefits…

  7. Genetic Technology and Agricultural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, William J.; Blase, Melvin G.

    1971-01-01

    Examines the nature, application, limits and potential of applied genetics in plant breeding as a factor in South Asian agricultural development. Concludes other factors were also present in recent agricultural growth, and indicates some economic implications of continued growth, including problems of employment of displaced rural workers. (AL)

  8. House Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Bette

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the "house" concept architectural design at Albert Lea High School (Minnesota) and how the design addresses the community's 21st Century educational goals. Photos and a floor plan are included. (GR)

  9. Poverty, Housing, and the Rural Slum: Policies and the Production of Inequities, Past and Present

    PubMed Central

    Villarejo, Don

    2012-01-01

    We studied historical materials to examine the conditions that gave rise to California's rural slums, the consequences of their emergence, and how interpretations of housing, health, and welfare policies by government officials, and public health officials in particular, produced health inequities for residents of these communities. For more than a century, successive groups of immigrants and domestic migrant laborers have worked on California's farms and faced numerous challenges, among them a lack of safe and affordable housing, poor working conditions, and denial of public services. Although these experiences are not new, nor are they unique to agricultural workers, they illustrate a longer history in which inequities and injustices have been rooted in the exploitation and disposability of labor. Ameliorating or even redressing inequities will require understanding the social determinants of health through ecological approaches that can overcome the historical, social, and political causes of inequity. PMID:22813088

  10. Poverty, housing, and the rural slum: policies and the production of inequities, past and present.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Sarah M; Villarejo, Don

    2012-09-01

    We studied historical materials to examine the conditions that gave rise to California's rural slums, the consequences of their emergence, and how interpretations of housing, health, and welfare policies by government officials, and public health officials in particular, produced health inequities for residents of these communities. For more than a century, successive groups of immigrants and domestic migrant laborers have worked on California's farms and faced numerous challenges, among them a lack of safe and affordable housing, poor working conditions, and denial of public services. Although these experiences are not new, nor are they unique to agricultural workers, they illustrate a longer history in which inequities and injustices have been rooted in the exploitation and disposability of labor. Ameliorating or even redressing inequities will require understanding the social determinants of health through ecological approaches that can overcome the historical, social, and political causes of inequity. PMID:22813088

  11. Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that specialty crops are a vital part of agriculture in the United States, that the Committee on Agriculture should propose funding for programs that support specialty crops priorities, and that legislation should be passed that includes funding reflecting specialty crops as a growing and important part of United States agriculture.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. DelBene, Suzan K. [D-WA-1

    2013-04-25

    05/03/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. The Impact of Public Housing Policy on Family Social Work Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Social workers are the professionals most engaged with families living in low-income and subsidized housing and most familiar with the problems associated with inadequate housing. Yet the discussion of public housing policy has been left largely to economists and housing activists and the clear implications for family social work practice have not…

  13. 22 CFR 41.53 - Temporary workers and trainees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary workers and trainees. 41.53 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.53 Temporary workers and trainees..., or by the Department of Labor in the case of temporary agricultural workers, of a petition to...

  14. Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Basher, A; Nath, P; Siddique, Z S; Rahman, M H; Rubel, M A; Sayed, M S; Ahmad, S A; Mondol, G D; Bhuiyan, M R

    2015-01-01

    Farming is a large and main industry in Bangladesh. Large numbers of people are directly involved in farming and have very unique exposure compare to other sectors. Musculoskeletal problems among farmer population are not infrequent. This study was carried out among 200 farmers in one selected district. The study revealed that musculoskeletal problems were common among the farmers working in a traditional way. All the respondents were male. The age of all respondents lie between 20-60 years. Among them 22.5% farmers were illiterate, about 45.5% below Class V. About half (42%) of the respondents had reported pain in different parts of the body at least one or more times during working in land. And about two third (65.5%) of the farmers had history of joint pain and stiffness in last 12 month. Most of the farmers who suffered from musculoskeletal symptoms were 41-60 years. Specially who worked more then 20 years (82.6%) and average 6 hours per day (66.7%). The occurrence of musculoskeletal problems in various part of the body included Knee pain - 48.1%, Back pain (back ache) - 22.9%, Waist pain (low back ache) - 13.3%, Neck pain - 18.3% and shoulder pain - 10.7%. Length of work in year and daily average working hours were found significant association with musculoskeletal pain. It was found that musculoskeletal pain were more common among the farmers when they worked in squatting position (52%) and specially during weeding of plants (31%). Among them only 22% also engaged in other business. Most of the farmers complained dull aching pain (40.6%), only 2.3% noticed severe acute pain, but about 86% farmers' temporary stop their work for pain and 80% get relief after discontinue of work. About 75% respondents visited doctors for their pain which was statistically significant (p=0.001). It was found that the rates of musculoskeletal complaints are more among those individuals who worked relatively bad ergonomic condition, such as body position probably play an important role. PMID:25725661

  15. 7 CFR 1940.568 - Single Family Housing programs appropriations not allocated by State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Single Family Housing programs appropriations not allocated by State. 1940.568 Section 1940.568 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart B of... - Requirements for Housing Application Packages

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for Housing Application Packages C Exhibit C to Subpart B of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  17. 7 CFR 1940.579 - Multiple Family Housing appropriations not allocated by State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Multiple Family Housing appropriations not allocated by State. 1940.579 Section 1940.579 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  18. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Housing Application Packaging Grant (HAPG) Fee Processing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Housing Application Packaging Grant (HAPG) Fee Processing B Exhibit B to Subpart B of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Housing Application Packaging Grant (HAPG) Fee Processing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Housing Application Packaging Grant (HAPG) Fee Processing B Exhibit B to Subpart B of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. Housing issues of persons with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Bonuck, K A; Drucker, E

    1998-03-01

    The housing status of persons with HIV/AIDS is a central issue in their care and prognosis. We conducted eight focus groups to explore the housing needs of special populations of persons with HIV/AIDS in New York State; these populations included substance users, ex-offenders, persons with documented histories of homelessness, and rural dwellers/migrant workers. For the focus groups, 52 participants were recruited from the clientele of health and social service agencies. A major theme was the potent effect that housing situations had on participants' health. Participants frequently attributed lowered T-cell counts and increased lethargy to the stress associated with governmental rules and paperwork. Lack of money, inadequacy of entitlements, and high costs of housing were the major barriers to securing stable and appropriate housing. Furthermore, participants experienced housing discrimination based on HIV status and experience with the criminal justice system or drugs.

  1. Love House

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Maryellen B.; Cizek, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    In February of 2004, the Department of Human Development/Family Studies at the University of Delaware hosted the Austrian Institute of Family Studies. Social worker Olaf Kapella and psychologist Brigitte Cizek presented their LoveTalks workshop which is a model for the community supported sex education program in Austria. The workshop leaders were…

  2. Worker Retraining. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on H.R. 26 and H.R. 1219.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This Congressional report contains the testimony presented at a hearing focusing on two bills dealing with worker retraining. The two bills, H.R. 26 and H.R. 1219, are intended to establish a system of individual training accounts in the Unemployment Trust Fund, amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to provide that certain contributions to such…

  3. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    PubMed

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. PMID:25995374

  4. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    PubMed

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage.

  5. Housing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Georgann

    1985-01-01

    Building specifications for birdhouses (nesting boxes) are given for 11 species (chickadee, titmouse, nuthatch, Carolina wren, house wren, downy woodpecker, hairy woodpecker, flicker, bluebird, screech owl, and wood duck) including length, width, depth, entrance diameter, and height above the ground. Pointers for construction, materials, and…

  6. Harvest of confusion: immigration reform and California agriculture.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1990-01-01

    "Agriculture was a major stumbling block to immigration reform [in the United States], largely because Congress was unwilling to assign explicit priorities to the competing goals of protecting American workers and admitting supplemental immigrant farmworkers. This article describes the Special Agricultural Worker or SAW legalization program that generated 700,000 applications in California and the hypothetical calculations required to determine whether Replenishment Agricultural Workers or RAWs will be admitted to the United States to do farmwork. The paper concludes that immigration reform did not resolve the century-old debate over agriculture's 'need' for alien workers; instead, SAWs and RAWs have contributed to the harvest of confusion on farm labor."

  7. Harvest of confusion: immigration reform and California agriculture.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1990-01-01

    "Agriculture was a major stumbling block to immigration reform [in the United States], largely because Congress was unwilling to assign explicit priorities to the competing goals of protecting American workers and admitting supplemental immigrant farmworkers. This article describes the Special Agricultural Worker or SAW legalization program that generated 700,000 applications in California and the hypothetical calculations required to determine whether Replenishment Agricultural Workers or RAWs will be admitted to the United States to do farmwork. The paper concludes that immigration reform did not resolve the century-old debate over agriculture's 'need' for alien workers; instead, SAWs and RAWs have contributed to the harvest of confusion on farm labor." PMID:12316220

  8. Research and dissemination needs for ergonomics in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Baron, Sherry; Steege, Andrea L

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health convened a conference of researchers interested in the ergonomics of agricultural workers. Participants included 20 representatives from universities, state governments, private agricultural and insurance companies, migrant worker organizations, agricultural industry organizations, and the Agricultural Extension Service. The attendees divided into three groups and brainstormed about research ideas and dissemination methods related to ergonomics for farm workers. The groups separately reported that interventions, cost-benefit analyses, and cultural belief systems were the main topics that needed to be researched to reduce physical risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. The participants also presented ideas for disseminating information to farm owners and workers. PMID:12500960

  9. Overseas workers' remittances in Asian development.

    PubMed

    Stahl, C W; Arnold, F

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, overseas workers from Asia have been sending remittances of about $8 billion annually to their home countries. These remittances are an important source of precious foreign exchange for the major labor-exporting countries. The overall development impact of remittances, however, has not been well established. Remittances are spent primarily on day-to-day consumption expenditures, housing, land purchase, and debt repayment. Although only a small proportion of remittances are directed into productive investments, this does not warrant the conclusion that the developmental value of remittances is negligible. In fact, remittances spent on domestic goods and services Asia provide an important stimulus to indigenous industries and to the economies of the labor supplying countries. It is these broader macroeconomic benefits of remittances which seem to have been largely ignored in the literature, and this perhaps explains the pessimistic view of the developmental value of remittances. Reservations concerning the effects of remittance on the sending countries include the fears that 1) expenditure patterns of remittance receiving households may create a demonstration effect whereby nonmigrant households may increase consumption, 2) remittance inflow will increase income and wealth inequalities, 3) remittance expenditures may result in inflation, 4) remittances may produce only short-term fluctuations in long-term economic development, and 5) remittances may adversely affect agricultural development.

  10. 7 CFR 3560.623 - Housing management and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing management and operations. 3560.623 Section... Housing management and operations. Borrowers with on-farm labor housing loans must: (a) Develop and submit to the Agency a management plan in a format specified by the Agency. At a minimum, the...

  11. 7 CFR 3565.353 - Affirmative fair housing marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affirmative fair housing marketing. 3565.353 Section... fair housing marketing. As a condition of the guarantee, the lender must ensure that the lender and borrower are in compliance with the approved Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. This plan must...

  12. 78 FR 65582 - Single Family Housing Direct Loan Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service 7 CFR Part 3550 RIN 0575-AC88 Single Family Housing Direct... extending the comment period for the proposed rule, ``Single Family Housing Direct Loan Program'' from... via the U.S. Postal Service to the Branch Chief, Regulations and Paperwork Management Branch,...

  13. 75 FR 10194 - Direct Single Family Housing Loans and Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... conveyance will apply solely to the individual applicants and borrowers of Section 502 ] Direct Single Family...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service 7 CFR Part 3550 RIN 0575-AC81 Direct Single Family Housing... Family Housing Loans by reinstating language to enable full repayment of the entire subsidy in event...

  14. 7 CFR 3560.102 - Housing project management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Housing project management. 3560.102 Section 3560.102... § 3560.102 Housing project management. (a) General. Borrowers hold final responsibility for housing project management and must ensure that operations comply with the terms of all loan or grant...

  15. 7 CFR 3560.102 - Housing project management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Housing project management. 3560.102 Section 3560.102... § 3560.102 Housing project management. (a) General. Borrowers hold final responsibility for housing project management and must ensure that operations comply with the terms of all loan or grant...

  16. Agricultural Modernization and Economic Inequality: The Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Aruna Nayyar

    1978-01-01

    Argues that agriculture production in developing nations should be organized to ensure economic viability. Government policy must emphasize participants' productive capacities and integrate agricultural workers into the new organization of production. (Author/DB)

  17. Smart Houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

  18. CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...

  19. Supportive Housing in Foster Care: The Views of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Kyttälä, Minna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Finnish young people's experiences of supportive housing. Supportive housing is an after-care programme that should support the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. It is directed mainly at young people who have been taken into foster care by social workers. The sample consisted of 39 young people (23…

  20. 5. PANSEY HOUSE: A BUNKHOUSE IN NEWHALEM STILL USED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PANSEY HOUSE: A BUNKHOUSE IN NEWHALEM STILL USED BY SEATTLE CITY LIGHT TO HOUSE TRANSIENT WORKERS AND CONSULTANTS INCLUDING THE HAER TEAM DURING SUMMER 1990, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Skagit River & Newhalem Creek Hydroelectric Project, On Skagit River, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  1. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart B of... - Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging... (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart B of... - Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging... (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING...

  3. Migrant Farm Workers in Northwestern Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James D.; And Others

    Insight into both the employee and employer aspects of the Mexican American migrant farm workers was the basis for this study. The objectives were (1) to collect sociological profile data; (2) to determine and analyze the wage earnings and fringe benefits of these migrants; (3) to secure migrant opinion about housing and employment; (4) to analyze…

  4. THE ADVERSE-EFFECT POLICY FOR AGRICULTURAL LABOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DELLON, HOWARD N.

    THE BASIC PHILOSOPHY UNDERLYING THE REGULATION OF FOREIGN WORKER IMPORTATIONS INTO THE UNITED STATES FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IS THAT EMPLOYMENT OF SUCH WORKERS WILL NOT BE PERMITTED IF IT WILL HAVE AN ADVERSE EFFECT ON DOMESTIC WORKERS. THE "ADVERSE-EFFECT" POLICY HAS BEEN FOLLOWED SINCE THE ENACTMENT OF PUBLIC LAW 78 IN 1951 WHICH GOVERNED…

  5. Endotoxin concentration in poultry houses for laying hens kept in cages or in alternative housing systems.

    PubMed

    Huneau-Salaün, A; Le Bouquin, S; Bex-Capelle, V; Huonnic, D; Balaine, L; Guillam, M-T; Squizani, F; Segala, C; Michel, V

    2011-10-01

    Endotoxins as components of organic dust may have adverse effects on the respiratory health of workers in poultry buildings. The move towards more welfare-friendly housing systems for layers may increase worker exposure to air contaminants due to the use of litter. The endotoxin concentrations in the inhalable fraction of airborne dust (below 100 µm) from cage and alternative system houses (on-floor, free range and aviaries) were compared under both experimental and commercial conditions. The endotoxin concentration was higher in experimental aviaries (median: 565 EU/m³, range: 362-1491 EU/m³) than in cage housing (98 EU/m³ (51-470)). In field conditions, the endotoxin concentration in the air of 13 alternative houses was higher (35 to 3156 EU/m³) than in cage system buildings (n = 8, 78-576 EU/m³). It was correlated to the respirable dust concentration (fraction below 5 µm) and to the temperature inside the hen house but no seasonal variation was observed. The present study emphasises that considerable worker exposure to endotoxins may occur in laying houses, especially in alternative systems. PMID:22029777

  6. A RESEARCH STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL TRAINING NEEDS IN VENTURA COUNTY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RODRIGUES, DONALD F.

    QUESTIONNAIRE RETURNS FROM 103 EMPLOYERS IN AGRICULTURE AND RELATED INDUSTRIES WERE COMBINED WITH 50 INTERVIEWS WITHIN THE SAME GROUP TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT AGRICULTURAL TRAINING NEEDS IN VENTURA COUNTY. MOST FIRMS EMPLOYED FEWER THAN 15 WORKERS ON A PERMANENT BASIS, SUPPLEMENTED BY LARGE MEMBERS OF SEASONAL WORKERS, ESPECIALLY IN THE…

  7. Agricultural Disaster Assistance Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Lucas, Frank D. [R-OK-3

    2012-07-31

    09/10/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart B of... - Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging Grants D Exhibit D to Subpart B of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. 7 CFR 1944.673 - Historic preservation and replacement housing requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Historic preservation and replacement housing requirements and procedures. 1944.673 Section 1944.673 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 29 CFR 500.134 - Compliance with State standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers...

  11. 7 CFR 1955.111 - Sale of real estate for RH purposes (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Sale of real estate for RH purposes (housing). 1955... Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property § 1955.111 Sale of real estate for RH purposes (housing... Housing Act of 1949, as amended, (RH property). Single family units (generally which secured loans...

  12. 7 CFR 1955.111 - Sale of real estate for RH purposes (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sale of real estate for RH purposes (housing). 1955... Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property § 1955.111 Sale of real estate for RH purposes (housing... Housing Act of 1949, as amended, (RH property). Single family units (generally which secured loans...

  13. 7 CFR 3575.40 - Equal opportunity and Fair Housing Act requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal Reserve Board Regulation, 12 CFR part 202.) (b) Fair Housing Act. Certain housing-related projects... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equal opportunity and Fair Housing Act requirements... opportunity and Fair Housing Act requirements. (a) Equal Credit Opportunity Act. The lender will comply...

  14. 7 CFR 1940.579 - Multiple Family Housing appropriations not allocated by State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Labor Housing Loans. (b) Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants. ... and Formulas for Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.579 Multiple Family Housing... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Multiple Family Housing appropriations not...

  15. 7 CFR 1940.579 - Multiple Family Housing appropriations not allocated by State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Labor Housing Loans. (b) Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants. ... and Formulas for Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.579 Multiple Family Housing... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Multiple Family Housing appropriations not...

  16. 7 CFR 1940.579 - Multiple Family Housing appropriations not allocated by State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Labor Housing Loans. (b) Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants. ... and Formulas for Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.579 Multiple Family Housing... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Multiple Family Housing appropriations not...

  17. Campaigns in Agricultural Extension Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaven, John W.

    A booklet designed to aid those who use agricultural campaigns in their educational and advisory programs is presented. It is pointed out that a good campaign works as a chain reaction, inciting enthusiasm among workers and planners. The five steps in a well-organized campaign are: (1) planning, (2) preparing people for their jobs, (3) producing…

  18. Reducing workers' compensation costs.

    PubMed

    Killian, M J

    1994-01-01

    Employers can reduce their workers' compensation costs by encouraging internal communication and education before and after injuries occur. Comprehensive workers' compensation programs can be developed by integrating the management of employee benefits and workers' compensation claims. PMID:10133659

  19. School Pesticide Provision to H.R. 1. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Department Operations, Oversight, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This document is comprised of statements and materials submitted to a hearing on the school pesticide provision included in a Senate amendment to House Resolution 1 (H.R. 1), the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The hearing was held July 18, 2001, before the Subcommittee on Department Operations, Oversight, Nutrition, and Forestry of the…

  20. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  1. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  2. Single Sheet Agricultural Mechanics Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Leon, Ed.

    This packet contains 25 single-page plans for agricultural mechanics projects. Each plan consists of a one-page set of drawings of the object to be made with a list of needed materials, a cut list, and step-by-step construction procedures on the back of the page. Plans for the following wood projects are included: bluebird house, lawn seat, dog…

  3. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  4. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  5. The Demand for Immigrant Workers: Labor Scarcity or Social Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, J. Craig

    1978-01-01

    This article analyzes the two perspectives, social control and labor scarcity. Immigrant workers are argued to be tied to social control functions in the peripheral sectors of the United States economy. The historical experience of farm workers in southwestern agriculture is drawn upon to illustrate the argument. (Author/EB)

  6. 7 CFR 1955.116 - Requirements for sale of property not meeting decent, safe and sanitary (DSS) standards (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the repair/renovation activities of the future owner: Pursuant to section 510(e) of the Housing Act of..., safe and sanitary (DSS) standards (housing). 1955.116 Section 1955.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE,...

  7. Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1984; and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Rural Development Policy Report. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit, and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 5024.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    Testimonies were heard in reference to the administration's annual rural development policy report and H.R. 5024, the Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1984. The bill provides that the Department of Agriculture shall be known as the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, transfers the administration of certain conservation programs…

  8. Housing, Design, and Furnishings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a six-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on housing, design, and furnishings. The units cover: (1) the societal aspects of housing (including the relationship between housing and the economy, population trends, and culture-related housing characteristics); (2) family housing…

  9. Training for Agriculture: Annual Review of Selected Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    This review is a medium for dissemination of information and views on agricultural education and training, extension, and related subjects to the member governments and field workers of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The document consists of more than two dozen articles and comments on agricultural education,…

  10. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789

  11. How "Animal Spirits" Wrecked the Housing Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerlof, George A.; Shiller, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Real-estate markets are almost as volatile as stock markets. Prices of agricultural land, of commercial real estate, and of homes and condominiums have gone through a series of huge bubbles, as if people never learned from the previous ones. Such events--in particular the recent housing bubble--are driven by what John Maynard Keynes called animal…

  12. 7 CFR 15b.41 - Multi-family rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Multi-family rental housing. 15b.41 Section 15b.41... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.41 Multi-family...-family rental housing. (b) New construction. (1) Recipients receiving assistance from the Department...

  13. 7 CFR 15b.41 - Multi-family rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Multi-family rental housing. 15b.41 Section 15b.41... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.41 Multi-family...-family rental housing. (b) New construction. (1) Recipients receiving assistance from the Department...

  14. 7 CFR 15b.41 - Multi-family rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Multi-family rental housing. 15b.41 Section 15b.41... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.41 Multi-family...-family rental housing. (b) New construction. (1) Recipients receiving assistance from the Department...

  15. 7 CFR 15b.41 - Multi-family rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Multi-family rental housing. 15b.41 Section 15b.41... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.41 Multi-family...-family rental housing. (b) New construction. (1) Recipients receiving assistance from the Department...

  16. 7 CFR 15b.41 - Multi-family rental housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multi-family rental housing. 15b.41 Section 15b.41... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.41 Multi-family...-family rental housing. (b) New construction. (1) Recipients receiving assistance from the Department...

  17. Cardiovascular Fitness Levels among American Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, John E.; Clark, John D.; LeBlanc, William G.; Fleming, Lora E.; Cabán-Martinez, Alberto J.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Ocasio, Manuel A.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Kachan, Diana; McCollister, Kathryn; Dietz, Noella; Bandiera, Frank C.; Clarke, Tainya C.; Lee, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore cardiovascular fitness in 40 occupations using a nationally-representative 3 sample of the U.S. population. Methods Respondents aged 18–49 (n=3,354) from the 1999–2004 NHANES were evaluated for 5 cardiovascular fitness and classified into low, moderate, and high levels. Comparisons were 6 made among occupations. Results Of all U.S. workers, 16% had low, 36% moderate, and 48% high cardiovascular 8 fitness. Administrators, Health occupations, Wait staff, Personal services, and Agricultural 9 occupations had a lesser percentage of workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all 10 others. Sales workers, Administrative support, and Food preparers had a higher percentage of 11 workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all others. Conclusions Cardiovascular fitness varies significantly across occupations, and those with limited physical activity have higher percentages of low cardiovascular fitness. Workplace strategies are needed to promote cardiovascular fitness among high-risk occupations. PMID:21915067

  18. COMPARISON OF CERTAIN ABILITIES NEEDED BY WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES AND LICENSED ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DILLON, ROY D.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH WORKERS WITH THE JOB TITLES OF GENERAL DIRECTORS, SALESMEN, SUPERVISORS, AND FIELD WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES NEEDED AGRICULTURALLY ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE OF THE SAME KIND AND LEVEL AS WORKERS IN COMPARABLE JOB TITLES IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY PERSONAL…

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart A of... - Guidelines for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Guidelines for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing I Exhibit I to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR Planning and Performing...

  20. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  2. 7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and the Department of... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  3. 7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and the Department of... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  4. 7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and the Department of... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  5. 7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and the Department of... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  6. 7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and the Department of... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart G of... - Subordination by the Government for Use With Rural Housing Site Loans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subordination by the Government for Use With Rural Housing Site Loans C Exhibit C to Subpart G of Part 1822 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  8. Pesticides and other chemicals: minimizing worker exposures.

    PubMed

    Keifer, Matthew; Gasperini, Frank; Robson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    Pesticides, ammonia, and sanitizers, all used in agricultural production present ongoing risks for exposed workers. Pesticides continue to poison workers despite elimination of some of the most toxic older products. Obligatory reporting of pesticide poisonings exists in 30 states and surveillance of poisoning occurs in only 12. Estimates of poisoning numbers have been based on sampling but funding for this is scant and in constant jeopardy. There appears to be a downward trend in poisonings nationally based on SENSOR data. Newer more pest-specific pesticides are generally less toxic and present less health risks but may have unpredicted health effects in humans that may not emerge until used widely. Internationally, older cheaper chemicals continue to be used with serious consequences in many developing countries. Monitoring workers for overexposure to pesticides broadly is impractical with the exception of the cholinesterase inhibitors. We can learn much from monitoring systems. Unfortunately, monitoring tools are economically inaccessible for most other chemical groups. New technologies for toxicity testing will necessitate new biomonitoring tools that should be supplied by the producers of these chemicals and made available for protecting worker and the public. Protection of workers from pesticides is primarily based on personal protective equipment use, which presents significant hardship for workers in hot environments and is generally considered the least effective approach on the hierarchy of controls in worker protection. Isolation through the use of closed systems has been employed, though rarely studied as to effectiveness in field use. Substitution or replacing harmful substances with safer ones is underway as more pest specific chemicals enter the pesticide portfolio and older ones drop out. This paper summarizes the panel presentation, "Minimizing Exposures to Pesticides and Other Chemicals," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America

  9. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8...

  10. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Shared Housing § 982.618 Shared housing: Housing quality standards. (a) Compliance with HQS. The... the unit available for use by the assisted family under its lease, meets the housing quality standards... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing...

  11. H.R. 4684--National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act of 1984. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology and the Subcommittee on Department Operations, Research, and Foreign Agriculture of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This report contains testimony regarding House Resolution 4684, the National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act of 1984. The primary purpose of the bill is to: (1) implement a coordinated national nutrition monitoring and related research program; (2) provide a scientific basis for the improvement of the nutritional status of the…

  12. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  13. Worker-to-Worker Violence in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Lydia E.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Ager, Joel; Upfal, Mark; Luborsky, Mark; Russell, Jim; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Worker-to-worker (Type III) violence is prevalent in health care settings and has potential adverse consequences for employees and organizations. Little research has examined perpetrator characteristics of this type of violence. The current study is a descriptive examination of the common demographic and work-related characteristics of perpetrators of Type III workplace violence among hospital workers. Analysis was based on documented incidents of Type III violence reported within a large hospital system from 2010 to 2012. Nurses were involved as either the perpetrator or target in the five most common perpetrator–target dyads. Incidence rate ratios revealed that patient care associates and nurses were significantly more likely to be perpetrators than other job titles. By examining characteristics of perpetrators and common worker dyads involved in Type III workplace violence, hospital stakeholders and unit supervisors have a starting point to develop strategies for reducing conflict between workers. PMID:26450899

  14. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  15. 7 CFR 1924.115 - Single Family Housing site evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 1924.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... from: (1) A hard surfaced or all weather road which is developed in full compliance with public...

  16. 7 CFR 3560.69 - Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR part 1924, subparts A and C. (b) Design criteria. Congregate housing and group homes must be... group homes. 3560.69 Section 3560.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.69 Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group...

  17. 7 CFR 3560.69 - Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR part 1924, subparts A and C. (b) Design criteria. Congregate housing and group homes must be... group homes. 3560.69 Section 3560.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.69 Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group...

  18. Migrant women farm workers in the occupational health literature.

    PubMed

    Habib, Rima R; Fathallah, Fadi A

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the vulnerable populations of migrant women agricultural workers. A systemic review in PubMed was carried out (1990-2008) using terms related to migrant agricultural workers, with specific focus on women. Case studies from Lebanon and California are presented to highlight key physical, psychosocial, and cultural risk factors among these working populations. The review revealed a host of potential problems that span from pesticide exposure and musculoskeletal disorders to socio-cultural barriers. Comprehensive exposure-outcome and intervention studies focusing specifically on migrant women in agriculture are lacking. In depth studies focusing on the work environment of migrant women workers in the agricultural sector are needed. Personal and environmental factors that influence health should be considered in any effective intervention aiming to influence policy making and have a positive impact on these vulnerable working populations. PMID:22317389

  19. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  20. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  1. Student-Initiated Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feild, Robert M.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes a report that describes housing where student groups lease, purchase, or even develop their own living quarters. Considers the birth of the movement, federal student housing programs, and a view to future programs. (Author/DN)

  2. ICI Showcase House Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-16

    Building Science Corporation collaborated with ICI Homes in Daytona Beach, FL on a 2008 prototype Showcase House that demonstrates the energy efficiency and durability upgrades that ICI currently promotes through its in-house efficiency program called EFactor.

  3. 7 CFR 1940.568 - Single Family Housing programs appropriations not allocated by State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Single Family Housing programs appropriations not... (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM... and Formulas for Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.568 Single Family Housing...

  4. 7 CFR 1940.568 - Single Family Housing programs appropriations not allocated by State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Formulas for Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.568 Single Family Housing programs... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Single Family Housing programs appropriations not... (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.69 - Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR part 1924, subparts A and C. (b) Design criteria. Congregate housing and group homes must be... Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.69 Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group homes... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for congregate housing...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.69 - Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 1924, subparts A and C. (b) Design criteria. Congregate housing and group homes must be... Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.69 Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group homes... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for congregate housing...

  7. 7 CFR 1940.568 - Single Family Housing programs appropriations not allocated by State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Formulas for Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.568 Single Family Housing programs... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Single Family Housing programs appropriations not... (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND...

  8. 7 CFR 1940.568 - Single Family Housing programs appropriations not allocated by State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Formulas for Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.568 Single Family Housing programs... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Single Family Housing programs appropriations not... (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND...

  9. 7 CFR 1948.78 - Growth management and housing planning projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Growth management and housing planning projects. 1948... Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.78 Growth management and housing planning projects. (a) Existing plans for growth management and housing may be used to meet the planning requirements of...

  10. 7 CFR 1948.78 - Growth management and housing planning projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Growth management and housing planning projects. 1948... Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.78 Growth management and housing planning projects. (a) Existing plans for growth management and housing may be used to meet the planning requirements of...

  11. 7 CFR 1948.78 - Growth management and housing planning projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Growth management and housing planning projects. 1948... Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.78 Growth management and housing planning projects. (a) Existing plans for growth management and housing may be used to meet the planning requirements of...

  12. 7 CFR 1948.78 - Growth management and housing planning projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Growth management and housing planning projects. 1948... Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.78 Growth management and housing planning projects. (a) Existing plans for growth management and housing may be used to meet the planning requirements of...

  13. Insulator for laser housing

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, D.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member. 3 figs.

  14. Insulator for laser housing

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, David B.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member.

  15. Blessings on the Food, Blessings on the Workers: Arts-Based Education for Migrant Worker Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barndt, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Migrant agricultural workers are not only on the margins of Canadian and global food systems; they are also on the margins of public consciousness about the labour behind the food we eat. Even local food movement groups who advocate for both social justice and sustainable food production have not made migrant labour a priority concern. Popular…

  16. Housing: Topic Paper F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    This paper, one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, addresses the issue of housing. Major federal responsibilities are to develop additional housing opportunities for persons with disabilities and to assure that currently available housing is equally open to individuals with…

  17. The Hispanic Housing Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolbeare, Cushing N.; Canales, Judith A.

    This report examines the housing characteristics and needs of Hispanic households in the United States, drawing on information from the 1980 Census and the 1983 Annual Housing Survey. Among the conclusions are the following: (1) housing quality is a major problem for more than one in six Hispanic families; (2) among Hispanic subgroups, Puerto…

  18. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  19. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE..., dairy workers, and others may qualify for the exemption under section 13(b)(13) if the other...

  20. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE..., dairy workers, and others may qualify for the exemption under section 13(b)(13) if the other...

  1. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE..., dairy workers, and others may qualify for the exemption under section 13(b)(13) if the other...

  2. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE..., dairy workers, and others may qualify for the exemption under section 13(b)(13) if the other...

  3. 29 CFR 780.605 - Employment in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE..., dairy workers, and others may qualify for the exemption under section 13(b)(13) if the other...

  4. 1. STREETSCAPE VIEW OF 208 VINE STREET (FIRST HOUSE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. STREETSCAPE VIEW OF 208 VINE STREET (FIRST HOUSE ON RIGHT) LOOKING WEST. THIS STRUCTURE WAS ONE OF APPROXIMATELY SEVENTEEN DUPLEXES BUILT AS THE ORIGINAL WORKER HOUSING FOR THE LaGRANGE COTTON MILLS, LATER KNOWN AS CALUMET MILL. LaGRANGE MILLS (1888-89) WAS THE FIRST COTTON MILL IN LaGRANGE. NOTE THE GABLE-ON-HIP ROOF FORM AND IDENTICAL STRUCTURES FACING EACH OTHER ALONG BOTH SIDES OF THE NARROW STREET. - 208 Vine Street (House), 208 Vine Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  5. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing quality standards. 982.618 Section 982.618 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Special...

  6. Developing Measures of Job Performance for Support Staff in Housing Services for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Chris; Wigham, Sarah; Craig, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is an absence of research concerning the assessment of housing support worker job performance, particularly in the development of job performance measures that reflect the priorities of people with intellectual disabilities and their families. Method: A worker-oriented job analysis method was used to develop four short job…

  7. An Analysis of Agriculture and Horticulture Programs at Illinois Public Community Colleges. Accountability Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    Prepared as part of a state program review, this report presents results from a review undertaken of all agriculture and horticulture programs at Illinois public community colleges for fiscal year 1995. The first part focuses on the four agricultural programs reviewed: Agricultural Business and Management; Agricultural Production, Workers, and…

  8. Mortality among rubber workers: VII. Aerospace workers.

    PubMed

    Delzell, E; Monson, R R

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluated cause-specific mortality among 3,161 men who were employed in the aerospace division of a rubber manufacturing company. Compared to other production workers at the plant, aerospace workers in deicer and fuel cell manufacturing jobs experienced a 60% excess of deaths from lung cancer. Deicer and fuel cell workers who were under 65 years of age had lung cancer rates that were approximately twice those of other rubber workers of comparable age. Aerospace division employees also had elevated rates of bladder cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. However, detailed analyses suggested that, with the exception of lung cancer, these cancer excesses were not likely to be attributable to employment in the aerospace division.

  9. Failing Harvest: How America Is Dooming Children of Hispanic Migrant Workers to Academic Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria-Greene, Jamie

    1997-01-01

    Reviews conditions in the environment that put the children of Hispanic migrant workers at risk for developing physical and cognitive disabilities. These include inadequate environmental protection, poor housing, and lack of access to health care and community resources. Strategies to facilitate positive change for farm worker families and…

  10. Runaway House: A Youth-Run Service Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Dodie; And Others

    This booklet describes Special Approaches in Juvenile Assistance (SAJA), a nonprofit corporation that consists of: (1) the Runaway House, a temporary shelter and counseling program for people under the age of 18 who have run away from home; (2) two foster group homes in which the workers and young people share responsibility for cooking, cleaning…

  11. Cancer in migrant and seasonal hired farm workers.

    PubMed

    Mills, Paul K; Dodge, Jennifer; Yang, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Studies of cancer among farm workers are difficult to conduct and interpret given the unique nature of this occupational group. The transitory nature of the work, high levels of poverty, and lack of legal documentation make epidemiologic studies difficult to accomplish. Nevertheless, this workforce in the United States, which numbers as much as 3 million persons, is a high risk population due to exposures to numerous toxic substances, including excessive sunlight, heat, dangerous machinery, fumes, fertilizers, dust, and pesticides. We summarize characteristics of farm workers (i.e., demographics, health care) from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) and the California Agricultural Workers Survey (CAWS) and present findings from a series of studies conducted among farm workers in California. The epidemiology literature was reviewed and methods for a unique farm worker union-based epidemiologic study are presented. Farm workers in California and the rest of the United States, many of whom are seasonal and migrant workers are at elevated risk for numerous forms of cancer compared to the general population and specific pesticides may be associated with this altered risk. Elevated risks have been found for lymphomas and prostate, brain, leukemia, cervix, and stomach cancers. PMID:19437276

  12. Farm Labor Contractors in California. California Agricultural Studies, 92-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Howard R.; And Others

    Farm labor contractors (FLCs) have become increasingly important in California agriculture. This report examines FLC background characteristics, business practices, and relationships with employers and farm workers, many of whom are seasonal and migrant workers. Over 300 FLCs, farm workers, and growers were interviewed in five California regions.…

  13. Health and safety strategy in Swedish agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Peter; Svennefelt, Catharina Alwall

    2012-01-01

    In Sweden there is a joint focus on injury prevention in agriculture and this is coordinated through the Swedish Committee on Working Environment (LAMK). LAMK is a network working for a good, healthy and safe working environment in Swedish agriculture from the view of the enterprise with the humans in focus. It is a committee consisting of representatives of authorities, institutions, companies, research & education institutions and organisations referring to the green sector. Examples of on-going initiatives & partners are presented which are included in this mission against injuries in agriculture. It involves the Swedish Work Environment Authority,, the Federation of Swedish Farmers (LRF), the Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU, the Federation of Swedish Forestry and Agricultural Employers (SLA) and the Swedish Municipal Worker's Union. PMID:22317540

  14. East elevation of bunkhouse and agriculture storage sheds, looking west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East elevation of bunkhouse and agriculture storage sheds, looking west. The shower house is adjacent to the storage sheds and just south of the bunkhouse. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

  15. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  16. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEVENS, GLENN Z.

    FEDERAL LEGISLATION HAS PROVIDED FOR PUBLIC PROGRAMS OF OCCUPATIONAL AGRICULTURE EDUCATION IN LAND GRANT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES, LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS, AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES SHOULD BE TO DEVELOP KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS, PROVIDE OCCUPATIONAL GUIDANCE AND PLACEMENT, AND DEVELOP ABILITIES IN HUMAN RELATIONS AND…

  17. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  18. Manufactured housing plant injuries in a rural family practice.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, R

    1990-09-01

    The manufacture of mobile homes and prefabricated houses results in the second highest occupational injury and illness rate of any industry. The types of worker injuries sustained have never previously been characterized. This series of 138 injuries from a rural family practice categorizes the injuries sustained by workers in a manufactured housing plant. Most injuries were not judged to be serious, but did result in lost work time and morbidity. Forty-nine percent of all injuries involved lacerations or puncture wounds. Seventy-six percent of puncture wounds involved staple gun use. Two thirds of lacerations were from pieces of metal, siding, and other sharp objects; one third were from knives. Fingers, hands, and wrists were the most commonly injured anatomic sites. Nine cases of overuse injury were seen; two required carpal tunnel surgical release. Twelve injuries were serious enough to require hospitalization or consultation. There were no fatalities. Several suggestions for improved worker safety are presented. PMID:2391457

  19. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan... forms to describe their intent for marketing to ensure that they meet the Fair Housing...

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home... Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan,...

  1. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home... Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan,...

  2. Self-reported musculoskeletal pain in Latino vineyard workers.

    PubMed

    Brumitt, Jason; Reisch, Rebecca; Krasnoselsky, Karla; Welch, Amy; Rutt, Richard; Garside, Leda I; McKay, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    The agricultural economy in the United States is dependent on millions of Latino migratory workers. Despite the health risks associated with this line of work, many agricultural workers lack health insurance or access to health care services. The purpose of this study was to collect demographic data and investigate the musculoskeletal health of Latino migratory vineyard workers. A physical therapy team collected demographic data at health clinics held at vineyards in Oregon. Nearly half (48.4%) of all vineyard workers reported experiencing musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) in at least one region of the body. The primary region of reported MSS was the back (32% of all men and 43.7% of all women). In most cases, those who reported MSS were significantly older than those who did not report MSS. Future research is necessary to identify personal and work related injury risk factors in order to develop prevention programs.

  3. Occupational fatalities among older workers in the United States: 1980-1991.

    PubMed

    Kisner, S M; Pratt, S G

    1997-08-01

    Workers aged 65 and older had a workplace fatality rate of 2.6 times that of workers aged 16 to 64 for 1980 through 1991 (14.1 per 100,000 vs 5.4), according to National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) data. The highest rates were in mining, agriculture, and construction. Compared with younger workers, older men were at an elevated risk for fatalities caused by machines, and older women for fatal falls and homicide. Prevention efforts should focus on older workers in agricultural settings, as well as those at increased risk of workplace falls or violence.

  4. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  5. Improved poultry house

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of energy and poultry production was explored in three areas: methane production from litter, broiler house insulation, and broiler house HVAC systems. The findings show that while a methane plant would not be popular with individual American poultry producers; the pay back in fuel and fertilizer, if the plant was located in close proximinity to the processing plant, would be favorable. Broiler house insulation has been dramatically improved since the outset of this study. Presently, all new installations in the survey area are the Environmental houses which are fully insulated. HVAC systems have had to keep pace with the introduction of better insulation. The new Environmental houses HVAC systems are fully automated and operating on a positive atmosphere principal. Ammonia and other problems have been kept in check while reducing air changes per house from a high of 7 per hour to as little as 3 per hour.

  6. Motivational interviewing in permanent supportive housing: the role of organizational culture.

    PubMed

    van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; Patterson Silver Wolf, David A; Ramsey, Alex

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated motivational interviewing (MI) in a permanent supportive housing agency. The agency's contradictory social service and business missions resulted in an incompatible organizational culture theorized to diminish MI's effectiveness. A combination of observational, interview, and archival data collected over 3 years were used to examine MI implementation within an incompatible supportive housing agency. Two major themes arose: how MI is used to categorize and change clients in permanent supportive housing and how worker-worker relationships affect MI implementation. The results suggest that within incompatible organizational environments, key elements of effective MI implementation are greatly weakened.

  7. NASA Tech House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Technology Utilization House, called Tech House, was designed and constructed at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, to demonstrate new technology that is available or will be available in the next several years and how the application of aerospace technology could help advance the homebuilding industry. Solar energy use, energy and water conservation, safety, security, and cost were major considerations in adapting the aerospace technology to the construction of Tech House.

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart B of... - Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging Grants D Exhibit D to Subpart B of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Application Packaging Grants Pt. 1944, Subpt. B, Exh. D Exhibit D to Subpart B of Part...

  9. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart N of... - Amendment to Housing Preservation Grant Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Amendment to Housing Preservation Grant Agreement B Exhibit B to Subpart N of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Preservation Grants Pt. 1944, Subpt. N, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart N of Part 1944—Amendment to...

  10. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart N of... - Amendment to Housing Preservation Grant Agreement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Amendment to Housing Preservation Grant Agreement B Exhibit B to Subpart N of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Preservation Grants Pt. 1944, Subpt. N, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart N of Part 1944—Amendment to...

  11. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  12. Economic Dislocation and Worker Adjustment Assistance Act, H.R. 1122. Hearing before the Subcommittees on Labor-Management Relations and Employment Opportunities of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (March 17, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This congressional hearing focuses on the Economic Dislocation and Worker Adjustment Assistance Act, which includes features of the prior year's Labor-Management Notification and Consultation Act of 1985 as well as new provisions enacting economic dislocation and worker adjustment task force recommendations. Testimony includes statements and…

  13. Child Labor in Agriculture, Summer 1970: A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, PA.

    A special project, undertaken to furnish some of the hard facts on child labor in agriculture in the summer of 1970, resulted in publication of this report. Part I of the report discusses society's attitudes toward agricultural workers, laws about the use of children as industrial laborers, work activities (with definitions of work for the various…

  14. Selected Job Title Description for Nonfarm Agricultural Jobs in Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondart, C. L., Jr.; And Others

    Job information, presented for use by high school counselors, was derived from a statewide study of nonfarm agricultural occupations which revealed that 20,025 Louisiana workers in 1,699 job titles were doing work demanding some specialized training in agriculture. Information includes a description, employee qualifications, employment…

  15. 77 FR 12882 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  16. 77 FR 13635 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...

  17. Germany's Guest Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupte, Pranay

    1984-01-01

    In wake of a recent recession, Turkish "guest workers" are beginning to feel less welcome in West Germany. Many have accepted government cash incentives to return to Turkey, but others have prospered and wish to stay. The Germans themselves are split over whether the Turks threaten job opportunities for native workers or provide crucial support to…

  18. Workers Kaleidoscope: 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This manual was prepared to provide union leaders, organizers, and local officers with information about the experiences of Asian-American, Black, Hispanic-American, female, and part-time workers. The Asian-American workers section includes information on Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, Asian-Indians, Southeast Asians, and Pacific Islanders…

  19. Testicular function among epichlorohydrin workers.

    PubMed Central

    Milby, T H; Whorton, M D; Stubbs, H A; Ross, C E; Joyner, R E; Lipshultz, L I

    1981-01-01

    Epichlorohydrin (1,2-epoxy-3-chloropropane) (ECH) is a colourless liquid used in the production of insecticides, agricultural chemicals, epoxy resins, and many other productions. It is highly reactive and an alkylating agent suspected of possessing carcinogenic properties in man. The results of a clinical-epidemiological investigation to ascertain whether exposure to ECH may be associated with sperm count suppression among ECH production workers at two chemical plants are presented. Medical histories and physical examinations with special emphasis on the genitourinary tract were completed on each participant. Blood samples and three semen specimens were also obtained. Since no internal control group were available, the data arising from this effort were analysed for each plant (plant A, 44 men; plant B, 84 men) using a control group of 90 chemical plants workers unexposed to any agents known to be toxic to the tests who were included in previous studies. This study provides no evidence that exposure to ECH at the concentrations existing at the two plants studied is responsible for sperm count suppression. PMID:6797463

  20. Multiple pump housing

    DOEpatents

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  1. More Than a House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1996-01-01

    For 14 years, Mountain Outreach, a program at Cumberland College (Williamsburg, Kentucky), has enabled college students to participate in community service projects. Recently, 35 students traveled to New Mexico to build a house for a Navajo elder who was unable to obtain adequate housing. Participants discuss their learning experiences and their…

  2. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  3. Housing Assistance Efficiency Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Peters, Scott H. [D-CA-52

    2013-07-23

    12/03/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Special Report: College Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Responses of chief housing officers of 118 4-year colleges and universities to a survey focusing on costs, security, policies, and preferences provide a picture of college housing. More than 67% of respondents say that their colleges are planning to build more residential space. (SLD)

  5. Supportive housing and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jade; Cunningham, David; Anderson, Solanna; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Urban centres in the US, Britain and Canada have responded to identified visible 'social problems' such addiction, mental health and homelessness by providing some supportive housing for the urban poor and marginalized. While some critics have questioned what supportive housing specifically entails in terms of the built environment, what remains under explored, though a growing area of concern, is the relationship between surveillance and supportive housing for urban residents identified as having addiction and mental health problems - a gap addressed in this paper. Drawing upon qualitative ethnographic observational data we examine some of the measures of control and coercion that are encroaching into social housing primarily established for poor and marginalized people with addiction and mental health problems in the urban centre of Vancouver, Canada. We witnessed three modes of regulation and control, that vary widely, among the residencies observed: physical surveillance technologies; site-specific modes of coercion; police presence and staff surveillance, which all together impact the everyday lives of residents living in low-income and supportive housing. We argue that supportive housing has the potential to provide its intended commitment - safe and secure affordable housing. However, owing to an (over)emphasis on 'security', the supportive housing we observed were also sites of social control. PMID:27453148

  6. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

    Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

  7. Socioeconomic Impacts of Agricultural Processing Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leistritz, F. Larry; Sell, Randall S.

    2001-01-01

    Studies in four North Dakota communities that had suffered economic and population decline in the 1980s examined the economic and community impacts of new agricultural processing plants in the late 1990s, including effects on residents' incomes, total and school-age population, needs for day care and community services, housing needs, public…

  8. Housing Survey. Campus Housing: Finding the Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Depending on where you look for statistics, the number of students enrolling in colleges or universities is increasing, decreasing or remaining the about the same. Regardless of those trends, campus housing is a marketing tool for institutions looking to draw students to and keep them on campus. Schools need to offer sufficient beds and…

  9. 1. General view, small house. (The house at left is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view, small house. (The house at left is 783 S. Front Street, HABS No. PA-1549) Photocopied from December 1957 photograph on file at Philadelphia Historical Commission - John Curtis House, 785 South Front Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 1. HOUSE, VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HOUSE, VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SUMMER KITCHEN AND SMOKE HOUSE ARE IN THE BACKGROUND - Kiel Farmstead, House, East side State Route 4, one half mile south of U.S. Route 64, Mascoutah, St. Clair County, IL

  11. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kim Y; Michailides, Themis J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  12. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Kim Y.; Michailides, Themis J.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C.

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  13. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kim Y; Michailides, Themis J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  14. Housing And Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R.F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Miller, Gregory V.; Peterson, David W.; Smith, Terrance T.

    2005-03-08

    This invention relates to an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module, and more particularly, to an apparatus for connecting a first optical connector to a second optical connector. The apparatus comprises: (1) a housing having at least a first end and at least a second end, the first end of the housing capable of receiving the first optical connector, and the second end of the housing capable of receiving the second optical connector; (2) a longitudinal cavity extending from the first end of the housing to the second end of the housing; and (3) an electromagnetic shield comprising at least a portion of the housing. This invention also relates to an apparatus for housing a flexible printed circuit board, and this apparatus comprises: (1) a mounting structure having at least a first surface and a second surface; (2) alignment ridges along the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure, the alignment ridges functioning to align and secure a flexible printed circuit board that is wrapped around and attached to the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure; and (3) a series of heat sink ridges adapted to the mounting structure, the heat sink ridges functioning to dissipate heat that is generated from the flexible printed circuit board.

  15. Agricultural chemical utilization and human health.

    PubMed Central

    Mushak, E W; Piver, W T

    1992-01-01

    The public is justifiably concerned about the human health effects of agricultural chemicals. The many gaps in information about the mechanisms of toxic action, human exposures, and the nature and extent of human health effects are large. Very few older pesticides, in particular, have been tested for human health effects. Workers who produce, harvest, store, transport, process, and prepare food and fibers are exposed to many chemicals that are potentially hazardous and that are used in agriculture. The occupational health of these workers has not been adequately studied, and protective efforts have sometimes been minimal. Valid and accurate risk assessment is best based on sound information about how chemicals, in this case agricultural chemicals, are involved in toxic events--their mechanisms of action. These health effects include tumor promotion, chronic and acute neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Another key part of risk assessment is exposure assessment. Fundamental studies of the toxicology of target organisms and nontarget organisms exposed to agricultural chemicals are needed to discover and develop better solutions to the problems of agricultural pest control, including better formulations, optimal application rates and public education in safety and alternative agricultural practices. The large number of pesticides that have never been adequately tested for effects on human health is particularly worrisome in light of emerging information about delayed nervous system effects. PMID:1396466

  16. Learning and recall of Worker Protection Standard (WPS) training in vineyard workers.

    PubMed

    Anger, W Kent; Patterson, Lindsey; Fuchs, Martha; Will, Liliana L; Rohlman, Diane S

    2009-01-01

    Worker Protection Standard (WPS) training is one of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) primary methods for preventing pesticide exposure in agricultural workers. Retention of the knowledge from the training may occasionally be tested by state Occupational Safety and Health Administrations (state OSHAs) during a site visit, but anecdotal evidence suggests that there is no consistent testing of knowledge after WPS training. EPA's retraining requirements are at 5-year intervals, meaning the knowledge must be retained for that long. Vineyard workers completed a test of their baseline WPS knowledge, computer-based training on WPS, a post-test immediately after training and a re-test 5 months later. Pre-test performance suggested that there was a relatively high level of baseline knowledge of WPS information on two-answer multiple choice tests (74% to 75%) prior to training. Training increased the knowledge to 85% on the post-test with the same questions, a significant increase (p < .001, 1-tailed) and a large effect size (d) of .90. Re-test performance (78%) at 5 months revealed a return towards but not back to the pre-test levels. Better test performance was significantly correlated with higher education and to a lesser extent with younger ages. Whether this level of knowledge is sufficient to protect agricultural workers remains an open question, although an increase in the proportion of people in a work group who know the critical WPS information may be the most important impact of training.

  17. Telecommuting: The Wired Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilles, Jack M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

  18. FARM WORKERS IN A SPECIALIZED SEASONAL CROP AREA, STANISLAUS COUNTY, CALIFORNIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    METZLER, WILLIAM H.

    SPECIALIZATION IN THE CROPS BEST ADAPTED TO THE LOCAL AREA IS SEEN AS A HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURE, BUT BY CREATING THE NEED FOR LARGE NUMBERS OF WORKERS FOR SHORT PERIODS OF TIME, IT CAUSES UNEMPLOYMENT AND MIGRATION. A SURVEY OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE WORKERS IN STANISLAUS COUNTY, CALIFORNIA IN 1962-63 REVEALS--(1) THEIR EARNINGS ARE…

  19. Resident Health Advocates in Public Housing Family Developments

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Deborah J; Bhosrekar, Sarah Gees; Rorie, Jo-Anna; Goodman, Rachel; Thomas, Gerry; Maxwell, Nancy Irwin; Smith, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Translation of research to practice often needs intermediaries to help the process occur. Our Prevention Research Center has identified a total of 89 residents of public housing in the last 11 years who have been working in the Resident Health Advocate (RHA) program to engage residents in improving their own and other residents’ health status, by becoming trained in skills needed by Community Health Workers. Future directions include training for teens to become Teen RHAs and further integration of our RHA program with changes in the health care system and in the roles of community health workers in general. PMID:25739061

  20. Outsourcing Student Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirino, Anna Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes discussion at a recent program of the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) regarding the trend toward privatized student housing; discussion highlighted market conditions, financing, and operations. (EV)

  1. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  2. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  3. Cinemicrographic specimen housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Housing used to observe gravitation effects on specimens embedded in support media, such as agar, supports microbial specimens vertically for time-lapsed cinemicrographic studies. Procedure cannot be performed with conventional microscopes which see specimens in horizontal plane only.

  4. Rotating housing turbine

    DOEpatents

    Allouche, Erez; Jaganathan, Arun P.

    2016-10-11

    The invention is a new turbine structure having a housing that rotates. The housing has a sidewall, and turbine blades are attached to a sidewall portion. The turbine may be completely open in the center, allowing space for solids and debris to be directed out of the turbine without jamming the spinning blades/sidewall. The turbine may be placed in a generator for generation of electrical current.

  5. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  6. Emerging Occupations in Agriculture: Impact upon Curricula and People, Part I. Yolo County, 1979. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Davis. Dept. of Applied Behavioral Sciences.

    A study was conducted to identify competencies needed by workers in new and emerging occupations in agriculture; to identify occupations in agriculture that are on the decline and occupations that may no longer be needed; to work toward the elimination of sex bias in preparation for entry into occupations in agriculture; and to assess the…

  7. 3. Bell house, light tower and keeper's house, view west, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Bell house, light tower and keeper's house, view west, southeast side and northeast front of bell house, southeast sides of tower and keeper's house - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  8. 2. Keeper's house, light tower and oil house, view north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Keeper's house, light tower and oil house, view north, south and east sides of keeper's house, south side of tower and oil house - Owl's Head Light Station, Off State Highway 73 just east of Rockland on Owl's Head Bay, Owls Head, Knox County, ME

  9. 91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS 101 AND 72; BUILDING 101 IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH HOUSED SCRAP METAL CLEANING AND PROCESSING FACILITIES; BUILDING 72 AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED MELTING FURNACES AND CONTINUOUS CASTING MACHINERY - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  10. Housing in Los Angeles: Affordable Housing for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Blue Ribbon Committee for Affordable Housing, CA.

    A 1988 mayoral committee assessed the seriousness of Los Angeles (California) housing problems and found that the city's housing efforts were sufficient in the 1960s, when the Federal Government took primary responsibility for housing and the average wage was adequate to support the cost of the average house or apartment. However, the following…

  11. 7. Keeper's house, fog signal house and light tower, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Keeper's house, fog signal house and light tower, view north northeast, west and south sides of keeper's house and tower, southwest and southeast sides of fog signal house - West Quoddy Head Light Station, At eastern tip of West Quaddy Head, Lubec, Washington County, ME

  12. 12. Fuel house and fog signal house, view northeast, southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Fuel house and fog signal house, view northeast, southwest side of fuel house, west and south sides of fog signal house - Cape Elizabeth Light Station, Near Two Lights State Park at end of Two Lights Road, off State Highway 77, Cape Elizabeth, Cumberland County, ME

  13. Workers in Agribusiness: Profile, Images, Recruitment, Mobility, and Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lee, Ed.; Leagans, J. Paul, Ed.

    Designed and conducted by a team of professors and research associates at New York State College of Agriculture, this study focuses on five primary areas of concern: (1) profile of firms and workers, (2) images of agribusiness work, (3) recruitment, (4) occupational mobility, and (5) agribusiness occupations and projections. Findings reveal that…

  14. 3 CFR 13629 - Executive Order 13629 of October 26, 2012. Establishing the White House Homeland Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Interior; (vi) Department of Agriculture; (vii) Department of Commerce; (viii) Department of Labor; (ix) Department of Health and Human Services; (x) Department of Housing and Urban Development; (xi) Department...

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration or Its Sucessor Agency Under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home... Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan,...

  16. The global view: issues affecting US production agriculture.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Peter

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses small events occurring among developing countries, particularly but not exclusively in Asia, and their subsequent large impacts on net food exporting countries in the world, particularly, but not exclusively, located in the Western hemisphere. A Green Revolution II is underway as a result where the world's agricultural system will produce more (output) with less (inputs). Agriculture will meet the rapidly growing demand for bio-based foods, fuels, feeds, and fiber while reducing input usage, preserving the natural environment, and maintaining native ecosystems. In turn agricultural workers will receive a health dividend as chemical usage falls, automation, metering, and sensing technologies rise, and exposure to harsh environmental, both natural and man-made, conditions is reduced. This paper was prepared for the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. PMID:20665304

  17. The global view: issues affecting US production agriculture.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Peter

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses small events occurring among developing countries, particularly but not exclusively in Asia, and their subsequent large impacts on net food exporting countries in the world, particularly, but not exclusively, located in the Western hemisphere. A Green Revolution II is underway as a result where the world's agricultural system will produce more (output) with less (inputs). Agriculture will meet the rapidly growing demand for bio-based foods, fuels, feeds, and fiber while reducing input usage, preserving the natural environment, and maintaining native ecosystems. In turn agricultural workers will receive a health dividend as chemical usage falls, automation, metering, and sensing technologies rise, and exposure to harsh environmental, both natural and man-made, conditions is reduced. This paper was prepared for the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.

  18. GUARD HOUSE AND SOUTH FIRE HOUSE, VICINITY MAP. (Shows the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GUARD HOUSE AND SOUTH FIRE HOUSE, VICINITY MAP. (Shows the Guard House and Barracks, and South Fire House in relation to nearby roads, railroad tracks, and the piers). Navy Yard, Mare Island, California. P.W. Drawing No. C-1899, approved 1941; file no. 930-C-1. Scale one inch to forty feet. 72 cn x 97 cm. Ink on vellum - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Agricultural workers and urinary bladder cancer risk in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amr, Sania; Dawson, Rebecca; Saleh, Doa'a A; Magder, Laurence S; Mikhail, Nabiel N; St George, Diane Marie; Squibb, Katherine; Khaled, Hussein; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the associations between farming and the risk for squamous cell (SCC) or urothelial cell (UC) carcinoma of the urinary bladder among Egyptians. The authors used data from a multicenter case-control study (1,525 male and 315 female cases, and 2,069 male and 547 female age- and residence-matched, population-based controls) to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Men in farming and who never smoked had increased risk for either SCC or UC (AOR [95% CI]: 4.65 [2.59-8.36] and 6.22 [3.82-10.15], respectively). If they ever smoked, their risks were 2.27 (1.75-2.95) and 1.93 (1.58-2.35), respectively. Women in farmer households were at increased risk for SCC (1.40 [0.93-2.09] and UC [1.25 (0.82-1.89]), although not statistically significant. Occupational and environmental exposures to farming increased the risk for bladder cancer among Egyptians. PMID:23930791

  20. Determination of chlorinated insecticides in blood samples of agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Rosell, M G; Obiols, J; Berenguer, M J; Guardino, X; López, F; Brosa, J

    1993-11-26

    Lindane, aldrin and p,p'-DDT were determined in blood samples from 71 farmers by means of an analytical method which combines a direct whole-blood extraction with n-hexane and gas chromatography (GC)-electron-capture detection (ECD), using a capillary column, applied to the organic extract. This technique allowed the determination of pesticides at levels varying from 0.1 to 180 micrograms per l of blood, the detection limit for every pesticide being 0.1 microgram/l. GC-mass spectrometry was used to confirm the identity of each pesticide. The advantage of capillary column GC-ECD for pesticide determination is its sensitivity and high resolution, which makes it possible to separate pesticides from a complex n-hexane extract obtained in a very simple pretreatment of the blood sample, which is itself a very complex matrix.