Background Migrant agricultural workers are a group of people living in poverty with poor housing, sanitary conditions and hygiene practices. Little is known about the epidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers. Methods We investigated the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in 173 migrant workers hired for seasonal agricultural work in Durango State in northern Mexico using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results Of the 173 migrant workers (mean age 34.82 ± 14.01 years), 50 (28.9%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and 36 (20.8%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence was not influenced by gender, age, birth place, or educational level. In contrast, seroprevalence was significantly higher in workers residing in rural areas than those in urban or suburban areas. Migrant workers suffering from memory impairment, dizziness, or syncope had significantly higher seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies than those without such clinical features. Logistic regression analysis showed that T. gondii exposure was positively associated with consumption of unwashed raw vegetables (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.06-5.35; P = 0.03) and low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 3.87; 95% CI: 1.43-10.42; P = 0.007), and negatively associated with national trips (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.65; P = 0.003) and consumption of raw milk (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.18-0.87; P = 0.02). Other behavioral characteristics including consumption of meat or untreated water were not associated with T. gondii infection. Conclusions This is the first report of T. gondii infection in internal migrant agricultural workers living in poverty. Results deserve further investigation of causal relations between clinical symptoms and infection, and may be useful for optimal planning of preventive measures. PMID:23601076
Arroyo, Michele Gonzalez; Kurre, Laura
This report examines the extent to which young people work in California agriculture and describes work-related hazards and injuries among young agricultural workers. Data were gathered through a literature review; discussion groups with parents, community groups, and English-as-a-second-language students in the San Joaquin Valley; surveys of 295…
Simons, J. W.; And Others
Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…
The U.S. Department of Labor is the only national information source on the demographics, and working and living conditions of U.S. farm workers. Since the NAWS began surveying farm workers in 1988, it has collected information from over 25,000 workers. The survey samples all cro...
METZLER, WILLIAM H.; SARGENT, FREDERIC O.
A SURVEY ON THE INCOME OF MIGRATORY WORKERS LOCATED IN SOUTH TEXAS DURING THE WINTER OF 1956-57 WAS PRESENTED. IN 446 HOUSEHOLDS SURVEYED, THERE WERE 1,334 WORKERS, APPROXIMATELY HALF OF THESE WERE HOUSEHOLD HEADS OR THEIR WIVES. WORKING WIVES WERE A LITTLE MORE THAN HALF AS NUMEROUS AS WORKING HUSBANDS. MOST OF THE HUSBANDS WERE 45 TO 54 YEARS OF…
Petty, Gregory C.; Stewart, Bob R.
Significant differences exist between agribusiness workers and agricultural production workers in Missouri in the affective work skills they demonstrate. Significant differences also appear between agricultural supervisors and workers. (SK)
Labour Education, 1975
The background, achievements, problems, and future plans of various workers' organizations in agriculture are discussed: International Federation of Plantation, Agricultural, and Allied Workers; Trade Union International of Agricultural, Forestry, and Plantation Workers; World Federation of Agricultural Workers; and the Asian Trade Union College.…
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false H-2 agricultural workers. 1626.11 Section 1626.11... ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural workers. (a) Nonimmigrant agricultural workers admitted under the provisions of 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(h)(ii), commonly called H-2 workers, may...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false H-2 agricultural workers. 1626.11 Section 1626.11... ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural workers. (a) Nonimmigrant agricultural workers admitted under the provisions of 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(h)(ii), commonly called H-2 workers, may...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false H-2 agricultural workers. 1626.11 Section 1626.11... ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural workers. (a) Nonimmigrant agricultural workers admitted under the provisions of 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(h)(ii), commonly called H-2 workers, may...
Puerto Rico State Dept. of Labor, San Juan. Migrant Div.
Written for Spanish-speaking Puerto Rican agricultural workers, this course of study provides basic conversational concepts for those who have little or no acquaintance with English. Several important reasons for obtaining skill in the use of English are enumerated in the introductory paragraphs which are in Spanish. The text takes the student…
Taylor, J. Edward; Espenshade, Thomas J.
The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 contains controversial provisions to allow temporary "replenishment" farmworkers to enter the United States to harvest perishable crops. This paper describes the role of legal and illegal foreign workers in California agriculture in relation to these provisions and the assumptions on which they rest.…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Foreign agricultural workers. 404.1016 Section 404.1016 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers...
Leonard, David; And Others
This training manual, the third volume in a four-volume series of curriculum guides for use in training Peace Corps agricultural development workers, deals with crops. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the crops component of the agricultural development worker training series. Included in the second…
Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M
Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here. PMID:12363179
Yeshewalul, Ayele; Griffith, William S.
This research examined the effects of government and the university organizational models and of performing regulatory functions on American and Canadian agricultural extension workers' role perception and role performance. (Author/SSH)
JORGENSON, JANET M.; AND OTHERS
FIELD STUDIES WERE CONDUCTED IN 1960 IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS AND IN IOWA TO AUGMENT INFORMATION ON MIGRATORY WORKERS. FACULTY-STUDENT TEAM FIELD TRIPS FOUND MANY FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN PROVIDING A CONSTRUCTIVE APPROACH TO THE PROBLEMS OF THE MIGRANT WORKER. CHILDREN OF THE MIGRANTS ARE NOT GETTING THE EDUCATION THEY NEED TO BREAK…
The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...
Bacon, Neil; And Others
This training manual, the last volume in a four-volume series for use in training Peace Corps workers, deals with livestock. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the livestock component of the agricultural development worker training course. Included in the second chapter are lesson plans covering the…
... Section 404.1016 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers...
Discusses agriculture and farming factors affecting immigration and integration policies. Examines seasonality, wages, and guest workers; the Immigration Reform and Control Act; and the search for seasonal workers. Data suggest that first generation immigrants age out of seasonal farm work with few skills to enable them to climb any job ladder,…
Thetkathuek, Anamai; Daniell, William
There has been a dramatic increase in the global movement of workers during the last few decades. As Thailand has developed rapidly over the past 20 years, it has attracted laborers (both authorized and unauthorized) from the neighboring countries of Myanmar, People's Democratic Republic of Lao (Lao PDR), and Cambodia. Given that agriculture has been Thailand's most important industry, its continued growth has been dependent on migrant workers. Both crop agriculture and animal-production agriculture have employed migrant labor. Migrants have been hired to plant, weed, fertilize, spray pesticides, and harvest crops such as rice, corn, sugar cane, and cassava. They have worked at rubber and coffee plantations, as well as in the production of ornamental crops. Also, migrants have labored on pig, beef, and duck farms. There have been numerous documented health problems among migrant workers, including acute diarrhea, malaria, and fever of unknown causes. Occupational illness and injury have been a significant concern, and there has been limited health and safety training. This article reviewed the demographic changes in Thailand, studied the agricultural crops and animal production that are dependent on migrant labor, discussed the health status and safety challenges pertaining to migrant workers in agriculture, and described several recommendations. Among the recommendations, the conclusions of this study have suggested that addressing the cost for health care and solutions to health care access for migrant labor are needed. PMID:26479089
Fernández-Soria, Juan Manuel
This article focuses on the Workers' Institutes (WI), one of the most important educational initiatives undertaken by the Spanish Republic during the Civil War (1936-1939). After framing their creation within the context of European trends in higher education for the working classes and within the Spanish socio-political context, this article…
Friedland, William H.; Nelkin, Dorothy
The study explores the migrant labor system as it operates in the northeastern United States. It is concerned with how the system affects life in migrant labor crews, the details of daily routine, and the problems and adjustments made by the people to the circumstances in which they live. The 3 themes of the book are: (1) the disorganized and…
MCGOWEN, DEWEY, JR.
THE CHILDREN OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT WORKERS ARE EDUCATIONALLY AND SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED. IN ORDER TO PROVIDE AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR THESE YOUNGSTERS, FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES SHOULD BE CONSIDERED-- (1) AFFECTION IS A BASIC NEED OF CHILDREN, (2) EVERY INDIVIDUAL HAS THE POTENTIAL TO GROW IN HIS OWN WAY, (3) GROWTH IS INTERRELATED WITH READINESS,…
Taylor, Walter N.
A survey of 32 displaced agricultural workers and 19 prospective employers identified the education and training perceived necessary by both groups to gain employment in desired occupations. Results indicate that educational efforts should teach problem-solving and decision-making skills as well as technical skills. (CH)
Auburn Univ., AL. Agricultural Experiment Station.
Twenty-seven papers relating to rural sociology which were presented at the 1970 annual meeting of the Association of Southern Agricultural Workers are compiled in this volume. Areas emphasized are the educational and occupational aspirations of rural youth, community development and regional planning, and the racial composition and…
Borrego, John G.; And Others
The intent of this report, as stated, is to bring about an awareness of the kinds of problems faced by migrant agricultural workers (Mexican Americans and Navajos), by farmers, and by agencies offering services to these migrants in New Mexico. An overview of the national and state migrant situation is presented, as well as case studies of various…
McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.
Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…
Wilhite, Carla S; Jaco, Linda
Limited attention has been devoted to the cultural and practice competencies needed by occupational therapy and physical therapy professionals who provide services to farming families impacted by chronic health or disability issues. Agricultural occupational safety and health should represent a continuum of services responsive to individuals, families, and agricultural communities across a life span and range of health status changes. Physical rehabilitation professionals have a key role in impacting an agricultural producer's sense of self-efficacy and capacities for returning to agricultural living and work. However, demonstration of competency is essential in providing person-centered rehabilitation services of assessment, evaluation, treatment planning, interventions, referrals, and discharge issues. The paper highlights methods utilized by a state AgrAbility program and a former National AgrAbility Project to develop a model of continuing education programming for occupational and physical therapists that evaluate and treat agricultural workers after acute injury or exacerbation of chronic health conditions. PMID:24959764
... Agricultural Workers Survey: Revision to an Approved Collection (OMB 1205-0453) AGENCY: Employment and Training... Collection. Agency: Employment and Training Administration. Title: National Agricultural Workers Survey. OMB... Workers Survey (NAWS) regarding: (1) The amount of time per day farm workers are engaged working...
Fields, Noelle LeCrone; Koenig, Terry; Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly
This study explored key aspects of resident transitions to assisted living (AL), including the frequency and importance of preadmission resident education and the potential role of social workers in this setting. To examine the factors that may help or hinder resident transitions to AL, a written survey was administered to a statewide,…
Lee, B C; Westaby, J D; Chyou, P H; Purschwitz, M A
The goal of the "Safety Training for Employers and Supervisors of Adolescent Farmworkers" initiative is to improve the occupational health and safety knowledge and practices of agricultural employers and supervisors responsible for employees, ages 14 to 17 years. Surveys were sent to members of the National Council of Agricultural Employers and the Washington Growers League to measure attitudes regarding adolescent employees, current hiring and training practices, and future intentions. More than half of the respondents hire adolescents. Two-thirds were male, nearly three-quarters of the respondents had college or post-graduate degrees, and more than half were 50 years or older. The majority of respondents had positive perceptions of adolescents in terms of dependability, helpfulness, and work ethic. Among those who currently hire young workers, the most common reasons were to provide a job for children of friends and family and because they can work part-time to fill a labor demand. Among those not hiring adolescents, the most common reason was concern about child labor regulations and associated tasks (e.g., paperwork, monitoring hours). Respondents use a variety of safety training resources, especially posters and safety meetings. For the future, they expect to need more handout materials and training videos. Study results provide insights into barriers to the employment of young workers and suggest methods by which agricultural safety specialists can best assist those employers and producers who are willing to hire adolescents into agricultural work settings. PMID:17370911
Pratt, D S
More than 50 million Americans live in rural areas. These rural residents often work for small businesses or in the extraction industries (farming, mining, and logging). Because of the size of the businesses, the mandate of the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) does not cover these workers and they are seldom afforded the same protection as urban workers. This review focuses on the special health problems facing farm workers, farmers, miners, and loggers. Farm workers are often ill and are affected by psychological illness, injuries, parasites, skin diseases, and the dangers of agrichemicals. Farm owners also face the hazards of stress and have very high rates of suicide. In addition, they are often injured on the job and suffer the highest rate of job related fatality of any work group. The complex farm environment presents a continuous threat to the lungs. This danger has worsened with the increased use of confinement buildings for poultry, hogs, and cattle. As farming has changed with increased mechanization, attendant medical problems have arisen. These "illnesses of innovation" are important. Mining and logging also are dangerous occupations with acute and chronic problems including respiratory illness, vascular problems, and malignancy. The decade of the 1990s must be one of increased attention to rural occupational health care and research. PMID:10107682
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false H-2 agricultural and forestry workers. 1626.11... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural and forestry workers. (a... section. (b) Nonimmigrant forestry workers admitted to, or permitted to remain in, the United States...
Suarez-Lopez, Jose R.; Jacobs, David R.; Himes, John H.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Lazovich, DeAnn; Gunnar, Megan
BACKGROUND Children of workers exposed to pesticides are at risk of secondary pesticide exposure. We evaluated the potential for lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children cohabiting with fresh-cut flower plantation workers, which would be expected from organophosphate and carbamate insecticide exposure. Parental home surveys were performed and acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in 277 children aged 4–9 years in the study of Secondary Exposure to Pesticides among Infants, Children and Adolescents (ESPINA). Participants lived in a rural county in Ecuador with substantial flower plantation activity. RESULTS Mean acetylcholinesterase activity was 3.14 U/ml, standard deviation (SD): 0.49. It was lower by 0.09 U/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.19, −0.001) in children of flower workers (57% of participants) than non-flower workers’ children, after adjustment for gender, age, height-for-age, hemoglobin concentration, income, pesticide use within household lot, pesticide use by contiguous neighbors, examination date and residence distance to nearest flower plantation. Using a 4 level polychotomous acetylcholinesterase activity dependent variable, flower worker cohabitation (vs. not) had odds ratio 3.39 (95% CI 1.19, 9.64) for being <15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. Children cohabitating for ≥5 years (vs. never) had OR of 4.11 (95% CI: 1.17, 14.38) of AChE activity within <15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. CONCLUSIONS Cohabitation with a flower worker was related to lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children. This supports the hypothesis that the amount of take-home pesticides from flower workers suffices to decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, with lower activity associated with longer exposure. PMID:22405996
Amr, Sania; Dawson, Rebecca; Saleh, Doa’a A.; Magder, Laurence S.; St. George, Diane Marie; El-Daly, Mai; Squibb, Katherine; Mikhail, Nabiel N.; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Khaled, Hussein; Loffredo, Christopher A.
We examined the associations between pesticide exposure, genetic polymorphisms for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase I (NQO1) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), and urinary bladder cancer risk among male agricultural workers in Egypt. We used logistic regression to analyze data from a multi-center case-control study and estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI (confidence interval) Exposure to pesticides was associated with increased bladder cancer risk (1.68 (1.23–2.29)) in a dose-dependent manner. The association was slightly stronger for urothelial (1.79 (1.25–2.56) than for squamous cell carcinoma (1.55 (1.03–2.31)), and among participants with combined genotypes for low NQO1 and high SOD2 (2.14 (1.19–3.85) activities as compared to those with high NQO1 and low SOD2 genotypes (1.53 (0.73–3.25)). In conclusion, among male agricultural workers in Egypt, pesticide exposure is associated with bladder cancer risk and possibly modulated by genetic polymorphism. PMID:24219772
... AGENCY Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural... document extends the public comment period established in the Federal Register of December 9, 2009 (74 FR... Register of December 9, 2009, making available for comment a policy paper entitled ``Revised...
Concepts and current methods of determining worker safety reentry times are reviewed. Comparison of human monitoring studies, factors in a worker reentry episode and exposure estimation methods illustrate the advantages of estimation methods. Research needs for worker reentry tim...
Singleton, Steven T.; Lein, Pamela J.; Farahat, Fayssal M.; Farahat, Taghreed; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Olson, James R.
Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides that exert their effects by prolonging the open time of sodium channels, which increases the duration of neuronal excitation. α-cypermethrin (αCM) is derived from the 8-stereoisomers that together make up the pyrethroid cypermethrin, which is one of the most common pyrethroids being used in agriculture throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure to αCM in a cohort of Egyptian agriculture workers (n=37) before, during and after 6 to 10 consecutive days of application of αCM to cotton fields. Daily spot urine specimens were collected and analyzed by GC-MS NCI for the αCM metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and cis-3-(2’,2’-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA). Prior to αCM application, median urinary levels of 3-PBA (4.59 nmol/g creatinine) were greater than cis-DCCA (0.33 nmole/g creatinine) demonstrating low background exposures to pyrethroids. During the application period for αCM, median urinary levels of both biomarkers increased (13.44 nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 7.76 nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine) and ranged from 2.3–93.96 nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 0.09–90.94 nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine, demonstrating that workers had a wide range of exposures to αCM. The data also demonstrate that pesticide applicators had greater exposures to αCM than workers who play a supporting role in the seasonal application of pesticides on the cotton crop. Urinary cis-DCCA and 3-PBA concentrations were elevated at 7–11 days after the cessation of αCM application, compared to baseline levels. This study is the first to use these biomarkers to quantify occupational exposures specifically to αCM. This urinary biomarker data will be useful for estimating daily internal dose, comparing exposures across job categories within the Egyptian pesticide application teams, and for modeling human exposures to αCM. PMID:24269189
Stoleski, Saso; Minov, Jordan; Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka
INTRODUCTION: Job exposure in agricultural workers often leads to respiratory impairment. AIM: To assess the influence of exposure duration and smoking on chronic respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity in agricultural workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study covered 75 agricultural workers, compared with an equal number of office workers matched by age, exposure duration and smoking status. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain data on chronic respiratory symptoms, job and smoking history. Lung functional testing was performed by spirometry. RESULTS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher in agricultural workers, with significant difference for cough (P = 0.034), and dyspnea (P = 0.028). Chronic respiratory symptoms among agricultural workers were significantly associated with duration of exposure (P < 0.05) and daily smoking (P < 0.01), as well as with daily smoking in controls (P < 0.01). The average values of spirometric parameters in exposed workers were significantly different for MEF50 (P = 0.002), MEF75 (P = 0.000), and MEF25-75 (P = 0.049). Obstructive changes in small airways in exposed workers were strongly related to exposure duration (P < 0.05) and smoking (P < 0.01). Agricultural workers with job exposure more than 15 years had more expressed adverse respiratory symptoms and lung function decline. CONCLUSION: The results confirmed the influence of agricultural exposure and daily smoking on chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation, primarily targeting the small airways.
Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.
This reference manual for training Peace Corps agricultural development workers deals with crops. The document begins with common units of area, length, weight, volume, and conversions between them. A practice problem is worked and other conversion problems are given. The second section is intended to show agricultural field workers how to survey…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Live-in household domestic service workers... Process § 656.19 Live-in household domestic service workers. (a) Processing. Applications on behalf of live-in household domestic service occupations are processed pursuant to the requirements of the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Live-in household domestic service workers... Process § 656.19 Live-in household domestic service workers. (a) Processing. Applications on behalf of live-in household domestic service occupations are processed pursuant to the requirements of the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Live-in household domestic service workers... Process § 656.19 Live-in household domestic service workers. (a) Processing. Applications on behalf of live-in household domestic service occupations are processed pursuant to the requirements of the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Live-in household domestic service workers... Process § 656.19 Live-in household domestic service workers. (a) Processing. Applications on behalf of live-in household domestic service occupations are processed pursuant to the requirements of the...
Post-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade liberalisation combined with post-9/11 border securitisation means North America increasingly relies on pools of temporary foreign labour, particularly in the agricultural and service sectors. Despite being temporary, these workers often spend most of their years on foreign soil, living and working in isolated rural communities, far from their own families and communities. Migrants' mental and physical health suffers due to hazardous and stressful working conditions, sub-standard housing, lack of social support and limited access to health and social welfare services. Assuming access to health is a basic human right, who is responsible for the health of temporary foreign migrant workers? Is it the nation-state? or the Employers and/or unions? or Civil society? Research and practice show that a combined multisector approach is best; however, such initiatives are often uneven due to questions of sovereignty and citizenship rights. Community-based organisations (CBOs) have emerged to advocate for and serve migrants' social and welfare needs; analysis of CBO projects reveals an uneven application of rights to migrants. Using a comparative case study from Canada, this project contributes to understanding how civil-society helps to activate different types of health care rights for migrants, and to create an informed policy that provides migrant workers with access to a wider range of human and health rights. PMID:23672480
Wiklund, K; Lindefors, B M; Holm, L E
The risk of malignant lymphoma after possible exposure to phenoxy acid herbicides was studied in 354,620 Swedish men who, according to a national census in 1960, were employed in agriculture or forestry. The cohort was divided into subcohorts according to assumed exposure and compared with 1,725,645 Swedish men having other economic activities. All were followed up in the Cancer-Environment Register between 1961 and 1979. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was found in 861 men in the study cohort. The relative risk was not significantly increased in any subcohort, did not differ significantly between the subcohorts, and showed no time related increase in the total cohort or any subcohort. Hodgkin's disease was found in 355 men in the study cohort. Relative risks significantly higher than unity were found among fur farming and silviculture workers where the relative risks were 4.45 and 2.26, respectively. All five cases in the former group were engaged in mink farming. A time related rising trend in relative risk was found in the silviculture subcohort. Elsewhere the relative risk did not diverge from unity and no time related trend was discernible. PMID:3342183
Arcury, Thomas A.; Estrada, Jorge M.; Quandt, Sara A.
The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, “Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture,” is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the US to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented. PMID:20665309
Rye, Johan Fredrik; Andrzejewska, Joanna
Since the 2004 EU enlargement established one European common labour market, a large number of Eastern Europeans have taken up seasonal employment as hired farm workers in Norwegian agriculture. Much attention in the public has been given to the potential for "social dumping" of these migrating workers, as they are considered prone to exploitation…
California State Dept. of Public Health, Berkeley.
FIELD INTERVIEWS WERE HELD WITH COMMUNITY LEADERS AND WITH SEVERAL HUNDRED WORKERS' FAMILIES. THE ACQUIRED INFORMATION SUPPLEMENTED A SURVEY OF PAST AND PRESENT CONDITIONS AND ASSISTED IN FORMULATING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION TO MEET THE ACUTE HEALTH NEEDS OF CALIFORNIA'S SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. THE HEALTH PROBLEM CAN BE MET BY LOCAL…
The environmental behavior of five organophospate insecticides in Florida citrus are reported. Parathion disappearance rate from fruit, leaf, and soil surfaces was the same. Potential worker exposure to parathion was leaf surface, soil surface, fruit surface, and a minor componen...
A PRACTICAL GUIDE IS PROVIDED FOR TRAINERS OF ADVISORY AND EXTENSION WORKERS AND LOCAL LEADERS IN AGRICULTURE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING NATIONS. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, COMMUNITY SURVEY PROCEDURES, ELEMENTS OF PROGRAM PLANNING, AND PURPOSES AND METHODS OF PROGRAM EVALUATION ARE DESCRIBED. THEN FOLLOW TWO CHAPTERS…
Edmunds, Kathryn; Berman, Helene; Basok, Tanya; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Forchuk, Cheryl
Among high-income countries such as Canada, there is growing dependency on "low skilled" temporary foreign workers in a variety of sectors. The purpose of this review is to critically synthesize and analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on gendered and temporary migration in the context of globalization and the health of temporary agricultural workers, particularly women in Canadian programs. While the social sciences literature contains well-developed conceptualizations of gendered migration, the research has focused on women in feminized occupations such as domestic work. Multidisciplinary searches produced only 11 research and review publications on the gendered constraints or health of temporary agricultural workers in Canada. Further investigation is needed to explore and integrate the strengths, resiliencies, and health-care needs of women migrant agricultural workers in Canada, as well as the barriers they face, within the intersecting and gendered forces of inequities at all levels: local, national, and global. PMID:22435309
Loewenherz, C; Fenske, R A; Simcox, N J; Bellamy, G; Kalman, D
Children up to 6 years of age who lived with pesticide applicators were monitored for increased risk of pesticide exposure: 48 pesticide applicator and 14 reference families were recruited from an agricultural region of Washington State in June 1995. A total of 160 spot urine samples were collected from 88 children, including repeated measures 3-7 days apart. Samples were assayed by gas chromatography flame photometric detector for dimethylphosphate metabolites. Dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) was the dominant metabolite. DMTP levels were significantly higher in applicator children than in reference children (p = 0.015), with median concentrations of 0.021 and 0.005 microg/ml, respectively; maximum concentrations were 0.44 and 0.10 microg/ml, respectively. Percentages of detectable samples were 47% for applicator children and 27% for reference children. A marginally significant trend of increasing concentration was observed with decreasing age among applicator children (p = 0.060), and younger children within these families had significantly higher concentrations when compared to their older siblings (p = 0.040). Applicator children living less than 200 feet from an orchard were associated with higher frequency of detectable DMTP levels than nonproximal applicator children (p =0.036). These results indicate that applicator children experienced higher organophosphorus pesticide exposures than did reference children in the same community and that proximity to spraying is an important contributor to such exposures. Trends related to age suggest that child activity is an important variable for exposure. It is unlikely that any of the observed exposures posed a hazard of acute intoxication. This study points to the need for a more detailed understanding of pesticide exposure pathways for children of agricultural workers. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9405329
Murphy, Maria; Matos, Sergio
Maria Murphy is a community health worker in the south Bronx, an impoverished underprivileged neighborhood of largely Latino and African American communities along with smaller ethnic minority groups. Having come to New York at 13 years of age from her native Puerto Rico, Maria held numerous jobs while supporting her family and completing her education. Maria soon got a position as a community health worker and discovered purpose in her work. Her work with people she serves has been called a labor of love by her clients. Maria describes it as her passion. This is her story. PMID:21914995
Stĕrba, J; Ditrich, O; Prokopic, J; Kadlcík, K
In the years from 1975 to 1982 1,750 persons, mostly employed by agricultural enterprises in the South Bohemian Region in Czechoslovakia, were examined. We discovered seven species of parasites: Taenia saginata in 0.3%, Enterobius vermicularis in 10.1%, Giardia lamblia in 1.0%, Endolimax nana in 0.8%, Entamoeba coli in 0.7%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 0.2%, and Chilomastix mesnili in 0.5%. The greatest number of parasites was found in students of the Secondary agricultural and technical school. Only two species of parasites were diagnosed in children of the employees. The incidence of E. vermicularis was 75% in children, in adult employees of agricultural enterprises, however, only 9.8%. PMID:3169645
Anderson, J.; Usher, J.
Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a
Fiscus, Keith Eugene
Questionnaires to determine the vocational and technical education needed by prospective workers in farming and in grain elevator and agricultural equipment businesses were administered to 20 workers in each of the jobs of (1) farm manager, (2) grain elevator manager, operator, salesman, and deliveryman, and (3) agricultural equipment manager,…
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.
Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for agricultural products sales and service occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies,…
The farmer has been one of the major beneficiaries of the chemical revolution that has occurred over the past half century. The development of new fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides and other agricultural chemicals has dramatically increased crop yields and reduced c...
DePasquale, Nicole; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Darrell, Linda; Boyer, LaPricia Lewis; Ephraim, Patti; Boulware, L. Ebony
Live kidney transplantation (LKT) is underused by patients with end-stage renal disease. Easily implementable and effective interventions to improve patients' early consideration of LKT are needed. The Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) social worker intervention (SWI) improved consideration and pursuit of LKT among patients with…
... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 170 RIN 2070-AJ22 Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture...). ACTION: Notification of submission to the Secretary of Agriculture. SUMMARY: This document notifies the... Administrator has forwarded to the Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) a...
Omishakin, M. Ademola
Presents results of a survey on housing conditions, knowledge of health hazards, use of health facilities, and health needs among Black agricultural workers in Leflore County, Mississippi. Indicates the need for health education, better medical coverage, and community involvement in health care delivery, to improve health conditions in the county.…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.
THE CALIFORNIA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION HAS ADOPTED A UNIFORM TRANSFER SYSTEM FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. EACH SCHOOL DISTRICT ENROLLING MIGRANT CHILDREN MUST COMPLETE A STANDARDIZED FORM FOR EACH MIGRANT CHILD AND FORWARD IT WITH THE PUPIL WHEN HE WITHDRAWS FROM SCHOOL. A COPY ALSO MUST BE FORWARDED TO THE STATE…
Hiott, Ann E.; Quandt, Sara A.; Early, Julie; Jackson, David S.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Context: Pesticide exposure is an important environmental and occupational health risk for agricultural workers and their families, but health care providers receive little training in it. Objective: To evaluate the medical resources available to providers caring for patients, particularly farmworkers, exposed to pesticides and to recommend a…
Farming is a physically arduous occupation that places farm workers' at potential risk of musculoskeletal disorders, which has been observed to impose a greater impact on their health. Each activity in agriculture brings about certain stress and strain on bones and muscles leading to work-related musculoskeletal disorders which can lead to several permanent diseases and disabilities. The purpose of analyzing musculoskeletal problems among male and female workers engaged in agriculture was to know about the risk factors dangerous to health so that interventions can be planned for mitigating them thereby increasing the efficiency of work. Educational intervention included audio-visual aids as well as printed literature. It was hoped that awareness of these factors through dissemination of information would contribute at preventing hazards amongst farmers and their families. The results revealed that the workers reported very severe to severe pain in low back while performing agricultural activities. Weeding was the most strenuous activity for females and threshing crop for males. Training and education on MSDs through educational intervention proved that the knowledge of the farm workers could be enhanced and can help reduce risk of many musculoskeletal problems. It can be help in empowering the community and mitigate MSDs in agriculture. PMID:22317076
Mahmud, Kazi Tanvir; Parvez, Asif; Hilton, David; Kabir, G. M. Shamsul; Wahid, Ishraat Saira
The policy of providing microcredit and skill training to poor agricultural workers in developing countries is well-established. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the effectiveness of the training part of that policy. BRAC (formerly the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), the largest non-governmental organization in…
Voland, Maurice E., Ed.
The papers presented in this collection are said to represent the major thrusts of research and other scholarly activities of rural sociologists in the South in 1972. Arranged in the order of their presentation at the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Agricultural Workers meetings, these papers discuss such topics as youth, social change in…
Lassey, William R.; Navratil, Gerald
Discussed in this report are the Mexican American migrant agricultural workers who migrate annually to Montana. Much of the information included was collected as part of a study of educational programs for migrants undertaken during the summer of 1970. The report discusses topics such as the cultural and social backgrounds of these migrants,…
Key words: Surrogate Tissue Analysis; Toxicology; Toxicogenomics
Agricultural workers may be at elevated risk of developing occupationally related diseases because of the chronic use of pesticides and other toxic chemicals in their workplace. However, in most ...
Dhananjayan, V; Ravichandran, B; Rajmohan, H R
To describe exposure level of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) among workers occupationally engaged in agriculture and sheep wool associated jobs, the present study was carried out in rural neighborhood of Bangalore city, India. Thirty participants were interviewed and obtained informed consent before blood sample collection. The maximum concentrations of OCP were detected in blood samples of agriculture workers than sheep wool workers. Among the metabolites of HCH and DDT, lindane (γ-HCH) and p,p'-DDE were the most contributed to the total OCP. There were no differences in pesticide residues found between sex and work groups. It was observed that about 30% of samples exceeded the tolerance limits of 10 μg/L prescribed for HCH under the prevention of food adulteration act. Therefore, the present study recommends continuous monitoring with larger sample size. PMID:22323047
The Social Security Act of 1935 excluded from coverage about half the workers in the American economy. Among the excluded groups were agricultural and domestic workers-a large percentage of whom were African Americans. This has led some scholars to conclude that policymakers in 1935 deliberately excluded African Americans from the Social Security system because of prevailing racial biases during that period. This article examines both the logic of this thesis and the available empirical evidence on the origins of the coverage exclusions. The author concludes that the racial-bias thesis is both conceptually flawed and unsupported by the existing empirical evidence. The exclusion of agricultural and domestic workers from the early program was due to considerations of administrative feasibility involving tax-collection procedures. The author finds no evidence of any other policy motive involving racial bias. PMID:21261169
Emerson, Robert D.
The study examined the effect on the cost of extending unemployment insurance protection to agricultural workers if interstate workers reduced their migration for employment as a result of such a program. There were 50,425 migrants in 14 states who had agricultural employment earnings in more than one state during a 52-week period. Two sets of…
Slesinger, Doris P.; Cautley, Eleanor
This research project estimated migrant and seasonal agricultural workers in four Midwestern States in 1988, using the Public Health Service's definitions of such workers. Researchers collected federal agricultural data and state reports on migrant education programs and crop patterns, and considered other potential data sources. Numerous…
Weisskopf, Marc G; Moisan, Frédéric; Tzourio, Christophe; Rathouz, Paul J; Elbaz, Alexis
Pesticides are ubiquitous neurotoxicants, and several lines of evidence suggest that exposure may be associated with depression. Epidemiologic evidence has focused largely on organophosphate exposures, while research on other pesticides is limited. We collected detailed pesticide use history from farmers recruited in 1998-2000 in France. Among 567 farmers aged 37-78 years, 83 (14.6%) self-reported treatment or hospitalization for depression. On the basis of the reported age at the first such instance, we used adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for depression (first treatment or hospitalization) by exposure to different pesticides. The hazard ratio for depression among those who used herbicides was 1.93 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 3.91); there was no association with insecticides or fungicides. Compared with nonusers, those who used herbicides for <19 years and ≥19 years (median for all herbicide users, 19 years) had hazard ratios of 1.51 (95% CI: 0.62, 3.67) and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.05, 5.10), respectively. Similar results were found for total hours of use. Results were stronger when adjusted for insecticides and fungicides. There is widespread use of herbicides by the general public, although likely at lower levels than in agriculture. Thus, determining whether similar associations are seen at lower levels of exposure should be explored. PMID:23851580
Jung, Suk-Yul; Ahn, Mi-Jung; Oh, Joo-Yeon; Nam, Hae-Seon; Hong, Sung-Tae; Yun, Yeon-Han; Seo, Min
At present, more than 500,000 foreigner workers, most of them from Asian countries with high parasitic infection rates, are working in Korea. Since investigation into the prevalence of parasitic infections in foreigner workers has not yet been conducted in Korea, the present study was performed to determine the parasitic infection status of foreigner workers living in Cheonan City, Chungcheongnam-do (Chungnam Province) and to plan, on that basis, effective control measures. From October to December 2013, the parasitic infection status of 231 foreigner workers employed at selected Cheonan-si small businesses was investigated by both stool examination and ELISA. A total of 60 individuals (26.0%) were found to be infected with parasites. The stool examination detected 14 positive cases (6.1%), and ELISA revealed 50 positive people (21.6%), for at least a kind of parasitic disease. The most common infection was cysticercosis (8.7%), followed by toxocariasis (7.8%) and clonorchiasis (7.4%). Since it was proved that parasitic infections were prevalent among foreigner workers living in Cheonan City, more comprehensive study is urgently needed in order to understand the nationwide status of parasitic infections in foreigner workers. PMID:25925187
Pink, Daniel H.
This book provides a comprehensive examination of the rise of free agent workers, how free agency is transforming the lives of free agents and those around them, problems encountered by free agents, and the future of free agency. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 19 chapters: (1) the numbers and nuances of free agency; (2)…
... household domestic service workers must provide, in event of an audit, the following documentation: (1) A...; (iii) That the alien is free to leave the employer's premises during all non-work hours except the... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Live-in household domestic service...
Mines, Richard; And Others
This report provides information on the characteristics and work patterns of United States agricultural workers performing seasonal agricultural services (SAS) during fiscal year 1990. SAS crops include the majority of nursery products, cash grains, field crops, and all fruits and vegetables. More than 2,000 personal interviews with SAS workers…
Alvarado, Andrew J.; And Others
Two surveys developed profiles of seasonal agricultural workers and their working conditions in central California. In 1989, a random sample of 347 seasonal workers was interviewed. The sample was 30 percent female and 87 percent Mexican-born. Average age was 35 years and average educational attainment was 5.9 years. Most had parents, spouses, or…
Jeyaratnam, J.; Lun, K. C.; Phoon, W. O.
The study investigated the extent of acute pesticide poisoning in selected agricultural communities in Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Thailand, as well as the contributing factors, because it is believed that this type of poisoning is a major problem in developing countries, but not in the industrialized countries, despite their extensive use of pesticides. The study confirmed the existence of this problem, which was found to be due to inadequate knowledge of the safe practices in the use of pesticides among users and to the lack of suitable protective clothing for use by agricultural workers in hot and humid climates. PMID:3500805
Ngo, Anh D; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Ross, Michael W; Markham, Christine; Ratliff, Eric A; Pham, Hang T B
To facilitate better understanding of the environment and power structures in which sex work in Vietnam takes place, this study examined the sex workers' social and economic lives, their working environment, social relationships and presentation of self in everyday social contacts and interactions. Thirty in-depth interviews and 14 focus groups were conducted with street-based and venue-based sex workers in the cities of Da Nang and Hanoi. Results show that sex workers live and work within a complex system involving multiple relationships. In any of these relations, women have limited power to protect their personal security and secure payment for services rendered. Economic hardship is a major problem facing street-level sex workers and contributes to unsafe sexual practices. Venue-based sex workers worry less about economic hardships as such, but frequently incur gambling debts. Women also reported incidents of abuse and experiences of social stigma. Although many women exhibited a strong desire to leave sex work, they found themselves trapped in the sex industry by the lack of alternative employment options. This study provides evidence that socio-psychological factors must be addressed along with risky behaviours to promote women's well-being and social integration. PMID:17963096
Mathiasen, Lisa; Morley, Katija; Chapman, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas
A training video was produced and evaluated to assess its impact on the food safety knowledge of agricultural workers. Increasing food safety knowledge on the farm may help to improve the safety of fresh produce. Surveys were used to measure workers' food safety knowledge before and after viewing the video. Focus groups were used to determine…
Background There is currently a lack of reliable information on the exposures of residents and bystanders to pesticides in the UK. Previous research has shown that the methods currently used for assessing pesticide exposure for regulatory purposes are appropriate for farm workers . However, there were indications that the exposures of bystanders may sometimes be underestimated. The previous study did not collect data for residents. Therefore, this study aims to collect measurements to determine if the current methods and tools are appropriate for assessing pesticide exposure for residents living near agricultural fields. Methods/design The study will recruit owners of farms and orchards (hereafter both will be referred to as farms) that spray their agricultural crops with certain specified pesticides, and which have residential areas in close proximity to these fields. Recruited farms will be asked to provide details of their pesticide usage throughout the spray season. Informed consenting residents (adults (18 years and over) and children (aged 4-12 years)) will be asked to provide urine samples and accompanying activity diaries during the spraying season and in addition for a limited number of weeks before/after the spray season to allow background pesticide metabolite levels to be determined. Selected urine samples will be analysed for the pesticide metabolites of interest. Statistical analysis and mathematical modelling will use the laboratory results, along with the additional data collected from the farmers and residents, to determine systemic exposure levels amongst residents. Surveys will be carried out in selected areas of the United Kingdom over two years (2011 and 2012), covering two spraying seasons and the time between the spraying seasons. Discussion The described study protocol was implemented for the sample and data collection procedures carried out in 2011. Based on experience to date, no major changes to the protocol are anticipated for the
McCurdy, S A; Stoecklin-Marois, M T; Tancredi, D J; Bennett, D H; Schenker, M B
Agricultural work is hazardous, and immigrant workers perform the majority of production tasks, yet there are few data describing agricultural work and use of protective measures by demographic characteristics. We examined cross-sectionally the influence of region of birth (Mexico vs. Central America) and sex on agricultural work and use of protective measures in the MICASA cohort of immigrant Latino farm workers in Mendota, California. Of 445 participants, 293 (65.8%) were born in Mexico (163 men, 130 women) and 152 (34.2%) were born in Central America (80 men, 72 women). Men worked on average 74.4 more days than women (95% CI 62.0, 86.9) and were more likely to perform tasks requiring high levels of training or strength, such as machine operation, pruning, picking, planting, and irrigation; more likely to work in dusty conditions; and more likely to work directly with pesticides. Women predominated in packing. Respondents from Mexico were more likely to work with tomatoes and less likely to work with melon and lettuce. Central America-born respondents were less likely to engage in planting, irrigation, and pesticide use. Use of task-appropriate personal protective measures on at least a half-time basis was rare, with the exception of persons working with pesticides (a group limited to men) and for facial scarves among Central American women. Further work should focus on identifying barriers to use of preventive measures and programs to further their use. Educational models accounting for cultural factors and driving social norm change, employer engagement, and use of community health workers (promotores) may be helpful in promoting use of preventive measures. PMID:24897916
Wallace, George N.
The article discusses potential remedies for three major issues that prevent seasonal agricultural workers from maintaining the kind of working and living conditions which lead to cohesive cumulative social experience: undocumented workers; worsening living and working environments; and societal attitudes regarding agricultural labor and its…
Flocks, J; Clarke, L; Albrecht, S; Bryant, C; Monaghan, P; Baker, H
The Together for Agricultural Safety project is a community-based social marketing project working to reduce the adverse health effects of pesticide exposure among fernery and nursery workers in Florida. In 3 years, the collaboration between university and community researchers has embodied many of the principles of community-based research while completing multiple stages of formative data collection required for a social marketing project. This hybrid approach to developing a health intervention for a minority community has been successful in its early stages because the community partners are organized, empowered, and motivated to execute research activities with the assistance of academic partners. However, this work has also been labor intensive and costly. This article describes the lessons learned by project partners and considers the limitations of this approach for agricultural health research. PMID:11427397
Ahn, Hyunmi; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung; Moon, Sun Hye
Objectives A rapid increase in the population of migrant workers in Korea has brought new challenges regarding the possible effects of acculturation on health. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of acculturation- and work-related psychosocial factors on work-related musculoskeletal disorders among migrant female workers living in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was used. A translated, structured questionnaire was administrated to 156 southeastern Asian female full-time workers living in Korea. Results About 35% of the participants experienced some type(s) of work-related musculoskeletal disorder(s), which were more prevalent in Vietnamese women than in Thai and Filipino women. Women who preferred to maintain their own heritage and to reject the host country heritage were at risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusion Acculturation strategy and nationality were found to be significant factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Health professionals need to accommodate acculturation contexts into risk assessment and intervention development for work-related musculoskeletal disorders separately for different nationalities. PMID:22953201
WARMBROD, J. ROBERT
THREE TYPES OF FIRMS IN A 14-COUNTY AREA WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF WORKERS WITH AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES REQUIRED IN THE OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS AND TO COMPARE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN FARM AND OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS. OF 77,868 WORKERS IN 384 FIRMS IN AREAS OF LESS THAN 25,000 POPULATION, 18 PERCENT WERE IN…
Dhananjayan, V.; Ravichandran, B.; Anitha, N.; Rajmohan, H. R.
Background: Cholinesterase determination indicates whether the person has been under pesticide exposure is not. It is recommended that the worker′s cholinesterase level should be assessed for workers at a pesticide applied region. Hence, cholinesterase activities in blood samples of agricultural workers exposed to vegetables and grape cultivation with age matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to pesticides, were estimated. Methods: The detailed occupational history and lifestyle characters were obtained by questionnaire. Cholinesterase activity was determined by the method of Ellman as modified by Chambers and Chambers. Results: AChE was ranging from 1.65 to 3.54μmoles/min/ml in exposed subjects where as it was ranged from 2.22 to 3.51μmoles/min/ml in control subjects. BChE activity was ranging from 0.16 to 5.2μmoles/min/ml among exposed subjects, where as it was ranged from 2.19 to 5.06μmoles/min/ml in control subjects. The results showed statistically significant reduction in enzyme activities (AChE 14%; BChE 56%) among exposed subjects. Conclusion: It was concluded that the reduction in cholinesterase activity may lead to varieties of effects. Hence it is compulsory to use protective gadgets during pesticide spray. Further a continuous biomonitoring study is recommended to assess pesticide exposure. PMID:23776322
Muniz, Juan F. McCauley, Linda; Scherer, J.; Lasarev, M.; Koshy, M.; Kow, Y.W.; Nazar-Stewart, Valle; Kisby, G.E.
Oxidative stress and DNA damage have been proposed as mechanisms linking pesticide exposure to health effects such as cancer and neurological diseases. A study of pesticide applicators and farmworkers was conducted to examine the relationship between organophosphate pesticide exposure and biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urine samples were analyzed for OP metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Lymphocytes were analyzed for oxidative DNA repair activity and DNA damage (Comet assay), and serum was analyzed for lipid peroxides (i.e., malondialdehyde, MDA). Cellular damage in agricultural workers was validated using lymphocyte cell cultures. Urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in farmworkers and applicators (p < 0.001) when compared to controls. 8-OH-dG levels were 8.5 times and 2.3 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. Serum MDA levels were 4.9 times and 24 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. DNA damage (Comet assay) and oxidative DNA repair were significantly greater in lymphocytes from applicators and farmworkers when compared with controls. Markers of oxidative stress (i.e., increased reactive oxygen species and reduced glutathione levels) and DNA damage were also observed in lymphocyte cell cultures treated with an OP. The findings from these in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that organophosphate pesticides induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers. These biomarkers may be useful for increasing our understanding of the link between pesticides and a number of health effects.
LINDSEY, HERBERT H.; AND OTHERS
USEFUL MEANS OF ANTICIPATING THE MOVEMENTS OF MIGRANT CHILDREN INCLUDE ANALYSIS OF CROPS, THE HARVESTING OF WHICH REQUIRES OUT-OF-STATE WORKERS, DISTRIBUTIONAL MAPS OF CROP ACREAGE, NORMAL TIME SCHEDULES FOR CROPS, AND INFORMATION ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS. SUCH INFORMATION ASSISTS IN THE PLANNING OF SCHOOL PROGRAMS. IN WISCONSIN, MOST MIGRANT…
Coman, Alexandru; Maftei, Daniel N.; Krueger, Whitney S.; Heil, Gary L.; Chereches, Razvan M.; Sirlincan, Emanuela; Bria, Paul; Dragnea, Claudiu; Kasler, Iosif; Valentine, Marissa A.; Gray, Gregory C.
Background In this prospective study we sought to examine seroepidemiological evidence for acute zoonotic influenza virus infection among Romanian agricultural workers. Methods Sera were drawn upon enrollment (2009) and again at 12 and 24 months from 312 adult agriculture workers and 51 age-group matched controls. Participants were contacted monthly for 24 months and queried regarding episodes of acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Cohort members meeting ILI criteria permitted respiratory swab collections as well as acute and convalescent serum collection. Serologic assays were performed against 9 avian, 3 swine, and 3 human influenza viruses. Results During the two-year follow-up, a total of 23 ILI events were reported. Two subjects' specimens were identified as influenza A by rRT-PCR. During the follow-up period, three individuals experienced elevated microneutralization antibody titers ≥1∶80 against three (one each) avian influenza viruses: A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1), A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), or A/Duck/Alberta/60/1976(H12N5). However, none of these participants met the criteria for poultry exposure. A number of subjects demonstrated four-fold increases over time in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay titers for at least one of the three swine influenza viruses (SIVs); however, it seems likely that two of these three responses were due to cross-reacting antibody against human influenza. Only elevated antibody titers against A/Swine/Flanders/1/1998(H3N2) lacked evidence for such confounding. In examining risk factors for elevated antibody against this SIV with multiple logistic regression, swine exposure (adjusted OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–2.8) and tobacco use (adjusted OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–2.9) were important predictors. Conclusions While Romania has recently experienced multiple incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza among domestic poultry, this cohort of Romanian agriculture workers had sparse evidence of avian influenza virus
Kawanami, Shoko; Nguyen, Thi-To-Uyen; Inoue, Jinro; Kawai, Kazuaki; Horie, Seichi
We examined exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among non-smoking office workers in 2 countries living in the vicinity of a coke-oven factory by measuring their levels of urinary 1-OHP, a known metabolite of PAHs. Subjects included 10 non-smoking office workers in Kitakyushu city (Japan) and 20 workers in Thai Nguyen city (Vietnam). Measurement was optimized by using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method developed by Jongeneelen et al. This method required only a small amount of urine and had a short incubation time, and its detection limit was very low (0.00448 ng/ml), which was practical and highly sensitive.The median urinary 1-OHP concentration in the Vietnamese subjects (0.417 ng/mg creatinine) was six times as high as that in the Japanese subjects (0.069 ng/mg creatinine) (P < 0.001). However, both concentrations were significantly below the guideline level, below which there is no genotoxic effect, implying a low probability of any adverse health effects.Our measurements from both countries showed higher urinary 1-OHP concentrations than in previous studies from locations without factories, indicating that ambient air pollution from industrial emissions is an important source of PAH exposure. Finally, the urinary 1-OHP concentrations did not correlate with gender or lifestyle factors. PMID:24633179
Finlayson, Tracy L.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Shain, Sara G.; Weintraub, Jane A.
Background Agricultural worker families encounter multiple barriers to accessing all needed dental care. This study investigated predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with children's past year dental utilization among Hispanic agricultural worker families in central California. Methods Oral health survey and clinical data were collected from families participating in a larger, population-based study in 2006-7. Generalized estimating equation logit regression assessed effects on a dental visit among children aged 0-17 (n=405). Analyses adjusted for clustering of children in the same household. Predisposing (sociodemographics), enabling (child's dental insurance, usual source of dental care, caregiver past year dental visit, acculturation level, income and education), and need (caregiver's oral health rating, perception of cavities, and clinically-determined treatment urgency) factors were examined. Results Half (51%) the children had a past year dental visit, while 23% had never been to a dentist. In the final model, children were less likely to have a past year dental visit if they were foreign-born, male, had caregivers that thought they had cavities or were unsure, and if the dentist recommended treatment ‘at earliest convenience’. Children aged 6-12, with a regular dental care source, and whose caregivers had a recent dentist visit were more likely to have a past year dental visit. Conclusions Children were more likely to have a past year dental visit if they had a usual source of dental care (OR =4.78, CI=2.51-9.08), and if the caregiver had a past year dental visit (OR=1.88, CI=1.04-3.38). Emphasis should be placed on these two modifiable factors to increase children's dental utilization. PMID:25621285
Chen, Jidang; Ma, Jun; White, Sarah K; Cao, Zhenpeng; Zhen, Yun; He, Shuyi; Zhu, Wanjun; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yongbiao; Su, Shuo; Zhang, Guihong
Guangdong Province is recognized for dense populations of humans, pigs, poultry and pets. In order to evaluate the threat of viral infection faced by those working with animals, a cross-sectional, sero-epidemiological study was conducted in Guangdong between December 2013 and January 2014. Individuals working with swine, at poultry farms, or live poultry markets (LPM), and veterinarians, and controls not exposed to animals were enrolled in this study and 11 (4 human, 3 swine, 3 avian, and 1 canine) influenza A viruses were used in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays (7 strains) and the cross-reactivity test (9 strains) in which 5 strains were used in both tests. Univariate analysis was performed to identify which variables were significantly associated with seropositivity. Odds ratios (OR) revealed that swine workers had a significantly higher risk of elevated antibodies against A/swine/Guangdong/L6/2009(H1N1), a classical swine virus, and A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2012(H1N1), a Eurasian avian-like swine virus than non-exposed controls. Poultry farm workers were at a higher risk of infection with avian influenza H7N9 and H9N2. LPM workers were at a higher risk of infection with 3 subtypes of avian influenza, H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2. Interestingly, the OR also indicated that LPM workers were at risk of H1N1 swine influenza virus infection, perhaps due to the presence of pigs in the LPM. While partial confounding by cross-reactive antibodies against human viruses or vaccines cannot be ruled out, our data suggests that animal exposed people as are more likely to have antibodies against animal influenza viruses. PMID:26476563
Friesen, Melissa C.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Hines, Cynthia J.; Thomas, Kent; Freeman, Laura E. Beane
Background Women living in agricultural areas may experience high pesticide exposures compared with women in urban or suburban areas because of their proximity to farm activities. Objective Our objective was to review the evidence in the published literature for the contribution of nonoccupational pathways of pesticide exposure in women living in North American agricultural areas. Methods We evaluated the following nonoccupational exposure pathways: paraoccupational (i.e., take-home or bystander exposure), agricultural drift, residential pesticide use, and dietary ingestion. We also evaluated the role of hygiene factors (e.g., house cleaning, shoe removal). Results Among 35 publications identified (published 1995–2013), several reported significant or suggestive (p < 0.1) associations between paraoccupational (n = 19) and agricultural drift (n = 10) pathways and pesticide dust or biomarker levels, and 3 observed that residential use was associated with pesticide concentrations in dust. The 4 studies related to ingestion reported low detection rates of most pesticides in water; additional studies are needed to draw conclusions about the importance of this pathway. Hygiene factors were not consistently linked to exposure among the 18 relevant publications identified. Conclusions Evidence supported the importance of paraoccupational, drift, and residential use pathways. Disentangling exposure pathways was difficult because agricultural populations are concurrently exposed to pesticides via multiple pathways. Most evidence was based on measurements of pesticides in residential dust, which are applicable to any household member and are not specific to women. An improved understanding of nonoccupational pesticide exposure pathways in women living in agricultural areas is critical for studying health effects in women and for designing effective exposure-reduction strategies. Citation Deziel NC, Friesen MC, Hoppin JA, Hines CJ, Thomas K, Beane Freeman LE. 2015. A review
Ellison, Corie A.; Crane, Alice L.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Browne, Richard W.; Lein, Pamela J.; Olson, James R.
Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.
A PROGRAM INSTITUTED IN 1961 TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH OF DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN CALIFORNIA AND THEIR FAMILIES WAS GIVEN. IT SOUGHT TO HELP LOCAL HEALTH AGENCIES BY PROVIDING--TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO COUNTIES TRYING TO DEVELOP FACILITIES AND SERVICES, EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR USE OF STATE FUNDS BY LOCAL…
Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.
This teaching unit, Ecology Workers, is one in a series of career guides developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking third and fourth grade elementary classroom experiences with the world of work. Part of the Agriculture and Ecological…
Women living in agricultural areas may experience relatively high pesticide exposures compared to women in urban or suburban areas due to their proximity to farm activities. However, exposure pathways in these women are not well-characterized. We reviewed the evidence for the con...
... agricultural workers, or performed before 1959 in connection with oleoresinous products. 31.3121(b)(1)-1 Section 31.3121(b)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... § 31.3121(b)(1)-1 Certain services performed by foreign agricultural workers, or performed before...
Münch, Daniel; Kreibich, Claus D; Amdam, Gro V
Highly social animals provide alternative aging models in which vastly different lifespan patterns are flexible, and linked to social caste. Research in these species aims to reveal how environment, including social cues, can shape the transition between short-lived and extremely long-lived phenotypes with negligible senescence. Among honey bee workers, short to intermediate lifespans are typical for summer castes, while the winter caste can live up to 10 times longer. For summer castes, experimental interventions could predictably accelerate, slow or revert functional senescence. In contrast, little is known about the partic ular conditions under which periods of negligible senescence in winter castes can be disrupted or sustained. We asked how manipulation of social environment in colonies with long-lived winter bees might alter the pace of functional senescence, measured as learning performance, as well as of cellular senescence, measured as lipofuscin accumulation. We show that behavioral senescence becomes rapidly detectable when the winter state is disrupted, and changes in social task behaviors and social environment (brood) are induced. Likewise, we found that cellular senescence was induced by such social intervention. However, cellular senescence showed marked regional differences, suggesting that particular brain regions age slower than others. Finally, by preventing post-winter colonies from brood rearing, behavioral senescence became undetectable, even after transition to the usually short-lived phenotypes had occurred. We envision that social regulation of negligible functional senescence and highly dynamic accumulation of a universal symptom of cellular aging (lipofuscin) offers rewarding perspectives to target proximate mechanisms of slowed aging. PMID:23596282
Coman, Alexandru; Maftei, Daniel N; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Friary, John A; Chereches, Razvan M; Sirlincan, Emanuela; Bria, Paul; Dragnea, Claudiu; Kasler, Iosif; Gray, Gregory C
In recent years, wild birds have introduced multiple highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infections in Romanian poultry. In 2005 HPAI infections were widespread among domestic poultry and anecdotal reports suggested domestic pigs may also have been exposed. We sought to examine evidence for zoonotic influenza infections among Romanian agriculture workers. Between 2009 and 2010, 363 adult participants were enrolled in a cross-sectional, seroepidemiological study. Confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) swine workers in Tulcea and small, traditional backyard farmers in Cluj-Napoca were enrolled, as well as a non-animal exposed control group from Cluj-Napoca. Enrollment sera were examined for serological evidence of previous infection with 9 avian and 3 human influenza virus strains. Serologic assays showed no evidence of previous infection with 7 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses or with HPAI H5N1. However, 33 participants (9.1%) had elevated microneutralization antibody titers against avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 5 with titers ≥ 1:80 whom all reported exposure to poultry. Moderate poultry exposure was significantly associated with elevated titers after controlling for the subjects' age (adjusted OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-12.1). There was no evidence that previous infection with human H3N2 or H2N2 viruses were confounding the H9N2 seroreactivity. These data suggest that H9N2 virus may have circulated in Romanian poultry and occasionally infected man. PMID:23999337
Park, Eun-Kee; Tagles, Hector Duarte; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lee, Kiyoung; Schenker, Marc B.
The objectives of this study were to recruit agricultural workers in Costa Rica to participate in a 24-hour urine collection for paraquat exposure assessment and to compare the 24-hour sampling to end-of-shift sampling. The authors recruited 187 handlers and 54 nonhandlers from coffee, banana, and palm oil plantations. The completeness of 24-hour urine samples collected (a total of 393 samples) was confirmed by questionnaire and urinary creatinine level. For a subset of 12 samples, the absorbed paraquat level was determined in 24-hours and end-of-shift spot urine samples. The participation rate for handlers was ~90%. The completeness of 24-hour urine collections was verified as the overall average of creatinine levels from 393 urines (1.11 ± 0.50 g/L). A total of 92.4% to 96.7% of urine samples were considered within the acceptable range of urinary creatinine, whereas 94.7% of the samples were described as “complete” from the questionnaire. Measured creatinine correlated well to predicted values (r = .327, p = .0024, 95% CI .12–.51). Detected paraquat levels in spot urine samples had a sensitivity of 96.9% at the high specificity of 100% compared to 24-hour urine samples as the gold standard. There was a significant (p < .0001) correlation between spot and 24-hour urine paraquat levels (r = .7825, 95% CI .61–.88). The recruiting strategy was successful in getting 24-hour urine samples from a farm worker population. Comparison between the paraquat levels in spot and 24-hour urine samples demonstrated that for this compound, end-of-shift spot urine samples would be an appropriate substitute for 24-hour collections. PMID:19064412
Simsek, Zeynep; Ersin, Fatma; Kirmizitoprak, Evin
Stress is one of the main causes of health problems, especially mental disorders. These health problems cause a significant amount of ability loss and increase cost. It is estimated that by 2020, mental disorders will constitute 15% of the total disease burden, and depression will rank second only after ischemic heart disease. Environmental experiences are paramount in increasing the liability of mental disorders in those who constantly face sustained high levels of stress. The objective of this study was to develop a stress scale for seasonal migrant agricultural workers aged 18 years and older. The sample consisted of 270 randomly selected seasonal migrant agricultural workers. The average age of the participants was 33.1 ± 14, and 50.7% were male. The Cronbach alpha coefficient and test-retest methods were used for reliability analyses. Although the factor analysis was performed for the structure validity of the scale, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient and Bartlett test were used to determine the convenience of the data for the factor analysis. In the reliability analyses, the Cronbach alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .96, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was .81. In the exploratory factor analysis for validity of the scale, four factors were obtained, and the factors represented workplace physical conditions (25.7% of the total variance), workplace psychosocial and economic factors (19.3% of the total variance), workplace health problems (15.2% of the total variance), and school problems (10.1% of the total variance). The four factors explained 70.3% of the total variance. As a result of the expert opinions and analyses, a stress scale with 48 items was developed. The highest score to be obtained from the scale was 144, and the lowest score was 0. The increase in the score indicates the increase in the stress levels. The findings show that the scale is a valid and reliable assessment instrument that can be used in
Milanowski, J; Dutkiewicz, J; Potoczna, H; Kuś, L; Urbanowicz, B
The aim of this study was to identify the specific agents which caused extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) in the selected group of 20 agricultural workers from eastern Poland. The microbiological analysis of the samples of plant materials or dusts reported by the patients as causing symptoms has been carried out, followed by allergological tests (inhalation challenge, agar-gel precipitation test, inhibition of leukocyte migration, skin test) with extrinsic microbial antigens. It was found that the causative agents of allergic alveolitis in the examined group of patients were mesophilic, non-branching bacteria associated with grain dust, mostly Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans) and Arthrobacter globiformis (each in eight cases). The remaining agents were Alcaligenes faecalis (in two cases), and Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis (in one case each). On the basis of the clinical picture, the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and allergological tests, the diagnosis of the chronic form of the disease was stated in 14 patients and an acute form - in 6 patients. EAA patients demonstrated in the BAL fluid a typical lymphocytic alveolitis both in terms of percentage and absolute number of lymphocytes. Also, the numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly higher in EAA patients. PMID:9852490
Barzó, P; Molnár, L; Csokonay, L
Between 1976-1986 fifty-seven patients with farmer's lung have been diagnosed in Hungary on the basis of data obtained from public institutes for tuberculosis. That are 0.08% of the 744,300 manual workers employed in agriculture and forestry. In the counties of Borsod and Szolnok the rate was 0.5% (referred to 62,900 and 36,000 individuals, respectively). Regional accumulation of the different provoking agent's and variation of disease prevalence seem to be in correlation with geographical, climatic, meteorological, economical and occupational factors, showing a declining tendency in recent years. Antibodies of the Thermoactinomyces vulgaris antigen could be detected most frequently. In the biopsy material of 17 patients obtained by Klassen biopsy were fibrosing and not fibrosing desquamative alveolitis, granulomas similar to sarcoidosis, bronchiolitis with peribronchial fibrosis observed. Mostly focal, rarely subpleural deficiencies were detected by lung-scintigraphy, their dimension in acute cases being greater than the extent of radiological lesions. On the basis of 5 Coombs positive cases authors consider conceivable that sometimes cytotoxic allergic reaction type II participates in the pathogenesis of farmer's lung. PMID:2686222
Tang, Sam Hak Kan; Yung, Linda Chor Wing
This paper studies the effects of live-in foreign domestic workers (FDWs) on school children's educational outcomes using samples from two population censuses and a survey data set. The evidence consistently points to Filipino FDWs improving the educational outcomes of school children by decreasing their probability of late schooling or increasing…
Fram, Maryah Stella; Altshuler, Sandra J.
Schools have a wide range of connections with the child welfare system, with common interests in the care, well-being, and future life opportunities of children living in foster care. Children in foster care are often the most vulnerable students in the school system, and school social workers often serve as important resources for these children.…
Purpose: The study aims to examine job satisfaction of migrant live-in home care workers who provide care to frail older adults and to examine the extent to which quality of relationships between the care provider and care recipient and workplace characteristics is associated with job satisfaction. Design and Methods: A convenience sample that…
Bradman, Asa; Castorina, Rosemary; Barr, Dana Boyd; Chevrier, Jonathan; Harnly, Martha E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; McKone, Thomas E.; Harley, Kim; Holland, Nina; Eskenazi, Brenda
Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are used in agriculture and several are registered for home use. As young children age they may experience different pesticide exposures due to varying diet, behavior, and other factors. We measured six OP dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites (three dimethyl alkylphosphates (DMAP) and three diethyl alkylphosphates (DEAP)) in urine samples collected from ∼400 children living in an agricultural community when they were 6, 12, and 24 months old. We examined bivariate associations between DAP metabolite levels and determinants such as age, diet, season, and parent occupation. To evaluate independent impacts, we then used generalized linear mixed multivariable models including interaction terms with age. The final models indicated that DMAP metabolite levels increased with age. DMAP levels were also positively associated with daily servings of produce at 6- and 24-months. Among the 6-month olds, DMAP metabolite levels were higher when samples were collected during the summer/spring versus the winter/fall months. Among the 12-month olds, DMAP and DEAP metabolites were higher when children lived ≤60 meters from an agricultural field. Among the 24-month-olds, DEAP metabolite levels were higher during the summer/spring months. Our findings suggest that there are multiple determinants of OP pesticide exposures, notably dietary intake and temporal and spatial proximity to agricultural use. The impact of these determinants varied by age and class of DAP metabolite. PMID:21695029
Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen
The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined. PMID:27406110
Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong
A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…
Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.
THE NUMBER OF SEASONAL DOMESTIC AGRICULTURAL MIGRANTS IN EACH COUNTY OF THE UNITED STATES IS PRESENTED GRAPHICALLY ON THIS 26 BY 40 INCH MAP. PUBLIC HEALTH AND OTHER SERVICE AGENCIES MAY USE IT AND ACCOMPANYING TABLES TO PLAN PROGRAM ADJUSTMENTS NECESSITATED BY THE WORKER INFLUX. THE DATA ARE CONFINED TO DOMESTIC WORKERS AND THEIR ACCOMPANYING…
Felderhoff, Brandi Jean; Hoefer, Richard; Watson, Larry Dan
The National Association of Social Workers' (NASW's) Code of Ethics urges social workers to engage in political action. However, little recent research has been conducted to examine whether social workers support this admonition and the extent to which they actually engage in politics. The authors gathered data from a survey of social workers in Austin, Texas, to address three questions. First, because keeping informed about government and political news is an important basis for action, the authors asked what sources of knowledge social workers use. Second, they asked what the respondents believe are appropriate political behaviors for other social workers and NASW. Third, they asked for self-reports regarding respondents' own political behaviors. Results indicate that social workers use the Internet and traditional media services to stay informed; expect other social workers and NASW to be active; and are, overall, more active than the general public in many types of political activities. The comparisons made between expectations for others and their own behaviors are interesting in their complex outcomes. Social workers should strive for higher levels of adherence to the code's urgings on political activity. Implications for future work are discussed. PMID:26897996
Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.
This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for agriculture production I and II. Presented first are a program…
... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General § 500.72 Agreements with workers. (a... seasonal agricultural workers. Normally, “without justification” would not include situations in...
... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General § 500.72 Agreements with workers. (a... seasonal agricultural workers. Normally, “without justification” would not include situations in...
Goldenberg, Shira M; Montaner, Julio; Duff, Putu; Nguyen, Paul; Dobrer, Sabina; Guillemi, Silvia; Shannon, Kate
In light of limited data on structural determinants of access and retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) among sex workers, we examined structural correlates of ART use among sex workers living with HIV over time. Longitudinal data were drawn from a cohort of 646 female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada (2010-2012) and linked pharmacy records on ART dispensation. We used logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine correlates of gaps in ART use (i.e., treatment interruptions or delayed ART initiation), among HIV seropositive participants (n = 74). Over a 2.5-year period, 37.8 % of participants experienced gaps in ART use (i.e., no ART dispensed in a 6-month period). In a multivariable GEE model, younger age, migration/mobility, incarceration, and non-injection drug use independently correlated with gaps in ART use. In spite of successes scaling-up ART in British Columbia, younger, mobile, or incarcerated sex workers face persistent gaps in access and retention irrespective of drug use. Community-based, tailored interventions to scale-up entry and retention in ART for sex workers should be further explored in this setting. PMID:26148850
Lee, Soo-Jeong; Tak, Sangwoo; Alterman, Toni; Calvert, Geoffrey M
Ergonomic risks from agricultural tasks can compromise musculoskeletal health of workers. This study estimated prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in a sample representing almost 2 million US agricultural industry workers. This study used National Health Interview Survey data from 2004 to 2008. Weighted prevalence was calculated by demographic and employment factors. Prevalence ratios were calculated using generalized linear models with the Poisson distribution assumption. Prevalence rates of low back and neck pain in the previous 3 months were 24.3% and 10.5%, respectively, among agricultural workers. Monthly prevalence of joint pain was 17.0% for hips/knees, 9.8% for shoulders, 9.5% for wrists/hands, 5.4% for elbows, and 4.7% for ankles/toes. Agricultural workers had a significantly higher prevalence of shoulder pain than all other industry workers (prevalence ratios [PR] = 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.61). This study provides detailed national estimates of musculoskeletal symptom prevalence to understand the burden and the need for intervention among agricultural workers. PMID:24959759
In Israel, almost all around-the-clock home care services are provided by foreign workers. Despite the fact that these workers are considered temporary, the Israeli government has acknowledged the need for consistency in care and now allows workers to stay in the country for as long as their care recipient is alive. Nonetheless, there have been increasing concerns about the tendency of foreign home care workers to view Israel as a temporary station on their way to more attractive destinations, such as Canada or England. Using the job rewards and concerns model, this article evaluates determinants of foreign home care workers' intentions to leave their job. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of 178 Filipino home care workers in Israel. Only 15 workers (8.4%) reported that they would be likely or very likely to leave their job within the next 3 months. The final model suggested that negative experiences within the home/work environment as well as within Israeli society at large contribute to depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms. However, caring for an older adult with dementia was the only predictor of intention to leave the job. The majority of workers do not report an intention to leave their job. Nonetheless, greater supervision of this caregiving arrangement in an attempt to protect the rights of foreign home care workers within the home/work environment is an important step, which has to be followed up by attitudinal changes within society at large. Specific training in dementia care is also warranted. PMID:20544459
Pascuzzi, Simone; Santoro, Francesco
The electromagnetic field (EMF) levels generated by mobile telephone radio base stations (RBS) situated on rural-agricultural lands were assessed in order to evaluate the exposure of farm workers in the surrounding area. The expected EMF at various distances from a mobile telephone RBS was calculated using an ad hoc numerical forecast model. Subsequently, the electric fields around some RBS on agricultural lands were measured, in order to obtain a good approximation of the effective conditions at the investigated sites. The viability of this study was tested according to the Italian Regulations concerning general and occupational public exposure to time-varying EMFs. The calculated E-field values were obtained with the RBS working constantly at full power, but during the in situ measurements the actual power emitted by RBS antennas was lower than the maximum level, and the E-field values actually registered were much lower than the calculated values. PMID:26647953
Mellor, Rebecca; Lovell, Andrew
The complex, difficult lives and subsequent health issues of street-based female sex workers are well documented. This paper explores the health needs of a group of sex workers in one geographical locality in the north-west of England. Interviews were conducted with a number of women currently engaged in sex work, with the aim of identifying factors maintaining them in this work and examining their experience of health and health-related services. A thematic analysis revealed considerable life circumstance complexity, with violence, drugs, alcohol and housing problems being prevalent factors. The combination of such factors compounds the likelihood of the women's social exclusion. Other themes related to the casual perception the women had of their own health needs, their generally poor experience of services and the demonstrable impact of one specific service in supporting a group so reluctant to engage. The study suggests poor understanding of the complex needs of street-based sex workers by both services and professionals, particularly a failure to engage with the reality of these women's lives and the factors that maintain them in this work. PMID:21727076
HEFFERNAN, HELEN; AND OTHERS
SPECIAL FEATURES OF FIVE SUMMER SCHOOL PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRANT WORKERS WERE PRESENTED. THE CERES ELEMENTARY SCHOOL DISTRICT GAVE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL WOODWORKING CLASSES TO FIFTH- AND SIXTH-GRADE GIRLS. INSTRUCTION IN COOKING AND SEWING WAS ENTHUSIASTICALLY RECEIVED BY THIRD- AND FOURTH-GRADE GIRLS BUT DID NOT APPEAL TO OLDER GIRLS. A…
Dewangan, Krishna N; Patil, Mahesh R
This study aims to quantify dust exposure among the workers in four different industrial settings: rice mills, flour mills, oil mills, and tea factories and to compare the obtained data with the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of Indian Union Ministry of Labour as well as to compare the dust exposure across activities and seasons. RespiCon(TM) particle sampler was used for collecting dust concentration in the breathing zone of the workers. In total, 149 workers participated in the study and 204 samples were collected. Samples were collected in the vicinity of different processing operations. Samples in the rice mills were collected for two consecutive years in two seasons; however samples from other industries were collected for 1 year. The results indicate that geometric mean (GM) of dust exposure was significantly (P < 0.0001) different among industrial settings. Respirable dust were 8.22, 5.76, 2.98, and 6.34mg m(-3) and total dust exposure were 81.05, 111.02, 56.68, and 39.85mg m(-3) in the rice mills, oil mills, flour mills, and tea factories, respectively. Considerable variations in dust exposure were observed in different activities in the rice and oil mills; however variation was relatively less in the flour mills and tea factories. In the rice mills, dust concentration was higher in winter than those obtained in autumn and it is significantly different (P < 0.05) for inhalable dust and total dust. Positive correlation was obtained in thoracic dust (r (2) = 0.94) and inhalable dust (r (2) = 0.97) with total dust and thoracic dust with inhalable dust (r (2) = 0.89). The results show that majority of the workers are exposed to higher level of respirable dust as compared to the PEL, while total dust exposure to all the workers were higher than the PEL; thus, immediate reduction of dust exposure among the workers is necessary for preventing respiratory system impairment. PMID:26324828
Park, Eun-Kee; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria; Koivunen, Marja E.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Beckett, Laurel A.; Schenker, Marc B.
Objective Paraquat is an herbicide widely used worldwide. This study determined the extent of occupational exposure to paraquat among farm workers in Costa Rica and identified determinants of occupational exposure. Methods Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from 119 paraquat handlers and 54 non-handlers from banana, coffee and palm oil farms. Information about herbicide handling operations was also collected. The urinary paraquat levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a limit of quantiication (LOQ) of 2 ng/mL. Inhalable dust and airborne paraquat levels were simultaneously measured for a subset of the participants. Results Urinary paraquat measurements were non-detectable or very low when workers did not handle paraquat. For handlers, 83.3, 47.1 and 63.9% of the samples were below the LOQ on before-, during- and after-paraquat spray days, respectively. The arithmetic mean (±SD) of urinary paraquat level on days when workers handled paraquat was 6.3 (±10.45) µg/24h. Paraquat exposures among handlers on spray day were significantly associated with the type of crop. Conclusion Non-handlers had negligible urinary paraquat, while detectable paraquat exposures were observed among handlers on spray day. Urinary paraquat levels were different by crop. PMID:18762966
DeWit, Yvonne; Pickett, William; Lawson, Joshua; Dosman, James
Youth and young adults who work in the agricultural sector experience high rates of injury. This study aimed to investigate relations between high-risk farm activities and the occurrence of agricultural injuries in these vulnerable groups. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using written questionnaire data from 1135 youth and young adults from the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort. The prevalence of agricultural injury was estimated at 4.9%/year (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7, 6.2). After adjustment for important covariates, duration of farm work was strongly associated with the occurrence of injury (risk ratio [RR] = 8.0 [95% CI: 1.7, 36.7] for 10-34 vs. <10 hours/week; RR = 10.3 [95% CI: 2.2, 47.5] for those working 35+ hours/week). Tractor maintenance, tractor operation, chores with large animals, herd maintenance activities, and veterinary activities were identified as risk factors for agricultural injury. Risks for agricultural injury among youth and young adults on farms relate directly to the amounts and types of farm work exposures that young people engage in. PMID:26237722
Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient but at high exposure levels is a neurotoxicant. There is no well-validated biomarker to assess perinatal Mn exposure. A total of 75 mother-child pairs provided blood, urine, and/or deciduous tooth samples. We analyzed Mn in dentin and enamel of shed teeth; maternal, cord, and child blood; and maternal and child urine and examined the interrelationships of Mn levels in all matrices. We observed higher Mn levels in prenatal than postnatal dentin (geometric mean (GM) = 0.51 vs 0.16 Mn:Ca, p < 0.001), maternal blood at delivery than 26 weeks gestation (GM = 20.7 vs. 14.6 μg/L, p = 0.001), and cord blood than child blood at 24 months of age (39.9 vs 25.0 μg/L, p = 0.005). There were no significant correlations between Mn in dentin and Mn concentrations in maternal blood or maternal or child urine. Levels of Mn in prenatal dentin, prenatal maternal blood, and 24 month urine were higher (p < 0.05) among mothers and children living with a farm worker. Prenatal Mn levels in dentin were correlated with Mn loadings and concentrations in prenatal house dust. Levels of Mn measured in tooth dentin constitute a promising biomarker of perinatal exposure. PMID:25390650
Du Mont, Janice; McGregor, Margaret J
This exploratory study contributes to the sparse literature on sexually assaulted sex workers. We examined 462 sexual assault cases seen at an emergency department-based sexual assault service and reported to the police between 1993 and 1997. More than one fifth of victims were sex workers. We compared them to other victims on victim characteristics, assault characteristics, and medical-legal findings. Relative to other victims, sex workers were younger, had lower incomes, and were more likely to be heroin and/or cocaine users. They suffered a greater number of injuries and forensic samples collected from their bodies were more likely to test positive for sperm and/or semen. These victims were also less likely to have been using alcohol and/or marijuana prior to the assault and to be emotionally expressed during the medical- legal examination. The substantial proportion of sex workers in the study population suggests that attention to their particular needs should be an important part of hospital-based sexual assault services. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:15256357
Yoon, Jin-Ha; Junger, Washington; Kim, Boo-Wook; Kim, Young-Joo; Koh, Sang-Baek
Previous studies on the vast increase in suicide mortality in Southeast Asia have indicated that suicide rates increase in parallel with a rise in unemployment or during periods of economic recession. This paper examines the effects of economic recession on suicidal rates amongst agriculture, fisheries, and forestry workers in Korea. Monthly time-series gross domestic product (GDP) data were linked with suicidal rates gathered from the cause of death records between1993-2008. Data were analyzed using generalized additive models to analyze trends, while a polynomial lag model was used to assess the unconstrained time lag effects of changes in GDP on suicidal rate. We found that there were significant inverse correlations between changes in GDP and suicide for a time lag of one to four months after the occurrence of economic event. Furthermore, it was evident that the overall relative risks of suicide were high enough to bring about social concern. PMID:23251845
Supportive housing schemes were historically aimed to provide group accommodation for older adults. With the aging of residents, facilities were required to enable them to receive care services in order to allow them to age in place. Thus, different countries and different facilities developed different models of housing with care, reflecting cultural and policy diversities. Despite all of the different models, there are many commonalities among the supportive housing schemes across countries. These include provision of dwelling units and care services provided by either the facility or by external agencies. The aims of this article are threefold: to describe the historical development of the ever-evolving supportive care housing phenomena; to point at variations in models of housing and care within the international context; and to present a new Israeli model that enables residents to privately hire live-in care workers to meet their care needs. This is a unique model in the international context that has not been reported before. The article describes the main ideas of the new model and discusses the challenges that it raises and pinpoints the unresolved issues associated with the presence of live-in care workers employed by residents of sheltered housing that should be addressed. PMID:26959294
A comprehensive view of agriculture is presented in this volume written to aid critical re-examination of long-range agricultural policy. Farm people, rural institutions and services, rural towns, the spatial organization of agriculture, and its capital structure, in addition to the usual subjects of agricultural output, demand, trade, price, and…
Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure. PMID:26423288
Tomei, Gianfranco; Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Vitarelli, Antonio; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Rinaldi, Giovanni; Di Giorgio, Valeria; Samperi, Ilaria; Fiaschetti, Maria; Tasciotti, Zaira; Cetica, Carlotta; Capozzella, Assunta; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Caciari, Tiziana
ABSTRACT The literature suggests that farmers nowadays are more likely to contract cardiovascular diseases than in the past. This study involved 79 farmers and 64 controls. The workers completed a questionnaire to identify exclusion factors for audiological and cardiovascular risk factors. The participants underwent medical examination, measurement of blood pressure, electrocardiogram, blood tests, audiometry, and measurement of noise exposure. The farmers were found to have a higher prevalence of systolic and diastolic arterial hypertension as well as electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities compared with the controls. A significant prevalence of arterial hypertension was detected in the farmers exposed to noise, when compared with those who were not exposed. These results suggest that farmers are at risk of cardiovascular effects and that noise is a cardiovascular risk factor for farmers. PMID:23697692
Neher, Deborah A
Nematodes are aquatic organisms that depend on thin water films to live and move within existing pathways of soil pores of 25-100 mum diameter. Soil nematodes can be a tool for testing ecological hypotheses and understanding biological mechanisms in soil because of their central role in the soil food web and linkage to ecological processes. Ecological succession is one of the most tested community ecology concepts, and a variety of nematode community indices have been proposed for purposes of environmental monitoring. In contrast, theories of biogeography, colonization, optimal foraging, and niche partitioning by nematodes are poorly understood. Ecological hypotheses related to strategies of coexistence of nematode species sharing the same resource have potential uses for more effective biological control and use of organic amendments to foster disease suppression. Essential research is needed on nematodes in natural and agricultural soils to synchronize nutrient release and availability relative to plant needs, to test ecological hypotheses, to apply optimal foraging and niche partitioning strategies for more effective biological control, to blend organic amendments to foster disease suppression, to monitor environmental and restoration status, and to develop better predictive models for land-use decisions. PMID:20455699
... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain services performed by foreign agricultural workers, or performed before 1959 in connection with oleoresinous products. 31.3121(b)(1)-1 Section 31.3121(b)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX...
PINNOCK, THEODORE J.; TAYLOR, G.W.
THE SEASONALLY EMPLOYED AGRICULTURAL WORKERS PROGRAM WAS SPONSORED BY TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE OFFICE OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY, TO PROVIDE BASIC AND PREVOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND NEW GOALS FOR 1,239 FUNCTIONAL ILLITERATES, MOST OF THEM OWNERS OF SMALL FARMS, IN SEVEN ALABAMA COUNTIES. FAMILIES WERE HELPED TO IMPROVE THEIR…
Speller, Brittany; Stolee, Paul
As the population ages, the demand for long-term care settings is expected to increase. Assisted living is a suitable and favourable residence for older individuals to receive care services specific to their needs while maintaining their independence and privacy. With the growing transition of older individuals into assisted living, facilities need to ensure that safe care is continually maintained. The purpose of this study was to determine the gaps and strengths in care related to safety in assisted living facilities (ALFs). A qualitative descriptive research design was used to provide a comprehensive understanding of client safety from the perspectives of clients, administrative staff and personal support workers. Interviews were conducted with 22 key informants from three ALFs in Toronto, Ontario throughout July 2012. All interviews were semi-structured, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Initial deductive analysis used directed coding based on a prior literature review, followed by inductive analysis to determine themes. Three themes emerged relating to the safety of clients in ALFs: meaning of safety, a multi-faceted approach to providing safe care and perceived areas of improvement. Sub-themes also emerged including physical safety, multiple factors, working as a team, respecting clients' independence, communication and increased education and available resources. The study findings can contribute to the improvement and development of new processes to maintain and continually ensure safe care in ALFs. PMID:25175102
Background Foreign workers’ migrant status may hinder their utilisation of health services. This study describes the health-seeking behaviour and beliefs of a group of male migrant workers in Singapore and the barriers limiting their access to primary healthcare. Methods A cross-sectional study of 525 male migrant workers, ≥21 years old and of Indian, Bangladeshi or Myanmar nationality, was conducted at a dormitory via self-administered questionnaires covering demographics, prevalence of medical conditions and health-seeking behaviours through hypothetical scenarios and personal experience. Results 71% (95%CI: 67 to 75%) of participants did not have or were not aware if they had healthcare insurance. 53% (95%CI: 48 to 57%) reported ever having had an illness episode while in Singapore, of whom 87% (95%CI: 82 to 91%) saw a doctor. The number of rest days was significantly associated with higher probability of having consulted a doctor for their last illness episode (p = 0.026), and higher basic monthly salary was associated with seeing a doctor within 3 days of illness (p = 0.002). Of those who saw a doctor, 84% (95%CI: 79 to 89%) responded that they did so because they felt medical care would help them to work better. While 55% (95%CI: 36 to 73%) said they did not see a doctor because the illness was not serious, those with lower salaries were significantly more likely to cite inadequate finances (55% of those earning < S$500/month). In hypothetical injury or illness scenarios, most responded that they would see the doctor, but a sizeable proportion (15% 95%CI: 12 to 18%) said they would continue to work even in a work-related injury scenario that caused severe pain and functional impairment. Those with lower salaries were significantly more likely to believe they would have to pay for their own healthcare or be uncertain about who would pay. Conclusions The majority of foreign workers in this study sought healthcare when they fell ill. However
Kemp, Candace L.; Ball, Mary M.; Perkins, Molly M.; Hollingsworth, Carole; Lepore, Michael J.
Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore staff–family relationships in assisted living facilities (ALFs) as they are experienced by care staff and perceived by administrators. We identify factors that influence relationships and explore how interactions with residents’ families affect care staff’s caregiving experiences. Design and Methods: The data are drawn from a statewide study involving 45 ALFs in Georgia. Using grounded theory methods, we analyze qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 41 care staff and 43 administrators, and survey data from 370 care staff. Results: Care workers characterized their relationships with most family members as “good” or “pretty good” and aspired to develop relationships that offered personal and professional affirmation. The presence or absence of affirmation was central to understanding how these relationships influenced care staffs’ on-the-job experiences. Community, facility, and individual factors influenced the development of relationships and corresponding experiences. Insofar as interactions with family members were rewarding or frustrating, relationships exerted positive or negative influences on workers’ caregiving experiences. Implications: Findings suggest the need to create environments—through policy and practice—where both parties are empathetic of one another and view themselves as partners. Doing so would have positive outcomes for care workers, family members, and residents. PMID:19363017
Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...
Huen, Karen; Bradman, Asa; Harley, Kim; Yousefi, Paul; Barr, Dana Boyd; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina
Organophosphate pesticides are widely used and recent studies suggest associations of in utero exposures with adverse birth outcomes and neurodevelopment. Few studies have characterized organophosphate pesticides in human plasma or established how these levels correlate to urinary measurements. We measured organophosphate pesticide metabolites in maternal urine and chlorpyrifos and diazinon in maternal and cord plasma of subjects living in an agricultural area to compare levels in two different biological matrices. We also determined paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotypes (PON1192 and PON1-108) and PON1 substrate-specific activities in mothers and their newborns to examine whether PON1 may affect organophosphate pesticide measurements in blood and urine. Chlorpyrifos levels in plasma ranged from 0-1726 ng/mL and non-zero levels were measured in 70.5% and 87.5% of maternal and cord samples, respectively. Diazinon levels were lower (0-0.5 ng/mL); non-zero levels were found in 33.3% of maternal plasma and 47.3% of cord plasma. Significant associations between organophosphate pesticide levels in blood and metabolite levels in urine were limited to models adjusting for PON1 levels. Increased maternal PON1 levels were associated with decreased odds of chlorpyrifos and diazinon detection (odds ratio(OR): 0.56 and 0.75, respectively). Blood organophosphate pesticide levels of study participants were similar in mothers and newborns and slightly higher than those reported in other populations. However, compared to their mothers, newborns have much lower quantities of the detoxifying PON1 enzyme suggesting that infants may be especially vulnerable to organophosphate pesticide exposures. PMID:22683313
Zagar, Robert John; Kovach, Joseph W; Basile, Benjamin; Hughes, John Russell; Grove, William M; Busch, Kenneth G; Zablocki, Michael; Osnowitz, William; Neuhengen, Jonas; Liu, Yutong; Zagar, Agata Karolina
147 adults (107 men, 40 women) and 89 adolescents (61 boys, 28 girls), selected randomly from referrals and volunteers, were given the Ammons Quick Test (QT), the Beck Suicide Scale (BSS), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Second (MMPI-2) or Adolescent Versions (MMPI-A), the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, and the Standard Predictor (SP) of Violence Potential Adult or Adolescent Versions. The goals were to: (a) demonstrate computer and paper-and-pencil tests correlated; (b) validate tests to identify at-risk for violence; (c) show that identifying at-risk saves lives and resources; and (d) find which industries benefited from testing at-risk. Paper-and-pencil vs. computer test correlations (.83-.99), sensitivity (.97-.98), and specificity (.50-.97) were computed. Testing at-risk saves lives and resources. Critical industries for testing at-risk individuals may include airlines, energy generating industries, insurance, military, nonprofit-religious, prisoners, trucking or port workers, and veterans. PMID:24693807
Lee, Shu-An; Liao, Chien-Hua
Fungi are ubiquitous agents that cause human respiratory diseases. Very few studies have size-selectively assessed farmers' exposure to fungi and fungal fragments in agricultural settings. In this study, a two-stage bio-aerosol cyclone personal sampler was employed to collect airborne fungi and fungal fragments size-selectively at corn, swine, poultry, and mushroom farms. The collected air samples were analyzed for culturable fungi, fungal spores, viable fungi and (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan. The results show that the median concentrations ranged from 3.2 × 10(5) to 1.3 × 10(8)spores/m(3) for total fungal spores, from 1.3 × 10(5) to 5.1 × 10(7)spores/m(3) for total viable fungi, from 1.9 × 10(3) to 1.5 × 10(7)CFU/m(3) for total culturable fungi, and from 4.3 × 10(3) to 2.4 × 10(6)pg/m(3) for total (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan. The aerodynamic sizes of most of the collected fungal contaminants were larger than 1.8 μm. Total (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan significantly correlated with total fungal spores (r = 0.65, p < 0.001), total viable fungi (r = 0.68, p < 0.001) and total culturable fungi (r = 0.72, p < 0.001). Total (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan significantly correlated with Aspergillus/Penicillium, Alternaria, and Cladosporium. Alternaria and Botrytis were also found to highly correlate with (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan at the size <1 μm, which was less than the expected spore sizes (the mean measured aerodynamic sizes were 18.5 μm for Alternaria and 6.1 μm for Botrytis); therefore, Alternaria and Botrytis might release small fragments that could enter the deep lung and cause respiratory diseases. PMID:23973538
Eguchi, Akifumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Bulbule, Kesav A; Parthasarathy, Peethambaram; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke
We determined the contamination status and accumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCB congeners (OH-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and bromophenols (BPhs) in serum from e-waste recycling workers and residents near a coastal area in India. Residue levels of penta- to octa-chlorinated PCBs, penta- to octa-chlorinated OH-PCBs, 6MeO-BDE47, 6OH-BDE47, and 2,4,6-tri-BPh in serum from residents living near the coastal area were significantly higher than those in serum from e-waste recycling workers. Residue levels of tri- to tetra-chlorinated PCBs, tri- to tetra-chlorinated OH-PCBs, PBDEs, octa-brominated OH-PBDEs, and tetra-BPhs in serum from e-waste recycling workers were higher than those in serum from residents living near the coastal area. Principal component analysis revealed that residents living near the coastal area and e-waste recycling workers had different serum profiles of chlorinated and brominated compounds. PMID:22717641
Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Workers, 1972: S. 3762 -- To Extend the Program for Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Migrant Workers. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Subcommittee on Migratory Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 2d Session, August 1, 1972.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.
On August 1, 1972, the Subcommittee heard testimony on bill S. 3762 which would extend the program for health services for domestic agricultural migrant workers. The bill would extend the migrant health program for 5 years, with $100 million authorized for fiscal year 1973 and a $25 million increase for each of the following years. S. 3762…
Burmaster, Katharine B; Landefeld, John C; Rehkopf, David H; Lahiff, Maureen; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Adler-Milstein, Sarah; Fernald, Lia C H
Objectives Poverty reduction interventions through cash transfers and microcredit have had mixed effects on mental health. In this quasi-experimental study, we evaluate the effect of a living wage intervention on depressive symptoms of apparel factory workers in the Dominican Republic. Setting Two apparel factories in the Dominican Republic. Participants The final sample consisted of 204 hourly wage workers from the intervention (99) and comparison (105) factories. Interventions In 2010, an apparel factory began a living wage intervention including a 350% wage increase and significant workplace improvements. The wage increase was plausibly exogenous because workers were not aware of the living wage when applying for jobs and expected to be paid the usual minimum wage. These individuals were compared with workers at a similar local factory paying minimum wage, 15–16 months postintervention. Primary outcome measures Workers’ depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Ordinary least squares and Poisson regressions were used to evaluate treatment effect of the intervention, adjusted for covariates. Results Intervention factory workers had fewer depressive symptoms than comparison factory workers (unadjusted mean CES-D scores: 10.6±9.3 vs 14.7±11.6, p=0.007). These results were sustained when controlling for covariates (β=−5.4, 95% CI −8.5 to −2.3, p=0.001). In adjusted analyses using the standard CES-D clinical cut-off of 16, workers at the intervention factory had a 47% reduced risk of clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms compared with workers at the comparison factory (23% vs 40%). Conclusions Policymakers have long grappled with how best to improve mental health among populations in low-income and middle-income countries. We find that providing a living wage and workplace improvements to improve income and well-being in a disadvantaged population is associated with reduced
Cole, Herbert, Jr.; And Others
This publication is the course book for a correspondence course in pest control with the Pennsylvania State University. It contains basic information for agricultural producers on pest management and the proper and safe use of pesticides. The course consists of eleven lessons which can be completed at one's leisure. The first nine lessons contain…
Organic crop production is the fastest growing portion of U.S. agriculture, increasing a minimum of 20% annually during the last 15 years. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. ...
Weber, Eldon C.; And Others
This instructional packet introduces students to soil biology, ecology, and specific farming practices that promote sustainable agriculture. It helps students to discover the role of earthworms in improving the environment of all other soil-inhabiting organisms and in making the soil more fertile. The activities (classroom as well as outdoor)…
This article presents some dimensions of inter-sectoral action aimed at improving working and living conditions of workers in the sugarcane and alcohol industry. The dynamics of the implementation of certain forms of given intersectoral practices established in a region of the State of São Paulo are analyzed. The important role played by sectors of the Labor Prosecution Office and the Legislative Authority in the articulation of institutional actors and civil society is stressed. They give greater impetus to the work of each public sector responsible for addressing the issues of workers'healthcare. This study was produced from analysis of documents and material provided by institutions and discussion forums with proposals for intervention. The results show that the appropriation of strategic knowledge produced by researchers of the sugarcane industry in the instrumental resources used in legal actions, monitoring and surveillance generates important advances in the health of workers and the environment. PMID:21860934
Namakula, Justine; Witter, Sophie
Providing people-centred health systems—or any systems at all—requires specific measures to protect and retain healthcare workers during and after the conflict. This is particularly important when health staff are themselves the target of violence and abduction, as is often the case. This article presents the perspective of health workers who lived through conflict in four districts of northern Uganda—Pader, Gulu, Amuru, and Kitgum. These contained more than 90% of the people displaced by the decades of conflict, which ended in 2006. The article is based on 26 in-depth interviews, using a life history approach. This participatory tool encouraged participants to record key events and decisions in their lives, and to explore areas such as their decision to become a health worker, their employment history, and their experiences of conflict and coping strategies. These were analyzed thematically to develop an understanding of how to protect and retain staff in these challenging contexts. During the conflict, many health workers lost their lives or witnessed the death of their friends and colleagues. They also experienced abduction, ambush and injury. Other challenges included disconnection from social and professional support systems, displacement, limited supplies and equipment, increased workload and long working days and lack of pay. Health workers were not passive in the face of these challenges, however. They adopted a range of safety measures, such as mingling with community members, sleeping in the bush, and frequent change of sleeping place, in addition to psychological and practical coping strategies. Understanding their motivation and their views provides an important insight how to maintain staffing and so to continue to offer essential health care during difficult times and in marginalized areas. PMID:25274642
In support of planning efforts for the National Children's Study, we conducted a pilot study to test field methods characterizing pesticide exposures to 20 farmworker children aged 6-24 months living in the Salinas Valley, Monterey County, California. Sample collection included d...
Sawchuk, Peter H.; Kempf, Arlo
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contextualise historically transnational labour experiences within guest worker programs in Canada and to provide a conceptual foundation for analysing work, learning and living relations with special attention to agricultural workers. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a critical review…
Krupke, Christian H; Hunt, Greg J; Eitzer, Brian D; Andino, Gladys; Given, Krispn
Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions) growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen) or by contact (soil/planter dust) is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive. When maize plants in our field reached anthesis, maize pollen from treated seed was found to contain clothianidin and other pesticides; and honey bees in our study readily collected maize pollen. These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed treatments. PMID
Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Schall, Raul Aguilar; Camacho, Jose; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Eskenazi, Brenda
Background Recent organic diet intervention studies suggest that diet is a significant source of pesticide exposure in young children. These studies have focused on children living in suburban communities. Objectives We aimed to determine whether consuming an organic diet reduced urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations in 40 Mexican-American children, 3–6 years of age, living in California urban and agricultural communities. Methods In 2006, we collected urine samples over 16 consecutive days from children who consumed conventionally grown food for 4 days, organic food for 7 days, and then conventionally grown food for 5 days. We measured 23 metabolites, reflecting potential exposure to organophosphorous (OP), pyrethroid, and other pesticides used in homes and agriculture. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate the effects of diet on urinary metabolite concentrations. Results For six metabolites with detection frequencies > 50%, adjusted geometric mean concentrations during the organic phase were generally lower for all children, and were significant for total dialkylphosphates (DAPs) and dimethyl DAPs (DMs; metabolites of OP insecticides) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a herbicide), with reductions of 40%, 49%, and 25%, respectively (p < 0.01). Chemical-specific metabolite concentrations for several OP pesticides, pyrethroids, and herbicides were either infrequently detected and/or not significantly affected by diet. Concentrations for most of the frequently detected metabolites were generally higher in Salinas compared with Oakland children, with DMs and metolachlor at or near significance (p = 0.06 and 0.03, respectively). Conclusion An organic diet was significantly associated with reduced urinary concentrations of nonspecific dimethyl OP insecticide metabolites and the herbicide 2,4-D in children. Additional research is needed to clarify the relative importance of dietary and non-dietary sources of pesticide exposures to young
Mehta, Kala; Gabbard, Susan M.; Barrat, Vanessa; Lewis, Melissa; Carroll, Daniel; Mines, Richard
This report presents current information on the characteristics and work patterns of hired laborers who perform crop work in the United States. Information was obtained from interviews with 4,199 workers in 85 counties between October 1, 1996 and September 30, 1998. Chapters 1-3 provide information about the farmworkers themselves, including…
... regulations. 54 FR 28037, Jul. 5, 1989 and 52 FR 20496, Jun. 1, 1987. In the 1989 IFR, the Department retained... rates for field and livestock workers (combined), as computed by USDA quarterly wage surveys. 54 FR... by relying on the Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Employment Statistics survey. 73 FR...
Slesinger, Doris P.; Muirragui, Eileen
Examining the relationship between certain sectors of Wisconsin agriculture and their need for seasonal workers, the paper traces the use of farm workers of European origin in the early 1900's through their replacement in the 1930's by Hispanic migrants (Mexican nationals and people of Mexican heritage living in southern Texas) and the use of…
The paper discusses the role of the Child Life Worker as a member of a multidisciplinary team in the rehabilitation of cancer patients and their families when children are involved. It is noted that the concepts can be applied to any chronic pediatric illness or handicapping condition. (Author/SBH)
Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Mayans, Martí Vall; Lasagabaster, Maider Arando; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta
Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are a serious global public health issue. These diseases are largely preventable, as they are directly and indirectly associated with potentially modifiable factors, including socioeconomic conditions. Sexual transmission is responsible for over 75% of new HIV infections worldwide. Moreover, commercial sex workers and their clients are two of the groups at the highest risk of acquiring and transmitting these infectious diseases, due to an extensive number of sexual encounters and the various factors related to commercial sex situations. This qualitative study aims to deepen the understanding of the risk perception of STIs and HIV and their associated factors in Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Methods and analysis This is a qualitative, descriptive, interpretive study based on a social constructivist and phenomenological perspective conducted on a saturated sample of Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Data will be collected through semistructured individual and triangular group interviews. Information will be examined using a sociological discourse analysis, allowing us to understand the social and individual factors related to the risk perception of STIs and HIV in commercial sex workers. Discussion Qualitative studies are an important element in identifying individual, social and contextual factors directly or indirectly related to the health/disease process. This qualitative study will provide essential knowledge to improve health promotion, prevention strategies and effective management of STIs both for commercial sex workers and their clients. Ethics This study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee (CEIC) of IDIAP Jordi Gol in Barcelona, 2012. PMID:23901029
Reed, Deborah B; Kidd, Pamela S
Nearly 2 million children live or work on America's farms and ranches. Despite the increasing mechanization of production agriculture in the United States, children still constitute a considerable portion of the work force on farms and ranches. When adjusted for actual work exposure time, adolescent injury rates on agricultural establishments surpass those of adults (Castillo, D. N., Landen, D. D., & Layne, L. A. (1994). American Journal of Public Health, 84, 646-649). This project, headed by two public health nurses, developed and tested an agricultural safety curriculum [Agricultural Disability Awareness and Risk Education (AgDARE)] for use in high school agriculture classes. Students who participated in AgDARE scored significantly higher in farm safety attitude and intent to change work behavior than the control group. School and public health nurses, working together with agriculture teachers, may make an effective team in reducing injuries among teen agricultural workers. PMID:15260837
Rochin, Refugio I.; Santiago, Anne M.; Dickey, Karla S.
This study examines the characteristics and needs of Michigan's migrant and seasonal farmworkers. The study was based on census data, state agency records, and a statewide survey of service providers. Results indicate that neither mechanization nor other structural changes in Michigan's agricultural economy have diminished the industry's…
Mize, Ronald L., Jr.
Rural sociologists have seemingly moved away from an active interest in the plight of migrant farmworkers and the centrality of their labor in the development of U.S. agribusiness. Answering Pfeffer's (1983) call to analyze the different forms of agricultural production, I focus on the key formative period of what I refer to as the U.S. capitalist…
Larson, Bruce A; Fox, Mathew P; Rosen, Sydney; Bii, Margret; Sigei, Carolyne; Shaffer, Douglas; Sawe, Fredrick; McCoy, Kelly; Wasunna, Monique; Simon, Jonathan L
Background As access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has grown in Africa, attention has turned to evaluating the socio-economic impacts of ART. One key issue is the extent to which improvements in health resulting from ART allows individuals to return to work and earn income. Improvements in health from ART may also be associated with reduced impaired presenteeism, which is the loss of productivity when an ill or disabled individual attends work but accomplishes less at his or her usual tasks or shifts to other, possibly less valuable, tasks. Methods Longitudinal data for this analysis come from company payroll records for 97 HIV-infected tea estate workers (the index group, 56 women, 41 men) and a comparison group of all workers assigned to the same work teams (n = 2485, 1691 men, 794 women) for a 37-month period covering two years before and one year after initiating ART. We used nearest neighbour matching methods to estimate the impacts of HIV/AIDS and ART on three monthly employment outcomes for tea estate workers in Kenya – days plucking tea, days assigned to non-plucking assignments, and kilograms harvested when plucking. Results The female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea monthly than the matched female comparison group during the final 9 months pre-ART. They also worked 87% more days on non-plucking assignments. While the monthly gap between the two groups narrowed after beginning ART, the female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea and about 100% more days on non-plucking tasks than the comparison group after one year on ART. The male index group was able to maintain a similar pattern of work as their comparison group except during the initial five months on therapy. Conclusion Significant impaired presenteeism continued to exist among the female index group after one year on ART. Future research needs to explore further the socio-economic implications of HIV-infected female workers on ART being less productive than the general
Perez-Herrera, N.; Polanco-Minaya, H. |; Salazar-Arredondo, E. |; Solis-Heredia, M.J.; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Rojas-Garcia, E.; Alvarado-Mejia, J.; Borja-Aburto, V.H.; Quintanilla-Vega, B.
Pesticide exposure, including organophosphorous (OP) insecticides, has been associated with poor semen quality, and paraoxonase (PON1), an enzyme involved in OP deactivation, may have a role on their susceptibility, due to PON1 polymorphisms. Our objective was to evaluate the role of PON1Q192R polymorphism on the susceptibility to OP toxicity on semen quality and DNA integrity in agricultural workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in farmers with Mayan ascendancy from southeastern Mexico chronically exposed to pesticides; mostly OP. Fifty four agricultural workers (18-55 years old) were included, who provided semen and blood samples. Semen quality was evaluated according to WHO, sperm DNA damage by in situ-nick translation (NT-positive cells), PON1Q192R polymorphism by real-time PCR and serum PON1 activity by using phenylacetate and paraoxon. Two OP exposure indexes were created: at the month of sampling and during 3 months before sampling, representing the exposure to spermatids-spermatozoa and to cells at one spermatogenic cycle, respectively. PON1 192R and 192Q allele frequencies were 0.54 and 0.46, respectively. Significant associations were found between OP exposure at the month of sampling and NT-positive cells and sperm viability in homozygote 192RR subjects, and dose-effect relationships were observed between OP exposure during 3 months before sampling and sperm quality parameters and NT-positive cells in homozygote 192RR farmers. This suggests that cells at all stages of spermatogenesis are target of OP, and that there exists an interaction between OP exposure and PON1Q192R polymorphism on these effects; farmers featuring the 192RR genotype were more susceptible to develop reproductive toxic effects by OP exposure.
Guner, Barbaros; Simsek, Hasan; Yildirim, Ali
In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines a project in Turkey that provided basic education and health services to the children of seasonal agricultural workers. Between…
Kerrigan, Deanna; Barrington, Clare; Donastorg, Yeycy; Perez, Martha; Galai, Noya
Female sex workers (FSW) are disproportionately affected by HIV. Yet, few interventions address the needs of FSW living with HIV. We developed a multi-level intervention, Abriendo Puertas (Opening Doors), and assessed its feasibility and effectiveness among a cohort of 250 FSW living with HIV in the Dominican Republic. We conducted socio-behavioral surveys and sexually transmitted infection and viral load testing at baseline and 10-month follow-up. We assessed changes in protected sex and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) with logistic regression using generalized estimating equations. Significant pre-post intervention changes were documented for adherence (72-89 %; p < 0.001) and protected sex (71-81 %; p < 0.002). Higher intervention exposure was significantly associated with changes in adherence (AOR 2.42; 95 % CI 1.23-4.51) and protected sex (AOR 1.76; 95 % CI 1.09-2.84). Illicit drug use was negatively associated with both ART adherence and protected sex. Abriendo Puertas is feasible and effective in improving behavioral HIV outcomes in FSW living with HIV. PMID:27016102
Galea, Karen S; MacCalman, Laura; Jones, Kate; Cocker, John; Teedon, Paul; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie
There is limited information on the exposure to pesticides experienced by UK residents living near agricultural land. This study aimed to investigate their pesticide exposure in relation to spray events. Farmers treating crops with captan, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos or cypermethrin provided spray event information. Adults and children residing ≤100 m from sprayed fields provided first-morning void urine samples during and outwith the spray season. Selected samples (1–2 days after a spray event and at other times (background samples)) were analysed and creatinine adjusted. Generalised Linear Mixed Models were used to investigate if urinary biomarkers of these pesticides were elevated after spray events. The final data set for statistical analysis contained 1518 urine samples from 140 participants, consisting of 523 spray event and 995 background samples which were analysed for pesticide urinary biomarkers. For captan and cypermethrin, the proportion of values below the limit of detection was greater than 80%, with no difference between spray event and background samples. For chlormequat and chlorpyrifos, the geometric mean urinary biomarker concentrations following spray events were 15.4 μg/g creatinine and 2.5 μg/g creatinine, respectively, compared with 16.5 μg/g creatinine and 3.0 μg/g creatinine for background samples within the spraying season. Outwith the spraying season, concentrations for chlorpyrifos were the same as those within spraying season backgrounds, but for chlormequat, lower concentrations were observed outwith the spraying season (12.3 μg/g creatinine). Overall, we observed no evidence indicative of additional urinary pesticide biomarker excretion as a result of spray events, suggesting that sources other than local spraying are responsible for the relatively low urinary pesticide biomarkers detected in the study population. PMID:26374656
Miranda-Contreras, Leticia; Cruz, Ibis; Osuna, Jesús A; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham; Colmenares, Melisa; Barreto, Silvio; Balza, Alirio; Morales, Yasmin; Zavala, Leisalba; Labarca, Emilitza; García, Nelly; Sanchez, Beluardi; Contreras, Carlos A; Andrade, Henry
Numerous studies report adverse effects of pesticides on male reproductive health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether there is a relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and semen quality, and to determine whether chronic exposure to pesticides differentially affects semen quality in men of different ages. A comparative study of 64 farmers and 64 control men was performed. The farmers were interviewed to determine their occupational history and particularly, activities that may involve exposure to pesticides. Semen parameters were evaluated and a comparative analysis of semen variables between exposed and control groups, as well as between age groups: 18-29, 30-37 and 38-60 years was done. Significant alterations of some semen parameters in the exposed group were found, such as: decreases in sperm concentration, slow progressive motility and sperm membrane integrity; at the same time, increases in eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index. The results obtained by age groups showed significant differences between exposed and control groups for the parameters of membrane integrity, eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index, being the exposed group between 18-29 years that showed the highest altered cases of these parameters. Our results prove that occupational pesticide exposure is associated with alterations in sperm quality, creating a risk to farm workers in their reproductive capacity. PMID:26299054
Collins, Shane P; Goldenberg, Shira M; Burke, Nancy J; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A
Due to stigma and the psychosocial repercussions of past trauma and abuse, survivors of sex trafficking may experience increased susceptibility to violence, revictimization, and various harmful health outcomes, including HIV infection. Given the paucity of research characterizing the experiences of formerly trafficked female sex workers (FSWs), we set out to describe and contextualize perceptions of HIV risk among women who have experienced past episodes of sex trafficking and who are currently engaged in sex work in Tijuana, Mexico. Based on semi-structured interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we describe the following interrelated themes as influencing formerly trafficked FSWs' perceptions and experiences of HIV risk: economic vulnerability; susceptibility to violence; and psychological trauma. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention efforts to incorporate broader structural and social interventions aimed at reducing vulnerability to violence and human rights abuses among this population and improving their general economic, psychological, and social well-being. PMID:22963518
Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar; Alban, Lis
Denmark has been recognized as officially free (OTF) from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) since 1980. In this study, we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing Mycobacterium bovis into the Danish cattle population, through (a) imports of cattle and (b) foreign personnel working in Danish cattle herds. Data from 2000 to 2013 with date, number and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish Cattle Federation. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent by email to a sample of Danish cattle farmers (N=460). Inputs obtained from data analysis, expert opinion, the questionnaire and literature were fed into three stochastic scenario tree models used to simulate the effect of import trade patterns, and contact between immigrant workers and cattle. We also investigated the opportunity of testing animals imported from OTF countries by tuberculin skin test and animals from non-OTF countries by interferon-γ test (IFN-γ), exemplified by using year 2009 where the number of imported animals was higher than usual. Results showed that PIntro is driven mainly by importation of live cattle. The combined median annual probability of introducing M. bovis into the Danish cattle population by either imported live cattle or infectious immigrant workers, ranged from 0.3% (90% prediction interval (P.I.): 0.04%:1.4%) in 2001 to 4.9% (90% P.I.: 0.6%; 19.2%) in 2009. The median of the median PIntro estimates from the 14 years was 0.7% (median of 90% P.I.: 0.08%; 3.5%). Hence, on average, at least one introduction each 143 years could be expected, if the annual number of imported animals does not change remarkably in the future. If the number of imported animals increases, compared to the years we analyzed, additional testing of imported cattle might be considered. For example, in 2009, PIntro would have been reduced from 4.9% to 0.8% (90% P.I.: 0.1%; 4.7%) if animals from OTF countries had been tested with
Fleming, Paul J; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna
Male steady partners of female sex workers (FSW) living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent a key population for treatment as prevention and/or pre-exposure prophylaxis interventions. This study uses data collected from male steady partners who were referred by FSW living with HIV participating in a multi-level HIV prevention and care intervention in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. We conducted a socio-behavioral survey and HIV testing with all men (n = 64) and 16 in-depth interviews with a sub-sample to obtain more depth. Thirty-five of the 64 participants were living with HIV; 27 were previously diagnosed and 8 were diagnosed during our study. As a result, 45% of men were members of sero-discordant sexual partnerships. Of men with no previous HIV diagnosis (n = 37), 15 had never been tested for HIV and nine had not been tested in the past two years. Ninety-three percent of men previously diagnosed with HIV reported receiving HIV care in the past 6 months and 78% were taking anti-retrovirals. Low HIV testing was partly due to men not feeling at risk for HIV, despite having an HIV-infected partner. Additionally, a lack of tailored care inhibited engagement in anti-retroviral treatment for those infected. HIV testing was low, highlighting a need for test-and-treat strategies. Men not living with HIV would benefit from regular testing and would be good candidates for pre-exposure prophylaxis. While almost all men who had been diagnosed with HIV were engaged in care and adherent to anti-retroviral therapy, future research should assess whether they are achieving optimal HIV outcomes for their health and prevention of ongoing transmission. PMID:27009379
Fareed, Mohd.; Pathak, Manoj Kumar; Bihari, Vipin; Kamal, Ritul; Srivastava, Anup Kumar; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair
Background Non-protective work practices followed by farm workers during spraying of pesticides lead to occupational exposure among them. Objective This study is designed to explore the respiratory health and hematological profile of agricultural workers occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was undertaken among 166 pesticide sprayers working in mango orchards of Lucknow district in North India compared with 77 controls to assess the respiratory illness, lung functions, cholinesterase levels and hematological profile. A questionnaire based survey and clinical examination for respiratory health were conducted among study subjects. Lung function test was conducted among study subjects by using spirometer. Cholinesterase level as biomarker of OP pesticides and hematological profile of study subjects were investigated in the laboratory by following the standard protocols. Results Overall respiratory morbidity observed among exposed subjects was 36.75%. Symptoms for respiratory illness like dry cough, productive cough, wheezing, irritation of throat and blood stained sputum were found to be significantly more (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers than controls. Lung function parameters viz. PEFR, FEV1, %PEFR predicted, %FEV1 predicted and FEV1/FVC were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Exposure wise distribution of respiratory illness and lung functions among pesticide sprayers show that the exposure duration significantly elevates (p<0.05) the respiratory problems and significantly decreases (p<0.001) lung functions among pesticide sprayers. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were found to be significantly depleted (p<0.001) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls which show the exposure of OP pesticides among them. The hematological profile viz. RBC, WBC, monocytes, neutrophils, MCV, MCH, MCHC and platelet count were
Varona, Marcela Eugenia; Díaz-Criollo, Sonia M; Lancheros-Bernal, Angélica R; Murcia-Orjuela, Alix M; Henao-Londoño, Gloria L; Idrovo, Alvaro Javier
A previous study suggested that banned organochlorine pesticides were being used to protect illegal crops from pests. The study herein explored the exposure of individuals living in a region with such crops. Samples from 99 individuals were collected during 2005 and 2006 and organochlorine pesticides were quantified using chromatography in serum samples. We detected heptachlor (72.73%), 4,4-DDE (19.19%), aldrin (15.15%), γ-chlordane (12.12%), dieldrin (11.11%), α-chlordane (10,10%), α-endosulfan (8.08%), endosulfan (6.06%), β-endosulfan (5.05%), oxychlordane (3.03%), 4,4-DDT (3.03%), and 2,4-DDT (2.02%). Heptachlor had a skewed and negative distribution (median: 8.69 ng/l and maximum: 43.8 ng/l). A two-dimensional biplot suggested that mixtures present were endosulfan/4,4-DDT, aldrin/γ-chlordane, and oxychlordane/β-endosulfan/dieldrin. We did not identify variables associated with exposure levels. These data suggest that banned organochlorine pesticides are used. This is an example of research in a war context, where the problems related with pesticides are complex, and their implications go beyond a toxicological or epidemiological viewpoint. PMID:21161802
Cueva, Melany; Hicks, Teresa; Kuhnley, Regina; Cueva, Katie
Objectives To develop, implement, and evaluate a culturally respectful Wellness Course with and for Alaska's village-based Community Health Workers (CHWs) to support community health promotion and disease prevention. Study design This article describes Wellness Course development, implementation, and evaluation. Methods Five 5-day Wellness Courses were provided for 55 CHWs from communities throughout Alaska. Fifty-two of 55 participants completed a post-course written evaluation. Post-course telephone interviews were conducted with participants (11/32) from the first 3 courses. Results On written post-course evaluations, all participants wrote detailed descriptions of what they learned and 98% (51/52) felt more confident in their knowledge and ability to present community wellness information. As a result of course participation, 88% (46/52) of CHWs wrote ways they would support family and community wellness, and 85% (44/52) wrote ways they planned to take better care of their health. During the in-depth post-course interviews, all 11 CHWs interviewed described ways the Wellness Course increased their health knowledge, helped them in their work, and prepared them to effectively engage with their communities to promote health. Conclusions Learning wellness information with hands-on activities and practising health presentation and community engagement skills within the course design increased participants’ wellness knowledge and skills, confidence, and motivation to provide community wellness activities. Techniques for active listening, engaging community, and using the arts and storytelling as culturally respectful health promotion are tools that when used by CHWs within their own community have potential to empower community wellness. PMID:22901289
Robinson, Andrew; Eccleston, Claire; Annear, Michael; Elliott, Kate-Ellen; Andrews, Sharon; Stirling, Christine; Ashby, Michael; Donohue, Catherine; Banks, Susan; Toye, Christine; McInerney, Fran
The number of people with dementia is increasing rapidly worldwide. Commensurate with population ageing, the use of nursing homes in Australia (known as residential aged care facilities) for individuals with dementia is growing. As a terminal condition, dementia is best managed by instituting a palliative approach to care. A good knowledge of dementia, including its progression and management, among staff and families of people living with dementia is essential for clear decision making and the provision of appropriate care. Yet there is limited information regarding relative levels of dementia knowledge. This paper reports the results of a study that assessed dementia knowledge among these two cohorts using the Dementia Knowledge Assessment Tool; the study surveyed 279 staff members and 164 family members of residents with dementia. Dementia knowledge deficits were evident in both cohorts across a range of areas. It is critical that dementia knowledge deficits are identified and addressed in order to support evidence-based dementia care. PMID:25265739
Browning, Robert H.; Northcutt, Travis J., Jr.
A 5-year project to develop public health services for migrant workers was initiated in Florida in 1956. The project staff consisted of 8 public health personnel: 2 public health nurses, a public health educator, a public health nutritionist, a medical social worker, a part-time sanitarian, a liaison worker, and a secretary. Two practicing…
Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others
The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…
Brill, Winston J.
Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)
Palacios, Tomas; Solari, Catherine; Bains, William
Life expectancy has increased continuously for at least 150 years, due at least in part to improving life conditions for the majority of the population. A substantial part of this historical increase is due to decreases in early life mortality. In this article, we analyze the longevity of four privileged sets of adults who have avoided childhood mortality and lived a life more similar to the modern middle class. Our analysis is focused on writers and musicians from the 17th through the 21st centuries. We show that their average age at death increased only slightly between 1600 and 1900, but in the 20th century increased at around 2 years/decade. We suggest that this confirms that modern life span extension is driven by delay of death in older life rather than avoidance of premature death. We also show that productive life span, as measured by writing and composition outputs, has increased in parallel with overall life span in these groups. Increase in age of death is confirmed in a group of the minor British aristocracy and in members of the US Congress from 1800 to 2010. We conclude that both life span and productive life span are increasing in the 20th and early 21st century, and that the modern prolongation of life is the extension of productive life and is not the addition of years of disabling illness to the end of life. PMID:25625915
... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General § 500.70 Scope of worker protections. (a) General. The Act provides protections for migrant and seasonal agricultural workers irrespective of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of worker protections. 500.70 Section 500.70...
... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General § 500.70 Scope of worker protections. (a) General. The Act provides protections for migrant and seasonal agricultural workers irrespective of... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope of worker protections. 500.70 Section 500.70...
Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.
This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…
FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY
THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST IN THE PREPARATION OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS OVER 16 YEARS OF AGE AS NURSERY WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS WITH ASSISTANCE FROM SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS. UNITS ARE (1) INTRODUCTION TO HORTICULTURE, (2) CONSTRUCTING, MAINTAINING,…
Spurzem, John R; Romberger, Debra J; Von Essen, Susanna G
Agricultural work is associated with high rates of injury, disability, and illness. Agricultural workers are at increased risk for a variety of illnesses including respiratory disorders, dermatologic conditions, and cancer. The recognition of ODTS led to increased understanding of acute illness in farmers and grain workers. Previously, many cases of acute illness were probably erroneously called farmer's lung. The same agents that are responsible for ODTS are responsible for the high prevalence of bronchitis in certain agricultural workers. The recent description of the innate immune system is very exciting because it will lead to increased understanding of the pathogenesis of organic dust induced disorders. PMID:12512166
Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…
Background The issue of stigma is very important in the battle against HIV/AIDS in Africa since it may affect patient attendance at healthcare centres for obtaining antiretroviral (ARV) medications and regular medical check-ups. Stigmatization creates an unnecessary culture of secrecy and silence based on ignorance and fear of victimization. This study was designed to determine if there is external stigmatization of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) by health care workers (HCWs) at a tertiary hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province, South Africa. The study investigated the impact of knowledge of HIV/AIDS by HCWs on treatment of patients, as well as the comfort level and attitude of HCWs when rendering care to PLWHA. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to collect data using an anonymous self-administered structured questionnaire from 334 HCWs. The study was conducted in clinical departments of a large multidisciplinary 922-bed tertiary care teaching hospital in Durban, KZN. Results Overall HCWs had an above average knowledge about HIV/AIDS although some gaps in knowledge were identified. Tests of statistical significance showed that there was association between level of education and knowledge of HIV/AIDs (p ≤ 0.001); occupation and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (p ≤ 0.001); and gender and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (p = 0.004). Test for comfort level was only significant for gender, with males showing more comfort and empathy when dealing with PLWHA (p = 0.003). The study also revealed that patients were sometimes tested for HIV without informed consent before surgery, due to fear of being infected, and there was some gossiping about patients' HIV status by HCWs, thereby compromising patient confidentiality. The majority of HCWs showed a willingness to report incidents of stigmatization and discrimination to higher authorities, for better monitoring and control. Conclusions Although knowledge, attitude and comfort level of HCWs taking care of
Huss, John D.; And Others
Arizona's migrant farmworker population was examined to determine the recent changes in its demographic characteristics, and changes in worker characteristics that could be anticipated by 1980 and their implications for educative and supportive services to migrant children between 1977 and 1980. Information was also obtained on migrant student…
Metzler, William H.
To investigate the effect of technological change upon farm labor use, a stratified random sample of 696 farm workers from a population of 12,215 in Kern County, California, provided a basis for analysis. Some major findings were: (1) The high peak of seasonal labor use has been eliminated, (2) The need for migratory labor is decreasing, (3)…
ROSE, A. THOMAS
A SERIES OF CHARTS RELATED TO MIGRATORY WORKERS IN WISCONSIN IS PRESENTED. THE TABLES DEPICT THE SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD PROCESSING EMPLOYMENT TIMETABLE OF MAJOR CROP ACTIVITIES, UTILIZATION OF MIGRANT WORKERS IN SUCH ACTIVITIES, MIGRANT WORKERS REGISTERED BY DISTRICT OFFICES, STATE OF RESIDENCE, STATE OF LAST EMPLOYMENT, AND STATE OF NEXT…
Kornhauser, A. L.; Wilson, L. B.
Potential economic benefits obtainable from a state-of-the-art ERS system in the resource area of intensive use of living resources, agriculture, are studied. A spectrum of equal capability (cost saving), increased capability, and new capability benefits are quantified. These benefits are estimated via ECON developed models of the agricultural marketplace and include benefits of improved production and distribution of agricultural crops. It is shown that increased capability benefits and new capability benefits result from a reduction of losses due to disease and insect infestation given ERS's capability to distinguish crop vigor and from the improvement in world trade negotiations given ERS's worldwide surveying capability.
... agricultural workers. In situations where an adequate supply of workers does not exist locally, agricultural... opening with the State Workforce Agency (SWA) for recruiting temporary agricultural workers. The... job opening with the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) for recruiting temporary agricultural workers...
Caring is typically constructed as a feminised practice, resulting in women shouldering the burden of care-related work. Health-seeking behaviours are also constructed as feminine and men have poorer health outcomes globally. Employing men as carers may not only improve the health of the men they assist but also be transformative with regards to gendered constructions of caring. Using semi-structured interviews and observational home visits, this study explored the techniques that community care workers employ when working with male clients. The empirical analysis draws on the perspectives of eight care workers and three of their male clients from the Cape Town area. Interviews reveal how care workers and clients perform and negotiate masculinities as they navigate hegemonic masculine norms that require men to act tough, suppress emotions and deny weakness and sickness. Both parties bump up against ideals of what it means to be a man as they strive to provide care and receive support. Community care workers avoid rupturing client performances of hegemonic masculinities which inhibit confession and support. To do this, they use techniques of indirectly broaching sensitive subjects, acting in a friendly way and being clear about the intention of their work. PMID:26967538
Briggiler, Ana; Sinchi, Anabel; Coronel, Florencia; Sánchez, Zaida; Levis, Silvana; Taylor, Jorge; Enria, Delia
The Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is a severe acute viral disease caused by the Junin virus of the Arenaviridae family. The AHF endemic area coincides geographically with the largest grain export agro-industrial complex of the country [Argentina]. Since the implementation of vaccination with the Candid #1 vaccine, a significant reduction in incidence was achieved and risk patterns were modified. A previous study allowed characterizing these changes and identifying three transmission scenarios: classic, emergent-reemergent, and traveler. The latter scenario includes seasonal migrant workers who move each year, mainly from the province of Santiago del Estero, the endemic area to work in the detasseling of maize. With the objective of protecting this group of workers, a prevention campaign was initiated which included: capacity building of health personnel in the province, health education, and immunization with the vaccine Candid #1. 3,021 workers were vaccinated. Prior to vaccination, serum samples were taken from a group of 104 volunteers. Tests for neutralizing antibodies specific to the Junin virus were performed and 6 (5.76%) tested positive. The unexpected finding of a high percentage of workers with antibodies suggests the need to evaluate several hypotheses: a) that the result is the product of non-probabilistic sampling; b) that it could be people who fell ill in previous travels, c) or who were vaccinated in previous travels; or d) consider this region as an emerging scenario. PMID:26102120
Participatory Research Group, Toronto (Ontario).
An international consultation was attended by 40 women workers, educators, and organizers who work directly with women affected by the new "global assembly line" that has developed as a part of the microchip technology industry. The women, who represented 12 countries, shared information and organizing experiences and worked to consolidate an…
Draws on interviews and observations from the Mexican state of Oaxaca to analyze labor done by children of Indian origin in northern Mexico agriculture and the problem of schooling. Focuses on the conditions favoring child labor and objectives of experimental educational programs specifically for children of migrant families. Asserts that working…
Williams, Thomas T., Ed.
This volume includes material by providers and users of technical agricultural assistance on ways to improve the quality of life for clientele served by land-grant colleges and Tuskegee University. The conference theme involved issues emerging for rural Southern farms as they enter the 21st century. In examining alternatives for the future, the…
Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983
Discusses a new German law to encourage foreign workers to return to their home countries, employment exchanges for young foreigners in Germany, and a training program for migrant workers in India. (SK)
Shepherd, W. F.
The philosophy and workability of the concept of worker participation in management decisions is discussed in the context of British society. It is recommended that four interests be represented in any kind of Workers' Council: management, workers, shareholders, and consumers. (AG)
Companion animals play various roles in people's lives and these roles can impact on loss, grief, bereavement and mourning when the animal has been lost, whether that is through death, when missing, or when relinquished. This paper considers not only companion animal owners, but also those who own farm animals and those who work in animal service…
Current Population Survey data indicate that value-added industries, which tend to use raw lumber and agricultural products as inputs, employed one-third of all rural manufacturing workers in 1996. Compared to other rural manufacturing workers, value-added workers generally had lower occupational status, less education, and lower incomes, and were…
Martin, P L
The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor. PMID:12267273
Jacobs, David R.; Himes, John H.; Alexander, Bruce H.
Background: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are commonly used pesticides that can effect hemodynamic changes through increased cholinergic stimulation. Children of agricultural workers are likely to have paraoccupational exposures to pesticides, but the potential physiological impact of such exposures is unclear. Objectives: We investigated whether secondary pesticide exposures were associated with blood pressure and heart rate among children living in agricultural Ecuadorian communities. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 271 children 4–9 years of age [51% cohabited with one or more flower plantation workers (mean duration, 5.2 years)]. Erythrocyte AChE activity was measured using the EQM Test-mate system. Linear regression models were used to estimate associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate with AChE activity, living with flower workers, duration of cohabitation with a flower worker, number of flower workers in the child’s home, and number of practices that might increase children’s exposure to pesticides. Results: Mean (± SD) AChE activity was 3.14 ± 0.49 U/mL. A 1-U/mL decrease in AChE activity was associated with a 2.86-mmHg decrease in SBP (95% CI: –5.20, –0.53) and a 2.89-mmHg decrease in DBP (95% CI: –5.00, –0.78), after adjustment for potential confounders. Children living with flower workers had lower SBP (–1.72 mmHg; 95% CI: –3.53, 0.08) than other children, and practices that might increase exposure also were associated with lower SBP. No significant associations were found between exposures and heart rate. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that subclinical secondary exposures to pesticides may affect vascular reactivity in children. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23359481
Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A.; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M.
In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu. PMID:23222180
Ayalon, Liat; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Palgi, Yuval
The arrangement in which frail older adults from the developed world are cared for in their homes by individuals from the developing world has become increasingly prevalent worldwide. In Israel, this arrangement is termed foreign home care. In this article, the authors first describe the global phenomenon of foreign home care of frail older adults as well as the more local characteristics of this arrangement in Israel. The authors then describe the concept of loneliness. Based on empirical and theoretical knowledge in the field of loneliness, the authors argue that older adults under live-in foreign home care may be particularly prone to feelings of loneliness for several reasons: some that are general to older adults with cognitive or physical disability and others that are specific to this particular caregiving arrangement. The authors conclude by providing ideas for future practice and research on this highly vulnerable group that, to date, has received only minimal research attention. PMID:22303620
Peretti, Alessandro; Delvecchio, Simone; Bonomini, Francesco; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua; Colosio, Claudio
In the article, details related to the diffusion of agricultural tractors in Italy are given and considerations about the effects of vibration on operators, the sources of vibration and suggestions to reduce them are presented. The acceleration values observed in Italy amongst 244 tractors and levels of worker exposure are shown by means of histograms. The relevant data variability is discussed. PMID:24303716
Declining Ogallala Aquifer has threatened sustainability of highly productive irrigated agriculture in the region. The region, known for the dust bowl of thirties, is scared of its return. Lower well outputs and increasing pumping costs have compelled farmers to adapt alternative conservation strate...
Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.
This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…
Steele, Doris H.; Cunningham, Clarence J.
To identify selected personal and social characteristics of those from whom low-income homemakers sought advice and information in family living, data were gathered from 131 homemakers who were enrolled in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Program in Cincinnati, Ohio, and from 30 opinion leaders who were identified by the homemakers. A descriptive…
DILLON, ROY D.; AND OTHERS
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES AND AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES NEEDED BY NONFARM WORKERS IN THE APPALACHIA REGIONS OF KENTUCKY AND OHIO WERE IDENTIFIED AND COMPILED. SPECIAL EMPHASIS WAS PLACED ON DETERMING THE POST-HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATIONAL CURRICULUMS NEEDED TO PREPARE WORKERS IN AGRICULTURAL, TECHNICIAN-LEVEL OCCUPATIONS. SOME GENERAL CONCLUSIONS DERIVED…
Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig
Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. PMID:25995374
... seasonal agricultural worker for purposes of a State workers' compensation law and such employer provides workers' compensation coverage for such worker in the case of bodily injury or death as provided by such... when workers' compensation coverage is provided under State law. (a) If a farm labor...
... seasonal agricultural worker for purposes of a State workers' compensation law and such employer provides workers' compensation coverage for such worker in the case of bodily injury or death as provided by such... when workers' compensation coverage is provided under State law. (a) If a farm labor...
... seasonal agricultural worker for purposes of a State workers' compensation law and such employer provides workers' compensation coverage for such worker in the case of bodily injury or death as provided by such... when workers' compensation coverage is provided under State law. (a) If a farm labor...
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.
Workers' skills are critical to U.S. industrial productivity and competitiveness and to maintaining living standards. Training is the key. Good training pays--for workers whose skills are upgraded, for companies seeking a competitive edge, and for the nation in overall productivity. However, workers in other countries are better trained than most…
Michie, Aruna Nayyar
Argues that agriculture production in developing nations should be organized to ensure economic viability. Government policy must emphasize participants' productive capacities and integrate agricultural workers into the new organization of production. (Author/DB)
Sumner, Seirian; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J
Social parasites exploit the socially managed resources of their host's society. Inquiline social parasites are dependent on their host throughout their life cycle, and so many of the traits inherited from their free-living ancestor are removed by natural selection. One trait that is commonly lost is the worker caste, the functions of which are adequately fulfilled by host workers. The few inquiline parasites that have retained a worker caste are thought to be at a transitional stage in the evolution of social parasitism, and their worker castes are considered vestigial and non-adaptive. However, this idea has not been tested. Furthermore, whether inquiline workers have an adaptive role outside the usual worker repertoire of foraging, brood care and colony maintenance has not been examined. In this paper, we present data that suggest that workers of the inquiline ant Acromyrmex insinuator play a vital role in ensuring the parasite's fitness. We show that the presence of these parasite workers has a positive effect on the production of parasite sexuals and a negative effect on the production of host sexuals. This suggests that inquiline workers play a vital role in suppressing host queen reproduction, thus promoting the rearing of parasite sexuals. To our knowledge, these are the first experiments on inquiline workers and the first to provide evidence that inquiline workers have an adaptive role. PMID:12816646
BASED UPON THE FINDINGS OF A RURAL EDUCATION AND WELFARE SURVEY OF MORE THAN 900 SUGARCANE WORKERS IN THE NINE LOUISIANA COUNTIES WHERE SUGARCANE CULTIVATION IS CONCENTRATED, THIS DOCUMENT TELLS OF THE LIVES OF THE WORKERS AND EXPLAINS THE NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL "SUGAR SYSTEM" UNDER WHICH THEY LIVE. DISCUSSED ARE THE EFFECTS OF MECHANIZATION…
Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...
... Worker Adjustment Assistance Petitions have been filed with the Secretary of Labor under Section 221(a...). 74705 Moll Industries (Workers)... Seagrove, NC 10/08/10 10/04/10 74706 Busch Agricultural Manitowoc,...
Kraemer Diaz, Anne E; Weir, Maria M; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A; Chen, Haiying; Arcury, Thomas A
The living and working arrangements of migrant farmworkers in North Carolina are shaped by grower provided housing, codified by the US Department of Labor's H-2A temporary worker program. Growers typically dictate all facets about residences, living conditions, and even food acquirements. Farmworker camps likely contribute to aggression because of the forced relationships among a small group of people that live, work and recreate together for extended time periods. Participants in the study consisted of 371 farmworkers living in 183 camps. The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale was used to assess aggression among migrant farmworkers. Results indicated that aggressive acts were prevalent among the farmworkers, but the frequency of aggressive acts was low. The most common aggressive act was minor psychological aggression. Results also indicated that alcohol misuse was a common characteristic for both victims and perpetrators and the majority of aggressive acts occurred later in the agricultural season. PMID:26022146
RODRIGUES, DONALD F.
QUESTIONNAIRE RETURNS FROM 103 EMPLOYERS IN AGRICULTURE AND RELATED INDUSTRIES WERE COMBINED WITH 50 INTERVIEWS WITHIN THE SAME GROUP TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT AGRICULTURAL TRAINING NEEDS IN VENTURA COUNTY. MOST FIRMS EMPLOYED FEWER THAN 15 WORKERS ON A PERMANENT BASIS, SUPPLEMENTED BY LARGE MEMBERS OF SEASONAL WORKERS, ESPECIALLY IN THE…
Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A
Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers. PMID:9795581
Foreign Workers' German (FWG) refers to the acquired German language skills of workers from various countries who were recruited to West Germany between 1955 and 1973 to fill menial, undesirable jobs. Contact between these workers and native German speakers was limited because of the nature of the foreigners' work, the tendency toward residential…
Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...
Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.
This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…
Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping
In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093
Smith, Eddie; And Others
To assist teachers in agricultural mechanics in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the mechanical skills and knowlege necessary for this specialized area. Six sections are included, as follow: orientation and safety; agricultural mechanics skills; agricultural power and machinery; agricultural…
High rates of unemployment in rural areas poses questions as what education can do with the problem. This report examines the effects of rural American economies as they grow away from agriculture and toward dependence on manufacturing and service industries. Using data from the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics' Displaced Worker Survey, the…
... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...
... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...
... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...
... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...
Kayali, G; Ortiz, E J; Chorazy, M L; Gray, G C
The threat of an influenza pandemic is looming, with new cases of sporadic avian influenza infections in man frequently reported. Exposure to diseased poultry is a leading risk factor for these infections. In this study, we used logistic regression to investigate serological evidence of previous infection with avian influenza subtypes H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9, H10, and H11 among 95 adults occupationally exposed to turkeys in the US Midwest and 82 unexposed controls. Our results indicate that farmers practising backyard, organic or free-ranging turkey production methods are at an increased risk of infection with avian influenza. Among these farmers, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for elevated microneutralization assay titres against avian H4, H5, H6, H9, and H10 influenza strains ranged between 3.9 (95% CI 1.2-12.8) and 15.3 (95% CI 2.0-115.2) when compared to non-exposed controls. The measured ORs were adjusted for antibody titres against human influenza viruses and other exposure variables. These data suggest that sometime in their lives, the workers had been exposed to low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. These findings support calls for inclusion of agricultural workers in priority groups in pandemic influenza preparedness efforts. These data further support increasing surveillance and other preparedness efforts to include not only confinement poultry facilities, but more importantly, also small scale farms. PMID:19486492
Applications of remotely sensed data in agriculture are enumerated. These include: predictions of forage for range animal consumption, forest management, soil mapping, and crop inventory and management.
Lewis, John E.; Clark, John D.; LeBlanc, William G.; Fleming, Lora E.; Cabán-Martinez, Alberto J.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Ocasio, Manuel A.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Kachan, Diana; McCollister, Kathryn; Dietz, Noella; Bandiera, Frank C.; Clarke, Tainya C.; Lee, David J.
Objective To explore cardiovascular fitness in 40 occupations using a nationally-representative 3 sample of the U.S. population. Methods Respondents aged 18–49 (n=3,354) from the 1999–2004 NHANES were evaluated for 5 cardiovascular fitness and classified into low, moderate, and high levels. Comparisons were 6 made among occupations. Results Of all U.S. workers, 16% had low, 36% moderate, and 48% high cardiovascular 8 fitness. Administrators, Health occupations, Wait staff, Personal services, and Agricultural 9 occupations had a lesser percentage of workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all 10 others. Sales workers, Administrative support, and Food preparers had a higher percentage of 11 workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all others. Conclusions Cardiovascular fitness varies significantly across occupations, and those with limited physical activity have higher percentages of low cardiovascular fitness. Workplace strategies are needed to promote cardiovascular fitness among high-risk occupations. PMID:21915067
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).
This review is a medium for dissemination of information and views on agricultural education and training, extension, and related subjects to the member governments and field workers of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The document consists of more than two dozen articles and comments on agricultural education,…
Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F
Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789
DILLON, ROY D.
THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH WORKERS WITH THE JOB TITLES OF GENERAL DIRECTORS, SALESMEN, SUPERVISORS, AND FIELD WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES NEEDED AGRICULTURALLY ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE OF THE SAME KIND AND LEVEL AS WORKERS IN COMPARABLE JOB TITLES IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY PERSONAL…
Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.
Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.
TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…
Recent developments concerning the US government's restrictive policies on HIV/AIDS funding have drawn attention to how the government's mandatory "anti-prostitution pledge" endangers the lives of sex workers and trafficking victims. PMID:16365969
Bastiaanssen, Inge L. W.; Kroes, Gert; Nijhof, Karin S.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Veerman, Jan Willem
Background: By interacting with children, group care workers shape daily living environments to influence treatment. Current literature provides little knowledge about the content of youth residential care. Objective: In this study, a questionnaire called the Group care worker Intervention Checklist was developed. Method: Group care workers…
Green, Paul E.
Partly because of mobility, but mostly because of poverty, migrant children are systematically denied their right to equal educational opportunity. This review covers migrant families' immigration and illegal immigration, migration patterns, poor living conditions, impact of migrant workers on the U.S. economy, children as migrant workers, impact…
Plant, Peter; Lopez-Sanchez, Maria Jose
Guidance has a role to play in helping older workers to lead meaningful and fruitful lives; inside, outside, on the edge of the labour market, or in voluntary work with examples from two very different European countries: Denmark and Spain. This paper aims to draw attention to older workers guidance from an economic policy approach. It will be…
State Workers' Compensation programs can add another barrier for older workers to surmount at the hiring gate. State programs do not furnish adequate or equitable protection, and the National Commission on State Workmen's Compensation Laws has made recommendations to improve coverage; new standards must be met by July, 1975. (Author)
Hamblin, Lydia E.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Ager, Joel; Upfal, Mark; Luborsky, Mark; Russell, Jim; Arnetz, Judith
Worker-to-worker (Type III) violence is prevalent in health care settings and has potential adverse consequences for employees and organizations. Little research has examined perpetrator characteristics of this type of violence. The current study is a descriptive examination of the common demographic and work-related characteristics of perpetrators of Type III workplace violence among hospital workers. Analysis was based on documented incidents of Type III violence reported within a large hospital system from 2010 to 2012. Nurses were involved as either the perpetrator or target in the five most common perpetrator–target dyads. Incidence rate ratios revealed that patient care associates and nurses were significantly more likely to be perpetrators than other job titles. By examining characteristics of perpetrators and common worker dyads involved in Type III workplace violence, hospital stakeholders and unit supervisors have a starting point to develop strategies for reducing conflict between workers. PMID:26450899
Rosner, D; Markowitz, G
We celebrate Labor Day every year with barbecues and picnics, rarely remembering that the holiday was born in the midst of tremendous labor struggles to improve working conditions. In the last century, 16-hour workdays and 6- and 7-day workweeks led to terribly high injury rates in the nation's mines and mills. Thousands upon thousands of workers died, caught in the grinding machinery of our growing industries. Today, despite improvements, thousands of workers still die in what has been described as a form of war on the American workforce. This commentary reminds us of the historical toll in lives and limbs that workers have paid to provide us with our modern prosperity. It also reminds us that the continuing toll is far too high and that workers who died and continue to die in order to produce our wealth deserve to be remembered and honored on this national holiday. PMID:10474546
Trunnelle, Kelly J.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Ahn, Ki Chang; Schenker, Marc B.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Gee, Shirley J.; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T.; Hammock, Bruce D.
Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly from pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields, and are faced with poor housing conditions, causing higher pest infestation and more pesticide use. We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) levels among 105 women and 103 children. The median urinary 3PBA levels (children=2.56 ug/g creatinine, mothers=1.46 ug/g creatinine) were higher than those reported in population based studies for the United States general population, but similar to or lower than studies with known high levels of pyrethroid exposure. A positive association was evident between poor housing conditions and the urinary metabolite levels, showing that poor housing conditions are a contributing factor to the higher levels of 3PBA seen in the urine of these farm worker families. Further research is warranted to fully investigate sources of exposure. - Highlights: • We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids. • We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary 3PBA levels. • 3PBA levels were higher than those reported for the U.S. general population. • Poor housing conditions may be associated with pyrethroid exposure.
Hendershot, G E; Grimm, J W
A survey of attitudes toward abortion was conducted among nurses and social workers in Tennessee. It was found that, even when relevant background characteristics were similar, social workers were more liberal toward abortion than nurses. It is suggested that the difference may result from differences in goals and types of client contact within the 2 professions. Because social workers aim at helping clients "cope" with many problematic situations and nurses aim at preserving patients' health, social work involves contact with a greater part of clients' lives than nursing. Nurses tend to view abortion as a medical procedure while social workers may consider it an appropriate procedure for various social, economic, and psychological reasons. Social workers see clients in normal life situations but nurses see them under specialized medical conditions in clinics or hospitals. It is more likely that social workers would understand the benefit an abortion could provide to a client. It is speculated that, in the future, social workers will refer poor clients to clinics or hospitals for abortions they feel are necessary and nurses will discourage or turn away many of these clients. PMID:4818082
... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...
The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...
Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping
The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste. PMID:26420088
Fathallah, Fadi A
This paper gives an overview of the extent of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in agriculture, and a historical perspective on how ergonomics has been used to reduce the health effects of labor-intensive agriculture. A summary of exposure to MSD physical risk factors within various classes of crops, along with various administrative and engineering controls for abating MSDs in agriculture is given. These controls range from programmed rest breaks to mechanized or partially-mechanized operations. Worker-based approaches such as prone carts and platforms, and load transfer devices hold promise in combating the prevalent stooped work in agriculture. Including the worker as an integral contributor to all aspects of developing and implementing an intervention, and considering the psychosocial and socio-cultural aspects of the work environment are crucial elements of effective interventions for reducing MSDs. Despite the advent progress in new technologies in agricultural practices, reliance on labor, especially in fresh market fruits and vegetables, will always be a major cornerstone of agriculture for at least the foreseen future. It is encouraging to see the increased interest among health and safety professionals, epidemiologists, engineers, social scientists, and ergonomists throughout the world who are committed to the plight of reducing MSDs and other health problems among agricultural workers. PMID:20398891
Migrant agricultural workers are not only on the margins of Canadian and global food systems; they are also on the margins of public consciousness about the labour behind the food we eat. Even local food movement groups who advocate for both social justice and sustainable food production have not made migrant labour a priority concern. Popular…
Lee, So Ryong; Lee, Chae Kwan; Im, Hosub; Yang, Wonho; Urm, Sang-Hwa; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Jin Heon; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Se Yeong; Lee, Soo Woong; Lee, Jong Tae
This study aimed to estimate the status of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure through urine cotinine analysis among nonsmoking workers in Korea and to analyze factors affecting urine cotinine concentrations. Data were based on "The 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body," a cross-sectional study of the National Institute of Environmental Research of Korea. We selected 1448 nonsmoking adult workers from 200 localities to participate in this survey. Urine cotinine concentrations were analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass selective detector. We calculated separate covariate-adjusted geometric means for socio-demographic variables for males, females, and total subjects by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill.). The prevalence of self-reported exposure to SHS was 36.9%. The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) of urine cotinine concentrations among all participants was 16.50 (14.48-18.80) μg/L. Gender, living area, education, and SHS exposure showed significant differences in urine cotinine concentrations. The urine cotinine concentrations of farmworkers and blue-collar workers such as skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers, and elementary occupations were higher than those of white-collar workers such as clerical support workers, technicians, and associate professionals. Such a high proportion of the population having high urine cotinine levels indicates widespread exposure to SHS among nonsmoking workers in Korea. Furthermore, the urine cotinine levels among nonsmoking workers exposed to SHS varied by occupation. The measured urine cotinine concentration is suggested to be a valuable indication of SHS exposure in Korea. PMID:24219421
Miller, Mary E; Lee, Barbara C
The goal of this project was to develop a model policy that agricultural employers could adopt specific to youth employment, including age-appropriate assignments, training needs for adolescent workers, ideal supervision, and mentoring by adult workers. Methods included discussions at a national conference of agricultural employers, a survey of employers' perspectives on young workers, forming a task force to draft a model policy, and finalizing the policy document. The process resulted in a template that can be used by agricultural employers for immediate adoption, or to be customized and adapted for their unique company. Given new trends in agriculture to use certification systems, safety audits, and voluntary safety standards in addition to the regulatory process, there is value in having a voluntary "best practice" model policy that can be adopted in settings where safeguarding young farm workers is a priority. PMID:24959757
Alpedrinha, João; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A
Hamilton suggested that inflated relatedness between sisters promotes the evolution of eusociality in haplodiploid populations. Trivers and Hare observed that for this to occur, workers have to direct helping preferentially toward the production of sisters. Building on this, they proposed two biological scenarios whereby haplodiploidy could act to promote the evolution of eusociality: (a) workers biasing the sex allocation of the queen's brood toward females and (b) workers replacing the queen's sons with their own sons. This "worker revolution," whereby the worker class seizes control of sex allocation and reproduction, is expected to lead to helping being promoted in worker-controlled colonies. Here, we use a kin-selection approach to model the two scenarios suggested by Trivers and Hare. We show that (1) worker control of sex allocation may promote helping, but this effect is likely to be weak and short lived; and (2) worker reproduction tends to inhibit rather than promote helping. Furthermore, the promotion of helping is reduced by a number of biologically likely factors, including the presence of workers increasing colony productivity, workers being unmated, and worker control of sex allocation being underpinned by many loci each having a small effect. Overall, our results suggest that haplodiploidy has had a negligible influence on the evolution of eusociality. PMID:25141140
Wright, Suzanne; Marlenga, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C
Every three days a child dies in an agriculture-related incident, and every day 45 children are injured in the United States. These tragedies should not be regarded as "accidents," as they often follow predictable and preventable patterns. Prevention is not only possible, but vital, since many of these injuries are almost immediately fatal. Major sources of fatal injuries are machinery, motor vehicles, and drowning. Tractor injuries alone account for one-third of all deaths. The leading sources of nonfatal injuries are structures and surfaces, animals (primarily horses), and vehicles (primarily all-terrain vehicles [ATVs]). Children living on farms are at a higher risk than hired workers, and are unprotected by child labor laws. Preschool children and older male youth are at the highest risk for fatal injury, while nonfatal injury was most common among boys aged 10-15 years. Multiple prevention strategies have been developed, yet economic and cultural barriers often impede their implementation. Educational campaigns alone are often ineffective, and must be coupled with re-engineering of machines and safety devices to reduce fatalities. Legislation has the potential to improve child safety, yet political and economic pressures often prohibit changes in child labor laws and mandated safety requirements. Clinicians play a pivotal role in injury prevention, and should actively address common rural risk-taking behaviors as part of the routine office visit in order to help prevent these tragedies. PMID:23395394
Nguyen Thi Hue
The Vietnam Peasant Union encourages peasants to comply with the following criteria for the modern family: not having too many children, not being poor and starving, not having malnourished children and diseased women due to the bearing of too many children, being literate, not being superstitious, and not violating the law and State policy. 30% of the union's 7.5 million members have registered to abide by these rules. Peasants comprise almost 80% of Vietnam's total population. Although poor, peasant family incomes are increasing along with living conditions. Fertility remains too high. The Peasant Union has therefore been carrying out information, education, and communication and motivational activities among peasants so that peasants in general, and middle-aged heads of households in particular, will accept and practice family planning. For each province, the union produces teaching materials such as training packages for officers at provincial, district, and community levels, as well as a manual for field workers. The manual has two columns for respective topics: one explains a population and family planning item, while the other depicts a related agricultural activity. PMID:12320325
Izugbara, Chimaraoke O
It is still a small body of research that directly addresses female sex workers' relationships with their regular commercial male partners. I used ethnographic data from Nairobi, Kenya to interrogate motivations and strategies for recruiting and retaining regular male clients among female sex workers (FSWs). Regular commercial male partners, popularly called customer care, wera or wesh by Nairobi's FSWs, played diverse roles in their lives. Client retention enabled sex workers to manage the risk of reduced marriage prospects, guaranteed them steady work, livelihoods, and incomes, and prevented their victimization and harassment. To retain clients, sex workers obliged them a great deal, pretended they had quit prostitution, and sometimes resorted to magical practices. However, these strategies were also accompanied by risks that reinforced the vulnerability of sex workers. Lack of critical attention to sex workers' practices for managing perceived risks in their particular type of work may hamper current programmatic efforts to make their job safer. PMID:22434396
Rosenberg, Howard R.; And Others
Farm labor contractors (FLCs) have become increasingly important in California agriculture. This report examines FLC background characteristics, business practices, and relationships with employers and farm workers, many of whom are seasonal and migrant workers. Over 300 FLCs, farm workers, and growers were interviewed in five California regions.…
In this article, the author, who is an unqualified community worker in London, discusses the books that have influenced her thinking and practice in community work. She discusses that publications such as "In and Against the State" (1979), and Cynthia Cockburn's work, "The Local State" (1977), offered a sustainable, dialectical view of the…
...To improve the supply of skilled agricultural workers and bring greater stability to the workforce in this sector through provision of services specifically designed to assist farmworkers in securing, retaining, upgrading or returning from an agricultural job. The intended outcomes are that, as a result of the services to be provided, farmers will have access to a more skilled pool of workers......
The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…
AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…
DEALTON, ERNEST L.
TODAY'S SUCCESSFUL FARMER MUST POSSESS THE SKILLS OF A BUSINESSMAN, SCIENTIST, AND MECHANIC TO SURVIVE COMPETITION IN AGRICULTURE, THE LARGEST INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. THIS COMPETITION HAS CAUSED AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF FARMS AND RANCHES IN AN ATTEMPT TO CURTAIL OPERATIONAL EXPENSES AND TO INCREASE PRODUCTION. WITH THE SCIENTIFIC…
Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat
This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…
Taylor, A K
Figures from the U.S. Department of Labor show that low-wage or marginalized workers are more likely to be injured on the job and suffer more work-related medical conditions than better-paid workers. Despite an increasingly hostile organizing climate, market globalization, and corporate downsizing, significant progress has been made in organizing marginalized workers. A multifaceted, comprehensive organizing strategy, incorporating union-building strategies that include (but are not limited to) safety and health, must be used by unions to successfully organize marginalized workers and obtain the first contract. PMID:10378982
Kisner, S M; Pratt, S G
Workers aged 65 and older had a workplace fatality rate of 2.6 times that of workers aged 16 to 64 for 1980 through 1991 (14.1 per 100,000 vs 5.4), according to National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) data. The highest rates were in mining, agriculture, and construction. Compared with younger workers, older men were at an elevated risk for fatalities caused by machines, and older women for fatal falls and homicide. Prevention efforts should focus on older workers in agricultural settings, as well as those at increased risk of workplace falls or violence. PMID:9273874
... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home care, it is still ... of services an older person chooses, the price costs can range from less than $25,000 a ...
KARRAKER, CYRUS H.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN THE WELFARE OF AGRICULTURAL SEASONAL WORKERS ARE REPORTED. PARTICULAR ATTENTION IS PAID TO SUCH SERVICES FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN AS DAY CARE CENTERS. SUCH CENTERS ARE PROVIDED FROM PRIVATE FUNDS, ARE USUALLY CHURCH SPONSORED, AND ARE LARGELY STAFFED BY VOLUNTEERS. STATE-OPERATED CENTERS ARE RECOMMENDED. COLORADO WAS CONE OF THE…
Department of Labor, Washington, DC.
DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…
A number of studies have reported on the inhibitory effects of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) on the enzyme cholinesterase (ChE) among agricultural workers. With the increasing use of OPs, surveys of blood ChE activity on exposed workers may help to identify workers at greates...
... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farm labor contractors must comply with all worker... Employees § 500.61 Farm labor contractors must comply with all worker protections and all other...
... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Farm labor contractors must comply with all worker... Employees § 500.61 Farm labor contractors must comply with all worker protections and all other...
Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.
The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.
Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah
Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.
This manual was prepared to provide union leaders, organizers, and local officers with information about the experiences of Asian-American, Black, Hispanic-American, female, and part-time workers. The Asian-American workers section includes information on Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, Asian-Indians, Southeast Asians, and Pacific Islanders…
Wisniewski, Jack J.; Toomey, Beverly G.
Describes a study of attitudes towards homosexuality in representative sample of social workers (N=77) in Columbus, Ohio using Hudson's Index of Attitudes toward Homosexuals. Results lend preliminary empirical support to the implied assumption that social workers manifest signs of homophobia. (ABL)
Mondart, C. L., Jr.; And Others
Job information, presented for use by high school counselors, was derived from a statewide study of nonfarm agricultural occupations which revealed that 20,025 Louisiana workers in 1,699 job titles were doing work demanding some specialized training in agriculture. Information includes a description, employee qualifications, employment…
American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, PA.
A special project, undertaken to furnish some of the hard facts on child labor in agriculture in the summer of 1970, resulted in publication of this report. Part I of the report discusses society's attitudes toward agricultural workers, laws about the use of children as industrial laborers, work activities (with definitions of work for the various…
... a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as ... the facility provide a written statement of its philosophy of care? Visit each facility more than once, ...
... premises. Adult foster care has the advantages of maintaining frail older adults in a more home-like ... pay to live in these communities, though some facilities have beds for skilled care that are funded ...
Mules, B. R.
Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)
... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...
... are part of retirement communities. Others are near nursing homes, so a person can move easily if needs change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people ...
... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...
It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.
Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.
Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass
The Family Planning Communication Action Research Projects at the Demographic Training and Research Centre, DTRC, Bombay, and the Planning Research and Action Institute (PRAI) Lucknow, provide guidelines for implementation of a program in which voluntary workers play an important role. DTRC has concentrated on urban areas and PRAI on rural areas. In selecting the volunteers, emphasis is on involving those who are already active in community affairs, or those who wield some degree of influence. In rural areas, the literacy level of the leaders is an important factor, as well as those who have a wide circle of acquaintances. The training programs conducted by the DTRC are for 3-5 days, covering 6-10 hours, and the involvement of some local association is always sought. It is found that an informal, permissive atmosphere, the use of visual aids, the distribution of reference material, and the lecture and group discussion methods are effective in orienting the participants to family planning educational activities. The PRAI trains the workers 1st through individual visits, and then when a good number have participated for 3 or 4 months, a training camp is organized. When high officials attend and address these camps, and when certificates and badges are distributed, it serves to keep up the enthusiasm. The main problem in both urban and rural area are sustaining the interest of the volunteer and involving men as volunteers. Where cash incentives are not feasible, newspaper and radio publicity is effective, and words of recognition and appreciation also help. Where male volunteers are involved, it is found that they can work well in their places of employment rather than in residential communities. In highly cosmopolitan areas, various linquestic groups live side by side, and it is necessary to enroll voluntary workers from the individual groups. PMID:12338667
Chang, Manchium; Kendall, James M.; Wang, Taylor G.
In experimental technique, living cells and other biological materials encapsulated within submillimeter-diameter liquid-filled spheres. Sphere material biocompatible, tough, and compliant. Semipermeable, permitting relatively small molecules to move into and out of sphere core but preventing passage of large molecules. New technique promises to make such spherical capsules at high rates and in uniform, controllable sizes. Capsules injected into patient through ordinary hypodermic needle. Promising application for technique in treatment of diabetes. Also used to encapsulate pituitary cells and thyroid hormone adrenocortical cells for treatment of other hormonal disorders, to encapsulate other secreting cells for transplantation, and to package variety of pharmaceutical products and agricultural chemicals for controlled release.
8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, CHANDELIER, AND ORIGINAL PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA
Selevan, S G; Landrigan, P J; Stern, F B; Jones, J H
To examine patterns of death in lead smelter workers, a retrospective analysis of mortality was conducted in a cohort of 1,987 males employed between 1940 and 1965 at a primary lead smelter in Idaho. Overall mortality was similar to that of the United States white male population (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 98). Excess mortality, however, was found from chronic renal disease (SMR = 192; confidence interval (CI) = 88-364), and the risk of death from renal disease increased with increasing duration of employment, such that after 20 years employment, the standardized mortality ratio reached 392 (CI = 107-1,004). Excess mortality was also noted for nonmalignant respiratory disease (SMR = 187, CI = 128-264). Eight of 32 deaths in this category were caused by silicosis; at least five workers who died of silicosis had been miners for a part of their lives. An additional 11 deaths resulted from tuberculosis (SMR = 139; CI = 69-249); in six of these cases, silicosis was a contributory cause of death. Cancer mortality was not increased overall (SMR = 95; CI = 78-114). An increase, however, was noted for deaths from kidney cancer (six cases; SMR = 204; CI = 75-444). Finally, excess mortality was noted for injuries (SMR = 138; CI = 104-179); 13 (23%) of the 56 deaths in this category were caused by mining injuries. The data from this study are consistent with previous reports of increased mortality from chronic renal disease in persons exposed occupationally to lead. PMID:4025307
Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M.; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel
This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621
Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel
This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations--subgroup 22--(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621
Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.
The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.
Ramaswamy, Sai K; Mosher, Gretchen A
Agriculture is a high-hazard industry that employs a large number of young workers below the age of 25. Recent studies have documented a strong positive correlation between quality management in agriculture and occupational safety as perceived by agricultural workers. Younger workers have been found to be at higher risk for occupational injuries and fatalities in agriculture. Furthermore, college students in agriculture have minimal exposure to safety and quality management principles in their coursework and thus may not be aware that the two concepts are associated Little research has studied how young workers perceive the relationship between safety and quality and how these perceptions vary based on demographic characteristics. This study builds on prior research that measured the interactions between employee perceptions of safety and quality in an agricultural work environment. Data were collected using a survey instrument adapted from a previously validated instrument. Analysis of 1017 responses showed that students perceived a high impact of quality practices on the reduction of safety hazards and safety incidents. Students' perceptions of quality and safety in agricultural work environments varied by gender, with female students perceiving the relationship between the two at a higher level than males. No significant difference in perceptions was observed based on students' academic classification, age group, field of study, or childhood environment. This study demonstrates that despite limited academic training in safety and quality, pre-professionals perceive the implementation of quality management as a very important factor in mitigating safety hazards and safety incidents. In addition, this study suggests that current academic training in these disciplines must be modified, since no differences in students' perceptions were observed based on academic classification or field of study. PMID:26211353
METZLER, WILLIAM H.
SPECIALIZATION IN THE CROPS BEST ADAPTED TO THE LOCAL AREA IS SEEN AS A HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURE, BUT BY CREATING THE NEED FOR LARGE NUMBERS OF WORKERS FOR SHORT PERIODS OF TIME, IT CAUSES UNEMPLOYMENT AND MIGRATION. A SURVEY OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE WORKERS IN STANISLAUS COUNTY, CALIFORNIA IN 1962-63 REVEALS--(1) THEIR EARNINGS ARE…
... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...
Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.
"Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…
Burness, Patty, Ed.; Snider, William, Ed.
Along with a companion documentary video, "Learn & Live," this resource manual focuses on innovative schools around the country that are integrating technology and involving parents, business, and the community. Ten chapters are divided into four sections. In Section 1, "Students," two chapters look at learning and assessment. The two chapters in…
Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…
The purpose of this article is to discuss phenomena affecting women during the past 2 decades of "general mobilization" toward modernization and productivity in agriculture in France, including how the meaning and use of time and space in the factory have been reinterpreted and applied in the sexual division of labor in agriculture and how the imaginary life has been a weapon of survival for women. The massive effect of transfers of knowledge from the domestic to the professional spheres and the lack of recognition of the qualifications of women in the new forms of work are also considered. Since 1950, women in small family agriculture have been caught up in a policy of intensification and rationalization of production in which, as in a factory, the evolution of work has obeyed certain principles of time and space. At the time, men as decision makers have resisted sharing decision making power with women and have refused to concede that women bring unique qualifications and potential contributions to the agricultural enterprise based on their previous roles in family agriculture and in household management. It is an impossible task to internalize the new principles of time and space, respond to the demands of mobility and interchangeability of workers, and integrate biological, natural, and domestic time and space proper to women's work, and to attempt to do so is to be subjected to double constraints and conflicing demands. Possible responses to the situation include neurotic hyperactivity, illness, or somatizatation, but many women seek escape in imaginative life and social activity. Among the special competencies women have brought to agricultural work from their domestic backgrounds are attention to detail and minutiae, the ability to measure dosages with accuracy, and ease with living things. PMID:12340323
California Univ., Davis. Dept. of Applied Behavioral Sciences.
A study was conducted to identify competencies needed by workers in new and emerging occupations in agriculture; to identify occupations in agriculture that are on the decline and occupations that may no longer be needed; to work toward the elimination of sex bias in preparation for entry into occupations in agriculture; and to assess the…
...\\ Maximum Per Diem Rates for the Continental United States (CONUS), 77 FR 54578 (Sept. 5, 2012); see also... Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and Travel... maximum travel subsistence meal reimbursement that a worker with receipts may claim in 2013. The...
Amr, Sania; Dawson, Rebecca; Saleh, Doa'a A; Magder, Laurence S; Mikhail, Nabiel N; St George, Diane Marie; Squibb, Katherine; Khaled, Hussein; Loffredo, Christopher A
The authors examined the associations between farming and the risk for squamous cell (SCC) or urothelial cell (UC) carcinoma of the urinary bladder among Egyptians. The authors used data from a multicenter case-control study (1,525 male and 315 female cases, and 2,069 male and 547 female age- and residence-matched, population-based controls) to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Men in farming and who never smoked had increased risk for either SCC or UC (AOR [95% CI]: 4.65 [2.59-8.36] and 6.22 [3.82-10.15], respectively). If they ever smoked, their risks were 2.27 (1.75-2.95) and 1.93 (1.58-2.35), respectively. Women in farmer households were at increased risk for SCC (1.40 [0.93-2.09] and UC [1.25 (0.82-1.89]), although not statistically significant. Occupational and environmental exposures to farming increased the risk for bladder cancer among Egyptians. PMID:23930791
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.
This comprehensive and verified employer competency list was developed from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This competency list contains nine units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the…
Callahan, Catherine L.; Al-Batanony, Manal; Ismail, Ahmed A.; Abdel-Rasoul, Gaafar; Hendy, Olfat; Olson, James R.; Rohlman, Diane S.; Bonner, Matthew R.
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used organophosphate insecticide (OP). In adults, exposure to OPs has been inconsistently associated with reduced lung function. OP exposure and lung function has not been assessed in adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess CPF exposure and lung function among Egyptian adolescents. We conducted a 10-month study of male adolescent pesticide applicators (n = 38) and non-applicators of similar age (n = 24). Urinary 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TPCy), a CPF-specific metabolite, was analyzed in specimens collected throughout the study. Spirometry was performed twice after pesticide application: day 146, when TCPy levels were elevated and day 269, when TCPy levels were near baseline. Applicators had higher levels of TCPy (mean cumulative TCPy day 146 = 33,217.6; standard deviation (SD) = 49,179.3) than non-applicators (mean cumulative TCPy day 146 = 3290.8; SD = 3994.9). Compared with non-applicators, applicators had higher odds of reporting wheeze, odds ratio = 3.41 (95% CI: 0.70; 17.41). Cumulative urinary TCPy was inversely associated with spirometric measurements at day 146, but not at day 269. Although generally non-significant, results were consistent with an inverse association between exposure to CPF and lung function. PMID:25522051
Tolley, George; Bernstein, Peter
A study estimated the costs of the "Chicago Jobs and Living Wage Ordinance" that would require firms that receive assistance from the city of Chicago to pay their workers an hourly wage of at least $7.60. An estimate of the additional labor cost that would result from the proposed Ordinance was calculated. Results of a survey of contractors,…
This paper discusses small events occurring among developing countries, particularly but not exclusively in Asia, and their subsequent large impacts on net food exporting countries in the world, particularly, but not exclusively, located in the Western hemisphere. A Green Revolution II is underway as a result where the world's agricultural system will produce more (output) with less (inputs). Agriculture will meet the rapidly growing demand for bio-based foods, fuels, feeds, and fiber while reducing input usage, preserving the natural environment, and maintaining native ecosystems. In turn agricultural workers will receive a health dividend as chemical usage falls, automation, metering, and sensing technologies rise, and exposure to harsh environmental, both natural and man-made, conditions is reduced. This paper was prepared for the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. PMID:20665304
... applying the respective tolerances to the germination plus the hard seed and the pure seed. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...
... applying the respective tolerances to the germination plus the hard seed and the pure seed. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...
... applying the respective tolerances to the germination plus the hard seed and the pure seed. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...
... applying the respective tolerances to the germination plus the hard seed and the pure seed. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...
... applying the respective tolerances to the germination plus the hard seed and the pure seed. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...
The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities
Seidel, A. D.
The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.
Trunnelle, Kelly J; Bennett, Deborah H; Tancredi, Daniel J; Gee, Shirley J; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E; Hammock, Bruce D; Schenker, Marc B
Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly for pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families, who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields and are faced with poor housing conditions, potentially causing high pest infestation and pesticide use. We investigate levels of pyrethroids in the house dust of farm worker family homes in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA, within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pesticide use data and levels of pyrethroid pesticides in indoor dust collected in 2009 as measured by questionnaires and a GC/MS analysis of the pyrethroids cis- and trans-permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and resmethrin in single dust samples collected from 55 households. Cis- and trans-permethrin had the highest detection frequencies at 67%, with median concentrations of 244 and 172ng/g dust, respectively. Cypermethrin was detected in 52% of the homes and had a median concentration of 186ng/g dust. Esfenvalerate, resmethrin and deltamethrin were detected in less than half the samples. We compared the pyrethroid concentrations found in our study to other studies looking at both rural and urban homes and daycares. Lower detection frequencies and/or lower median concentrations of cis- and trans-permethrin and cypermethrin were observed in our study as compared to those studies. However, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and resmethrin were detected more frequently in the house dust from our study than in the other studies. Because households whose children had higher urinary pyrethroid metabolite levels were more likely to be analyzed in this study, a positive bias in our estimates of household pyrethroid levels may be expected. A positive association was observed with reported outdoor pesticide use and cypermethrin levels
This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities. PMID:10886936
The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area. PMID:18561695
Olejarz, Jason W; Allen, Benjamin; Veller, Carl; Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Nowak, Martin A
Workers in insect societies are sometimes observed to kill male eggs of other workers, a phenomenon known as worker policing. We perform a mathematical analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of policing. We investigate the selective forces behind policing for both dominant and recessive mutations for different numbers of matings of the queen. The traditional, relatedness-based argument suggests that policing evolves if the queen mates with more than two males, but does not evolve if the queen mates with a single male. We derive precise conditions for the invasion and stability of policing alleles. We find that the relatedness-based argument is not robust with respect to small changes in colony efficiency caused by policing. We also calculate evolutionarily singular strategies and determine when they are evolutionarily stable. We use a population genetics approach that applies to dominant or recessive mutations of any effect size. PMID:26976051
FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY
DESIGNED FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS IN A COOPERATIVE PART-TIME TRAINING PROGRAM, THIS GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED BY TWO VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS WITH INTEREST, TRAINING, AND EXPERIENCE IN HORTICULTURE AND WAS COORDINATED AND EDITED BY A SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALIST. INCLUDED ARE TEN UNITS, EACH DIVIDED INTO TOPICS. EACH TOPIC INCLUDES A…
Herring, Don R.; And Others
Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)
Senser, Robert A.
Notes that about half of U.S. toys are made in China, mainly by young women who work extremely long shifts, 7 days a week, "amid sickening vapors and under draconian rules." Describes corporate codes of conduct, the role consumers can play in changing extremely poor working conditions, and the impact of international trade reforms. Presents…
This book documents the history, successes, and failures of Save the Children's farmworker program in Zimbabwe, 1981-98. The report explores workers' past and present living and working conditions on commercial farms and describes how the program promoted a progression from workers with a migrant mentality to the building of functional…
David, Alexandra; Coenen, Frans
In times of increasing skills shortage, regions and particularly non-core regions, need to attract highly-skilled workers. It is better for these regions to (re)attract highly-skilled workers that gained knowledge and contacts elsewhere and because they once lived in the region for study have already ties to the university region than trying to…
Faux, Jeff; Lee, Thea
The proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) will result in lower wages, fewer jobs, and generally reduced living standards for the majority of U.S. workers. Substantial costs to the U.S. economy will occur in job and income loss and few off-setting benefits for most workers. Proponents argue that NAFTA will create upward mobility for…
ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.; Bakker, Arnold B.; Euwema, Martin C.
Previous studies have convincingly shown that employees' family lives can affect their work outcomes. We investigate whether family-to-work interference (FWI) experienced by the employee also affects the work outcomes of a co-worker. We predict that the employee's FWI has an effect on the co-worker's outcomes through the crossover of positive and…
Kletzer, Lori G.; Fairlie, Robert W.
National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data indicate that earnings losses were large for the first 3 years after displacement, but for young adults they were short lived. After 5 years, shortfall in earnings was 9% for men and 12.5% for women. For older workers, losses represent actual, immediate earnings losses; for younger workers, loss of…
An, Qiuling; Chapman, Mimi V.
Social work is emerging as a rapidly developing profession in mainland China, a unique context that affects how these new social workers view themselves, their professional identity, and their work. Few studies explore the lived experiences of these new social workers as they enter agencies and begin working with clients while interacting with…
... Final Rule on the Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States (U.S.), 75 FR... Employment and Training Administration Information about the DOL Notification Process for Worker Abandonment, or Termination for Cause for H-2A Temporary Agricultural Labor Certifications AGENCY: Employment...
Fujishiro, Kaori; Mobley, Amy; Lehman, Everett
While the importance of worker notification has been widely recognized, little attention has been paid to social and psychological contexts in which worker notification occurs, especially after the exposure has ended. This study explores workers' perspectives on exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a toxic material whose manufacture in the United States ended in 1977. Four focus groups were conducted with former workers (n = 29) who were exposed to PCBs. Verbatim transcriptions were analyzed. Participants considered living in the PCB-contaminated community more dangerous than handling PCBs on the job. While they firmly believed that PCBs in the environment caused serious health problems, participants expressed doubts about the toxicity of PCBs in the workplace. Both beliefs undermined the value of worker notification about occupational exposure to PCBs. A long-term relationship between workers and researchers would provide opportunities to cultivate better understanding of the hazard and facilitate the process of worker notification. PMID:23896076
... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree... spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree” and “ ‘gum rosin’ means rosin...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...
... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree... spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree” and “ ‘gum rosin’ means rosin...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...
... commodity’ includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree... spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree” and “ ‘gum rosin’ means rosin...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...
Taylor, Alison; Foster, Jason; Cambre, Carolina
The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of Temporary Foreign Workers in health care in Alberta, Canada. In 2007-2008, one of the regional health authorities in the province responded to a shortage of workers by recruiting 510 health-care workers internationally; most were trained as Registered Nurses (RNs) in the Philippines.…
Reamer, Frederic G.
Discusses concept of the impaired professional; reviews research on various types of impairment (personality disorders, depression and other emotional problems, marital problems, and physical illness), prevalence and causes of impairment, and responses to it; and outlines model assessment and action plan for social workers who encounter an…
In this paper I examine the impact of the new 'knowledge economy' on contemporary doctoral education. I argue that the knowledge economy promotes a view of knowledge and knowledge workers that fundamentally challenges the idea of a university as a community of autonomous scholars transmitting and adding to society's 'stock of knowledge'. The paper…
Rimmer, Alan, Ed.
The packet of information is intended to help residential workers with disturbed children in the United Kingdom. The first section on theory contains two papers: "Which Children Come Into Residential Care?" (Robin Benians); and "Models of Treatment: Behavioral, Psychodynamic, Cognitive" (Daphne Lennox). The next section contains practical guidance…
Smithyman, S. J.
This manual is designed to prepare students for entry-level positions as tree care professionals. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the tree service industry; clothing, eqiupment, and tools; tree workers; basic tree anatomy; techniques of pruning; procedures for climbing and working in the tree; aerial…
Barker, Ellen; And Others
This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs such as dietetic aide or food service worker in a health care facility. It serves as the basic core of the occupationally sequenced Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program. Five sections and 13 instructional units are included. Each unit of…
Ware, Mark E.; And Others
Previous research has shown that career preferences are dependent upon the words and images that individuals associate with various occupations. The present study sought to identify differences and similarities between college students' and social workers' views toward social work. College students majoring in psychology (N=25) and social workers…
Describes the training at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the foremost nuclear energy and environmental laboratory in the United States. Suggests that the key to assurance is getting workers, most of whom are unionized, involved in their own safety training. (JOW)
Leddick, Susan; Gharajedaghi, Jamshid
In the new economy, knowledge (not labor, raw material, or capital) is the key resource to be converted to goods and services. Public schools will have to educate three tiers of knowledge workers (doers, problem solvers, and designers) using differentiated assessment, curricula, and instruction. Organizational action, not mantras, is needed. (MLH)
American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.
This study updates a 1985 study which examined the perceptions, policies, and practices of American business regarding older workers, and placed them in the context of larger economic, demographic, and social trends shaping the business climate. The new survey was conducted in July 1989 among a random sample of 400 companies, with 100 each in 4…
Due to the severe economic decline in the automobile manufacturing industry in southeastern Michigan, a Dislocated Workers Program has been developed through the partnership of the Flint Area Chamber of Commerce, three community colleges, the National Center for Research in Vocational Education, the Michigan State Department of Education, the…
Report on the conference on information workers held as part of the White House Conference on Productivity covers statistics on the information work force and findings and recommendations from the conference on productivity within bureaucracies, e.g., productivity measures for determining wage increases and formal price systems. (EJS)
Huck, Gary; Gilmore, Peter
This document consists of one page chapters each documenting women's roles in changing the conditions for U.S. workers during and after the industrial revolution. Each chapter is a series of period style drawings with captions detailing the story of that particular incident and cartoon balloons offering humorous comments from the participants. The…
Deeb, William S.
An actuarial study revealed that Pasadena Schools had an unfunded worker's compensation liability of over $10 million and 400 open claims. Advised to implement strong cost-containment measures (an early return-to-work program) and equally strong accountability measures (strict performance guides and safe work practices), the district achieved…
The place where we live and work is a reflection of a complex set of economic conditions and social relationships. Very little information is available regarding housing for Minnesota's migrant workers. It is estimated that approximately 20,000 people migrate to Minnesota each summer to work in the production and processing of green peas and sweet…
BIDDLE, LOUREIDE J.; BIDDLE, WILLIAM W.
THIS TRAINING GUIDE IS WRITTEN TO MEET THE NEEDS OF UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES TO WHICH THE PEACE CORPS, VISTA, CHURCHES, AND OTHER VOLUNTEER-USING AGENCIES TURN FOR HELP IN TRAINING THE NONPROFESSIONAL OR PREPROFESSIONAL LOCAL WORKER IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT. THE LESSONS ARE DIRECTED TO THE "ENCOURAGER" WHO LIVES WITH THE PEOPLE PARTICIPATING IN…
Women now comprise 30 percent of trade union membership worldwide. The International Labour Organisation's Workers' Education Branch is attempting to improve the status of women workers and increase their participation in union activities and labor education. (SK)
Jessup, Denise; Greenberg, Barbara
Describes program innovations to keep older workers employed: retraining, job sharing, flexible working hours, job redesign, and phased retirement. Addresses costs and savings, disincentives for workers and employers, and future trends. (SK)
Namakhoma, Ireen; Bongololo, Grace; Bello, George; Nyirenda, Lot; Phoya, Anne; Phiri, Sam; Theobald, Sally; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf
Malawi is facing a severe HIV and AIDS epidemic with an estimated 12% of its population living with the virus. Health workers are on the front lines of the HIV epidemic and they face the risk of HIV infection in both their personal and professional lives. This mixed method study aimed to explore the enablers and barriers to HIV counselling and testing and antiretroviral therapy by health workers in Malawi. After qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with health workers in the Mchinji and Nsanje districts, a survey questionnaire was constructed and administered to 906 health workers in eight districts in Malawi. A majority (76%) of health workers surveyed reported having undergone HIV testing and counselling, of whom 74% reported repeat testing. A striking result of the study is that 22% of health workers reported testing after occupational exposure to HIV. The proportions of respondents reporting that they tested after experiencing symptoms, or self-testing for HIV were 11% each. The in-depth interviews and the survey revealed multiple challenges that health workers face to accessing HIV testing, counselling and treatment, including fear of a positive result, fear of stigma and lack of confidentiality. Additional barriers included health workers' personal acquaintance with those conducting testing, along with their perception of being "role models" which could exacerbate their fears about confidentiality. Given health workers' critical role in HIV delivery in Malawi, there is need to develop solutions to help health workers overcome these barriers. PMID:20680862
Ha, Pham Nguyen; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Hien, Ho Thi; Larsson, Mattias; Pharris, Anastasia
Stigma has been identified as a major barrier to HIV response. While much is known about stigma directed towards people living with HIV (PLHIV), less is known about stigma experienced by health workers who treat PLHIV. This study aims to explore the perceptions and experiences of health workers regarding how stigma influences their work with HIV-positive patients. The study employed a qualitative design involving individual semi-structured in-depth interviews with 14 health workers, purposively selected from hospitals and detention centres for people who use drugs and sex workers in Hanoi, Vietnam. Findings showed that the stigma experienced by health workers may be organised around several themes: (1) lack of social prestige associated with HIV work; (2) fear of infection expressed by family members; (3) feelings of being devalued within the healthcare field; and (4) work-related stress and burnout, especially for staff working in detention centres for drug users and female sex workers. Efforts are needed to improve the public image of HIV work, scale up stigma reduction, enhance stress management and create a safe and supportive working environment for health workers. PMID:23738991
North Carolina Occupational Safety and Health Project, Durham.
A survey of office workers employed by North Carolina telephone companies was conducted to determine the extent and types of health problems experienced by office workers who use video display terminals (VDTs). Data were gathered by questionnaires mailed to 2,478 office workers, with 966 responses. Questions concerning a wide range of health…
Nisbet, Michael K.
Examines the Workers' Compensation system and teacher stress to determine if a burned-out teacher should be eligible for Workers' Compensation benefits. Concludes that although most states do not allow Workers' Compensation benefits to burned-out teachers, compensation should be granted because the injuries are real and work-related. (Contains 48…
American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.
Because of the aging of the labor force and legislation designed to keep older workers on the job, employers will have to deal with increasing numbers of older workers. For this transition to be as smooth as possible, employers must first overcome age-related stereotypes that have taken hold since the 1930s. Dealing with older workers involves two…
Field, W E; Tormoehlen, R L
Physically handicapped farm operators and agricultural workers face barriers which make the completion of many essential farm-related tasks difficult or even impossible. These barriers are especially burdensome with respect to the operation and maintenance of agricultural equipment. This paper reports on work being done at Purdue University to assist handicapped farmers and agricultural workers who wish to continue working in spite of their disabilities. The nature of physical handicaps and proportion of farmers affected by these handicaps is discussed. Potential health and safety risks that these operators are exposed to when operating agricultural equipment are addressed. In addition, a brief overview of the Purdue project and recent activities is provided. PMID:15676549
Groot, Hans C.
The role of the agricultural extension worker as intermediary between farmer and scientist is studied using the Chaffee and McLeod coorientation model. It is found that the extension workers' cognitions fall between those of farmers and scientists in terms of agreement, understanding, congruency, and accuracy, as predicted. The subjects in the…
THE NUMBER OF HIRED FARM WORKERS IS DECREASING WITH THE INCREASED USE OF LABORSAVING FARM MACHINERY AND TECHNOLOGY WHICH ALLOWS GREATER OUTPUT PER WORKER. THE LOW WAGE SCALE PREVALENT IN AGRICULTURE IS THE MAJOR CAUSE OF THE FARM LABOR PROBLEM. WAGE RATES ARE DIFFICULT TO MEASURE ACCURATELY BECAUSE OF A GREAT DIVERSITY IN METHODS OF PAYMENT AND…
Yelland, Nicola; Andrew, Yarrow; Blaise, Mindy; Chan, Yee On
Despite the ongoing global financial crisis, there is an increasing deployment of migrant workers across the globe, and in Hong Kong the foreign domestic worker occupies a ubiquitous presence in the lives of many families. Seven domestic workers from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand were interviewed to gain insight into their role in…
Lerman, Robert I.
Stagnant or declining wages for less-educated workers make policies to upgrade the job market options for low wage workers an urgent priority. One in three low wage workers lives in a low income family. The link between low basic skills and low wages is strong. No single standard of minimum skill requirements applies to all middle income jobs, and…
The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.
Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.
This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…
Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...
This report, which summarizes the use of agricultural chemicals is issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) as part of its series on Agricultural Chemical Usage. Other publications in the series present statistics for on-farm agricultural chemical usage for f...
Zickar, Michael J
Arthur Kornhauser was an early industrial psychologist whose contributions have been neglected in written histories of applied psychology. Throughout his career, he was a staunch advocate for an industrial psychology that concentrated on improving workers' lives. This article describes his contributions to improving worker well-being in the research areas of testing, employee attitude surveying, labor unions, and mental health of workers. His most enduring quality was his outspoken advocacy for an industrial psychology that addressed workers' issues instead of management's prerogatives. On the basis of Kornhauser's accomplishments, a case can be made for him as one of industrial and organizational psychology's most important early figures. PMID:12731721
Lukefahr, S D
Students who major in animal science at U.S. institutions are generally exposed to a curriculum that emphasizes commercial, large-scale production of the few traditional food animals: cattle, poultry, sheep, and swine. Globally, most farmers live in lesser-developed countries under limited-resource conditions of land, feed supplies, equipment, and capital. The promotion of commercial animal production enterprises may not be appropriate for such farms because it can subject farmers to considerable economic risk. Rather, use of limited numbers of large livestock, locally adapted breeds, or smaller livestock (e.g., ducks, goats, guinea pigs, and rabbits) may be more appropriate under subsistence, integrated farming systems. In this global context, a course in international animal agriculture has been taught for 15 yr to undergraduate and graduate students. The course consists of a review of traditional and potential livestock species well suited for impoverished families on small farms and methods to implement sustainable livestock projects, including feasibility, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation stages. To enhance student understanding, global food issues and challenges are illustrated with case studies. A term paper is also assigned for which students choose three suitable livestock species or local breeds that would be complementary on a small crop farm (< 5 ha). Daily dietary requirements of protein and energy per family member are calculated. Itemized enterprise budgets and production tables are prepared. Early in the course, the general consensus of students was that people who are malnourished and live in poverty have low personal ambition and motivation, and that their problems should be amenable to solution by application of American technology and expertise. The course modifies such attitudes and enhances a student's critical thinking and problem-solving abilities and communication skills. Course evaluations indicated that students believed
Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed
International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.
Bandyopadhyay, M; Thomas, J
Research on population mobility and HIV/AIDS risk among migrant populations is quite limited, and research on migrant women workers' vulnerability is further limited. Hong Kong, the Special Administrative Region of China, has currently about 200,000 women migrant workers working as domestic helps. This paper reports migrant women worker's access to AIDS-related health information and health care facilities, perceptions about vulnerability, and risk behaviour profile. Data was collected through a pre-tested questionnaire from a random sample of 2,010 women migrant workers. A majority of the migrant women workers (63.6%) have been living and working in Hong Kong for between 4-10 years. Fifty-four per cent of the respondents felt that being a female they were vulnerable to HIV infection. Overall, the knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and its route of transmission is inadequate amongst the migrant women workers in Hong Kong. It appears that AIDS-related information education and communication needs of women migrants workers are not met by the current HIV prevention and care activities in Hong Kong. The study indicates that migrant women workers who experienced sexual violence (9%) in Hong Kong perceive themselves to be 'at risk' of HIV infection. Seventy per cent of the respondents reported that they have felt discriminated against in Hong Kong, of which 42% felt discriminated against in Hong Kong hospitals. Addressing discrimination in health care settings is an essential element of AIDS prevention. The discussion urges researchers and policy makers to pay more attention to the vulnerability of migrant women workers. PMID:12204153
... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...
Larson, William; Medelius, Pedro; Starr, Stan; Bedette, Guy; Taylor, John; Moerk, Steve
A system based on low-power radio transponders and associated analog and digital electronic circuitry has been developed for locating firefighters and other emergency workers deployed in a building or other structure. The system has obvious potential for saving lives and reducing the risk of injuries. The system includes (1) a central station equipped with a computer and a transceiver; (2) active radio-frequency (RF) identification tags, each placed in a different room or region of the structure; and (3) transponder units worn by the emergency workers. The RF identification tags can be installed in a new building as built-in components of standard fire-detection devices or ground-fault electrical outlets or can be attached to such devices in a previously constructed building, without need for rewiring the building. Each RF identification tag contains information that uniquely identifies it. When each tag is installed, information on its location and identity are reported to, and stored at, the central station. In an emergency, if a building has not been prewired with RF identification tags, leading emergency workers could drop sequentially numbered portable tags in the rooms of the building, reporting the tag numbers and locations by radio to the central station as they proceed.
... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adjustments in insurance requirements when workers' compensation coverage is provided under State law. 500.122 Section 500.122 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety...
Acquavella, J F; Riordan, S G; Anne, M; Lynch, C F; Collins, J J; Ireland, B K; Heydens, W F
Alachlor is the active ingredient in a family of preemergence herbicides. We assessed mortality rates from 1968 to 1993 and cancer incidence rates from 1969 to 1993 for manufacturing workers with potential alachlor exposure. For workers judged to have high alachlor exposure, mortality from all causes combined was lower than expected [23 observed, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.4-1.0], cancer mortality was similar to expected (6 observed, SMR = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.3-1.6), and there were no cancer deaths among workers with 5 or more years high exposure and 15 or more years since first exposure (2.3 expected, SMR = 0, 95% CI, 0-1.6). Cancer incidence for workers with high exposure potential was similar to the state rate [18 observed, standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.2, 95% CI, 0.7-2.0], especially for workers exposed for 5 or more years and with at least 15 years since first exposure (4 observed, SIR = 1.0, 95% CI, 0.3-2.7). The most common cancer for these latter workers was colorectal cancer (2 observed, SIR 3.9, 95% CI, 0.5-14.2 among workers). Despite the limitations of this study with respect to small size and exposure estimating, the findings are useful for evaluating potential alachlor-related health risks because past manufacturing exposures greatly exceeded those characteristic of agricultural operations. These findings suggest no appreciable effect of alachlor exposure on worker mortality or cancer incidence rates during the study period. PMID:8841758
The application of sewage sludge has been a worldwide agricultural practice for many years. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of sewage sludge (Ss) has on the physiological parameters of maize (Zea mays L cvs. PR37NO1). 2 g dm(-3) and 4 g dm(-3) of sewage sludge were examined in hydroponic experiment. Some metal contents (Al, Cr, Mn, Na, Zn) in the shoots and roots of maize were taken. Living bacteria containing fertilizers (LBCF) were examined on how the treatments modify heavy metal uptakes. Dry matter accumulations in shoots and roots, length of shoots and roots of maize were measured. Chlorophyll contents were determined by using spectrophotometer methods. The dry matter accumulation and length of shoots decreased, the dry matter of roots increased in all of the treatments compared to the nutrient solution without treatment (control). Increased chlorophyll a, b and carotene contents were observed at 4 g dm(-3) Ss and 4 g dm(-3) Ss + bio fertilizer treatments. PMID:26591878
Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.
The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis
Mobed, K; Gold, E B; Schenker, M B
Migrant and seasonal farm workers are one of the most underserved and understudied populations in the United States. The total US population of such farm workers has been estimated at 5 million, of whom about 20% live or work in California. Farm workers perform strenuous tasks and are exposed to a wide variety of occupational risks and hazards. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to health care also contribute to existing health problems in this population. Potential farm work-related health problems include accidents, pesticide-related illnesses, musculoskeletal and soft-tissue disorders, dermatitis, noninfectious respiratory conditions, reproductive health problems, health problems of children of farm workers, climate-caused illnesses, communicable diseases, bladder and kidney disorders, and eye and ear problems. Few epidemiologic studies exist of these occupational health problems. No comprehensive epidemiologic studies have assessed the magnitude of occupational health problems among migrant and seasonal farm workers and their dependents. Although the migratory nature of this population makes long-term studies difficult, the development of standardized data collection instruments for health consequences and scientific assessment of farm work exposures and working conditions are vital to characterize and reduce the occupational health risks in farm workers. PMID:1413786
Khorramnia, K.; Shariff, A. R. M.; Rahim, A. Abdul; Mansor, S.
Sustainable agriculture should be able to meet various social goals and objectives so that it can be maintained for an indefinite period without significant negative impacts on environment and natural resources. A wide variety of agricultural activities are running in Malaysia. Maintaining high quality of agricultural products with lower environmental impacts through a sustainable economic viability and life satisfaction of farmers and community are important factors helping to meet sustainable agriculture. Human resources are playing key role in directing the community toward sustainable development. The trend of improving the human development index in Malaysia is highest in the East Asia and the Pacific, high human development countries and the world, since 2000. Precision agriculture is providing strong tools to achieve sustainable agriculture. Different types of sensors, positioning and navigation systems, GIS, software and variable rate technology are well known components of precision agriculture. Drones and robots are promising tools that enabling farmers and managers to collect information or perform particular actions in remote areas or tough conditions. According to a survey, forestry and timber, rubber production and oil palm estates are three main agricultural divisions that precision agriculture may improve the productivity in respect to area of cropland/worker. Main factors affecting the adoption of precision agriculture in Malaysia are: a) Political and legal supports, b) Decision support systems and user interfaces c) Experienced research team works d) National educational policy e) Success in commercialization of precision agriculture system.
Agricultural aircraft provide a convenient platform to aid in precision agriculture, in which pesticide, fertilizer or other field inputs are applied only where they are needed. This saves on chemical and farm resources, and reduces environmental loading. Remote sensing is used to spot areas of the ...
Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…
Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...
Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.
This publication contains a worker task list and supplementary information for occupations in the agriculture and natural resources cluster of occupations. The task list were generated through the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process and/or by analysis by a panel of experts. Tasks are listed in 10 categories: (1) performing investigative…
This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.
Duke, Michael R.; Gómez Carpinteiro, Francisco J.
Although the financial remittances sent by male Mexican migrant workers residing in the United States can result in higher standards of living for their families and home communities, out-migration may lead to increased migrant problem drinking and sexual risk behaviors, which may in turn impact these same communities of origin. Based on semi-structured interviewing (n=60) and participant observation in a migrant sending community in central Mexico and a receiving community in the Northeastern United States, this paper explores the effects of out-migration on HIV risk and problem drinking among United States-based migrants from a small agricultural community in the Mexican state of Puebla. We argue that problem drinking and risky sexual behaviors among these migrant workers have had significant consequences for their home community in terms of diminished remittances, the introduction of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and loss of husbands or kinsmen to automobile accidents. Moreover, although rumor and gossip between the two communities serve as a form of social control, they may also contribute to increased problem drinking and sexual risk. PMID:20169008
Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.
The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…
Goletti, Francesco; Pinners, Elise; Purcell, Timothy; Smith, Dominic
The majority of the population of Vietnam lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Consistent growth of the agriculture sector over the past two decades has contributed to a remarkable reduction in the poverty rate and the virtual elimination of hunger in the rural areas of Vietnam. In order to continue the growth…
In this paper, processes of gentrification are assessed in relation to non-commercial farming: the production of agricultural commodities without the intent of earning a living. The author argues that due to the connection between residence and productive assets (particularly land) inherent in farming, agricultural gentrification represents a…
Hemp, Paul; And Others
This core curriculum guide consists of materials for use in presenting a 13-unit vocational agriculture course geared toward high school students living in metropolitan areas. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: employment in agricultural occupations, supervised occupational experience, leadership in…
Sherertz, R. J.; Bassetti, S.; Bassetti-Wyss, B.
Certain bacteria dispersed by health-care workers can cause hospital infections. Asymptomatic health-care workers colonized rectally, vaginally, or on the skin with group A streptococci have caused outbreaks of surgical site infection by airborne dispersal. Outbreaks have been associated with skin colonization or viral upper respiratory tract infection in a phenomenon of airborne dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus called the "cloud" phenomenon. This review summarizes the data supporting the existence of cloud health-care workers. PMID:11294715
Purschwitz, M A; Field, W E
Agricultural work injury data are less available than data for other industries, so an overview of existing data is provided. Agriculture has the highest annual work death rate of all industries, 52 per 100,000 workers, which is five times the combined rate for all industries. Tractor-related injuries are the leading types of fatal injuries; injuries involving agricultural machinery, animals, and trucks are the leading types of non-fatal injuries. Victims of fatal accidents range in age from less than 1 year to over 90. Research needs are discussed, including the need for comprehensive surveillance. PMID:2206049
Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah
Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…
Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah
Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…
TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, DOOR DETAIL, FRONT ENTRANCE INTO LIVING ROOM, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA
TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, LIVING ROOM, SOUTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM CENTER OF ROOM - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA
TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, LIVING ROOM, NORTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING NORTH FROM CENTER OF ROOM - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA
..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain livestock...
From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify
Martin, Robert A.
Points out that the agriculture industry is changing and that vocational agriculture students must learn more science than before to be prepared. Iowa formed groups of educators and business representatives to advise on which curricula should be funded. (JOW)
Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.
Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)
Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research and Statistics Section.
To explore the feasibility of sample selection to predict agricultural employment, a stratified sample of 360 employers was drawn from the employers reporting employment in the Disability Insurance Program for agricultural workers in Fresno County. Month-to-month changes were examined for seven industry strata, and estimates were made by the…
Irlbeck, Erica Goss; Akers, Cindy
Agricultural communications programs should frequently review their curriculum to ensure students receive the highest quality of education possible (Akers, 2000). This research is a nationwide look at recent agricultural communications graduates' employers and/or co-workers. The purpose of this study was to determine which workplace habits and…
Rebecca Smith, J D
Foreign-born workers in the United States suffer high rates of workplace injuries and accidents. Both for workers who are unauthorized to work in the United States and for those who are present legally under guest worker programs, access to workers' compensation benefits presents nearly insurmountable barriers. Some of these are longstanding, such as employer retaliation and aggressive litigation of claims. Some are more recent and related to the increasingly transnational character of the workforce and to barriers put in place by administrators. This is a legal overview of the cases, statutes, and policies that act as barriers to access for immigrant workers, conducted by reviewing case law and basic compensation statutes in all fifty states. Where these are known, policies that keep workers locked out of workers' compensation are also discussed. It concludes that reform of the system is needed in order to ensure its standing as an insurance program with universal application. As part of that reform, further state by state research and advocacy would discover specific administrative practices in each state that keep immigrant workers from receiving the benefits to which they are entitled. PMID:22457221
Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma
The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…
Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.
AREAS OF TRAINING WHICH ARE OFFERED IN THE VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENTS OF MARYLAND ARE PRESENTED IN THIS DOCUMENT. AGRICULTURE TEACHERS AND ADVISORY GROUPS MAY SELECT AREAS OF TRAINING FROM THE TOPICAL OUTLINE OR ADD NEW AREAS AS NEEDED IN THE LOCAL INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM. PHILOSOPHY, SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES, GROUPS SERVED, AGRICULTURAL TRENDS…
Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…
Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational Services.
Designed for use in the Connecticut Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers, this curriculum provides exploratory and specialization units for four major areas of agriculture. These are Agriculture Mechanics, Animal Science, Natural Resources, and Plant Science. The exploratory units are required for grades 9 and 10, while the specialization units…
Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.
This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…
Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve
This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…
Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, The Hauge.
Agricultural Education in the Netherlands is categorized as Scientific, Higher Secondary, Middle Secondary, and Lower Secondary. Scientific education is given at the agricultural university which has a 6- or 7-year curriculum. Higher secondary education is given at agricultural and horticultural colleges with a 3- to 4-year curriculum. Middle…
Seperich, George; And Others
This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…
Kaungamno, E. E.
This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…
In 2013, cropland agriculture resulted in total emissions of approximately 209 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases (GHG). Cropland agriculture is responsible for almost half (46%) of all emissions from the agricultural sector. Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) emissions from c...
Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Ingre, Michael; Broman, Jan-Erik; Kecklund, Göran
Very little is known about differences in sleep between day and shift workers in representative samples of the population. This study compared a national representative sample (N=3400) of shift (with night shifts) and day workers regarding the different types of sleep disturbances and also the level of sleep symptoms with that of insomnia patients. The results showed very few differences between shift and day workers; only "too little sleep" and "nodding off at work" were marginally higher among shift workers. The results also showed that the complaints of insomnia patients for most sleep disturbances corresponded to the 2nd-16th percentile of the shift workers' levels of complaints. The results suggest, at least with the present questionnaire methodology, that shift work does not appear to be a major source of sleep disturbances and that their complaint levels bear no resemblance to those seen in insomniac patients. PMID:18484368
Foster, K R; Ratnieks, F L; Raybould, A F
Colonies of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, are typically founded by a single queen mated to a single male. From the resulting colony relatedness pattern we predicted strong worker-queen conflict over male production where both the workers and the queen attempt to produce the colony's males. To test for this conflict, male production was studied in 15 hornet nests using a combination of DNA microsatellite analysis (282 males), worker ovary dissections (500 workers from eight nests) and 50 h of observation (four nests). In contrast to our prediction, the data show that hornet males are queens' sons, that workers never attempt to lay eggs, rarely have activated ovaries, and that there is no direct aggression between the queen and the workers. This contrasts with other data for vespine wasps, which support relatedness predictions. Dolichovespula arenaria has the same kin structure as V. crabro and workers produce males in many colonies. The similarity between these two species makes it difficult to explain why workers do not reproduce in V. crabro. Self-restraint is expected if worker reproduction significantly reduces colony productivity but there is no obvious reason why this should be important to V. crabro but not to D. arenaria. Alternatively, queen control may be important. The absence of expressed queen-worker conflict rules out physical control. Indirect pheromonal control is a possibility and is supported by the occurrence of royal courts and queen pheromone in Vespa but not Dolichovespula. Pheromonal queen control is considered evolutionarily unstable, but could result from a queen-worker arms race over reproductive control in which the queen is ahead. The genetic data also revealed diploid males in one colony, the first example in the vespine wasps, and two colonies with double matrilines, suggesting that occasional usurpation by spring queens occurs. PMID:10849289
Jacobson, Louis S.; LaLonde, Robert J.; Sullivan, Daniel G.
High-tenured displaced workers often experience significant earnings losses that persist for the rest of their working lives. A well-targeted training initiative has the potential to substantially reduce permanent earnings losses for those displaced workers who have the academic preparation, work experience, and interest to complete high-return…
DeSouza, Eros R.; Cerqueira, Elder
Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment…
Huss, Ephrat; Sarid, Orly; Cwikel, Julie
War poses a challenge for social workers, adding exposure to direct risk of personal harm to the general stress of social work practice. Artworks are frequently used in health care settings with people in high distress. This study had three goals: (1) to characterize the stressors of social workers living in a war zone, (2) to teach social workers…
Alexander, R; Anderson, P K
Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects. PMID:6715092
LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel
Robert LaLonde of the University of Chicago and Daniel Sullivan of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago suggest that retraining through our nation's community colleges is a way to reduce the skills gaps of at least some of these displaced workers and increase their reemployment earnings. Although workers may still experience significant earnings…
Lilly, S. J.
This manual acquaints readers with the general operations of the tree care industry. The manual covers subjects important to a tree worker and serves as a training aid for workers at the entry level as tree care professionals. Each chapter begins with a set of objectives and may include figures, tables, and photographs. Ten chapters are included:…
Billett, Stephen; van Woerkom, Marianne
This paper evaluates the need and prospects for older workers to develop and deploy effective and critical personal epistemologies in order to maintain workplace competence, successfully negotiate work transitions and secure ontological security in their working life. Furthermore, it addresses different ways of reflecting by workers, which types…
Bilingual education programs in West Germany and Sweden for the children of foreign workers are described. The 4.5 million foreign workers come particularly from Turkey, but also from other southern European countries, from other member nations of the European Economic Community, and from Asia and Latin America. Some are immigrants, some political…
Multigner, Luc; Kadhel, Philippe; Pascal, Michel; Huc-Terki, Farida; Kercret, Henri; Massart, Catherine; Janky, Eustase; Auger, Jacques; Jégou, Bernard
Background There is increasing evidence that reproductive abnormalities are increasing in frequency in both human population and among wild fauna. This increase is probably related to exposure to toxic contaminants in the environment. The use of sentinel species to raise alarms relating to human reproductive health has been strongly recommended. However, no simultaneous studies at the same site have been carried out in recent decades to evaluate the utility of wild animals for monitoring human reproductive disorders. We carried out a joint study in Guadeloupe assessing the reproductive function of workers exposed to pesticides in banana plantations and of male wild rats living in these plantations. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed to assess semen quality and reproductive hormones in banana workers and in men working in non-agricultural sectors. These reproductive parameters were also assessed in wild rats captured in the plantations and were compared with those in rats from areas not directly polluted by humans. Results No significant difference in sperm characteristics and/or hormones was found between workers exposed and not exposed to pesticide. By contrast, rats captured in the banana plantations had lower testosterone levels and gonadosomatic indices than control rats. Conclusion Wild rats seem to be more sensitive than humans to the effects of pesticide exposure on reproductive health. We conclude that the concept of sentinel species must be carefully validated as the actual nature of exposure may varies between human and wild species as well as the vulnerable time period of exposure and various ecological factors. PMID:18667078
Frumkin, H; Walker, E D; Friedman-Jiménez, G
Environmental and occupational hazards do not affect all communities equally. Members of ethnic and racial minorities, whether as working people or as community residents, sustain disproportionate risks from chemical, physical, and biological hazards. This paper reviews the nature of these disproportionate risks, focusing primarily on the workplace, but considering general environmental exposures as well. It discusses three principal mechanisms of increased risk: excessive hazardous exposures in both the workplace and the general environment, increased susceptibility, and inferior healthcare. It presents evidence that, as the result of these factors, members of minority groups display elevated rates of work-related illness, injury, fatality, and disability. Finally, it offers recommendations with regard to research, primary prevention, minority recruitment into the occupational health professions, and treatment and compensation for injured and ill minority workers. PMID:10378973
Rowland, R.E.; Lucas, H.F. Jr.
The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated.
Reyes, Iris; Ellis, Tammy; Yoder, Aaron; Keifer, Matthew C
As the use of mobile devices and their software applications, or apps, becomes ubiquitous, use amongst agricultural working populations is expanding as well. The smart device paired with a well-designed app has potential for improving workplace health and safety in the hands of those who can act upon the information provided. Many apps designed to assess workplace hazards and implementation of worker protections already exist. However, the abundance and diversity of such applications also presents challenges regarding evaluation practices and assignation of value. This is particularly true in the agricultural workspace, as there is currently little information on the value of these apps for agricultural safety and health. This project proposes a framework for developing and evaluating apps that have potential usefulness in agricultural health and safety. The evaluation framework is easily transferable, with little modification for evaluation of apps in several agriculture-specific areas. PMID:27494309
AN OCCUPATIONAL DAY CENTER FOR MENTALLY RETARDED ADULTS WAS ESTABLISHED TO PROVIDE COMMUNITY SERVICES FOR RETARDED PERSONS WHO LIVE AT HOME AND, ALTHOUGH BEYOND SCHOOL AGE, ARE UNABLE TO PARTICIPATE IN SHELTERED WORKSHOP ACTIVITIES. THE STAFF INCLUDES A DIRECTOR, A SOCIAL WORKER, FIVE INSTRUCTORS, A TRAINING SUPERVISOR, AN OFFICE WORKER, AND A…
Pelvic pain - living with endometriosis; Endometrial implant - living with endometriosis; Endometrioma - living with endometriosis ... counter pain relievers can reduce the pain of endometriosis. These include: Ibuprofen (Advil) Naproxen (Aleve) Acetaminophen (Tylenol) ...
... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With an Arrhythmia Many arrhythmias are harmless. It's common to have an occasional ... heartbeat or mild palpitations . People who have harmless arrhythmias can live healthy lives. They usually don't ...
Labour Education, 1975
Several issues concerning rural workers' organizations and workers' education are discussed: motivation for self-organization, workers' education needs of rural workers, workers' education methods and techniques, training institutions and training personnel, financial resources, and the role of the International Labor Organization workers'…
van der Mei, I A; de Boer, E M; Bruynzeel, D P
Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence. PMID:10024736
Obi, Okey Francis
The importance of hand anthropometry as it relates to design of hand tools particularly for farm workers have been established; however, anthropometric data for this group of agricultural workers have continued to remain scarce. A survey of hand anthropometry relevant in design of agricultural hand tools was carried out on 200 male and 100 female adult farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria. Comparison of the male and female data obtained showed that male dimensions were higher than that recorded for the females. The hand anthropometric data of the male and female farm workers were compared with that of other populations but no clear distinction was observed. It was however clear that the following hand dimensions, 2nd Joint to root digit 3 and width at tip digit 3 recorded for Nigerian farm workers were highest and lowest, respectively, compared to other populations. Practitioner Summary: Hand anthropometric data relevant in design of hand tools have continued to remain scarce particularly for farm workers. Hand anthropometry survey of farm workers carried out in south-eastern Nigeria revealed higher dimensions for males than females; however, no clear distinction was observed in comparison with other populations. PMID:26207670
Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.
Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…
Perry, Robin E.
Objective: To empirically examine whether the educational background of child welfare workers in Florida impacts on performance evaluations of their work. Method: A proportionate, stratified random sample of supervisor and peer evaluations of child protective investigators and child protective service workers is conducted. ANOVA procedures are…
Barrientos, G E; Pastor, M E
Preliminary data on household structures of proletarian and semiproletarian workers in 3 municipios of the state of Puebla, Mexico, are presented. This work is part of a larger study of the 5 municipios with the highest proportion of industrial workers in the state of Puebla. Among the 3 municipios in the present study, Puebla contained 48.4% of the state's industrial workers, Tehuacan 6.9%, and Cholula 3.9%. A structured questionnaire was used during interviews with 27 male and 25 female factory workers in Puebla, 24 male and 15 female workers in Cholula, and 25 male and 20 female factory workers in Tehuacan. 16% of households of industrial workers in Puebla and Cholula supplemented their wage income with agricultural work, compared to 27% in Tehuacan. 10 of the workers, all women, were under 20 years old. 73% of women workers were under 30 years old, compared to 34% of the male workers. Women workers virtually disappeared after 40 years. Less educated women tend to enter the labor force at early ages and use their incomes to aid the parental budget. The tendency is reinforced by the preference of factories for a very young female labor force that also stops working a young age due to marriage. Women supported households alone in 8 cases and with the aid of other women in 4 cases. 52 households depended on the income of 1 man and another 17 on the income of more than 1 man. 48 of the women but only 7 of the men belonged to households in which both men and women were economically active. Households supported by just 1 man tended to be quite large. The data suggest a postponement of the age at 1st pregnancy among female workers. PMID:12343349
Northeast Arkansas Educational Cooperative, Strawberry.
A program was conducted to integrate computer technology into agriculture classrooms in 25 secondary schools and 4 universities in Arkansas. State-of-the-art technology from the AgriData Network of Milwaukee was used. The AgriData Network includes the Ag Ed Network, which offers more than 800 "live textbook" lessons with current information…
He, C; Chen, C
In this article household socioeconomic characteristics and standard of living are described for agricultural workers in Renshou County of Sichuan Province in western rural China. Data are obtained for the population in the county, and more detailed data are available among a sample of 215 households (743 persons) in 1993 in Anlin Village in Jinshun Township of Longzheng District. Anlin village is one of 1103 villages in the county. Family size declined during 1990-93 by 0.4 persons. 25.1% of households in Anlin Village had elderly members. 6.68% of elderly lived alone, and 8.22% lived in 2-person families. Over 60% lived in 3 or more generation households, and 27.4% lived in nuclear households. There were no homes for the aged in Anlin Village. All households were family, rather than collective, households. 8.04% of household heads were women. Total village population was 1110 persons. The sex ratio was normal. The village population aged under 15 years was lower, and the working age population was higher than the respective township populations. Marriages were stable and early marriage was not a problem. During 1990-93 the proportion with a junior high or more education increased as did the proportion illiterate or semi-literate. The working age population from rural statistics reports numbered 477 persons, of whom 92.9% were engaged in farming, animal farming, and fishing. 5.9% worked in non-agricultural jobs. 4.8% worked outside the area. The survey found a higher number of working age population than the 1993 annual report of rural statistics. Each person averaged 6.67 acres of arable land, and one in seven households owned cattle. Most households had electricity and bicycles. 56% had television sets. The average income was 1089.47 RMB yuan per person. In 1993, most women had one child and hoped to have a second one. Although regulations permitted only one child, most desired two and still relied on family support for the elderly. Renshou County is shifting
Childhood lead poisoning is a major, preventable environmental health problem. While residential lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust and soil are the most common sources of childhood lead poisoning, children can also be at risk if they live with an adult with a job or hobby that involves exposure to lead. Currently, the Oklahoma Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (OCLPPP) has a small number of cases of "take home" lead exposure in children of oil field workers. These workers may come in contact with a threading compound, "pipe dope" that can contain large amounts of lead. Workers handling this product may be exposed to lead by not following safety instructions. Additionally workers may not be provided the facilities to shower and change out of the contaminated clothing before leaving the work location. The OCLPPP recommends employers and worksites should consider effective alternative options like lead free biodegradable pipe dopes or dope free connections to prevent workers and their families from adverse health effects associated with lead. PMID:21888039
Tim Takaro Jordan Firestone
The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997
Vassia, M A; Curciarello, J O; Bologna, A; De Barrio, S; Belloni, P; Jmelnitzky, C A
The risk of HBV infections in health workers and the different prevalence according to the hospital activities has been shown in a great number of papers. In order to establish the prevalence of serological HBV markers in health workers fron high complexity hospital, we have analyzed 730 inquiries refilled in the period 1994-1995 before receiving the antihepatitis B vaccine. We studied 730 health workers, 282 (38.8%) males and 447 (61.2%) females with a mean age of 40.1 years old. We found 75/730 (10.2) serums antiçHBc reactives. The found prevalence was significantly larger than the one found in blood donors. The analysis of the prevalence according to the hospital activities showed that the infirmary personnel is the only with anti-HBc prevalence significantly superior to the blood donors, and the other health workers prevalence. Differences in the anti-HBc prevalence between the physicians specialties were not found. Our results agree with other publications that clearly show that health workers are a risk group for HBV infection. However, what attracts attention in the analyzed population is that the only ones with anti-HBc prevalence significantly superior to the blood donors' and the other health workers prevalence were the nurses, suggesting that nurses are the only health workers that have risk of HBV infections. PMID:10599401
Ronai, I; Oldroyd, B P; Vergoz, V
In social insect colonies the presence of a queen, secreting her pheromones, is a key environmental cue for regulating the reproductive state of workers. However, until recently the proximate molecular mechanisms underlying facultative worker sterility were unidentified. Studies into worker oogenesis in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) have indicated that programmed cell death is central to the regulation of oogenesis. Here we investigate how queen pheromone, age of the worker and ovary state affect both programmed cell death and cell number in worker ovaries. We describe a novel method to simultaneously measure programmed cell death (caspase activity) and live cell number (estimated from the amount of adenosine triphosphate) in an insect tissue. Workers exposed to queen pheromone have higher levels of caspase activity in the ovary than those not exposed. Our results suggest that queen pheromone triggers programmed cell death at the mid-oogenesis checkpoint causing the abortion of worker oocytes and reproductive inhibition of the worker caste. Nonetheless, high caspase activity is present in activated ovaries from workers not exposed to queen pheromone. This caspase activity is most likely to be from the nurse cells undergoing programmed cell death, in late oogenesis, for normal oocyte development. Our study shows that the social environment of an organism can influence programmed cell death within a tissue. PMID:27321063
Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Mash, Robert; Shaibu, Sheila; Phaladze, Nthabiseng
Background An adequate health workforce force is central to universal health coverage and positive public health outcomes. However many African countries have critical shortages of healthcare workers, which are worse in primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers, policy makers and the community on the shortage of healthcare workers in Botswana. Method Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with three groups of policy makers, six groups of healthcare workers and six groups of community members in rural, urban and remote rural health districts of Botswana. All the participants were 18 years and older. Recruitment was purposive and the framework method was used to inductively analyse the data. Results There was a perceived shortage of healthcare workers in primary healthcare, which was believed to result from an increased need for health services, inequitable distribution of healthcare workers, migration and too few such workers being trained. Migration was mainly the result of unfavourable personal and family factors, weak and ineffective healthcare and human resources management, low salaries and inadequate incentives for rural and remote area service. Conclusions Botswana has a perceived shortage of healthcare workers, which is worse in primary healthcare and rural areas, as a result of multiple complex factors. To address the scarcity the country should train adequate numbers of healthcare workers and distribute them equitably to sufficiently resourced healthcare facilities. They should be competently managed and adequately remunerated and the living conditions and rural infrastructure should also be improved. PMID:26284617
Baral, Stefan David; Friedman, M Reuel; Geibel, Scott; Rebe, Kevin; Bozhinov, Borche; Diouf, Daouda; Sabin, Keith; Holland, Claire E; Chan, Roy; Cáceres, Carlos F
Male sex workers who sell or exchange sex for money or goods encompass a very diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterising their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is limited, because these individuals are generally included as a subset of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) or even female sex workers. Male sex workers, irrespective of their sexual orientation, mostly offer sex to men and rarely identify as sex workers, using local or international terms instead. Growing evidence indicates a sustained or increasing burden of HIV among some male sex workers within the context of the slowing global HIV pandemic. Several synergistic facilitators could be potentiating HIV acquisition and transmission among male sex workers, including biological, behavioural, and structural determinants. Criminalisation and intersectional stigmas of same-sex practices, commercial sex, and HIV all augment risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among male sex workers and reduce the likelihood of these people accessing essential services. These contexts, taken together with complex sexual networks among male sex workers, define this group as a key population underserved by current HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Dedicated efforts are needed to make those services available for the sake of both public health and human rights. Evidence-based and human rights-affirming services dedicated specifically to male sex workers are needed to improve health outcomes for these men and the people within their sexual networks. PMID:25059939
Sönmez, Sevil; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Tran, Diane; Rentrope, Shantyana
Systematic violations of migrant workers' human rights and striking health disparities among these populations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are the norm in member countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Migrant laborers comprise about 90 percent of the UAE workforce and include approximately 500,000 construction workers and 450,000 domestic workers. Like many other GCC members countries, the UAE witnessed an unprecedented construction boom during the early 2000s, attracting large numbers of Western expatriates and increasing demand for cheap migrant labor. Elite Emiratis' and Western expatriates' dependence on household staff further promoted labor migration. This paper offers a summary of existing literature on migrant workers and human rights in the UAE, focusing on their impact on related health ramifications and disparities, with specific attention to construction workers, domestic workers, and trafficked women and children. Construction workers and domestic laborers are victims of debt bondage and face severe wage exploitation, and experience serious health and safety problems resulting from inhumane work and living conditions. High rates of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse impact the health of domestic workers. Through a review of available literature, including official reports, scientific papers, and media reports, the paper discusses the responsibility of employers, governments, and the global community in mitigating these problems and reveals the paucity of systematic data on the health of migrant workers in the Gulf. PMID:22773029
Abubakar, M. S.; Attanda, M. L.
Agriculture has changed dramatically, especially since the end of World War II. Food and fibre productivity raised due to new technologies, mechanization, increased chemical use, specialization and government policies that favoured maximizing production. Sustainable agriculture is a subject of great interest and lively debate in many parts of the world. Most agriculturalists agree that the concept of sustainable agriculture is of paramount importance to the sustainability of our biosphere and its ever increasing human population. This paper is an effort to identify the ideas, practices and policies that constitute concept of sustainable agriculture.
Chapman, L J; Schuler, R T; Wilkinson, T L; Skjolaas, C A
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to improve the agriculture safety prevention efforts of county health departments in Wisconsin by examining current programs, staffs' perceptions of the farm safety problem, and the need for new resources. METHODS: A survey instrument was completed by a professional staff member of the local health department in each of Wisconsin's 69 counties. RESULTS: Usable responses were obtained from 84% of the counties. Forty-five percent of the responding staff members conducted some agricultural safety and health programs, most often health screenings or group meetings conducted collaboratively with county agricultural Extension agents. There were no major differences in county demographics or other service provision variables between staff members who conducted programs and those who did not. Staff members perceived the largest barriers to better safety as lack of staff time and difficulty getting farmers to attend safety programs. Most failed to place more emphasis on training agricultural workers to permanently correct hazards than on training them to work safely around hazards. However, the staff members ranked safety inspection checklists as the most needed new material and ranked Extension agents and farmers as the most appropriate people to conduct inspections using such checklists. CONCLUSION: County public health professionals want more staff time and new materials to increase the effectiveness of their agricultural safety efforts. Encouraging agricultural workers and family members to identify and correct hazards would be a more effective use of staff time than training people to work safely around hazards. PMID:8837633
Courson, Roger; And Others
This curriculum guide, the second part of a core curriculum for a rural agriculture program, consists of materials for use in presenting the final two units in a nine-unit course for high school vocational agriculture students living in rural areas. Addressed in the first unit are the following aspects of agricultural mechanics: selecting and…
Robinson, James P; Glass, Lee S
Physicians who treat injured workers with painful conditions face complex challenges that require skills beyond those of a clinician. To address these challenges effectively, physicians need to understand the logic of workers' compensation systems and the interests of the various participants in the systems. They must be prepared to interface constructively between their patients and the workers' compensation carrier and attend to a multitude of administrative issues. In the present article, the authors provide an extended case history with commentary to illustrate the challenges that physicians face and the ways they can respond to these challenges. PMID:25952072
Gannagé, C M
Immigrant women's conditions of work have worsened with new government and managerial strategies to restructure the Canadian apparel industry. Changes in occupational health and safety legislation have both given and taken away tools that immigrant women workers could use to improve the quality of their working lives. The author outlines a methodology for eliciting the health and safety concerns of immigrant women workers. PMID:10379459
Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others
A set of program planning guides that include seven areas (1) Agricultural Production, (2) Agricultural Supplies and Services, (3) Agricultural Mechanics, (4) Agricultural Products, (5) Ornamental Horticulture, (6) Agricultural Resources, and (7) Forestry, were developed and introduced to high school applied biological and agricultural occupations…
Data on the utilization of services and morbidity were obtained for 1972 from the Rodrigo Terronez Memorial Clinic in Delano, Calif., a health care facility operated without government funds, which was established to serve the rural poor, specifically farmworkers and their dependents. There were 23,141 patient visits in the study year. The average number of physician visits per patient 3.4; 65 percent of the visits were by appointment, 9 percent were after hours, and 1 percent resulted in hospitalization. Only 0.2 percent constituted true emergencies. Ninety-nine percent of the prescriptions written at the clinic were from a 190-item drug formulary developed by the staff physicians. The data on the clinic are roughly comparable with those from other urban rural comprehensive health centers. The Terronez Clinic, however, differed significantly from most of these other centers in its orientation. It served as an organizing tool for a labor union trying to mobilize agricultural workers in the area so they would act together to improve their living conditions. Images p331-a p337-a PMID:808819
Neupert, R F
This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio
Tiwari, P S; Gite, L P; Dubey, A K; Kot, L S
A study was carried out in Madhya Pradesh (Central India) to collect data on injury-causing agricultural incidents during the period 1995-1999. The overall incidence rate was 1.25/1000 workers/year. About 9.2% of the incidents were fatal, and most of the fatal incidents were due to tractors and snakebites (42.9% each). About 77.6% of all incidents were due to farm machinery, 11.8% were due to hand tools, and the remaining 10.6% were due to other sources like snakes, wells, etc. Data on 1,911 incidents reported in 10 leading newspapers published during the five-year period (1995-1999) from different regions of the state were also collected and analyzed, which indicated that only major or roadside agricultural incidents were reported in newspapers. Based on the survey data, it was estimated that in the year 2000 there would have been about 17,480 agricultural incidents in Madhya Pradesh, causing death to about 2,050 workers and injuries to about 16,770 workers, including amputations of limbs, burns, cuts, etc. Total monetary loss due to agricultural injuries in the state of Madhya Pradesh has been estimated as US $27 million/year. PMID:12002378
El-Sayyed, N; Kabbash, I A; El-Gueniedy, M
This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS infection among 1256 Egyptian industrial and tourism workers aged 16-40 years. Compared with industrial workers, tourism workers had a significantly better perception of the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS problem worldwide as well as in Egypt and of the likelihood of the problem worsening. Knowledge of tourism workers was also significantly better about causative agent of AIDS and methods of transmission. Both groups had negative attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS concerning their right to confidentiality and to work. Both groups had a positive attitude towards behaviour change for protection from HIV/AIDS, principally via avoidance of extramarital sexual relations and adherence to religious beliefs. Use of condoms as a way to avoid HIV/AIDS was reported by only 0.4% of workers. PMID:19161085
Choudhury, Shonali Mona; Toller Erausquin, Jennifer; Park, Kyuwon; Anglade, Debbie
Social support can affect health outcomes of female sex workers. In this inductive feminist grounded theory study based on 20 in-depth interviews, we explore how establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana perceive the impact of the connections among women on their lives and health. Participants elected to discuss the importance of social support from mothers, sisters, friends, and co-workers, and the empowering and disempowering aspects of these relationships. In previous studies, scholars demonstrated the efficacy of formal organization of female sex workers in promoting the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. We show the importance of informal ties with other women. Some participants mentioned competitive relationships, others talked about cooperation and the desire for a venue to learn from one another. Social interactions with other women are especially empowering when female sex workers can openly engage in "woman talk" that may contribute to the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. PMID:25991735
... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and...
Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)
A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.
Scammell, Madeleine K; Gonzalez, Marvin
This is an interview with Edgardo Garcia, Secretary General of the Association of Farm Workers in Nicaragua and Oscar Berríos from the Nicaraguan National Engineering University. The interview was conducted in Nicaragua in October 2013. Garcia and Berríos address the importance of organizing among formal workers and informal workers, and the shared conditions of both in Nicaragua. They highlight the history and context of the agricultural workers who began organizing during the national armed revolutionary war, the role of government to create conditions for healthy and safe work, and the need for workers to organize and advocate for themselves. Finally, they highlight the importance of solidarity among workers and the need for alliances with unions and technical assistance providers around the world. PMID:27406112
Shah, Avani; Scogin, Forrest; Presnell, Andrew; Morthland, Martin; Kaufman, Allan V.
This is a report on the treatment fidelity of in-home cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) delivered by a sample of clinically trained, master's-level social workers to a group of primarily rural, medically frail older adults as part of the Project to Enhance Aged Rural Living (PEARL) clinical trial. The social workers in this study received brief didactic and experiential CBT training. Audiotaped sessions were randomly selected and evaluated by independent reviewers. Results showed that the social workers adequately delivered CBT as measured by the Cognitive Therapy Scale. Older adult participants also evidenced pre- posttreatment improvements, suggesting that the social workers' delivery of CBT facilitated improvement. PMID:25949093
7. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FLUSH FRONT DOOR AT PHOTO CENTER, MODERN SIDING WINDOW ON EAST WALL (FORMER PORCH) AT PHOTO CENTER RIGHT, AND ORIGINAL PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT WINDOWS ON NORTH WALL (PHOTO LEFT). VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA
8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS ON FRONT WALL AT PHOTO LEFT, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON BACK WALL AT EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO EAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA
9. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO LIVING ROOM, AND BUILT-IN CABINETS AROUND SINK AND FLANKING 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT WINDOW. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA
10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT PHOTO CENTER, AND SECOND 6 LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA
8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO RIGHT, 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS ON FRONT (EAST) WALL AT PHOTO CENTER. ENTRY ROOM AND OPEN 1-LIGHT FRONT DOOR AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA
9. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM DETAIL OF ONE OF TWO NARROW 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS ON EITHER SIDE OF FRONT DOOR SHOWING EXPOSED COUNTERBALANCE CABLE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA
9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. FIREPLACE ORIGINALLY OCCUPIED SPACE TO THE EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT OF SASH WINDOW ON THE REAR WALL. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA
9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT PHOTO RIGHT, 6-LIGHT OVER 1 LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER. FIREPLACE ORIGINALLY OCCUPIED SPACE UNDER ROUND HEATER VENT HOLE AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA
10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS AND ELECTRICAL WALL HEATER. ORIGINAL 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW AT PHOTO RIGHT. CEILING VENT TO CHIMNEY AT RIGHT UPPER PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA
8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO KITCHEN NEXT TO BRICKED HEATER ENCLAVE (PHOTO CENTER), AND OPEN DOOR TO BEDROOM NO. 2 AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA
12. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM FROM DINING ROOM SHOWING OPEN FRONT DOOR AT PHOTO CENTER AND OPEN DOOR TO BEDROOM NO. 1 AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA
11. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING BACK WALL ELECTRICAL HEATER, OPEN FIVE-PANELED DOOR TO BACK BEDROOM AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND OPEN DOOR TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA
8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING DOORWAY TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO RIGHT CENTER, AND OPEN FOUR-PANEL WOOD DOOR TO NORTH BEDROOM AT PHOTO CENTER LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA
16. INTERIOR OF NORTH BEDROOM SHOWING FOUR-PANEL DOORS TO LIVING ROOM AT PHOTO RIGHT AND BATHROOM AT PHOTO LEFT, AND BUILT-IN CLOSET BETWEEN THE DOORS ON SOUTH WALL. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA
9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM SLIDING GLASS WINDOW FRONT DOOR, AND ORIGINAL 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS IN SINGLE AND DOUBLE ARRANGEMENTS. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA