Mikati, Diana; Hojeij, Safa; El Asmar, Khalil; Chaaya, Monique; Zurayk, Rami
Background: Syrian migrant farmworkers are among the most marginalized populations in Lebanon, living in poverty, lacking basic legal protections and frequent targets of discrimination. These realities produce living conditions that undermine their basic health and wellbeing. This study explores associations between household living conditions and acute and chronic health problems among Syrian migrant agricultural workers in the Bekaa region of Lebanon. Methods: A survey was carried out in summer of 2011 with a sample of 290 migrant agriculture workers and members of their household living in a migrant farmworker camp. The survey assessed participants living conditions, assets and health conditions. Regression analyses were carried out to examine associations between multi-morbidity and quality of household and neighborhood living conditions. Results: The mean age for the population was 20 years. Forty-seven percent of participants reported health problems. Almost 20% reported either one acute or chronic illness, 15% reported two health problems and 13% reported three or more. The analysis showed a significant positive association between multi-morbidity and poor housing and infrastructure conditions among study participants. Conclusion: The situation for migrant communities in Lebanon has likely further deteriorated since the study was conducted, as hundreds of thousands of new migrants have entered Lebanon since the outbreak of the Syrian armed conflict in 2011. These findings should inspire multi-faceted community development initiatives that provide basic minimums of neighborhood infrastructure and housing quality for Syrian migrant informal settlements across Lebanon, safeguarding the health and wellbeing of community residents. PMID:27402635
Background Migrant agricultural workers are a group of people living in poverty with poor housing, sanitary conditions and hygiene practices. Little is known about the epidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers. Methods We investigated the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in 173 migrant workers hired for seasonal agricultural work in Durango State in northern Mexico using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results Of the 173 migrant workers (mean age 34.82 ± 14.01 years), 50 (28.9%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and 36 (20.8%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence was not influenced by gender, age, birth place, or educational level. In contrast, seroprevalence was significantly higher in workers residing in rural areas than those in urban or suburban areas. Migrant workers suffering from memory impairment, dizziness, or syncope had significantly higher seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies than those without such clinical features. Logistic regression analysis showed that T. gondii exposure was positively associated with consumption of unwashed raw vegetables (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.06-5.35; P = 0.03) and low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 3.87; 95% CI: 1.43-10.42; P = 0.007), and negatively associated with national trips (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.65; P = 0.003) and consumption of raw milk (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.18-0.87; P = 0.02). Other behavioral characteristics including consumption of meat or untreated water were not associated with T. gondii infection. Conclusions This is the first report of T. gondii infection in internal migrant agricultural workers living in poverty. Results deserve further investigation of causal relations between clinical symptoms and infection, and may be useful for optimal planning of preventive measures. PMID:23601076
EPA's Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is aimed at reducing the risk of pesticide poisoning and injury among agricultural workers and pesticide handlers. It places specific requirements on employers of such workers.
Karadžinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sašo; Mijakoski, Dragan; Risteska-Kuc, Snežana; Milkovska, Snežana
To assess health risks in agricultural workers associated with environmental exposure to pollutants released from a petroleum refinery and from traffic, we performed a cross-sectional study that included 119 randomly selected subjects divided in two groups. Group 1 included 60 agricultural workers living in a rural community near the petroleum refinery and a motorway overpass, whereas Group 2 consisted of 59 agricultural workers performing similar activities and living in a rural community with no exposure to industrial and traffic pollutants. Risk assessment included a questionnaire, blood pressure measurement, spirometry, laboratory tests, and toxicological analysis. The groups showed a similar prevalence of health problems, with exception of muscle pain in the extremities, headache, and fatigue, which were significantly more common in Group 1. Diastolic blood pressure was higher in Group 1, but not significantly (p=0.057). The same is true for blood carbon monoxide. Significantly higher in Group 1 were blood haemoglobin (p=0.001) and blood lead (p<0.001). Serum cholinesterase activity was similar in both groups. Our findings indicate the need of regular medical exams, ambient monitoring and environmental impact assessment in agricultural population in order to detect individuals at risk and to institute adequate preventive measures.
Arroyo, Michele Gonzalez; Kurre, Laura
This report examines the extent to which young people work in California agriculture and describes work-related hazards and injuries among young agricultural workers. Data were gathered through a literature review; discussion groups with parents, community groups, and English-as-a-second-language students in the San Joaquin Valley; surveys of 295…
Simons, J. W.; And Others
Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…
Petty, Gregory C.; Stewart, Bob R.
Significant differences exist between agribusiness workers and agricultural production workers in Missouri in the affective work skills they demonstrate. Significant differences also appear between agricultural supervisors and workers. (SK)
Taylor, J. Edward; Espenshade, Thomas J.
The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 contains controversial provisions to allow temporary "replenishment" farmworkers to enter the United States to harvest perishable crops. This paper describes the role of legal and illegal foreign workers in California agriculture in relation to these provisions and the assumptions on which…
Leonard, David; And Others
This training manual, the third volume in a four-volume series of curriculum guides for use in training Peace Corps agricultural development workers, deals with crops. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the crops component of the agricultural development worker training series. Included in the second…
Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M
Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here.
Sjogren, B; Weiner, J; Larsson, K
Aims: To compare the occurrence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) among male and female livestock and agricultural workers with gainfully employed men and women in Sweden. Methods: Male and female livestock and agricultural workers were identified in the Swedish National Censuses of 1970 and 1990 and were followed until the end of 1995. The IHD mortality among the livestock and agricultural workers was compared with that of gainfully employed men and women. Information of smoking habits was gathered from a previous national survey. Results: Male as well as female livestock workers had slightly higher standardised mortality ratios (SMR) regarding IHD compared with all gainfully employed men and women in Sweden. The SMR for male workers was 1.06 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.18). The SMR for female workers was 1.10 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.23). Agricultural workers had lower SMRs. Adjustments for smoking habits would further increase the SMRs by about 9% in male workers and about 5% in female workers. Conclusion: The present data suggest a slightly increased risk for IHD among both male and female livestock workers, which may be the result of organic dust exposure. PMID:12883028
Liebman, Amy K; Augustave, Wilson
This commentary offers a worker's perspective on agricultural health and safety and describes (1) the historical exemption of agriculture from regulatory oversight and barriers encountered due to lack of regulations and poor enforcement of the existing standards; (2) the effect of immigration status on worker protections; and (3) the basic desire for economic survival and how this impacts worker health and safety. The commentary describes two models to reduce hazards at work that illustrate how workers' perspectives can be incorporated successfully at the policy level and during the intervention development process and puts forth recommendations for employers, researchers, and funding agencies to facilitate the integration of workers' perspectives into occupational health and safety in agriculture. Ultimately, improved worker protection requires systemic policy and regulatory changes as well as strong enforcement of existing regulations. This commentary summarizes the presentation, "Ground View: Perspectives of Hired Workers," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.
Yeshewalul, Ayele; Griffith, William S.
This research examined the effects of government and the university organizational models and of performing regulatory functions on American and Canadian agricultural extension workers' role perception and role performance. (Author/SSH)
... Section 404.1016 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1016 Foreign agricultural workers. Farm work done by foreign workers...
Bacon, Neil; And Others
This training manual, the last volume in a four-volume series for use in training Peace Corps workers, deals with livestock. The first chapter provides suggested guidelines for setting up and carrying out the livestock component of the agricultural development worker training course. Included in the second chapter are lesson plans covering the…
The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...
Discusses agriculture and farming factors affecting immigration and integration policies. Examines seasonality, wages, and guest workers; the Immigration Reform and Control Act; and the search for seasonal workers. Data suggest that first generation immigrants age out of seasonal farm work with few skills to enable them to climb any job ladder,…
JORGENSON, JANET M.; AND OTHERS
FIELD STUDIES WERE CONDUCTED IN 1960 IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS AND IN IOWA TO AUGMENT INFORMATION ON MIGRATORY WORKERS. FACULTY-STUDENT TEAM FIELD TRIPS FOUND MANY FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN PROVIDING A CONSTRUCTIVE APPROACH TO THE PROBLEMS OF THE MIGRANT WORKER. CHILDREN OF THE MIGRANTS ARE NOT GETTING THE EDUCATION THEY NEED TO BREAK…
Jackson, Larry L; Rosenberg, Howard R
Hyperthermia from exertion and environmental conditions during agricultural work manifests itself by various symptoms and may lead to death. From 1992 through 2006, 68 workers employed in crop production and related services died from heat-related illness. The crop worker fatality rate averaged 4 heat-related deaths per one million workers per year-20 times higher than the 0.2 rate for US civilian workers overall. Many of the agricultural workers who died were foreign-born. Foreign-born workers tend to have limited English language skills and often are not acclimatized to exertion in hot weather when beginning seasonal jobs. Increased recognition of heat hazards to agricultural workers, in particular, has stimulated concern among employers, workers, and public policy makers. California and Washington have led the nation in adopting workplace safety standards designed to prevent heat-related illnesses. These state regulations include new specific requirements for employer provision of drinking water, shade for rest or other sufficient means to recover from heat, worker and supervisor training, and written heat safety plans. Agricultural employers face practical challenges in fulfilling the purpose and complying with these standards. By their very nature the standards impose generic requirements in a broad range of circumstances and may not be equally protective in all agricultural work settings. It is vital that employers and supervisors have a thorough knowledge of heat illness prevention to devise and implement safety measures that suit local conditions. Ongoing risk-based assessment of current heat conditions by employers is important to this safety effort. Workers need training to avoid heat illness and recognize the symptoms in themselves and coworkers. Innovative management practices are joining time-honored approaches to controlling heat stress and strain. Research targeted to answer questions about heat accumulation and dissipation during agricultural work
Thetkathuek, Anamai; Daniell, William
There has been a dramatic increase in the global movement of workers during the last few decades. As Thailand has developed rapidly over the past 20 years, it has attracted laborers (both authorized and unauthorized) from the neighboring countries of Myanmar, People's Democratic Republic of Lao (Lao PDR), and Cambodia. Given that agriculture has been Thailand's most important industry, its continued growth has been dependent on migrant workers. Both crop agriculture and animal-production agriculture have employed migrant labor. Migrants have been hired to plant, weed, fertilize, spray pesticides, and harvest crops such as rice, corn, sugar cane, and cassava. They have worked at rubber and coffee plantations, as well as in the production of ornamental crops. Also, migrants have labored on pig, beef, and duck farms. There have been numerous documented health problems among migrant workers, including acute diarrhea, malaria, and fever of unknown causes. Occupational illness and injury have been a significant concern, and there has been limited health and safety training. This article reviewed the demographic changes in Thailand, studied the agricultural crops and animal production that are dependent on migrant labor, discussed the health status and safety challenges pertaining to migrant workers in agriculture, and described several recommendations. Among the recommendations, the conclusions of this study have suggested that addressing the cost for health care and solutions to health care access for migrant labor are needed.
Friedland, William H.; Nelkin, Dorothy
The study explores the migrant labor system as it operates in the northeastern United States. It is concerned with how the system affects life in migrant labor crews, the details of daily routine, and the problems and adjustments made by the people to the circumstances in which they live. The 3 themes of the book are: (1) the disorganized and…
McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.
Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…
Borrego, John G.; And Others
The intent of this report, as stated, is to bring about an awareness of the kinds of problems faced by migrant agricultural workers (Mexican Americans and Navajos), by farmers, and by agencies offering services to these migrants in New Mexico. An overview of the national and state migrant situation is presented, as well as case studies of various…
The poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers by multinational corporations' excessive use of pesticides is not a local issue; it is embedded in a dominant ideology expressed by the phenomenon of globalization. This ideology seeps into every aspect of our social institutions--economic, political, and legal. The practice of this ideological perspective is evident in the industrialization of global agriculture and the shift from "developmentalism"--liberal welfarism, industrialization, and urbanization--to a dominant, undemocratic, global financial elite with "economism" and a neoliberal political agenda overriding the nation-state polis. A specific effect is to transform the agricultural workers of developing countries, such as Costa Rican banana workers, into politically superfluous flesh-and-blood human beings.
Das, D K; Dey, T K
The study attempted to assess agricultural practices and personal hygiene among 100 agricultural workers in a rural area of West Bengal in 1999. 69% of the study population was marginal farmer with less than 2 acres of land. Organophosphorus group of pesticides were most commonly used pesticides (68%); spraying was irregular in nature (98%), through semiautomatic sprayer (99%) and only 5% used any special dress while spraying pesticides. 40% of workers used to store pesticides either in living room or in food storage area. 88% of them did not take any food during work with pesticides, only 37% used to take regular bath after working with pesticides but regular hand washing was practiced by all of them.
Fernández-Soria, Juan Manuel
This article focuses on the Workers' Institutes (WI), one of the most important educational initiatives undertaken by the Spanish Republic during the Civil War (1936-1939). After framing their creation within the context of European trends in higher education for the working classes and within the Spanish socio-political context, this article…
As part of its report "Unfair Advantage: Workers' Freedom of Association in the United States under International Human Rights Standards," Human Rights Watch conducted a series of case studies in a dozen states, covering a variety of industries and employment sectors, analyzing the U.S. experience in the light of both national law and international human rights and labor rights norms. Presented here are the case studies of migrant agricultural workers.
Wilhite, Carla S; Jaco, Linda
Limited attention has been devoted to the cultural and practice competencies needed by occupational therapy and physical therapy professionals who provide services to farming families impacted by chronic health or disability issues. Agricultural occupational safety and health should represent a continuum of services responsive to individuals, families, and agricultural communities across a life span and range of health status changes. Physical rehabilitation professionals have a key role in impacting an agricultural producer's sense of self-efficacy and capacities for returning to agricultural living and work. However, demonstration of competency is essential in providing person-centered rehabilitation services of assessment, evaluation, treatment planning, interventions, referrals, and discharge issues. The paper highlights methods utilized by a state AgrAbility program and a former National AgrAbility Project to develop a model of continuing education programming for occupational and physical therapists that evaluate and treat agricultural workers after acute injury or exacerbation of chronic health conditions.
Buswell, Minden L; Hourigan, Mary; Nault, André J; Bender, Jeffrey B
There are a variety of biologics, vaccines, antibiotics, and hormones used in animal agriculture. Depending upon the procedure or pharmaceutical used, accidental injections or product exposures can result in mild to severe injuries. Needlestick injury (NSI) prevention, research, and education for veterinarians and agriculture workers is limited. The objective of this study was to collect and review published case reports and case series/surveys on human needlestick exposure to veterinary biologics and to summarize needlestick prevention strategies for agricultural workers/veterinarians. A search was conducted of PubMed and Centre for Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI) databases. References were reviewed to identify additional articles. NSI among agricultural workers were primarily included in this review. Thirty articles were applicable to exposures in agricultural settings. Relevant literature consisted of case reports, survey/case series articles, prevention documents, and background articles. Fifty-nine case patients were identified. Most of these cases were associated with exposures to specific vaccines or veterinary products. Injury location was identified from 36 individuals: 24 (67%) NSI to the hands, 10 (28%) injuries to the legs, and 2 to other body locations. Of the 59 cases, 20 (34%) involved oil-adjuvant vaccines. Evidence of hospitalization was recorded for 30 case patients. The length of hospitalization was available from 11 case patients. Median length of hospitalization was 3 days (range: 1-4). Surgical intervention was reported in 25 case patients. Outcome information was available on 30 case patients. Fifteen made a complete recovery within 2 weeks of treatment, 14 had residual sequelae attributed to the injury, and there was 1 reported death. Of the 13 survey/case series articles: 2 focused on oil-adjuvant products, 1 on Brucellosis RB-51 vaccine, 3 on tilmicosin, 1 on Salmonella enteritidis vaccine, 1 on high-pressure injection, and 5
Fields, Noelle LeCrone; Koenig, Terry; Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly
This study explored key aspects of resident transitions to assisted living (AL), including the frequency and importance of preadmission resident education and the potential role of social workers in this setting. To examine the factors that may help or hinder resident transitions to AL, a written survey was administered to a statewide,…
The effects of the massive entry of Haitian agricultural workers into rice, coffee, and other agricultural production in the Dominican Republic over the past 15 years are analyzed using data from surveys conducted in 1985 and 1987. Unlike the classic Latin American cases of labor migration, the movement of Haitian workers to the Dominican Republic crosses national borders and involves a landless proletariat rather than peasant farmers seeking to supplement their subsistence. Most of the Haitians finding work in coffee and rice cultivation were former sugar cane workers with several years of residence in the Dominican Republic who were forced out of sugar cane cutting by the collapse of the industry in the 1980s. Although Haitians have been employed in Dominican agriculture since the early 1900s, their massive movement to crops of great labor demand other than sugar began in the 1980s. Most of the Haitian workers in rice and coffee are illiterate men with no more than 3 years of primary education. Their average age is 28.4 years for coffee and 29.1 for rice workers. 40% of coffee workers and 53% of rice workers had children. The survey found a greater proportion of migrants from the North zone of Haiti than have previous studies, probably because of the accelerating crisis in the peasant economy in the North and the curtailment of movement to the Bahamas. The technical and social organization of agricultural work goes far in explaining migratory flows. Rice cultivation has heavy labor demands year round, while demand for labor in coffee cultivation is concentrated between August-December. The more complex and better paying jobs in rice cultivation are performed primarily by Dominican workers, who have formed a landless agricultural proletariat in place for at least 2 generations. Dominican workers thus meet the condition of staying in place all year that is not completely possible for Haitian workers. No such ethnic separation occurs in the coffee harvest, and
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false H-2 agricultural and forestry workers. 1626.11... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural and forestry workers. (a... section. (b) Nonimmigrant forestry workers admitted to, or permitted to remain in, the United States...
Baloch, U K
The agricultural productivity in Pakistan is hampered by insects, diseases, and weeds, which are reported causing losses ranging up to 50%, estimated at a total value of over 900 million U.S. dollars. The use of pesticides in Pakistan started in 1954 with 254 metric tons of formulation, increasing to the level of 16,226 metric tons in 1976-77. Since the import and use of pesticides was in the public sector, the promulgation of the Agricultural Pesticides Ordinance was delayed to 1971 and the Rules to 1973. Under these Rules exist provisions necessary for the registration, marketing, and safe use of pesticides. Through the Agricultural Pesticides Technical Advisory Committee consisting of members drawn from the various Federal and Provincial agencies relevant to the subject, the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Cooperatives, Government of Pakistan, is responsible for its implementation, but no regular agency for monitoring the implementation of the Rules exists. The extent of health hazards to agricultural workers as a result of exposure to pesticides, among other things, depends on the socioeconomic and educational background of their society, the local laws governing registration, and the scientific and regulatory institutional setup of the country. The above factors, of particular relevance to Pakistan, are discussed.
Suarez-Lopez, Jose R.; Jacobs, David R.; Himes, John H.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Lazovich, DeAnn; Gunnar, Megan
BACKGROUND Children of workers exposed to pesticides are at risk of secondary pesticide exposure. We evaluated the potential for lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children cohabiting with fresh-cut flower plantation workers, which would be expected from organophosphate and carbamate insecticide exposure. Parental home surveys were performed and acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in 277 children aged 4–9 years in the study of Secondary Exposure to Pesticides among Infants, Children and Adolescents (ESPINA). Participants lived in a rural county in Ecuador with substantial flower plantation activity. RESULTS Mean acetylcholinesterase activity was 3.14 U/ml, standard deviation (SD): 0.49. It was lower by 0.09 U/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.19, −0.001) in children of flower workers (57% of participants) than non-flower workers’ children, after adjustment for gender, age, height-for-age, hemoglobin concentration, income, pesticide use within household lot, pesticide use by contiguous neighbors, examination date and residence distance to nearest flower plantation. Using a 4 level polychotomous acetylcholinesterase activity dependent variable, flower worker cohabitation (vs. not) had odds ratio 3.39 (95% CI 1.19, 9.64) for being <15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. Children cohabitating for ≥5 years (vs. never) had OR of 4.11 (95% CI: 1.17, 14.38) of AChE activity within <15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. CONCLUSIONS Cohabitation with a flower worker was related to lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children. This supports the hypothesis that the amount of take-home pesticides from flower workers suffices to decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, with lower activity associated with longer exposure. PMID:22405996
Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris; Iglesias, Verónica; Levy, Karen; Muñoz, María Pía; Achú, Eduardo; Cornejo, Claudia; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos
The objective was to evaluate the characteristics of exposure to OP pesticides and health status in Chilean farm workers from the Maule Region. An occupational health questionnaire was administered in 207 agricultural and non-agricultural workers. For the group of agricultural workers, we asked about specific occupational exposure history and symptoms of OP pesticide poisoning. The main health problem of the exposed group was previous OP pesticide poisoning (p < 0.001). Fifty-six percent of agricultural workers reported symptoms consistent with acute OP pesticide poisoning. The use of respiratory personal protective equipment and younger age were protective against these symptoms, and number of years of OP pesticide exposure was positively associated with reporting symptoms of poisoning. Of the pesticide applicators 47 % reported using chlorpyrifos. The regulations regarding use and application of pesticides should be strengthened, as should training and intervention with workers to improve the use of personal protective equipment.
This petition from the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture and the American Farm Bureau Federation, dated December 21, 2016, asks that the Agency amend the Agricultural Worker Protection Standard by postponing the effective date.
Romitti, Paul A; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Budelier, William T; Lynch, Charles F; Puzhankara, Soman; Wong-Gibbons, Donna; Hoppin, Jane A; Alavanja, Michael C R
In the Agricultural Health Study, information on participant live births was largely provided by female partners of male private applicators. At the Iowa site, such information was available for 13,599 (42.9%) of 31,707 applicators. To improve identification of live births among Iowa participants, we used a probabilistic and deterministic approach to link available demographic data from 31,707 households and information on live births from 13,599 households with 1,014,916 Iowa birth certificates. Record linkage identified 16,611 (93.7%) of 17,719 reported live births and 17,883 additional live births, most (14,411 or 80.6%) not reported due to nonresponse by female partners. This record linkage produced an expanded cohort of live-born children among Iowa participants, which will facilitate improved study of the effects of agricultural exposures, including pesticides, on selected birth outcomes and childhood disease.
Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Crowe, Jennifer; Postma, Julie; Ybarra, Vickie; Keifer, Matthew C.
The purpose of this study is to describe perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers. Interviews were conducted with 389 agricultural workers in the Yakima Valley in central Washington State in the summers of 2004 and 2005. Undergraduate students from the community conducted interviews in Spanish or English. Environmental and occupational health issues were ranked by frequency of concern, and differences by demographic characteristics were evaluated using multivariate analyses. In both 2004 and 2005, agricultural workers expressed high levels of concern about working in hot weather, agricultural injuries, pesticides, and pediatric asthma. Perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers differed by certain demographic characteristics, particularly age and ethnicity. Consideration should be given to these issues when designing research studies, creating educational materials, and developing interventions related to environmental and occupational hazards among agricultural workers. PMID:19715263
... AGENCY Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural...,'' that describes how the Agency plans to use revised methods in conducting risk assessments for pesticide... Register of December 9, 2009, making available for comment a policy paper entitled ``Revised...
Singleton, Steven T.; Lein, Pamela J.; Farahat, Fayssal M.; Farahat, Taghreed; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Olson, James R.
Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides that exert their effects by prolonging the open time of sodium channels, which increases the duration of neuronal excitation. α-cypermethrin (αCM) is derived from the 8-stereoisomers that together make up the pyrethroid cypermethrin, which is one of the most common pyrethroids being used in agriculture throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure to αCM in a cohort of Egyptian agriculture workers (n=37) before, during and after 6 to 10 consecutive days of application of αCM to cotton fields. Daily spot urine specimens were collected and analyzed by GC-MS NCI for the αCM metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and cis-3-(2’,2’-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA). Prior to αCM application, median urinary levels of 3-PBA (4.59 nmol/g creatinine) were greater than cis-DCCA (0.33 nmole/g creatinine) demonstrating low background exposures to pyrethroids. During the application period for αCM, median urinary levels of both biomarkers increased (13.44 nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 7.76 nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine) and ranged from 2.3–93.96 nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 0.09–90.94 nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine, demonstrating that workers had a wide range of exposures to αCM. The data also demonstrate that pesticide applicators had greater exposures to αCM than workers who play a supporting role in the seasonal application of pesticides on the cotton crop. Urinary cis-DCCA and 3-PBA concentrations were elevated at 7–11 days after the cessation of αCM application, compared to baseline levels. This study is the first to use these biomarkers to quantify occupational exposures specifically to αCM. This urinary biomarker data will be useful for estimating daily internal dose, comparing exposures across job categories within the Egyptian pesticide application teams, and for modeling human exposures to αCM. PMID:24269189
Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.
This reference manual for training Peace Corps agricultural development workers deals with crops. The document begins with common units of area, length, weight, volume, and conversions between them. A practice problem is worked and other conversion problems are given. The second section is intended to show agricultural field workers how to survey…
Obi, Okey Francis; Ugwuishiwu, Boniface O; Adeboye, Busayo S
In developed countries, large amount of anthropometric data are available for reference purposes; however, anthropometric data of Nigerian populace are lacking. As a result, most agricultural machines and equipment used are designed using anthropometric data from other populations of the world. A total of 377 rural agricultural workers within the age limit of 18-45 years, who are involved in different agricultural activities, were selected from six rural agriculture-based communities in Enugu state. Thirty-six anthropometric body dimensions were measured including age and body weight. A comparison between the male and female data indicated that data obtained from male agricultural workers were higher than that obtained from their female counterparts in all body dimensions except chest (bust) depth, abdominal breadth and hip breadth (sitting). In terms of design parameters, it was observed that the data from Nigerian agricultural workers were different from that obtained from agricultural workers in north-eastern India. Practitioner Summary. Anthropometric data of Nigeria populace are lacking. As a result, most agricultural machines and equipment used are designed using anthropometric data from other populations of the world. It was observed that the data from Nigerian agricultural workers were different from that obtained from agricultural workers in north-eastern India.
Post-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade liberalisation combined with post-9/11 border securitisation means North America increasingly relies on pools of temporary foreign labour, particularly in the agricultural and service sectors. Despite being temporary, these workers often spend most of their years on foreign soil, living and working in isolated rural communities, far from their own families and communities. Migrants' mental and physical health suffers due to hazardous and stressful working conditions, sub-standard housing, lack of social support and limited access to health and social welfare services. Assuming access to health is a basic human right, who is responsible for the health of temporary foreign migrant workers? Is it the nation-state? or the Employers and/or unions? or Civil society? Research and practice show that a combined multisector approach is best; however, such initiatives are often uneven due to questions of sovereignty and citizenship rights. Community-based organisations (CBOs) have emerged to advocate for and serve migrants' social and welfare needs; analysis of CBO projects reveals an uneven application of rights to migrants. Using a comparative case study from Canada, this project contributes to understanding how civil-society helps to activate different types of health care rights for migrants, and to create an informed policy that provides migrant workers with access to a wider range of human and health rights.
Heaney, C A; Wilkins, J R; Dellinger, W; McGonigle, H; Elliott, M; Bean, T L; Jepsen, S D
Tractor-related injuries among youth are an important public health problem. The major objectives of this study were to (1) provide a rigorous estimate of the number of youth operating tractors in Ohio and (2) assess the extent to which these youth are participating in federally mandated tractor safety training. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by approximately 4,000 students ages 14 or 15 years who were enrolled in a stratified cluster sample of 99 Ohio schools. Almost one-third of the youth (30%) reported having operated tractors, with 19% having operated a tractor on a farm not owned by a parent or guardian. More than half of the youth (52%) reported having operated a tractor and/or other hazardous machinery, with 25% having operated the machinery on a farm not owned or operated by a parent or guardian. Extrapolating from 4-H records and Ohio census data, fewer than 1% of the youth who are operating tractors or other hazardous machinery have participated in tractor certification training. Increasing participation in mandated training may be an important step in protecting the health of our nation's young agricultural workers.
Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Das, Banibrata; Das, Tamal; Ghoshal, Goutam
In India, particularly in West Bengal, preadolescents are primarily associated with agricultural work in rural areas. Owing to poor socio-economic conditions, they are compelled to carry out a considerable number of manual, rigorous tasks in agricultural fields. The main aim of this study was to investigate postures adopted by preadolescent agricultural workers during individual agricultural activities and to analyze the causes of discomfort related to those postures. Fifty male and 50 female preadolescent agricultural workers were randomly selected and a detailed posture analysis was performed with the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS). It was observed that those workers worked continuously in awkward postures during certain agricultural activities. Consequently they suffered from discomfort in different parts of their body. Even though they were very young, they were likely to suffer from serious musculoskeletal disorders in the future.
Arcury, Thomas A; Estrada, Jorge M; Quandt, Sara A
The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the United States to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented.
Arcury, Thomas A.; Estrada, Jorge M.; Quandt, Sara A.
The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, “Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture,” is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the US to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented. PMID:20665309
Mathiasen, Lisa; Morley, Katija; Chapman, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas
A training video was produced and evaluated to assess its impact on the food safety knowledge of agricultural workers. Increasing food safety knowledge on the farm may help to improve the safety of fresh produce. Surveys were used to measure workers' food safety knowledge before and after viewing the video. Focus groups were used to determine…
California State Dept. of Public Health, Berkeley.
FIELD INTERVIEWS WERE HELD WITH COMMUNITY LEADERS AND WITH SEVERAL HUNDRED WORKERS' FAMILIES. THE ACQUIRED INFORMATION SUPPLEMENTED A SURVEY OF PAST AND PRESENT CONDITIONS AND ASSISTED IN FORMULATING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION TO MEET THE ACUTE HEALTH NEEDS OF CALIFORNIA'S SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. THE HEALTH PROBLEM CAN BE MET BY LOCAL…
Rye, Johan Fredrik; Andrzejewska, Joanna
Since the 2004 EU enlargement established one European common labour market, a large number of Eastern Europeans have taken up seasonal employment as hired farm workers in Norwegian agriculture. Much attention in the public has been given to the potential for "social dumping" of these migrating workers, as they are considered prone to…
A PRACTICAL GUIDE IS PROVIDED FOR TRAINERS OF ADVISORY AND EXTENSION WORKERS AND LOCAL LEADERS IN AGRICULTURE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING NATIONS. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, COMMUNITY SURVEY PROCEDURES, ELEMENTS OF PROGRAM PLANNING, AND PURPOSES AND METHODS OF PROGRAM EVALUATION ARE DESCRIBED. THEN FOLLOW TWO CHAPTERS…
McGwin, G; Enochs, R; Roseman, J M
Research on the epidemiology of agriculture-related injuries has largely ignored African-Americans and farm workers. This cohort study is the first to estimate injury rates and to evaluate prospectively risk factors for agriculture-related injuries and compare them among African-American and Caucasian farmers and African-American farm workers. A total of 1,246 subjects (685 Caucasian owners, 321 African-American owners, and 240 African-American workers) from Alabama and Mississippi were selected from Agricultural Statistics Services databases and other sources and were enrolled between January 1994 and June 1996. Baseline data included detailed demographic, farm and farming, and behavioral information. From January 1994 to April 1998, subjects were contacted biannually to ascertain the occurrence of an agriculture-related injury. Injury rates were 2.9 times (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0, 4.3) higher for African-American farm workers compared with Caucasian and African-American owners. Part-time farming (relative risk (RR) = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3, 2.5), prior agricultural injury (RR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1), and farm machinery in fair/poor condition (RR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7) were also independently associated with injury rates. The results demonstrate the increased frequency of agricultural injury among farm workers and identify a number of possible ways of reducing them.
Fenske, Richard A
The New Paths: Health and Safety in Western Agriculture conference, November 11-13, 2008, highlighted the role of technological innovation in agricultural production. The tree fruit industry in the Pacific Northwest has adopted a "technology road map" to reduce production costs and improve efficiency. An agricultural tour provided field demonstrations and discussions on such topics as mobile work platforms in orchards, traumatic and musculoskeletal injuries, and new pest control technologies. Occupational safety and health research will need to adapt to and keep pace with rapid changes in agricultural production processes.
Loewenherz, C; Fenske, R A; Simcox, N J; Bellamy, G; Kalman, D
Children up to 6 years of age who lived with pesticide applicators were monitored for increased risk of pesticide exposure: 48 pesticide applicator and 14 reference families were recruited from an agricultural region of Washington State in June 1995. A total of 160 spot urine samples were collected from 88 children, including repeated measures 3-7 days apart. Samples were assayed by gas chromatography flame photometric detector for dimethylphosphate metabolites. Dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) was the dominant metabolite. DMTP levels were significantly higher in applicator children than in reference children (p = 0.015), with median concentrations of 0.021 and 0.005 microg/ml, respectively; maximum concentrations were 0.44 and 0.10 microg/ml, respectively. Percentages of detectable samples were 47% for applicator children and 27% for reference children. A marginally significant trend of increasing concentration was observed with decreasing age among applicator children (p = 0.060), and younger children within these families had significantly higher concentrations when compared to their older siblings (p = 0.040). Applicator children living less than 200 feet from an orchard were associated with higher frequency of detectable DMTP levels than nonproximal applicator children (p =0.036). These results indicate that applicator children experienced higher organophosphorus pesticide exposures than did reference children in the same community and that proximity to spraying is an important contributor to such exposures. Trends related to age suggest that child activity is an important variable for exposure. It is unlikely that any of the observed exposures posed a hazard of acute intoxication. This study points to the need for a more detailed understanding of pesticide exposure pathways for children of agricultural workers. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9405329
Fiscus, Keith Eugene
Questionnaires to determine the vocational and technical education needed by prospective workers in farming and in grain elevator and agricultural equipment businesses were administered to 20 workers in each of the jobs of (1) farm manager, (2) grain elevator manager, operator, salesman, and deliveryman, and (3) agricultural equipment manager,…
Anderson, J.; Usher, J.
Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.
Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for agricultural products sales and service occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies,…
... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 170 RIN 2070-AJ22 Notification of Submission to the Secretary of Agriculture...). ACTION: Notification of submission to the Secretary of Agriculture. SUMMARY: This document notifies the... Administrator has forwarded to the Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) a...
DePasquale, Nicole; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Darrell, Linda; Boyer, LaPricia Lewis; Ephraim, Patti; Boulware, L. Ebony
Live kidney transplantation (LKT) is underused by patients with end-stage renal disease. Easily implementable and effective interventions to improve patients' early consideration of LKT are needed. The Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) social worker intervention (SWI) improved consideration and pursuit of LKT among patients with…
Illinois Committee on Agricultural Migrant Workers, Springfield.
A survey was conducted in Illinois to determine services available for the health, education, day care, housing, and welfare of agricultural migrant families. Further purposes of the survey were to determine changes in migration patterns within the State, and to examine the effect of family services on the recruiting and holding of migrant…
Home Education Livelihood Program, Albuquerque, NM.
THE HOME EDUCATION LIVELIHOOD PROGRAM (HELP) IN NEW MEXICO PROVIDES EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES TO ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED SPANISH AMERICAN AND MEXICAN AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. THE BASIS OF THE HELP PROGRAM IS ADULT AND FAMILY EDUCATION INCLUDING BASIC CHILD CARE AND REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION. HELP PRODUCES SOME OF ITS OWN INSTRUCTIONAL…
Farming is a physically arduous occupation that places farm workers' at potential risk of musculoskeletal disorders, which has been observed to impose a greater impact on their health. Each activity in agriculture brings about certain stress and strain on bones and muscles leading to work-related musculoskeletal disorders which can lead to several permanent diseases and disabilities. The purpose of analyzing musculoskeletal problems among male and female workers engaged in agriculture was to know about the risk factors dangerous to health so that interventions can be planned for mitigating them thereby increasing the efficiency of work. Educational intervention included audio-visual aids as well as printed literature. It was hoped that awareness of these factors through dissemination of information would contribute at preventing hazards amongst farmers and their families. The results revealed that the workers reported very severe to severe pain in low back while performing agricultural activities. Weeding was the most strenuous activity for females and threshing crop for males. Training and education on MSDs through educational intervention proved that the knowledge of the farm workers could be enhanced and can help reduce risk of many musculoskeletal problems. It can be help in empowering the community and mitigate MSDs in agriculture.
Hiott, Ann E.; Quandt, Sara A.; Early, Julie; Jackson, David S.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Context: Pesticide exposure is an important environmental and occupational health risk for agricultural workers and their families, but health care providers receive little training in it. Objective: To evaluate the medical resources available to providers caring for patients, particularly farmworkers, exposed to pesticides and to recommend a…
Mahmud, Kazi Tanvir; Parvez, Asif; Hilton, David; Kabir, G. M. Shamsul; Wahid, Ishraat Saira
The policy of providing microcredit and skill training to poor agricultural workers in developing countries is well-established. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the effectiveness of the training part of that policy. BRAC (formerly the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), the largest non-governmental organization in…
The Social Security Act of 1935 excluded from coverage about half the workers in the American economy. Among the excluded groups were agricultural and domestic workers-a large percentage of whom were African Americans. This has led some scholars to conclude that policymakers in 1935 deliberately excluded African Americans from the Social Security system because of prevailing racial biases during that period. This article examines both the logic of this thesis and the available empirical evidence on the origins of the coverage exclusions. The author concludes that the racial-bias thesis is both conceptually flawed and unsupported by the existing empirical evidence. The exclusion of agricultural and domestic workers from the early program was due to considerations of administrative feasibility involving tax-collection procedures. The author finds no evidence of any other policy motive involving racial bias.
Corsini, Emanuela; Birindelli, Sarah; Fustinoni, Silvia; De Paschale, Gioia; Mammone, Teresa; Visentin, Sara; Galli, Corrado L; Marinovich, Marina; Colosio, Claudio
Available data suggest that ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs) may have immunomodulatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the immunological profile of farmers exposed to Mancozeb, an EBDC fungicide, through the determination of several serum, cellular, and functional immune parameters. Twenty-six healthy subjects entered the study, 13 vineyards exposed to Mancozeb and 13 unexposed controls. Exposure was assessed through the determination of ethylentiourea (ETU) in urine. Complete and differential blood count, serum immunoglobulins, complement fractions, autoantibodies, lymphocyte subpopulations, proliferative response to mitogens, natural killer (NK) activity, and cytokine production were measured. Post-exposure samples showed ETU urine concentration significantly higher than pre-exposure and control groups. A significant increase in CD19+ cells, both percentage and absolute number, and a significant decrease in the percentage of CD25+ cells were found in post-exposure samples compared to controls. A statistically significant increase in the proliferative response to phorbol myristate acetate plus ionomycin (PMA + ionomycin) was observed in the post-exposure group compared to controls and baseline, while a significant reduction in LPS-induced TNF-alpha release in post-exposure samples was observed. Overall, our results suggest that low-level exposure to Mancozeb has slight immunomodulatory effects, and point out a method adequate to reveal immune-modifications in workers occupationally exposed to potential immunotoxic compounds, based on a whole blood assay.
Burgess, Elisabeth O; Barmon, Christina; Moorhead, James R; Perkins, Molly M; Bender, Alexis A
In assisted living (AL) facilities, workers are intimately involved in the lives of residents. Existing research on AL demonstrates the imbalance of this environment, which is a personal home for the residents and a workplace for staff. Using observational and interview data collected from six AL facilities, this grounded theory project analyzes how AL staff define, understand, and negotiate sexual comments, joking, and physical touch. We developed a conceptual model to describe how such harassment was perceived, experienced by AL workers, and how they responded. Sexualized behavior or harassment was experienced by workers of every status. We found that words and actions were contextualized based on resident and worker characteristics and the behavior. Staff members refused to engage residents, redirected them, or reframed the words and gestures to get the job done. Reporting the incidents was less common. We conclude by discussing implications for policy and research.
Gagneux, S; Schneider, C; Odermatt, P; Cisse, G; Cheikh, D; Salem, M L; Toure, A; Tanner, M
Nearly 200 million people in the developing world are dependent or urban gardening for food and income. This practice has been accelerated by the droughts of recent decades which have forced more and more migrants into urban areas. Numerous potential health hazards have been attributed to urban gardening but the exact risks in Sahelian areas remain unclear. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the incidence of diarrhea at the Tel Zatar gardening site in urban Nouakchott, Mauritania. In addition, a case-control study was carried out to identify risk factors for diarrhea in function of gardeners' activity and living conditions. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and logistical regression methods. The annual incidence of diarrhea ranged from 6.9 (IC95 p. 100 = 5.0-8.8) to 8.5 (IC95 p. 100 = 6.2-10.8) episodes per gardener and year. Multivariate analysis identified four significant risk factors. Two of these factors were unrelated to gardening, i.e., not having spent more than USD 3.50 the previous day (odds ratio (OR = 2.8, IC95 p. 100 = 1.01-7.81) and poor food hygiene (cooking outside (OR = 4.69, IC95 p. 100 = 1.06-20.83). The other two factors were regular consumption of raw vegetables (OR = 25.5, IC95 p. 100 = 2.0-32.0) and use of untreated well water (OR = 3.85, IC95 p. 100 = 1.08-14.29). Unprotected well water was the cause of 59.2 p. 100 of diarrheal episodes reported by gardeners at Tel Zatar. The results of this study confirm that vegetable production in urban gardens such as Tel Zatar is associated with health risks. Public health measures should address not only the garden sites but also domestic hygiene.
Alvarado, Andrew J.; And Others
Two surveys developed profiles of seasonal agricultural workers and their working conditions in central California. In 1989, a random sample of 347 seasonal workers was interviewed. The sample was 30 percent female and 87 percent Mexican-born. Average age was 35 years and average educational attainment was 5.9 years. Most had parents, spouses, or…
White, Diana L; Cadiz, David M
This article reports on the efficacy of a work-based learning program for direct care workers in assisted living. The program goal was to improve skills and facilitate career development. The training program had positive impacts at both individual and organizational levels. Survey data found that workers felt more competent and self-confident about their abilities to work with residents. Furthermore, increasing satisfaction with the training program over time led to greater job satisfaction and a desire for additional education. Organizations have better outcomes when workers are well trained, feel empowered, and are satisfied with their work. Policy implications for assisted living settings and meeting the growing demand for a competent direct care workforce are discussed.
Pink, Daniel H.
This book provides a comprehensive examination of the rise of free agent workers, how free agency is transforming the lives of free agents and those around them, problems encountered by free agents, and the future of free agency. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 19 chapters: (1) the numbers and nuances of free agency; (2)…
Describes and analyzes an intervention program with social workers living and working in a situation of uncertainty created by political violence, such as war and terrorism. Uses a social constructionist perspective as a theoretical framework, emphasizing the effect of the social and political context in constructing the experience and a…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Live-in household domestic service workers. 656.19 Section 656.19 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... English shall be accompanied by a written translation into English certified by the translator as to...
Mysyk, Avis; England, Margaret; Gallegos, Juan Arturo Avila
This article examines nerves among participants in the Canada/Mexico Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (C/MSAWP). Based on in-depth interviews with 30 Mexican farm workers in southwestern Ontario, we demonstrate that nerves embodies the distress of economic need, relative powerlessness, and the contradictions inherent in the C/MSAWP that result in various life's lesions. We also explore their use of the nerves idiom as an embodied metaphor for their awareness of the breakdown in self/society relations and, in certain cases, of the lack of control over even themselves. This article contributes to that body of literature that locates nerves at the "normal" end of the "normal/abnormal" continuum of popular illness categories because, despite the similarities in symptoms of nerves among Mexican farm workers and those of anxiety and/or mood disorders, medicalization has not occurred. If nerves has not been medicalized among Mexican farm workers, neither has it given rise to resistance to their relative powerlessness as migrant farm workers. Nonetheless, nerves does serve as an effective vehicle for expressing their distress within the context of the C/MSAWP.
Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Woskie, Susan
Over 16.7 million workers in Thailand (42 percent of the working population) are engaged in agriculture, disproportionately from the lower socioeconomic strata of Thai society. Most agricultural workers (over 93 percent) work in the informal sector without the protections of regulations or enforcement of labor or health and safety laws or enrollment in a social security system. Although Thailand's use of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides is growing, there is little regulation of the sale, use, or application of these potentially toxic chemicals. This paper summarizes the research to date on occupational health and safety for Thai agricultural workers, identifies gaps in pesticide regulations and the current systems for occupational health and safety and social support for Thai agricultural workers, and makes recommendations for future policy and research initiatives to fill the identified gaps.
Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Cui, Lin; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Qu, Guangbo; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Aiqian; Jiang, Guibin
Paired serum and urine samples were collected from workers in a fluorochemical plant from 2008 to 2012 (n = 302) to investigate the level, temporal trends, and half-lives of PFAAs in workers of a fluorochemical plant. High levels of perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were detected in serum with median concentrations of 764, 427, and 1725 ng mL‑1, respectively. The half-lives of PFAAs in workers were estimated by daily clearance rates and annual decline rates of PFAAs in serum by a first-order model. The geometric mean and median value for PFHxS, PFOA, and PFOS were 14.7 and 11.7, 4.1 and 4.0, 32.6 and 21.6 years, respectively, by the daily clearance rates, and they were 3.6, 1.7, and 1.9 years estimated by annual decline rates. The half-lives estimated by the limited clearance route information could be considered as the upper limits for PFAAs, however, the huge difference between two estimated approaches indicated that there were other important elimination pathways of PFAAs other than renal clearance in human. The half-lives estimated by annual decline rates in the present study were the shortest values ever reported, and the intrinsic half-lives might even shorter due to the high levels of ongoing exposure to PFAAs.
Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Cui, Lin; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Qu, Guangbo; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Aiqian; Jiang, Guibin
Paired serum and urine samples were collected from workers in a fluorochemical plant from 2008 to 2012 (n = 302) to investigate the level, temporal trends, and half-lives of PFAAs in workers of a fluorochemical plant. High levels of perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were detected in serum with median concentrations of 764, 427, and 1725 ng mL−1, respectively. The half-lives of PFAAs in workers were estimated by daily clearance rates and annual decline rates of PFAAs in serum by a first-order model. The geometric mean and median value for PFHxS, PFOA, and PFOS were 14.7 and 11.7, 4.1 and 4.0, 32.6 and 21.6 years, respectively, by the daily clearance rates, and they were 3.6, 1.7, and 1.9 years estimated by annual decline rates. The half-lives estimated by the limited clearance route information could be considered as the upper limits for PFAAs, however, the huge difference between two estimated approaches indicated that there were other important elimination pathways of PFAAs other than renal clearance in human. The half-lives estimated by annual decline rates in the present study were the shortest values ever reported, and the intrinsic half-lives might even shorter due to the high levels of ongoing exposure to PFAAs. PMID:27905562
Moreira, Jessica Pronestino de Lima; Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Luiz, Ronir Raggio
Workers' health is a central theme in public health surveys, but the specificity of work activities should be considered. This study aimed to analyze the health of rural workers in Brazil that perform both agricultural and non-agricultural work, based on self-rated health and self-reported diseases. The Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 2008) was used, incorporating information from the complex sampling plan. Agricultural workers 18 years or older were selected, stratified according to those with and without non-agricultural work. Logistic regression was performed for self-rated health, and odds ratios were calculated for self-reported diseases. Exclusive agricultural work decreased the odds of reporting good health and increased the odds of reporting back pain, high blood pressure, and arthritis/rheumatism. Exclusive agricultural workers reported more diseases and worse living conditions. Self-rated health was generally better in workers with non-agricultural occupations.
Background There is currently a lack of reliable information on the exposures of residents and bystanders to pesticides in the UK. Previous research has shown that the methods currently used for assessing pesticide exposure for regulatory purposes are appropriate for farm workers . However, there were indications that the exposures of bystanders may sometimes be underestimated. The previous study did not collect data for residents. Therefore, this study aims to collect measurements to determine if the current methods and tools are appropriate for assessing pesticide exposure for residents living near agricultural fields. Methods/design The study will recruit owners of farms and orchards (hereafter both will be referred to as farms) that spray their agricultural crops with certain specified pesticides, and which have residential areas in close proximity to these fields. Recruited farms will be asked to provide details of their pesticide usage throughout the spray season. Informed consenting residents (adults (18 years and over) and children (aged 4-12 years)) will be asked to provide urine samples and accompanying activity diaries during the spraying season and in addition for a limited number of weeks before/after the spray season to allow background pesticide metabolite levels to be determined. Selected urine samples will be analysed for the pesticide metabolites of interest. Statistical analysis and mathematical modelling will use the laboratory results, along with the additional data collected from the farmers and residents, to determine systemic exposure levels amongst residents. Surveys will be carried out in selected areas of the United Kingdom over two years (2011 and 2012), covering two spraying seasons and the time between the spraying seasons. Discussion The described study protocol was implemented for the sample and data collection procedures carried out in 2011. Based on experience to date, no major changes to the protocol are anticipated for the
Rael, Christine T; Davis, Alissa
Little is known about the mental health of female sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic, which impedes HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. This project estimates the prevalence of depression and identifies key contributing factors to this outcome in female sex workers, women living with HIV/AIDS, and a comparison group. Participants were female sex workers (N = 349), women living with HIV/AIDS (N = 213), and a comparison group of HIV-negative women who were not sex workers (N = 314) from the Dominican Republic. Participants completed questionnaires assessing demographic characteristics and depression. Female sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS completed additional questionnaires ascertaining HIV or sex work-related internalized stigma. Depression was prevalent among female sex workers (70.2%), women living with HIV/AIDS (81.1%), and the comparison group (52.2%). Adjusted logistic regressions showed that internalized stigma was associated with depression for female sex workers (OR = 2.73; 95% CI = 1.95-3.84) and women living with HIV/AIDS (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.86-5.05). Permanent income was associated with this outcome for female sex workers (OR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.01-0.80) and the comparison group (OR = 0.04; 95% CI = 0.00-0.45).
Jaye, Chrystal; Fitzgerald, Ruth
In New Zealand, as in other industrialised nations, rates of work-related gradual onset injuries increased during the 1980s and 1990s. The perspectives and experiences of workers suffering what became known as occupational overuse injuries in New Zealand offer insights into local lived political economies. Here, we explore the dominant metaphor, 'battling', in participants' narratives. On the face of it, battles were fought over diagnoses, over occupational health and safety in the workplace, and over entitlements to therapy and income compensation. However, participants were also battling to maintain their identities as hard workers, while resisting and challenging normalising technologies of self and morally charged negative identities offered them by employers, state-funded accident and injury insurance agencies, and the medical profession. Inherent in their narratives is a critique of the neo-liberal capitalist political economy that allows workers' bodies to be exploited (and sacrificed) for employers' profits.
Bonauto, David K.; Sheppard, Lianne; Busch-Isaksen, Tania; Calkins, Miriam; Adams, Darrin; Lieblich, Max; Fenske, Richard A.
Background Recent research suggests that heat exposure may increase the risk of traumatic injuries. Published heat-related epidemiological studies have relied upon exposure data from individual weather stations. Objective To evaluate the association between heat exposure and traumatic injuries in outdoor agricultural workers exposed to ambient heat and internal heat generated by physical activity using modeled ambient exposure data. Methods A case-crossover study using time-stratified referent selection among 12,213 outdoor agricultural workers with new Washington State Fund workers’ compensation traumatic injury claims between 2000 and 2012 was conducted. Maximum daily Humidex exposures, derived from modeled meteorological data, were assigned to latitudes and longitudes of injury locations on injury and referent dates. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of injury for a priori daily maximum Humidex categories. Results The mean of within-stratum (injury day and corresponding referent days) standard deviations of daily maximum Humidex was 4.8. The traumatic injury odds ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.22), 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.25), and 1.10 (95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.20) for daily maximum Humidex of 25–29, 30–33, and ≥34, respectively, compared to < 25, adjusted for self-reported duration of employment. Stronger associations were observed during cherry harvest duties in the June and July time period, compared to all duties over the entire study period. Conclusions Agricultural workers laboring in warm conditions are at risk for heat-related traumatic injuries. Combined heat-related illness and injury prevention efforts should be considered in high-risk populations exposed to warm ambient conditions in the setting of physical exertion. PMID:27716794
DePasquale, Nicole; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Darrell, Linda; Boyér, LaPricia Lewis; Ephraim, Patti; Boulware, L Ebony
Live kidney transplantation (LKT) is underused by patients with end-stage renal disease. Easily implementable and effective interventions to improve patients' early consideration of LKT are needed. The Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) social worker intervention (SWI) improved consideration and pursuit of LKT among patients with progressive chronic kidney disease in a recent randomized controlled trial: Patients and their families were invited to meet twice with a social worker to discuss their self-identified barriers to seeking LKT and to identify solutions to barriers. The authors audio recorded and transcribed all social worker visits to assess implementation of the TALK SWI and its acceptability to patients and families. The study social worker adhered to the TALK SWI protocol more than 90 percent of the time. Patients and families discussed medical (for example, long-term risks of transplant), psychological (for example, patients' denial of the severity of their disease), and economic (for example, impact of donation on family finances) concerns regarding LKT. Most patients and families felt that the intervention was helpful. Consistently high adherence to the TALK SWI protocol and acceptability of the intervention among patients and families suggest that the TALK SWI can be feasibly implemented in clinical practice.
Flocks, J; Clarke, L; Albrecht, S; Bryant, C; Monaghan, P; Baker, H
The Together for Agricultural Safety project is a community-based social marketing project working to reduce the adverse health effects of pesticide exposure among fernery and nursery workers in Florida. In 3 years, the collaboration between university and community researchers has embodied many of the principles of community-based research while completing multiple stages of formative data collection required for a social marketing project. This hybrid approach to developing a health intervention for a minority community has been successful in its early stages because the community partners are organized, empowered, and motivated to execute research activities with the assistance of academic partners. However, this work has also been labor intensive and costly. This article describes the lessons learned by project partners and considers the limitations of this approach for agricultural health research.
Flocks, J; Clarke, L; Albrecht, S; Bryant, C; Monaghan, P; Baker, H
The Together for Agricultural Safety project is a community-based social marketing project working to reduce the adverse health effects of pesticide exposure among fernery and nursery workers in Florida. In 3 years, the collaboration between university and community researchers has embodied many of the principles of community-based research while completing multiple stages of formative data collection required for a social marketing project. This hybrid approach to developing a health intervention for a minority community has been successful in its early stages because the community partners are organized, empowered, and motivated to execute research activities with the assistance of academic partners. However, this work has also been labor intensive and costly. This article describes the lessons learned by project partners and considers the limitations of this approach for agricultural health research. PMID:11427397
WARMBROD, J. ROBERT
THREE TYPES OF FIRMS IN A 14-COUNTY AREA WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF WORKERS WITH AGRICULTURAL COMPETENCIES REQUIRED IN THE OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS AND TO COMPARE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN FARM AND OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS. OF 77,868 WORKERS IN 384 FIRMS IN AREAS OF LESS THAN 25,000 POPULATION, 18 PERCENT WERE IN…
Dhananjayan, V.; Ravichandran, B.; Anitha, N.; Rajmohan, H. R.
Background: Cholinesterase determination indicates whether the person has been under pesticide exposure is not. It is recommended that the worker′s cholinesterase level should be assessed for workers at a pesticide applied region. Hence, cholinesterase activities in blood samples of agricultural workers exposed to vegetables and grape cultivation with age matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to pesticides, were estimated. Methods: The detailed occupational history and lifestyle characters were obtained by questionnaire. Cholinesterase activity was determined by the method of Ellman as modified by Chambers and Chambers. Results: AChE was ranging from 1.65 to 3.54μmoles/min/ml in exposed subjects where as it was ranged from 2.22 to 3.51μmoles/min/ml in control subjects. BChE activity was ranging from 0.16 to 5.2μmoles/min/ml among exposed subjects, where as it was ranged from 2.19 to 5.06μmoles/min/ml in control subjects. The results showed statistically significant reduction in enzyme activities (AChE 14%; BChE 56%) among exposed subjects. Conclusion: It was concluded that the reduction in cholinesterase activity may lead to varieties of effects. Hence it is compulsory to use protective gadgets during pesticide spray. Further a continuous biomonitoring study is recommended to assess pesticide exposure. PMID:23776322
Muniz, Juan F. McCauley, Linda; Scherer, J.; Lasarev, M.; Koshy, M.; Kow, Y.W.; Nazar-Stewart, Valle; Kisby, G.E.
Oxidative stress and DNA damage have been proposed as mechanisms linking pesticide exposure to health effects such as cancer and neurological diseases. A study of pesticide applicators and farmworkers was conducted to examine the relationship between organophosphate pesticide exposure and biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urine samples were analyzed for OP metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Lymphocytes were analyzed for oxidative DNA repair activity and DNA damage (Comet assay), and serum was analyzed for lipid peroxides (i.e., malondialdehyde, MDA). Cellular damage in agricultural workers was validated using lymphocyte cell cultures. Urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in farmworkers and applicators (p < 0.001) when compared to controls. 8-OH-dG levels were 8.5 times and 2.3 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. Serum MDA levels were 4.9 times and 24 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. DNA damage (Comet assay) and oxidative DNA repair were significantly greater in lymphocytes from applicators and farmworkers when compared with controls. Markers of oxidative stress (i.e., increased reactive oxygen species and reduced glutathione levels) and DNA damage were also observed in lymphocyte cell cultures treated with an OP. The findings from these in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that organophosphate pesticides induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers. These biomarkers may be useful for increasing our understanding of the link between pesticides and a number of health effects.
Ahn, Hyunmi; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung; Moon, Sun Hye
Objectives A rapid increase in the population of migrant workers in Korea has brought new challenges regarding the possible effects of acculturation on health. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of acculturation- and work-related psychosocial factors on work-related musculoskeletal disorders among migrant female workers living in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was used. A translated, structured questionnaire was administrated to 156 southeastern Asian female full-time workers living in Korea. Results About 35% of the participants experienced some type(s) of work-related musculoskeletal disorder(s), which were more prevalent in Vietnamese women than in Thai and Filipino women. Women who preferred to maintain their own heritage and to reject the host country heritage were at risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusion Acculturation strategy and nationality were found to be significant factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Health professionals need to accommodate acculturation contexts into risk assessment and intervention development for work-related musculoskeletal disorders separately for different nationalities. PMID:22953201
LINDSEY, HERBERT H.; AND OTHERS
USEFUL MEANS OF ANTICIPATING THE MOVEMENTS OF MIGRANT CHILDREN INCLUDE ANALYSIS OF CROPS, THE HARVESTING OF WHICH REQUIRES OUT-OF-STATE WORKERS, DISTRIBUTIONAL MAPS OF CROP ACREAGE, NORMAL TIME SCHEDULES FOR CROPS, AND INFORMATION ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS. SUCH INFORMATION ASSISTS IN THE PLANNING OF SCHOOL PROGRAMS. IN WISCONSIN, MOST MIGRANT…
Xiao, Hong; McCurdy, Stephen A.; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria; Li, Chin-Shang; Schenker, Marc B
Background Agriculture poses varied dangers to hired farm workers in the U.S., but little information exists on occupational risks for chronic musculoskeletal pain. We examined common work positions, such as kneeling, carrying heavy loads, and repetitive motion that may increase the risk for chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods MICASA is a population-based study of occupational exposures and health in hired farm workers in California. This analysis includes 759 participants, 18–55 years old, engaged in farm work and residing in Mendota, CA. Chronic pain was defined as pain lasting six weeks or longer at specific body sites (back, knee, hip, etc.) over the entire farm work career. Results Mean age was 37.9 years. 65% participants were born in Mexico, 27.7% were born in El Salvador, and 4.2% were U.S-born. Chronic pain was associated with older age and female sex. After adjustment for age, years working in agriculture, and smoking, stooping/bending >30hrs/week among both men (OR=2.49, 95%CI:1.03–5.99) and women (OR=2.15, 95%CI:1.04–4.46) was associated with chronic hip pain. Driving tractors or other heavy farm equipment >60 hrs/week was associated with increased odds of chronic hip pain (OR=2.16 95%CI: 1.02–4.54) among men. We also observed significant associations with kneeling or crawling >35 hrs/week among women for both chronic back pain (OR=2.96 95%CI: 1.27–6.93) and knee pain (OR=3.02 95%CI: 1.07–8.50), respectively. Conclusions Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent among farm workers and is associated with common work positions. Further research should focus on developing preventive interventions for tasks associated with increased pain risk. These interventions should be targeted to specific types of agricultural tasks. PMID:23023585
Blackman, Ian R
A hypothetical model was formulated to explore which factors can simultaneously influence the self-reported ability of agricultural employees to embrace chemical safety practices. Eight variables were considered in the study, including the employees' gender, age, duration of current employment status, and whether they were employed full-time or part-time. The self-efficacy measures of 169 participants were then estimated by measuring their self-rated ability to understand and perform different chemical safety practices. Models identifying employee self-efficacy pathways leading to worker readiness to engage in chemical safety were then tested using Partial Least Squares Path Analysis. Study results suggest that employees' self-efficacy to successfully engage in safe chemical practices in their workplace can be directly predicted by four variables, with additional indirect effects offered by one other variable, which cumulatively account for 41% of the variance of employees' chemical safety self-efficacy scores. The most significant predictor variables that directly influenced employees' self-efficacy in adopting chemical safety practices in the workplace were worker age, gender, years of employment, and concurrent confidence (self-efficacy) arising from prior experience using chemicals in the workplace. The variables of employees' prior knowledge and understanding about the use of administrative controls and personal protective equipment to protect workers from chemical exposure had no direct influence on self-efficacy to handle chemical emergencies. Employees' unfamiliarity with risk control strategies and reliance on material safety data sheets for information suggest that ongoing and targeted training are necessary if chemical safety issues are to be addressed.
Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Alvarez-Torres, Armando
Genotoxic damage was evaluated in 70 agricultural workers, 25 women and 45 men, exposed to pesticides in Las Grullas, Ahome, Sinaloa, Mexico, with an average of 7 years of exposure. The effect was detected through the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in lymphocytes of peripheral blood and micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear anomalies (NA) in buccal exfoliated cells. Also, the influence on cellular proliferation kinetics (CPK) was studied by means of the replication index (RI) and the cytotoxic effect was examined with the mitotic index (MI). The non-exposed group consisted of 70 other persons, 21 women and 47 men from the city of Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico. Significant differences between the exposed and the non-exposed groups were observed in SCE, CPK, MI, MN and NA. Analysis of variance revealed that age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption did not have a significant effect on genetic damage. However, there was a correlation between exposure time to pesticides and SCE frequency. These results could have been due to the exposure of workers to pesticides containing different chemical compounds. This study afforded valuable data to estimate the possible risk to health associated with pesticide exposure.
Ellison, Corie A.; Crane, Alice L.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Browne, Richard W.; Lein, Pamela J.; Olson, James R.
Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.
... collective bargaining rate, or the Federal or State minimum wage rate, in effect at the time work is...: 2010 Adverse Effect Wage Rates, Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals, and Maximum Travel... Department of Labor (Department) is issuing this Notice to announce the new 2010 Adverse Effect Wage...
Chen, Jidang; Ma, Jun; White, Sarah K; Cao, Zhenpeng; Zhen, Yun; He, Shuyi; Zhu, Wanjun; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yongbiao; Su, Shuo; Zhang, Guihong
Guangdong Province is recognized for dense populations of humans, pigs, poultry and pets. In order to evaluate the threat of viral infection faced by those working with animals, a cross-sectional, sero-epidemiological study was conducted in Guangdong between December 2013 and January 2014. Individuals working with swine, at poultry farms, or live poultry markets (LPM), and veterinarians, and controls not exposed to animals were enrolled in this study and 11 (4 human, 3 swine, 3 avian, and 1 canine) influenza A viruses were used in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays (7 strains) and the cross-reactivity test (9 strains) in which 5 strains were used in both tests. Univariate analysis was performed to identify which variables were significantly associated with seropositivity. Odds ratios (OR) revealed that swine workers had a significantly higher risk of elevated antibodies against A/swine/Guangdong/L6/2009(H1N1), a classical swine virus, and A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2012(H1N1), a Eurasian avian-like swine virus than non-exposed controls. Poultry farm workers were at a higher risk of infection with avian influenza H7N9 and H9N2. LPM workers were at a higher risk of infection with 3 subtypes of avian influenza, H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2. Interestingly, the OR also indicated that LPM workers were at risk of H1N1 swine influenza virus infection, perhaps due to the presence of pigs in the LPM. While partial confounding by cross-reactive antibodies against human viruses or vaccines cannot be ruled out, our data suggests that animal exposed people as are more likely to have antibodies against animal influenza viruses.
Alves, D A; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L; Francoy, T M; Santos-Filho, P S; Nogueira-Neto, P; Billen, J; Wenseleers, T
Insect societies are well known for their high degree of cooperation, but their colonies can potentially be exploited by reproductive workers who lay unfertilized, male eggs, rather than work for the good of the colony. Recently, it has also been discovered that workers in bumblebees and Asian honeybees can succeed in entering and parasitizing unrelated colonies to produce their own male offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such intraspecific worker parasitism might also occur in stingless bees, another group of highly social bees. Based on a large-scale genetic study of the species Melipona scutellaris, and the genotyping of nearly 600 males from 45 colonies, we show that approximately 20% of all males are workers' sons, but that around 80% of these had genotypes that were incompatible with them being the sons of workers of the resident queen. By tracking colonies over multiple generations, we show that these males were not produced by drifted workers, but rather by workers that were the offspring of a previous, superseded queen. This means that uniquely, workers reproductively parasitize the next-generation workforce. Our results are surprising given that most colonies were sampled many months after the previous queen had died and that workers normally only have a life expectancy of approximately 30 days. It also implies that reproductive workers greatly outlive all other workers. We explain our results in the context of kin selection theory, and the fact that it pays workers more from exploiting the colony if costs are carried by less related individuals.
Friesen, Melissa C.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Hines, Cynthia J.; Thomas, Kent; Freeman, Laura E. Beane
Background Women living in agricultural areas may experience high pesticide exposures compared with women in urban or suburban areas because of their proximity to farm activities. Objective Our objective was to review the evidence in the published literature for the contribution of nonoccupational pathways of pesticide exposure in women living in North American agricultural areas. Methods We evaluated the following nonoccupational exposure pathways: paraoccupational (i.e., take-home or bystander exposure), agricultural drift, residential pesticide use, and dietary ingestion. We also evaluated the role of hygiene factors (e.g., house cleaning, shoe removal). Results Among 35 publications identified (published 1995–2013), several reported significant or suggestive (p < 0.1) associations between paraoccupational (n = 19) and agricultural drift (n = 10) pathways and pesticide dust or biomarker levels, and 3 observed that residential use was associated with pesticide concentrations in dust. The 4 studies related to ingestion reported low detection rates of most pesticides in water; additional studies are needed to draw conclusions about the importance of this pathway. Hygiene factors were not consistently linked to exposure among the 18 relevant publications identified. Conclusions Evidence supported the importance of paraoccupational, drift, and residential use pathways. Disentangling exposure pathways was difficult because agricultural populations are concurrently exposed to pesticides via multiple pathways. Most evidence was based on measurements of pesticides in residential dust, which are applicable to any household member and are not specific to women. An improved understanding of nonoccupational pesticide exposure pathways in women living in agricultural areas is critical for studying health effects in women and for designing effective exposure-reduction strategies. Citation Deziel NC, Friesen MC, Hoppin JA, Hines CJ, Thomas K, Beane Freeman LE. 2015. A review
Women living in agricultural areas may experience relatively high pesticide exposures compared to women in urban or suburban areas due to their proximity to farm activities. However, exposure pathways in these women are not well-characterized. We reviewed the evidence for the con...
Thirty-five in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with female, street-based, commercial sex workers in Kathmandu, Nepal. The framework of structural violence guided this study in identifying the structural context that impacts the female sex workers' lives and may cause harm to their health. Structural violence in health care was revealed through thematic analysis as (a) discrimination, (b) forced choice, and (c) limitations to health information sources. Lived experiences highlight how the sex workers engaged with structural limitations in health care access, services, and utilization. Structural violence conveys a message about who is entitled to health care and what a society emphasizes and expects regarding acceptable health behavior. Examining the structural violence highlighted how the sex workers negotiated, understood, and engaged with structural limitations in health care access, services, and utilization.
Simsek, Zeynep; Ersin, Fatma; Kirmizitoprak, Evin
Stress is one of the main causes of health problems, especially mental disorders. These health problems cause a significant amount of ability loss and increase cost. It is estimated that by 2020, mental disorders will constitute 15% of the total disease burden, and depression will rank second only after ischemic heart disease. Environmental experiences are paramount in increasing the liability of mental disorders in those who constantly face sustained high levels of stress. The objective of this study was to develop a stress scale for seasonal migrant agricultural workers aged 18 years and older. The sample consisted of 270 randomly selected seasonal migrant agricultural workers. The average age of the participants was 33.1 ± 14, and 50.7% were male. The Cronbach alpha coefficient and test-retest methods were used for reliability analyses. Although the factor analysis was performed for the structure validity of the scale, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient and Bartlett test were used to determine the convenience of the data for the factor analysis. In the reliability analyses, the Cronbach alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .96, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was .81. In the exploratory factor analysis for validity of the scale, four factors were obtained, and the factors represented workplace physical conditions (25.7% of the total variance), workplace psychosocial and economic factors (19.3% of the total variance), workplace health problems (15.2% of the total variance), and school problems (10.1% of the total variance). The four factors explained 70.3% of the total variance. As a result of the expert opinions and analyses, a stress scale with 48 items was developed. The highest score to be obtained from the scale was 144, and the lowest score was 0. The increase in the score indicates the increase in the stress levels. The findings show that the scale is a valid and reliable assessment instrument that can be used in
Milanowski, J; Dutkiewicz, J; Potoczna, H; Kuś, L; Urbanowicz, B
The aim of this study was to identify the specific agents which caused extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) in the selected group of 20 agricultural workers from eastern Poland. The microbiological analysis of the samples of plant materials or dusts reported by the patients as causing symptoms has been carried out, followed by allergological tests (inhalation challenge, agar-gel precipitation test, inhibition of leukocyte migration, skin test) with extrinsic microbial antigens. It was found that the causative agents of allergic alveolitis in the examined group of patients were mesophilic, non-branching bacteria associated with grain dust, mostly Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans) and Arthrobacter globiformis (each in eight cases). The remaining agents were Alcaligenes faecalis (in two cases), and Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis (in one case each). On the basis of the clinical picture, the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and allergological tests, the diagnosis of the chronic form of the disease was stated in 14 patients and an acute form - in 6 patients. EAA patients demonstrated in the BAL fluid a typical lymphocytic alveolitis both in terms of percentage and absolute number of lymphocytes. Also, the numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly higher in EAA patients.
Moisan, Frédéric; Spinosi, Johan; Dupupet, Jean-Luc; Delabre, Laurène; Mazurie, Jean-Louis; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen; Tzourio, Christophe; Elbaz, Alexis
Retrospective assessment of pesticide exposure is complex; however, patterns of pesticide use strongly depend on farming type, which is easier to assess than pesticide exposure. Our aim was to estimate Parkinson’s disease (PD) prevalence in five French districts in 2007 among affiliates of Mutualité Sociale Agricole (MSA) and to investigate the relation between PD prevalence and farming type. We identified PD cases from administrative files as persons who used levodopa and/or benefited from free health care for PD. Densities of 16 farming types were defined at the canton of residence level (1988 French agricultural census). We used logistic regression to study the relation between PD prevalence and density of farming types and a semi-Bayes approach to deal with correlated exposures. We identified 1,659 PD cases, yielding an age- and sex-standardized PD prevalence of 3.01/1,000. Prevalence increased with age and was higher in men than women. We found a higher PD prevalence among affiliates living in cantons characterized by a higher density of farms specialized in fruits and permanent crops (multivariable semi-Bayes model: OR4+5 vs 1+2+3 quintiles = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.08–1.36; test for trend, P = 0.035). In France, farms specialized in fruits and permanent crops rank first in terms of insecticide use per hectare. Our findings are consistent with studies reporting an association between PD and insecticide use and show that workers in farms specialized in fruits or permanent crops may be an occupational group at higher PD risk. PMID:21412834
Purpose: The study aims to examine job satisfaction of migrant live-in home care workers who provide care to frail older adults and to examine the extent to which quality of relationships between the care provider and care recipient and workplace characteristics is associated with job satisfaction. Design and Methods: A convenience sample that…
Fram, Maryah Stella; Altshuler, Sandra J.
Schools have a wide range of connections with the child welfare system, with common interests in the care, well-being, and future life opportunities of children living in foster care. Children in foster care are often the most vulnerable students in the school system, and school social workers often serve as important resources for these children.…
Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen
The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.
Bradman, Asa; Castorina, Rosemary; Barr, Dana Boyd; Chevrier, Jonathan; Harnly, Martha E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; McKone, Thomas E.; Harley, Kim; Holland, Nina; Eskenazi, Brenda
Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are used in agriculture and several are registered for home use. As young children age they may experience different pesticide exposures due to varying diet, behavior, and other factors. We measured six OP dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites (three dimethyl alkylphosphates (DMAP) and three diethyl alkylphosphates (DEAP)) in urine samples collected from ∼400 children living in an agricultural community when they were 6, 12, and 24 months old. We examined bivariate associations between DAP metabolite levels and determinants such as age, diet, season, and parent occupation. To evaluate independent impacts, we then used generalized linear mixed multivariable models including interaction terms with age. The final models indicated that DMAP metabolite levels increased with age. DMAP levels were also positively associated with daily servings of produce at 6- and 24-months. Among the 6-month olds, DMAP metabolite levels were higher when samples were collected during the summer/spring versus the winter/fall months. Among the 12-month olds, DMAP and DEAP metabolites were higher when children lived ≤60 meters from an agricultural field. Among the 24-month-olds, DEAP metabolite levels were higher during the summer/spring months. Our findings suggest that there are multiple determinants of OP pesticide exposures, notably dietary intake and temporal and spatial proximity to agricultural use. The impact of these determinants varied by age and class of DAP metabolite. PMID:21695029
Recio, Rogelio; Ocampo-Gómez, Guadalupe; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Borja-Aburto, Victor; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Uribe, Marisela; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Cebrián, Mariano E.
Organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) are suspected of altering reproductive function by reducing brain acetylcholinesterase activity and monoamine levels, thus impairing hypothalamic and/or pituitary endocrine functions and gonadal processes. Our objective was to evaluate in a longitudinal study the association between OP exposure and serum levels of pituitary and sex hormones. Urinary OP metabolite levels were measured by gas–liquid chromatography, and serum pituitary and sex hormone levels by enzymatic immunoassay and radioimmunoassay in 64 men. A total of 147 urine and blood samples were analyzed for each parameter. More than 80% of the participants had at least one OP metabolite in their urine samples. The most frequent metabolite found was diethylthiophosphate (DETP; 55%), followed by diethylphosphate (DEP; 46%), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP; 32%), and dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP; 31%). However, the metabolites detected at higher concentrations were DMTP, DEP, DMDTP, and dimethylphosphate. There was a high proportion of individuals with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations outside the range of normality (48%). The average FSH serum levels were higher during the heavy pesticide spraying season. However, a multivariate analysis of data collected in all periods showed that serum FSH levels were negatively associated with urinary concentrations of both DMTP and DMDTP, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH) was negatively associated with DMTP. We observed no significant associations between estradiol or testosterone serum levels with OP metabolites. The hormonal disruption in agricultural workers presented here, together with results from experimental animal studies, suggests that OP exposure disrupts the hypothalamic–pituitary endocrine function and also indicates that FSH and LH are the hormones most affected. PMID:16140621
... in connection with oleoresinous products. (a) Services of workers from Mexico. Services performed... agricultural products. (b) Services of workers from British West Indies. Services performed by a foreign... oleoresinous products. Services performed before 1959 in connection with the production or harvesting of...
Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong
A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…
California State Dept. of Employment Development, Sacramento.
This report examines conditions in the California nursery industry and develops a comprehensive baseline of labor force requirements and practices. A telephone survey was conducted with 167 randomly selected nurseries in a 10-county area. Additionally, 455 workers and 85 employers participated in on-site interviews. Workers were classified as…
Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.
THE NUMBER OF SEASONAL DOMESTIC AGRICULTURAL MIGRANTS IN EACH COUNTY OF THE UNITED STATES IS PRESENTED GRAPHICALLY ON THIS 26 BY 40 INCH MAP. PUBLIC HEALTH AND OTHER SERVICE AGENCIES MAY USE IT AND ACCOMPANYING TABLES TO PLAN PROGRAM ADJUSTMENTS NECESSITATED BY THE WORKER INFLUX. THE DATA ARE CONFINED TO DOMESTIC WORKERS AND THEIR ACCOMPANYING…
Somaruga, C; Troja Martinazzoli, M G; Brambilla, G; Colosio, C
In Italy, 5 millions migrants live and work. Among them, the employment rate is much higher in comparison with the Italians' one (75% versus 62%). The well known "healthy migrant effect" is confirmed by statistics from the National Institute for Statistics: according to it, migrants access the National Health System for pregnancy and delivery and for accidents. The chronic pathology is not a major concern. Moreover, their work ability is generally complete, without any limitation. Nevertheless, migrants seem to represent a vulnerable subgroup with regard to the risk of 1) occupational injuries: this is strongly linked with the risk of Tetanus infection; 2) disorders of the metabolism, like hyperglycaemia and hyperlipemia, which is linked to a higher cardiovascular risk. In this light data from health surveillance carried out by the International centre for Rural Health of the San Paolo University Hospital in agricultural setting in the Region of Lombardy and the participation of the Centre itself to the Promovax EC-cofunded project are presented.
This article describes and analyzes an intervention program with social workers living and working in a situation of uncertainty created by political violence such as war and terrorism. The author used a social constructionist perspective as a theoretical framework, emphasizing the effect of the social and political context in constructing the experience and a recognition of the personal and professional knowledge acquired in the daily experience. The author used qualitative methods to evaluate the process and outcome. The narrative-holistic analysis focused on reconstructing meaning and adapting it to the new situation, the main thrust of the program. From the thematic analysis four main themes emerged: (1) loss as a result of political violence; (2) meaning of strength and weakness in situations of political violence; (3) preparation for terrorist attacks; and (4) definition of a safe place. The outcome evaluation describes the meaning of this kind of training program to the participants. The specific context of the training program is discussed as well as possibilities of using it in different contexts.
Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.
This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for agriculture production I and II. Presented first are a program…
Singh, Bhoopendra; Gupta, Mudit Kumar
Background: Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries for agricultural purposes. Objectives: To find various patterns of hardware use for spraying of insecticides, prevalent storage practice adopted by the user, types of personal protective equipments used for the handling of chemicals; to detect dangerous practices and the extent to which safety norms being followed by the users during the application/treatments, and finally their knowledge concerning the risks of pesticides. Materials and Methods: The agriculture workers who had been involved in pesticide application for agricultural purpose were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: Types, treatment equipment, use of personal protection and safety measures during the application/treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Hundred workers, aged between 21 and 60 years old, were included. Pesticides were mostly applied with manual equipment using Knapsack (70%) and only 5% farmers were using Tractor-mounted sprayer. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 65%). Majority of the workers/applicators used no personal protection measures or used it defectively/partially. Most of the workers/respondents (77%) did not bother for safety and health risks of pesticide exposure. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very poorly and defectively. Almost half of the applicators were not following right direction with respect to wind direction while spraying, thus it increase the risk of exposure. There is a clear need to develop specific training and prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on
Pascuzzi, Simone; Santoro, Francesco
The electromagnetic field (EMF) levels generated by mobile telephone radio base stations (RBS) situated on rural-agricultural lands were assessed in order to evaluate the exposure of farm workers in the surrounding area. The expected EMF at various distances from a mobile telephone RBS was calculated using an ad hoc numerical forecast model. Subsequently, the electric fields around some RBS on agricultural lands were measured, in order to obtain a good approximation of the effective conditions at the investigated sites. The viability of this study was tested according to the Italian Regulations concerning general and occupational public exposure to time-varying EMFs. The calculated E-field values were obtained with the RBS working constantly at full power, but during the in situ measurements the actual power emitted by RBS antennas was lower than the maximum level, and the E-field values actually registered were much lower than the calculated values.
In Israel, almost all around-the-clock home care services are provided by foreign workers. Despite the fact that these workers are considered temporary, the Israeli government has acknowledged the need for consistency in care and now allows workers to stay in the country for as long as their care recipient is alive. Nonetheless, there have been increasing concerns about the tendency of foreign home care workers to view Israel as a temporary station on their way to more attractive destinations, such as Canada or England. Using the job rewards and concerns model, this article evaluates determinants of foreign home care workers' intentions to leave their job. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of 178 Filipino home care workers in Israel. Only 15 workers (8.4%) reported that they would be likely or very likely to leave their job within the next 3 months. The final model suggested that negative experiences within the home/work environment as well as within Israeli society at large contribute to depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms. However, caring for an older adult with dementia was the only predictor of intention to leave the job. The majority of workers do not report an intention to leave their job. Nonetheless, greater supervision of this caregiving arrangement in an attempt to protect the rights of foreign home care workers within the home/work environment is an important step, which has to be followed up by attitudinal changes within society at large. Specific training in dementia care is also warranted.
HEFFERNAN, HELEN; AND OTHERS
SPECIAL FEATURES OF FIVE SUMMER SCHOOL PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRANT WORKERS WERE PRESENTED. THE CERES ELEMENTARY SCHOOL DISTRICT GAVE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL WOODWORKING CLASSES TO FIFTH- AND SIXTH-GRADE GIRLS. INSTRUCTION IN COOKING AND SEWING WAS ENTHUSIASTICALLY RECEIVED BY THIRD- AND FOURTH-GRADE GIRLS BUT DID NOT APPEAL TO OLDER GIRLS. A…
Lucas, Eric R.; Privman, Eyal; Keller, Laurent
Understanding why organisms senesce is a fundamental question in biology. One common explanation is that senescence results from an increase in macromolecular damage with age. The tremendous variation in lifespan between genetically identical queen and worker ants, ranging over an order of magnitude, provides a unique system to study how investment into processes of somatic maintenance and macromolecular repair influence lifespan. Here we use RNAseq to compare patterns of expression of genes involved in DNA and protein repair of age-matched queens and workers. There was no difference between queens and workers in 1-day-old individuals, but the level of expression of these genes increased with age and this up-regulation was greater in queens than in workers, resulting in significantly queen-biased expression in 2-month-old individuals in both legs and brains. Overall, these differences are consistent with the hypothesis that higher longevity is associated with increased investment into somatic repair. PMID:27617474
Guardino, X; Serra, C; Obiols, J; Rosell, M G; Berenguer, M J; López, F; Brosa, J
An analytical method combining a solid-phase (C18) clean-up and GC-electron-capture detection using a capillary column, was implemented to determine p,p'-DDT and its metabolites (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), as well as other organochlorine pesticides in whole blood samples from 30 farmers and 24 non-occupationally exposed workers. The average concentrations for the quantified pesticides, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE, were 0.9, 1.5 and 8.0 micrograms/l whole blood for exposed workers and 0.3, 0.5 and 3.3 micrograms/l for unexposed workers, respectively. GC-MS was used to confirm the identity of the pesticides found. Solid-phase extraction and the protocol used give a cleaner analytical matrix, not only improving sensitivity and resolution, but also allowing analyses with smaller blood samples as compared to other methods.
DeWit, Yvonne; Pickett, William; Lawson, Joshua; Dosman, James
Youth and young adults who work in the agricultural sector experience high rates of injury. This study aimed to investigate relations between high-risk farm activities and the occurrence of agricultural injuries in these vulnerable groups. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using written questionnaire data from 1135 youth and young adults from the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort. The prevalence of agricultural injury was estimated at 4.9%/year (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7, 6.2). After adjustment for important covariates, duration of farm work was strongly associated with the occurrence of injury (risk ratio [RR] = 8.0 [95% CI: 1.7, 36.7] for 10-34 vs. <10 hours/week; RR = 10.3 [95% CI: 2.2, 47.5] for those working 35+ hours/week). Tractor maintenance, tractor operation, chores with large animals, herd maintenance activities, and veterinary activities were identified as risk factors for agricultural injury. Risks for agricultural injury among youth and young adults on farms relate directly to the amounts and types of farm work exposures that young people engage in.
Nelson, William J; Heiberger, Scott; Lee, Barbara C
The 2013 North American Agricultural Safety Summit, an unprecedented gathering of industry leaders and safety experts, was held September 25-27 in Minneapolis, MN. Hosted by the industry-led Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America (ASHCA), there were 250 attendees, 82 speakers, 76 abstracts with poster presentations, along with "best practices" videos, genius bars sessions, learning stations, exhibits, breakfast roundtable topics, and receptions. The event was a mix of knowledge, inspiration and networking to enable participants to influence the adoption of safety practices in their home/work settings. Given the agriculture industry's commitment to feed nine billion people, the projected world population by 2050, it is imperative that producers and agribusiness strive to do it safely, humanely and sustainably. Evaluation feedback was very positive, indicating ASHCA's original objectives for the Summit were achieved.
The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.
Ivicek, Kristy; de Castro, A B; Salazar, Mary K; Murphy, Helen H; Keifer, Matthew
Problem-based learning, which emphasizes group collaboration to solve real-world case scenarios, is an instructional approach that is well suited to occupational and environmental health nursing education. Learners actively work through case studies rather than passively receive information presented through lectures. Problem-based learning methods promote critical thinking skills and motivate learning, preparing learners for professional practice in complex, ever-changing environments. Despite these advantages, problem-based learning is under-utilized in nursing education compared to more traditional lecture methods. This article presents key concepts of problem-based learning, discusses problem-based learning in educating occupational and environmental health nurses, and describes the development of a problem-based learning case aimed at increasing occupational and environmental health nurses capacity to address pesticide exposure among migrant and seasonal agricultural workers.
Du Mont, Janice; McGregor, Margaret J
This exploratory study contributes to the sparse literature on sexually assaulted sex workers. We examined 462 sexual assault cases seen at an emergency department-based sexual assault service and reported to the police between 1993 and 1997. More than one fifth of victims were sex workers. We compared them to other victims on victim characteristics, assault characteristics, and medical-legal findings. Relative to other victims, sex workers were younger, had lower incomes, and were more likely to be heroin and/or cocaine users. They suffered a greater number of injuries and forensic samples collected from their bodies were more likely to test positive for sperm and/or semen. These victims were also less likely to have been using alcohol and/or marijuana prior to the assault and to be emotionally expressed during the medical- legal examination. The substantial proportion of sex workers in the study population suggests that attention to their particular needs should be an important part of hospital-based sexual assault services. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure.
Desai, I D; Garcia Tavares, M L; Dutra de Oliveira, B S; Douglas, A; Duarte, F A; Dutra de Oliveira, J E
A new class of migrant workers, commonly known as "Boia-Frias", is rapidly growing in the periurban slumbs (favelas) of Brazil. In 1978 a collaborative study was undertaken to assess the food habits and nutritional status of 100 migrant worker families of Vila Recreio, a typical Boia-Fria settlement near Ribeirao Preto in the state of Sao Paulo. The findings of this survey revealed that the traditional diet of Boia-Frias is nutritionally inadequate both in quality and quantity. Their rice and bean-based diet lacks sufficient variety because of the infrequent use of fresh fruits and vegetables, which are available locally, and of supplemental amounts of protein-rich foods of animal origin. Empty-calorie foods such as carbonated drinks and alcoholic beverages are consumed freely; and starchy foods, traditionally used in the North and Northeast of Brazil, are used commonly as weaning foods. Although dietary practices of pregnant and lactating women are poor, breast-feeding is still practiced by most mothers. The biochemical analysis of blood samples did not indicate major subclinical deficiencies except low hematological values and low plasma vitamin A concentrations in about 25% of the population examined. Plasma cholesterol and plasma vitamin E values were found to be normal. However, anthropometric examinations revealed clear signs of malnutrition and/or undernourishment, which likely impairs their capacity for physical work and adversely affects their overall health.
Nasreen, Sharifa; Khan, Salah Uddin; Luby, Stephen P; Gurley, Emily S; Abedin, Jaynal; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Rahman, Mustafizur; Hancock, Kathy; Levine, Min Z; Veguilla, Vic; Wang, David; Holiday, Crystal; Gillis, Eric; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Bresee, Joseph S; Rahman, Mahmudur; Uyeki, Timothy M; Katz, Jacqueline M; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo
The risk for influenza A(H5N1) virus infection is unclear among poultry workers in countries where the virus is endemic. To assess H5N1 seroprevalence and seroconversion among workers at live bird markets (LBMs) in Bangladesh, we followed a cohort of workers from 12 LBMs with existing avian influenza surveillance. Serum samples from workers were tested for H5N1 antibodies at the end of the study or when LBM samples first had H5N1 virus-positive test results. Of 404 workers, 9 (2%) were seropositive at baseline. Of 284 workers who completed the study and were seronegative at baseline, 6 (2%) seroconverted (7 cases/100 poultry worker-years). Workers who frequently fed poultry, cleaned feces from pens, cleaned food/water containers, and did not wash hands after touching sick poultry had a 7.6 times higher risk for infection compared with workers who infrequently performed these behaviors. Despite frequent exposure to H5N1 virus, LBM workers showed evidence of only sporadic infection.
Jones, Jamal; Arheart, Kristopher; Kobetz, Erin; Chida, Natasha; Baer, Shelly; Powell, Alexis; Symes, Stephen; Hunte, Tai; Monroe, Anne; Carrasquillo, Olveen
AIDS-related mortality remains a leading cause of preventable death among African-Americans. We sought to determine if community health workers could improve clinical outcomes among vulnerable African-Americans living with HIV in Miami, Florida. We recruited 91 medically indigent persons with HIV viral loads ≥1,000 and/or a CD4 cell count ≤350. Patients were randomized to a community health worker (CHW) intervention or control group. Viral load and CD4 cell count data were abstracted from electronic medical records. At 12 months, the mean VL in the intervention group was log 0.9 copies/μL lower than the control group. The CD4 counts were not significantly different among the groups. Compared to the control group, patients randomized to CHWs experienced statistically significant improvements in HIV viral load. Larger multi-site studies of longer duration are needed to determine whether CHWs should be incorporated into standard treatment models for vulnerable populations living with HIV. PMID:23515640
Scott, Victoria J; Votova, Kristine; Gallagher, Elaine
This article describes a quasi-experimental study on falls prevention for clients of home support services in British Columbia, Canada. The study tested a nurse-designed multifactorial intervention, delivered by community health workers. The intervention consisted of 1 day of falls surveillance and prevention training for 51 community health workers, followed by 6 months of evidence-based interventions with their clients (n = 70) using a pretested Checklist and Action Plan. Study findings showed a 43% reduction (chi2 = 8.742, p < .01) in falls and a 44% reduction (chi2 = 5.739, p < .05) for fallers (those who fell once or more) from the 6-month preintervention period to postintervention. The proportion of falls resulting in any injury did not decrease; however, fractures were reduced from seven in the 6-month preintervention period to one following the intervention. The results indicate this intervention is an effective and inexpensive falls prevention strategy for frail recipients of home support services.
Caperton, Bill; And Others
Prepared by the Title I, Elementary and Secondary Education Act, (ESEA) Migrant Program director, this State annual evaluation report for fiscal year 1967 includes projects for migratory children of migratory agricultural workers in New Mexico. The material in this report represents a comprehensive analysis of Title I Migrant Program activity…
Miranda, Ana M O; Soares, Léo G; Ferrari, Thiago M; Silva, Denise G; Falabella, Márcio E V; Tinoco, Eduardo M B
Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a pre-malignant inflammatory reaction of the lips caused by continuous exposure to solar rays. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of AC in a population of sugarcane workers in Brazil. 1,539 individuals who were exposed to the sun during working hours and 150 individuals who were not exposed were screened for clinical signs of AC. The sample was classified according to years of exposure to the sun, ethnicity, gender smoking and severity of the lesion. A 9.16% (n= 141) prevalence of AC was observed among the population which had been exposed to the sun. The prevalence of AC lesions was significantly higher among individuals who had been exposed to the sun for more than 10 years than among those who had been exposed for less than 10 years, and among Caucasians and males than non-Caucasians and females. It was concluded that the severity of the lesions was associated with time of exposure to the sun.
Lancaster, Kathryn E; Cernigliaro, Dana; Zulliger, Rose; Fleming, Paul F
Female sex workers (FSW) living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa have poor engagement to HIV care and treatment. Understanding the HIV care and treatment engagement experiences of FSW has important implications for interventions to enhance care and treatment outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the HIV care experiences and determinants of linkage and retention in care, antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, and ART adherence and viral suppression among FSW living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, SCOPUS, CINAHL, Global Health, Psycinfo, Sociological Abstracts, and Popline were searched for variations of search terms related to sex work and HIV care and treatment among sub-Saharan African populations. Ten peer-reviewed articles published between January 2000 and August 2015 met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Despite expanded ART access, FSW in sub-Saharan Africa have sub-optimal HIV care and treatment engagement outcomes. Stigma, discrimination, poor nutrition, food insecurity, and substance use were commonly reported and associated with poor linkage to care, retention in care, and ART initiation. Included studies suggest that interventions with FSW should focus on multilevel barriers to engagement in HIV care and treatment and explore the involvement of social support from intimate male partners. Our results emphasise several critical points of intervention for FSW living with HIV, which are urgently needed to enhance linkage to HIV care, retention in care, and treatment initiation, particularly where the HIV prevalence among FSW is greatest.
Huen, Karen; Bradman, Asa; Harley, Kim; Yousefi, Paul; Barr, Dana Boyd; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina
Organophosphate pesticides are widely used and recent studies suggest associations of in utero exposures with adverse birth outcomes and neurodevelopment. Few studies have characterized organophosphate pesticides in human plasma or established how these levels correlate to urinary measurements. We measured organophosphate pesticide metabolites in maternal urine and chlorpyrifos and diazinon in maternal and cord plasma of subjects living in an agricultural area to compare levels in two different biological matrices. We also determined paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotypes (PON1192 and PON1-108) and PON1 substrate-specific activities in mothers and their newborns to examine whether PON1 may affect organophosphate pesticide measurements in blood and urine. Chlorpyrifos levels in plasma ranged from 0-1726 ng/mL and non-zero levels were measured in 70.5% and 87.5% of maternal and cord samples, respectively. Diazinon levels were lower (0-0.5 ng/mL); non-zero levels were found in 33.3% of maternal plasma and 47.3% of cord plasma. Significant associations between organophosphate pesticide levels in blood and metabolite levels in urine were limited to models adjusting for PON1 levels. Increased maternal PON1 levels were associated with decreased odds of chlorpyrifos and diazinon detection (odds ratio(OR): 0.56 and 0.75, respectively). Blood organophosphate pesticide levels of study participants were similar in mothers and newborns and slightly higher than those reported in other populations. However, compared to their mothers, newborns have much lower quantities of the detoxifying PON1 enzyme suggesting that infants may be especially vulnerable to organophosphate pesticide exposures. PMID:22683313
Background Foreign workers’ migrant status may hinder their utilisation of health services. This study describes the health-seeking behaviour and beliefs of a group of male migrant workers in Singapore and the barriers limiting their access to primary healthcare. Methods A cross-sectional study of 525 male migrant workers, ≥21 years old and of Indian, Bangladeshi or Myanmar nationality, was conducted at a dormitory via self-administered questionnaires covering demographics, prevalence of medical conditions and health-seeking behaviours through hypothetical scenarios and personal experience. Results 71% (95%CI: 67 to 75%) of participants did not have or were not aware if they had healthcare insurance. 53% (95%CI: 48 to 57%) reported ever having had an illness episode while in Singapore, of whom 87% (95%CI: 82 to 91%) saw a doctor. The number of rest days was significantly associated with higher probability of having consulted a doctor for their last illness episode (p = 0.026), and higher basic monthly salary was associated with seeing a doctor within 3 days of illness (p = 0.002). Of those who saw a doctor, 84% (95%CI: 79 to 89%) responded that they did so because they felt medical care would help them to work better. While 55% (95%CI: 36 to 73%) said they did not see a doctor because the illness was not serious, those with lower salaries were significantly more likely to cite inadequate finances (55% of those earning < S$500/month). In hypothetical injury or illness scenarios, most responded that they would see the doctor, but a sizeable proportion (15% 95%CI: 12 to 18%) said they would continue to work even in a work-related injury scenario that caused severe pain and functional impairment. Those with lower salaries were significantly more likely to believe they would have to pay for their own healthcare or be uncertain about who would pay. Conclusions The majority of foreign workers in this study sought healthcare when they fell ill. However
Zagar, Robert John; Kovach, Joseph W; Basile, Benjamin; Hughes, John Russell; Grove, William M; Busch, Kenneth G; Zablocki, Michael; Osnowitz, William; Neuhengen, Jonas; Liu, Yutong; Zagar, Agata Karolina
147 adults (107 men, 40 women) and 89 adolescents (61 boys, 28 girls), selected randomly from referrals and volunteers, were given the Ammons Quick Test (QT), the Beck Suicide Scale (BSS), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Second (MMPI-2) or Adolescent Versions (MMPI-A), the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, and the Standard Predictor (SP) of Violence Potential Adult or Adolescent Versions. The goals were to: (a) demonstrate computer and paper-and-pencil tests correlated; (b) validate tests to identify at-risk for violence; (c) show that identifying at-risk saves lives and resources; and (d) find which industries benefited from testing at-risk. Paper-and-pencil vs. computer test correlations (.83-.99), sensitivity (.97-.98), and specificity (.50-.97) were computed. Testing at-risk saves lives and resources. Critical industries for testing at-risk individuals may include airlines, energy generating industries, insurance, military, nonprofit-religious, prisoners, trucking or port workers, and veterans.
Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Workers, 1972: S. 3762 -- To Extend the Program for Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Migrant Workers. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Subcommittee on Migratory Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 2d Session, August 1, 1972.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.
On August 1, 1972, the Subcommittee heard testimony on bill S. 3762 which would extend the program for health services for domestic agricultural migrant workers. The bill would extend the migrant health program for 5 years, with $100 million authorized for fiscal year 1973 and a $25 million increase for each of the following years. S. 3762…
Austin, J; Alvero, A M; Fuchs, M M; Patterson, L; Anger, W K
Employees with limited education may be excluded from advanced training due to assumptions that they might not learn rapidly. However, preparatory training may be able to overcome missing experience in education. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that computer-based training (CBT) in supervisor skills of Latino agricultural workers would improve subsequent performance in a workshop designed to teach supervisor skills. Ten men born and educated in Mexico participated in the study; all spoke Spanish, the language of the training. Five participants (mean 6.4 years of education) completed supervisor skills CBT, and five participants (mean 8.2 years of education) completed hazard communication (HazCom) CBT as a control condition. Following the CBT, all participants completed a two-day face-to-face workshop on supervisory skills conducted by an experienced behavior management consultant. Although the groups did not differ in their knowledge scores on a multiple-choice test before the face-to-face workshop, after the workshop the HazCom group had a mean test score of 51.2% (SD = 8.7) while the supervisor group had a higher mean test score of 65.2% (SD = 14.3). The difference was marginally significant by a t-test (p = 0.052), and the effect size was large (d = 1.16). The results suggest that computer-based training in supervisor skills can be effective in preparing participants with limited education to learn supervisor skills from a face-to-face workshop. This result suggests that limited educational attainment is not a barrier to learning the complex knowledge required to supervise employees, that pre-training may improve learning in a workshop format, and that training may be presented effectively in a computer-based format to employees with limited education.
Bendis, Randall J; Relyea, Rick A
Ecological communities across the globe are exposed to diverse natural and anthropogenic stressors and disturbances that can lead to community-wide impacts. Contaminants are a group of anthropogenic disturbances that are ubiquitous in the environment and can trigger trophic cascades, increased susceptibility to pathogens, reduced biodiversity, and altered ecosystems. In these ecosystems, substantial attention has been given to evolved resistance in targeted pest species, but little attention has been given to the evolution of resistance in nontarget species in nature. For the present study, the authors used laboratory toxicity tests to determine if 2 common, co-occurring species of freshwater zooplankton (Simocephalus vetulus and Daphnia pulex) showed population-level variation in sensitivity to a common insecticide (chlorpyrifos). For both species, it was found that populations living near agricultural fields--a proxy for pesticide use--were more resistant to chlorpyrifos than populations collected from ponds far from agriculture. This finding is consistent with the evolution of resistance to pesticides. To the authors' knowledge, only 1 previous study (using Daphnia magna) has demonstrated this relationship. Collectively, these results suggest that evolved resistance may be common in zooplankton populations located near agriculture. Moreover, because zooplankton play a key role in aquatic food webs, it is expected that population variation in resistance would dramatically alter aquatic food webs, particularly with exposure to low concentrations of insecticides.
Shimizu, Kazufumi; Wulandari, Laksmi; Poetranto, Emmanuel D.; Setyoningrum, Retno A.; Yudhawati, Resti; Sholikhah, Amelia; Nastri, Aldise M.; Poetranto, Anna L.; Candra, Adithya Y. R.; Puruhito, Edith F.; Takahara, Yusuke; Yamagishi, Yoshiaki; Yamaoka, Masaoki; Hotta, Hak; Ustumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria I.; Soetjipto; Shimizu, Yohko K.; Soegiarto, Gatot; Mori, Yasuko
Background. In Indonesia, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus has become endemic in poultry and has caused sporadic deadly infections in human. Since 2012, we have conducted fixed-point surveillance of avian influenza viruses at a live-poultry market in East Java, Indonesia. In this study, we examined the seroprevalence of avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection among market workers. Methods. Sera were collected from 101 workers in early 2014 and examined for antibody activity against avian A(H5N1) Eurasian lineage virus by a hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. Results. By the HI assay, 84% of the sera tested positive for antibody activity against the avian virus. Further analysis revealed that the average HI titer in 2014 was 2.9-fold higher than in 2012 and that seroconversion occurred in 44% of paired sera (11 of 25) between 2012 and 2014. A medical history survey was performed in 2016; responses to questionnaires indicated that none of workers had had severe acute respiratory illness during 2013. Conclusions. This study provides evidence of a high prevalence of avian A(H5N1) virus infection in 2013 among workers at a live-poultry market. However, because no instances of hospitalizations were reported, we can conclude the virus did not manifest any clinical symptoms in workers. PMID:27923953
Aggazzotti, G; Fantuzzi, G; Predieri, G; Righi, E; Moscardelli, S
Perchloroethylene (PCE) is the most widely used solvent in dry-cleaning; it is toxic to the liver, kidney and central nervous system and may be a human carcinogen. PCE levels in the ambient air of dry-cleaners' homes were measured, and samples of end-exhaled air (alveolar air) from subjects who were not themselves occupationally exposed, but who were members of the household of dry-cleaners were compared with samples from the general population. Thirty apartments were visited housing dry-cleaners and their families, and located well away from the dry-cleaning premises. Indoor air samples and alveolar air samples were collected contemporaneously from the dry-cleaners (36) and members of their household (34). The same sampling procedure was followed in 25 private homes where samples of alveolar air were collected from 41 subjects who were not occupationally exposed and who acted as control group. All the samples were analysed by direct-injection gas-chromatography. PCE levels in dry-cleaners' homes proved to be significantly higher than in control houses (geometric means: 265 vs. 2 micrograms/m3, P < 0.001). PCE levels in the alveolar air exhaled by dry-cleaners, their family members and control subjects were statistically different (geometric means: 5140, 225 and 3 micrograms/m3, respectively; P < 0.001). PCE is a ubiquitous substance in indoor air, but is present at higher concentrations in apartments where dry-cleaners and their families live. Biological monitoring of PCE in alveolar air confirms that family members of dry-cleaners are more exposed than the general population.
Burmaster, Katharine B; Landefeld, John C; Rehkopf, David H; Lahiff, Maureen; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Adler-Milstein, Sarah; Fernald, Lia C H
Objectives Poverty reduction interventions through cash transfers and microcredit have had mixed effects on mental health. In this quasi-experimental study, we evaluate the effect of a living wage intervention on depressive symptoms of apparel factory workers in the Dominican Republic. Setting Two apparel factories in the Dominican Republic. Participants The final sample consisted of 204 hourly wage workers from the intervention (99) and comparison (105) factories. Interventions In 2010, an apparel factory began a living wage intervention including a 350% wage increase and significant workplace improvements. The wage increase was plausibly exogenous because workers were not aware of the living wage when applying for jobs and expected to be paid the usual minimum wage. These individuals were compared with workers at a similar local factory paying minimum wage, 15–16 months postintervention. Primary outcome measures Workers’ depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Ordinary least squares and Poisson regressions were used to evaluate treatment effect of the intervention, adjusted for covariates. Results Intervention factory workers had fewer depressive symptoms than comparison factory workers (unadjusted mean CES-D scores: 10.6±9.3 vs 14.7±11.6, p=0.007). These results were sustained when controlling for covariates (β=−5.4, 95% CI −8.5 to −2.3, p=0.001). In adjusted analyses using the standard CES-D clinical cut-off of 16, workers at the intervention factory had a 47% reduced risk of clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms compared with workers at the comparison factory (23% vs 40%). Conclusions Policymakers have long grappled with how best to improve mental health among populations in low-income and middle-income countries. We find that providing a living wage and workplace improvements to improve income and well-being in a disadvantaged population is associated with reduced
Lima Junior, Oswaldo Aparecido de; Kaiser, Juliana; Catisti, Rosana
Enteric parasitosis remains an important public health problem in many areas around the world including in Brazil, and it is frequently associated with poverty and lack of sanitation facilities. Research carried out over the course of a year revealed that 96.6% (28/29) of children randomly selected from a 'landless farm workers' settlement in Araras, São Paulo, aged 4 - 15 years, presented Giardia intestinalis cysts. After referral to the neighborhood Health Office, all the children received tinidazole, given as a single dose of 50 mg/kg and 12 months later, new fecal samples were collected and analyzed. Despite the low adherence to the study, a high percentage (64.3% - 9/14) of the children remained positive for the parasite. This study showed a high positivity of giardiasis in child residents of the settlement, even after treatment; adults were not sensitized to the study and did not collected and/or deliver children fecal samples. The precarious living conditions are consistent with a high susceptibility to parasitic diseases, suggesting that the treatment of the infected individuals without identifying and eradicating the means of contamination is simply a palliative measure.
Brown, Nicholas R.; Roberts, Richie; Whiddon, Ashley S.; Goossen, Carmelita E.; Kacal, Amanda
The rapidly growing world population and need for more food and agricultural knowledge has inspired city dwellers to explore urban cultivation practices such as vertical farming and community gardening. Ultra-modern approaches to growing crops and livestock in urban high-rise buildings has sparked the imagination of scientists, agriculturists, and…
Weber, Eldon C.; And Others
This instructional packet introduces students to soil biology, ecology, and specific farming practices that promote sustainable agriculture. It helps students to discover the role of earthworms in improving the environment of all other soil-inhabiting organisms and in making the soil more fertile. The activities (classroom as well as outdoor)…
Cole, Herbert, Jr.; And Others
This publication is the course book for a correspondence course in pest control with the Pennsylvania State University. It contains basic information for agricultural producers on pest management and the proper and safe use of pesticides. The course consists of eleven lessons which can be completed at one's leisure. The first nine lessons contain…
Organic crop production is the fastest growing portion of U.S. agriculture, increasing a minimum of 20% annually during the last 15 years. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. ...
Namakula, Justine; Witter, Sophie
Providing people-centred health systems—or any systems at all—requires specific measures to protect and retain healthcare workers during and after the conflict. This is particularly important when health staff are themselves the target of violence and abduction, as is often the case. This article presents the perspective of health workers who lived through conflict in four districts of northern Uganda—Pader, Gulu, Amuru, and Kitgum. These contained more than 90% of the people displaced by the decades of conflict, which ended in 2006. The article is based on 26 in-depth interviews, using a life history approach. This participatory tool encouraged participants to record key events and decisions in their lives, and to explore areas such as their decision to become a health worker, their employment history, and their experiences of conflict and coping strategies. These were analyzed thematically to develop an understanding of how to protect and retain staff in these challenging contexts. During the conflict, many health workers lost their lives or witnessed the death of their friends and colleagues. They also experienced abduction, ambush and injury. Other challenges included disconnection from social and professional support systems, displacement, limited supplies and equipment, increased workload and long working days and lack of pay. Health workers were not passive in the face of these challenges, however. They adopted a range of safety measures, such as mingling with community members, sleeping in the bush, and frequent change of sleeping place, in addition to psychological and practical coping strategies. Understanding their motivation and their views provides an important insight how to maintain staffing and so to continue to offer essential health care during difficult times and in marginalized areas. PMID:25274642
In support of planning efforts for the National Children's Study, we conducted a pilot study to test field methods characterizing pesticide exposures to 20 farmworker children aged 6-24 months living in the Salinas Valley, Monterey County, California. Sample collection included d...
Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Barnett, C L; Beresford, N A; Howard, B J; Sanzharova, N; Fesenko, E
Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1-3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated.
Krupke, Christian H; Hunt, Greg J; Eitzer, Brian D; Andino, Gladys; Given, Krispn
Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions) growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen) or by contact (soil/planter dust) is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive. When maize plants in our field reached anthesis, maize pollen from treated seed was found to contain clothianidin and other pesticides; and honey bees in our study readily collected maize pollen. These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed treatments.
Krupke, Christian H.; Hunt, Greg J.; Eitzer, Brian D.; Andino, Gladys; Given, Krispn
Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions) growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen) or by contact (soil/planter dust) is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive. When maize plants in our field reached anthesis, maize pollen from treated seed was found to contain clothianidin and other pesticides; and honey bees in our study readily collected maize pollen. These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed treatments. PMID
Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Schall, Raul Aguilar; Camacho, Jose; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Eskenazi, Brenda
Background Recent organic diet intervention studies suggest that diet is a significant source of pesticide exposure in young children. These studies have focused on children living in suburban communities. Objectives We aimed to determine whether consuming an organic diet reduced urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations in 40 Mexican-American children, 3–6 years of age, living in California urban and agricultural communities. Methods In 2006, we collected urine samples over 16 consecutive days from children who consumed conventionally grown food for 4 days, organic food for 7 days, and then conventionally grown food for 5 days. We measured 23 metabolites, reflecting potential exposure to organophosphorous (OP), pyrethroid, and other pesticides used in homes and agriculture. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate the effects of diet on urinary metabolite concentrations. Results For six metabolites with detection frequencies > 50%, adjusted geometric mean concentrations during the organic phase were generally lower for all children, and were significant for total dialkylphosphates (DAPs) and dimethyl DAPs (DMs; metabolites of OP insecticides) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a herbicide), with reductions of 40%, 49%, and 25%, respectively (p < 0.01). Chemical-specific metabolite concentrations for several OP pesticides, pyrethroids, and herbicides were either infrequently detected and/or not significantly affected by diet. Concentrations for most of the frequently detected metabolites were generally higher in Salinas compared with Oakland children, with DMs and metolachlor at or near significance (p = 0.06 and 0.03, respectively). Conclusion An organic diet was significantly associated with reduced urinary concentrations of nonspecific dimethyl OP insecticide metabolites and the herbicide 2,4-D in children. Additional research is needed to clarify the relative importance of dietary and non-dietary sources of pesticide exposures to young
Slesinger, Doris P.; Muirragui, Eileen
Examining the relationship between certain sectors of Wisconsin agriculture and their need for seasonal workers, the paper traces the use of farm workers of European origin in the early 1900's through their replacement in the 1930's by Hispanic migrants (Mexican nationals and people of Mexican heritage living in southern Texas) and the use of…
Mehta, Kala; Gabbard, Susan M.; Barrat, Vanessa; Lewis, Melissa; Carroll, Daniel; Mines, Richard
This report presents current information on the characteristics and work patterns of hired laborers who perform crop work in the United States. Information was obtained from interviews with 4,199 workers in 85 counties between October 1, 1996 and September 30, 1998. Chapters 1-3 provide information about the farmworkers themselves, including…
Carrasco, Maria Augusta; Barrington, Clare; Kennedy, Caitlin; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna
This study explores social cohesion as a strategy used by female sex workers to address layered HIV and sex work-related stigma. Data derive from a thematic analysis of 23 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with female sex workers living with HIV enrolled in a multi-level HIV/STI prevention, treatment and care intervention in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Drawing on Foucault's conceptualisation of modern power, discipline and resistance, we argue that social cohesion provides the psychosocial space (of trust, solidarity and mutual aid) to subvert oppressive societal norms, enabling the reconstruction of identity. Among study participants, identity reconstruction happened through the production, repetition and performance of new de-stigmatised narratives that emerged and were solidified through collective interaction. Findings highlight that enabling the collective reconstruction of identity through social cohesion - rather than solely attempting to change individual beliefs - is a successful approach to addressing stigma.
Form, William H.
Hypotheses related to migrants' adaptation to occupational and social systems of industrial society were tested using data on automobile workers from rural and urban backgrounds in countries at different levels of industrialization: India, Argentina, Italy, and United States. Hypotheses were the industrial man hypothesis and the developmental…
Mize, Ronald L., Jr.
Rural sociologists have seemingly moved away from an active interest in the plight of migrant farmworkers and the centrality of their labor in the development of U.S. agribusiness. Answering Pfeffer's (1983) call to analyze the different forms of agricultural production, I focus on the key formative period of what I refer to as the U.S. capitalist…
Rochin, Refugio I.; Santiago, Anne M.; Dickey, Karla S.
This study examines the characteristics and needs of Michigan's migrant and seasonal farmworkers. The study was based on census data, state agency records, and a statewide survey of service providers. Results indicate that neither mechanization nor other structural changes in Michigan's agricultural economy have diminished the industry's…
Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Mayans, Martí Vall; Lasagabaster, Maider Arando; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta
Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are a serious global public health issue. These diseases are largely preventable, as they are directly and indirectly associated with potentially modifiable factors, including socioeconomic conditions. Sexual transmission is responsible for over 75% of new HIV infections worldwide. Moreover, commercial sex workers and their clients are two of the groups at the highest risk of acquiring and transmitting these infectious diseases, due to an extensive number of sexual encounters and the various factors related to commercial sex situations. This qualitative study aims to deepen the understanding of the risk perception of STIs and HIV and their associated factors in Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Methods and analysis This is a qualitative, descriptive, interpretive study based on a social constructivist and phenomenological perspective conducted on a saturated sample of Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Data will be collected through semistructured individual and triangular group interviews. Information will be examined using a sociological discourse analysis, allowing us to understand the social and individual factors related to the risk perception of STIs and HIV in commercial sex workers. Discussion Qualitative studies are an important element in identifying individual, social and contextual factors directly or indirectly related to the health/disease process. This qualitative study will provide essential knowledge to improve health promotion, prevention strategies and effective management of STIs both for commercial sex workers and their clients. Ethics This study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee (CEIC) of IDIAP Jordi Gol in Barcelona, 2012. PMID:23901029
Perez-Herrera, N.; Polanco-Minaya, H. |; Salazar-Arredondo, E. |; Solis-Heredia, M.J.; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Rojas-Garcia, E.; Alvarado-Mejia, J.; Borja-Aburto, V.H.; Quintanilla-Vega, B.
Pesticide exposure, including organophosphorous (OP) insecticides, has been associated with poor semen quality, and paraoxonase (PON1), an enzyme involved in OP deactivation, may have a role on their susceptibility, due to PON1 polymorphisms. Our objective was to evaluate the role of PON1Q192R polymorphism on the susceptibility to OP toxicity on semen quality and DNA integrity in agricultural workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in farmers with Mayan ascendancy from southeastern Mexico chronically exposed to pesticides; mostly OP. Fifty four agricultural workers (18-55 years old) were included, who provided semen and blood samples. Semen quality was evaluated according to WHO, sperm DNA damage by in situ-nick translation (NT-positive cells), PON1Q192R polymorphism by real-time PCR and serum PON1 activity by using phenylacetate and paraoxon. Two OP exposure indexes were created: at the month of sampling and during 3 months before sampling, representing the exposure to spermatids-spermatozoa and to cells at one spermatogenic cycle, respectively. PON1 192R and 192Q allele frequencies were 0.54 and 0.46, respectively. Significant associations were found between OP exposure at the month of sampling and NT-positive cells and sperm viability in homozygote 192RR subjects, and dose-effect relationships were observed between OP exposure during 3 months before sampling and sperm quality parameters and NT-positive cells in homozygote 192RR farmers. This suggests that cells at all stages of spermatogenesis are target of OP, and that there exists an interaction between OP exposure and PON1Q192R polymorphism on these effects; farmers featuring the 192RR genotype were more susceptible to develop reproductive toxic effects by OP exposure.
Kikuchi, E; Murakami, K
A questionnaire survey was conducted on 28-55 items of daily living abilities (DLA) linked to 13 basic vocational competencies such as memory, learning, planning, judgement, muscular power and concentration covering a total of 505 non-disabled blue collar male workers aged 45 and over. Results of the survey were as follows, (1) The 457 subjects were grouped into five groups ranging from normal to unsound groups according to the degree of DLA; (2) The reduction of DLA has directionality to two factors, memory and muscular power; (3) DLA provide clues for aging; (4) Among basic vocational competencies, muscular power showed the highest performance with a small standard deviation, while concentration scored low points with a large standard deviation (p < .05); (5) No age difference was found in planning ability, coordination, muscular power, physical tolerance, manual dexterity, and sense of equilibrium, while subjects aged 65 or over showed significantly low figures for learning ability, agility and concentration (p < .05); Since the findings showed various characteristics of vocational competencies and the aging process precisely in blue collar workers aged 45 and over, we assumed that the DLA survey is one of the alternatives for evaluating workers vocational competencies.
The Educational Disadvantages of Junior High and High School Migrant Students in Wisconsin. Part One of a Supplementary Secondary School Program for the Children of Migratory Agricultural Workers in Wisconsin.
Phillips, Kathleen R.
Wisconsin junior and senior high schools enroll approximately 500 children of migrant agricultural workers each year, but performance data shows that in 1982-83 twelfth grade service to migrant students was only 17% of the first grade figure. Problems which contribute to the high dropout rate of junior and senior migrant students in Wisconsin…
Guner, Barbaros; Simsek, Hasan; Yildirim, Ali
In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines a project in Turkey that provided basic education and health services to the children of seasonal agricultural workers. Between…
Miller, Pamela J; Hedlund, Susan C
This article is written more like a conversation with the reader rather than a strictly academic piece. The purpose is to share from a more personal perspective the unique circumstances and challenges faced by two social workers in Oregon as they grappled with the Death with Dignity Law. The law has been in effect for six years and a May 2004 decision from the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court allowed the law to remain a legal end-of-life option. Each writer has a unique voice on the process of social work involvement in practice, research, and policy since the law was originally passed in 1994.
Miranda-Contreras, Leticia; Cruz, Ibis; Osuna, Jesús A; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham; Colmenares, Melisa; Barreto, Silvio; Balza, Alirio; Morales, Yasmin; Zavala, Leisalba; Labarca, Emilitza; García, Nelly; Sanchez, Beluardi; Contreras, Carlos A; Andrade, Henry
Numerous studies report adverse effects of pesticides on male reproductive health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether there is a relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and semen quality, and to determine whether chronic exposure to pesticides differentially affects semen quality in men of different ages. A comparative study of 64 farmers and 64 control men was performed. The farmers were interviewed to determine their occupational history and particularly, activities that may involve exposure to pesticides. Semen parameters were evaluated and a comparative analysis of semen variables between exposed and control groups, as well as between age groups: 18-29, 30-37 and 38-60 years was done. Significant alterations of some semen parameters in the exposed group were found, such as: decreases in sperm concentration, slow progressive motility and sperm membrane integrity; at the same time, increases in eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index. The results obtained by age groups showed significant differences between exposed and control groups for the parameters of membrane integrity, eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index, being the exposed group between 18-29 years that showed the highest altered cases of these parameters. Our results prove that occupational pesticide exposure is associated with alterations in sperm quality, creating a risk to farm workers in their reproductive capacity.
Galea, Karen S; MacCalman, Laura; Jones, Kate; Cocker, John; Teedon, Paul; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie
There is limited information on the exposure to pesticides experienced by UK residents living near agricultural land. This study aimed to investigate their pesticide exposure in relation to spray events. Farmers treating crops with captan, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos or cypermethrin provided spray event information. Adults and children residing ≤100 m from sprayed fields provided first-morning void urine samples during and outwith the spray season. Selected samples (1–2 days after a spray event and at other times (background samples)) were analysed and creatinine adjusted. Generalised Linear Mixed Models were used to investigate if urinary biomarkers of these pesticides were elevated after spray events. The final data set for statistical analysis contained 1518 urine samples from 140 participants, consisting of 523 spray event and 995 background samples which were analysed for pesticide urinary biomarkers. For captan and cypermethrin, the proportion of values below the limit of detection was greater than 80%, with no difference between spray event and background samples. For chlormequat and chlorpyrifos, the geometric mean urinary biomarker concentrations following spray events were 15.4 μg/g creatinine and 2.5 μg/g creatinine, respectively, compared with 16.5 μg/g creatinine and 3.0 μg/g creatinine for background samples within the spraying season. Outwith the spraying season, concentrations for chlorpyrifos were the same as those within spraying season backgrounds, but for chlormequat, lower concentrations were observed outwith the spraying season (12.3 μg/g creatinine). Overall, we observed no evidence indicative of additional urinary pesticide biomarker excretion as a result of spray events, suggesting that sources other than local spraying are responsible for the relatively low urinary pesticide biomarkers detected in the study population. PMID:26374656
Hard, D L; Myers, J R; Gerberich, S G
The National Coalition for Agricultural Safety and Health (NCASH) in 1988 addressed issues in agriculture and noted "a sense of urgency... arose from the recognition of the unabating epidemic of traumatic death and injury in American farming . . ." This article provides an update to the NCASH conference on traumatic injuries in agriculture, a history on how the facts and figures were arrived at for the NCASH conference, and a current report on the status of traumatic injuries in agriculture in the U.S. Fatal and nonfatal injuries are addressed along with national and regional surveillance systems. The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) was used for reporting national agricultural production fatal injuries from 1992-1998 (25.8 deaths per 100,000 workers), the Traumatic Injury Surveillance of Farmers (TISF) 1993-1995 was used to report nonfatal injuries occurring nationally (7.5/100 workers), and Regional Rural Injury Studies I and II (RRIS-I and RRIS-II) were used to illustrate a regional approach along with in-depth, specific analyses. Fatality rates, which showed some decline in the 1980s, were fairly constant during the 1990s. Changes in nonfatal injury rates for this sector could not be assessed due to a lack of benchmark data. The main concerns identified in the 1989 NCASH report continue today: tractors are the leading cause of farm-related death due mostly to overturns; older farmers continue to be at the highest risk for farm fatalities; and traumatic injuries continue to be a major concern for youth living or working on U.S. farms. Fatal and nonfatal traumatic injuries associated with agricultural production are a major public health problem that needs to be addressed through comprehensive approaches that include further delineation of the problem, particularly in children and older adults, and identification of specific risk factors through analytic efforts. Continued development of relevant surveillance systems and implementation of appropriate
Rushing, Rosanne; Watts, Charlotte; Rushing, Sharon
Young women are often lured or forced into selling sex as a result of migrating from rural to urban areas to find work. In this setting, they are exposed to high-risk situations, which may leave them vulnerable to exploitation. Using interviews with young migrant women currently working as sex workers in northern Vietnam, we recorded the perspectives of their initiation into sex work and life as a sex worker. The study found that high levels of forced sex and sexual exploitation were experienced by the majority of the young women interviewed. The young women describe their entry into sex work, first sexual experience (intercourse), violence, and condom negotiation and use. Although access to health care was available, the young women perceived the stigma attached to sex work as a barrier to receiving health care, and thus, preferred health education and care from peers. Health education programs focusing on peer education and support are essential for protecting and empowering these young women. In addition, policies and programs must work toward effective strategies to protect young migrant women.
Little is known about the mental health of female sex workers (FSW) and women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) in the Dominican Republic, which impedes HIV prevention, testing and treatment. This project estimates the prevalence of depression and identifies key contributing factors to this outcome in FSW, WLWHA, and a comparison group. Participants were FSW (N=349), WLWHA (N=213), and a comparison group of HIV-negative women who were not sex workers (N=314) from the Dominican Republic. Participants completed questionnaires assessing demographic characteristics and depression. FSW and WLWHA completed additional questionnaires ascertaining HIV or sex work-related internalized stigma. Depression was prevalent among FSW (70.2%), WLWHA (81.1%) and the comparison group (52.2%). Adjusted logistic regressions showed that internalized stigma was associated with depression for FSW (OR=2.73; 95%CI=1.95–3.84) and WLWHA (OR=3.06; 95%CI=1.86–5.05). Permanent income was associated with this outcome for FSW (OR=0.08; 95%CI=0.01–0.80) and the comparison group (OR=0.04; 95%CI=0.00–0.45). PMID:27189491
Collins, Shane P.; Goldenberg, Shira M.; Burke, Nancy J.; Bojorquez, Ietza; Silverman, Jay G.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Due to stigma and the psychosocial repercussions of past trauma and abuse, survivors of sex trafficking may experience increased susceptibility to violence, revictimization, and various harmful health outcomes, including HIV infection. Given the paucity of research characterizing the experiences of formerly trafficked female sex workers (FSWs), we set out to describe and contextualize perceptions of HIV risk among women who have experienced past episodes of sex trafficking and who are currently engaged in sex work in Tijuana, Mexico. Based on semi-structured interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we describe the following interrelated themes as influencing formerly trafficked FSWs' perceptions and experiences of HIV risk: economic vulnerability; susceptibility to violence; and psychological trauma. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention efforts to incorporate broader structural and social interventions aimed at reducing vulnerability to violence and human rights abuses among this population and improving their general economic, psychological, and social well-being. PMID:22963518
Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar; Alban, Lis
Denmark has been recognized as officially free (OTF) from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) since 1980. In this study, we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing Mycobacterium bovis into the Danish cattle population, through (a) imports of cattle and (b) foreign personnel working in Danish cattle herds. Data from 2000 to 2013 with date, number and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish Cattle Federation. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent by email to a sample of Danish cattle farmers (N=460). Inputs obtained from data analysis, expert opinion, the questionnaire and literature were fed into three stochastic scenario tree models used to simulate the effect of import trade patterns, and contact between immigrant workers and cattle. We also investigated the opportunity of testing animals imported from OTF countries by tuberculin skin test and animals from non-OTF countries by interferon-γ test (IFN-γ), exemplified by using year 2009 where the number of imported animals was higher than usual. Results showed that PIntro is driven mainly by importation of live cattle. The combined median annual probability of introducing M. bovis into the Danish cattle population by either imported live cattle or infectious immigrant workers, ranged from 0.3% (90% prediction interval (P.I.): 0.04%:1.4%) in 2001 to 4.9% (90% P.I.: 0.6%; 19.2%) in 2009. The median of the median PIntro estimates from the 14 years was 0.7% (median of 90% P.I.: 0.08%; 3.5%). Hence, on average, at least one introduction each 143 years could be expected, if the annual number of imported animals does not change remarkably in the future. If the number of imported animals increases, compared to the years we analyzed, additional testing of imported cattle might be considered. For example, in 2009, PIntro would have been reduced from 4.9% to 0.8% (90% P.I.: 0.1%; 4.7%) if animals from OTF countries had been tested with
Mercadante, Rosa; Polledri, Elisa; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia
The aim of this work was to evaluate short-term and long-term exposure to terbuthylazine (TBA) in agriculture workers (AW), rural residents (RR), and urban residents (UR) using urine and hair specimens. Twelve AW, 13 RR, and 17 UR were included in the study. Urine spot samples were collected with two different protocols. AW urine samples were collected before the application season (February, U0), at bedtime on the day of TBA application (March-May, U1), and prior to the next shift on the day after TBA application (U2). RR and UR urine samples were collected on any day during the application season (Ue). Hair samples were collected for all subjects before the application season (February, H0) and at the end of the season (June, H1). TBA and its metabolite desethylterbuthylazine (DET) were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection. DET was exclusively found in urine, while TBA was mostly found in the hair. In the AW, the urinary levels of DET were not detected in the U0 samples, and they increased to median levels of 1.81 and 2.94μg/L in the U1 and U2 samples, respectively (p<0.001). In the RR and UR, DET was not detected in the Ue samples. In the UR, TBA was not detected in the H0 samples, and the median levels of TBA were 0.01ng/mg hair in both the AW and RR. In the H1 samples, the median TBA levels were not detected, 0.01, and 0.08ng/mg hair in the UR, RR, and AW, respectively (p<0.001). Urinary DET and hair TBA are promising candidates for biomonitoring short- and long-term exposure to TBA. The use of this herbicide in agriculture leads to exposure in rural residents.
Browning, Robert H.; Northcutt, Travis J., Jr.
A 5-year project to develop public health services for migrant workers was initiated in Florida in 1956. The project staff consisted of 8 public health personnel: 2 public health nurses, a public health educator, a public health nutritionist, a medical social worker, a part-time sanitarian, a liaison worker, and a secretary. Two practicing…
Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others
The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…
Palerm, J V
There is an erroneous but widespread belief that in the past few decades California agriculture has become increasingly mechanized and reduced its need for migrant labor. Steeply increasing demand, however, for specialty fruit and vegetable crops, which are labor-intensive, has actually increased the need for migrant workers, who come mainly from Mexico. A case study of a young migrant describes the dismal work, economic, and living conditions such workers typically endure and the possible health consequences of those conditions.
Brill, Winston J.
Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)
FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY
THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST IN THE PREPARATION OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS OVER 16 YEARS OF AGE AS NURSERY WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS WITH ASSISTANCE FROM SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS. UNITS ARE (1) INTRODUCTION TO HORTICULTURE, (2) CONSTRUCTING, MAINTAINING,…
Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.
This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…
Shah, Neha S; Kim, Evelyn; de Maria Hernández Ayala, Flor; Guardado Escobar, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Kim, Andrea A; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela
Resource-limited countries have limited laboratory capability and rely on syndromic management to diagnose sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We aimed to estimate the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of STI syndromic management when used as a screening method within a study setting. Men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSWs) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) participated in a behavioural surveillance study. Data were obtained on demographics, sexual behaviours, STI history and service utilisation. Biological specimens were tested for genital inflammatory infections (Neisseria gonorrhoeae [GC], Chlamydia trachomatis [CT], Mycoplasma genitalium [MG], Trichomonas vaginalis [TV]) and genital ulcerative infection (syphilis and Herpes simplex virus-2). There was a high prevalence of Herpes simplex virus-2 (MSM 48.1%, FSW 82.0% and PLWHA 84.4%). Most participants reported no ulcerative symptoms and the majority of men reported no inflammatory symptoms. Sensitivity and PPV were poor for inflammatory infections among PLWHA and MSM. Sensitivity in FSWs for inflammatory infections was 75%. For ulcerative infections, sensitivity was poor, but specificity and PPV were high. Reliance on self-reported symptoms may not be an effective screening strategy for these populations. STI prevention studies should focus on symptom recognition and consider routine screening and referral for high-risk populations.
Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…
Gunier, Robert B.; Bradman, Asa; Jerrett, Michael; Smith, Donald R.; Harley, Kim G.; Austin, Christine; Vedar, Michelle; Arora, Manish; Eskenazi, Brenda
Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient, but overexposure can be neurotoxic. Over 800 000 kg of Mn-containing fungicides are applied each year in California. Manganese levels in teeth are a promising biomarker of perinatal exposure. Participants in our analysis included 207 children enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS), a longitudinal birth cohort study in an agricultural area of California. Mn was measured in teeth using laser-ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Our purpose was to determine environmental and lifestyle factors related to prenatal Mn levels in shed teeth. We found that storage of farmworkers’ shoes in the home, maternal farm work, agricultural use of Mn-containing fungicides within 3 km of the residence, residence built on Antioch Loam soil and Mn dust loading (μg/m2 of floor area) during pregnancy were associated with higher Mn levels in prenatal dentin (p < 0.05). Maternal smoking during pregnancy was inversely related to Mn levels in prenatal dentin (p < 0.01). Multivariable regression models explained 22–29% of the variability of Mn in prenatal dentin. Our results suggest that Mn measured in prenatal dentin provides retrospective and time specific levels of fetal exposure resulting from environmental and occupational sources. PMID:24053404
...) General. The Act provides protections for migrant and seasonal agricultural workers irrespective of... property which is used as housing for any migrant agricultural workers must ensure that the facility or... of migrant or seasonal agricultural workers. As stated in these regulations, the...
Cooper, Jan E; Dow, William H; de Walque, Damien; Keller, Ann C; McCoy, Sandra I; Fernald, Lia C H; Balampama, Marianna P; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Packel, Laura J; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Ozer, Emily J
Female Sex Workers are a core population in the HIV epidemic, and interventions such as conditional cash transfers (CCTs), effective in other health domains, are a promising new approach to reduce the spread of HIV. Here we investigate how a population of Tanzanian female sex workers, though constrained in many ways, experience and use their power in the context of a CCT intervention that incentivizes safe sex. We analyzed 20 qualitative in-depth interviews with female sex workers enrolled in a randomized-controlled CCT program, the RESPECT II pilot, and found that while such women have limited choices, they do have substantial power over their work logistics that they leveraged to meet the conditions of the CCT and receive the cash award. It was through these decisions over work logistics, such as reducing the number of workdays and clients, that the CCT intervention had its greatest impact on modifying female sex workers' behavior.
Huss, John D.; And Others
Arizona's migrant farmworker population was examined to determine the recent changes in its demographic characteristics, and changes in worker characteristics that could be anticipated by 1980 and their implications for educative and supportive services to migrant children between 1977 and 1980. Information was also obtained on migrant student…
Kornhauser, A. L.; Wilson, L. B.
Potential economic benefits obtainable from a state-of-the-art ERS system in the resource area of intensive use of living resources, agriculture, are studied. A spectrum of equal capability (cost saving), increased capability, and new capability benefits are quantified. These benefits are estimated via ECON developed models of the agricultural marketplace and include benefits of improved production and distribution of agricultural crops. It is shown that increased capability benefits and new capability benefits result from a reduction of losses due to disease and insect infestation given ERS's capability to distinguish crop vigor and from the improvement in world trade negotiations given ERS's worldwide surveying capability.
Schurman, S J; Silverstein, B A; Richards, S E
An ambitious ergonomics pilot project sponsored by UAW-GM sought to bypass traditional "top-down" methods of ergonomics training in favor of an in-house "bottom-up" approach that empowered workers to implement basic ergonomic improvements in their own work areas. UAW and GM eventually used the program as the model for a corporate-wide ergonomics program that they later implemented.
Participatory Research Group, Toronto (Ontario).
An international consultation was attended by 40 women workers, educators, and organizers who work directly with women affected by the new "global assembly line" that has developed as a part of the microchip technology industry. The women, who represented 12 countries, shared information and organizing experiences and worked to…
Caring is typically constructed as a feminised practice, resulting in women shouldering the burden of care-related work. Health-seeking behaviours are also constructed as feminine and men have poorer health outcomes globally. Employing men as carers may not only improve the health of the men they assist but also be transformative with regards to gendered constructions of caring. Using semi-structured interviews and observational home visits, this study explored the techniques that community care workers employ when working with male clients. The empirical analysis draws on the perspectives of eight care workers and three of their male clients from the Cape Town area. Interviews reveal how care workers and clients perform and negotiate masculinities as they navigate hegemonic masculine norms that require men to act tough, suppress emotions and deny weakness and sickness. Both parties bump up against ideals of what it means to be a man as they strive to provide care and receive support. Community care workers avoid rupturing client performances of hegemonic masculinities which inhibit confession and support. To do this, they use techniques of indirectly broaching sensitive subjects, acting in a friendly way and being clear about the intention of their work.
Briggiler, Ana; Sinchi, Anabel; Coronel, Florencia; Sánchez, Zaida; Levis, Silvana; Taylor, Jorge; Enria, Delia
The Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is a severe acute viral disease caused by the Junin virus of the Arenaviridae family. The AHF endemic area coincides geographically with the largest grain export agro-industrial complex of the country [Argentina]. Since the implementation of vaccination with the Candid #1 vaccine, a significant reduction in incidence was achieved and risk patterns were modified. A previous study allowed characterizing these changes and identifying three transmission scenarios: classic, emergent-reemergent, and traveler. The latter scenario includes seasonal migrant workers who move each year, mainly from the province of Santiago del Estero, the endemic area to work in the detasseling of maize. With the objective of protecting this group of workers, a prevention campaign was initiated which included: capacity building of health personnel in the province, health education, and immunization with the vaccine Candid #1. 3,021 workers were vaccinated. Prior to vaccination, serum samples were taken from a group of 104 volunteers. Tests for neutralizing antibodies specific to the Junin virus were performed and 6 (5.76%) tested positive. The unexpected finding of a high percentage of workers with antibodies suggests the need to evaluate several hypotheses: a) that the result is the product of non-probabilistic sampling; b) that it could be people who fell ill in previous travels, c) or who were vaccinated in previous travels; or d) consider this region as an emerging scenario.
Draws on interviews and observations from the Mexican state of Oaxaca to analyze labor done by children of Indian origin in northern Mexico agriculture and the problem of schooling. Focuses on the conditions favoring child labor and objectives of experimental educational programs specifically for children of migrant families. Asserts that working…
Williams, Thomas T., Ed.
This volume includes material by providers and users of technical agricultural assistance on ways to improve the quality of life for clientele served by land-grant colleges and Tuskegee University. The conference theme involved issues emerging for rural Southern farms as they enter the 21st century. In examining alternatives for the future, the…
Kezar, Adrianna; Bernstein-Sierra, Samantha
This chapter explores how contingent faculty address the issue of work and family and demonstrates the importance of understanding the diversity of contingent faculty experiences and of underemployment rather than notions of the ideal worker to explain their work lives.
Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983
Discusses a new German law to encourage foreign workers to return to their home countries, employment exchanges for young foreigners in Germany, and a training program for migrant workers in India. (SK)
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agreements with workers. 500.72 Section 500.72 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections General § 500.72 Agreements with workers....
Martin, P L
The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor.
The “How to Comply” manual provides information for employers on complying with the worker protection standard for agricultural workers. It has been updated to cover the 2015 revisions to the WPS.
savings. Working and living conditions are difficult: the hours are long, the weather is hot, housing conditions are primitive and provide no relief from the heat, the food supply is the minimum required, and almost no diversions are available. There are no unions even among Omani workers, and troublemakers are quickly repatriated. The Indian embassy occasionally intercedes for workers, brief work stoppages may occur if pay is delayed, and some conflicts are settled individually. Resistence among Indian workers may take less visible forms, especially absenteeism and requests for leave.
Companion animals play various roles in people's lives and these roles can impact on loss, grief, bereavement and mourning when the animal has been lost, whether that is through death, when missing, or when relinquished. This paper considers not only companion animal owners, but also those who own farm animals and those who work in animal service…
Guerrina, Ryan T; Burns, Candace M; Conlon, Helen
Contingent workers compose a large portion of the U.S. work force. Contingent workers include temporary employees, contracted employees, day laborers, and freelancers. The skill level and educational requirements for their jobs vary from basic to highly advanced. Construction, housekeeping, engineering, and nursing have such positions. U.S. contingent workers are more likely to engage in occupations associated with increased risk of injury, and a variety of factors increase their risk of work injuries, particularly those leading to death. This article focuses on select occupational health and safety issues affecting contingent workers and their implications for occupational health nurses.
Jacobs, David R.; Himes, John H.; Alexander, Bruce H.
Background: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are commonly used pesticides that can effect hemodynamic changes through increased cholinergic stimulation. Children of agricultural workers are likely to have paraoccupational exposures to pesticides, but the potential physiological impact of such exposures is unclear. Objectives: We investigated whether secondary pesticide exposures were associated with blood pressure and heart rate among children living in agricultural Ecuadorian communities. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 271 children 4–9 years of age [51% cohabited with one or more flower plantation workers (mean duration, 5.2 years)]. Erythrocyte AChE activity was measured using the EQM Test-mate system. Linear regression models were used to estimate associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate with AChE activity, living with flower workers, duration of cohabitation with a flower worker, number of flower workers in the child’s home, and number of practices that might increase children’s exposure to pesticides. Results: Mean (± SD) AChE activity was 3.14 ± 0.49 U/mL. A 1-U/mL decrease in AChE activity was associated with a 2.86-mmHg decrease in SBP (95% CI: –5.20, –0.53) and a 2.89-mmHg decrease in DBP (95% CI: –5.00, –0.78), after adjustment for potential confounders. Children living with flower workers had lower SBP (–1.72 mmHg; 95% CI: –3.53, 0.08) than other children, and practices that might increase exposure also were associated with lower SBP. No significant associations were found between exposures and heart rate. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that subclinical secondary exposures to pesticides may affect vascular reactivity in children. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23359481
Edmondson, Vance W.; Ladewig, Howard
The authors report the results of a pilot research program in Texas involving the use of local low-income farmers as agricultural program aides to bring about changes in agricultural production and management and level of living. (Editor)
This article reports on research rooted in a work based education project and the theme of loss was chosen by the participating care staff who felt it was central to their work with dependent older people. They coined the phrase 'living bereavement' meaning the complex responses and grief reactions of those experiencing and bearing witness to the multiple losses endured in continuing care environments. Aim. The research was to identify the emotional demand of living bereavement and to explore and develop care staff's capacity to work with it. Methods. Qualitative methods including participant observation and Reflective Work Groups were used to generate and analyse data over a three year period. A psychoanalytic dimension was added to the research through participation in a supervision group facilitated by a psychotherapist. Findings. In the article the key message from the findings, that there is an intense emotional demand in care work related to loss and grief in continuing care environments, is explained. The trajectory of living bereavement is discussed and illustrated with examples. Implications for practice. Some emotional aspects of the care work were glossed over or ignored which affected the way care was delivered. This may have been because the feelings were disturbing or painful to deal with. It is important to support staff working with difficult feelings so that emotional aspects of their work can be acknowledged and thought about.
Peretti, Alessandro; Delvecchio, Simone; Bonomini, Francesco; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua; Colosio, Claudio
In the article, details related to the diffusion of agricultural tractors in Italy are given and considerations about the effects of vibration on operators, the sources of vibration and suggestions to reduce them are presented. The acceleration values observed in Italy amongst 244 tractors and levels of worker exposure are shown by means of histograms. The relevant data variability is discussed.
Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A.; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M.
In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu. PMID:23222180
Staub, William J.; Blase, Melvin G.
Examines the nature, application, limits and potential of applied genetics in plant breeding as a factor in South Asian agricultural development. Concludes other factors were also present in recent agricultural growth, and indicates some economic implications of continued growth, including problems of employment of displaced rural workers. (AL)
Douay, Francis; Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Planque, Julie; Fourrier, Hervé; Richard, Antoine; Roussel, Hélène; Girondelot, Bertrand
Soil contamination by metals engenders important environmental and health problems in northern France where a smelter (Metaleurop Nord) was in activity for more than a century. This study aims to look at the long-term effects of the smelter after its closedown by combining data on the degree of soil contamination and the quality of the crops grown (agricultural crops and homegrown vegetables) in these soils for a better assessment of the local population's exposure to Cd, Pb, and Zn. Seven years after the Metaleurop Nord closedown, (1) the agricultural and urban topsoils were strongly contaminated by Cd, Pb, and Zn; (2) the kitchen garden topsoils were even more polluted than the agricultural soils, with great variability in metal concentrations within the gardens studied; (3) a high proportion of the agricultural crops for foodstuffs did not conform with the European legislation; (4) for feedstuffs, most samples did not exceed the Cd and Pb legislation limits, indicating that feedstuffs may be an opportunity for most agricultural produce; and (5) a high proportion of the vegetables produced in the kitchen gardens did not conform with the European foodstuff legislation. The high contamination level of the soils studied continues to be a risk for the environment and the population's health. A further investigation (part 2) assesses the associated potential health risk for local inhabitants through consumption of homegrown vegetables and ingestion of soil particles by estimating the site-specific human health assessment criteria for Cd and Pb.
Lopez-Cevallos, Daniel F; Garside, Leda I; Vazquez, Leticia; Polanco, Kristty
Although agricultural work is considered one of the most dangerous and physically demanding jobs, the majority of farmworkers remain vulnerable to disease and injury, while use of health services is limited. The present study analyzes the use of health care services among vineyard and winery workers in the North Willamette Valley, Oregon. Data from 513 foreign-born workers collected during the summer of 2009 by ¡Salud! Services, was used to test the influence of relevant predisposing and enabling factors of the Behavioral Model of Health Care Utilization among Vulnerable Populations. The majority of participants were males (87%) with an average age of 33 years. Over half of the workers were either married or living with a partner (54%) and had children living with them (58%). Very few spoke English (5%) and only a third had more than 6 years of formal education. Two-thirds of workers (65%) had a full time job and shared housing (67%). Only one of every five workers (19%) had health insurance. Multivariate analyses show that use of health services in the past 2 years is more likely among females, those who have children, have more than 6 years of education, work full time, are insured, and are currently attending school. This study provides further insight for health care provision initiatives to reduce the many barriers faced by farmworkers and their families.
Declining Ogallala Aquifer has threatened sustainability of highly productive irrigated agriculture in the region. The region, known for the dust bowl of thirties, is scared of its return. Lower well outputs and increasing pumping costs have compelled farmers to adapt alternative conservation strate...
Martin, P L
"Agriculture was a major stumbling block to immigration reform [in the United States], largely because Congress was unwilling to assign explicit priorities to the competing goals of protecting American workers and admitting supplemental immigrant farmworkers. This article describes the Special Agricultural Worker or SAW legalization program that generated 700,000 applications in California and the hypothetical calculations required to determine whether Replenishment Agricultural Workers or RAWs will be admitted to the United States to do farmwork. The paper concludes that immigration reform did not resolve the century-old debate over agriculture's 'need' for alien workers; instead, SAWs and RAWs have contributed to the harvest of confusion on farm labor."
Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig
Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage.
Undocumented workers are organizing in Arizona to demand better wages and decent living conditions. The article discusses the conditions which led to the organization of this "illegal" workforce. (NQ)
Michie, Aruna Nayyar
Argues that agriculture production in developing nations should be organized to ensure economic viability. Government policy must emphasize participants' productive capacities and integrate agricultural workers into the new organization of production. (Author/DB)
... Human Services. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living About MedlinePlus Site Map ...
Kang, S D
"After presenting the three major types of migrant workers currently in South Korea--professional employees, technical trainees and illegal workers--this article examines the role of contractors and other middle-men to expose the possibility of ¿intermediary exploitation'. The results of such exploitation are illustrated in the living and working conditions of foreign workers."
Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...
Maiztegui, J I; McKee, K T; Barrera Oro, J G; Harrison, L H; Gibbs, P H; Feuillade, M R; Enria, D A; Briggiler, A M; Levis, S C; Ambrosio, A M; Halsey, N A; Peters, C J
Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), caused by the arenavirus Junin, is a major public health problem among agricultural workers in Argentina. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, efficacy trial of Candid 1, a live attenuated Junin virus vaccine, was conducted over two consecutive epidemic seasons among 6500 male agricultural workers in the AHF-endemic region. Twenty-three men developed laboratory-confirmed AHF during the study; 22 received placebo and 1 received vaccine (vaccine efficacy 95%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 82%-99%). Three additional subjects in each group developed laboratory-confirmed Junin virus infection associated with mild illnesses that did not fulfill the clinical case definition for AHF, yielding a protective efficacy for prevention of any illness associated with Junin virus infection of 84% (95% CI, 60%-94%). No serious adverse events were attributed to vaccination. Candid 1, the first vaccine for the prevention of illness caused by an arenavirus, is safe and highly efficacious.
BASED UPON THE FINDINGS OF A RURAL EDUCATION AND WELFARE SURVEY OF MORE THAN 900 SUGARCANE WORKERS IN THE NINE LOUISIANA COUNTIES WHERE SUGARCANE CULTIVATION IS CONCENTRATED, THIS DOCUMENT TELLS OF THE LIVES OF THE WORKERS AND EXPLAINS THE NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL "SUGAR SYSTEM" UNDER WHICH THEY LIVE. DISCUSSED ARE THE EFFECTS OF…
RODRIGUES, DONALD F.
QUESTIONNAIRE RETURNS FROM 103 EMPLOYERS IN AGRICULTURE AND RELATED INDUSTRIES WERE COMBINED WITH 50 INTERVIEWS WITHIN THE SAME GROUP TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT AGRICULTURAL TRAINING NEEDS IN VENTURA COUNTY. MOST FIRMS EMPLOYED FEWER THAN 15 WORKERS ON A PERMANENT BASIS, SUPPLEMENTED BY LARGE MEMBERS OF SEASONAL WORKERS, ESPECIALLY IN THE…
Bernard, Christophe; Tourne, Mathias
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a major area of concern in the occupational world. The agricultural industry is particularly affected: 93 percent of occupational diseases in agriculture are MSD. Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs in one third of the cases. Shoulder is the second most common location. The most affected occupational areas are meat production, viticulture, market gardening, horticulture and small animal farming. This MSD phenomenon, of multifactorial origin, which has been amplifying for two decades, has led to some consensus in terms of definition and prevention strategy. The aim is to identify, limit or even suppress risk factors through worker training as well as through actions related to work organization. Regarding occupational health and safety in agriculture, two fronts of progress have been mentioned: the creation of a statistic observatory of MSD (disease, occupational area and cost) and the assessment of prevention activities. Finally, a new issue is being discussed: sustainable prevention of MSD.
Spaven, John W.
A booklet designed to aid those who use agricultural campaigns in their educational and advisory programs is presented. It is pointed out that a good campaign works as a chain reaction, inciting enthusiasm among workers and planners. The five steps in a well-organized campaign are: (1) planning, (2) preparing people for their jobs, (3) producing…
Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A
Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers. PMID:9795581
Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A
Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers.
Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.
Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...
Trunnelle, Kelly J; Bennett, Deborah H; Ahn, Ki Chang; Schenker, Marc B; Tancredi, Daniel J; Gee, Shirley J; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Hammock, Bruce D
Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly from pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields, and are faced with poor housing conditions, causing higher pest infestation and more pesticide use. We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) levels among 105 women and 103 children. The median urinary 3PBA levels (children=2.56 ug/g creatinine, mothers=1.46 ug/g creatinine) were higher than those reported in population based studies for the United States general population, but similar to or lower than studies with known high levels of pyrethroid exposure. A positive association was evident between poor housing conditions and the urinary metabolite levels, showing that poor housing conditions are a contributing factor to the higher levels of 3PBA seen in the urine of these farm worker families. Further research is warranted to fully investigate sources of exposure.
Employers at agricultural establishment must provide emergency assistance to anyone who is or has been employed as a worker or handler if there is reason to believe that the worker or handler has been poisoned or injured by a pesticide at the facility.
Perales, Aurora Rodriguez
An experienced community health worker describes her experiences in the field as a basis for recommended guidelines for the role, philosophy, aims, and goals of community health workers. The role of the community health worker as a member of the health care team is explored, and the problem of recognition for community health workers is considered…
High rates of unemployment in rural areas poses questions as what education can do with the problem. This report examines the effects of rural American economies as they grow away from agriculture and toward dependence on manufacturing and service industries. Using data from the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics' Displaced Worker Survey, the…
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).
This review is a medium for dissemination of information and views on agricultural education and training, extension, and related subjects to the member governments and field workers of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The document consists of more than two dozen articles and comments on agricultural education,…
... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...
... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...
... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...
... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...
Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F
Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789
Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F
Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed.
DILLON, ROY D.
THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH WORKERS WITH THE JOB TITLES OF GENERAL DIRECTORS, SALESMEN, SUPERVISORS, AND FIELD WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES NEEDED AGRICULTURALLY ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE OF THE SAME KIND AND LEVEL AS WORKERS IN COMPARABLE JOB TITLES IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY PERSONAL…
Lewis, John E.; Clark, John D.; LeBlanc, William G.; Fleming, Lora E.; Cabán-Martinez, Alberto J.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Ocasio, Manuel A.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Kachan, Diana; McCollister, Kathryn; Dietz, Noella; Bandiera, Frank C.; Clarke, Tainya C.; Lee, David J.
Objective To explore cardiovascular fitness in 40 occupations using a nationally-representative 3 sample of the U.S. population. Methods Respondents aged 18–49 (n=3,354) from the 1999–2004 NHANES were evaluated for 5 cardiovascular fitness and classified into low, moderate, and high levels. Comparisons were 6 made among occupations. Results Of all U.S. workers, 16% had low, 36% moderate, and 48% high cardiovascular 8 fitness. Administrators, Health occupations, Wait staff, Personal services, and Agricultural 9 occupations had a lesser percentage of workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all 10 others. Sales workers, Administrative support, and Food preparers had a higher percentage of 11 workers with low cardiovascular fitness compared to all others. Conclusions Cardiovascular fitness varies significantly across occupations, and those with limited physical activity have higher percentages of low cardiovascular fitness. Workplace strategies are needed to promote cardiovascular fitness among high-risk occupations. PMID:21915067
Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.
Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.
TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…
Keifer, Matthew; Gasperini, Frank; Robson, Mark
Pesticides, ammonia, and sanitizers, all used in agricultural production present ongoing risks for exposed workers. Pesticides continue to poison workers despite elimination of some of the most toxic older products. Obligatory reporting of pesticide poisonings exists in 30 states and surveillance of poisoning occurs in only 12. Estimates of poisoning numbers have been based on sampling but funding for this is scant and in constant jeopardy. There appears to be a downward trend in poisonings nationally based on SENSOR data. Newer more pest-specific pesticides are generally less toxic and present less health risks but may have unpredicted health effects in humans that may not emerge until used widely. Internationally, older cheaper chemicals continue to be used with serious consequences in many developing countries. Monitoring workers for overexposure to pesticides broadly is impractical with the exception of the cholinesterase inhibitors. We can learn much from monitoring systems. Unfortunately, monitoring tools are economically inaccessible for most other chemical groups. New technologies for toxicity testing will necessitate new biomonitoring tools that should be supplied by the producers of these chemicals and made available for protecting worker and the public. Protection of workers from pesticides is primarily based on personal protective equipment use, which presents significant hardship for workers in hot environments and is generally considered the least effective approach on the hierarchy of controls in worker protection. Isolation through the use of closed systems has been employed, though rarely studied as to effectiveness in field use. Substitution or replacing harmful substances with safer ones is underway as more pest specific chemicals enter the pesticide portfolio and older ones drop out. This paper summarizes the panel presentation, "Minimizing Exposures to Pesticides and Other Chemicals," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America
Buhler, W G; Langley, R L; Luginbuhl, R C; Jones, J P; Burnette, J W
In North Carolina, responsibility for providing training and enforcing various regulations related to pesticide use and agricultural worker safety rests with three state agencies. This article summarizes an 11-year history of enforcement procedures concerning agricultural pesticide use, the Worker Protection Standard, the Hazard Communication Standard, the Migrant Housing Act of North Carolina, and field sanitation standards. The difficulty of linking specific types of violations with worker safety is discussed.
Knowing Both: Towards Integrating Two Main Approaches to the Tertiary Education of Health Care Workers Involved in Caring for People Living with HIV/AIDS. A Needs Assessment of HIV/AIDS Tertiary Education for Health Care Workers in Metropolitan South Australia.
Elsey, Barry; Mills, Patricia
The need for continuing education about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) was assessed for health care workers in metropolitan South Australia. Seventeen focus group discussions were held to solicit the views and experiences of various persons regarding HIV/AIDS tertiary education. Included in the…
Bastiaanssen, Inge L. W.; Kroes, Gert; Nijhof, Karin S.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Veerman, Jan Willem
Background: By interacting with children, group care workers shape daily living environments to influence treatment. Current literature provides little knowledge about the content of youth residential care. Objective: In this study, a questionnaire called the Group care worker Intervention Checklist was developed. Method: Group care workers…
Green, Paul E.
Partly because of mobility, but mostly because of poverty, migrant children are systematically denied their right to equal educational opportunity. This review covers migrant families' immigration and illegal immigration, migration patterns, poor living conditions, impact of migrant workers on the U.S. economy, children as migrant workers, impact…
This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…
Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.
This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…
State Workers' Compensation programs can add another barrier for older workers to surmount at the hiring gate. State programs do not furnish adequate or equitable protection, and the National Commission on State Workmen's Compensation Laws has made recommendations to improve coverage; new standards must be met by July, 1975. (Author)
Trunnelle, Kelly J.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Ahn, Ki Chang; Schenker, Marc B.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Gee, Shirley J.; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T.; Hammock, Bruce D.
Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly from pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields, and are faced with poor housing conditions, causing higher pest infestation and more pesticide use. We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) levels among 105 women and 103 children. The median urinary 3PBA levels (children=2.56 ug/g creatinine, mothers=1.46 ug/g creatinine) were higher than those reported in population based studies for the United States general population, but similar to or lower than studies with known high levels of pyrethroid exposure. A positive association was evident between poor housing conditions and the urinary metabolite levels, showing that poor housing conditions are a contributing factor to the higher levels of 3PBA seen in the urine of these farm worker families. Further research is warranted to fully investigate sources of exposure. - Highlights: • We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids. • We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary 3PBA levels. • 3PBA levels were higher than those reported for the U.S. general population. • Poor housing conditions may be associated with pyrethroid exposure.
Rosner, D; Markowitz, G
We celebrate Labor Day every year with barbecues and picnics, rarely remembering that the holiday was born in the midst of tremendous labor struggles to improve working conditions. In the last century, 16-hour workdays and 6- and 7-day workweeks led to terribly high injury rates in the nation's mines and mills. Thousands upon thousands of workers died, caught in the grinding machinery of our growing industries. Today, despite improvements, thousands of workers still die in what has been described as a form of war on the American workforce. This commentary reminds us of the historical toll in lives and limbs that workers have paid to provide us with our modern prosperity. It also reminds us that the continuing toll is far too high and that workers who died and continue to die in order to produce our wealth deserve to be remembered and honored on this national holiday. PMID:10474546
Hamblin, Lydia E.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Ager, Joel; Upfal, Mark; Luborsky, Mark; Russell, Jim; Arnetz, Judith
Worker-to-worker (Type III) violence is prevalent in health care settings and has potential adverse consequences for employees and organizations. Little research has examined perpetrator characteristics of this type of violence. The current study is a descriptive examination of the common demographic and work-related characteristics of perpetrators of Type III workplace violence among hospital workers. Analysis was based on documented incidents of Type III violence reported within a large hospital system from 2010 to 2012. Nurses were involved as either the perpetrator or target in the five most common perpetrator–target dyads. Incidence rate ratios revealed that patient care associates and nurses were significantly more likely to be perpetrators than other job titles. By examining characteristics of perpetrators and common worker dyads involved in Type III workplace violence, hospital stakeholders and unit supervisors have a starting point to develop strategies for reducing conflict between workers. PMID:26450899
The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...
The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.
Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping
The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste.
Miller, Mary E; Lee, Barbara C
The goal of this project was to develop a model policy that agricultural employers could adopt specific to youth employment, including age-appropriate assignments, training needs for adolescent workers, ideal supervision, and mentoring by adult workers. Methods included discussions at a national conference of agricultural employers, a survey of employers' perspectives on young workers, forming a task force to draft a model policy, and finalizing the policy document. The process resulted in a template that can be used by agricultural employers for immediate adoption, or to be customized and adapted for their unique company. Given new trends in agriculture to use certification systems, safety audits, and voluntary safety standards in addition to the regulatory process, there is value in having a voluntary "best practice" model policy that can be adopted in settings where safeguarding young farm workers is a priority.
EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.
Migrant agricultural workers are not only on the margins of Canadian and global food systems; they are also on the margins of public consciousness about the labour behind the food we eat. Even local food movement groups who advocate for both social justice and sustainable food production have not made migrant labour a priority concern. Popular…
Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.
Prepared as part of a state program review, this report presents results from a review undertaken of all agriculture and horticulture programs at Illinois public community colleges for fiscal year 1995. The first part focuses on the four agricultural programs reviewed: Agricultural Business and Management; Agricultural Production, Workers, and…
Alpedrinha, João; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A
Hamilton suggested that inflated relatedness between sisters promotes the evolution of eusociality in haplodiploid populations. Trivers and Hare observed that for this to occur, workers have to direct helping preferentially toward the production of sisters. Building on this, they proposed two biological scenarios whereby haplodiploidy could act to promote the evolution of eusociality: (a) workers biasing the sex allocation of the queen's brood toward females and (b) workers replacing the queen's sons with their own sons. This "worker revolution," whereby the worker class seizes control of sex allocation and reproduction, is expected to lead to helping being promoted in worker-controlled colonies. Here, we use a kin-selection approach to model the two scenarios suggested by Trivers and Hare. We show that (1) worker control of sex allocation may promote helping, but this effect is likely to be weak and short lived; and (2) worker reproduction tends to inhibit rather than promote helping. Furthermore, the promotion of helping is reduced by a number of biologically likely factors, including the presence of workers increasing colony productivity, workers being unmated, and worker control of sex allocation being underpinned by many loci each having a small effect. Overall, our results suggest that haplodiploidy has had a negligible influence on the evolution of eusociality.
Wright, Suzanne; Marlenga, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C
Every three days a child dies in an agriculture-related incident, and every day 45 children are injured in the United States. These tragedies should not be regarded as "accidents," as they often follow predictable and preventable patterns. Prevention is not only possible, but vital, since many of these injuries are almost immediately fatal. Major sources of fatal injuries are machinery, motor vehicles, and drowning. Tractor injuries alone account for one-third of all deaths. The leading sources of nonfatal injuries are structures and surfaces, animals (primarily horses), and vehicles (primarily all-terrain vehicles [ATVs]). Children living on farms are at a higher risk than hired workers, and are unprotected by child labor laws. Preschool children and older male youth are at the highest risk for fatal injury, while nonfatal injury was most common among boys aged 10-15 years. Multiple prevention strategies have been developed, yet economic and cultural barriers often impede their implementation. Educational campaigns alone are often ineffective, and must be coupled with re-engineering of machines and safety devices to reduce fatalities. Legislation has the potential to improve child safety, yet political and economic pressures often prohibit changes in child labor laws and mandated safety requirements. Clinicians play a pivotal role in injury prevention, and should actively address common rural risk-taking behaviors as part of the routine office visit in order to help prevent these tragedies.
...The Department of Labor (the Department or DOL) is amending its regulations governing the certification for the employment of nonimmigrant workers in temporary or seasonal non-agricultural employment. This Final Rule revises the methodology by which the Department calculates the prevailing wages to be paid to H-2B workers and United States (U.S.) workers recruited in connection with a......
Lau, Joseph T F; Cai, Wen-De; Tsui, Hi Yi; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Jin-Quan
Male sex workers serving Hong Kong male clients in Shenzhen were surveyed (n = 199); 98.9% had been in Shenzhen for < or =3 years; 83.4% served local male clients; 82.8% had no family members/relatives in Shenzhen; 58.3% depended exclusively on sex work; 73% were bothered by one's sex work; and 81.7% found financial support unavailable when needed. About 29.1% had had unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with Hong Kong male clients in the last month. UAI behavior was associated with exposure to HIV prevention services (OR = 0.08) and poor social support, being bothered by the sex work, substance use, and type of sex work venue (OR = 2.92-5.96).
Delzell, E; Monson, R R
This study evaluated cause-specific mortality among 3,161 men who were employed in the aerospace division of a rubber manufacturing company. Compared to other production workers at the plant, aerospace workers in deicer and fuel cell manufacturing jobs experienced a 60% excess of deaths from lung cancer. Deicer and fuel cell workers who were under 65 years of age had lung cancer rates that were approximately twice those of other rubber workers of comparable age. Aerospace division employees also had elevated rates of bladder cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. However, detailed analyses suggested that, with the exception of lung cancer, these cancer excesses were not likely to be attributable to employment in the aerospace division.
... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...
Mills, Paul K; Dodge, Jennifer; Yang, Richard
Studies of cancer among farm workers are difficult to conduct and interpret given the unique nature of this occupational group. The transitory nature of the work, high levels of poverty, and lack of legal documentation make epidemiologic studies difficult to accomplish. Nevertheless, this workforce in the United States, which numbers as much as 3 million persons, is a high risk population due to exposures to numerous toxic substances, including excessive sunlight, heat, dangerous machinery, fumes, fertilizers, dust, and pesticides. We summarize characteristics of farm workers (i.e., demographics, health care) from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) and the California Agricultural Workers Survey (CAWS) and present findings from a series of studies conducted among farm workers in California. The epidemiology literature was reviewed and methods for a unique farm worker union-based epidemiologic study are presented. Farm workers in California and the rest of the United States, many of whom are seasonal and migrant workers are at elevated risk for numerous forms of cancer compared to the general population and specific pesticides may be associated with this altered risk. Elevated risks have been found for lymphomas and prostate, brain, leukemia, cervix, and stomach cancers.
Izugbara, Chimaraoke O
It is still a small body of research that directly addresses female sex workers' relationships with their regular commercial male partners. I used ethnographic data from Nairobi, Kenya to interrogate motivations and strategies for recruiting and retaining regular male clients among female sex workers (FSWs). Regular commercial male partners, popularly called customer care, wera or wesh by Nairobi's FSWs, played diverse roles in their lives. Client retention enabled sex workers to manage the risk of reduced marriage prospects, guaranteed them steady work, livelihoods, and incomes, and prevented their victimization and harassment. To retain clients, sex workers obliged them a great deal, pretended they had quit prostitution, and sometimes resorted to magical practices. However, these strategies were also accompanied by risks that reinforced the vulnerability of sex workers. Lack of critical attention to sex workers' practices for managing perceived risks in their particular type of work may hamper current programmatic efforts to make their job safer.
AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…
The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…
An estimated 300.000 migrant workers are currently living in Israel, which is about 5% of the general population. More then half of this population is undocumented and have very limited access to public health care. Due to the financial difficulties within the Israel's public health system, the entity is unable to deal with the needs of migrant workers. Hence, when these migrant workers need inpatient care, hospitals have to bear the costs and this situation creates a divergence between medical and economic considerations. The open clinic of "Physicians for Human Rights", which is operated by volunteer physicians and nurses, is able to provide medical aid for mild and transient illnesses, but not for chronic diseases. Israeli physicians are regularly confronted with ethical issues, regarding the therapy they would like to provide to undocumented migrant workers, but are unable to do so. In Europe, undocumented migrant workers have better access to public health care than in Israel. The Israeli public health system should permit all migrant workers to insure themselves at affordable prices, or another inexpensive insurance system should be created for them.
Department of Labor, Washington, DC.
DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…
Gunnarsdóttir, H; Rafnsson, V
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine whether female manual workers have higher mortality than other women. DESIGN--This was a retrospective cohort study in which mortality was compared with that of the general female population. Main outcome measures were standardised mortality ratio (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). SETTING--Reykjavík region. PARTICIPANTS--Participants were 18,878 women, the cumulated members of a pension fund for manual workers between 1970 and 1986. MAIN RESULTS--A healthy worker effect was observed in the total cohort. The study was then restricted to those who had contributed to the pension fund any time after reaching 20 years of age, and a 10 year latency period was instituted. When analysing subcohorts by duration of employment the standardised mortality ratios for all causes of death and all cancers increased with longer employment time up to 10 years. However, the ratios were low in the group with over 10 years of employment. Those who began contributing to the fund in 1977 or later had higher mortality than those who began earlier. There was an excess of lung and bladder cancer in the total cohort and in all the subcohorts except in the group with over 10 years' employment. Mortality from accidents and suicides was in excess in all the groups. CONCLUSIONS--Mortality is high among some groups of female manual workers. A deficit was found among those with the longest employment. Differences in mortality have widened in recent years. An excess of suicides shows that women in this group have, for some reason, less will to live than other women. PMID:1494075
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.64 Pure live seed. The tolerance for pure live seed shall be determined by applying the respective tolerances to the germination plus the hard seed and the pure seed....
... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.64 Pure live seed. The tolerance for pure live seed shall be determined by applying the respective tolerances to the germination plus the hard seed and the pure seed....
... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.64 Pure live seed. The tolerance for pure live seed shall be determined by applying the respective tolerances to the germination plus the hard seed and the pure seed. [5 FR 35,...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.64 Pure live seed. The tolerance for pure live seed shall be determined by applying the respective tolerances to the germination plus the hard seed and the pure seed....
... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.64 Pure live seed. The tolerance for pure live seed shall be determined by applying the respective tolerances to the germination plus the hard seed and the pure seed. [5 FR 35,...
Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat
This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…
Smith, T S
Sales workers persuade, influence, inform and cajole customers, resulting in the purchase of a product or service. The selling profession is broken down into three categories: sales technology, general sales, and vending. Each of the categories are broken down and examined according to work tasks performed, preparation needed, and advancement opportunities. A case example of an injured agricultural chemical sales worker is provided to demonstrate an industry-specific injury and development of an appropriate vocational rehabilitation plan.
Mondart, C. L., Jr.; And Others
Job information, presented for use by high school counselors, was derived from a statewide study of nonfarm agricultural occupations which revealed that 20,025 Louisiana workers in 1,699 job titles were doing work demanding some specialized training in agriculture. Information includes a description, employee qualifications, employment…
Delzell, E; Monson, R R
Cause-specific mortality was evaluated among 2,666 men employed in the processing division of a rubber manufacturing plant. The division was divided into two sections: front processing (compounding, mixing and milling operations) and back processing (extrusion, calendering, cement mixing and rubberized fabrics operations). Mortality rates for all processing workers combined and for men in each section were compared with rates for U.S. White males or for workers employed in other divisions of the same plant. Compared with either referent group, men in the processing division had increased mortality from leukemia, emphysema, and cancers of the stomach, large intestine, and biliary passages and liver. An excess number of deaths from stomach and larger intestine cancer was found predominantly among men in the front processing section (33 observed vs. 17.7 expected deaths, based on rates in nonprocessing workers). Increased mortality from leukemia (14 observed vs. 7.3 expected) and from emphysema (22 observed vs. 11.0 expected) was present among men employed in the back processing section. Examination of mortality from these causes according to age and the year starting work, duration of employment, and years since starting work in the relevant sections of the processing division suggested that observed excesses of stomach cancer, large intestine cancer, leukemia, and emphysema among processing workers are related to occupational exposures. These results are consistent with the findings of studies of other groups of rubber workers.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and...
Verhaeren, R E
The few studies that have been carried out only take into account the annual inflows of seasonal immigrants. This present article covers 2 other aspects of the problem: 1) the seasonal nature of immigration in general and 2) above all the role of permanent immigrant workers in certain sectors influenced by seasonal changes. The number of permanent first-time immigrants is determined, among other causes, by the need for a certain seasonal regulation of overall economic activity. The role of the foreign work force is o fparticular importance in 3 sectors influenced by seasonal changes, and it fulfills a function of seasonal regulation of activity in at least 2 of these sectors: the building trade and agriculture. However, the recognition of the need for seasonal regulation has been used as a pretext for making employment more unstable, in particular for permanent immigrant workers, many of whom cannot find work for the whole year. Seasonal work also plays a key role in agriculture and the hotel trade. Moreover, the part played by illegal immigrants is decisive, not only in these 2 sectors, but throughout the illegal labor market. In the years to come it is likely that seasonal immigration will continue to fall perhaps by half, as a result of mechanization in general, its application in grape-harvesting, and the adoption of new farming techniques. However, it will probably remain sufficiently high to make up for the lack of a national reserve of seasonal labor, especially in vegetable and fruit farming, lumbering, and catering. Seasonal immigration will doubtlessly continue also because it puts a downward pessure on the average wage and makes employment more precarious. It also constitutes a reserve of illegal labor, which can be used in sectors which have a crucial impact on the balance of goods and services in France. These advantages for the French government and employers are above all disadvantages for the seasonal immigrant workers themselves, whose living and
Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah
Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824
Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.
The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.
Nordgren, Tara M.; Bailey, Kristina L.
Purpose of review Occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are associated with numerous lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, lung cancer and interstitial lung diseases. Efforts are ongoing to ascertain contributing factors to these negative respiratory outcomes and improve monitoring of environmental factors leading to disease. In this review, recently published studies investigating the deleterious effects of occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are discussed. Recent findings Occupational exposures to numerous agricultural environment aerosols, including pesticides, fungi, and bacteria are associated with impaired respiratory function and disease. Increases in certain farming practices, including mushroom and greenhouse farming, present new occupational exposure concerns. Improved detection methods may provide opportunities to better monitor safe exposure levels to known lung irritants. Summary In the agricultural industry, occupational exposures to organic and inorganic aerosols lead to increased risk for lung disease amongst workers. Increased awareness of respiratory risks and improved monitoring of agricultural environments are necessary to limit pulmonary health risks to exposed populations. PMID:26761627
Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; And Others
The Adolescent Worker Study was designed to provide an in-depth analysis of the job experiences and related life histories of out-of-school working youth. To do this, a team of investigators first identified work sites across a range of industrial sectors that were currently engaged in hiring young workers between the ages of 17 and 21. Then, the…
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.
This manual was prepared to provide union leaders, organizers, and local officers with information about the experiences of Asian-American, Black, Hispanic-American, female, and part-time workers. The Asian-American workers section includes information on Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, Asian-Indians, Southeast Asians, and Pacific Islanders…
Due to the political context and the restrictions placed on general freedoms and trade union activities, workers' education in Palestine remained informal and largely reliant on oral memory until the early 1990s. For decades, it was an integral part of political education. Workers' education only became a stand-alone field after the establishment…
Hurley, John; Cashin, Andrew; Mills, Jem; Hutchinson, Marie; Kozlowski, Desiree; Graham, Iain
In Australia and internationally, Peer Workers are increasingly being incorporated into the mental health workforce. Underpinning this trend is the conviction that the inclusion of workers with lived experience in overcoming mental health challenges is central to transforming service delivery. Given there are few identified Australian studies into the experiences of Peer Workers, this paper reports findings from qualitative interviews conducted in a Partners In Recovery programme in one regional area in Australia. The interviews formed part of a larger mixed-method study evaluating Peer Worker roles in the programme. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts with Peer Workers and other staff employed in the programme (n = 22) was undertaken. Central to the five themes that emerged was the concept of lived experience expertise in overcoming mental health challenges. The themes were: (i) role variance, (ii) the challenges and opportunities for Peer Worker, (iii) the processes Peer Workers employed as they attempted to shape an identify and language, (iv) the inconsistencies and challenges of employing lived experience as a defining feature of the peer worker role, and (v) the nature of trust arising from lived experience relationships. From this study, it is evident that the Peer Worker role remains underdeveloped. The difficulties experienced by Peer Workers in establishing a homogenous identity and role is not unique. The process and lack of clarity around role identity revealed from the narratives, parallels the experiences of Mental Health Nursing.
Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.
Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass
the Global Economy : Increasingly Vulnerable? ISBN 978-92-64-033303-0, pp. 105-154. 14 Bernanke , Ben S. op. cit. (2006 Jackson Hole Speech) p. 5. 15 If...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Globalization, Worker Insecurity, and Policy Approaches Summary Today’s global economy ...with the world economy makes the U.S. and other economies more productive. For most Americans, this has translated into absolute increases in living
Mushak, E W; Piver, W T
The public is justifiably concerned about the human health effects of agricultural chemicals. The many gaps in information about the mechanisms of toxic action, human exposures, and the nature and extent of human health effects are large. Very few older pesticides, in particular, have been tested for human health effects. Workers who produce, harvest, store, transport, process, and prepare food and fibers are exposed to many chemicals that are potentially hazardous and that are used in agriculture. The occupational health of these workers has not been adequately studied, and protective efforts have sometimes been minimal. Valid and accurate risk assessment is best based on sound information about how chemicals, in this case agricultural chemicals, are involved in toxic events--their mechanisms of action. These health effects include tumor promotion, chronic and acute neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Another key part of risk assessment is exposure assessment. Fundamental studies of the toxicology of target organisms and nontarget organisms exposed to agricultural chemicals are needed to discover and develop better solutions to the problems of agricultural pest control, including better formulations, optimal application rates and public education in safety and alternative agricultural practices. The large number of pesticides that have never been adequately tested for effects on human health is particularly worrisome in light of emerging information about delayed nervous system effects. PMID:1396466
Ramaswamy, Sai K; Mosher, Gretchen A
Agriculture is a high-hazard industry that employs a large number of young workers below the age of 25. Recent studies have documented a strong positive correlation between quality management in agriculture and occupational safety as perceived by agricultural workers. Younger workers have been found to be at higher risk for occupational injuries and fatalities in agriculture. Furthermore, college students in agriculture have minimal exposure to safety and quality management principles in their coursework and thus may not be aware that the two concepts are associated Little research has studied how young workers perceive the relationship between safety and quality and how these perceptions vary based on demographic characteristics. This study builds on prior research that measured the interactions between employee perceptions of safety and quality in an agricultural work environment. Data were collected using a survey instrument adapted from a previously validated instrument. Analysis of 1017 responses showed that students perceived a high impact of quality practices on the reduction of safety hazards and safety incidents. Students' perceptions of quality and safety in agricultural work environments varied by gender, with female students perceiving the relationship between the two at a higher level than males. No significant difference in perceptions was observed based on students' academic classification, age group, field of study, or childhood environment. This study demonstrates that despite limited academic training in safety and quality, pre-professionals perceive the implementation of quality management as a very important factor in mitigating safety hazards and safety incidents. In addition, this study suggests that current academic training in these disciplines must be modified, since no differences in students' perceptions were observed based on academic classification or field of study.
Udasin, I G
More people are employed in the health care sector than in any other industry in the United States. Health care workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards, including biological, chemical, physical and psychological stressors. Concerns about exposure to contagious diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and tuberculosis have influenced the career choices of many health professionals. Physical hazards, especially ergonomic ones, account for the majority of the disability faced by health care workers. Chemical exposure and psychosocial stresses are also present in health care institutions. The exposure encountered in health care facilities is potentially dangerous to health care workers as well as to their family members and unborn children.
It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.
Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M.; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel
This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621
Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel
This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations--subgroup 22--(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers.
Selevan, S.G.; Landrigan, P.J.; Stern, F.B.; Jones, J.H.
To examine patterns of death in lead smelter workers, a retrospective analysis of mortality was conducted in a cohort of 1,987 males employed between 1940 and 1965 at a primary lead smelter in Idaho. Overall mortality was similar to that of the United States white male population (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 98). Excess mortality, however, was found from chronic renal disease (SMR = 192; confidence interval (CI) = 88-364), and the risk of death from renal disease increased with increasing duration of employment, such that after 20 years employment, the standardized mortality ratio reached 392 (CI = 107-1,004). Excess mortality was also noted for nonmalignant respiratory disease (SMR = 187, CI = 128-264). Eight of 32 deaths in this category were caused by silicosis; at least five workers who died of silicosis had been miners for a part of their lives. An additional 11 deaths resulted from tuberculosis (SMR = 139; CI = 69-249); in six of these cases, silicosis was a contributory cause of death. Cancer mortality was not increased overall (SMR = 95; CI = 78-114). An increase, however, was noted for deaths from kidney cancer (six cases; SMR = 204; CI = 75-444). Finally, excess mortality was noted for injuries (SMR = 138; CI = 104-179); 13 (23%) of the 56 deaths in this category were caused by mining injuries. The data from this study are consistent with previous reports of increased mortality from chronic renal disease in persons exposed occupationally to lead.
8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, CHANDELIER, AND ORIGINAL PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA
Project #OPE-FY17-0008, Feb 9, 2017.The EPA OIG plans to begin research to evaluate EPA’s management controls implementing the revised Worker Protection Standards (WPS) requirements to reduce pesticide exposure and risks to agricultural workers.
METZLER, WILLIAM H.
SPECIALIZATION IN THE CROPS BEST ADAPTED TO THE LOCAL AREA IS SEEN AS A HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURE, BUT BY CREATING THE NEED FOR LARGE NUMBERS OF WORKERS FOR SHORT PERIODS OF TIME, IT CAUSES UNEMPLOYMENT AND MIGRATION. A SURVEY OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE WORKERS IN STANISLAUS COUNTY, CALIFORNIA IN 1962-63 REVEALS--(1) THEIR EARNINGS ARE…
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Male high school students in a Bachelor Living Class observed methods of child care including bottle feeding, spoon feeding, changing diapers, and method of holding. The purpose was for the students to grasp a better understanding of child development. (EK)
Mules, B. R.
Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)
... Transportation Back to top How to Choose a Facility? The following suggestions can help you get started ... for a safe, comfortable and appropriate assisted living facility: Think ahead. What will the resident’s future needs ...
... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...
Learn about how to live a more environmentally friendly life by reducing your environmental footprint, enhancing sustainability, using clean energy, water efficiency, composting, selecting a fuel efficient vehicle, and reducing waste.
Holosko, Michael J; Feit, Marvin D
No statistician, social scientist or tarot card reader is needed to attest that the gap between the rich and poor in America is increasing. Further, most Americans don't care that much about it. There are also more rich people today living in the U.S. and there are more people living in poverty. Between 2000 and 2002, the number of Americans living in poverty increased by nearly 3 million to 34.6 million. Of these, 12% (or about one half a million persons) are living extreme poverty and many are children, with 16.7% likely to be poor (National Association of Social Workers, 2003).
Hulsegge, Gerben; Gupta, Nidhi; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J
Objective Physical inactivity has been hypothesized as an underlying factor for the association between shift work and adverse health outcomes. We compared leisure-time and occupational physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Methods We identified 612 day workers, 139 night shift workers and 61 non-night shift workers aged 18-65 years (54% men) in two Danish studies: the New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD) and the Danish Physical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPhacto) between 2011-2013. Sedentary behavior, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured using an accelerometer. Physical activity was expressed as percentage of leisure and work time spent in each activity. Linear regression analyses were used to test differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Results No differences in leisure-time sedentary behavior and physical activity were observed between day and shift workers (P>0.05). Non-night shift workers spent 7.2% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.3-12.1) more time in occupational sedentary behavior than day workers and 5.9% (95% CI -10.1- -1.7) and 1.9% (95% CI -3.7- -0.2) less time in occupational light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. Compared to day workers, night shift workers spent 4.3% (95% CI 2.4-6.1) more time at work in uninterrupted sedentary periods of ≥30 minutes. Conclusions Shift workers had similar leisure-time physical activity patterns as day workers, but were more sedentary at work. Future research should elucidate whether occupational physical inactivity and sedentary behavior contributes to shift work-related adverse health effects.
Chang, Manchium; Kendall, James M.; Wang, Taylor G.
In experimental technique, living cells and other biological materials encapsulated within submillimeter-diameter liquid-filled spheres. Sphere material biocompatible, tough, and compliant. Semipermeable, permitting relatively small molecules to move into and out of sphere core but preventing passage of large molecules. New technique promises to make such spherical capsules at high rates and in uniform, controllable sizes. Capsules injected into patient through ordinary hypodermic needle. Promising application for technique in treatment of diabetes. Also used to encapsulate pituitary cells and thyroid hormone adrenocortical cells for treatment of other hormonal disorders, to encapsulate other secreting cells for transplantation, and to package variety of pharmaceutical products and agricultural chemicals for controlled release.
Nilles, Jack M.
Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)
This paper discusses small events occurring among developing countries, particularly but not exclusively in Asia, and their subsequent large impacts on net food exporting countries in the world, particularly, but not exclusively, located in the Western hemisphere. A Green Revolution II is underway as a result where the world's agricultural system will produce more (output) with less (inputs). Agriculture will meet the rapidly growing demand for bio-based foods, fuels, feeds, and fiber while reducing input usage, preserving the natural environment, and maintaining native ecosystems. In turn agricultural workers will receive a health dividend as chemical usage falls, automation, metering, and sensing technologies rise, and exposure to harsh environmental, both natural and man-made, conditions is reduced. This paper was prepared for the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.
Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.
The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.
TINNEY, MILTON W.
A STUDY OF MIGRANT WORKERS IN THE 5 SOUTHWESTERN OKLAHOMA COUNTIES OF GREER, HARMON, JACKSON, KIOWA, AND TILLMAN WAS CONDUCTED IN 1964 BY THE OKLAHOMA STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE. APPROXIMATELY 15,000 AGRICULTURAL MIGRANTS COME INTO THE AREA EACH YEAR. THE SURVEY FOUND THAT THESE PEOPLE WERE PREDOMINATELY SPANISH-SPEAKING FROM TEXAS, EARNED LESS THAN…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disclosure of foreign worker recruitment. 655.9 Section 655.9 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disclosure of foreign worker recruitment. 655.9 Section 655.9 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disclosure of foreign worker recruitment. 655.9 Section 655.9 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the...
Taylor, Lee, Ed.; Leagans, J. Paul, Ed.
Designed and conducted by a team of professors and research associates at New York State College of Agriculture, this study focuses on five primary areas of concern: (1) profile of firms and workers, (2) images of agribusiness work, (3) recruitment, (4) occupational mobility, and (5) agribusiness occupations and projections. Findings reveal that…
Dixon, Luke; Kuster, Ryan; Rueppell, Olav
While a negative correlation between reproduction and life span is commonly observed, specialized reproductive individuals outlive their non-reproductive nestmates in all eusocial species, including the honeybee, Apis mellifera (L). The consequences of reproduction for individual life expectancy can be studied directly by comparing reproductive and non-reproductive workers. We quantified the life span consequences of reproduction in honeybee workers by removal of the queen to trigger worker reproduction. Furthermore, we observed the social behavior of large cohorts of workers under experimental and control conditions to test for associations with individual life expectancy. Worker life expectancy was moderately increased by queen removal. Queenless colonies contained a few long-lived workers, and oviposition behavior was associated with a strong reduction in mortality risk, indicating that a reproductive role confers a significant survival advantage. This finding is further substantiated by an association between brood care behavior and worker longevity that depends on the social environment. In contrast, other in-hive activities, such as fanning, trophallaxis, and allogrooming did not consistently affect worker life expectancy. The influence of foraging varied among replicates. An earlier age of transitioning from in-hive tasks to outside foraging was always associated with shorter life spans, in accordance with previous studies. In sum, our studies quantify how individual mortality is affected by particular social roles and colony environments and demonstrate interactions between the two. The exceptional, positive association between reproduction and longevity in honeybees extends to within-caste plasticity, which may be exploited for mechanistic studies.
Cox, J. Lamarr; And Others
Narrative text, tables, and maps summarize information derived from a random sample of 20% of the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS) data base as it existed in June 1976 related to the mobility patterns of migrant children in the contiguous United States and Puerto Rico from January 1975 to April 1976. The data base is a tabulation of…
Rosell, M G; Obiols, J; Berenguer, M J; Guardino, X; López, F; Brosa, J
Lindane, aldrin and p,p'-DDT were determined in blood samples from 71 farmers by means of an analytical method which combines a direct whole-blood extraction with n-hexane and gas chromatography (GC)-electron-capture detection (ECD), using a capillary column, applied to the organic extract. This technique allowed the determination of pesticides at levels varying from 0.1 to 180 micrograms per l of blood, the detection limit for every pesticide being 0.1 microgram/l. GC-mass spectrometry was used to confirm the identity of each pesticide. The advantage of capillary column GC-ECD for pesticide determination is its sensitivity and high resolution, which makes it possible to separate pesticides from a complex n-hexane extract obtained in a very simple pretreatment of the blood sample, which is itself a very complex matrix.
Trunnelle, Kelly J; Bennett, Deborah H; Tancredi, Daniel J; Gee, Shirley J; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E; Hammock, Bruce D; Schenker, Marc B
Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly for pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families, who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields and are faced with poor housing conditions, potentially causing high pest infestation and pesticide use. We investigate levels of pyrethroids in the house dust of farm worker family homes in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA, within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pesticide use data and levels of pyrethroid pesticides in indoor dust collected in 2009 as measured by questionnaires and a GC/MS analysis of the pyrethroids cis- and trans-permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and resmethrin in single dust samples collected from 55 households. Cis- and trans-permethrin had the highest detection frequencies at 67%, with median concentrations of 244 and 172ng/g dust, respectively. Cypermethrin was detected in 52% of the homes and had a median concentration of 186ng/g dust. Esfenvalerate, resmethrin and deltamethrin were detected in less than half the samples. We compared the pyrethroid concentrations found in our study to other studies looking at both rural and urban homes and daycares. Lower detection frequencies and/or lower median concentrations of cis- and trans-permethrin and cypermethrin were observed in our study as compared to those studies. However, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and resmethrin were detected more frequently in the house dust from our study than in the other studies. Because households whose children had higher urinary pyrethroid metabolite levels were more likely to be analyzed in this study, a positive bias in our estimates of household pyrethroid levels may be expected. A positive association was observed with reported outdoor pesticide use and cypermethrin levels
Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.
This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the…
Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.
"Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these…
John Tinker and Mary Beth Tinker are back in a classroom in their hometown, once again wearing black armbands and drawing attention to a war. Now in their 50s, the siblings are living symbols of constitutional rights for secondary school students. In 1965, they and a handful of others were suspended for wearing black armbands to their public…
Lacey, S E; Forst, L S; Petrea, R E; Conroy, L M
The eyes are a common site of injury in agricultural operations. Identification of the cause of injury is important to inform preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to describe the hazards and mechanisms of acute traumatic injury to the eyes of agricultural workers who are hired in farming operations on a seasonal basis. A review of the literature was performed to summarize the mechanisms of eye injuries in agriculture. Field observations and informal interviews were performed to verify the literature and to determine whether there are eye hazards for farm workers that have not been reported in the literature. Additional mechanisms of injury were elicited, and suggested methods of injury prevention are presented here.
The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities
Seidel, A. D.
The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.
This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities.
Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.
This handbook was designed to assist school administrators, vocational administrators, vocational agricultural teachers, and area consultants of vocational agriculture in developing, implementing, and improving an agricultural cooperative training program (especially in Texas). The handbook, which presents information in a narrative format,…
FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY
DESIGNED FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS IN A COOPERATIVE PART-TIME TRAINING PROGRAM, THIS GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED BY TWO VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS WITH INTEREST, TRAINING, AND EXPERIENCE IN HORTICULTURE AND WAS COORDINATED AND EDITED BY A SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALIST. INCLUDED ARE TEN UNITS, EACH DIVIDED INTO TOPICS. EACH TOPIC INCLUDES A…
By June 2013, seventeen workers had suffered from intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) in an offset proof-printing company in Osaka and nine of the workers had died. Ages at diagnosis were 25 to 45 years old. Known risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma were not found in the patients. All of the patients were exposed to 1,2-dichloropropane at high level for long-term and were diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma 7 to 20 years after the first exposure. Twelve of the patients were also exposed to dichloromethane. The Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare recognized the cancer to be an occupational disease.
Lawrence, J. S.; Molyneux, M. K.; Dingwall-Fordyce, Ianthe
In order to investigate loss of work from rheumatic diseases in the metal trades, employees in 10 foundries were questioned. Of 325 foundry workers aged 35 to 74 years, who had worked for at least 10 years on the foundry floor, 299 were examined clinically and radiologically for evidence of rheumatic disease. Radiographs of the hands, knees, and dorsal and lumbar spine were taken as a routine, and the pelvis was included in those aged 45 and over. A comparison was made with a control series of radiographs, from men, matched for age, in a random population sample examined earlier in the town of Leigh. Rheumatic complaints in general were less frequent in the foundry workers than in the random sample, and the foundry workers less often gave a history of prolonged incapacity (three months or more) due to this cause. Radiological evidence of disc degeneration in the lumbar spine, however, was more frequent in the foundry workers than in the controls and was of greater severity. Further, the foundry workers more commonly had symptoms and signs of lumbar disc prolapse. On the other hand, the controls had more osteo-arthrosis of the hips and knees and lost more work from pain at these sites. This was associated with a difference of body habitus, obesity being less frequent in the foundry workers. Foundry workers directly exposed to hot conditions did not have less back or leg pain than those not so exposed despite a greater prevalence of disc degeneration. Measurements of air temperature, humidity, and radiant heat were made in a foundry while pouring was in progress. The air temperature rose from 18°C. to 26°C. and the humidity ranged from 70% to 54%. The mean intensity of radiation incident on the clothed surface of a foundry worker was 0·12 watt/cm.2. This was compared with conditions during therapeutic exposure to radiant heat. The radiant heat under conditions of `heat therapy' varied between 0·16 and 0·37 watt/cm.2. The possible influence of radiant heat on the
David, Alexandra; Coenen, Frans
In times of increasing skills shortage, regions and particularly non-core regions, need to attract highly-skilled workers. It is better for these regions to (re)attract highly-skilled workers that gained knowledge and contacts elsewhere and because they once lived in the region for study have already ties to the university region than trying to…
This book documents the history, successes, and failures of Save the Children's farmworker program in Zimbabwe, 1981-98. The report explores workers' past and present living and working conditions on commercial farms and describes how the program promoted a progression from workers with a migrant mentality to the building of functional…
Faux, Jeff; Lee, Thea
The proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) will result in lower wages, fewer jobs, and generally reduced living standards for the majority of U.S. workers. Substantial costs to the U.S. economy will occur in job and income loss and few off-setting benefits for most workers. Proponents argue that NAFTA will create upward mobility for…
Strand, Mark; Xiaobing, Wang; Xiaoqin, Duan; Lee, Kristin; Wang, Alex; Yanqing, Li; Jinxi, Ni; Guangming, Cheng
This cross-sectional study set out to identify the health status and health beliefs and behaviors with regard to TB and HIV-AIDS among 407 rural male migrant workers in China. Surveyed workers' awareness level for AIDS transmission was 67.7% and for TB transmission 56.8%. These workers had high rates of acute illness in the previous month (depression 18.3%, physical injury 16.3%, dermatological ailment 9.6%, respiratory infection 9.4%). One or more of the four symptoms of TB were found in 22.3% of the workers. Prevalent TB symptoms were associated with previously having had TB (chi-square = 69.98, p = .000) and having previously lived with a TB patient (F = 13.99, p = .000). The relative risk for having had TB if the worker had lived with someone with TB was 5.69 (chi-square 7.65, p = .006). Screening for TB symptoms, a history of having lived with someone with TB, or having previously had TB, has the potential to serve as a cost-effective and easy first-line TB screening among large mobile populations.
Tsuji, Kazuki; Kikuta, Noritsugu; Kikuchi, Tomonori
Workers of social Hymenoptera can usually produce male offspring, but rarely do so in the presence of a queen despite the potential individual fitness benefit. Various mechanisms have been hypothesized to regulate worker reproduction, including avoiding the colony-level cost of worker reproduction. However, firm quantitative evidence is lacking to support that hypothesis. Here, we accurately quantified this cost by studying an ant species (Diacamma sp.) in which worker reproduction is rare in the presence of the gamergate (the functional queen). A series of experiments to manipulate worker-gamergate contact revealed that short-term brood-production efficiency is not changed by the presence of worker reproduction. However, when workers reproduce, their average life span is reduced to between 74% and 88% of that in the absence of reproduction, indicating a long-term cost to the colony. In theory, this cost can explain the policing of worker reproduction under a queen-single mating system, but the cost does not appear to be high enough to stop worker reproduction. When contact with the gamergate is lost, it is only the nonreproductive workers whose life span was reduced; the reproductive workers lived as long as nonorphaned workers. We suggest that an increased workload can account for the reduction in life span better than a trade-off between reproduction and longevity.
Murray, Michael; Ziegler, Friederike
Community health psychology is an approach which promotes community mobilisation as a means of enhancing community capacity and well-being and challenging health inequalities. Much of the research on this approach has been at the more strategic and policy level with less reference to the everyday experiences of community workers who are actively involved in promoting various forms of community change. This article considers the narrative accounts of a sample of 12 community workers who were interviewed about their lives. Their accounts were analysed in terms of narrative content. This revealed the tensions in their everyday practice as they attempted to overcome community divisions and management demands for evidence. Common to all accounts was a commitment to social justice. These findings are discussed with reference to opportunities and challenges in the practice of community work.
Malik, Abida; Ali, Sana; Shahid, Mohd; Bhargava, Rakesh
Background: Aflatoxins are a metabolite of Aspergillus molds and are widespread in the natural environment. Workers who handle food grains are at increased risk of exposure to aflatoxins and subsequently certain respiratory conditions. In India, more than half of the employed population is engaged in some type of agricultural work, yet little known about the respiratory problems as a result of exposure to aflatoxins among workers who handle food grains in India. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the risk of occupational exposure to aflatoxins in food-grain workers compared to workers who are not occupationally exposed to food grains. Methods: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum samples from 46 food-grain workers and 44 non-food-grain workers were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxins. Microscopy and culture of BAL samples were performed to detect Aspergillus species. Results: Aflatoxins were detected in 32.6% of the food-grain workers and 9.1% of non food grain workers (P<0.01). A significant difference was also found in BAL culture for Aspergillus (P<0.01) between the two groups. About 47.8% of the food-grain workers and 11.4% of non-food-grain workers had chronic respiratory symptoms. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to aflatoxins in food-grain workers was found to be associated with the increased presence of respiratory symptoms. PMID:25000106
Dorevitch, Samuel; Forst, Linda; Conroy, Lorraine; Levy, Paul
Construction workers account for a disproportionately large number of occupational fatalities. A small percentage of these deaths is attributable to poisoning. Risk factors for such deaths using national data have not been reported previously. Construction poisoning fatalities from 1990 to 1999 in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Integrated Management and Information System data set were analyzed. Risk and risk factors were determined using Bureau of Labor Statistics and census data. Eighty-seven poisoning deaths of construction workers are characterized, all attributable to toxic inhalation. Cellular and simple asphyxiants accounted for the largest numbers of fatalities. The majority of these deaths occurred in confined spaces. Water, sewer, and utility line workers are at increased risk for poisoning fatality. Toxic inhalation fatalities in the construction industry are preventable. Extending the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's confined space standard could save lives, particularly among water, sewer, and utility line industry workers.
... being distant, judgmental, or over-controlling What severe stress symptoms can result for disaster workers? Most disaster ... life) Who is at greatest risk for severe stress symptoms? Rescue workers who directly experience or witness ...
Chakraborty, P; Gupta-Bhattacharya, S; Chowdhury, I; Majumdar, M R; Chanda, S
The aim of the study was to assess the vertical profile of the major airborne pollen and spore concentration in the lower heights (up to six meters) and to check their allergenic potential causing respiratory allergy in agricultural workers. The study was conducted using rotorod samplers mounted at different heights at weekly intervals for two consecutive years (November 1997-October 1999). The major pollen grains and fungal spores (from mass culture) were collected in bulk and studied by skin-prick tests to detect allergenicity. Of the recorded pollen, 10 major and perennial types (e.g., Poaceae, Cheno-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae, Areca, etc.) were considered for comparative analyses. The tree pollen count showed more or less good correlation with increasing heights, whereas herb/shrub members are dominant at lower heights during all the three seasons (winter, summer and rains). The 10 major and perennial fungal spore types included Aspergilli group, Cladosporium, Nigrospora, etc. The smaller spores were dominant at greater heights and larger spores and conidia were more prevalent at lower levels. The total spore count was higher just after the rainy season during winter. In terms of allergenicity, Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane) of Poaceae, showed highest reactivity (70.58%) in skin test carried out in 189 adult agricultural field workers with respiratory disorders living inside the study area. Among fungal spores, Aspergillus japonicus was the strongest allergen, evoking 74.07% positive reactions. Drechslera oryzae, the pathogen causing brown spot of rice was also found to be a potent allergen.
Groot, Hans C.
The role of the agricultural extension worker as intermediary between farmer and scientist is studied using the Chaffee and McLeod coorientation model. It is found that the extension workers' cognitions fall between those of farmers and scientists in terms of agreement, understanding, congruency, and accuracy, as predicted. The subjects in the…
THE NUMBER OF HIRED FARM WORKERS IS DECREASING WITH THE INCREASED USE OF LABORSAVING FARM MACHINERY AND TECHNOLOGY WHICH ALLOWS GREATER OUTPUT PER WORKER. THE LOW WAGE SCALE PREVALENT IN AGRICULTURE IS THE MAJOR CAUSE OF THE FARM LABOR PROBLEM. WAGE RATES ARE DIFFICULT TO MEASURE ACCURATELY BECAUSE OF A GREAT DIVERSITY IN METHODS OF PAYMENT AND…
...The Department of Labor (the Department or DOL) is amending its regulations governing the certification of temporary employment of nonimmigrant workers in temporary or seasonal agricultural employment and the enforcement of the contractual obligations applicable to employers of such nonimmigrant workers. The Department is also amending the regulations at 29 CFR part 501 to provide for enhanced......
Huck, Gary; Gilmore, Peter
This document consists of one page chapters each documenting women's roles in changing the conditions for U.S. workers during and after the industrial revolution. Each chapter is a series of period style drawings with captions detailing the story of that particular incident and cartoon balloons offering humorous comments from the participants. The…
Deeb, William S.
An actuarial study revealed that Pasadena Schools had an unfunded worker's compensation liability of over $10 million and 400 open claims. Advised to implement strong cost-containment measures (an early return-to-work program) and equally strong accountability measures (strict performance guides and safe work practices), the district achieved…
Describes the training at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the foremost nuclear energy and environmental laboratory in the United States. Suggests that the key to assurance is getting workers, most of whom are unionized, involved in their own safety training. (JOW)
Due to the severe economic decline in the automobile manufacturing industry in southeastern Michigan, a Dislocated Workers Program has been developed through the partnership of the Flint Area Chamber of Commerce, three community colleges, the National Center for Research in Vocational Education, the Michigan State Department of Education, the…
In this paper I examine the impact of the new 'knowledge economy' on contemporary doctoral education. I argue that the knowledge economy promotes a view of knowledge and knowledge workers that fundamentally challenges the idea of a university as a community of autonomous scholars transmitting and adding to society's 'stock of knowledge'. The paper…
Ard, John V.; Barbour, Charles
Describes the Referral/Employment Network for Elderly Workers (RENEW) in Georgia funded by the Department of Labor under Title IX of the Older Americans Act. The program recruits and trains older people (over age 55) to help other seniors find jobs. (MF)
Leddick, Susan; Gharajedaghi, Jamshid
In the new economy, knowledge (not labor, raw material, or capital) is the key resource to be converted to goods and services. Public schools will have to educate three tiers of knowledge workers (doers, problem solvers, and designers) using differentiated assessment, curricula, and instruction. Organizational action, not mantras, is needed. (MLH)
Young people who leave school must have access to education to help them in their working life and in their life in the community. Young worker education is the link between school and the life-long process of education. (ABM)
Barker, Ellen; And Others
This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs such as dietetic aide or food service worker in a health care facility. It serves as the basic core of the occupationally sequenced Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program. Five sections and 13 instructional units are included. Each unit of…
Smithyman, S. J.
This manual is designed to prepare students for entry-level positions as tree care professionals. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the tree service industry; clothing, eqiupment, and tools; tree workers; basic tree anatomy; techniques of pruning; procedures for climbing and working in the tree; aerial…
Senser, Robert A.
Notes that about half of U.S. toys are made in China, mainly by young women who work extremely long shifts, 7 days a week, "amid sickening vapors and under draconian rules." Describes corporate codes of conduct, the role consumers can play in changing extremely poor working conditions, and the impact of international trade reforms.…
Järup, L; Elinder, C G
The health effects of occupational exposure to cadmium were studied in a group of 902 workers employed for at least one year in a Swedish battery factory between 1931 and 1982. Data on air cadmium concentrations for different periods were combined with company employment records to obtain individual cumulative exposure estimates. A questionnaire including questions on the occurrence of kidney stones was sent to all 601 living workers and to the next of kin of 267 of the deceased workers. The response rate was 88%. 73 workers reported renal calculi that appeared after initial employment. A dose-response relation was found between cumulative exposure to cadmium and age standardised cumulative incidence. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were then computed for three exposure categories (< 250, 250- < 5000, and 5000 micrograms/m3 x years) standardised for calendar time, age, and smoking with the low exposure group as reference level. The IRRs were 1.0, 1.6 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.7-3.4], and 3.0 (95% CI 1.3-6.8) respectively. beta 2 Microglobulin measurements were available for 33 workers who formed stones; 13 of these workers had tubular proteinuria (beta 2 microglobulin > or = 34 micrograms/mmole creatinine)--that is, a prevalence of 39%. There was also an indication of a steeper dose-response relation among workers with tubular proteinuria. PMID:8343420
The place where we live and work is a reflection of a complex set of economic conditions and social relationships. Very little information is available regarding housing for Minnesota's migrant workers. It is estimated that approximately 20,000 people migrate to Minnesota each summer to work in the production and processing of green peas and sweet…
Qiu, Peiyuan; Caine, Eric; Yang, Yang; Chen, Quan; Li, Jin; Ma, Xiao
Background Internal migrant workers are a large population in China. Current health related studies among this population mainly focused on infectious disease, maternal health and occupational diseases and injuries. However, very limited studies were paid attention to mental health of migrant workers though it is an important public health issue. Aims The current study aims to understand prevalence of depression symptoms and factors associated with depression among Chinese migrant workers using novel methods to develop a comprehensive sample. Methods Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was employed to recruit the target population, who are required 1) not to hold a hukou indicative of living in central areas or near suburbs of Chengdu city; 2) to be 16 years or older; 3) not to be a student. The Center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure depression symptoms of migrant workers. And then Structural Equation Model (SEM) was applied to explore factors associated with depression among Chinese migrant workers. Results Among 1,180 migrant workers, 23.7% of them had clinically relevant depression symptoms (CES-D score >= 16), and 12.8% were consistent with a clinical diagnosis of depression (CES-D score >= 21). Self-rated economic status, city adaptation status, and self-rated health had negative effects on depression. Social economic status (SES) affected depression, and was mediated by self-rated economic status and self-rated health. City adaptation status was affected by length of residence in the city, satisfaction with one’s job, and the social support that one could obtain while living in the city. Conclusions The findings indicated a higher prevalence of depression symptoms among migrant workers comparing to general population reported by previous studies, identified possible factors associated with depression symptoms, and also explored relationships between these factors. Our study provides a model to understand mental health of Chinese
Nisbet, Michael K.
Examines the Workers' Compensation system and teacher stress to determine if a burned-out teacher should be eligible for Workers' Compensation benefits. Concludes that although most states do not allow Workers' Compensation benefits to burned-out teachers, compensation should be granted because the injuries are real and work-related. (Contains 48…
Sheppard, Harold L., Ed.
This book contains seven chapters on work and older workers based on an international symposium held at the University of South Florida in 1989. Chapter titles and authors are as follows: (1) "The Corporate Sector's Stake in Older Workers" (Daniel Knowles); (2) "A Seller's Market for Older Workers" (Audrey Freedman); (3) "Retirees' Reentry into…
North Carolina Occupational Safety and Health Project, Durham.
A survey of office workers employed by North Carolina telephone companies was conducted to determine the extent and types of health problems experienced by office workers who use video display terminals (VDTs). Data were gathered by questionnaires mailed to 2,478 office workers, with 966 responses. Questions concerning a wide range of health…
American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.
Because of the aging of the labor force and legislation designed to keep older workers on the job, employers will have to deal with increasing numbers of older workers. For this transition to be as smooth as possible, employers must first overcome age-related stereotypes that have taken hold since the 1930s. Dealing with older workers involves two…
... Commodities § 780.116 Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act. (a) Section 3(f... defined as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended (12 U.S...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...
Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.
This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…
Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...
Deeds, Jacquelyn P.; And Others
Six theme articles attempt to define and advocate agricultural literacy, review the status of K-8 agricultural literacy programs in states, discuss an Oklahoma study of agricultural literacy, clarify the meaning of sustainable agriculture, and describe the Future Farmers of America's Food for America program for elementary students. (SK)
Merrell, Ronald C; Merriam, Nathaniel; Doarn, Charles
Health workers are trained to work in information-rich environments. Nineteen medical students evaluated 2700 patients in four villages in Kenya where there was no power or phone. A model of information support included personal digital assistants (PDA), electronic medical records (EMR), satellite telecommunications, medical software, and solar power. The students promptly found the advantages of PDA over paper. By using software for decision support and interacting with the EMR data for medical expertise, very few live telemedicine consults were needed. The cost of this information support was only US 0.28 dollars per patient visit. We conclude information resources can be provided in remote environments at reasonable cost.
Yelland, Nicola; Andrew, Yarrow; Blaise, Mindy; Chan, Yee On
Despite the ongoing global financial crisis, there is an increasing deployment of migrant workers across the globe, and in Hong Kong the foreign domestic worker occupies a ubiquitous presence in the lives of many families. Seven domestic workers from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand were interviewed to gain insight into their role in…
Lerman, Robert I.
Stagnant or declining wages for less-educated workers make policies to upgrade the job market options for low wage workers an urgent priority. One in three low wage workers lives in a low income family. The link between low basic skills and low wages is strong. No single standard of minimum skill requirements applies to all middle income jobs, and…
Bandyopadhyay, M; Thomas, J
Research on population mobility and HIV/AIDS risk among migrant populations is quite limited, and research on migrant women workers' vulnerability is further limited. Hong Kong, the Special Administrative Region of China, has currently about 200,000 women migrant workers working as domestic helps. This paper reports migrant women worker's access to AIDS-related health information and health care facilities, perceptions about vulnerability, and risk behaviour profile. Data was collected through a pre-tested questionnaire from a random sample of 2,010 women migrant workers. A majority of the migrant women workers (63.6%) have been living and working in Hong Kong for between 4-10 years. Fifty-four per cent of the respondents felt that being a female they were vulnerable to HIV infection. Overall, the knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and its route of transmission is inadequate amongst the migrant women workers in Hong Kong. It appears that AIDS-related information education and communication needs of women migrants workers are not met by the current HIV prevention and care activities in Hong Kong. The study indicates that migrant women workers who experienced sexual violence (9%) in Hong Kong perceive themselves to be 'at risk' of HIV infection. Seventy per cent of the respondents reported that they have felt discriminated against in Hong Kong, of which 42% felt discriminated against in Hong Kong hospitals. Addressing discrimination in health care settings is an essential element of AIDS prevention. The discussion urges researchers and policy makers to pay more attention to the vulnerability of migrant women workers.
Marquart, Hans; Northage, Christine; Money, Chris
The new European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals) requires the development of Exposure Scenarios describing the conditions and risk management measures needed for the safe use of chemicals. Such Exposure Scenarios should integrate considerations of both human health and the environment. Specific aspects are relevant for worker exposure. Gathering information on the uses of the chemical is an important step in developing an Exposure Scenario. In-house information at manufacturers is an important source. Downstream users can contribute information through direct contact or through their associations. Relatively simple approaches (Tier 1 tools, such as the ECETOC Targeted Risk Assessment and the model EASE) can be used to develop broad Exposure Scenarios that cover many use situations. These approaches rely on the categorisation of just a few determinants, including only a small number of risk management measures. Such approaches have a limited discriminatory power and are rather conservative. When the hazard of the substance or the complexity of the exposure situation require a more in-depth approach, further development of the Exposure Scenarios with Tier 2 approaches is needed. Measured data sets of worker exposure are very valuable in a Tier 2 approach. Some downstream user associations have attempted to build Exposure Scenarios based on measured data sets. Generic Tier 2 tools for developing Exposure Scenarios do not exist yet. To enable efficient development of the worker exposure part of Exposure Scenarios a further development of Tier 1 and Tier 2 tools is needed. Special attention should be given to user friendliness and to the validity (boundaries) of the approaches. The development of standard worker exposure descriptions or full Exposure Scenarios by downstream user branches in cooperation with manufacturers and importers is recommended.
Rinsky, R A; Young, R J; Smith, A B
To evaluate the possible association between occupational exposure to benzene and subsequent death from leukemia, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of workers who had been exposed to benzene in the manufacture of rubber hydrochloride at two locations in Ohio. Ascertainment of vital status was accomplished for 98% of the cohort. Among 748 workers who had at least one day of exposure to benzene between 1940 and 1950, seven deaths from leukemia occurred; from United States death rates standardized for sex, age, and calendar time period, only 1.25 leukemia deaths would have been expected (standardized mortality ratio = 560; p less than 0.001). Mean duration of exposure to benzene was brief, and 437 (58%) of the cohort were exposed for less than 1 year. Evaluation of leukemia mortality for those workers exposed five or more years showed an SMR of 2100. All leukemia deaths were myelocytic or monocytic in cell type. Four additional cases of leukemia have been reorganized in workers at the study locations, but occurred in persons not encompassed by the strict definition of the cohort. Reconstruction of past exposures to benzene at the two locations indicates that in some areas of the plant airborne benzene concentrations rose occasionally to several hundred parts per million (ppm), but that for the most part, employee eight-hour time-weighted averages (TWA) fell within the limits considered permissible at the time of exposure. These data corroborate an initial analysis of the same cohort by Infante et al, and indicate that benzene is a human carcinogen at a range of exposures not greatly above the current legal standard.
Izmerov, N F
The author demonstrates that in conditions of demographic aging an important contribution in solving the task set in "Strategy 2020" on more efficient usage of working resources could be involvement of occupational potential of old age workers, e.g. through changeable working schedules, outwork and distance work. With that, employment level at old age should consider performance level, health state and psycho-physiologic potential of the certain age group.
Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...
Papazian, Elaine; Ray, S. B.
This guide is designed for Hindi language training of Peace Corps workers in agriculture in India and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of notes on Hindi phonology and pronunciation and a series of lessons on description, common phrases, and grammatical constructions. The 41 lessons are presented in four sections,…
Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.
This publication contains a worker task list and supplementary information for occupations in the agriculture and natural resources cluster of occupations. The task list were generated through the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process and/or by analysis by a panel of experts. Tasks are listed in 10 categories: (1) performing investigative…
Khorramnia, K.; Shariff, A. R. M.; Rahim, A. Abdul; Mansor, S.
Sustainable agriculture should be able to meet various social goals and objectives so that it can be maintained for an indefinite period without significant negative impacts on environment and natural resources. A wide variety of agricultural activities are running in Malaysia. Maintaining high quality of agricultural products with lower environmental impacts through a sustainable economic viability and life satisfaction of farmers and community are important factors helping to meet sustainable agriculture. Human resources are playing key role in directing the community toward sustainable development. The trend of improving the human development index in Malaysia is highest in the East Asia and the Pacific, high human development countries and the world, since 2000. Precision agriculture is providing strong tools to achieve sustainable agriculture. Different types of sensors, positioning and navigation systems, GIS, software and variable rate technology are well known components of precision agriculture. Drones and robots are promising tools that enabling farmers and managers to collect information or perform particular actions in remote areas or tough conditions. According to a survey, forestry and timber, rubber production and oil palm estates are three main agricultural divisions that precision agriculture may improve the productivity in respect to area of cropland/worker. Main factors affecting the adoption of precision agriculture in Malaysia are: a) Political and legal supports, b) Decision support systems and user interfaces c) Experienced research team works d) National educational policy e) Success in commercialization of precision agriculture system.
Larson, William; Medelius, Pedro; Starr, Stan; Bedette, Guy; Taylor, John; Moerk, Steve
A system based on low-power radio transponders and associated analog and digital electronic circuitry has been developed for locating firefighters and other emergency workers deployed in a building or other structure. The system has obvious potential for saving lives and reducing the risk of injuries. The system includes (1) a central station equipped with a computer and a transceiver; (2) active radio-frequency (RF) identification tags, each placed in a different room or region of the structure; and (3) transponder units worn by the emergency workers. The RF identification tags can be installed in a new building as built-in components of standard fire-detection devices or ground-fault electrical outlets or can be attached to such devices in a previously constructed building, without need for rewiring the building. Each RF identification tag contains information that uniquely identifies it. When each tag is installed, information on its location and identity are reported to, and stored at, the central station. In an emergency, if a building has not been prewired with RF identification tags, leading emergency workers could drop sequentially numbered portable tags in the rooms of the building, reporting the tag numbers and locations by radio to the central station as they proceed.
Acquavella, J F; Riordan, S G; Anne, M; Lynch, C F; Collins, J J; Ireland, B K; Heydens, W F
Alachlor is the active ingredient in a family of preemergence herbicides. We assessed mortality rates from 1968 to 1993 and cancer incidence rates from 1969 to 1993 for manufacturing workers with potential alachlor exposure. For workers judged to have high alachlor exposure, mortality from all causes combined was lower than expected [23 observed, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.4-1.0], cancer mortality was similar to expected (6 observed, SMR = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.3-1.6), and there were no cancer deaths among workers with 5 or more years high exposure and 15 or more years since first exposure (2.3 expected, SMR = 0, 95% CI, 0-1.6). Cancer incidence for workers with high exposure potential was similar to the state rate [18 observed, standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.2, 95% CI, 0.7-2.0], especially for workers exposed for 5 or more years and with at least 15 years since first exposure (4 observed, SIR = 1.0, 95% CI, 0.3-2.7). The most common cancer for these latter workers was colorectal cancer (2 observed, SIR 3.9, 95% CI, 0.5-14.2 among workers). Despite the limitations of this study with respect to small size and exposure estimating, the findings are useful for evaluating potential alachlor-related health risks because past manufacturing exposures greatly exceeded those characteristic of agricultural operations. These findings suggest no appreciable effect of alachlor exposure on worker mortality or cancer incidence rates during the study period. PMID:8841758
Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…
The application of sewage sludge has been a worldwide agricultural practice for many years. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of sewage sludge (Ss) has on the physiological parameters of maize (Zea mays L cvs. PR37NO1). 2 g dm(-3) and 4 g dm(-3) of sewage sludge were examined in hydroponic experiment. Some metal contents (Al, Cr, Mn, Na, Zn) in the shoots and roots of maize were taken. Living bacteria containing fertilizers (LBCF) were examined on how the treatments modify heavy metal uptakes. Dry matter accumulations in shoots and roots, length of shoots and roots of maize were measured. Chlorophyll contents were determined by using spectrophotometer methods. The dry matter accumulation and length of shoots decreased, the dry matter of roots increased in all of the treatments compared to the nutrient solution without treatment (control). Increased chlorophyll a, b and carotene contents were observed at 4 g dm(-3) Ss and 4 g dm(-3) Ss + bio fertilizer treatments.
Mobed, K; Gold, E B; Schenker, M B
Migrant and seasonal farm workers are one of the most underserved and understudied populations in the United States. The total US population of such farm workers has been estimated at 5 million, of whom about 20% live or work in California. Farm workers perform strenuous tasks and are exposed to a wide variety of occupational risks and hazards. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to health care also contribute to existing health problems in this population. Potential farm work-related health problems include accidents, pesticide-related illnesses, musculoskeletal and soft-tissue disorders, dermatitis, noninfectious respiratory conditions, reproductive health problems, health problems of children of farm workers, climate-caused illnesses, communicable diseases, bladder and kidney disorders, and eye and ear problems. Few epidemiologic studies exist of these occupational health problems. No comprehensive epidemiologic studies have assessed the magnitude of occupational health problems among migrant and seasonal farm workers and their dependents. Although the migratory nature of this population makes long-term studies difficult, the development of standardized data collection instruments for health consequences and scientific assessment of farm work exposures and working conditions are vital to characterize and reduce the occupational health risks in farm workers. PMID:1413786
Greene, Shirley E.
In 1951, the National Council on Agricultural Life and Labor and 6 of its member organizations sponsored a research project designed to provide a factual, objective basis for plans and programs to improve the educational opportunities and experience of migratory agricultural workers' children. The project extended from July 1, 1952 to December 31,…
Irlbeck, Erica Goss; Akers, Cindy
Agricultural communications programs should frequently review their curriculum to ensure students receive the highest quality of education possible (Akers, 2000). This research is a nationwide look at recent agricultural communications graduates' employers and/or co-workers. The purpose of this study was to determine which workplace habits and…
The Sisonke movement in South Africa aims to galvanize sex workers to fight for equal rights and for improvements in their living and working conditions. This article, based on Jayne Arnott's presentation to a plenary session at the XV International AIDS Conference in Bangkok on 14 July 2004, outlines the legislation that governs the sex trade in South Africa; reviews related legal and policy developments since the end of apartheid in 1994; describes the present environment; and outlines the contribution that sex workers themselves are making to the fight for reform.
Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed
International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.
Duke, Michael R.; Gómez Carpinteiro, Francisco J.
Although the financial remittances sent by male Mexican migrant workers residing in the United States can result in higher standards of living for their families and home communities, out-migration may lead to increased migrant problem drinking and sexual risk behaviors, which may in turn impact these same communities of origin. Based on semi-structured interviewing (n=60) and participant observation in a migrant sending community in central Mexico and a receiving community in the Northeastern United States, this paper explores the effects of out-migration on HIV risk and problem drinking among United States-based migrants from a small agricultural community in the Mexican state of Puebla. We argue that problem drinking and risky sexual behaviors among these migrant workers have had significant consequences for their home community in terms of diminished remittances, the introduction of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and loss of husbands or kinsmen to automobile accidents. Moreover, although rumor and gossip between the two communities serve as a form of social control, they may also contribute to increased problem drinking and sexual risk. PMID:20169008
Ayres, W S; Mccalla, A F
Within 30 years the world will be supplying food for an additional 2.5 billion people, most of whom will live in developing countries. Developing countries in meeting future challenges will need to implement sound and stable macroeconomic and sector policies. The World Bank is providing analysis, policy dialogue, and financial support in specific countries for opening up agricultural markets globally. Developing countries need to enhance food supplies by encouraging rapid technological change, increasing the efficiency of irrigation, and improving natural resource management. Agricultural and income growth in developing countries is dependent upon transfer of the breakthroughs in agricultural technology to the millions of small farms in the developing world. People currently use about 70% of available fresh water for irrigation, and competition for water resources with urban and industrial users has increased. Agriculture and other sectors must increase the efficiency of water use. Natural resource planning and comprehensive water and natural resource management that rely on a community-based approach have proven successful. Developing countries need to improve access to food by strengthening markets and agribusinesses, providing education and health services to both boys and girls, investing in infrastructure, and fostering broad participation. The major challenge ahead is to ensure food security for the hundreds of millions of families living in poverty. This large and complex task involves increasing agricultural output worldwide, reducing poverty, and improving health and nutrition. Progress has been made in the past 25 years in improving living conditions, but not everyone has benefitted. Almost 75% of the poor live in rural areas without access to land, and 25% are urban poor without jobs. Most of the poor live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank mandate is to reduce poverty and hunger through revitalized rural development.
In this paper, processes of gentrification are assessed in relation to non-commercial farming: the production of agricultural commodities without the intent of earning a living. The author argues that due to the connection between residence and productive assets (particularly land) inherent in farming, agricultural gentrification represents a…
Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.
The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…
Goletti, Francesco; Pinners, Elise; Purcell, Timothy; Smith, Dominic
The majority of the population of Vietnam lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Consistent growth of the agriculture sector over the past two decades has contributed to a remarkable reduction in the poverty rate and the virtual elimination of hunger in the rural areas of Vietnam. In order to continue the growth…
Hemp, Paul; And Others
This core curriculum guide consists of materials for use in presenting a 13-unit vocational agriculture course geared toward high school students living in metropolitan areas. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: employment in agricultural occupations, supervised occupational experience, leadership in…
1. The workers' compensation system provides benefits to workers who are injured or made ill in the course of employment or their dependents regardless of fault. 2. The current workers' compensation laws benefit both the employer and the employee; however, workers' compensation is an exclusive remedy which bars recovery through a negligence lawsuit. 3. Workers' compensation regulations interact with other federal statutes such as the Americans With Disabilities Act and the Family Medical Leave Act. 4. Workers' compensation covers occupational injuries and occupational diseases, which may include cumulative trauma and mental stress claims. Nurses may be instrumental in evaluating and planning for an injured employee's return to work and occasionally in detecting fraudulent claims.
Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.
Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.
Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.
Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)
Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…
Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah
Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…
Sherertz, R. J.; Bassetti, S.; Bassetti-Wyss, B.
Certain bacteria dispersed by health-care workers can cause hospital infections. Asymptomatic health-care workers colonized rectally, vaginally, or on the skin with group A streptococci have caused outbreaks of surgical site infection by airborne dispersal. Outbreaks have been associated with skin colonization or viral upper respiratory tract infection in a phenomenon of airborne dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus called the "cloud" phenomenon. This review summarizes the data supporting the existence of cloud health-care workers. PMID:11294715
Williamson, John B; Higo, Masa
As part of the search for ways to increase labor force participation rates among older workers in the United States, it makes sense to take a close look at evidence from Japan, one of the few industrial countries with a substantially higher labor force participation rate among older workers, particularly men, than the United States. Based mainly on prior studies and original interview data, we first discuss five potential factors which help explain why Japanese workers remain in the labor force as long as they do: (1) perceived economic necessity; (2) the large fraction of workers who are self-employed; (3) a culture that puts a high value on remaining in the labor force throughout the life course; (4) the long healthy life expectancy; and (5) the government's role in facilitating the labor force participation of older workers. We suggest that the Japanese national cultural value on remaining economically productive well into old age clearly underlies the development of the government's legislative initiatives aiming to extend the working lives of older workers. We then outline three policy suggestions for those seeking to increase labor force participation rates among older U.S. workers: (1) increase the financial incentive to workers who remain in the labor force; (2) improve public programs designed to foster efforts by older workers to become self-employed; and (3) increase the extent of government efforts to link older workers to prospective employers.
This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.
Lyson, Thomas A
Agricultural biotechnologies are anchored to a scientific paradigm rooted in experimental biology, whereas sustainable agriculture rests on a biological paradigm that is best described as ecological. Both biotechnology and sustainable agriculture are associated with particular social science paradigms: biotechnology has its foundation in neoclassical economics, but sustainability is framed by an emerging community-centered, problem-solving perspective. Fundamentally, biotechnology and neoclassical economics are reductionist in nature. Sustainability and community problem-solving, however, are nonreductionist. Given these differences, we might see the development of two rather distinct systems of food production in the near future.
Kaungamno, E. E.
This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…
In 2013, cropland agriculture resulted in total emissions of approximately 209 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases (GHG). Cropland agriculture is responsible for almost half (46%) of all emissions from the agricultural sector. Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) emissions from c...
Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve
This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…
Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…
Seperich, George; And Others
This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…
Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…
Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.
This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…
Blaylock, B.P.; Campbell, A.C.; Hutchison, J.F.; Simek, M.A.P.; Sutherland, J.F.; Legg, J.L.
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has generated and disposed of large quantities of waste as a result of 50 years of nuclear weapons production. This waste has been disposed of in waste sites such as burial grounds, waste pits, holding ponds, and landfills. Many of these waste sites have begun to release contamination offsite and potentially pose risks to humans living or working in the vicinity of these sites. By 2019, DOE must meet its goals to achieve timely compliance with all applicable environmental requirements, clean up the 1989 inventory of hazardous and radioactive wastes at inactive sites and facilities, and safely and efficiently treat, store, and dispose of the waste generated by remediation and operating facilities. Remediation of DOE`s 13,000 facilities, and management of the current and future waste streams, will require the effort of thousands of workers. Workers, as defined here, are persons who directly participate in the cleanup or remediation of DOE sites. Remediation activities include the use of remediation technologies such as bioremediation, surface water controls, and contaminated soil excavation. This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology and computer code designed to predict risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) activities that are yet to be undertaken. The computer code, designated ER-WORKER, can be used to estimate worker risks across the DOE complex on a site-specific, installation-wide, or programmatic level. This approach generally follows the guidance suggested in the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) (EPA 1989a). Key principles from other important Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE guidance documents are incorporated into the methodology.
Reyes, Iris; Ellis, Tammy; Yoder, Aaron; Keifer, Matthew C
As the use of mobile devices and their software applications, or apps, becomes ubiquitous, use amongst agricultural working populations is expanding as well. The smart device paired with a well-designed app has potential for improving workplace health and safety in the hands of those who can act upon the information provided. Many apps designed to assess workplace hazards and implementation of worker protections already exist. However, the abundance and diversity of such applications also presents challenges regarding evaluation practices and assignation of value. This is particularly true in the agricultural workspace, as there is currently little information on the value of these apps for agricultural safety and health. This project proposes a framework for developing and evaluating apps that have potential usefulness in agricultural health and safety. The evaluation framework is easily transferable, with little modification for evaluation of apps in several agriculture-specific areas.
Ward, G.M.; Sutherland, T.M.; Sutherland, J.M.
Agricultural development programs have so far been largely unable to meet the food needs of the world's poorest. Increased food production can be achieved only from more intensive agriculture, which requires greater energy inputs per farm worker. Problems of technological infrastructure and escalating oil prices appear to preclude the spread of mechanization to Third World agriculture at this time. Efficient utilization of grazing animals in specific integrated farming systems could not only increase energy inputs through draft and transportation but also increase the yield of high-grade products and by-products from the renewable energy of biomass. An approach to development based on animal agriculture systems is suggested that might initiate a self-sustaining, more productive agriculture requireing only small inputs of fossil-fuel energy.
Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.
The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis
Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma
The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…
Monaghan, Paul F.; Forst, Linda S.; Tovar-Aguilar, Jose Antonio; Bryant, Carol A.; Israel, Glenn D.; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang
Objectives. Although eye injuries are common among citrus harvesters, the proportion of workers using protective eyewear has been negligible. We focused on adoption of worker-tested safety glasses with and without the presence and activities of trained peer-worker role models on harvesting crews. Methods. Observation of 13 citrus harvesting crews established baseline use of safety eyewear. Nine crews subsequently were assigned a peer worker to model use of safety glasses, conduct eye safety education, and treat minor eye injuries. Safety eyewear use by crews was monitored up to 15 weeks into the intervention. Results. Intervention crews with peer workers had significantly higher rates of eyewear use than control crews. Intervention exposure time and level of worker use were strongly correlated. Among intervention crews, workers with 1 to 2 years of experience (odds ratio [OR] = 2.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11, 7.55) and who received help from their peer worker (OR = 3.73; 95% CI = 1.21, 11.57) were significantly more likely to use glasses than were other intervention crew members. Conclusions. Adaptation of the community health worker model for this setting improved injury prevention practices and may have relevance for similar agricultural settings. PMID:22021291
From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify
Foster, K R; Ratnieks, F L; Raybould, A F
Colonies of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, are typically founded by a single queen mated to a single male. From the resulting colony relatedness pattern we predicted strong worker-queen conflict over male production where both the workers and the queen attempt to produce the colony's males. To test for this conflict, male production was studied in 15 hornet nests using a combination of DNA microsatellite analysis (282 males), worker ovary dissections (500 workers from eight nests) and 50 h of observation (four nests). In contrast to our prediction, the data show that hornet males are queens' sons, that workers never attempt to lay eggs, rarely have activated ovaries, and that there is no direct aggression between the queen and the workers. This contrasts with other data for vespine wasps, which support relatedness predictions. Dolichovespula arenaria has the same kin structure as V. crabro and workers produce males in many colonies. The similarity between these two species makes it difficult to explain why workers do not reproduce in V. crabro. Self-restraint is expected if worker reproduction significantly reduces colony productivity but there is no obvious reason why this should be important to V. crabro but not to D. arenaria. Alternatively, queen control may be important. The absence of expressed queen-worker conflict rules out physical control. Indirect pheromonal control is a possibility and is supported by the occurrence of royal courts and queen pheromone in Vespa but not Dolichovespula. Pheromonal queen control is considered evolutionarily unstable, but could result from a queen-worker arms race over reproductive control in which the queen is ahead. The genetic data also revealed diploid males in one colony, the first example in the vespine wasps, and two colonies with double matrilines, suggesting that occasional usurpation by spring queens occurs.
Alexander, R; Anderson, P K
Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects.
Despain, Deric; North, Teresa; Warnick, Brian K.; Baggaley, John
Agricultural education can take scientific topics to higher levels, emphasize scientific concepts, involve hands-on learning, and develop interrelationships with the other sciences, thus making the living and non-living world around them relevant for students, potentially supporting a STEM curriculum. As such, in 1996, Utah deemed agricultural…
... North Carolina or Iowa. Participants classified as "private pesticide applicators" are farmers or nursery workers. The study also includes a small percentage of "commercial pesticide applicators" from Iowa who work for pest control ...
Jacobson, Louis S.; LaLonde, Robert J.; Sullivan, Daniel G.
High-tenured displaced workers often experience significant earnings losses that persist for the rest of their working lives. A well-targeted training initiative has the potential to substantially reduce permanent earnings losses for those displaced workers who have the academic preparation, work experience, and interest to complete high-return…
DeSouza, Eros R.; Cerqueira, Elder
Sexual harassment has been investigated mostly in developed countries. The authors examined frequency rates and consequences of sexual harassment among female domestic workers in Brazil. Twenty-six percent had been sexually harassed at work during the past year. Live-in workers were at significantly greater risk for experiencing sexual harassment…
Huss, Ephrat; Sarid, Orly; Cwikel, Julie
War poses a challenge for social workers, adding exposure to direct risk of personal harm to the general stress of social work practice. Artworks are frequently used in health care settings with people in high distress. This study had three goals: (1) to characterize the stressors of social workers living in a war zone, (2) to teach social workers…
Noriega, Mariano; Gutiérrez, Guadalupe; Méndez, Ignacio; Pulido, Margarita
The relationships were studied between daily life, work, and mental disorders in female health workers from the Mexican Health Insurance Institute. The study sample (n = 170) included female physicians, nurses, laboratory workers, and medical assistants. Primary data were obtained through an interview which had been previously validated in a population of workers in Mexico. Relationships were found between mental disorders and all facets of women's lives. In relation to the domestic environment, women with higher rates of mental disorders were those who were mothers, had more children, did not have household help, and had husbands or partners. Prevalence of mental disorders in relation to paid work was associated with the length of the workday, absenteeism, and lack of job content. Skills development, job satisfaction, and creativity had a "protective" or preventive effect against mental disorders and fatigue. The main risks and conditions that functioned as stressors were heat, noise, physical effort, awkward positions, and intense, repetitive work.
TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, LIVING ROOM, SOUTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM CENTER OF ROOM - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA
TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, DOOR DETAIL, FRONT ENTRANCE INTO LIVING ROOM, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA
TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, LIVING ROOM, NORTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING NORTH FROM CENTER OF ROOM - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA
..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain...
..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain...
..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain...
..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.239 Livestock living conditions. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must establish and maintain livestock...
Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech
This study reviews the evidence on the association between work in greenhouses and reproductive disorders. The analysis indicate that employment in greenhouses may increase the risk of birth defects, preterm delivery and spontaneous abortion, and also may affect birth weight. The obtained results showed that employment in the agriculture production sector (greenhouses) of more than 10 years decreased the median sperm concentration in men. The data on the effect of employment in greenhouses on the time to pregnancy are unequivocal, but most of them suggest that there is a relationship between the decreased fecundity ratio and greenhouse work, mostly due to exposure to pesticides. The literature review indicates a great need to increase awareness among greenhouse workers occupationally exposed to pesticides about potential negative effects of these chemicals on their health.
Obi, Okey Francis
The importance of hand anthropometry as it relates to design of hand tools particularly for farm workers have been established; however, anthropometric data for this group of agricultural workers have continued to remain scarce. A survey of hand anthropometry relevant in design of agricultural hand tools was carried out on 200 male and 100 female adult farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria. Comparison of the male and female data obtained showed that male dimensions were higher than that recorded for the females. The hand anthropometric data of the male and female farm workers were compared with that of other populations but no clear distinction was observed. It was however clear that the following hand dimensions, 2nd Joint to root digit 3 and width at tip digit 3 recorded for Nigerian farm workers were highest and lowest, respectively, compared to other populations. Practitioner Summary: Hand anthropometric data relevant in design of hand tools have continued to remain scarce particularly for farm workers. Hand anthropometry survey of farm workers carried out in south-eastern Nigeria revealed higher dimensions for males than females; however, no clear distinction was observed in comparison with other populations.
...The Department of Labor (the Department or DOL) proposes to amend its regulations governing the certification of the employment of nonimmigrant workers in temporary or seasonal non-agricultural employment and the enforcement of the obligations applicable to employers of such nonimmigrant workers. This Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM or proposed rule) proposes to revise and solicits......
...The Department of Labor (the Department) is amending its regulations governing the certification of the employment of nonimmigrant workers in temporary or seasonal non-agricultural employment and the enforcement of the obligations applicable to employers of such nonimmigrant workers. This Final Rule revises the process by which employers obtain a temporary labor certification from the......
LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel
Robert LaLonde of the University of Chicago and Daniel Sullivan of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago suggest that retraining through our nation's community colleges is a way to reduce the skills gaps of at least some of these displaced workers and increase their reemployment earnings. Although workers may still experience significant earnings…
Lilly, S. J.
This manual acquaints readers with the general operations of the tree care industry. The manual covers subjects important to a tree worker and serves as a training aid for workers at the entry level as tree care professionals. Each chapter begins with a set of objectives and may include figures, tables, and photographs. Ten chapters are included:…
American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.
Most older workers continue to work hard and perform well; those who do not often perceive that their opportunities for promotion and increased earnings are limited. Six principles of management particularly apply to older workers: (1) recognize that needs can be powerful motivators; (2) link need satisfaction to job performance; (3) set specific,…
California State Job Training Coordinating Council, Sacramento.
The California State Job Training Coordinating Council (SJTCC) appointed a youth subcommittee to determine the role that the SJTCC should play in preventing inadequate skill development and lack of jobs from destroying the working lives of California's high-risk youth. The subcommittee identified the state's high-risk youth as those who have…
Barrientos, G E; Pastor, M E
Preliminary data on household structures of proletarian and semiproletarian workers in 3 municipios of the state of Puebla, Mexico, are presented. This work is part of a larger study of the 5 municipios with the highest proportion of industrial workers in the state of Puebla. Among the 3 municipios in the present study, Puebla contained 48.4% of the state's industrial workers, Tehuacan 6.9%, and Cholula 3.9%. A structured questionnaire was used during interviews with 27 male and 25 female factory workers in Puebla, 24 male and 15 female workers in Cholula, and 25 male and 20 female factory workers in Tehuacan. 16% of households of industrial workers in Puebla and Cholula supplemented their wage income with agricultural work, compared to 27% in Tehuacan. 10 of the workers, all women, were under 20 years old. 73% of women workers were under 30 years old, compared to 34% of the male workers. Women workers virtually disappeared after 40 years. Less educated women tend to enter the labor force at early ages and use their incomes to aid the parental budget. The tendency is reinforced by the preference of factories for a very young female labor force that also stops working a young age due to marriage. Women supported households alone in 8 cases and with the aid of other women in 4 cases. 52 households depended on the income of 1 man and another 17 on the income of more than 1 man. 48 of the women but only 7 of the men belonged to households in which both men and women were economically active. Households supported by just 1 man tended to be quite large. The data suggest a postponement of the age at 1st pregnancy among female workers.
AN OCCUPATIONAL DAY CENTER FOR MENTALLY RETARDED ADULTS WAS ESTABLISHED TO PROVIDE COMMUNITY SERVICES FOR RETARDED PERSONS WHO LIVE AT HOME AND, ALTHOUGH BEYOND SCHOOL AGE, ARE UNABLE TO PARTICIPATE IN SHELTERED WORKSHOP ACTIVITIES. THE STAFF INCLUDES A DIRECTOR, A SOCIAL WORKER, FIVE INSTRUCTORS, A TRAINING SUPERVISOR, AN OFFICE WORKER, AND A…
Okoye, John O; Eze, Didacus C; Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; White, Sarah K; Merrill, Hunter R; Gray, Gregory C
In recent years Nigeria has experienced sporadic incursions of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza among poultry. In 2008, 316 poultry-exposed agricultural workers, and 54 age-group matched non-poultry exposed adults living in the Enugu or Ebonyi States of Nigeria were enrolled and then contacted monthly for 24 months to identify acute influenza-like-illnesses. Annual follow-up sera and questionnaire data were collected at 12 and 24 months. Participants reporting influenza-like illness completed additional questionnaires, and provided nasal and pharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent sera. Swab and sera specimens were studied for evidence of influenza A virus infection. Sera were examined for elevated antibodies against 12 avian influenza viruses by microneutralization and 3 human viruses by hemagglutination inhibition. Four (3.2%) of the 124 acute influenza-like-illness investigations yielded molecular evidence of influenza, but virus could not be cultured. Serial serum samples from five poultry-exposed subjects had a ≥4-fold change in microneutralization titers against A/CK/Nigeria/07/1132123(H5N1), with three of those having titers ≥1:80 (maximum 1:1,280). Three of the five subjects (60%) reported a preceding influenza-like illness. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were ≥4-fold increases against one of the human viruses in 260 participants. While cross-reactivity from antibodies against other influenza viruses cannot be ruled out as a partial confounder, over the course of the 2-year follow-up, at least 3 of 316 (0.9%) poultry-exposed subjects had evidence for subclinical HPAI H5N1 infections. If these data represent true infections, it seems imperative to increase monitoring for avian influenza among Nigeria's poultry and poultry workers.
van der Mei, I A; de Boer, E M; Bruynzeel, D P
Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence.
Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.
Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…
Gao, Xiaoli; Chan, Chi Wai; Mak, Siu Lun; Ng, Zevon; Kwong, Wai Hang; Kot, Ching Ching Shirley
Foreign domestic helpers constitute a significant proportion of migrant workers worldwide. This population subgroup provides an opportunity for understanding social determinants of oral health in immigrant community. A random sample of 122 Indonesian domestic helpers in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire on their demographic background, social characteristics (competency in local languages, immigration history, living condition, social connections, and leisure activities) and oral health behaviours (knowledge, attitudes, practice and self-efficacy). Their tooth status and periodontal health were assessed. Participants tended to start flossing after settling in Hong Kong. Favourable oral health knowledge was found in more acculturated participants, as indicated by proficiency in local languages and immigration history. Engagement in social and/or religious activities and decent living condition provided by employers were associated with favourable oral health behaviours and/or better oral health. Social determinants explained 13.2 % of variance in caries severity. Our findings support the significant impact of social circumstances on oral health of domestic workers.
Northeast Arkansas Educational Cooperative, Strawberry.
A program was conducted to integrate computer technology into agriculture classrooms in 25 secondary schools and 4 universities in Arkansas. State-of-the-art technology from the AgriData Network of Milwaukee was used. The AgriData Network includes the Ag Ed Network, which offers more than 800 "live textbook" lessons with current…
Perry, Robin E.
Objective: To empirically examine whether the educational background of child welfare workers in Florida impacts on performance evaluations of their work. Method: A proportionate, stratified random sample of supervisor and peer evaluations of child protective investigators and child protective service workers is conducted. ANOVA procedures are…
Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Mash, Robert; Shaibu, Sheila; Phaladze, Nthabiseng
Background An adequate health workforce force is central to universal health coverage and positive public health outcomes. However many African countries have critical shortages of healthcare workers, which are worse in primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers, policy makers and the community on the shortage of healthcare workers in Botswana. Method Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with three groups of policy makers, six groups of healthcare workers and six groups of community members in rural, urban and remote rural health districts of Botswana. All the participants were 18 years and older. Recruitment was purposive and the framework method was used to inductively analyse the data. Results There was a perceived shortage of healthcare workers in primary healthcare, which was believed to result from an increased need for health services, inequitable distribution of healthcare workers, migration and too few such workers being trained. Migration was mainly the result of unfavourable personal and family factors, weak and ineffective healthcare and human resources management, low salaries and inadequate incentives for rural and remote area service. Conclusions Botswana has a perceived shortage of healthcare workers, which is worse in primary healthcare and rural areas, as a result of multiple complex factors. To address the scarcity the country should train adequate numbers of healthcare workers and distribute them equitably to sufficiently resourced healthcare facilities. They should be competently managed and adequately remunerated and the living conditions and rural infrastructure should also be improved. PMID:26284617
Sönmez, Sevil; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Tran, Diane; Rentrope, Shantyana
Systematic violations of migrant workers' human rights and striking health disparities among these populations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are the norm in member countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Migrant laborers comprise about 90 percent of the UAE workforce and include approximately 500,000 construction workers and 450,000 domestic workers. Like many other GCC members countries, the UAE witnessed an unprecedented construction boom during the early 2000s, attracting large numbers of Western expatriates and increasing demand for cheap migrant labor. Elite Emiratis' and Western expatriates' dependence on household staff further promoted labor migration. This paper offers a summary of existing literature on migrant workers and human rights in the UAE, focusing on their impact on related health ramifications and disparities, with specific attention to construction workers, domestic workers, and trafficked women and children. Construction workers and domestic laborers are victims of debt bondage and face severe wage exploitation, and experience serious health and safety problems resulting from inhumane work and living conditions. High rates of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse impact the health of domestic workers. Through a review of available literature, including official reports, scientific papers, and media reports, the paper discusses the responsibility of employers, governments, and the global community in mitigating these problems and reveals the paucity of systematic data on the health of migrant workers in the Gulf.
Baral, Stefan David; Friedman, M Reuel; Geibel, Scott; Rebe, Kevin; Bozhinov, Borche; Diouf, Daouda; Sabin, Keith; Holland, Claire E; Chan, Roy; Cáceres, Carlos F
Male sex workers who sell or exchange sex for money or goods encompass a very diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterising their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is limited, because these individuals are generally included as a subset of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) or even female sex workers. Male sex workers, irrespective of their sexual orientation, mostly offer sex to men and rarely identify as sex workers, using local or international terms instead. Growing evidence indicates a sustained or increasing burden of HIV among some male sex workers within the context of the slowing global HIV pandemic. Several synergistic facilitators could be potentiating HIV acquisition and transmission among male sex workers, including biological, behavioural, and structural determinants. Criminalisation and intersectional stigmas of same-sex practices, commercial sex, and HIV all augment risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among male sex workers and reduce the likelihood of these people accessing essential services. These contexts, taken together with complex sexual networks among male sex workers, define this group as a key population underserved by current HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Dedicated efforts are needed to make those services available for the sake of both public health and human rights. Evidence-based and human rights-affirming services dedicated specifically to male sex workers are needed to improve health outcomes for these men and the people within their sexual networks.
Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon
The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…
Neupert, R F
This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio
Abubakar, M. S.; Attanda, M. L.
Agriculture has changed dramatically, especially since the end of World War II. Food and fibre productivity raised due to new technologies, mechanization, increased chemical use, specialization and government policies that favoured maximizing production. Sustainable agriculture is a subject of great interest and lively debate in many parts of the world. Most agriculturalists agree that the concept of sustainable agriculture is of paramount importance to the sustainability of our biosphere and its ever increasing human population. This paper is an effort to identify the ideas, practices and policies that constitute concept of sustainable agriculture.
Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)
A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.
Tim Takaro Jordan Firestone
The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997
Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef
The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.
... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With an Arrhythmia Many arrhythmias are harmless. It's common to have an occasional ... heartbeat or mild palpitations . People who have harmless arrhythmias can live healthy lives. They usually don't ...
Choudhury, Shonali Mona; Toller Erausquin, Jennifer; Park, Kyuwon; Anglade, Debbie
Social support can affect health outcomes of female sex workers. In this inductive feminist grounded theory study based on 20 in-depth interviews, we explore how establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana perceive the impact of the connections among women on their lives and health. Participants elected to discuss the importance of social support from mothers, sisters, friends, and co-workers, and the empowering and disempowering aspects of these relationships. In previous studies, scholars demonstrated the efficacy of formal organization of female sex workers in promoting the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. We show the importance of informal ties with other women. Some participants mentioned competitive relationships, others talked about cooperation and the desire for a venue to learn from one another. Social interactions with other women are especially empowering when female sex workers can openly engage in "woman talk" that may contribute to the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk.
El-Sayyed, N; Kabbash, I A; El-Gueniedy, M
This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS infection among 1256 Egyptian industrial and tourism workers aged 16-40 years. Compared with industrial workers, tourism workers had a significantly better perception of the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS problem worldwide as well as in Egypt and of the likelihood of the problem worsening. Knowledge of tourism workers was also significantly better about causative agent of AIDS and methods of transmission. Both groups had negative attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS concerning their right to confidentiality and to work. Both groups had a positive attitude towards behaviour change for protection from HIV/AIDS, principally via avoidance of extramarital sexual relations and adherence to religious beliefs. Use of condoms as a way to avoid HIV/AIDS was reported by only 0.4% of workers.
Although domestic work scholarship in Canada has focused primarily on the immigration/migration and labour experiences of domestic workers under the Foreign Domestic Movement and the Live-in-Caregiver Program, research is scarce on how these workers retire and consequently age in Canadian society. This article focuses on the aging experiences of retired Filipino domestic workers who, upon entering retirement, find themselves working in the secondary and/or underground economy while providing and receiving care from spouses, grandchildren, and local/transnational family members. Data were drawn from six qualitative, in-depth interviews with older Filipina domestic workers who discussed experiences of immigration, caring labour, retirement, and aging. Findings underscore (1) the poverty that older Filipino domestic workers encounter as they approach their retirement; (2) the necessity but insufficiency of the state's retirement provisions; (3) the need to find work in the unreported labour market; and (4) how caring labour is provided intergenerationally as a survival strategy.
Data on the utilization of services and morbidity were obtained for 1972 from the Rodrigo Terronez Memorial Clinic in Delano, Calif., a health care facility operated without government funds, which was established to serve the rural poor, specifically farmworkers and their dependents. There were 23,141 patient visits in the study year. The average number of physician visits per patient 3.4; 65 percent of the visits were by appointment, 9 percent were after hours, and 1 percent resulted in hospitalization. Only 0.2 percent constituted true emergencies. Ninety-nine percent of the prescriptions written at the clinic were from a 190-item drug formulary developed by the staff physicians. The data on the clinic are roughly comparable with those from other urban rural comprehensive health centers. The Terronez Clinic, however, differed significantly from most of these other centers in its orientation. It served as an organizing tool for a labor union trying to mobilize agricultural workers in the area so they would act together to improve their living conditions. Images p331-a p337-a PMID:808819
Rudolphi, Josie M; Donham, Kelley J
ABSTRACT The agricultural industry poses specific hazards and risks to its workers. Since the 1970s, the University of Iowa has been establishing programs to educate rural health care and safety professionals who in turn provide education and occupational health and safety services to farm families and farm workers. This program has been well established in the state of Iowa as a program of Iowa's Center for Agricultural Safety and Health (I-CASH). However, the National 1989 Agriculture at Risk Report indicated there was a great need for agricultural medicine training beyond Iowa's borders. In order to help meet this need, Building Capacity: A National Resource of Agricultural Medicine Professionals was initiated as a project of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health in 2006. Before the first phase of this project, a consensus process was conducted with a group of safety and health professionals to determine topics and learning objectives for the course. Over 300 students attended and matriculated the agricultural medicine course during first phase of the project (2007-2010). Beginning the second phase of the project (2012-2016), an expanded advisory committee (38 internationally recognized health and safety professionals) was convened to review the progress of the first phase, make recommendations for revisions to the required topics and competencies, and discuss updates to the second edition of the course textbook (Agricultural Medicine: Occupational and Environmental Health for the Health Professions). A formal consensus process was held and included an online survey and also a face-to-face meeting. The group was charged with the responsibility of developing the next version of this course by establishing best practices and setting an agenda with the long-term goal of developing a national course in agricultural medicine.
Cross, Paul; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Opondo, Maggie; Nyeko, Philip; Edwards-Jones, Gareth
Significant environmental benefits are claimed for local food systems, but these biophysical indicators are increasingly recognised as inadequate descriptors of supply chain ethics. Social factors such as health are also important indicators of good practice, and are recognised by the organic and local food movements as important to the development of rounded sustainable agricultural practices. This study compared the self-reported health status of farm workers in the United Kingdom, Spain, Kenya and Uganda who were supplying distant markets with fresh vegetables. Workers on Kenyan export horticulture farms reported significantly higher levels of physical health than did Kenyan non-export farm workers and workers in the other study countries. Mean health levels for farm workers in the United Kingdom were significantly lower than relevant population norms, indicating widespread levels of poor health amongst these workers. These results suggest that globalised supply chains can provide social benefits to workers, while local food systems do not always provide desirable social outcomes. The causal mechanisms of these observations probably relate more to the social conditions of workers than directly to income.
Ohnishi, Mayumi; Notiço, Ermelinda
We performed this study to determine both positive and negative impacts on the health of sex workers working on the street. We conducted this study using key informant and focus group interviews in bars and streets in Mozambique. The interviewed sex workers were aware about the risks and protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and they consistently used condoms. Most suffered from harmful behavior, including violence and assault by both customers and other commercial sex workers. We found that sex workers' own skills and knowledge acquired through experience potentially could be developed into life skills that could save and protect their lives.
Mironova-Ulmane, N; Pavlenko, A; Zvagule, T; Kärner, T; Bruvere, R; Volrate, A
Between 1986 and 1991 approximately 6500 Latvian inhabitants were recruited for clean-up work at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Their absorbed doses are usually unknown, because less than half of them had their external exposure officially documented. Clinical investigations show a high morbidity rate for these clean-up workers when compared with that of the general population. In order to understand the causes of their diseases and the impact of ionising radiation, electron spin resonance (ESR) has been used to measure the absorbed doses in human tooth enamel. The doses estimated by ESR were between two and three times higher than previously documented and are in accord with the results of immunological and biological tests. The results may be explained by considering the effects of irradiation caused by long-lived incorporated radionuclides.
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.
Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.
Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…
Stasiulis, D K; Bakan, A B
This article "is divided into three parts. The first part locates the Canadian migrant domestic/live-in caregiver program in the global context of domestic worker migration, and provides data on its scope. The second part addresses the obstacles to protection of domestic worker rights in the regulatory scheme composed of policies and laws of sending and receiving societies. The third part discusses some of the strategies employed by migrant domestic workers and their advocates to resist exploitation, and to attempt to provide meaningful rather than merely symbolic rights for migrant domestics."
Birchall, A; Sokolova, A B
Previous Mayak worker epidemiological studies designed to quantify the risk of cancer following exposure to airborne plutonium have calculated organ doses by dividing the organ-absorbed energy by the individual's estimated organ mass. For living workers, this was done by using a relationship between organ mass and total mass and height. For autopsy cases, this was measured directly. In the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System-2013 study, organ doses are calculated by dividing this energy by a population average organ mass. The reasons for departing from previous methodologies are described in this note. The average organ masses that were used in the final analysis are tabulated for males and females.
Kim, Dennis Y; Ridzon, Renee; Giles, Beverly; Mireles, Teresa
Delaware is a leading US poultry-producing state, and foreign-born workers make up a significant percentage of those employed by Delaware's poultry plants. In Sussex County, Delaware, a high percentage of the poultry workers are from two countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), Mexico and Guatemala, and thus are at risk for TB infection and disease. Furthermore, their risk of TB may be increased because many of these workers live in crowded conditions and lack access to medical care.
Bohme, Susanna Rankin
Background: An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendation for extensive changes to the Agency’s 40-year-old Worker Protection Standard is currently stalled in the “proposed rule” stage. The proposal, which was available for public comment until 18 August, would improve safety, training, and hazard communication policies for agricultural pesticides. Exposure to hazards, including high heat, heavy machinery, stoop labor, and pesticides, makes occupational illness uncommonly common among the USA’s estimated 2.5 million farm workers. Objectives: To consider the proposed revisions’ likelihood of addressing historical gaps in farmworker protection. Methods: The proposal was compared to the existing Worker Protection Standard, and key aspects were analyzed in relation to existing science on farm labor hazards, as well as historic occupational health, labor and immigration policy. Results: US law historically has left farm workers largely unprotected. These exclusions and delays have been tolerated in part thanks to the myth of the independent family farmer, but more significant is the stingy nativism that presumes to benefit from immigrant labor without assuming any responsibility to protect the humans who provide it. In the first half of the 1970s, workers lobbied for robust protections, but rule making was impeded by lack of data and by the disproportionate influence of agricultural employers who sought minimal regulation. In 1974, the EPA passed the first Worker Protection Standard for farm workers. Key aspects of the proposed revision include stronger protections against drift and re-entry exposures, better information provision and training, and increased protections for workers under 16 years. Conclusions: The proposed changes represent an improvement over existing legislation, but do not go far enough. The revision should be strengthened along lines suggested by farm workers themselves, and other labor laws must also be amended to give the men
Campbell, Rex R.
Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…
This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…
Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...
Staller, Bernie L.; And Others
Consists of six articles on marketing agricultural education. Topics include (1) being consumer conscious, (2) cooperating with agribusiness, (3) preparing students for postsecondary education, (4) allowing concurrent enrollments, (5) saving the failing agricultural program, and (6) refocusing the curriculum toward agrimarketing. (CH)
Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie
This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…
Patton, Bob; Harp, Keith
These course materials are designed to provide a foundation of basic knowledge in production agriculture as a prelude to further education in vocational agriculture. The guide contains 6 sections and 22 units of instruction. Each unit includes all or most of eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…
Agriculture in the Midwest United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) represents one of the most intense areas of agriculture in the world. This area is not only critically important for the United States, but also for world exports of grain and meat for the Un...
the last century one of the first Russian agronomists, M. G. Pavlov , in speaking about efficient agriculture, was asked the question, is agriculture...three are agronomists in enterprises--Nikolay Georgiyevich Kovalev, Fedor Akimovich Ivashchenko and Ivan Kirillovich Okhrimenko. All three work under the
Camp, William G.; Clarke, Ariane; Fallon, Maureen
A Delphi panel of 40 agricultural educators unanimously agreed that supervised agricultural experience should remain an integral component of the curriculum; a name change is not currently warranted. Categories recommended were agribusiness entrepreneurship, placement, production, research, directed school lab, communications, exploration, and…
North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.
Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…
Agricultural production of food, feed, fiber or fuel is a local human activity with global ecological impacts, including the potential to foster invasions. Agriculture plays an unusual role in biological invasions, in that it is both a source of non-indigenous invasive species (NIS) and especially s...
Ellibee, Margaret; And Others
On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)
... 2016 Urgent Attention Clinical Social Workers: Medicare PQRS Negative Payment Adjustment December 2016 Preparing a Professional Will ... Issue Fall 2016 PQRS Ends December 31, 2016 Negative PQRS Payment Adjustment for 2017 (10/14/2016) ...
The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.
Describes a video tape which examines the kinds of worker participation in management schemes that exist in the United States, Sweden, and Yugoslavia. Can be ordered from: Edward Hayes, Department of Government, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701. (Author/DB)
Thiboutot, D M; Hamory, B H; Marks, J G
Concern about the increasing incidence of hand dermatitis in floral shop workers in the United States and its possible association to the plant Alstroemeria, a flower that has become popular since its introduction in 1981, prompted investigation of the prevalence and cause of hand dermatitis in a sample of floral workers. Fifty-seven floral workers were surveyed, and 15 (26%) reported hand dermatitis within the previous 12 months. Sixteen floral workers (eight with dermatitis) volunteered to be patch tested to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard and Perfume Trays, a series of eight pesticides and 20 plant allergens. Of four of seven floral designers and arrangers who reported hand dermatitis, three reacted positively to patch tests to tuliposide A, the allergen in Alstroemeria. Patch test readings for all other plant extracts were negative. A positive reading for a test to one pesticide, difolatan (Captafol), was noted, the relevance of which is unknown.
Everett, Donna R.; O'Neil, Sharon Lund
Through survey research using the DACUM approach and the Delphi technique, 8 broad skill categories and 278 competencies were determined to have some degree of importance for information systems workers. (Author)
... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...