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Sample records for agriculturally important plants

  1. Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. PMID:24144612

  2. Comparisons of diazotrophic communities in native and agricultural desert ecosystems reveal plants as important drivers in diversity.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Erlacher, Armin; Ramadan, Elshahat M; El-Arabi, Tarek F; Müller, Henry; Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Diazotrophs provide the only biological source of fixed atmospheric nitrogen in the biosphere. Although they are the key player for plant-available nitrogen, less is known about their diversity and potential importance in arid ecosystems. We investigated the nitrogenase gene diversity in native and agricultural desert soil as well as within root-associated microbiota of medicinal plants grown in Egypt through the combination of nifH-specific qPCR, fingerprints, amplicon pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization-confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although the diazotrophic microbiota were characterized by generally high abundances and diversity, statistically significant differences were found between both soils, the different microhabitats, and between the investigated plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.). We observed a considerable community shift from desert to agriculturally used soil that demonstrated a higher abundance and diversity in the agro-ecosystem. The endorhiza was characterized by lower abundances and only a subset of species when compared to the rhizosphere. While the microbiomes of the Asteraceae were similar and dominated by potential root-nodulating rhizobia acquired primarily from soil, the perennial S. distichum generally formed associations with free-living nitrogen fixers. These results underline the importance of diazotrophs in desert ecosystems and additionally identify plants as important drivers in functional gene pool diversity. PMID:26705571

  3. Comparisons of diazotrophic communities in native and agricultural desert ecosystems reveal plants as important drivers in diversity

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Erlacher, Armin; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Müller, Henry; Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Diazotrophs provide the only biological source of fixed atmospheric nitrogen in the biosphere. Although they are the key player for plant-available nitrogen, less is known about their diversity and potential importance in arid ecosystems. We investigated the nitrogenase gene diversity in native and agricultural desert soil as well as within root-associated microbiota of medicinal plants grown in Egypt through the combination of nifH-specific qPCR, fingerprints, amplicon pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization–confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although the diazotrophic microbiota were characterized by generally high abundances and diversity, statistically significant differences were found between both soils, the different microhabitats, and between the investigated plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.). We observed a considerable community shift from desert to agriculturally used soil that demonstrated a higher abundance and diversity in the agro-ecosystem. The endorhiza was characterized by lower abundances and only a subset of species when compared to the rhizosphere. While the microbiomes of the Asteraceae were similar and dominated by potential root-nodulating rhizobia acquired primarily from soil, the perennial S. distichum generally formed associations with free-living nitrogen fixers. These results underline the importance of diazotrophs in desert ecosystems and additionally identify plants as important drivers in functional gene pool diversity. PMID:26705571

  4. Association of N2-fixing cyanobacteria and plants: towards novel symbioses of agricultural importance

    SciTech Connect

    Elhai, Jeff

    2001-06-25

    Some nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are able to form symbioses with a wide variety of plants. Nostoc 2S9B is unusual in its ability to infect the roots of wheat, raising the prospect of a productive association with an important crop plant. The goal of the project was to lay the groundwork for the use of novel associations between Nostoc and crops of agronomic importance, thereby reducing our reliance on nitrogenous fertilizer. Nostoc 2S9B was found to enter roots through mechanical damage of roots and reside primarily in intercellular spaces. The strain could also be incorporated into wheat calli grown in tissue culture. In both cases, the rate of nitrogen fixation by the cyanobacterium was higher than that of the same strain grown with no plant present. Artificial nodules induced by the action of hormone 2,4D were readily infected by Nostoc 2S9B, and the cyanobacteria within such nodules fixed nitrogen under fully aerobic conditions. The nitrogen fixed was shown to be incorporated into the growing wheat seedlings. Nostoc thus differs from other bacteria in its ability to fix nitrogen in para-nodules without need for artificially microaerobic conditions. It would be useful to introduce foreign DNA into Nostoc 2S9B in order to make defined mutations to understand the genetic basis of its ability to infect wheat and to create strains that might facilitate the study of the infection process. Transfer of DNA into the cyanobacterium appears to be limited by the presence of four restriction enzymes, with recognition sequences the same as BamHI, BglI, BsaHI, and Tth111I. Genes encoding methyltransferases that protect DNA against these four enzymes have been cloned into helper plasmids to allow transfer of DNA from E. coli to Nostoc 2S9B.

  5. Screening of different Trichoderma species against agriculturally important foliar plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Narayanasamy; Prameeladevi, Thokala; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan; Kamil, Deeba

    2015-01-01

    Different isolates of Trichoderma were isolated from soil samples which were collected from different part of India. These isolates were grouped into four Trichoderma species viz., Trichoderma asperellum (Ta), T. harzianum (Th), T. pseudokoningii (Tp) and T. longibrachiatum (Tl) based on their morphological characters. Identification of the above isolates was also confirmed through ITS region analysis. These Trichoderma isolates were tested for in vitro biological control of Alternaria solani, Bipolaris oryzae, Pyricularia oryzae and Sclerotinia scierotiorum which cause serious diseases like early blight (target spot) of tomato and potato, brown leaf spot disease in rice, rice blast disease, and white mold disease in different plants. Under in vitro conditions, all the four species of Trichoderma (10 isolates) proved 100% potential inhibition against rice blast pathogen Pyracularia oryzae. T. harzianum (Th-01) and T. asperellum (Ta-10) were effective with 86.6% and 97.7%, growth inhibition of B. oryzae, respectively. Among others, T. pseudokoningii (Tp-08) and T. Iongibrachiatum (Tl-09) species were particularly efficient in inhibiting growth of S. sclerotiorum by 97.8% and 93.3%. T. Iongibrachiatum (TI-06 and TI-07) inhibited maximum mycelial growth of A. solani by 87.6% and 84.75. However, all the T. harzianum isolates showed significantly higher inhibition against S. sclerotiorum (CD value 9.430), causing white mold disease. This study led to the selection of potential Trichoderma isolates against rice blast, early blight, brown leaf spot in rice and white mold disease in different crops. PMID:26536792

  6. Plant Tissues. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on plant tissues. Presented first are an attention step and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about plant tissues and the effect of water and minerals on them. The following topics are among those discussed: reasons why water is important to plants,…

  7. RNAi in agriculturally-important arthropods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim in this chapter is to provide an overview of the profound knowledge accumulated in recent years from invertebrate RNAi studies, but with a focus on agriculturally important arthropods. We start with a brief discussion of the RNAi mechanism to introduce readers to key concepts that underlie t...

  8. 7 CFR 319.8-20 - Importations by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importations by the Department of Agriculture. 319.8-20 Section 319.8-20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton...

  9. 7 CFR 319.8-20 - Importations by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importations by the Department of Agriculture. 319.8-20 Section 319.8-20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton...

  10. Association of N2-fixing Cyanobacteria and Plants: Towards Novel Symbioses of Agricultural Importance. Final report, 1 April 1996 to 31 May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gantar, Miroslav

    1999-03-01

    The goal of this project is to characterize an association that takes place between the roots of wheat and the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc 2S9. By understanding how the association takes place and the extent to which it permits the growth of the plant without exogenous nitrogenous fertilizer, it may prove possible to increase the benefits of the association and to extend them to other plants of agrinomic importance.

  11. Economic importance of bats in agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

  12. 7 CFR 351.7 - Regulations governing importation by mail of plant material for immediate export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulations governing importation by mail of plant material for immediate export. 351.7 Section 351.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF PLANTS OR PLANT PRODUCTS BY MAIL §...

  13. 7 CFR 301.11 - Notice of quarantine; prohibition on the interstate movement of certain imported plants and plant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... movement of certain imported plants and plant parts. 301.11 Section 301.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Imported Plants and Plant Parts § 301.11 Notice of quarantine; prohibition...

  14. Importance of energy balance in agriculture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meco, R.; Moreno, M. M.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Moreno, C.

    2012-04-01

    Since the beginning, man has tried to control nature and the environment, and the use of energy, mainly from non-renewable sources providing the necessary power for that. The consequences of this long fight against nature has reached a critical state of unprecedented worldwide environmental degradation, as evidenced by the increasing erosion of fertile lands, the deforestation processes, the pollution of water, air and land by agrochemicals, the loss of plant and animal species, the progressive deterioration of the ozone layer and signs of global warming. This is exacerbated by the increasing population growth, implying a steady increase in consumption, and consequently, in the use of energy. Unfortunately, all these claims are resulting in serious economic and environmental problems worldwide. Because the economic and environmental future of the countries is interrelated, it becomes necessary to adopt sustainable development models based on the use of renewable and clean energies, the search for alternative resources and the use of productive systems more efficient from an energy standpoint, always with a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In relation to the agricultural sector, the question we ask is: how long can we keep the current energy-intensive agricultural techniques in developed countries? To analyze this aspect, energy balance is a very helpful tool because can lead to more efficient, sustainable and environment-friendly production systems for each agro-climatic region. This requires the identification of all the inputs and the outputs involved and their conversion to energy values by means of corresponding energy coefficients or equivalents (International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Studies). Energy inputs (EI) can be divided in direct (energy directly used in farms as fuel, machines, fertilizers, seeds, herbicides, human labor, etc.) and indirect (energy not consumed in the farm but in the elaboration, manufacturing or manipulation of

  15. Plant ID. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on plant identification. Presented first are a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about the scientific classification of plants. The following topics are among those discussed: main types of plants; categories of vascular plants; gymnosperms and…

  16. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

  17. Mycotoxin contamination of commercially important agricultural commodities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal toxins, called aflatoxins and other mold toxins, are a serious problem in US agricultural commodities. Due to aflatoxins resilience to industrial processes contaminated crops (corn, cotton, peanuts, and tree nuts) cannot be used. The loss of these commodities results in serious economic impa...

  18. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Manual 93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…

  19. The Importance of Agriculture Science Course Sequencing in High Schools: A View from Collegiate Agriculture Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelus, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of Agriculture Science course sequencing in high schools, as a preparatory factor for students enrolled in collegiate agriculture classes. With the variety of courses listed in the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Agriculture Science, it has been possible for counselors,…

  20. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, G.; Susca, A.; Cozzi, G.; Ehrlich, K.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Meijer, M.; Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Samson, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin producing A. flavus and A. parasiticus, and ochratoxinogenic A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius species are frequently encountered in agricultural products. Studies on the biodiversity of toxigenic Aspergillus species is useful to clarify molecular, ecological and biochemical characteristics of the different species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations occurring in agricultural fields. Altogether nine different black Aspergillus species can be found on grapes which are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to the identification of three new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A. ibericus, and A. uvarum. Similar studies on the Aspergillus species occurring on coffee beans have evidenced in the last five years that A. carbonarius is an important source of ochratoxin A in coffee. Four new species within the black aspergilli were also identified in coffee beans: A. sclerotioniger, A. lacticoffeatus, A. sclerotiicarbonarius, and A. aculeatinus. The genetic diversity within A. flavus populations has been widely studied in relation to their potential aflatoxigenicity and morphological variants L- and S-strains. Within A. flavus and other Aspergillus species capable of aflatoxin production, considerable diversity is found. We summarise the main recent achievements in the diversity of the aflatoxin gene cluster in A. flavus populations, A. parasiticus and the non

  1. 7 CFR 319.37-2a - Taxa of regulated plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Taxa of regulated plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. 319.37-2a Section 319.37-2a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES...

  2. Perceptions of Vocational Agriculture Instructors Regarding Knowledge and Importance of Including Selected Agricultural Mechanics Units in the Vocational Agriculture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimgartner, Dale C.; Foster, Richard M.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of teachers in five northwestern states revealed that respondents in all states rated the units of arc welding and oxyacetylene welding as the most important units to be included in secondary vocational agriculture programs. (LRA)

  3. Use of antibiotics in plant agriculture.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, V O; Duffy, B

    2012-04-01

    Antibiotics are essential for control of bacterial diseases of plants, especially fire blight of pear and apple and bacterial spot of peach. Streptomycin is used in several countries; the use of oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and gentamicin is limited to only a few countries. Springtime antibiotic sprays suppress pathogen growth on flowers and leaf surfaces before infection; after infection, antibiotics are ineffective. Antibiotics are applied when disease risk is high, and consequently the majority of orchards are not treated annually. In 2009 in the United States, 16,465 kg (active ingredient) was applied to orchards, which is 0.12% of the total antibiotics used in animal agriculture. Antibiotics are active on plants for less than a week, and significant residues have not been found on harvested fruit. Antibiotics have been indispensable for crop protection in the United States for more than 50 years without reports of adverse effects on human health or persistent impacts on the environment. PMID:22849276

  4. 7 CFR 355.21 - Marking and mailing requirements for plants imported, exported, or reexported by mail. 5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking and mailing requirements for plants imported, exported, or reexported by mail. 5 355.21 Section 355.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING...

  5. 7 CFR 355.20 - Marketing and notification requirements for plants imported, exported, or reexported by means...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marketing and notification requirements for plants imported, exported, or reexported by means other than mail. 4 355.20 Section 355.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES...

  6. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

  7. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

  8. Biodiversity of Aspergillus Species in Some Important Agricultural Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin-producing A. fl...

  9. Importance of Animals in Agricultural Sustainability and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan C; Aaron, Debra K; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    A conservative projection shows the world's population growing by 32% (to 9.5 billion) by 2050 and 53% (to 11 billion) by 2100 compared with its current level of 7.2 billion. Because most arable land worldwide is already in use, and water and energy also are limiting, increased production of food will require a substantial increase in efficiency. In this article, we highlight the importance of animals to achieving food security in terms of their valuable contributions to agricultural sustainability, especially in developing countries, and the high nutritional value of animal products in the diet. PMID:25972529

  10. Importance of incorporating agriculture in conceptual rainfall-runoff models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer-Euser, Tanja; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel; Savenije, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Incorporating spatially variable information is a frequently discussed option to increase the performance of (semi-)distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff models. One of the methods to do this is by using this spatially variable information to delineate Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) within a catchment. In large parts of Europe the original forested land cover is replaced by an agricultural land cover. This change in land cover probably affects the dominant runoff processes in the area, for example by increasing the Hortonian overland flow component, especially on the flatter and higher elevated parts of the catchment. A change in runoff processes implies a change in HRUs as well. A previous version of our model distinguished wetlands (areas close to the stream) from the remainder of the catchment. However, this configuration was not able to reproduce all fast runoff processes, both in summer as in winter. Therefore, this study tests whether the reproduction of fast runoff processes can be improved by incorporating a HRU which explicitly accounts for the effect of agriculture. A case study is carried out in the Ourthe catchment in Belgium. For this case study the relevance of different process conceptualisations is tested stepwise. Among the conceptualisations are Hortonian overland flow in summer and winter, reduced infiltration capacity due to a partly frozen soil and the relative effect of rainfall and snow smelt in case of this frozen soil. The results show that the named processes can make a large difference on event basis, especially the Hortonian overland flow in summer and the combination of rainfall and snow melt on (partly) frozen soil in winter. However, differences diminish when the modelled period of several years is evaluated based on standard metrics like Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency. These results emphasise on one hand the importance of incorporating the effects of agricultural in conceptual models and on the other hand the importance of more event

  11. EX SITU PRESERVATION OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US National Plant Germplasm System, (NPGS) a group within the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, is comprised of over 20 field stations spread throughout the US and is responsible for the preservation and distribution of genetic resources important for ...

  12. Therapeutically important proteins from in vitro plant tissue culture systems.

    PubMed

    Doran, Pauline M

    2013-01-01

    Plant cells cultured in liquid medium in bioreactors are now being used commercially to produce biopharmaceutical proteins. The emergence of in vitro plant cell culture as a production vehicle reflects the importance of key biosafety and biocontainment concerns affecting the competitiveness of alternative systems such as mammalian cell culture and agriculture. Food plant species are particularly attractive as hosts for in vitro protein production: the risk of transgene escape and food chain contamination is eliminated using containment facilities, while regulatory approval for oral delivery of drugs may be easier than if non-edible species were used. As in whole plants, proteolysis in cultured plant cells can lead to significant degradation of foreign proteins after synthesis; however, substantial progress has been made to counter the destructive effects of proteases in plant systems. Although protein secretion into the culture medium is advantageous for product recovery and purification, measures are often required to minimise extracellular protease activity and product losses due to irreversible surface adsorption. Disposable plastic bioreactors, which are being used increasingly in mammalian cell bioprocessing, are also being adopted for plant cell culture to allow rapid scale-up and generation of saleable product. This review examines a range of technical and regulatory issues affecting the choice of industrial production platform for foreign proteins, and assesses progress in the development of in vitro plant systems for biopharmaceutical production. PMID:23210789

  13. Asexual Plant Reproduction. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    These lesson plans are intended for use in conducting classes on asexual plant reproduction. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about asexual plant reproduction/propagation. The following topics are among those discussed: plant reproduction methods,…

  14. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, John C.; And Others

    This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

  15. Sexual Plant Reproduction. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    These lesson plans are intended for use in conducting classes on sexual plant reproduction. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about sexual plant reproduction/propagation. The following topics are among those discussed: sexual and asexual plant…

  16. Genetic Engineering of Plants. Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leslie

    Plant scientists and science policymakers from government, private companies, and universities met at a convocation on the genetic engineering of plants. During the convocation, researchers described some of the ways genetic engineering may be used to address agricultural problems. Policymakers delineated and debated changes in research funding…

  17. Lunar base agriculture: Soils for plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Editor); Henninger, Donald L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This work provides information on research and experimentation concerning various aspects of food production in space and particularly on the moon. Options for human settlement of the moon and Mars and strategies for a lunar base are discussed. The lunar environment, including the mineralogical and chemical properties of lunar regolith are investigated and chemical and physical considerations for a lunar-derived soil are considered. It is noted that biological considerations for such a soil include controlled-environment crop production, both hydroponic and lunar regolith-based; microorganisms and the growth of higher plants in lunar-derived soils; and the role of microbes to condition lunar regolith for plant cultivation. Current research in the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) project is presented in detail and future research areas, such as the growth of higher research plants in CELSS are considered. Optimum plant and microbiological considerations for lunar derived soils are examined.

  18. [Agriculture microbiology and microbe interaction with plants].

    PubMed

    Caballero-Mellado, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    About the characterization and distribution of novel nitrogen-fixing Burkholderia species associated with maize and other plants and their potential use on the plant growth was presented in this symposium. The symposium included studies directed to the revegetation of eroded areas by using plant growth promoting rhizo-bacteria and mycorrizal fungi associated with desert plants, as well as studies related with the resistance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to heavy metals associated with the environmental pollution. In addition, the identification and characterization of a 31-kb chromosomal fragment from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola was presented; such a fragment, involved with the phaseolotoxin synthesis, showed characteristic features of a bacterial pathogenicity island. PMID:17578087

  19. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  20. Supplementary calcium ameliorates ammonium toxicity by improving water status in agriculturally important species

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Gómez, Elvia; Valdez-Aguilar, Luis A.; Cartmill, Donita L.; Cartmill, Andrew D.; Alia-Tajacal, Irán

    2015-01-01

    Fertilization of agricultural plants with ammonium (NH4+) is often desirable because it is less susceptible to leaching than nitrate (NO3−), reducing environmental pollution, risk to human health and economic loss. However, a number of important agricultural species exhibit a reduction in growth when fertilized with NH4+, and increasing the tolerance to NH4+ may be of importance for the establishment of sustainable agricultural systems. The present study explored the feasibility of using calcium (Ca) to increase the tolerance of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) to NH4+ fertilization. Although NH4+ at proportions ≥25 % of total nitrogen (N) decreased leaf dry mass (DM), supplementary Ca ameliorated this decrease. Increasing NH4+ resulted in decreased root hydraulic conductance (Lo) and root water content (RWC), suggesting that water uptake by roots was impaired. The NH4+-induced reductions in Lo and RWC were mitigated by supplementary Ca. Ammonium induced increased damage to the cell membranes through lipid peroxidation, causing increased electrolyte leakage; Ca did not reduce lipid peroxidation and resulted in increased electrolyte leakage, suggesting that the beneficial effects of Ca on the tolerance to NH4+ may be more of a reflection on its effect on the water status of the plant. Bell pepper plants that received NO3−N had a low concentration of NH4+ in the roots but a high concentration in the leaves, probably due to the high nitrate reductase activity observed. Ammonium nutrition depressed the uptake of potassium, Ca and magnesium, while increasing that of phosphorus. The results obtained in the present study indicate that NH4+ caused growth reduction, nutrient imbalance, membrane integrity impairment, increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and affected water relations. Supplementary Ca partially restored growth of leaves by improving root Lo and water relations, and our results suggest that it may be used as a tool to increase the tolerance to NH4

  1. Supplementary calcium ameliorates ammonium toxicity by improving water status in agriculturally important species.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gómez, Elvia; Valdez-Aguilar, Luis A; Cartmill, Donita L; Cartmill, Andrew D; Alia-Tajacal, Irán

    2015-01-01

    Fertilization of agricultural plants with ammonium [Formula: see text] is often desirable because it is less susceptible to leaching than nitrate [Formula: see text] reducing environmental pollution, risk to human health and economic loss. However, a number of important agricultural species exhibit a reduction in growth when fertilized with [Formula: see text] and increasing the tolerance to [Formula: see text] may be of importance for the establishment of sustainable agricultural systems. The present study explored the feasibility of using calcium (Ca) to increase the tolerance of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) to [Formula: see text] fertilization. Although [Formula: see text] at proportions ≥25 % of total nitrogen (N) decreased leaf dry mass (DM), supplementary Ca ameliorated this decrease. Increasing [Formula: see text] resulted in decreased root hydraulic conductance (Lo) and root water content (RWC), suggesting that water uptake by roots was impaired. The [Formula: see text]-induced reductions in Lo and RWC were mitigated by supplementary Ca. Ammonium induced increased damage to the cell membranes through lipid peroxidation, causing increased electrolyte leakage; Ca did not reduce lipid peroxidation and resulted in increased electrolyte leakage, suggesting that the beneficial effects of Ca on the tolerance to [Formula: see text] may be more of a reflection on its effect on the water status of the plant. Bell pepper plants that received [Formula: see text] had a low concentration of [Formula: see text] in the roots but a high concentration in the leaves, probably due to the high nitrate reductase activity observed. Ammonium nutrition depressed the uptake of potassium, Ca and magnesium, while increasing that of phosphorus. The results obtained in the present study indicate that [Formula: see text] caused growth reduction, nutrient imbalance, membrane integrity impairment, increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and affected water relations. Supplementary Ca

  2. 7 CFR 319.8-20 - Importations by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... such conditions as may be prescribed by the Deputy Administrator of the Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs, which conditions may include clearance through the New Crops Research Branch of the Plant Science... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton...

  3. 7 CFR 319.8-20 - Importations by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... such conditions as may be prescribed by the Deputy Administrator of the Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs, which conditions may include clearance through the New Crops Research Branch of the Plant Science... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton...

  4. Entomopathogenic and plant pathogenic nematodes as opposing forces in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Eric; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are responsible for substantial damages within the agriculture industry every year, which is a challenge that has thus far gone largely unimpeded. Chemical nematicides have been employed with varying degrees of success, but their implementation can be cumbersome, and furthermore they could potentially be neutralising an otherwise positive effect from the entomopathogenic nematodes that coexist with plant-parasitic nematodes in soil environments and provide protection for plants against insect pests. Recent research has explored the potential of employing entomopathogenic nematodes to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes, while providing their standard degree of protection against insects. The interactions involved are highly complex, due to both the three-organism system and the assortment of variables present in a soil environment, but a strong collection of evidence has accumulated regarding the suppressive capacity of certain entomopathogenic nematodes and their mutualistic bacteria, in the context of limiting the infectivity of plant-parasitic nematodes. Specific factors produced by certain entomopathogenic nematode complexes during the process of insect infection appear to have a selectively nematicidal, or at least repellant, effect on plant-parasitic nematodes. Using this information, an opportunity has formed to adapt this relationship to large-scale, field conditions and potentially relieve the agricultural industry of one of its most substantial burdens. PMID:26527129

  5. Importance of anchor genomes for any plant genome project

    PubMed Central

    Messing, Joachim; Llaca, Victor

    1998-01-01

    Progress in agricultural and environmental technologies is hampered by a slower rate of gene discovery in plants than animals. The vast pool of genes in plants, however, will be an important resource for insertion of genes, via biotechnological procedures, into an array of plants, generating unique germ plasms not achievable by conventional breeding. It just became clear that genomes of grasses have evolved in a manner analogous to Lego blocks. Large chromosome segments have been reshuffled and stuffer pieces added between genes. Although some genomes have become very large, the genome with the fewest stuffer pieces, the rice genome, is the Rosetta Stone of all the bigger grass genomes. This means that sequencing the rice genome as anchor genome of the grasses will provide instantaneous access to the same genes in the same relative physical position in other grasses (e.g., corn and wheat), without the need to sequence each of these genomes independently. (i) The sequencing of the entire genome of rice as anchor genome for the grasses will accelerate plant gene discovery in many important crops (e.g., corn, wheat, and rice) by several orders of magnitudes and reduce research and development costs for government and industry at a faster pace. (ii) Costs for sequencing entire genomes have come down significantly. Because of its size, rice is only 12% of the human or the corn genome, and technology improvements by the human genome project are completely transferable, translating in another 50% reduction of the costs. (iii) The physical mapping of the rice genome by a group of Japanese researchers provides a jump start for sequencing the genome and forming an international consortium. Otherwise, other countries would do it alone and own proprietary positions. PMID:9482827

  6. Cytogenetic changes induced by aqueous ferrofluids in agricultural plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Răcuciu, Mihaela; Creangă, Dorina

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the authors present their results regarding the cellular division rate and the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in the root meristematic cells of agricultural plants when cultivated in the presence of different concentrations of aqueous ferrofluid, ranging between 10 and 250 μL/L. The agricultural species ( Zea mays) with a major role in the life of people was chosen for the experimental project. The water-based ferrofluid was prepared following the chemical co-precipitation method, using tetramethylammonium hydroxide as magnetite core stabilizer. Microscopic investigations (cytogenetic tests) resulted in the evaluation of the mitotic and chromosomal aberration index. They appeared to increase following ferrofluid addition.

  7. Plant genetics, sustainable agriculture and global food security.

    PubMed

    Ronald, Pamela

    2011-05-01

    The United States and the world face serious societal challenges in the areas of food, environment, energy, and health. Historically, advances in plant genetics have provided new knowledge and technologies needed to address these challenges. Plant genetics remains a key component of global food security, peace, and prosperity for the foreseeable future. Millions of lives depend upon the extent to which crop genetic improvement can keep pace with the growing global population, changing climate, and shrinking environmental resources. While there is still much to be learned about the biology of plant-environment interactions, the fundamental technologies of plant genetic improvement, including crop genetic engineering, are in place, and are expected to play crucial roles in meeting the chronic demands of global food security. However, genetically improved seed is only part of the solution. Such seed must be integrated into ecologically based farming systems and evaluated in light of their environmental, economic, and social impacts-the three pillars of sustainable agriculture. In this review, I describe some lessons learned, over the last decade, of how genetically engineered crops have been integrated into agricultural practices around the world and discuss their current and future contribution to sustainable agricultural systems. PMID:21546547

  8. Plant-microbe interactions promoting plant growth and health: perspectives for controlled use of microorganisms in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Berg, Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    Plant-associated microorganisms fulfill important functions for plant growth and health. Direct plant growth promotion by microbes is based on improved nutrient acquisition and hormonal stimulation. Diverse mechanisms are involved in the suppression of plant pathogens, which is often indirectly connected with plant growth. Whereas members of the bacterial genera Azospirillum and Rhizobium are well-studied examples for plant growth promotion, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Stenotrophomonas, and Streptomyces and the fungal genera Ampelomyces, Coniothyrium, and Trichoderma are model organisms to demonstrate influence on plant health. Based on these beneficial plant-microbe interactions, it is possible to develop microbial inoculants for use in agricultural biotechnology. Dependent on their mode of action and effects, these products can be used as biofertilizers, plant strengtheners, phytostimulators, and biopesticides. There is a strong growing market for microbial inoculants worldwide with an annual growth rate of approximately 10%. The use of genomic technologies leads to products with more predictable and consistent effects. The future success of the biological control industry will benefit from interdisciplinary research, e.g., on mass production, formulation, interactions, and signaling with the environment, as well as on innovative business management, product marketing, and education. Altogether, the use of microorganisms and the exploitation of beneficial plant-microbe interactions offer promising and environmentally friendly strategies for conventional and organic agriculture worldwide. PMID:19568745

  9. Toward Martian agriculture: responses of plants to hypobaria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.; Barta, Daniel J.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2002-01-01

    The recent surge of interest in human missions to Mars has also generated considerable interest in the responses of plants to hypobaria (reduced atmospheric pressure), particularly among those in the advanced life support community. Potential for in situ resource utilization, challenges in meeting engineering constraints for mass and energy, the prospect of using lightweight plant growth structures on Mars, and the minimal literature on plant responses to low pressure all suggest much needed research in this area. However, the limited literature on hypobaria combined with previous findings on plant responses to atmospheric composition and established principles of mass transfer of gases suggest that some plants will be capable of tolerating and growing at pressures below 20 kPa; and for other species, perhaps as low as 5-10 kPa. In addition, normal and perhaps enhanced growth of many plants will likely occur at reduced partial pressures of oxygen (e.g., 5 kPa). Growth of plants at such low and partial pressures indicates the feasibility of cultivating plants in lightweight, transparent "greenhouses" on the surface of Mars or in other extraterrestrial or extreme environment locations. There are numerous, accessible terrestrial analogs for moderately low pressure ranges, but not for very low and extremely low atmospheric pressures. Research pertaining to very low pressures has been historically restricted to the use of vacuum chambers. Future research prospects, approaches, and priorities for plant growth experiments at low pressure are considered and discussed as they apply to prospects for Martian agriculture.

  10. Important poisonous plants of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plants and the secondary compounds they produce cause large economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world. Catastrophic losses have occurred in certain regions of the U.S. when changing conditions alter the typical forage availability and create unusual management challen...

  11. Modeling Halophytic Plants in APEX for Sustainable Water and Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRuyter, T.; Saito, L.; Nowak, B.; Rossi, C.; Toderich, K.

    2013-12-01

    A major problem for irrigated agricultural production is soil salinization, which can occur naturally or can be human-induced. Human-induced, or secondary salinization, is particularly a problem in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in irrigated areas. Irrigated land has more than twice the production of rainfed land, and accounts for about one third of the world's food, but nearly 20% of irrigated lands are salt-affected. Many farmers worldwide currently seasonally leach their land to reduce the soil salt content. These practices, however, create further problems such as a raised groundwater table, and salt, fertilizer, and pesticide pollution of nearby lakes and groundwater. In Uzbekistan, a combination of these management practices and a propensity to cultivate 'thirsty' crops such as cotton has also contributed to the Aral Sea shrinking nearly 90% by volume since the 1950s. Most common agricultural crops are glycophytes that have reduced yields when subjected to salt-stress. Some plants, however, are known as halophytic or 'salt-loving' plants and are capable of completing their life-cycle in higher saline soil or water environments. Halophytes may be useful for human consumption, livestock fodder, or biofuel, and may also be able to reduce or maintain salt levels in soil and water. To assess the potential for these halophytes to assist with salinity management, we are developing a model that is capable of tracking salinity under different management practices in agricultural environments. This model is interdisciplinary as it combines fields such as plant ecology, hydrology, and soil science. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) model, Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX), is being augmented with a salinity module that tracks salinity as separate ions across the soil-plant-water interface. The halophytes Atriplex nitens, Climacoptera lanata, and Salicornia europaea are being parameterized and added into the APEX model database. Field sites

  12. 7 CFR 355.21 - Marking and mailing requirements for plants imported, exported, or reexported by mail. 5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED... which is to be imported by mail and which may be imported under 50 CFR part 17 or part 23 only if... such purpose by the U.S. Department of the Interior in 50 CFR part 24 pursuant to section 9(f) of...

  13. 7 CFR 355.21 - Marking and mailing requirements for plants imported, exported, or reexported by mail. 5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED... which is to be imported by mail and which may be imported under 50 CFR part 17 or part 23 only if... such purpose by the U.S. Department of the Interior in 50 CFR part 24 pursuant to section 9(f) of...

  14. 7 CFR 355.21 - Marking and mailing requirements for plants imported, exported, or reexported by mail. 5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED... which is to be imported by mail and which may be imported under 50 CFR part 17 or part 23 only if... such purpose by the U.S. Department of the Interior in 50 CFR part 24 pursuant to section 9(f) of...

  15. 7 CFR 355.21 - Marking and mailing requirements for plants imported, exported, or reexported by mail. 5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED... which is to be imported by mail and which may be imported under 50 CFR part 17 or part 23 only if... such purpose by the U.S. Department of the Interior in 50 CFR part 24 pursuant to section 9(f) of...

  16. Plant Genetics, Sustainable Agriculture and Global Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    The United States and the world face serious societal challenges in the areas of food, environment, energy, and health. Historically, advances in plant genetics have provided new knowledge and technologies needed to address these challenges. Plant genetics remains a key component of global food security, peace, and prosperity for the foreseeable future. Millions of lives depend upon the extent to which crop genetic improvement can keep pace with the growing global population, changing climate, and shrinking environmental resources. While there is still much to be learned about the biology of plant–environment interactions, the fundamental technologies of plant genetic improvement, including crop genetic engineering, are in place, and are expected to play crucial roles in meeting the chronic demands of global food security. However, genetically improved seed is only part of the solution. Such seed must be integrated into ecologically based farming systems and evaluated in light of their environmental, economic, and social impacts—the three pillars of sustainable agriculture. In this review, I describe some lessons learned, over the last decade, of how genetically engineered crops have been integrated into agricultural practices around the world and discuss their current and future contribution to sustainable agricultural systems. PMID:21546547

  17. Plant growth-promoting bacteria as inoculants in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rocheli de; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-12-01

    Plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health, productivity and soil fertility. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are bacteria that can enhance plant growth and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms; those that establish close associations with plants, such as the endophytes, could be more successful in plant growth promotion. Several important bacterial characteristics, such as biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, and production of siderophores and phytohormones, can be assessed as plant growth promotion (PGP) traits. Bacterial inoculants can contribute to increase agronomic efficiency by reducing production costs and environmental pollution, once the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced or eliminated if the inoculants are efficient. For bacterial inoculants to obtain success in improving plant growth and productivity, several processes involved can influence the efficiency of inoculation, as for example the exudation by plant roots, the bacterial colonization in the roots, and soil health. This review presents an overview of the importance of soil-plant-microbe interactions to the development of efficient inoculants, once PGPB are extensively studied microorganisms, representing a very diverse group of easily accessible beneficial bacteria. PMID:26537605

  18. Plant growth-promoting bacteria as inoculants in agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Rocheli; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health, productivity and soil fertility. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are bacteria that can enhance plant growth and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms; those that establish close associations with plants, such as the endophytes, could be more successful in plant growth promotion. Several important bacterial characteristics, such as biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, and production of siderophores and phytohormones, can be assessed as plant growth promotion (PGP) traits. Bacterial inoculants can contribute to increase agronomic efficiency by reducing production costs and environmental pollution, once the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced or eliminated if the inoculants are efficient. For bacterial inoculants to obtain success in improving plant growth and productivity, several processes involved can influence the efficiency of inoculation, as for example the exudation by plant roots, the bacterial colonization in the roots, and soil health. This review presents an overview of the importance of soil-plant-microbe interactions to the development of efficient inoculants, once PGPB are extensively studied microorganisms, representing a very diverse group of easily accessible beneficial bacteria. PMID:26537605

  19. Landscape context and plant community composition in grazed agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate humid grazinglands are an important component of the landscape of the northeastern Unites States. Grass-based agriculture is a major contributor to the economy of this region, but little is known about the basic ecology of these grazinglands. During an eight-year survey of 28 farms across ...

  20. Current challenges and future perspectives of plant and agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Moshelion, Menachem; Altman, Arie

    2015-06-01

    Advances in understanding plant biology, novel genetic resources, genome modification, and omics technologies generate new solutions for food security and novel biomaterials production under changing environmental conditions. New gene and germplasm candidates that are anticipated to lead to improved crop yields and other plant traits under stress have to pass long development phases based on trial and error using large-scale field evaluation. Therefore, quantitative, objective, and automated screening methods combined with decision-making algorithms are likely to have many advantages, enabling rapid screening of the most promising crop lines at an early stage followed by final mandatory field experiments. The combination of novel molecular tools, screening technologies, and economic evaluation should become the main goal of the plant biotechnological revolution in agriculture. PMID:25842169

  1. Not all GMOs are crop plants: non-plant GMO applications in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hokanson, K E; Dawson, W O; Handler, A M; Schetelig, M F; St Leger, R J

    2014-12-01

    Since tools of modern biotechnology have become available, the most commonly applied and often discussed genetically modified organisms are genetically modified crop plants, although genetic engineering is also being used successfully in organisms other than plants, including bacteria, fungi, insects, and viruses. Many of these organisms, as with crop plants, are being engineered for applications in agriculture, to control plant insect pests or diseases. This paper reviews the genetically modified non-plant organisms that have been the subject of permit approvals for environmental release by the United States Department of Agriculture/Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service since the US began regulating genetically modified organisms. This is an indication of the breadth and progress of research in the area of non-plant genetically modified organisms. This review includes three examples of promising research on non-plant genetically modified organisms for application in agriculture: (1) insects for insect pest control using improved vector systems; (2) fungal pathogens of insects to control insect pests; and (3) virus for use as transient-expression vectors for disease control in plants. PMID:24242193

  2. Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Agricultural Sustainability-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vejan, Pravin; Abdullah, Rosazlin; Khadiran, Tumirah; Ismail, Salmah; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) shows an important role in the sustainable agriculture industry. The increasing demand for crop production with a significant reduction of synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides use is a big challenge nowadays. The use of PGPR has been proven to be an environmentally sound way of increasing crop yields by facilitating plant growth through either a direct or indirect mechanism. The mechanisms of PGPR include regulating hormonal and nutritional balance, inducing resistance against plant pathogens, and solubilizing nutrients for easy uptake by plants. In addition, PGPR show synergistic and antagonistic interactions with microorganisms within the rhizosphere and beyond in bulk soil, which indirectly boosts plant growth rate. There are many bacteria species that act as PGPR, described in the literature as successful for improving plant growth. However, there is a gap between the mode of action (mechanism) of the PGPR for plant growth and the role of the PGPR as biofertilizer-thus the importance of nano-encapsulation technology in improving the efficacy of PGPR. Hence, this review bridges the gap mentioned and summarizes the mechanism of PGPR as a biofertilizer for agricultural sustainability. PMID:27136521

  3. Ultrasonic Sensing of Plant Water Needs for Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomas; Gil-Pelegrin, Eustaquio; Ealo Cuello, Joao; Fariñas, Maria Dolores; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Collazos Burbano, David Alejandro; Peguero-Pina, Jose Javier

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a key natural resource for food production, sanitation and industrial uses and has a high environmental value. The largest water use worldwide (~70%) corresponds to irrigation in agriculture, where use of water is becoming essential to maintain productivity. Efficient irrigation control largely depends on having access to reliable information about the actual plant water needs. Therefore, fast, portable and non-invasive sensing techniques able to measure water requirements directly on the plant are essential to face the huge challenge posed by the extensive water use in agriculture, the increasing water shortage and the impact of climate change. Non-contact resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NC-RUS) in the frequency range 0.1–1.2 MHz has revealed as an efficient and powerful non-destructive, non-invasive and in vivo sensing technique for leaves of different plant species. In particular, NC-RUS allows determining surface mass, thickness and elastic modulus of the leaves. Hence, valuable information can be obtained about water content and turgor pressure. This work analyzes and reviews the main requirements for sensors, electronics, signal processing and data analysis in order to develop a fast, portable, robust and non-invasive NC-RUS system to monitor variations in leaves water content or turgor pressure. A sensing prototype is proposed, described and, as application example, used to study two different species: Vitis vinifera and Coffea arabica, whose leaves present thickness resonances in two different frequency bands (400–900 kHz and 200–400 kHz, respectively), These species are representative of two different climates and are related to two high-added value agricultural products where efficient irrigation management can be critical. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to other species and similar results can be obtained. PMID:27428968

  4. Ultrasonic Sensing of Plant Water Needs for Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomas; Gil-Pelegrin, Eustaquio; Ealo Cuello, Joao; Fariñas, Maria Dolores; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Collazos Burbano, David Alejandro; Peguero-Pina, Jose Javier

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a key natural resource for food production, sanitation and industrial uses and has a high environmental value. The largest water use worldwide (~70%) corresponds to irrigation in agriculture, where use of water is becoming essential to maintain productivity. Efficient irrigation control largely depends on having access to reliable information about the actual plant water needs. Therefore, fast, portable and non-invasive sensing techniques able to measure water requirements directly on the plant are essential to face the huge challenge posed by the extensive water use in agriculture, the increasing water shortage and the impact of climate change. Non-contact resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NC-RUS) in the frequency range 0.1-1.2 MHz has revealed as an efficient and powerful non-destructive, non-invasive and in vivo sensing technique for leaves of different plant species. In particular, NC-RUS allows determining surface mass, thickness and elastic modulus of the leaves. Hence, valuable information can be obtained about water content and turgor pressure. This work analyzes and reviews the main requirements for sensors, electronics, signal processing and data analysis in order to develop a fast, portable, robust and non-invasive NC-RUS system to monitor variations in leaves water content or turgor pressure. A sensing prototype is proposed, described and, as application example, used to study two different species: Vitis vinifera and Coffea arabica, whose leaves present thickness resonances in two different frequency bands (400-900 kHz and 200-400 kHz, respectively), These species are representative of two different climates and are related to two high-added value agricultural products where efficient irrigation management can be critical. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to other species and similar results can be obtained. PMID:27428968

  5. 7 CFR 319.37-2a - Taxa of regulated plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. 319.37-2a Section 319.37-2a Agriculture Regulations... plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. (a) Determination by... the completion of a pest risk analysis, except as provided in § 319.37-2(c). Lists of these taxa...

  6. 7 CFR 319.37-2a - Taxa of regulated plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. 319.37-2a Section 319.37-2a Agriculture Regulations... plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. (a) Determination by... the completion of a pest risk analysis, except as provided in § 319.37-2(c). Lists of these taxa...

  7. 7 CFR 355.20 - Marketing and notification requirements for plants imported, exported, or reexported by means...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Inspections and Related... importation, exportation, or reexportation (see 50 CFR chapter I). Plants are allowed to be imported, exported..., pursuant to section 9(f) of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538(f)). (see 50 CFR part 24 for a list of designated...

  8. 7 CFR 355.20 - Marketing and notification requirements for plants imported, exported, or reexported by means...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Inspections and Related... importation, exportation, or reexportation (see 50 CFR chapter I). Plants are allowed to be imported, exported..., pursuant to section 9(f) of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538(f)). (see 50 CFR part 24 for a list of designated...

  9. 7 CFR 355.20 - Marketing and notification requirements for plants imported, exported, or reexported by means...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Inspections and Related... importation, exportation, or reexportation (see 50 CFR chapter I). Plants are allowed to be imported, exported..., pursuant to section 9(f) of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538(f)). (see 50 CFR part 24 for a list of designated...

  10. 7 CFR 355.20 - Marketing and notification requirements for plants imported, exported, or reexported by means...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Inspections and Related... importation, exportation, or reexportation (see 50 CFR chapter I). Plants are allowed to be imported, exported..., pursuant to section 9(f) of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538(f)). (see 50 CFR part 24 for a list of designated...

  11. Pivoting from Arabidopsis to wheat to understand how agricultural plants integrate responses to biotic stress.

    PubMed

    Harris, M O; Friesen, T L; Xu, S S; Chen, M S; Giron, D; Stuart, J J

    2015-02-01

    In this review, we argue for a research initiative on wheat's responses to biotic stress. One goal is to begin a conversation between the disparate communities of plant pathology and entomology. Another is to understand how responses to a variety of agents of biotic stress are integrated in an important crop. We propose gene-for-gene interactions as the focus of the research initiative. On the parasite's side is an Avirulence (Avr) gene that encodes one of the many effector proteins the parasite applies to the plant to assist with colonization. On the plant's side is a Resistance (R) gene that mediates a surveillance system that detects the Avr protein directly or indirectly and triggers effector-triggered plant immunity. Even though arthropods are responsible for a significant proportion of plant biotic stress, they have not been integrated into important models of plant immunity that come from plant pathology. A roadblock has been the absence of molecular evidence for arthropod Avr effectors. Thirty years after this evidence was discovered in a plant pathogen, there is now evidence for arthropods with the cloning of the Hessian fly's vH13 Avr gene. After reviewing the two models of plant immunity, we discuss how arthropods could be incorporated. We end by showing features that make wheat an interesting system for plant immunity, including 479 resistance genes known from agriculture that target viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, insects, and mites. It is not likely that humans will be subsisting on Arabidopsis in the year 2050. It is time to start understanding how agricultural plants integrate responses to biotic stress. PMID:25504642

  12. Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Maine Agricultural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Huettel, W N.; Francl, L. J.; Henn, A.; Bourgoin, T.

    1990-01-01

    In a survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with agricultural crops in nine Maine counties, 744 soil samples from 26 potential host plants were analyzed between November 1987 and January 1989. The most commonly encountered nematode genus was Pratylenchus, occurring in 85% of the samples from most crops, except blueberries and onions. Pratylenchus penetrans and P. crenatus were found commonly as species mixtures, with P. penetrans composing 40-80% of the mixture. Meloidogyne hapla was encountered in 16% of the samples in four counties, generally in potato rotations. Other nematodes encountered were Aphelenchoides spp., Criconemella curvature, Ditylenchus spp., Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus, H. digonicus, Heterodera trifolii, Paratylenchus projectus, Trichodorus spp., Tylenchorhynchus maximus, and Xiphinema americanum. Potato fields were the most heavily sampled and thus weighted the statewide results. PMID:19287791

  13. Agricultural By-Products Turned into Important Materials with Adsorptive Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will summarize the use of agricultural by-products (e.g., animal manure and plant waste) as starting materials to adsorb environmental contaminants such as mercury from air, ammonia from air, metal ions from water, and chlorinated organics from water. The results show that the mat...

  14. Agricultural waste from the tequila industry as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes.

    PubMed

    Huitron, C; Perez, R; Sanchez, A E; Lappe, P; Rocha Zavaleta, L

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 1 million tons of Agave tequilana plants are processed annually by the Mexican Tequila industry generating vast amounts of agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Agave tequilana waste as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes. Two strains of Aspergillus niger (CH-A-2010 and CH-A-2016), isolated from agave fields, were found to grow and propagate in submerged cultures using Agave tequilana waste as substrate. Isolates showed simultaneous extracellular inulinase, xylanase, pectinase, and cellulase activities. Aspergillus CH-A-2010 showed the highest production of inulinase activity (1.48 U/ml), whereas Aspergillus niger CH-A-2016 produced the highest xylanase (1.52 U/ml) and endo-pectinase (2.7U/ml) activities. In both cases production of enzyme activities was significantly higher on Agave tequilana waste than that observed on lemon peel and specific polymeric carbohydrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of raw A. tequilana stems and leaves, by enzymes secreted by the isolates yielded maximum concentrations of reducing sugars of 28.2 g/l, and 9.9 g/l respectively. In conclusion, Agave tequilana waste can be utilized as substrate for the production of important biotechnological enzymes. PMID:18833660

  15. Role of transgenic plants in agriculture and biopharming.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Ashraf, Muhammad; Younis, Muhammad; Hu, Xiangyang; Kumar, Ashwani; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Al-Qurainy, F

    2012-01-01

    At present, environmental degradation and the consistently growing population are two main problems on the planet earth. Fulfilling the needs of this growing population is quite difficult from the limited arable land available on the globe. Although there are legal, social and political barriers to the utilization of biotechnology, advances in this field have substantially improved agriculture and human life to a great extent. One of the vital tools of biotechnology is genetic engineering (GE) which is used to modify plants, animals and microorganisms according to desired needs. In fact, genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of desired characteristics into other plants which is not possible through conventional plant breeding. A variety of crops have been engineered for enhanced resistance to a multitude of stresses such as herbicides, insecticides, viruses and a combination of biotic and abiotic stresses in different crops including rice, mustard, maize, potato, tomato, etc. Apart from the use of GE in agriculture, it is being extensively employed to modify the plants for enhanced production of vaccines, hormones, etc. Vaccines against certain diseases are certainly available in the market, but most of them are very costly. Developing countries cannot afford the disease control through such cost-intensive vaccines. Alternatively, efforts are being made to produce edible vaccines which are cheap and have many advantages over the commercialized vaccines. Transgenic plants generated for this purpose are capable of expressing recombinant proteins including viral and bacterial antigens and antibodies. Common food plants like banana, tomato, rice, carrot, etc. have been used to produce vaccines against certain diseases like hepatitis B, cholera, HIV, etc. Thus, the up- and down-regulation of desired genes which are used for the modification of plants have a marked role in the improvement of genetic crops. In this review, we have comprehensively discussed the role

  16. Importance and location of instruction for sixty-eight energy competencies for Kansas agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    French, B.T.

    1982-01-01

    The two primary objectives of this study were: to identify which energy competencies had improtance to Kansas agriculture and to determine how appropiate each competency was for three levels of instruction: high school, Area Vocational-Technical School or Community College, or four year college. An energy questionnaire, comprised of 68 competencies, was completed by 140 individuals and provided data to meet the studys primary objectives. Thirty-five returns were recieved from each of four groups: Young Farmers/Young Farm Wives, High School Vo-Ag teachers, Postsecondary AVTS-CC Agricultural teachers, and County Extension Directors. Of the 68 energy competencies, 36 were rated very important, 28 important, and 4 as having some important to Kansas agriculture. All competencies in category six, energy saving technology for farm vehicles, tractors, machinery and crop production, were rated very important. Category six was the highest-rated category importance to Kansas ariculture, and category eleven other alternate energy sources and storage systems was rated the least important. Because energy technology was important to Kansas agriculture it was recommended educational curricula and materials be developed based on the 68 competencies in this study, and be made available to agriculture instructors at all teaching levels.

  17. AN INSECT PEST FOR AGRICULTURAL, URBAN, AND WILDLIFE AREAS: THE RED IMPORTED FIRE ANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta (Buren), is an insect pest of particular importance in California due to its potential impact on public health, agriculture, and wildlife. In 1997, RIFAs hitchhiked to the Central Valley on honeybee hives brought in from Texas for pollination of a...

  18. Linking agricultural practices, mycorrhizal fungi, and traits mediating plant-insect interactions.

    PubMed

    Barber, Nicholas A; Kiers, E Toby; Theis, Nina; Hazzard, Ruth V; Adler, Lynn S

    2013-10-01

    Agricultural management has profound effects on soil communities. Activities such as fertilizer inputs can modify the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities, which form important symbioses with the roots of most crop plants. Intensive conventional agricultural management may select for less mutualistic AMF with reduced benefits to host plants compared to organic management, but these differences are poorly understood. AMF are generally evaluated based on their direct growth effects on plants. However, mycorrhizal colonization also may alter plant traits such as tissue nutrients, defensive chemistry, or floral traits, which mediate important plant-insect interactions like herbivory and pollination. To determine the effect of AMF from different farming practices on plant performance and traits that putatively mediate species interactions, we performed a greenhouse study by inoculating Cucumis sativus (cucumber, Cucurbitaceae) with AMF from conventional farms, organic farms, and a commercial AMF inoculum. We measured growth and a suite of plant traits hypothesized to be important predictors of herbivore resistance and pollinator attraction. Several leaf and root traits and flower production were significantly affected by AMF inoculum. Both conventional and organic AMF reduced leaf P content but increased Na content compared to control and commercial AMF. Leaf defenses were unaffected by AMF treatments, but conventional AMF increased root cucurbitacin C, the primary defensive chemical of C. sativus, compared to organic AMF. These effects may have important consequences for herbivore preference and population dynamics. AMF from both organic and conventional farms decreased flower production relative to commercial and control treatments, which may reduce pollinator attraction and plant reproduction. AMF from both farm types also reduced seed germination, but effects on plant growth were limited. Our results suggest that studies only considering AMF

  19. Agricultural plants and soil as a reservoir for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Green, S K; Schroth, M N; Cho, J J; Kominos, S K; Vitanza-jack, V B

    1974-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in 24% of the soil samples but in only 0.13% of the vegetable samples from various agricultural areas of California. The distribution of pyocin types of soil and vegetable isolates was similar to that of clinical strains, and three of the soil isolates were resistant to carbenicillin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa multiplied in lettuce and bean under conditions of high temperature and high relative humidity (27 C and 80-95% relative humidity) but declined when the temperature and humidity were lowered (16 C, 55-75% relative humidity). The results suggest that soil is a reservior for P. aeruginosa and that the bacterium has the capacity to colonize plants during favorable conditions of temperature and moisture. PMID:4217591

  20. Agricultural Plants and Soil as a Reservoir for Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Green, Sylvia K.; Schroth, Milton N.; Cho, John J.; Kominos, Spyros D.; Vitanza-Jack, Vilma B.

    1974-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in 24% of the soil samples but in only 0.13% of the vegetable samples from various agricultural areas of California. The distribution of pyocin types of soil and vegetable isolates was similar to that of clinical strains, and three of the soil isolates were resistant to carbenicillin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa multiplied in lettuce and bean under conditions of high temperature and high relative humidity (27 C and 80-95% relative humidity) but declined when the temperature and humidity were lowered (16 C, 55-75% relative humidity). The results suggest that soil is a reservior for P. aeruginosa and that the bacterium has the capacity to colonize plants during favorable conditions of temperature and moisture. PMID:4217591

  1. 76 FR 20305 - Consultative Group To Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Consultative Group To Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural Products AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. ACTION: Request for Comment on Guidelines for Eliminating Child and Forced Labor in Agricultural Supply Chains. SUMMARY: Notice is...

  2. Protein import into plant mitochondria: signals, machinery, processing, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Murcha, Monika W; Kmiec, Beata; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Teixeira, Pedro F; Glaser, Elzbieta; Whelan, James

    2014-12-01

    The majority of more than 1000 proteins present in mitochondria are imported from nuclear-encoded, cytosolically synthesized precursor proteins. This impressive feat of transport and sorting is achieved by the combined action of targeting signals on mitochondrial proteins and the mitochondrial protein import apparatus. The mitochondrial protein import apparatus is composed of a number of multi-subunit protein complexes that recognize, translocate, and assemble mitochondrial proteins into functional complexes. While the core subunits involved in mitochondrial protein import are well conserved across wide phylogenetic gaps, the accessory subunits of these complexes differ in identity and/or function when plants are compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), the model system for mitochondrial protein import. These differences include distinct protein import receptors in plants, different mechanistic operation of the intermembrane protein import system, the location and activity of peptidases, the function of inner-membrane translocases in linking the outer and inner membrane, and the association/regulation of mitochondrial protein import complexes with components of the respiratory chain. Additionally, plant mitochondria share proteins with plastids, i.e. dual-targeted proteins. Also, the developmental and cell-specific nature of mitochondrial biogenesis is an aspect not observed in single-celled systems that is readily apparent in studies in plants. This means that plants provide a valuable model system to study the various regulatory processes associated with protein import and mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25324401

  3. Functional roles of melatonin in plants, and perspectives in nutritional and agricultural science.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Hardeland, Rudiger; Manchester, Lucien C; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Ma, Shuran; Rosales-Corral, Sergio; Reiter, Russel J

    2012-01-01

    The presence of melatonin in plants is universal. Evidence has confirmed that a major portion of the melatonin is synthesized by plants themselves even though a homologue of the classic arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) has not been identified as yet in plants. Thus, the serotonin N-acetylating enzyme in plants may differ greatly from the animal AANAT with regard to sequence and structure. This would imply multiple evolutionary origins of enzymes with these catalytic properties. A primary function of melatonin in plants is to serve as the first line of defence against internal and environmental oxidative stressors. The much higher melatonin levels in plants compared with those found in animals are thought to be a compensatory response by plants which lack means of mobility, unlike animals, as a means of coping with harsh environments. Importantly, remarkably high melatonin concentrations have been measured in popular beverages (coffee, tea, wine, and beer) and crops (corn, rice, wheat, barley, and oats). Billions of people worldwide consume these products daily. The beneficial effects of melatonin on human health derived from the consumption of these products must be considered. Evidence also indicates that melatonin has an ability to increase the production of crops. The mechanisms may involve the roles of melatonin in preservation of chlorophyll, promotion of photosynthesis, and stimulation of root development. Transgenic plants with enhanced melatonin content could probably lead to breakthroughs to increase crop production in agriculture and to improve the general health of humans. PMID:22016420

  4. Agricultural Application of Higher Plants for Their Antimicrobial Potentials in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes published research into Chinese medicinal and aromatic plants as sources of new crop protectants. Literature was reviewed based on our personal experience, reported antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens, novel chemical structures, and potential for agricultural utiliz...

  5. Economically and ecologically important plant communities in high altitude coniferous forest of Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Hassan; Al_yemeni, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    A study on the economically important plant communities was carried out during summer 2008 in various parts of Malam Jabba valley, Swat. The principal aim of the study was phytosociological evaluation with special reference to the occurrence of commercially important medicinal plant species in coniferous forest of the study area. Secondly to prepare ethnobotanical inventory of the plant resources of the area, as well as to evaluate the conservation status of important medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) through rapid vulnerable assessment (RVA) procedure. The study documented 90 species of ethnobotanical importance, out of these 71 spp used as medicinal plant, 20 spp fodder plant, 10 spp vegetables, 14 spp wild fruit, 18 spp fuel wood, 9 spp furniture and agricultural tools, 9 spp thatching, fencing and hedges, 4 spp honey bee, 2 spp evil eyes, 2 spp religious and 3 spp as poison. Phytosociologically six plant communities were found, comprising five herbs-shrubs-trees communities and one meadow community. Further study is, therefore, required to quantify the availability of species and to suggest suitable method for their production and conservation. Recommendations are also given in the spheres of training in identification, sustainable collection, value addition, trade monitoring and cooperative system of marketing. PMID:23961104

  6. Economically and ecologically important plant communities in high altitude coniferous forest of Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sher, Hassan; Al Yemeni, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    A study on the economically important plant communities was carried out during summer 2008 in various parts of Malam Jabba valley, Swat. The principal aim of the study was phytosociological evaluation with special reference to the occurrence of commercially important medicinal plant species in coniferous forest of the study area. Secondly to prepare ethnobotanical inventory of the plant resources of the area, as well as to evaluate the conservation status of important medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) through rapid vulnerable assessment (RVA) procedure. The study documented 90 species of ethnobotanical importance, out of these 71 spp used as medicinal plant, 20 spp fodder plant, 10 spp vegetables, 14 spp wild fruit, 18 spp fuel wood, 9 spp furniture and agricultural tools, 9 spp thatching, fencing and hedges, 4 spp honey bee, 2 spp evil eyes, 2 spp religious and 3 spp as poison. Phytosociologically six plant communities were found, comprising five herbs-shrubs-trees communities and one meadow community. Further study is, therefore, required to quantify the availability of species and to suggest suitable method for their production and conservation. Recommendations are also given in the spheres of training in identification, sustainable collection, value addition, trade monitoring and cooperative system of marketing. PMID:23961104

  7. Revising and Updating the Plant Science Components of the Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Univ., Storrs. Dept. of Educational Leadership.

    This curriculum guide provides the plant science components of the vocational agriculture curriculum for Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers. The curriculum is divided into exploratory units for students in the 9th and 10th grades and specialized units for students in grades 11 and 12. The five exploratory units are: agricultural pest control;…

  8. Estimating the Importance of Private Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture: A Review of Empirical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Burke, M.

    2015-12-01

    A wide range of studies using a variety of methods strongly suggest that climate change will have a negative impact on agricultural production in many areas. Farmers though should be able to learn about a changing climate and to adjust what they grow and how they grow it in order to reduce these negative impacts. However, it remains unclear how effective these private (autonomous) adaptations will be, or how quickly they will be adopted. Constraining the uncertainty on this adaptation is important for understanding the impacts of climate change on agriculture. Here we review a number of empirical methods that have been proposed for understanding the rate and effectiveness of private adaptation to climate change. We compare these methods using data on agricultural yields in the United States and western Europe.

  9. Gasification of agricultural residues in a demonstrative plant: corn cobs.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Enrico; Barontini, Federica; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    Biomass gasification couples the high power efficiency with the possibility of valuably using the byproducts heat and biochar. The use of agricultural wastes instead of woody feedstock extends the seasonal availability of biomasses. The downdraft type is the most used reactor but has narrow ranges of feedstock specifications (above all on moisture and particle size distribution), so tests on a demonstrative scale are conducted to prove the versatility of the gasifier. Measurements on pressure drops, syngas flow rate and composition are studied to assess the feasibility of such operations with corn cobs. Material and energy balances, and performance indexes are compared for the four tests carried out under different biomass loads (66-85 kg/h). A good operability of the plant and interesting results are obtained (gas specific production of 2 m3/kg, gas heating value 5.6-5.8 MJ/m3, cold gas efficiency in the range 66-68%, potential net power efficiency 21.1-21.6%). PMID:25299486

  10. An intellectual property sharing initiative in agricultural biotechnology: development of broadly accessible technologies for plant transformation.

    PubMed

    Chi-Ham, Cecilia L; Boettiger, Sara; Figueroa-Balderas, Rosa; Bird, Sara; Geoola, Josef N; Zamora, Pablo; Alandete-Saez, Monica; Bennett, Alan B

    2012-06-01

    The Public Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture (PIPRA) was founded in 2004 by the Rockefeller Foundation in response to concerns that public investments in agricultural biotechnology benefiting developing countries were facing delays, high transaction costs and lack of access to important technologies due to intellectual property right (IPR) issues. From its inception, PIPRA has worked broadly to support a wide range of research in the public sector, in specialty and minor acreage crops as well as crops important to food security in developing countries. In this paper, we review PIPRA's work, discussing the failures, successes, and lessons learned during its years of operation. To address public sector's limited freedom-to-operate, or legal access to third-party rights, in the area of plant transformation, we describe PIPRA's patent 'pool' approach to develop open-access technologies for plant transformation which consolidate patent and tangible property rights in marker-free vector systems. The plant transformation system has been licensed and deployed for both commercial and humanitarian applications in the United States (US) and Africa, respectively. PMID:22221977

  11. Importance of impacts scenarios for the adaptation of agriculture to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullo, J.; Macedo, C.; Pinto, H. S.; Assad, E. D.; Koga Vicente, A.

    2012-12-01

    The great possibility that the climate is already changing, and the most drastic way possible, increases the challenge of agricultural engineering, especially in environmentally vulnerable areas and in regions where agriculture has a high economic and social importance. Knowledge of potential impacts that may be caused by changes in water and thermal regimes in coming decades is increasingly strategic, as they allow the development of techniques to adapt agriculture to climate change and therefore minimizes the risk of undesirable impacts, for example, in food and nutritional security. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to describe a way to generate impacts scenarios caused by anomalies of precipitation and temperature in the definition of climate risk zoning of an agricultural crop very important in the tropics, such as the sugar cane, especially in central-southern Brazil, which is one of its main world producers. A key point here is the choice of the climate model to be used, considering that 23 different models were used in the fourth IPCC report published in 2007. The number and range of available models requires the definition of criteria for choosing the most suitable for the preparation of the impacts scenarios. One way proposed and used in this work is based on the definition of two groups of models according to 27 technical attributes of them. The clustering of 23 models in two groups, with a model representing each group (UKMO_HadCM3 and MIROC3.2_medres), assists the generation and comparison of impacts scenarios, making them more representative and useful. Another important aspect in the generation of impacts scenarios is the estimate of the relative importance of the anomalies of precipitation and temperature, which are the most commonly used. To assess the relative importance of the anomalies are generated scenarios considering an anomaly at a time and both together. The impacts scenarios for a high emission of greenhouse gases (A2), from 2010

  12. Nitrogen uptake, assimilation and remobilization in plants: challenges for sustainable and productive agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise; Dechorgnat, Julie; Chardon, Fabien; Gaufichon, Laure; Suzuki, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Background Productive agriculture needs a large amount of expensive nitrogenous fertilizers. Improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of crop plants is thus of key importance. NUE definitions differ depending on whether plants are cultivated to produce biomass or grain yields. However, for most plant species, NUE mainly depends on how plants extract inorganic nitrogen from the soil, assimilate nitrate and ammonium, and recycle organic nitrogen. Efforts have been made to study the genetic basis as well as the biochemical and enzymatic mechanisms involved in nitrogen uptake, assimilation, and remobilization in crops and model plants. The detection of the limiting factors that could be manipulated to increase NUE is the major goal of such research. Scope An overall examination of the physiological, metabolic, and genetic aspects of nitrogen uptake, assimilation and remobilization is presented in this review. The enzymes and regulatory processes manipulated to improve NUE components are presented. Results obtained from natural variation and quantitative trait loci studies are also discussed. Conclusions This review presents the complexity of NUE and supports the idea that the integration of the numerous data coming from transcriptome studies, functional genomics, quantitative genetics, ecophysiology and soil science into explanatory models of whole-plant behaviour will be promising. PMID:20299346

  13. 76 FR 67379 - Importation of Dracaena Plants From Costa Rica

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... coffee twig beetle. In the PRA, the likelihood and consequences of introducing these pests into the... in 7 CFR Part 319 Coffee, Cotton, Fruits, Imports, Logs, Nursery stock, Plant diseases and pests...); Sarasinula plebeia (Caribbean leatherleaf slug); Succinea costaricana; Xylosandrus morigerus (brown...

  14. Unique components of the plant mitochondrial protein import apparatus.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Owen; Murcha, Monika W; Whelan, James

    2013-02-01

    The basic mitochondrial protein import apparatus was established in the earliest eukaryotes. Over the subsequent course of evolution and the divergence of the plant, animal and fungal lineages, this basic import apparatus has been modified and expanded in order to meet the specific needs of protein import in each kingdom. In the plant kingdom, the arrival of the plastid complicated the process of protein trafficking and is thought to have given rise to the evolution of a number of unique components that allow specific and efficient targeting of mitochondrial proteins from their site of synthesis in the cytosol, to their final location in the organelle. This includes the evolution of two unique outer membrane import receptors, plant Translocase of outer membrane 20 kDa subunit (TOM20) and Outer membrane protein of 64 kDa (OM64), the loss of a receptor domain from an ancestral import component, Translocase of outer membrane 22 kDa subunit (TOM22), evolution of unique features in the disulfide relay system of the inter membrane space, and the addition of an extra membrane spanning domain to another ancestral component of the inner membrane, Translocase of inner membrane 17 kDa subunit (TIM17). Notably, many of these components are encoded by multi-gene families and exhibit differential sub-cellular localisation and functional specialisation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids. PMID:22406071

  15. Belowground Water Dynamics Under Contrasting Annual and Perennial Plant Communities in an Agriculturally-Dominated Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, G.; Asbjornsen, H.; Helmers, M. J.; Shepherd, G. W.

    2005-12-01

    The conversion from grasslands and forests to row-crops in the Midwest has affected soil water cycling because plant characteristics are one of the main parameters determining soil storage capacity, infiltration rates, and surface runoff. Little is known, however, about the extent of modification of soil water dynamics under different plant communities. To address this important issue, we are documenting soil water dynamics under contrasting perennial and annual plant communities in an agriculturally-dominated landscape. Measurements of soil moisture and depths of uptake of source water were obtained for six vegetative cover types (corn and soybean field, brome pasture, degraded savanna, restored savanna, and restored prairie) at the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in Prairie City, Iowa. The depths of uptake of soil water were determined on the basis of oxygen isotope composition of soil water and stem water. Measurements were performed once a month during an entire growing season. Preliminary results indicate that soil water present under the different vegetation types show similar profiles with depth during the dry months. Soil water in the upper 5 cm is enriched in oxygen-18 by about 5 per mil relative to soil water at 100 cm. Our preliminary results also indicate that the isotopic composition of stem water from annual plants is typically higher by about 2 per mil relative to that of stem water from perennial plants during the dry period. Whereas the oxygen isotopic composition for corn stem water is -5.49 per mil, that for elm and oak stem water is -7.62 and -7.51 per mil, respectively. The higher isotope values for corn suggest that annual crop plants are withdrawing water from shallower soil horizons relative to perennial plants. Moreover, our preliminary data suggest lower moisture content in soil under annual plant cover. We propose that the presence of deeper roots in the perennial vegetation allows these plants to tap into deeper water sources when

  16. The plant breeding industry after pure line theory: Lessons from the National Institute of Agricultural Botany.

    PubMed

    Berry, Dominic

    2014-06-01

    In the early twentieth century, Wilhelm Johannsen proposed his pure line theory and the genotype/phenotype distinction, work that is prized as one of the most important founding contributions to genetics and Mendelian plant breeding. Most historians have already concluded that pure line theory did not change breeding practices directly. Instead, breeding became more orderly as a consequence of pure line theory, which structured breeding programmes and eliminated external heritable influences. This incremental change then explains how and why the large multi-national seed companies that we know today were created; pure lines invited standardisation and economies of scale that the latter were designed to exploit. Rather than focus on breeding practice, this paper examines the plant varietal market itself. It focusses upon work conducted by the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) during the interwar years, and in doing so demonstrates that, on the contrary, the pure line was actually only partially accepted by the industry. Moreover, claims that contradicted the logic of the pure line were not merely tolerated by the agricultural geneticists affiliated with NIAB, but were acknowledged and legitimised by them. The history of how and why the plant breeding industry was transformed remains to be written. PMID:24650856

  17. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas.

    PubMed

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  18. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T.; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  19. Recent trends/challenges in irrigated agriculture-Why is irrigation important in a discussion of agricultural migration?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    United States agriculture contributes 16% of the $9 trillion gross domestic product, 8% of U.S. exports, and 17% of employment while providing food to all citizens, despite the fact that only 2% of the U.S. workforces is on farms. Agricultural productivity has grown by 240% since 1948, while agricul...

  20. Engineered Biosynthesis of Medicinally Important Plant Natural Products in Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuwei; Wang, Siyuan; Zhan, Jixun

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce structurally and functionally diverse natural products. Some of these compounds possess promising health-benefiting properties, such as resveratrol (antioxidant) curcumin (anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anticancer), paclitaxel (anticancer) and artemisinin (antimalarial). These compounds are produced through particular biosynthetic pathways in the plants. While supply of these medicinally important molecules relies on extraction from the producing species, recent years have seen significant advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of plant natural products. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the two most widely used heterologous hosts for expression of enzymes and reconstitution of plant natural product biosynthetic pathways. Total biosynthesis of many plant polyketide natural products such as curcumin and piceatannol in microorganisms has been achieved. While the late biosynthetic steps of more complex molecules such as paclitaxel and artemisinin remain to be understood, reconstitution of their partial biosynthetic pathways and microbial production of key intermediates have been successful. This review covers recent advances in understanding and engineering the biosynthesis of plant polyketides and terpenoids in microbial hosts. PMID:26456465

  1. The importance of an alternative for sustainability of agriculture around the periphery of the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Moura, Emanoel G; Sena, Virley G L; Corrêa, Mariana S; Aguiar, Alana das C F

    2013-04-01

    The unsustainable use of the soil of the deforested area at the Amazonian border is one of the greatest threats to the rainforest, because it is the predominant cause of shifting cultivation in the region. The sustainable management of soils with low natural fertility is a major challenge for smallholder agriculture in the humid tropics. In the periphery of Brazilian Amazonia, agricultural practices that are recommended for the Brazilian savannah, such as saturating soils with soluble nutrients do not ensure the sustainability of agroecosystems. Improvements in the tilled topsoil cannot be maintained if deterioration of the porous soil structure is not prevented and nutrient losses in the root zone are not curtailed. The information gleaned from experiments affirms that in the management of humid tropical agrosystems, the processes resulting from the interaction between climatic factors and indicators of soil quality must be taken into consideration. It must be remembered that these interactions manifest themselves in ways that cannot be predicted from the paradigm established in the other region like the southeast of Brazil, which is based only on improving the chemical indicators of soil quality. The physical indicators play important role in the sustainable management of the agrosystems of the region and for these reasons must be considered. Therefore, alley cropping is a potential substitute for slash and burn agriculture in the humid tropics with both environmental and agronomic advantages, due to its ability to produce a large amount of residues on the soil surface and its effect on the increase of economic crop productivity in the long term. The article presents some promising patents on the importance of an alternative for sustainability of agriculture. PMID:23305424

  2. The soil microbial community predicts the importance of plant traits in plant-soil feedback.

    PubMed

    Ke, Po-Ju; Miki, Takeshi; Ding, Tzung-Su

    2015-04-01

    Reciprocal interaction between plant and soil (plant-soil feedback, PSF) can determine plant community structure. Understanding which traits control interspecific variation of PSF strength is crucial for plant ecology. Studies have highlighted either plant-mediated nutrient cycling (litter-mediated PSF) or plant-microbe interaction (microbial-mediated PSF) as important PSF mechanisms, each attributing PSF variation to different traits. However, this separation neglects the complex indirect interactions between the two mechanisms. We developed a model coupling litter- and microbial-mediated PSFs to identify the relative importance of traits in controlling PSF strength, and its dependency on the composition of root-associated microbes (i.e. pathogens and/or mycorrhizal fungi). Results showed that although plant carbon: nitrogen (C : N) ratio and microbial nutrient acquisition traits were consistently important, the importance of litter decomposability varied. Litter decomposability was not a major PSF determinant when pathogens are present. However, its importance increased with the relative abundance of mycorrhizal fungi as nutrient released from the mycorrhizal-enhanced litter production to the nutrient-depleted soils result in synergistic increase of soil nutrient and mycorrhizal abundance. Data compiled from empirical studies also supported our predictions. We propose that the importance of litter decomposability depends on the composition of root-associated microbes. Our results provide new perspectives in plant invasion and trait-based ecology. PMID:25521190

  3. Importance of instream wood characteristics for developing restoration designs for channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channelized agricultural headwater streams are a common feature within agricultural watersheds of the Midwestern United States. These small streams have been impacted by the physical and chemical habitat alterations incurred to facilitate agricultural drainage. Quantitative information on the instr...

  4. Potential alternative fuel sources for agricultural crops and plant components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The changing landscape of agricultural production is placing unprecedented demands on farmers as they face increasing global competition and greater natural resource conservation challenges. However, shrinking profit margins due to increasing input costs, particularly of fuel and fertilizer, can res...

  5. Importance of non CO2 fluxes for agricultural ecosystems - understanding the mechanisms and drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Katja

    2014-05-01

    In agriculture, a large proportion (about 89%) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving potential may be achieved by means of soil C sequestration. Not surprising that exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been a main research objective during last decades. In spite of this, in agricultural ecosytems (i.e. grassland and croplands) a large proportion of total emissions (about 18% in CO2e worldwide) are linked to non CO2 fluxes (about 50% N2O, 40% CH4 in contraste to 10%CO2). Those emissions are however, diffuse, for example N2O, is emitted on almost all cultivated land, and all humid grasslands emit CH4 related to watertable. However, those emissions can vary largely from one site to another or from one farming system to another, while some studies even report a fixation of CH4 and N2O by grass- and croplands, not to mention the impacts of climate change on fluxes. Finally, given the large number of findings, along with their significant diversity, complicates both estimation of these emissions and the mechanism that the public authorities could implement to encourage their reduction. To determine effective mitigation options, a better knowledge on the drivers of CH4/N2O as well as their temporal and spatial variability are of particular interest. At present, more information is needed on i) the impact of agricultural practices and the contribution of CH4 and N2O to the GHG budgets within contrasting systems, ii) differences among climate regions and climate impacts, and iii) impact of managing soil microbial functioning (through plant diverstiy, litter inputs, etc). This presentation will review recent studies to highlight some new findings on the mentioned topics.

  6. Noncrop flowering plants restore top-down herbivore control in agricultural fields

    PubMed Central

    Balmer, Oliver; Pfiffner, Lukas; Schied, Johannes; Willareth, Martin; Leimgruber, Andrea; Luka, Henryk; Traugott, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Herbivore populations are regulated by bottom-up control through food availability and quality and by top-down control through natural enemies. Intensive agricultural monocultures provide abundant food to specialized herbivores and at the same time negatively impact natural enemies because monocultures are depauperate in carbohydrate food sources required by many natural enemies. As a consequence, herbivores are released from both types of control. Diversifying intensive cropping systems with flowering plants that provide nutritional resources to natural enemies may enhance top-down control and contribute to natural herbivore regulation. We analyzed how noncrop flowering plants planted as “companion plants” inside cabbage (Brassica oleracea) fields and as margins along the fields affect the plant–herbivore–parasitoid–predator food web. We combined molecular analyses quantifying parasitism of herbivore eggs and larvae with molecular predator gut content analysis and a comprehensive predator community assessment. Planting cornflowers (Centaurea cynanus), which have been shown to attract and selectively benefit Microplitis mediator, a larval parasitoid of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae, between the cabbage heads shifted the balance between trophic levels. Companion plants significantly increased parasitism of herbivores by larval parasitoids and predation on herbivore eggs. They furthermore significantly affected predator species richness. These effects were present despite the different treatments being close relative to the parasitoids’ mobility. These findings demonstrate that habitat manipulation can restore top-down herbivore control in intensive crops if the right resources are added. This is important because increased natural control reduces the need for pesticide input in intensive agricultural settings, with cascading positive effects on general biodiversity and the environment. Companion plants thus increase biodiversity both

  7. Sago-Type Palms Were an Important Plant Food Prior to Rice in Southern Subtropical China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Barton, Huw J.; Wan, Zhiwei; Li, Quan; Ma, Zhikun; Li, Mingqi; Zhang, Dan; Wei, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hypothesis. Here we present evidence from starch and phytolith analyses of samples obtained during systematic excavations at the site of Xincun on the southern coast of China, demonstrating that during 3,350–2,470 aBC humans exploited sago palms, bananas, freshwater roots and tubers, fern roots, acorns, Job's-tears as well as wild rice. A dominance of starches and phytoliths from palms suggest that the sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to the rice in south subtropical China. We also believe that because of their reliance on a wide range of starch-rich plant foods, the transition towards labour intensive rice agriculture was a slow process. PMID:23667584

  8. Using microbial community interactions within plant microbiomes to advance an evergreen agricultural revolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative plant breeding and technology transfer fostered the Green Revolution, which transformed agriculture worldwide by increasing grain yields in developing countries. The Green Revolution temporarily alleviated world hunger, but also reduced biodiversity, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestr...

  9. Relationship between humanity and plant natural resources – in the context of food and agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture, the domestication, culture, and management of plants and animals, has led to profound social changes in human evolution and development; it can be considered as the basis for civilization. Roughly 12,000 years ago agriculture appeared independently in several parts of the world. A natur...

  10. Occurrence of an herbicide-resistant plant trait in agricultural field margins.

    PubMed

    Gage, Karla L; Gibson, David J; Young, Bryan G; Young, Julie M; Matthews, Joseph L; Weller, Stephen C; Wilson, Robert G

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural environments allow study of evolutionary change in plants. An example of evolution within agroecological systems is the selection for resistance to the herbicide glyphosate within the weed, Conyza canadensis. Changes in survivorship and reproduction associated with the development of glyphosate resistance (GR) may impact fitness and influence the frequency of occurrence of the GR trait. We hypothesized that site characteristics and history would affect the occurrence of GR C. canadensis in field margins. We surveyed GR occurrence in field margins and asked whether there were correlations between GR occurrence and location, crop rotation, GR crop trait rotation, crop type, use of tillage, and the diversity of herbicides used. In a field experiment, we hypothesized that there would be no difference in fitness between GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) plants. We asked whether there were differences in survivorship, phenology, reproduction, and herbivory between 2 GR and 2 GS populations of C. canadensis in agrestal and ruderal habitats. We found that geographic location was an important factor in the occurrence of GR C. canadensis in field margins. Although not consistently associated with either glyphosate resistance or glyphosate susceptibility, there were differences in phenology, survivorship, and herbivory among biotypes of C. canadensis. We found equal or greater fitness in GR biotypes, compared to GS biotypes, and GR plants were present in field margins. Field margins or ruderal habitats may provide refugia for GR C. canadensis, allowing reproduction and further selection to occur as seeds recolonize the agrestal habitat. Agricultural practices may select for ecological changes that feed back into the evolution of plants in ruderal habitats. PMID:26445665

  11. Chemosensitization of plant pathogenic fungi to agricultural fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continual use of fungicides in agriculture often results in development of resistance in pathogens. A new strategy to aid in overcoming or minimizing this problem is enhancement of pathogen sensitivity to fungicides by chemosensitization. This involves combining fungicides with certain non-fungicida...

  12. Plant breeding for harmony between agriculture and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop improvements made since the 1950’s coupled with inexpensive agronomic inputs (fertilizers, herbicides, etc.) have resulted in agricultural production that has kept pace with population growth. Breeding programs primarily focus on improving a crop’s environmental adaptability and biotic stress t...

  13. Importance of Gravity for Plant Growth and Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Flight experiments on the importance of gravity to plant growth and behavior are reported. The following studies were undertaken: (1) hyperastic responses to incremental changes of an axially imposed centripetal force; (2) Spacelab-1 experiments, methods for preparing soil in flight hardware containers were impound, to ensure desired moisture content and minimal contamination probability; (3) mesocotyl growth patterns were established by Avena lore exposure to red light during early seedling outogency; (4) the development of flight hardware; (5) choice of member of seedlings in each cube; (6) data processing and reduction; (7) clinostat validation; circummutation in space was more vigorous than on Earth based clinostat.

  14. The Potential of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) for Producing Important Components of Renewable Energy and Agricultural Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwata, E.

    2012-04-01

    In agricultural systems, sustainable crop production is critical in meeting both environmental requirements and the limitations of drought imposed by the effects of global warming. The inputs for crop production and end use of the products should determine the choice of a crop particularly in environments prone to droughts. The objective of this paper is to highlight why a multi-purpose grain legume such as pigeonpea is an ideal crop that can be utilized for producing renewable energy. Firstly, it is highly tolerant to drought and does not require additional soil moisture after the seedling growth stage. The deep tape root extracts moisture and nutrients from deep layers of the soil concomitantly allowing for efficient nutrient recycling. The piscidic acid which is exuded from the roots enhances the solubilization of phosphorus in order to make it available for plant uptake. Secondly, the grain of pigeonpea is suitable for both human food and feedstocks. The grain is rich in oil, vitamins, minerals and protein. The grain can also be used for producing biofuel. In many countries particularly in the developing world, the stover is used as fuel wood or building (roofing) material, thus alleviating pressure on forest products. The crop is grown without the application of inorganic fertilizers as it can fix atmospheric nitrogen symbiotically in its root nodules. Pigeonpea is also ratoonable, producing two or more harvests per season. In addition, it is grown in mixed cropping systems thus optimizing land use. In these regards, pigeonpea is sustainable and environmentally friendly choice for agricultural production of food and energy balance.

  15. Mathematical modelling of antimicrobial resistance in agricultural waste highlights importance of gene transfer rate.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michelle; Hobman, Jon L; Dodd, Christine E R; Ramsden, Stephen J; Stekel, Dov J

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is of global concern. Most antimicrobial use is in agriculture; manures and slurry are especially important because they contain a mix of bacteria, including potential pathogens, antimicrobial resistance genes and antimicrobials. In many countries, manures and slurry are stored, especially over winter, before spreading onto fields as organic fertilizer. Thus, these are a potential location for gene exchange and selection for resistance. We develop and analyse a mathematical model to quantify the spread of antimicrobial resistance in stored agricultural waste. We use parameters from a slurry tank on a UK dairy farm as an exemplar. We show that the spread of resistance depends in a subtle way on the rates of gene transfer and antibiotic inflow. If the gene transfer rate is high, then its reduction controls resistance, while cutting antibiotic inflow has little impact. If the gene transfer rate is low, then reducing antibiotic inflow controls resistance. Reducing length of storage can also control spread of resistance. Bacterial growth rate, fitness costs of carrying antimicrobial resistance and proportion of resistant bacteria in animal faeces have little impact on spread of resistance. Therefore, effective treatment strategies depend critically on knowledge of gene transfer rates. PMID:26906100

  16. Educational Plant Survey: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, April 1-5, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This publication is the report of findings of the educational plant survey for Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University conducted in April, 1991. Following a description of the survey team and a preface, Section I describes the statutory foundations, procedural policies, and cooperative processes for the educational plant survey. Section II…

  17. Accumulation of artificial radionuclides in agricultural plants in the area used for surface nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Kozhakhanov, T E; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V

    2014-11-01

    The paper reports on the study of artificial radionuclide accumulation in agricultural crops grown at the territory with high concentration of radionuclides, and first of all - with high concentration of transuranium elements. As a result of this work, peculiarities of accumulation and distribution of artificial radionuclides in the vegetative and generative organs of the studied plants have been revealed. Basic accumulation factors have been found for (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (239+240)Pu, and (241)Am in agricultural products. Accumulation factor dependence on type of planting was found for the investigated types of plants. It has been found that the vegetative organs accumulate radionuclides most of all. PMID:25128979

  18. 7 CFR 319.37 - Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.37 Section 319.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Plants for Planting 1 2...

  19. The relative importance of microbial nitrate reduction processes in an agriculturally-impacted estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardarelli, E.; Francis, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Human activities are increasing reactive nitrogen levels worldwide. Reactive nitrogen exists largely as nitrate and may be ecologically harmful to nutrient-limited systems. Nitrate loadings to the environment may be transformed by the microbial nitrate reduction processes of denitrification (converting nitrate to dinitrogen gas), or of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) (allowing reactive nitrogen to persist). The predominant nitrate reduction pathway largely determines the nitrogen removal capacity of the estuary. Therefore, identifying the relative importance of denitrification and DNRA in a given system provides insight into how much nitrate is transformed to dinitrogen and ammonium. Estuary sediments often have high nitrate reduction rates, but the environmental factors that determine which process prevails are underexplored. Nitrate availability and salinity are thought to influence which nitrate reduction process predominates. Elkhorn Slough is a small California estuary that experiences a range of nitrate concentrations (0 to over 2,000 μM) and salinities (0 to 33.5) depending on the agricultural runoff introduced through the Old Salinas River and the tidal influence. This study investigates how the fluctuating nutrient and salinity conditions found over the diel cycle at the interface of the Old Salinas River and Elkhorn Slough influences the nitrogen transformation rates observed. Benthic denitrification and DNRA are evaluated using whole sediment core incubations amended with an overlying 15NO3- labeled pool. Rates of denitrification and DNRA in the sediment are calculated using the isotope pairing technique. The results of this research will help elucidate the relative importance of dissimilatory nitrate removal pathways in an agriculturally-impacted estuary and ultimately reveal whether anthropogenic nitrate inputs are preserved or removed from the system.

  20. Creating an agricultural world order: regional plant protection problems and international phytopathology, 1878-1939.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in 1878 with the International Phylloxera Convention of Berne, international conventions have sought to relieve national agricultural industries from two specific burdens. First, by defining phytosanitary practices to be enforced by national plant protection services, these conventions attempted to prevent the introduction of plant diseases and pests into national territories from which they were previously absent. Second, by standardizing these practices - especially through the design of a unique certificate of inspection - the conventions attempted to eliminate barriers such as quarantines affection international agricultural trade. The succession of phytopathological conventions seemed to epitomize the coalescence of an international community against agricultural pests. What actually coalesced was bio-geopolitics wherein plant pathologists and economic entomologists from North America and the British Empire questioned the so-called internationality of the environmental and economic specificities of continental European agriculture, embodied in "international" conventions. Although an international phenomenon, the dissemination of agricultural pests provided opportunities for cooperation on a strictly regional albeit transnational basis that pitted bio-geopolitical spaces against each other. This article retraces the formation of these spaces by analyzing the deliberations of committees and congresses that gathered to define an international agricultural order based on the means to prevent the spread of plant diseases and pests. PMID:20329355

  1. Research Progress on the use of Plant Allelopathy in Agriculture and the Physiological and Ecological Mechanisms of Allelopathy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Allelopathy is a common biological phenomenon by which one organism produces biochemicals that influence the growth, survival, development, and reproduction of other organisms. These biochemicals are known as allelochemicals and have beneficial or detrimental effects on target organisms. Plant allelopathy is one of the modes of interaction between receptor and donor plants and may exert either positive effects (e.g., for agricultural management, such as weed control, crop protection, or crop re-establishment) or negative effects (e.g., autotoxicity, soil sickness, or biological invasion). To ensure sustainable agricultural development, it is important to exploit cultivation systems that take advantage of the stimulatory/inhibitory influence of allelopathic plants to regulate plant growth and development and to avoid allelopathic autotoxicity. Allelochemicals can potentially be used as growth regulators, herbicides, insecticides, and antimicrobial crop protection products. Here, we reviewed the plant allelopathy management practices applied in agriculture and the underlying allelopathic mechanisms described in the literature. The major points addressed are as follows: (1) Description of management practices related to allelopathy and allelochemicals in agriculture. (2) Discussion of the progress regarding the mode of action of allelochemicals and the physiological mechanisms of allelopathy, consisting of the influence on cell micro- and ultra-structure, cell division and elongation, membrane permeability, oxidative and antioxidant systems, growth regulation systems, respiration, enzyme synthesis and metabolism, photosynthesis, mineral ion uptake, protein and nucleic acid synthesis. (3) Evaluation of the effect of ecological mechanisms exerted by allelopathy on microorganisms and the ecological environment. (4) Discussion of existing problems and proposal for future research directions in this field to provide a useful reference for future studies on plant

  2. Research Progress on the use of Plant Allelopathy in Agriculture and the Physiological and Ecological Mechanisms of Allelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Allelopathy is a common biological phenomenon by which one organism produces biochemicals that influence the growth, survival, development, and reproduction of other organisms. These biochemicals are known as allelochemicals and have beneficial or detrimental effects on target organisms. Plant allelopathy is one of the modes of interaction between receptor and donor plants and may exert either positive effects (e.g., for agricultural management, such as weed control, crop protection, or crop re-establishment) or negative effects (e.g., autotoxicity, soil sickness, or biological invasion). To ensure sustainable agricultural development, it is important to exploit cultivation systems that take advantage of the stimulatory/inhibitory influence of allelopathic plants to regulate plant growth and development and to avoid allelopathic autotoxicity. Allelochemicals can potentially be used as growth regulators, herbicides, insecticides, and antimicrobial crop protection products. Here, we reviewed the plant allelopathy management practices applied in agriculture and the underlying allelopathic mechanisms described in the literature. The major points addressed are as follows: (1) Description of management practices related to allelopathy and allelochemicals in agriculture. (2) Discussion of the progress regarding the mode of action of allelochemicals and the physiological mechanisms of allelopathy, consisting of the influence on cell micro- and ultra-structure, cell division and elongation, membrane permeability, oxidative and antioxidant systems, growth regulation systems, respiration, enzyme synthesis and metabolism, photosynthesis, mineral ion uptake, protein and nucleic acid synthesis. (3) Evaluation of the effect of ecological mechanisms exerted by allelopathy on microorganisms and the ecological environment. (4) Discussion of existing problems and proposal for future research directions in this field to provide a useful reference for future studies on plant

  3. Drought Impacts on Ancient Maya Maize Agriculture Inferred from Isotopic Analyses of Plant Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, P. M.; Pagani, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of droughts in the Maya lowlands of southeastern Mexico and northern Central America coincided with the Terminal Classic decline of the Classic Maya civilization (ca. 1250 to 1000 years BP). However, there is little evidence directly linking climatic change and changes in human activities in this region. In this study we combine plant-wax hydrogen and carbon analyses in two lake sediment cores from the Yucatan and northern Guatemala to develop coupled records of hydroclimate variability and human-driven vegetation change and assess drought impacts on maize agriculture In the Maya lowlands plant-wax hydrogen isotope ratios (δD) are controlled by the isotopic composition of precipitation and evapotranspiration, and are highly sensitive to changes in aridity. In this low-elevation tropical environment plant-wax carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) are largely controlled by the relative abundance of C3 and C4 plants. The ancient Maya practiced widespread maize (C4) agriculture and strongly influenced regional C3-C4 vegetation dynamics. Under natural conditions C4 plant coverage and plant-wax δD would tend to co-vary positively since C4 plants are well adapted for dry conditions. Under ancient Maya land-use, however, this relationship is likely to be decoupled, since drought would have disrupted C4 agriculture. Combined analyses of plant-wax δD and δ13C from two lake sediment cores in the Maya lowlands indicate co-evolving changes in hydroclimate and C4 plant coverage over the past 4000 years. Compound-specific radiocarbon analyses of plant-waxes provide independent chronologies for these plant-wax stable isotope records, and plant-wax δD records developed using these chronologies agree closely with other regional records of hydroclimate change. Trends in plant-wax δD and δ13C diverge following ca. 3500 years BP, around the onset of widespread ancient Maya agriculture. After this time high plant-wax δD values tend

  4. In silico analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of endophytic bacteria, isolated from the aerial parts and seeds of important agricultural crops.

    PubMed

    Bredow, C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A; Mangolin, C A; Rhoden, S A

    2015-01-01

    Because of human population growth, increased food production and alternatives to conventional methods of biocontrol and development of plants such as the use of endophytic bacteria and fungi are required. One of the methods used to study microorganism diversity is sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, which has several advantages, including universality, size, and availability of databases for comparison. The objective of this study was to analyze endophytic bacterial diversity in agricultural crops using published papers, sequence databases, and phylogenetic analysis. Fourteen papers were selected in which the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene was used to identify endophytic bacteria, in important agricultural crops, such as coffee, sugar cane, beans, corn, soybean, tomatoes, and grapes, located in different geographical regions (America, Europe, and Asia). The corresponding 16S rRNA gene sequences were selected from the NCBI database, aligned using the Mega 5.2 program, and phylogenetic analysis was undertaken. The most common orders present in the analyzed cultures were Bacillales, Enterobacteriales, and Actinomycetales and the most frequently observed genera were Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Microbacterium. Phylogenetic analysis showed that only approximately 1.56% of the total sequences were not properly grouped, demonstrating reliability in the identification of microorganisms. This study identified the main genera found in endophytic bacterial cultures from plants, providing data for future studies on improving plant agriculture, biotechnology, endophytic bacterium prospecting, and to help understand relationships between endophytic bacteria and their interactions with plants. PMID:26345903

  5. Organic Farming Benefits Local Plant Diversity in Vineyard Farms Located in Intensive Agricultural Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Maurizio G.

    2012-05-01

    The majority of research on organic farming has considered arable and grassland farming systems in Central and Northern Europe, whilst only a few studies have been carried out in Mediterranean agro-systems, such as vineyards, despite their economic importance. The main aim of the study was to test whether organic farming enhances local plant species richness in both crop and non-crop areas of vineyard farms located in intensive conventional landscapes. Nine conventional and nine organic farms were selected in an intensively cultivated region (i.e. no gradient in landscape composition) in northern Italy. In each farm, vascular plants were sampled in one vineyard and in two non-crop linear habitats, grass strips and hedgerows, adjacent to vineyards and therefore potentially influenced by farming. We used linear mixed models to test the effect of farming, and species longevity (annual vs. perennial) separately for the three habitat types. In our intensive agricultural landscapes organic farming promoted local plant species richness in vineyard fields, and grassland strips while we found no effect for linear hedgerows. Differences in species richness were not associated to differences in species composition, indicating that similar plant communities were hosted in vineyard farms independently of the management type. This negative effect of conventional farming was probably due to the use of herbicides, while mechanical operations and mowing regime did not differ between organic and conventional farms. In grassland strips, and only marginally in vineyards, we found that the positive effect of organic farming was more pronounced for perennial than annual species.

  6. Durable strategies to deploy plant resistance in agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Frédéric; Rousseau, Elsa; Mailleret, Ludovic; Moury, Benoit

    2012-03-01

    The deployment of resistant crops often leads to the emergence of resistance-breaking pathogens that suppress the yield benefit provided by the resistance. Here, we theoretically explored how farmers' main leverages (resistant cultivar choice, resistance deployment strategy, landscape planning and cultural practices) can be best combined to achieve resistance durability while minimizing yield losses as a result of plant viruses. Assuming a gene-for-gene type of interaction, virus epidemics are modelled in a landscape composed of a mosaic of resistant and susceptible fields, subjected to seasonality, and a reservoir hosting viruses year-round. The model links the genetic and the epidemiological processes, shaping at nested scales the demogenetic dynamics of viruses. The choice of the resistance gene (characterized by the equilibrium frequency of the resistance-breaking virus at mutation-selection balance in a susceptible plant) is the most influential leverage of action. Our results showed that optimal strategies of resistance deployment range from 'mixture' (where susceptible and resistant cultivars coexist) to 'pure' strategies (with only resistant cultivar) depending on the resistance characteristics and the epidemiological context (epidemic incidence and landscape connectivity). We demonstrate and discuss gaps concerning virus epidemiology across the agro-ecological interface that must be filled to achieve sustainable disease management. PMID:22260272

  7. Importance of wetland landscape structure to shorebirds wintering in an agricultural valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taft, Oriane W.; Haig, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Only recently has the influence of landscape structure on habitat use been a research focus in wetland systems. During non-breeding periods when food can be locally limited, wetland spatial pattern across a landscape may be of great importance in determining wetland use. We studied the influence of landscape structure on abundances of wintering Dunlin (Calidris alpina) and Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) observed on wetlands in the agricultural Willamette Valley of Oregon, USA, during two winters (1999a??2000, 2000a??2001) of differing rainfall. We examined (1) shorebird use within a sample of 100 km2 regions differing in landscape structure (hectares of shorebird habitat [wet, unvegetated]) and (2) use of sites differing in landscape context (area of shorebird habitat within a species-defined radius). For use of sites, we also assessed the influence of two local characteristics: percent of soil exposed and area of wet habitat. We analyzed data using linear regression and information-theoretic modeling. During the dry winter (2000a??2001), Dunlin were attracted to regions with more wetland habitat and their abundances at sites increased with greater area of shorebird habitat within both the site and the surrounding landscape. In contrast, Dunlin abundances at sites were related to availability of habitat at only a local scale during the wet winter (1999a??2000). Regional habitat availability was of little importance in predicting Killdeer distributions, and Killdeer site use appeared unrelated to habitat distributions at both landscape and local scales. Results suggest prioritizing sites for conservation that are located in areas with high wetland coverage.

  8. Biofertilizers function as key player in sustainable agriculture by improving soil fertility, plant tolerance and crop productivity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Current soil management strategies are mainly dependent on inorganic chemical-based fertilizers, which caused a serious threat to human health and environment. The exploitation of beneficial microbes as a biofertilizer has become paramount importance in agriculture sector for their potential role in food safety and sustainable crop production. The eco-friendly approaches inspire a wide range of application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), endo- and ectomycorrhizal fungi, cyanobacteria and many other useful microscopic organisms led to improved nutrient uptake, plant growth and plant tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. The present review highlighted biofertilizers mediated crops functional traits such as plant growth and productivity, nutrient profile, plant defense and protection with special emphasis to its function to trigger various growth- and defense-related genes in signaling network of cellular pathways to cause cellular response and thereby crop improvement. The knowledge gained from the literature appraised herein will help us to understand the physiological bases of biofertlizers towards sustainable agriculture in reducing problems associated with the use of chemicals fertilizers. PMID:24885352

  9. Biofertilizers function as key player in sustainable agriculture by improving soil fertility, plant tolerance and crop productivity.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Deepak; Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Current soil management strategies are mainly dependent on inorganic chemical-based fertilizers, which caused a serious threat to human health and environment. The exploitation of beneficial microbes as a biofertilizer has become paramount importance in agriculture sector for their potential role in food safety and sustainable crop production. The eco-friendly approaches inspire a wide range of application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), endo- and ectomycorrhizal fungi, cyanobacteria and many other useful microscopic organisms led to improved nutrient uptake, plant growth and plant tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. The present review highlighted biofertilizers mediated crops functional traits such as plant growth and productivity, nutrient profile, plant defense and protection with special emphasis to its function to trigger various growth- and defense-related genes in signaling network of cellular pathways to cause cellular response and thereby crop improvement. The knowledge gained from the literature appraised herein will help us to understand the physiological bases of biofertlizers towards sustainable agriculture in reducing problems associated with the use of chemicals fertilizers. PMID:24885352

  10. Ozone - plant surface reactions an important ozone loss term?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, Armin; Jud, Werner; Fischer, Lukas; Canaval, Eva; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Tissier, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations are considered a toxic threat to plants responsible for global crop losses with associated economic costs of several billions dollar per year. Plant injuries have been related to the uptake of ozone through stomatal pores and oxidative effects damaging the internal leaf tissue. But a striking question remains: How much ozone enters the plant through open stomata and how much ozone is lost by chemical reactions at the plant surface? Until now surface losses are estimated from measured total ozone deposition fluxes and calculated stomatal conductance values. While stomatal conductance of CO2 and H2O is well understood and extensively used in describing plant atmosphere gas exchange, stomatal conductance of ozone is not well known. Here we use different Nicotiana tabacum varieties and find that surface reactions of ozone with diterpenoids synthesized by glandular trichomes reduce ozone flux through open stomata. Our measurements reveal that fast ozone loss at the plant surface is accompanied with prompt release of oxygenated volatile compounds. In the ozone fumigation experiments of different Nicotiana tabacum varieties the release of specific volatile oxy-VOCs allowed to identify the semi volatile precursor compounds at the plant surface. Ozone fumigation experiments with Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris), two common species in the Northern Hemisphere, show also a significant ozone loss at the plant surface for Picea abies. Fluid dynamic calculations of ozone transport in the diffusive leaf boundary layer reveal a vertical but no horizontal ozone gradient thus reducing ozone fluxes through the pores in case of efficient ozone scavenging plant surfaces. We explain this efficient ozone protection mechanism by the porous surface architecture of plants in combination with unsaturated semi-volatile compounds deposited at the plant surface. These results show that unsaturated semi-volatile compounds at

  11. Landscape Context and Plant Community Composition in Grazed Agricultural Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate humid grazinglands are an important component of the landscape of the northeastern United States, as well as of the economy of this region, yet unlike their European counterparts, little is known about their basic ecology. During an eight-year survey of 28 farms across the northeastern Uni...

  12. The importance of instream habitat modifications for restoring channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Science based information on the influence of restoration practices on fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams in the Midwestern United States is currently lacking. Understanding fish-habitat relationships and fish responses to specific restoration practices will provide informatio...

  13. Climate change, plant traits, and invasion in natural and agricultural ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive species and climate change, each of which is likely to influence agricultural productivity and biological diversity, are also likely to interact. This chapter explores characteristics of both invasive plants and invaded ecosystems to search for generalizations that may allow us to predict w...

  14. Agricultural Mechanics Unit for Plant Science Core Curriculum. Volume 15, Number 4. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Hunter, Bill

    This instructor's guide is intended for use in teaching the agricultural mechanics unit of a plant science core curriculum. Covered in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: arc welding (following safety procedures, controlling distortion, selecting and caring for electrodes, identifying the material to be welded, and welding…

  15. Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, W. A.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

  16. Plant diversity and overyielding: insights from belowground facilitation of intercropping in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Tilman, David; Lambers, Hans; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2014-07-01

    Despite increasing evidence that plant diversity in experimental systems may enhance ecosystem productivity, the mechanisms causing this overyielding remain debated. Here, we review studies of overyielding observed in agricultural intercropping systems, and show that a potentially important mechanism underlying such facilitation is the ability of some crop species to chemically mobilize otherwise-unavailable forms of one or more limiting soil nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and micronutrients (iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn)). Phosphorus-mobilizing crop species improve P nutrition for themselves and neighboring non-P-mobilizing species by releasing acid phosphatases, protons and/or carboxylates into the rhizosphere which increases the concentration of soluble inorganic P in soil. Similarly, on calcareous soils with a very low availability of Fe and Zn, Fe- and Zn-mobilizing species, such as graminaceous monocotyledonous and cluster-rooted species, benefit themselves, and also reduce Fe or Zn deficiency in neighboring species, by releasing chelating substances. Based on this review, we hypothesize that mobilization-based facilitative interactions may be an unsuspected, but potentially important mechanism enhancing productivity in both natural ecosystems and biodiversity experiments. We discuss cases in which nutrient mobilization might be occurring in natural ecosystems, and suggest that the nutrient mobilization hypothesis merits formal testing in natural ecosystems. PMID:25013876

  17. 78 FR 26316 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ...We are advising the public that we have determined that 22 taxa of plants for planting are quarantine pests and 37 taxa of plants for planting are hosts of 9 quarantine pests and therefore should be added to our lists of taxa of plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. We have prepared data sheets that detail the scientific evidence we evaluated in......

  18. Importance of plant integrity in crop research, breeding, and production

    PubMed Central

    Pazderů, Kateřina; Bláha, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Plant integrity looks like a “very easy and expanded topic,” but the reality is totally different. Thanks to the very high specialization of scientists, we are losing a holistic view of plants and are making mistakes in our research due to this drawback. It is necessary to sense a plant in their whole complexity—in both roots and shoot, as well as throughout their life cycles. Only such an integrated approach can allow us to reach correct interpretations of our experimental results. PMID:24301201

  19. Phosphate Import in Plants: Focus on the PHT1 Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Nussaume, Laurent; Kanno, Satomi; Javot, Hélène; Marin, Elena; Pochon, Nathalie; Ayadi, Amal; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Thibaud, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    The main source of phosphorus for plants is inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is characterized by its poor availability and low mobility. Uptake of this element from the soil relies heavily upon the PHT1 transporters, a specific family of plant plasma membrane proteins that were identified by homology with the yeast PHO84 Pi transporter. Since the discovery of PHT1 transporters in 1996, various studies have revealed that their function is controlled by a highly complex network of regulation. This review will summarize the current state of research on plant PHT1 multigenic families, including physiological, biochemical, molecular, cellular, and genetics studies. PMID:22645553

  20. 77 FR 22376 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ellsworth Kelly: Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ellsworth Kelly: Plant Drawings... Kelly: Plant Drawings,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, is...

  1. Baseline survey of the anatomical microbial ecology of an important food plant: Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research to understand and control microbiological risks associated with the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables has examined many environments in the farm to fork continuum. An important data gap however, that remains poorly studied is the baseline description of microflora that may be associated with plant anatomy either endemically or in response to environmental pressures. Specific anatomical niches of plants may contribute to persistence of human pathogens in agricultural environments in ways we have yet to describe. Tomatoes have been implicated in outbreaks of Salmonella at least 17 times during the years spanning 1990 to 2010. Our research seeks to provide a baseline description of the tomato microbiome and possibly identify whether or not there is something distinctive about tomatoes or their growing ecology that contributes to persistence of Salmonella in this important food crop. Results DNA was recovered from washes of epiphytic surfaces of tomato anatomical organs; leaves, stems, roots, flowers and fruits of Solanum lycopersicum (BHN602), grown at a site in close proximity to commercial farms previously implicated in tomato-Salmonella outbreaks. DNA was amplified for targeted 16S and 18S rRNA genes and sheared for shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Amplicons and metagenomes were used to describe “native” bacterial microflora for diverse anatomical parts of Virginia-grown tomatoes. Conclusions Distinct groupings of microbial communities were associated with different tomato plant organs and a gradient of compositional similarity could be correlated to the distance of a given plant part from the soil. Unique bacterial phylotypes (at 95% identity) were associated with fruits and flowers of tomato plants. These include Microvirga, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Brachybacterium, Rhizobiales, Paracocccus, Chryseomonas and Microbacterium. The most frequently observed bacterial taxa across aerial plant regions were Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas

  2. Importance of Silicon and Mechanisms of Biosilica Formation in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Siti Nor Akmar, Abdullah; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Tengoua, F. F.; Nurul Mayzaitul Azwa, Jamaludin; Shabanimofrad, M.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is one of the most prevalent macroelements, performing an essential function in healing plants in response to environmental stresses. The purpose of using Si is to induce resistance to distinct stresses, diseases, and pathogens. Additionally, Si can improve the condition of soils, which contain toxic levels of heavy metals along with other chemical elements. Silicon minimizes toxicity of Fe, Al, and Mn, increases the availability of P, and enhances drought along with salt tolerance in plants through the formation of silicified tissues in plants. However, the concentration of Si depends on the plants genotype and organisms. Hence, the physiological mechanisms and metabolic activities of plants may be affected by Si application. Peptides as well as amino acids can effectively create polysilicic species through interactions with different species of silicate inside solution. The carboxylic acid and the alcohol groups of serine and asparagine tend not to engage in any significant role in polysilicates formation, but the hydroxyl group side chain can be involved in the formation of hydrogen bond with Si(OH)4. The mechanisms and trend of Si absorption are different between plant species. Furthermore, the transportation of Si requires an energy mechanism; thus, low temperatures and metabolic repressors inhibit Si transportation. PMID:25685787

  3. Importance of silicon and mechanisms of biosilica formation in plants.

    PubMed

    Sahebi, Mahbod; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Siti Nor Akmar, Abdullah; Rafii, Mohd Y; Azizi, Parisa; Tengoua, F F; Nurul Mayzaitul Azwa, Jamaludin; Shabanimofrad, M

    2015-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is one of the most prevalent macroelements, performing an essential function in healing plants in response to environmental stresses. The purpose of using Si is to induce resistance to distinct stresses, diseases, and pathogens. Additionally, Si can improve the condition of soils, which contain toxic levels of heavy metals along with other chemical elements. Silicon minimizes toxicity of Fe, Al, and Mn, increases the availability of P, and enhances drought along with salt tolerance in plants through the formation of silicified tissues in plants. However, the concentration of Si depends on the plants genotype and organisms. Hence, the physiological mechanisms and metabolic activities of plants may be affected by Si application. Peptides as well as amino acids can effectively create polysilicic species through interactions with different species of silicate inside solution. The carboxylic acid and the alcohol groups of serine and asparagine tend not to engage in any significant role in polysilicates formation, but the hydroxyl group side chain can be involved in the formation of hydrogen bond with Si(OH)4. The mechanisms and trend of Si absorption are different between plant species. Furthermore, the transportation of Si requires an energy mechanism; thus, low temperatures and metabolic repressors inhibit Si transportation. PMID:25685787

  4. Cadmium contamination in Tianjin agricultural soils and sediments: relative importance of atmospheric deposition from coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guanghong; Yang, Cancan; Guo, Lan; Wang, Zhongliang

    2013-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) in coal, fly ash, slag, atmospheric deposition, soils and sediments collected from Tianjin, northern China, were measured to provide baseline information and determine possible Cd sources and potential risk. The concentrations of Cd in coal, fly ash and atmospheric deposition were much higher than the soil background values. Fallout from coal-fired thermal power plants, heating boilers and industrial furnaces has increased the Cd concentration in soils and sediments in Tianjin. The concentrations of Cd in soils of suburban areas were significantly higher than in rural areas, suggesting that coal burning in Tianjin may have an important impact on the local physical environment. Cd from coal combustion is readily mobilized in soils. It is soluble and can form aqueous complexes and permeate river sediments. The high proportion of mobile Cd affects the migration of Cd in soils and sediments, which may pose an environmental threat in Tianjin due to the exposure to Cd and Cd compounds via the food chain. This study may provide a window for understanding and tracing sources of Cd in the local environment and the risk associated with Cd bioaccessibility. PMID:23212535

  5. The Importance of Motivational Appeals to Cooperative Extension Agricultural Clientele. Summary of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Gary; Newcomb, L. H.

    A study was conducted to determine the relationship of certain motivational appeals to the extent of participation of extension clientele, as perceived by these clientele. A stratified random sample of thirty counties from the ten extension supervisory areas of Ohio was used for the study. This sample provided for 395 adult agricultural clientele…

  6. Assessing the importance of agricultural management practices to reduce the ecological risk of pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of pesticides in agriculture, their potential to be transported beyond the intended target, and their possible risk to human and environmental health has been of public concern for many years. We utilized 5 years of field data from 3 vegetable production systems to evaluate the ability of ag...

  7. 75 FR 11512 - Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in... public meeting of the Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported... input from the public regarding the Consultative Group's statutory mandate to develop...

  8. A phytopharmacological review on an important medicinal plant - Amorphophallus paeoniifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Yadu Nandan; Ota, Sarada; Srikanth, N.; Jamal, Mahvish; Wanjari, Manish

    2012-01-01

    Amorphophallus paeoniifolius is used for long period in various chronic diseases therapeutically. Aim of the current review is to search literature for the pharmacological properties, safety/toxicity studies, pharmacognostic studies and phytochemical investigation of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber. The compiled data may be helpful for the researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be discovered. Complete information about the plant has been collected from various books, journals and Ayurvedic classical texts like Samhitas, Nighantus etc. Journals of the last 20 years were searched. Particulars of pharmacological activities, phytochemical isolation, toxicity studies etc. were extracted from the published reports focussing on the safety profile of the plant. Safety of the whole plant was concluded in the review. PMID:23049180

  9. Pharmacological importance of an ethnobotanical plant: Capsicum annuum L.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farhan A; Mahmood, Tariq; Ali, Muhammad; Saeed, Abdul; Maalik, Aneela

    2014-01-01

    Capsicum annuum L., a fruit plant from tropical and subtropical regions, contains a range of essential nutrients and bioactive compounds which are known to exhibit a range of bioactivities including free radical scavenging (antioxidant), antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the literature published on pharmacological behaviours of C. annuum L. PMID:24650229

  10. Plant sphingolipids: Their importance in cellular organization and adaption.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Louise V; Napier, Johnathan A; Molino, Diana; Faure, Jean-Denis

    2016-09-01

    Sphingolipids and their phosphorylated derivatives are ubiquitous bio-active components of cells. They are structural elements in the lipid bilayer and contribute to the dynamic nature of the membrane. They have been implicated in many cellular processes in yeast and animal cells, including aspects of signaling, apoptosis, and senescence. Although sphingolipids have a better defined role in animal systems, they have been shown to be central to many essential processes in plants including but not limited to, pollen development, signal transduction and in the response to biotic and abiotic stress. A fuller understanding of the roles of sphingolipids within plants has been facilitated by classical biochemical studies and the identification of mutants of model species. Recently the development of powerful mass spectrometry techniques hailed the advent of the emerging field of lipidomics enabling more accurate sphingolipid detection and quantitation. This review will consider plant sphingolipid biosynthesis and function in the context of these new developments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27086144

  11. The importance of education in managing invasive plant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plant species can establish in diverse environments and with the increase in human mobility, they are no longer restricted to isolated pockets in remote parts of the world. Cheat grass (Bromus tectorum L.) in rangelands, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) in wet lands and Canada this...

  12. Importance of soil-water relation in assessment endpoint in bioremediated soils: Plant growth and soil physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Sawatsky, N.

    1995-12-31

    Much effort has been focused on defining the end-point of bioremediated soils by chemical analysis (Alberta Tier 1 or CCME Guideline for Contaminated Soils) or toxicity tests. However, these tests do not completely assess the soil quality, or the capability of soil to support plant growth after bioremediation. This study compared barley (Hordeum vulgare) growth on: (i) non-contaminated, agricultural topsoil, (2) oil-contaminated soil (4% total extractable hydrocarbons, or TEH), and (3) oil-contaminated soil treated by bioremediation (< 2% TEH). Soil physical properties including water retention, water uptake, and water repellence were measured. The results indicated that the growth of barley was significantly reduced by oil-contamination of agricultural topsoil. Furthermore, bioremediation did not improve the barley yield. The lack of effects from bioremediation was attributed to development of water repellence in hydrocarbon contaminated soils. There seemed to be a critical water content around 18% to 20% in contaminated soils. Above this value the water uptake by contaminated soil was near that of the agricultural topsoil. For lower water contents, there was a strong divergence in sorptivity between contaminated and agricultural topsoil. For these soils, water availability was likely the single most important parameter controlling plant growth. This parameter should be considered in assessing endpoint of bioremediation for hydrocarbon contaminated soils.

  13. Gene flow in the green mirid, Creontiades dilutus (Hemiptera: Miridae), across arid and agricultural environments with different host plant species

    PubMed Central

    Hereward, J P; Walter, G H; DeBarro, P J; Lowe, A J; Riginos, C

    2013-01-01

    Creontiades dilutus (Stål), the green mirid, is a polyphagous herbivorous insect endemic to Australia. Although common in the arid interior of Australia and found on several native host plants that are spatially and temporally ephemeral, green mirids also reach pest levels on several crops in eastern Australia. These host-associated dynamics, distributed across a large geographic area, raise questions as to whether (1) seasonal fluctuations in population size result in genetic bottlenecks and drift, (2) arid and agricultural populations are genetically isolated, and (3) the use of different host plants results in genetic differentiation. We sequenced a mitochondrial COI fragment from individuals collected over 24 years and screened microsatellite variation from 32 populations across two seasons. The predominance of a single COI haplotype and negative Tajima D in samples from 2006/2007 fit with a population expansion model. In the older collections (1983 and 1993), a different haplotype is most prevalent, consistent with successive population contractions and expansions. Microsatellite data indicates recent migration between inland sites and coastal crops and admixture in several populations. Altogether, the data suggest that long-distance dispersal occurs between arid and agricultural regions, and this, together with fluctuations in population size, leads to temporally dynamic patterns of genetic differentiation. Host-associated differentiation is evident between mirids sampled from plants in the genus Cullen (Fabaceae), the primary host, and alternative host plant species growing nearby in arid regions. Our results highlight the importance of jointly assessing natural and agricultural environments in understanding the ecology of pest insects. PMID:23610626

  14. The importance of animal cognition in agricultural animal production systems: an overview.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S E; Stricklin, W R

    1991-12-01

    To describe and then fulfill agricultural animals' needs, we must learn more about their fundamental psychological and behavioral processes. How does this animal feel? Is that animal suffering? Will we ever be able to know these things? Scientists specializing in animal cognition say that there are numerous problems but that they can be overcome. Recognition by scientists of the notion of animal awareness has been increasing in recent years, because of the work of Griffin and others. Feeling, thinking, remembering, and imagining are cognitive processes that are factors in the economic and humane production of agricultural animals. It has been observed that the animal welfare debate depends on two controversial questions: Do animals have subjective feelings? If they do, can we find indicators that reveal them? Here, indirect behavioral analysis approaches must be taken. Moreover, the linear additivity of several stressor effects on a variety of animal traits suggests that some single phenomenon is acting as a "clearinghouse" for many or all of the stresses acting on an animal at any given time, and this phenomenon might be psychological stress. Specific situations animals may encounter in agricultural production settings are discussed with respect to the animals' subjective feelings. PMID:1808193

  15. Influence of copper on root exudate patterns in some metallophytes and agricultural plants.

    PubMed

    Meier, S; Alvear, M; Borie, F; Aguilera, P; Ginocchio, R; Cornejo, P

    2012-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to determine the root exudation patterns in two Cu-metallophytes (Oenothera picensis and Imperata condensata) and two agricultural plants (Lupinus albus and Helianthus annuus). Plants were grown in nutrient solution at increasing Cu doses (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2mgCuL(-1)), and plant growth, root elongation, Cu accumulation and root exudates were measured. All plants showed a decrease of over 60% in root elongation at the highest Cu supply level, being O. picensis the most sensitive specie and showing the highest shoot and root Cu concentrations (116 and 2657μgCug(-1), respectively), which were six fold higher than the other species. Differences in root exudation patterns of low molecular weight organic acids were found, with extremely high amounts of succinic acid exuded by O. picensis (1049μmolg(-1)h(-1)), and citric acid by I. condensata (164μmolg(-1)h(-1)). In metallophytes, the organic acid exudation was increased even with no root elongation, meanwhile agricultural plants exuded citric acid at constant levels. Exudation of phenolic compounds was highly species-dependent, with catechin mainly exuded by I. condensata, (2.62μmolg(-1)h(-1)) cinnamic acid by O. picensis (5.08μmolg(-1)h(-1)) and coumaric acid exclusively exuded by H. annuus (13.6μmolg(-1)h(-1)) at high Cu levels. These results indicated that differences in root exudation patterns among metallophytes and agricultural plants could affect their Cu tolerance. Particularly, the higher exudation rate showed by I. condensata can be an effective exclusion mechanism to tolerate high Cu concentrations, supporting its use in Cu phytostabilization programs. PMID:21937112

  16. On the importance of balancing selection in plants.

    PubMed

    Delph, Lynda F; Kelly, John K

    2014-01-01

    Balancing selection refers to a variety of selective regimes that maintain advantageous genetic diversity within populations. We review the history of the ideas regarding the types of selection that maintain such polymorphism in flowering plants, notably heterozygote advantage, negative frequency-dependent selection, and spatial heterogeneity. One shared feature of these mechanisms is that whether an allele is beneficial or detrimental is conditional on its frequency in the population. We highlight examples of balancing selection on a variety of discrete traits. These include the well-referenced case of self-incompatibility and recent evidence from species with nuclear-cytoplasmic gynodioecy, both of which exhibit trans-specific polymorphism, a hallmark of balancing selection. We also discuss and give examples of how spatial heterogeneity in particular, which is often thought unlikely to allow protected polymorphism, can maintain genetic variation in plants (which are rooted in place) as a result of microhabitat selection. Lastly, we discuss limitations of the protected polymorphism concept for quantitative traits, where selection can inflate the genetic variance without maintaining specific alleles indefinitely. We conclude that while discrete-morph variation provides the most unambiguous cases of protected polymorphism, they represent only a fraction of the balancing selection at work in plants. PMID:23952298

  17. On the importance of balancing selection in plants

    PubMed Central

    Delph, Lynda F.; Kelly, John K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Balancing selection refers to a variety of selective regimes that maintain advantageous genetic diversity within populations. We review the history of the ideas regarding the types of selection that maintain such polymorphism in flowering plants, notably heterozygote advantage, negative frequency-dependent selection, and spatial heterogeneity. One shared feature of these mechanisms is that whether an allele is beneficial or detrimental is conditional on its frequency in the population. We highlight examples of balancing selection on a variety of discrete traits. These include the well-referenced case of self-incompatibility and recent evidence from species with nuclear-cytoplasmic gynodioecy, both of which exhibit trans-specific polymorphism, a hallmark of balancing selection. We also discuss and give examples of how spatial heterogeneity in particular, which is often thought unlikely to allow protected polymorphism, can maintain genetic variation in plants (which are rooted in place) as a result of microhabitat selection. Lastly, we discuss limitations of the protected polymorphism concept for quantitative traits, where selection can inflate the genetic variance without maintaining specific alleles indefinitely. We conclude that while discrete-morph variation provides the most unambiguous cases of protected polymorphism, they represent only a fraction of the balancing selection at work in plants. PMID:23952298

  18. Fabrication Of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Using Agricultural Crop Plant Leaf Extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajani, P.; SriSindhura, K.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Hussain, O. M.; Sudhakar, P.; Latha, P.; Balakrishna, M.; Kambala, V.; Reddy, K. Raja

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are being viewed as fundamental building blocks of nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Use of agricultural crop plant extracts for synthesis of metal nanoparticles would add a new dimension to the agricultural sector in the utilization of crop waste. Silver has long been recognized as having an inhibitory effect towards many bacterial strains and microorganisms commonly present in medical and industrial processes. Four pulse crop plants and three cereal crop plants (Vigna radiata, Arachis hypogaea, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, Zea mays, Pennisetum glaucum, Sorghum vulgare) were used and compared for their extra cellular synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles were formed by treating aqueous solution of AgNO3 with the plant leaf extracts as reducing agent at temperatures 50 °C-95 °C. UV-Visible spectroscopy was utilized to monitor the formation of silver nanoparticles. XRD analysis of formed silver nanoparticles revealed face centered cubic structure with (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. SEM and EDAX analysis confirm the size of the formed silver nanoparticles to be in the range of 50-200 nm. Our proposed work offers a enviro-friendly method for biogenic silver nanoparticles production. This could provide a faster synthesis rate comparable to those of chemical methods and potentially be used in areas such as cosmetics, food and medical applications.

  19. Silicon: Potential to Promote Direct and Indirect Effects on Plant Defense Against Arthropod Pests in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Olivia L.; Padula, Matthew P.; Zeng, Rensen; Gurr, Geoff M.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon has generally not been considered essential for plant growth, although it is well recognized that many plants, particularly Poaceae, have substantial plant tissue concentrations of this element. Recently, however, the International Plant Nutrition Institute [IPNI] (2015), Georgia, USA has listed it as a “beneficial substance”. This reflects that numerous studies have now established that silicon may alleviate both biotic and abiotic stress. This paper explores the existing knowledge and recent advances in elucidating the role of silicon in plant defense against biotic stress, particularly against arthropod pests in agriculture and attraction of beneficial insects. Silicon confers resistance to herbivores via two described mechanisms: physical and biochemical/molecular. Until recently, studies have mainly centered on two trophic levels; the herbivore and plant. However, several studies now describe tri-trophic effects involving silicon that operate by attracting predators or parasitoids to plants under herbivore attack. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that silicon-treated, arthropod-attacked plants display increased attractiveness to natural enemies, an effect that was reflected in elevated biological control in the field. The reported relationships between soluble silicon and the jasmonic acid (JA) defense pathway, and JA and herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) suggest that soluble silicon may enhance the production of HIPVs. Further, it is feasible that silicon uptake may affect protein expression (or modify proteins structurally) so that they can produce additional, or modify, the HIPV profile of plants. Ultimately, understanding silicon under plant ecological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular contexts will assist in fully elucidating the mechanisms behind silicon and plant response to biotic stress at both the bi- and tri-trophic levels. PMID:27379104

  20. Silicon: Potential to Promote Direct and Indirect Effects on Plant Defense Against Arthropod Pests in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Olivia L; Padula, Matthew P; Zeng, Rensen; Gurr, Geoff M

    2016-01-01

    Silicon has generally not been considered essential for plant growth, although it is well recognized that many plants, particularly Poaceae, have substantial plant tissue concentrations of this element. Recently, however, the International Plant Nutrition Institute [IPNI] (2015), Georgia, USA has listed it as a "beneficial substance". This reflects that numerous studies have now established that silicon may alleviate both biotic and abiotic stress. This paper explores the existing knowledge and recent advances in elucidating the role of silicon in plant defense against biotic stress, particularly against arthropod pests in agriculture and attraction of beneficial insects. Silicon confers resistance to herbivores via two described mechanisms: physical and biochemical/molecular. Until recently, studies have mainly centered on two trophic levels; the herbivore and plant. However, several studies now describe tri-trophic effects involving silicon that operate by attracting predators or parasitoids to plants under herbivore attack. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that silicon-treated, arthropod-attacked plants display increased attractiveness to natural enemies, an effect that was reflected in elevated biological control in the field. The reported relationships between soluble silicon and the jasmonic acid (JA) defense pathway, and JA and herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) suggest that soluble silicon may enhance the production of HIPVs. Further, it is feasible that silicon uptake may affect protein expression (or modify proteins structurally) so that they can produce additional, or modify, the HIPV profile of plants. Ultimately, understanding silicon under plant ecological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular contexts will assist in fully elucidating the mechanisms behind silicon and plant response to biotic stress at both the bi- and tri-trophic levels. PMID:27379104

  1. Not all GMOs are crop plants: non-plant GMO applications in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the time since the tools of modern biotechnology have become available, the most commonly applied and often discussed genetically modified organisms are genetically modified crop plants, although genetic engineering is also being used successfully in organisms other than plants, including bacteri...

  2. Planting the seed: the 2009 Midwest Rural Agricultural Safety and Health Forum (MRASH).

    PubMed

    Donham, Kelley J

    2010-04-01

    The annual Midwest Rural Agricultural Safety and Health Forum (MRASH) is produced by the combined efforts and resources of Iowa's Center for Agricultural Safety and Health (I-CASH), the Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health, and The Heartland Center for Occupational Health. There is a regional focus for the conference on agricultural health issues for the 11 states of the upper Midwest, thus the new name for conference (MRASH). The purpose of this conference is to "plant the seeds" for stimulating and strengthening collaborative efforts among researchers, practitioner, agricultural producers, and medical professionals. This is accomplished by sharing cutting edge research, reviewing intervention theory and methodologies, reviewing activities of regional academic, public health, and nonprofit farm health and safety organization. The 2009 conference included plenary and topical breakout sessions. The plenary sessions included topics that have a relevance to the theory and practice of health interventions in populations. The breakout sessions were quite varied, with topics of community prevention programs (including Certified Safe Farm for large farms), AgrAbility programs, exposures from noise, pesticides, needle sticks, and all-terrain vehicle operation. The largest breakout session was on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Should there be further questions of authors or the organizing committee, contact information is available at the following Web site address: http://www.public-health.uiowa.edu/ICASH/programs/MRASH/2009/index.htm. PMID:20407986

  3. 78 FR 41908 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of Availability of Data Sheets for Taxa of Plants... our lists of plants for planting whose importation is not authorized pending pest risk analysis. This... period for the notice published May 6, 2013 (78 FR 26316) is reopened. We will consider all comments...

  4. Fate of hazardous elements in agricultural soils surrounding a coal power plant complex from Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Iruretagoiena, Azibar; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Gredilla, Ainara; Ramos, Claudete G; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Arana, Gorka; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2015-03-01

    Hazard element contamination coming from coal power plants is something obvious, but when this contamination is accompanied by other contamination sources, such as, urban, coal mining and farming activities the study gets complicated. This is the case of an area comprised in the southern part of Santa Catarina state (Brazil) with the largest private power plant generator. After the elemental analysis of 41 agricultural soils collected in an extensive area around the thermoelectric (from 0 to 47 km), the high presence of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V and Zn was found in some specific areas around the power plant. Nevertheless, as the NWAC (Normalized-and-Weighted Average Concentration) confirmed, only soils from one site were classified as of very high concern due to the presence of potential toxic elements. This site was located within the sedimentation basin of the power plant. The spatial distribution obtained by kriging in combination with the analysis of the data by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed three important hotspots in the area according to soil uses and geographic localization: the thermoelectric, its area of influence due to volatile compound deposition, and the area comprised between two urban areas. Farming practice turn out to be an important factor too for the quantity of hazard element stored in soils. PMID:25497677

  5. Native wildflower plantings support wild bee abundance and diversity in agricultural landscapes across the United States.

    PubMed

    Williams, Neal M; Ward, Kimiora L; Pope, Nathaniel; Isaacs, Rufus; Wilson, Julianna; May, Emily A; Ellis, Jamie; Daniels, Jaret; Pence, Akers; Ullmann, Katharina; Peters, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    Global trends in pollinator-dependent crops have raised awareness of the need to support managed and wild bee populations to ensure sustainable crop production. Provision of sufficient forage resources is a key element for promoting bee populations within human impacted landscapes, particularly those in agricultural lands where demand for pollination service is high and land use and management practices have reduced available flowering resources. Recent government incentives in North America and Europe support the planting of wildflowers to benefit pollinators; surprisingly, in North America there has been almost no rigorous testing of the performance of wildflower mixes, or their ability to support wild bee abundance and diversity. We tested different wildflower mixes in a spatially replicated, multiyear study in three regions of North America where production of pollinator-dependent crops is high: Florida, Michigan, and California. In each region, we quantified flowering among wildflower mixes composed of annual and perennial species, and with high and low relative diversity. We measured the abundance and species richness of wild bees, honey bees, and syrphid flies at each mix over two seasons. In each region, some but not all wildflower mixes provided significantly greater floral display area than unmanaged weedy control plots. Mixes also attracted greater abundance and richness of wild bees, although the identity of best mixes varied among regions. By partitioning floral display size from mix identity we show the importance of display size for attracting abundant and diverse wild bees. Season-long monitoring also revealed that designing mixes to provide continuous bloom throughout the growing season is critical to supporting the greatest pollinator species richness. Contrary to expectation, perennials bloomed in their first season, and complementarity in attraction of pollinators among annuals and perennials suggests that inclusion of functionally diverse

  6. Environmental effects of planting biomass crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.E.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous. and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  7. Environmental effects of planting energy crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  8. Importance of gravity for plant growth and behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    Accomplishments during the past fiscal year consisted of (1) completion of research on a study of the kinetics of damping out of circummutation when the axially directed g-force was abruptly eliminated (Research Task NULYRL). (2) Further experiments were accomplished on a comprehensive study, underway for several years, to validate (or invalidate) the use of clinostat rotation as a hypogravity simulation device. (3) Some of our earlier (unpublished) observations on plant seedlings resistance to g-loading were evaluated, interpreted, and a paper was submitted for publication (Research Task HYGEFF). (4) In what has been called ""Shuttle middeck locker ecology" an attempt to acquire reliable empirical information on the thermal profile experienced by test packages housed in middeck lockers (MDDL) during shuttle flights at long last seems to be yielding some results.

  9. Study of Chromosomes: Their Vital Importance in Agriculture, Biology, and Medicine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on chromosomes has enriched the disciplines of genetics, plant breeding, biology, and medicine, which, in turn, have contributed to human welfare. Although the foundation of genetics occurred in 1865, long before the discovery of chromosomes, their subsequent discovery put genetics on a so...

  10. Phytoremediation potential of some agricultural plants on heavy metal contaminated mine waste soils, salem district, tamilnadu.

    PubMed

    Padmapriya, S; Murugan, N; Ragavendran, C; Thangabalu, R; Natarajan, D

    2016-01-01

    The Pot culture experiment performed for phytoextraction potential of selected agricultural plants [millet (Eleusine coracana), mustard (Brassica juncea), jowar (Sorghum bicolor), black gram (Vigna mungo), pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis)] grown in metal contaminated soils around the Salem region, Tamilnadu, India. Physiochemical characterization of soils, reported as low to medium level of N, P, K was found in test soils. The Cr content higher in mine soils than control and the values are 0.176 mg/L in Dalmia soil and 0.049 mg/L in Burn & Co soil. The germination rate low in mine soil than control soils (25 to 85%). The content of chlorophyll, carotenoid, carbohydrate and protein decreased in mine soils than control. The morphological parameters and biomass values decreased in experimental plants due to metal accumulation. Proline content increased in test plants and ranged from 0.113 mg g(-1) to 0.858 mg g(-1) which indicate the stress condition due to toxicity of metals. Sorghum and black gram plants reported as metal tolerant capacity. Among the plants, Sorghum produced good results (both biomass and biochemical parameters) which equal to control plant and suggests Sorghum plant is an ideal for remediation of metal contaminated soils. PMID:26366709

  11. The importance of plant-soil interactions for N mineralisation in different soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Conor; Paterson, Eric; Baggs, Elizabeth; Morley, Nicholas; Wall, David; Schulte, Rogier

    2013-04-01

    The last hundred years has seen major advancements in our knowledge of nitrogen mineralisation in soil, but key drivers and controls remain poorly understood. Due to an increase in the global population there is a higher demand on food production. To accommodate this demand agriculture has increased its use of N based fertilizers, but these pose risks for water quality and GHG emissions as N can be lost through nitrate leaching, ammonia volatilization, and denitrification processes (Velthof, et al., 2009). Therefore, understanding the underlying processes that determine the soils ability to supply N to the plant is vital for effective optimisation of N-fertilisation with crop demand. Carbon rich compounds exuded from plant roots to the rhizosphere, which are utilized by the microbial biomass and support activities including nutrient transformations, may be a key unaccounted for driver of N mineralisation. The main aim of this study was to study the impact of root exudates on turnover of C and N in soil, as mediated by the microbial community. Two soil types, known to contrast in N-mineralisation capacity, were used to determine relationships between C inputs, organic matter mineralisation (priming effects) and N fluxes. 15N and 13C stable isotope approaches were used to quantify the importance of rhizosphere processes on C and N mineralisation. Gross nitrogen mineralisation was measured using 15N pool dilution. Total soil CO2 efflux was measured and 13C isotope partitioning was applied to quantify SOM turnover and microbial biomass respiration. Also, 13C was traced through the microbial biomass (chloroform fumigation) to separate pool-substitution effects (apparent priming) from altered microbial utilisation of soil organic matter (real priming effects). Addition of labile carbon resulted in an increase in N-mineralisation from soil organic matter in both soils. Concurrent with this there was an increase in microbial biomass size, indicating that labile C elicited

  12. Agricultural recycling of treatment-plant sludge: a case study for a vegetable-processing factory.

    PubMed

    Dolgen, Deniz; Alpaslan, M Necdet; Delen, Nafiz

    2007-08-01

    The present study evaluated the possibility of using the sludge produced by a vegetable-processing factory in agriculture. The sludge was amended with a soil mixture (i.e., a mixture of sand, soil, and manure) and was applied at 0, 165, 330, 495 and 660 t/ha to promote the growth of cucumbers. The effects of various sludge loadings on plant growth were assessed by counting plants and leaves, measuring stem lengths, and weighing the green parts and roots of the plants. We also compared heavy metal uptake by the plants for sludge loadings of 330, 495, and 660 t/ha with various recommended standards for vegetables. Our results showed that plant growth patterns were influenced to some extent by the sludge loadings. In general, the number of leaves, stem length, and dry weight of green parts exhibited a pronounced positive growth response compared with an unfertilized control, and root growth showed a lesser but still significant response at sludge loadings of 165 and 330 t/ha. The sludge application caused no significant increase in heavy metal concentrations in the leaves, though zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) were found at elevated concentrations. However, despite the Zn and Fe accumulation, we observed no toxicity symptoms in the plants. This may be a result of cucumber's tolerance of high metal levels. PMID:16934389

  13. Assessment of heavy metal and pesticide levels in soil and plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Marković, Mirjana; Cupać, Svjetlana; Durović, Rada; Milinović, Jelena; Kljajić, Petar

    2010-02-01

    This study was aimed to assess the levels of selected heavy metals and pesticides in soil and plant products from an agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia and to indicate possible sources and risks of contamination. Soil, vegetable, and fruit samples from the most important agricultural city areas were collected from July to November of 2006. Metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas pesticide residues were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction performed using solid-phase microextraction technique. Soil characterization based on the determination of selected physical and chemical properties revealed heterogeneous soils belonging to different soil groups. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in soil samples do not exceed the limits established by national and international regulations. Residues of the herbicide atrazine were detected in three soil samples, with levels lower than the relevant limit. The presence of other herbicides, namely prometryn, chloridazon, acetochlor, flurochloridone, and napropamide, was registered in some soil samples as well. Among the insecticides investigated in the soil, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos were the only ones detected. In most of the investigated vegetable samples from the Obrenovac area, Pb and Cd contents are higher in comparison with the maximum levels, indicating the emission of coal combustion products from local thermal power plants as a possible source of contamination. Residue levels of some herbicides and insecticides (metribuzin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin) determined in tomato, pepper, potato, and onion samples from Slanci, Ovca, and Obrenovac areas are even several times higher than the maximum residue levels. Inappropriate use of these plant protection products is considered to be the most probable reason of contamination. Because increased levels of heavy metals and pesticide residues found in

  14. Towards personalized agriculture: what chemical genomics can bring to plant biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Michael E.; McCourt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the dominant drug paradigm in which compounds were developed to “fit all,” new models focused around personalized medicine are appearing in which treatments are developed and customized for individual patients. The agricultural biotechnology industry (Ag-biotech) should also think about these new personalized models. For example, most common herbicides are generic in action, which led to the development of genetically modified crops to add specificity. The ease and accessibility of modern genomic analysis, when wedded to accessible large chemical space, should facilitate the discovery of chemicals that are more selective in their utility. Is it possible to develop species-selective herbicides and growth regulators? More generally put, is plant research at a stage where chemicals can be developed that streamline plant development and growth to various environments? We believe the advent of chemical genomics now opens up these and other opportunities to “personalize” agriculture. Furthermore, chemical genomics does not necessarily require genetically tractable plant models, which in principle should allow quick translation to practical applications. For this to happen, however, will require collaboration between the Ag-biotech industry and academic labs for early stage research and development, a situation that has proven very fruitful for Big Pharma. PMID:25183965

  15. Historic Mining and Agriculture as Indicators of Occurrence and Abundance of Widespread Invasive Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Calinger, Kellen; Calhoon, Elisabeth; Chang, Hsiao-chi; Whitacre, James; Wenzel, John; Comita, Liza; Queenborough, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances often change ecological communities and provide opportunities for non-native species invasion. Understanding the impacts of disturbances on species invasion is therefore crucial for invasive species management. We used generalized linear mixed effects models to explore the influence of land-use history and distance to roads on the occurrence and abundance of two invasive plant species (Rosa multiflora and Berberis thunbergii) in a 900-ha deciduous forest in the eastern U.S.A., the Powdermill Nature Reserve. Although much of the reserve has been continuously forested since at least 1939, aerial photos revealed a variety of land-uses since then including agriculture, mining, logging, and development. By 2008, both R. multiflora and B. thunbergii were widespread throughout the reserve (occurring in 24% and 13% of 4417 10-m diameter regularly-placed vegetation plots, respectively) with occurrence and abundance of each varying significantly with land-use history. Rosa multiflora was more likely to occur in historically farmed, mined, logged or developed plots than in plots that remained forested, (log odds of 1.8 to 3.0); Berberis thunbergii was more likely to occur in plots with agricultural, mining, or logging history than in plots without disturbance (log odds of 1.4 to 2.1). Mining, logging, and agriculture increased the probability that R. multiflora had >10% cover while only past agriculture was related to cover of B. thunbergii. Proximity to roads was positively correlated with the occurrence of R. multiflora (a 0.26 increase in the log odds for every 1-m closer) but not B. thunbergii, and roads had no impact on the abundance of either species. Our results indicated that a wide variety of disturbances may aid the introduction of invasive species into new habitats, while high-impact disturbances such as agriculture and mining increase the likelihood of high abundance post-introduction. PMID:26046534

  16. Historic Mining and Agriculture as Indicators of Occurrence and Abundance of Widespread Invasive Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Calinger, Kellen; Calhoon, Elisabeth; Chang, Hsiao-Chi; Whitacre, James; Wenzel, John; Comita, Liza; Queenborough, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances often change ecological communities and provide opportunities for non-native species invasion. Understanding the impacts of disturbances on species invasion is therefore crucial for invasive species management. We used generalized linear mixed effects models to explore the influence of land-use history and distance to roads on the occurrence and abundance of two invasive plant species (Rosa multiflora and Berberis thunbergii) in a 900-ha deciduous forest in the eastern U.S.A., the Powdermill Nature Reserve. Although much of the reserve has been continuously forested since at least 1939, aerial photos revealed a variety of land-uses since then including agriculture, mining, logging, and development. By 2008, both R. multiflora and B. thunbergii were widespread throughout the reserve (occurring in 24% and 13% of 4417 10-m diameter regularly-placed vegetation plots, respectively) with occurrence and abundance of each varying significantly with land-use history. Rosa multiflora was more likely to occur in historically farmed, mined, logged or developed plots than in plots that remained forested, (log odds of 1.8 to 3.0); Berberis thunbergii was more likely to occur in plots with agricultural, mining, or logging history than in plots without disturbance (log odds of 1.4 to 2.1). Mining, logging, and agriculture increased the probability that R. multiflora had >10% cover while only past agriculture was related to cover of B. thunbergii. Proximity to roads was positively correlated with the occurrence of R. multiflora (a 0.26 increase in the log odds for every 1-m closer) but not B. thunbergii, and roads had no impact on the abundance of either species. Our results indicated that a wide variety of disturbances may aid the introduction of invasive species into new habitats, while high-impact disturbances such as agriculture and mining increase the likelihood of high abundance post-introduction. PMID:26046534

  17. Dielectric spectroscopic studies on the water hyacinth plant collected from agriculture drainage.

    PubMed

    Mahani, Ragab; Atia, Fatma; Al Neklawy, Mohammed M; Fahem, Amin

    2016-06-01

    The present paper aims to investigate the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to changes in concentrations of pollutants (heavy metals and metal oxides) uptake by the water hyacinth plant collected from agriculture wastewater drainage. The measurements were carried out on the dried root and shoot plant parts before and after subjecting to different microwave heating powers for different times. Dielectric properties of the untreated root were investigated at temperature range (30-90°C). X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) results showed that the concentration of metals and metals oxides are higher in plant root than in plant shoot. Accordingly, the obtained dielectric properties were found to depend on the applied electric field frequency, magnitude of heating power as well as concentrations of pollutants. Analysis of experimental data represented by the imaginary part of the dielectric modulus M″ (ω) revealed to the presence of three different relaxation processes. The lower frequency relaxation process was associated to charge carriers conduction whereas those appeared at higher frequencies were associated to different types of interfacial polarization. The plant ability for removing heavy metals and metal oxides from the aquatic environments would be enhanced upon subjecting to microwave heating power with 400 W for 30 min. PMID:26985876

  18. Dielectric spectroscopic studies on the water hyacinth plant collected from agriculture drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahani, Ragab; Atia, Fatma; Al Neklawy, Mohammed M.; Fahem, Amin

    2016-06-01

    The present paper aims to investigate the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to changes in concentrations of pollutants (heavy metals and metal oxides) uptake by the water hyacinth plant collected from agriculture wastewater drainage. The measurements were carried out on the dried root and shoot plant parts before and after subjecting to different microwave heating powers for different times. Dielectric properties of the untreated root were investigated at temperature range (30-90 °C). X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) results showed that the concentration of metals and metals oxides are higher in plant root than in plant shoot. Accordingly, the obtained dielectric properties were found to depend on the applied electric field frequency, magnitude of heating power as well as concentrations of pollutants. Analysis of experimental data represented by the imaginary part of the dielectric modulus M″ (ω) revealed to the presence of three different relaxation processes. The lower frequency relaxation process was associated to charge carriers conduction whereas those appeared at higher frequencies were associated to different types of interfacial polarization. The plant ability for removing heavy metals and metal oxides from the aquatic environments would be enhanced upon subjecting to microwave heating power with 400 W for 30 min.

  19. Relative importance of water chemistry and habitat to fish communities in headwater streams influenced by agricultural land use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channelized headwater streams are common throughout agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern United States. Understanding the relative impacts of agricultural contaminants and habitat degradation on the aquatic biota within agricultural headwater streams will provide information that can assist wi...

  20. 77 FR 48582 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Plants of Virtue and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Plants of Virtue and Rocks by a... ``Plants of Virtue and Rocks by a Stream'' by Shitao to be imported by The Santa Barbara Museum of Art...

  1. Effects of coal-fired thermal power plant discharges on agricultural soil and crop plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ajmal, M.; Khan, M.A.

    1986-04-01

    The physicochemical properties of the upstream and downstream waters from the Upper Ganga canal, discharged cooling tower water, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents of a 530 MW Kasimpur coal-fired thermal power plant have been determined, and their effects directly on fertile soil and indirectly on pea (Pisum sativam) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) crops have also been studied. The effluents were alkaline in nature. The scrubber and bottom ash effluent contained large amounts of solids and had high biochemical and chemical oxygen demands. The soils irrigated with the different effluents exhibited an increase in pH, organic matter, calcium carbonate, water-soluble salts, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, and nitrogen and phosphorus contents while potassium content decreased. The effects of 100, 50, and 0% (tap water control) dilutions of cooling tower, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents on the germination and growth of pea and wheat crops were also monitored. Using the undiluted effluents, there was 100% germination for both crops when irrigation was done with cooling tower effluent. Germination was restricted to 90% for the two crops when irrigated with machine washings effluent, and to 80 and 70% for pea and wheat, respectively, when irrigated with scrubber and bottom ash effluent. Samples of upstream and downstream canal water were also used for irrigating soils with and without crop plants in order to ascertain the impact of effluents on canal water and its subsequent effect on crops. The soils irrigated with downstream canal water were found to contain slightly more calcium carbonate, phosphorus, and ammonia-nitrogen than those receiving upstream canal water. Though 100% germination was obtained in both cases, the growth of plants irrigated with the downstream canal water was slightly reduced.

  2. Caesium-137 soil-to-plant transfer for representative agricultural crops of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants in post-Chernobyl steppe landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Komissarova, Olga; Turykin, Leonid; Kuzmenkova, Natalia; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 had a large-scale action on more than 2.3 million hectares agricultural lands in Russia. The area of radioactively contaminated chernozems of semi-arid steppe zone with initial levels of Cs-137 185-555 kBq/m2 in Tula region received the name "Plavsky radioactive hotspot". Nowadays, after the first half-life period of Cs-137 arable chernozems of the region are still polluted with 3-6-fold excess above the radioactive safety standard (126-228 kBq/m2). Therefore, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer are currently a central problem for land use on the territory. The purpose of the present study was revealing the biological features of Cs-137 root uptake from contaminated arable chernozems by different agricultural crops. The components of a grass mixture growing at the central part of Plavsky radioactive hotspot with typical dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants - galega (Galega orientalis, Fabaceae family) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis, Gramineae family) respectively - were selected for the investigation, that was conducted during the period of harvesting in 2015. An important point was that the other factors influenced on Cs-137 soil-to-plant transfer - the level of soil pollution, soil properties, climatic conditions, vegetative phase, etc. - were equal. So, biological features of Cs-137 root uptake could be estimated the most credible manner. As a whole, general discrimination of Cs-137 root uptake was clearly shown for both agricultural crops. Whereas Cs-137 activity in rhizosphere 30-cm layer of arable chernozem was 371±74 Bq/kg (140±32 kBq/m2), Cs-137 activities in plant biomass were one-two orders of magnitude less, and transfer factor (TF) values (the ratio of the Cs-137 activities in vegetation and in soil) not exceeded 0.11. At the same time bioavailability of Cs-137 for bromegrass was significantly higher than for galega: TFs in total biomass of the

  3. U.S. Irrigation. Extent and Economic Importance. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 523.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, John C.; Horner, Gerald L.

    Data for the years 1974, 1978, 1982, and 1984 are used to identify the principal features of irrigated farming in the United States and to assess the importance of irrigation to the farm economy. Irrigation of U.S. acreage declined 5.6 million acres between 1978 and 1984 to 44.7 million acres. In 1982 irrigated acreage represented 6 percent of the…

  4. Agricultural, domestic and handicraft folk uses of plants in the Tyrrhenian sector of Basilicata (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, Giovanni; Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Caneva, Giulia

    2005-01-01

    Background Research was carried out into agricultural and domestic-handicraft uses in folk traditions in the Tyrrhenian sector of the Basilicata region (southern Italy), as it is typically representative of ethnobotanical applications in the Mediterranean area. From the point of view of furnishing a botanical support for the study of local "material culture" data was collected through field interviews of 49 informants, most of whom were farmers. Results The taxa cited are 60, belonging to 32 botanical families, of which 18 are employed for agricultural uses and 51 for domestic-handicraft folk uses. Data show a diffuse use of plants for many purposes, both in agricultural (present uses 14%; past uses 1%) and for domestic-handicraft use (present uses 40%; past uses 45%); most of the latter are now in decline. Conclusion 60 data look uncommon or typical of the places studied. Some domestic-handicraft folk uses are typical of southern Italy (e.g. the use of Ampelodesmos mauritanicus for making ties, ropes, torches, baskets or that of Acer neapolitanum for several uses). Other uses (e.g. that of Inula viscosa and Calamintha nepeta for peculiar brooms, and of Origanum heracleoticum for dyeing wool red) are previously unpublished. PMID:16270919

  5. 7 CFR 319.8-17 - Importation for exportation, and importation for transportation and exportation; storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation for exportation, and importation for transportation and exportation; storage. 319.8-17 Section 319.8-17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton...

  6. 7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.75 Section 319.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle §...

  7. Combined hydrogen and carbon isotopes of plant waxes as an indicator of drought impacts on ancient Maya agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, P. M.; Pagani, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of droughts in the Yucatan Peninsula coincided with the Terminal Classic decline of the Classic Maya civilization (ca. 1250 to 1000 years BP). However, there is little evidence directly linking climatic change and changes in human activities in this region. In this study we combine plant-wax δD, δ13C, and Δ14C analyses in two lake sediment cores from southeastern Mexico and northern Guatemala to develop coupled records of hydroclimate variability and human-driven vegetation change. Plant-wax specific Δ14C ages indicate a large input of pre-aged plant waxes into lake sediment. Comparison of plant-wax δD records with other regional hydroclimate proxy records suggest that plant-wax ages are evenly distributed around plant-wax radiocarbon ages, and that applying an age model based on plant-wax radiocarbon ages is appropriate for these lake sediments. We evaluate how differences in plant-wax age distributions influence stable isotope records to assess the age uncertainty associated with records of climate and vegetation change derived from plant-wax stable isotopes. In this low-elevation tropical environment plant-wax δ13C is largely controlled by the relative abundance of C3 and C4 plants. The ancient Maya practiced widespread maize (C4) agriculture and strongly influenced regional C3-C4 vegetation dynamics. Under natural conditions C4 plant coverage and plant-wax δ13C would tend to co-vary positively since C4 plants are well adapted for dry conditions. Under ancient Maya land-use, however, this relationship is likely to be decoupled, since drought would have disrupted C4 agriculture. Combined analysis of plant-wax δD and δ13C from both lakes indicates increasingly divergent trends following ca. 3500 years BP, around the onset of widespread ancient Maya agriculture. After this time high plant-wax δD values tend to correspond with low plant-wax δ13C values and vice versa. This pattern is consistent with

  8. Agriculture in the developing world: Connecting innovations in plant research to downstream applications.

    PubMed

    Delmer, Deborah P

    2005-11-01

    Enhancing agricultural productivity in those areas of the world bypassed by the Green Revolution will require new approaches that provide incentives and funding mechanisms that promote the translation of new innovations in plant science into concrete benefits for poor farmers. Through better dialogue, plant breeders and laboratory scientists from both the public and private-sectors need to find solutions for the key constraints to crop production, many of which center around abiotic and biotic stresses. The revolution in plant genomics has opened up new perspectives and opportunities for plant breeders who can now apply molecular markers to assess and enhance diversity in their germplasm collections, to introgress valuable traits from new sources, and to identify genes that control key traits. Functional genomics is also providing another powerful route to the identification of such genes. The ability to introgress beneficial genes under the control of specific promoters through transgenic approaches is yet one more stepping stone in the path to targeted approaches to crop improvement, and the new sciences have identified a vast array of genes that have exciting potential for crop improvement. For a few crops with viable markets, such as maize and cotton, some of the traits developed by the private sector are already showing benefits for farmers of the developing world, but the public sector will need to develop new skills and overcome a number of hurdles to carry out similar efforts for other crops and traits useful to very poor farmers. PMID:16263937

  9. Effects of cyanobacteria producing microcystins on seed germination and seedling growth of several agricultural plants.

    PubMed

    Saqrane, Sana; El Ghazali, Issam; Oudra, Brahim; Bouarab, L; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2008-06-01

    The effects of cyanobacteria aqueous extracts containing Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) on the seed germination and growth of Pisum sativum, Lens esculenta, Zea mays and Triticum durum were investigated. Experiments were carried out on a range of doses of the extract (equivalent to 0, 1.6, 2.9, 5.8, 8.7 and 11.6 mu g MC-LR/mL). The results confirm that these plants were sensitive to cell-free extracts of a toxic Microcystis and that germination inhibition was dose dependent. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that P. sativum is the most sensitive tested species with a 97% germination rate reduction and L. esculenta was the most resistant. At the 8th day, the exposure to the microcystins (MC) resulted in a significant decrease of plant epicotyls length, roots length and a net inhibition of lateral root formation. It is concluded that MC could affect also terrestrial plants seedling germination and growth. Therefore, the use of water for irrigation contaminated by MC could exert negative biochemical effects on seed and plant metabolism which might influence the agricultural crops. PMID:18576226

  10. Potential assessment of establishing a renewable energy plant in a rural agricultural area.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Chien; Kao, Nien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Jar

    2012-06-01

    An evaluation of the green energy potential generated from biogas and solar power, using agricultural manure waste and a photovoltaic (PV) system, was conducted in a large geographical area of a rural county with low population density and low pollution. The studied area, Shoufeng Township in Hualien County, is located in eastern Taiwan, where a large amount of manure waste is generated from pig farms that are scattered throughout the county. The objective of the study is to assess the possibility of establishing an integrated manure waste treatment plant by using the generated biogas incorporated with the PV system to produce renewable energy and then feed it back to the incorporated farms. A filed investigation, geographic information system (GIS) application, empirical equations development, and RETScreen modeling were conducted in the study. The results indicate that Shoufeng Township has the highest priority in setting up an integrated treatment and renewable energy plant by using GIS mapping within a 10-km radius of the transportation range. Two scenarios were plotted in assessing the renewable energy plant and the estimated electricity generation, plus the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction was evaluated. Under the current governmental green energy scheme and from a long-term perspective, the assessment shows great potential in establishing the plant, especially in reducing environmental pollution problems, waste treatment, and developing suitable renewable energy. PMID:22788104

  11. Agriculture in the developing world: Connecting innovations in plant research to downstream applications

    PubMed Central

    Delmer, Deborah P.

    2005-01-01

    Enhancing agricultural productivity in those areas of the world bypassed by the Green Revolution will require new approaches that provide incentives and funding mechanisms that promote the translation of new innovations in plant science into concrete benefits for poor farmers. Through better dialogue, plant breeders and laboratory scientists from both the public and private-sectors need to find solutions for the key constraints to crop production, many of which center around abiotic and biotic stresses. The revolution in plant genomics has opened up new perspectives and opportunities for plant breeders who can now apply molecular markers to assess and enhance diversity in their germplasm collections, to introgress valuable traits from new sources, and to identify genes that control key traits. Functional genomics is also providing another powerful route to the identification of such genes. The ability to introgress beneficial genes under the control of specific promoters through transgenic approaches is yet one more stepping stone in the path to targeted approaches to crop improvement, and the new sciences have identified a vast array of genes that have exciting potential for crop improvement. For a few crops with viable markets, such as maize and cotton, some of the traits developed by the private sector are already showing benefits for farmers of the developing world, but the public sector will need to develop new skills and overcome a number of hurdles to carry out similar efforts for other crops and traits useful to very poor farmers. PMID:16263937

  12. Tightly-Coupled Plant-Soil Nitrogen Cycling: Comparison of Organic Farms across an Agricultural Landscape.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Timothy M; Hollander, Allan D; Steenwerth, Kerri; Jackson, Louise E

    2015-01-01

    How farming systems supply sufficient nitrogen (N) for high yields but with reduced N losses is a central challenge for reducing the tradeoffs often associated with N cycling in agriculture. Variability in soil organic matter and management of organic farms across an agricultural landscape may yield insights for improving N cycling and for evaluating novel indicators of N availability. We assessed yields, plant-soil N cycling, and root expression of N metabolism genes across a representative set of organic fields growing Roma-type tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in an intensively-managed agricultural landscape in California, USA. The fields spanned a three-fold range of soil carbon (C) and N but had similar soil types, texture, and pH. Organic tomato yields ranged from 22.9 to 120.1 Mg ha-1 with a mean similar to the county average (86.1 Mg ha-1), which included mostly conventionally-grown tomatoes. Substantial variability in soil inorganic N concentrations, tomato N, and root gene expression indicated a range of possible tradeoffs between yields and potential for N losses across the fields. Fields showing evidence of tightly-coupled plant-soil N cycling, a desirable scenario in which high crop yields are supported by adequate N availability but low potential for N loss, had the highest total and labile soil C and N and received organic matter inputs with a range of N availability. In these fields, elevated expression of a key gene involved in root N assimilation, cytosolic glutamine synthetase GS1, confirmed that plant N assimilation was high even when inorganic N pools were low. Thus tightly-coupled N cycling occurred on several working organic farms. Novel combinations of N cycling indicators (i.e. inorganic N along with soil microbial activity and root gene expression for N assimilation) would support adaptive management for improved N cycling on organic as well as conventional farms, especially when plant-soil N cycling is rapid. PMID:26121264

  13. Tightly-Coupled Plant-Soil Nitrogen Cycling: Comparison of Organic Farms across an Agricultural Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Timothy M.; Hollander, Allan D.; Steenwerth, Kerri; Jackson, Louise E.

    2015-01-01

    How farming systems supply sufficient nitrogen (N) for high yields but with reduced N losses is a central challenge for reducing the tradeoffs often associated with N cycling in agriculture. Variability in soil organic matter and management of organic farms across an agricultural landscape may yield insights for improving N cycling and for evaluating novel indicators of N availability. We assessed yields, plant-soil N cycling, and root expression of N metabolism genes across a representative set of organic fields growing Roma-type tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in an intensively-managed agricultural landscape in California, USA. The fields spanned a three-fold range of soil carbon (C) and N but had similar soil types, texture, and pH. Organic tomato yields ranged from 22.9 to 120.1 Mg ha-1 with a mean similar to the county average (86.1 Mg ha-1), which included mostly conventionally-grown tomatoes. Substantial variability in soil inorganic N concentrations, tomato N, and root gene expression indicated a range of possible tradeoffs between yields and potential for N losses across the fields. Fields showing evidence of tightly-coupled plant-soil N cycling, a desirable scenario in which high crop yields are supported by adequate N availability but low potential for N loss, had the highest total and labile soil C and N and received organic matter inputs with a range of N availability. In these fields, elevated expression of a key gene involved in root N assimilation, cytosolic glutamine synthetase GS1, confirmed that plant N assimilation was high even when inorganic N pools were low. Thus tightly-coupled N cycling occurred on several working organic farms. Novel combinations of N cycling indicators (i.e. inorganic N along with soil microbial activity and root gene expression for N assimilation) would support adaptive management for improved N cycling on organic as well as conventional farms, especially when plant-soil N cycling is rapid. PMID:26121264

  14. Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in British farmland wildlife: the importance to agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Fiona; Macdonald, David W; Taylor, G Michael; Gelling, Merryl; Norman, Rachel A; Honess, Paul E; Foster, Rebecca; Gower, Charlotte M; Varley, Susan; Harris, Audrey; Palmer, Simonette; Hewinson, Glyn; Webster, Joanne P

    2006-02-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important disease of cattle and an emerging infectious disease of humans. Cow- and badger-based control strategies have failed to eradicate bTB from the British cattle herd, and the incidence is rising by about 18%per year. The annual cost to taxpayers in Britain is currently 74 million UK pounds. Research has focused on the badger as a potential bTB reservoir, with little attention being paid to other mammals common on farmland. We have conducted a systematic survey of wild mammals (n=4393 individuals) present on dairy farms to explore the role of species other than badgers in the epidemiology of bTB. Cultures were prepared from 10397 samples (primarily faeces, urine and tracheal aspirates). One of the 1307 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) live-sampled, and three of the 43 badgers (Meles meles), yielded positive isolates of Mycobacterium bovis. This is the first time the bacterium has been isolated from the bank vole. The strain type was the same as that found in cattle and badgers on the same farm. However, our work indicates that the mean prevalence of infectious individuals among common farmland wildlife is extremely low (the upper 95% confidence interval is < or =2.0 for all of the abundant species). Mathematical models illustrate that it is highly unlikely the disease could be maintained at such low levels. Our results suggest that these animals are relatively unimportant as reservoirs of bTB, having insufficient within-species (or within-group) transmission to sustain the infection, though occasional spill-overs from cattle or badgers may occur. PMID:16543179

  15. Importance of agricultural landscapes to nesting burrowing owls in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Restani, M.; Davies, J.M.; Newton, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are the principle factors causing declines of grassland birds. Declines in burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations have been extensive and have been linked to habitat loss, primarily the decline of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. Development of habitat use models is a research priority and will aid conservation of owls inhabiting human-altered landscapes. From 2001 to 2004 we located 160 burrowing owl nests on prairie dog colonies on the Little Missouri National Grassland in North Dakota. We used multiple linear regression and Akaike's Information Criterion to estimate the relationship between cover type characteristics surrounding prairie dog colonies and (1) number of owl pairs per colony and (2) reproductive success. Models were developed for two spatial scales, within 600 m and 2,000 m radii of nests for cropland, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum), grassland, and prairie dog colonies. We also included number of patches as a metric of landscape fragmentation. Annually, fewer than 30% of prairie dog colonies were occupied by owls. None of the models at the 600 m scale explained variation in number of owl pairs or reproductive success. However, models at the 2,000 m scale did explain number of owl pairs and reproductive success. Models included cropland, crested wheatgrass, and prairie dog colonies. Grasslands were not included in any of the models and had low importance values, although percentage grassland surrounding colonies was high. Management that protects prairie dog colonies bordering cropland and crested wheatgrass should be implemented to maintain nesting habitat of burrowing owls. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. [Rats and dogs: important vectors of leptospirosis in agricultural areas in Cuidad Guzmán, Jalisco].

    PubMed

    Montes, Adan Sepúlveda; Dimas, Jorge Santiago; Preciado Rodríguez, Francisco Javier

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine how important rats and dogs are in the dissemination of leptospirosis in farms and stales located in Ciudad Guzmán, Jalisco. Thirteen of Leptospira interrograns serovarieties were used in microagglutination test of serogroups (MAT). Three hundred and fifty four rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvergicus) trapped in agricultural areas of the place were studied; 22 were positive (6,2%) and 34 suspected of leptospirosis (9,6%). Also four hundred and nineteen dogs from the region were tested; 22,6 % (95 dogs) were positive and 5,7%(24) suspected of L. Interrogans. These results showed that both species are important in the dissemination of the disease. PMID:15846935

  17. Importance of Genetic Diversity Assessment in Crop Plants and Its Recent Advances: An Overview of Its Analytical Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraj, M.; Vetriventhan, M.; Srinivasan, M.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of plant genetic diversity (PGD) is now being recognized as a specific area since exploding population with urbanization and decreasing cultivable lands are the critical factors contributing to food insecurity in developing world. Agricultural scientists realized that PGD can be captured and stored in the form of plant genetic resources (PGR) such as gene bank, DNA library, and so forth, in the biorepository which preserve genetic material for long period. However, conserved PGR must be utilized for crop improvement in order to meet future global challenges in relation to food and nutritional security. This paper comprehensively reviews four important areas; (i) the significance of plant genetic diversity (PGD) and PGR especially on agriculturally important crops (mostly field crops); (ii) risk associated with narrowing the genetic base of current commercial cultivars and climate change; (iii) analysis of existing PGD analytical methods in pregenomic and genomic era; and (iv) modern tools available for PGD analysis in postgenomic era. This discussion benefits the plant scientist community in order to use the new methods and technology for better and rapid assessment, for utilization of germplasm from gene banks to their applied breeding programs. With the advent of new biotechnological techniques, this process of genetic manipulation is now being accelerated and carried out with more precision (neglecting environmental effects) and fast-track manner than the classical breeding techniques. It is also to note that gene banks look into several issues in order to improve levels of germplasm distribution and its utilization, duplication of plant identity, and access to database, for prebreeding activities. Since plant breeding research and cultivar development are integral components of improving food production, therefore, availability of and access to diverse genetic sources will ensure that the global food production network becomes more sustainable

  18. 77 FR 51843 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Plants of Virtue and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Plants of Virtue and Rocks by a... State pertaining to the object ``Plants of Virtue and Rocks by a Stream'' by Shitao. The...

  19. Pollinating flies (Diptera): A major contribution to plant diversity and agricultural production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diptera are one of the three largest and most diverse animal groups of the world. As an often neglected, but important group of pollinators, they play a significant role in agrobiodiversity and biodiversity of plants everywhere. Flies are present in almost all habitats and biomes and for many food p...

  20. Pivoting from Arabidopsis to wheat to understand how agricultural plants integrate responses to biotic stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we argue for a research initiative on gene-for-gene (g-f-g) interactions between wheat and its parasites. One aim is to begin a conversation between the disparate communities of plant pathology and entomology. Another is to understand how responses to biotic stress are integrated in an import...

  1. 78 FR 41866 - Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for Planting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... rule published April 25, 2013 (78 FR 24634) is reopened. We will consider all comments that we receive... FR 24634-24663, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0011) a proposal that would restructure the regulations... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 319 and 340 RIN 0579-AD75 Restructuring...

  2. Evaluation of the micronutrient composition of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Duncan; Foster, Meika; McArthur, Jennifer O; Ojha, Rachel; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the micronutrient content of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods. Studies were identified from a search of electronic databases (1980-2007, inclusive) as well as manual searches. A total of 66 studies (describing 1440 micronutrient comparisons) were identified. Thirty-three studies (908 comparisons) satisfied the screening criteria which considered cultivar, harvesting, and soil conditions. In studies that satisfied the screening criteria, the absolute levels of micronutrients were higher in organic foods more often than in conventional foods (462 vs 364 comparisons, P=0.002), and the total micronutrient content, expressed as a percent difference, was higher in organic (+5.7%, P<0.001) as compared to conventionally grown produce. The micronutrient content of food groups was more frequently reported to be higher for organic vegetables and legumes compared to their conventional counterparts (vegetables, 267 vs 197, P<0.001; legumes, 79 vs 46, P=0.004). This trend was supported by a mean percent difference in micronutrient content favoring organic vegetables (+5.9%, P<0.001) and legumes (+5.7%, P<0.001). Further research is required to determine the effect of organic agricultural methods on a broader range of nutrients and their potential impact on health. PMID:21929333

  3. An in silico analysis of the mitochondrial protein import apparatus of plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An in silico analysis of the mitochondrial protein import apparatus from a variety of species; including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella variabilis, Ectocarpus siliculosus, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, Physcomitrella patens, Selaginella moellendorffii, Picea glauca, Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana was undertaken to determine if components differed within and between plant and non-plant species. Results The channel forming subunits of the outer membrane components Tom40 and Sam50 are conserved between plant groups and other eukaryotes. In contrast, the receptor component(s) in green plants, particularly Tom20, (C. reinhardtii, C. variabilis, P. patens, S. moellendorffii, P. glauca, O. sativa and A. thaliana) are specific to this lineage. Red algae contain a Tom22 receptor that is orthologous to yeast Tom22. Furthermore, plant mitochondrial receptors display differences between various plant lineages. These are evidenced by distinctive motifs in all plant Metaxins, which are absent in red algae, and the presence of the outer membrane receptor OM64 in Angiosperms (rice and Arabidopsis), but not in lycophytes (S. moellendorffii) and gymnosperms (P. glauca). Furthermore, although the intermembrane space receptor Mia40 is conserved across a wide phylogenetic range, its function differs between lineages. In all plant lineages, Tim17 contains a C-terminal extension, which may act as a receptor component for the import of nucleic acids into plant mitochondria. Conclusions It is proposed that the observed functional divergences are due to the selective pressure to sort proteins between mitochondria and chloroplasts, resulting in differences in protein receptor components between plant groups and other organisms. Additionally, diversity of receptor components is observed within the plant kingdom. Even when receptor components are orthologous across plant and non-plant species, it appears that the functions of these have expanded or diverged in a lineage

  4. Assessing health in agriculture--towards a common research framework for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Vieweger, Anja; Döring, Thomas F

    2015-02-01

    In agriculture and food systems, health-related research includes a vast diversity of topics. Nutritional, toxicological, pharmacological, epidemiological, behavioural, sociological, economic and political methods are used to study health in the five domains of soils, plants, livestock, humans and ecosystems. An idea developed in the early founding days of organic agriculture stated that the health of all domains is one and indivisible. Here we show that recent research reveals the existence and complex nature of such health links among domains. However, studies of health aspects in agriculture are often separated by disciplinary boundaries. This restrains the understanding of health in agricultural systems. Therefore we explore the opportunities and limitations of bringing perspectives together from the different domains. We review current approaches to define and assess health in agricultural contexts, comparing the state of the art of commonly used approaches and bringing together the presently disconnected debates in soil science, plant science, veterinary science and human medicine. Based on a qualitative literature analysis, we suggest that many health criteria fall into two paradigms: (1) the Growth Paradigm, where terms are primarily oriented towards continued growth; (2) the Boundary Paradigm, where terms focus on maintaining or coming back to a status quo, recognising system boundaries. Scientific health assessments in agricultural and food systems need to be explicit in terms of their position on the continuum between Growth Paradigm and Boundary Paradigm. Finally, we identify areas and concepts for a future direction of health assessment and research in agricultural and food systems. PMID:24777948

  5. Molecular characterization of a mutation affecting abscisic acid biosynthesis and consequently stomatal responses to humidity in an agriculturally important species.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Sussmilch, Frances C; Brodribb, Timothy J; Ross, John J

    2015-01-01

    Mutants deficient in the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) have been instrumental in determining not only the biosynthetic pathway for this hormone, but also its physiological role in land plants. The wilty mutant of Pisum sativum is one of the classical, well-studied ABA-deficient mutants; however, this mutant remains uncharacterized at a molecular level. Using a candidate gene approach, we show that the wilty mutation affects the xanthoxin dehydrogenase step in ABA biosynthesis. To date, this step has only been represented by mutants in the ABA2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana. Functional ABA biosynthesis appears to be critical for normal stomatal responses to changes in humidity in angiosperms, with wilty mutant plants having no increase in foliar ABA levels in response to a doubling in vapour pressure deficit, and no closure of stomata. Phylogenetic analysis of the ABA2 gene family from diverse land plants indicates that an ABA-biosynthesis-specific short-chain dehydrogenase (ABA2) evolved in the earliest angiosperms. The relatively recent origin of specificity in this step has important implications for both the evolution of ABA biosynthesis and action in land plants. PMID:26216469

  6. Molecular characterization of a mutation affecting abscisic acid biosynthesis and consequently stomatal responses to humidity in an agriculturally important species

    PubMed Central

    McAdam, Scott A. M.; Sussmilch, Frances C.; Brodribb, Timothy J.; Ross, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Mutants deficient in the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) have been instrumental in determining not only the biosynthetic pathway for this hormone, but also its physiological role in land plants. The wilty mutant of Pisum sativum is one of the classical, well-studied ABA-deficient mutants; however, this mutant remains uncharacterized at a molecular level. Using a candidate gene approach, we show that the wilty mutation affects the xanthoxin dehydrogenase step in ABA biosynthesis. To date, this step has only been represented by mutants in the ABA2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana. Functional ABA biosynthesis appears to be critical for normal stomatal responses to changes in humidity in angiosperms, with wilty mutant plants having no increase in foliar ABA levels in response to a doubling in vapour pressure deficit, and no closure of stomata. Phylogenetic analysis of the ABA2 gene family from diverse land plants indicates that an ABA-biosynthesis-specific short-chain dehydrogenase (ABA2) evolved in the earliest angiosperms. The relatively recent origin of specificity in this step has important implications for both the evolution of ABA biosynthesis and action in land plants. PMID:26216469

  7. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles to enhance biological control in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Peñaflor, M F G V; Bento, J M S

    2013-08-01

    Plants under herbivore attack synthetize defensive organic compounds that directly or indirectly affect herbivore performance and mediate other interactions with the community. The so-called herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) consist of odors released by attacked plants that serve as important cues for parasitoids and predators to locate their host/prey. The understanding that has been gained on the ecological role and mechanisms of HIPV emission opens up paths for developing novel strategies integrated with biological control programs with the aim of enhancing the efficacy of natural enemies in suppressing pest populations in crops. Tactics using synthetic HIPVs or chemically/genetically manipulating plant defenses have been suggested in order to recruit natural enemies to plantations or help guiding them to their host more quickly, working as a "synergistic" agent of biological control. This review discusses strategies using HIPVs to enhance biological control that have been proposed in the literature and were categorized here as: (a) exogenous application of elicitors on plants, (b) use of plant varieties that emit attractive HIPVs to natural enemies, (c) release of synthetic HIPVs, and (d) genetic manipulation targeting genes that optimize HIPV emission. We discuss the feasibility, benefits, and downsides of each strategy by considering not only field studies but also comprehensive laboratory assays that present an applied approach for HIPVs or show the potential of employing them in the field. PMID:23949852

  8. PLANT SENESCENCE: A MECHANISM FOR NUTRIENT RELEASE IN TEMPERATE AGRICULTURAL WETLANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture drainage ditches are primary intercept wetlands in amelioration of nutrient pollution from agricultural fields. Drainage ditches, as integral components of the agricultural landscape, remove surface run-off and act as major conduits of nutrients from agricultural lands to receiving water...

  9. The local view on the role of plant protection in sustainable agriculture in India.

    PubMed

    Jayaraj, S; Rabindra, R J

    1993-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides has affected humans and their environment and contributed significantly to reduced productivity of crops. With the increasing realization of the importance of sustainable agriculture, the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) for sustainable agriculture has emerged. In the recent past entomologists and the farmers have identified methods of pest management that are ecologically non-disruptive and stable. Concurrently indigenous crop varieties with resistance to pests and diseases have been developed and cultivated. According to the principle of 'organic farming', several non-chemical methods have become popular among the local farmers. Simple cultural practices like increasing the seed rate to compensate for pest damage, adjusting the time of sowing to avoid pest damage, mulching, intercropping, trap cropping and crop rotation have been found to provide adequate protection from pest damage with no additional cost and without harmful effects on the environment. The age-old method of catch and kill is still being practised by farmers, particularly for cotton. Mechanical methods like the bow trap for control of rats and provision of tin sheets around coconut tree trunks to prevent rats damaging the nuts are still being adopted. The use of botanical materials such as the neem products for pest management has been well received almost all over the world. Biological control using the natural enemies of insect pests has become very popular among the farmers in the 1980s. The farmers who clamoured for chemical pesticides in the 1960s and 1970s are now disillusioned with these poisonous eco-destabilizing substances; they want sensible, biologically rational methods of IPM. Pest surveillance and monitoring play an important role in IPM for sustainable agriculture. PMID:8149820

  10. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  11. Degradation efficiency of agricultural biogas plants--a full-scale study.

    PubMed

    Ruile, Stephan; Schmitz, Sabine; Mönch-Tegeder, Matthias; Oechsner, Hans

    2015-02-01

    The degradation efficiency of 21 full-scale agricultural CSTR biogas plants was investigated. The residual methane potential of the digestion stages was determined in batch digestion tests (20.0 and 37.0 °C). The results of this study showed that the residual methane yield is significantly correlated to the HRT (r=-0.73). An almost complete degradation of the input substrates was achieved due to a HRT of more than 100 days (0.097±0.017 Nm(3)/kg VS). The feedstock characteristics have the largest impact to the degradation time. It was found that standard values of the methane yield are a helpful tool for evaluating the degradation efficiency. Adapting the HRT to the input materials is the key factor for an efficient degradation in biogas plants. No influence of digester series configuration to the VS degradation was found. The mean VS degradation rate in the total reactor systems was 78±7%. PMID:25453437

  12. Agricultural approaches of remediation in the outside of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Nobuaki; Saso, Michitaka; Umeda, Miki; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Amemiya, Kiyoshi

    2013-07-01

    This paper outlines agricultural approaches of remediation activity done in contaminated areas around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. About the decontamination examination of contaminated areas, we have tried the land scale test of a rice field before and after planting by the use of currently recommended methods. Since farmers would carry out the land preparation by themselves, generation of secondary radioactive waste should be as low as possible through the decontamination works. For the radioactive nuclide migration control of rice by wet rice production, several types of decontamination methods such as zeolite addition and potassium fertilization in the soil have been examined. The results are summarized in the 4 following points. 1) Plowing and water discharge are effective for removing radioactive cesium from rice field. 2) Additional potassium fertilization is effective for reducing cesium radioactivity in the product. 3) No significant difference is observed with or without the zeolite addition. 4) Very low transfer factor of cesium from soil to brown rice has been obtained compared with literature values.

  13. Planting northern red oak acorns: Is size and planting depth important. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Auchmoody, L.R.; Smith, H.C.; Walters, R.S.

    1994-10-27

    A study was conducted in northern Pennsylvania to determine whether predation by small mammals and insects is related to the size of red oak acorns. Three sizes of acorns were used along with two planting techniques and three levels of overstory shading. Three-year results indicated that acorn size is not a factor in mammal and insect predation. Acorn size did not affect 3-year survival. Although 3-year total height growth was statistically different after 3 years, the differences were too small for practical use.

  14. Importance of Marine-Derived Nutrients Supplied by Planktivorous Seabirds to High Arctic Tundra Plant Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zwolicki, Adrian; Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Richard, Pierre; Stempniewicz, Lech

    2016-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of several environmental factors for tundra plant communities in five locations across Svalbard (High Arctic) that differed in geographical location, oceanographic and climatic influence, and soil characteristics. The amount of marine-derived nitrogen in the soil supplied by seabirds was locally the most important of the studied environmental factors influencing the tundra plant community. We found a strong positive correlation between δ15N isotopic values and total N content in the soil, confirming the fundamental role of marine-derived matter to the generally nutrient-poor Arctic tundra ecosystem. We also recorded a strong correlation between the δ15N values of soil and of the tissues of vascular plants and mosses, but not of lichens. The relationship between soil δ15N values and vascular plant cover was linear. In the case of mosses, the percentage ground cover reached maximum around a soil δ 15N value of 8‰, as did plant community diversity. This soil δ15N value clearly separated the occurrence of plants with low nitrogen tolerance (e.g. Salix polaris) from those predominating on high N content soils (e.g. Cerastium arcticum, Poa alpina). Large colonies of planktivorous little auks have a great influence on Arctic tundra vegetation, either through enhancing plant abundance or in shaping plant community composition at a local scale. PMID:27149113

  15. Importance of Marine-Derived Nutrients Supplied by Planktivorous Seabirds to High Arctic Tundra Plant Communities.

    PubMed

    Zwolicki, Adrian; Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Richard, Pierre; Stempniewicz, Lech

    2016-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of several environmental factors for tundra plant communities in five locations across Svalbard (High Arctic) that differed in geographical location, oceanographic and climatic influence, and soil characteristics. The amount of marine-derived nitrogen in the soil supplied by seabirds was locally the most important of the studied environmental factors influencing the tundra plant community. We found a strong positive correlation between δ15N isotopic values and total N content in the soil, confirming the fundamental role of marine-derived matter to the generally nutrient-poor Arctic tundra ecosystem. We also recorded a strong correlation between the δ15N values of soil and of the tissues of vascular plants and mosses, but not of lichens. The relationship between soil δ15N values and vascular plant cover was linear. In the case of mosses, the percentage ground cover reached maximum around a soil δ 15N value of 8‰, as did plant community diversity. This soil δ15N value clearly separated the occurrence of plants with low nitrogen tolerance (e.g. Salix polaris) from those predominating on high N content soils (e.g. Cerastium arcticum, Poa alpina). Large colonies of planktivorous little auks have a great influence on Arctic tundra vegetation, either through enhancing plant abundance or in shaping plant community composition at a local scale. PMID:27149113

  16. The importance of botellas and other plant mixtures in Dominican traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Vandebroek, Ina; Balick, Michael J.; Ososki, Andreana; Kronenberg, Fredi; Yukes, Jolene; Wade, Christine; Jiménez, Francisco; Peguero, Brígido; Castillo, Daisy

    2010-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Plant mixtures are understudied in ethnobotanical research Aim of the study To investigate the importance of plant mixtures (remedies consisting of at least two plants) in Dominican traditional medicine. Materials and Methods A Spanish language questionnaire was administered to 174 Dominicans living in New York City (NYC) and 145 Dominicans living in the Dominican Republic (DR), including lay persons (who self-medicate with plants) and specialists (traditional healers). Plants were identified through specimens purchased in NYC botánica shops and Latino grocery shops, and from voucher collections. Results The percentage of mixtures as compared to single plants in plant use reports varied between 32 to 41%, depending on the geographic location (NYC or DR) and participant status (lay person or specialist). Respiratory conditions, reproductive health and genitourinary conditions were the main categories for which Dominicans use plant mixtures. Lay persons reported significantly more mixtures prepared as teas, mainly used in NYC to treat respiratory conditions. Specialists mentioned significantly more botellas (bottled herbal mixtures), used most frequently in the DR to treat reproductive health and genitourinary conditions. Cluster analysis demonstrated that different plant species are used to treat respiratory conditions as compared to reproductive health and genitourinary conditions. Interview participants believed that combining plants in mixtures increases their potency and versatility as medicines. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the importance and complexity of plant mixtures in Dominican traditional medicine and the variation in its practices influenced by migration from the DR to NYC, shedding new light on the foundations of a particular ethnomedical system. PMID:20006697

  17. The Importance of the Microbial N Cycle in Soil for Crop Plant Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Penny R; Mauchline, Tim H

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen is crucial for living cells, and prior to the introduction of mineral N fertilizer, fixation of atmospheric N2 by diverse prokaryotes was the primary source of N in all ecosystems. Microorganisms drive the N cycle starting with N2 fixation to ammonia, through nitrification in which ammonia is oxidized to nitrate and denitrification where nitrate is reduced to N2 to complete the cycle, or partially reduced to generate the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. Traditionally, agriculture has relied on rotations that exploited N fixed by symbiotic rhizobia in leguminous plants, and recycled wastes and manures that microbial activity mineralized to release ammonia or nitrate. Mineral N fertilizer provided by the Haber-Bosch process has become essential for modern agriculture to increase crop yields and replace N removed from the system at harvest. However, with the increasing global population and problems caused by unintended N wastage and pollution, more sustainable ways of managing the N cycle in soil and utilizing biological N2 fixation have become imperative. This review describes the biological N cycle and details the steps and organisms involved. The effects of various agricultural practices that exploit fixation, retard nitrification, and reduce denitrification are presented, together with strategies that minimize inorganic fertilizer applications and curtail losses. The development and implementation of new technologies together with rediscovering traditional practices are discussed to speculate how the grand challenge of feeding the world sustainably can be met. PMID:26505688

  18. Molecular Composition of Plant Vacuoles: Important but Less Understood Regulations and Roles of Tonoplast Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunhua; Hicks, Glenn R.; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2015-01-01

    The vacuole is an essential organelle for plant growth and development. It is the location for the storage of nutrients; such as sugars and proteins; and other metabolic products. Understanding the mechanisms of vacuolar trafficking and molecule transport across the vacuolar membrane is of great importance in understanding basic plant development and cell biology and for crop quality improvement. Proteins play important roles in vacuolar trafficking; such proteins include Rab GTPase signaling proteins; cargo recognition receptors; and SNAREs (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein Receptors) that are involved in membrane fusion. Some vacuole membrane proteins also serve as the transporters or channels for transport across the tonoplast. Less understood but critical are the roles of lipids in vacuolar trafficking. In this review, we will first summarize molecular composition of plant vacuoles and we will then discuss our latest understanding on the role of lipids in plant vacuolar trafficking and a surprising connection to ribosome function through the study of ribosomal mutants. PMID:27135331

  19. Molecular Composition of Plant Vacuoles: Important but Less Understood Regulations and Roles of Tonoplast Lipids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhua; Hicks, Glenn R; Raikhel, Natasha V

    2015-01-01

    The vacuole is an essential organelle for plant growth and development. It is the location for the storage of nutrients; such as sugars and proteins; and other metabolic products. Understanding the mechanisms of vacuolar trafficking and molecule transport across the vacuolar membrane is of great importance in understanding basic plant development and cell biology and for crop quality improvement. Proteins play important roles in vacuolar trafficking; such proteins include Rab GTPase signaling proteins; cargo recognition receptors; and SNAREs (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein Receptors) that are involved in membrane fusion. Some vacuole membrane proteins also serve as the transporters or channels for transport across the tonoplast. Less understood but critical are the roles of lipids in vacuolar trafficking. In this review, we will first summarize molecular composition of plant vacuoles and we will then discuss our latest understanding on the role of lipids in plant vacuolar trafficking and a surprising connection to ribosome function through the study of ribosomal mutants. PMID:27135331

  20. 7 CFR 319.37 - Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.37 Section 319.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Plants for Planting 1 2 § 319.37 Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal...

  1. 7 CFR 319.37 - Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibitions and restrictions on importation; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.37 Section 319.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Plants for Planting 1, 2 § 319.37 Prohibitions and restrictions on importation;...

  2. The mechanisms of plant stress mitigation by kaolin-based particle films and its applications in horticultural and agricultural crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kaolin-based particle films have utility in reducing insect, heat, light, and uv stress in plants due to the reflective nature of the particles. Particle films with a residue density of 1 to 3 g/ square meter have been evaluated in a range of crops and agricultural environments. The particle film ...

  3. Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries:Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests and Weeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AgroAtlas is a comprehensive on-line bilingual reference on the geographic distribution of economic plants, their diseases, pests and weeds, and environmental factors that influence agricultural production through out the Former Soviet Union. Online users can read about and examine maps and ima...

  4. 78 FR 24633 - Restructuring of Regulations on the Importation of Plants for Planting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... on May 27, 2011 (76 FR 31172-31210, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0011) and effective on June 27, 2011. We...; coffee; Khapra beetle host articles; and gypsy moth host articles from Canada. In addition, Sec. 319.19...). Subpart--Coffee, which consists of Sec. Sec. 319.73-1 through 319.73-4, regulates the importation...

  5. 7 CFR 319.40-6 - Universal importation options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Universal importation options. 319.40-6 Section 319.40-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Logs, Lumber, and Other Wood Articles § 319.40-6 Universal importation options....

  6. The relative importance of disturbance and exotic-plant abundance in California coastal sage scrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, G.M.; Diffendorfer, J.E.; Zedler, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Many ecosystems of conservation concern require some level of disturbance to sustain their species composition and ecological function. However, inappropriate disturbance regimes could favor invasion or expansion of exotic species. In southern California coastal sage scrub (CSS) fire is a natural disturbance, but because of human influence, frequencies may now be unnaturally high. Other anthropogenic disturbances such as grazing also occur in reserve areas. Managers charged with imposing or tolerating fire or other disturbance within their reserves are concerned that habitat quality may be degraded by an increasing abundance of exotic plants. We used vegetation monitoring data from Camp Pendleton, California, USA, to assess the correlation between past disturbances (frequent fire, agriculture, or grazing and mechanical disturbances) and current exotic species abundance in CSS. We found that disturbance history was only modestly related to exotic abundance overall, but fire frequency showed the strongest association. We also examined whether cover and richness of various native plant life forms (woody species, perennial herbs, and annual herbs) were more strongly influenced by disturbance history or by exotic-plant abundance. Native plant responses varied among life forms, but woody species and annual herbs were generally more strongly and negatively associated with exotic abundance than with disturbance. Effective CSS conservation will require developing means to curb the negative impacts of exotic plants, which may abound with or without severe or recent disturbance. Additionally, more focus should be given to understory herbs showing sensitivity to invasion. Though understudied, native herbs comprise the greatest portion of plant diversity in CSS and are critical to preservation of the community as a whole. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Seasonal OVOC fluxes from an agricultural field planted with sugar beet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custer, T. G.; Schade, G. W.

    2005-12-01

    Although agricultural crops are generally not strong isoprenoid emitters, they do emit a variety of other atmospherically significant species collectively known as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), such as methanol, acetaldehyde, or various hexenal and hexenol compounds. Many OVOCs have longer atmospheric lifetimes than isoprenoid compounds and can affect the atmosphere's oxidative potential at higher elevations and far from sources. We performed selected OVOC flux measurements for select species above an agricultural field planted with sugar beets ( B. vulgaris) in northern Germany in 2004 to better understand the magnitude and controls over these OVOC emissions. Virtual disjunct eddy covariance was used to measure fluxes beginning immediately following seeding and continuing until past harvest. A commercial PTR-MS provided mixing ratios of methanol (m/z 33), acetaldehyde (m/z 45), acetone (m/z 59), and the sum of the isoprene oxidation products methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone (m/z 71) while 3D wind velocities were measured using a Gill R3 sonic anemometer. Here, we compare the fluxes of methanol and acetone over the growth cycle of sugar beet to plant development as measured by the leaf area index. Methanol fluxes ranged from approximately -0.05 to 0.15 mg C m-2 h-1 (mixing ratios from ~1 to 15 ppbv) and showed a clear diurnal cycle after the sugar beets established a significant leaf area. Acetone fluxes ranged from approximately -0.2 to 0.2 mg C m-2 h-1 (mixing ratios from ~0.2 to 3 ppb). Higher specific emissions were found during earlier growth stages. Methanol flux correlated strongly with latent heat flux (or alternatively, with canopy conductance derived from the latent heat flux), while acetone flux did not. Acetone flux was small compared to methanol flux and sugar beet is likely not a significant acetone emitter. Weekly measurements of soil OVOC exchange using a flux chamber showed that the soil may have contributed significantly to the overall flux values

  8. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Exploring Principles of Ecology with Agricultural Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruesink, Jennifer; O'Connor, Eileen; Sparks, Grace

    2006-01-01

    To date, little of the ecological research on biological diversity and ecosystem functioning has been carried out in agricultural systems, despite the fact that agriculture is a major contributor to loss of native habitats and species. However, agricultural research has demonstrated that polycultures of multiple crop species can have higher total…

  9. Characterization of Myrothecium roridum Isolated from Imported Anthurium Plant Culture Medium.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Kim, Jun Young; Choi, Min Ah; Son, Seung Yeol; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2014-03-01

    During an investigation of microorganisms and pests in plant culture media from imported anthurium pots, a fungal isolate (DUCC4002) was detected. Based on its morphological characters including colony shape on potato dextrose agar, the microstructures of spores observed by light and scanning electron microscopy and the results of phylogenetic analysis using an internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence, the fungal isolate was identified as Myrothecium roridum. Pathogenicity testing on anthurium leaves revealed that the fungus could colonize and produce sporodochia on the inoculated leaves. This is the first report of M. roridum detected in imported plant culture medium in Korea. PMID:24808740

  10. Characterization of Myrothecium roridum Isolated from Imported Anthurium Plant Culture Medium

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Kim, Jun Young; Choi, Min Ah; Son, Seung Yeol

    2014-01-01

    During an investigation of microorganisms and pests in plant culture media from imported anthurium pots, a fungal isolate (DUCC4002) was detected. Based on its morphological characters including colony shape on potato dextrose agar, the microstructures of spores observed by light and scanning electron microscopy and the results of phylogenetic analysis using an internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence, the fungal isolate was identified as Myrothecium roridum. Pathogenicity testing on anthurium leaves revealed that the fungus could colonize and produce sporodochia on the inoculated leaves. This is the first report of M. roridum detected in imported plant culture medium in Korea. PMID:24808740

  11. 76 FR 65976 - Controlled Import Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD53 Controlled Import Permits AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We are proposing to amend the regulations concerning the importation of plants and plant products...

  12. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Mycorrhizal Fungi in Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) encourage plant growth by producing growth regulators, facilitating nutrient uptake, accelerating mineralization, reducing plant stress, stimulating nodulation, providing nitrogen fixation, promoting mycorrhizal fungi, suppressing plant diseases, and funct...

  13. Ecology of plant and free-living nematodes in natural and agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Neher, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    Nematodes are aquatic organisms that depend on thin water films to live and move within existing pathways of soil pores of 25-100 mum diameter. Soil nematodes can be a tool for testing ecological hypotheses and understanding biological mechanisms in soil because of their central role in the soil food web and linkage to ecological processes. Ecological succession is one of the most tested community ecology concepts, and a variety of nematode community indices have been proposed for purposes of environmental monitoring. In contrast, theories of biogeography, colonization, optimal foraging, and niche partitioning by nematodes are poorly understood. Ecological hypotheses related to strategies of coexistence of nematode species sharing the same resource have potential uses for more effective biological control and use of organic amendments to foster disease suppression. Essential research is needed on nematodes in natural and agricultural soils to synchronize nutrient release and availability relative to plant needs, to test ecological hypotheses, to apply optimal foraging and niche partitioning strategies for more effective biological control, to blend organic amendments to foster disease suppression, to monitor environmental and restoration status, and to develop better predictive models for land-use decisions. PMID:20455699

  14. Agricultural Activities of a Meadow Eliminated Plant Litter from the Periphery of a Farmland in Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Kiyokazu; Borjigin, Wuyunna; Nakamura, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to clarify the effects of agriculture on the process of loss of litter at the periphery of a farmland. This study revealed the generation process of an ecologically unusual phenomenon that is observed around cropland in semi-arid regions. We hypothesized that the vegetation around a farmland cannot supply plant litter to the ground surface because the ecological structure has been changed by agricultural activities. The study was conducted at Xilingol steppe, Xilingol League, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. Four study lines were established from the edge of an arable field to the surrounding meadow and parallel to the wind direction during the strong wind season. Key measurement for each line was set at the border between the farmland and steppe. Four study sites were set at intervals along each line. Plant litter, soil particle size distribution, plant species composition, plant volume, and species diversity were investigated. Despite using the same mowing method at the meadows of all study sites, the litter at the only periphery of the farmland completely disappeared. Soil particle size distribution in steppe, which was adjacent to the farmland, was similar to that of the farmland. Plant community structure at the periphery of the farmland was different from that of the far side from the farmland. This implies that soil scattered from the farmland affected the species composition of the steppe. Consequently, the change in plant community structure induced litter loss because of mowing. We concluded that plant litter was lost near the farmland because of the combined effects of farming and mowing. The results support our hypothesis that the vegetation around a farmland cannot supply plant litter because the ecological structure has been changed by agricultural activities. PMID:26241943

  15. The importance of plant genotype and contemporary evolution for terrestrial ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Connor R; Agrawal, Anurag A; Basiliko, Nathan; Hastings, Amy P; Isaac, Marney E; Preston, Michael; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-10-01

    Plant genetic variation and evolutionary dynamics are predicted to impact ecosystem processes but these effects are poorly understood. Here we test the hypothesis that plant genotype and contemporary evolution influence the flux of energy and nutrients through soil, which then feedback to affect seedling performance in subsequent generations. We conducted a multiyear field evolution experiment using the native biennial plant Oenothera biennis. This experiment was coupled with experimental assays to address our hypothesis and quantify the relative importance of evolutionary and ecological factors on multiple ecosystem processes. Plant genotype, contemporary evolution, spatial variation, and herbivory affected ecosystem processes (e.g., leaf decay, soil respiration, seedling performance, N cycling), but their relative importance varied between specific ecosystem variables. Insect herbivory and evolution also contributed to a feedback that affected seedling biomass of O. biennis in the next generation. Our results show that heritable variation among plant genotypes can be an important factor affecting local ecosystem processes, and while effects of contemporary evolution were detectable and sometimes strong, they were often contingent on other ecological, factors. PMID:26649385

  16. Climate impacts on European agriculture and water management in the context of adaptation and mitigation--the importance of an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Falloon, Pete; Betts, Richard

    2010-11-01

    We review and qualitatively assess the importance of interactions and feedbacks in assessing climate change impacts on water and agriculture in Europe. We focus particularly on the impact of future hydrological changes on agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and adaptation options. Future projected trends in European agriculture include northward movement of crop suitability zones and increasing crop productivity in Northern Europe, but declining productivity and suitability in Southern Europe. This may be accompanied by a widening of water resource differences between the North and South, and an increase in extreme rainfall events and droughts. Changes in future hydrology and water management practices will influence agricultural adaptation measures and alter the effectiveness of agricultural mitigation strategies. These interactions are often highly complex and influenced by a number of factors which are themselves influenced by climate. Mainly positive impacts may be anticipated for Northern Europe, where agricultural adaptation may be shaped by reduced vulnerability of production, increased water supply and reduced water demand. However, increasing flood hazards may present challenges for agriculture, and summer irrigation shortages may result from earlier spring runoff peaks in some regions. Conversely, the need for effective adaptation will be greatest in Southern Europe as a result of increased production vulnerability, reduced water supply and increased demands for irrigation. Increasing flood and drought risks will further contribute to the need for robust management practices. The impacts of future hydrological changes on agricultural mitigation in Europe will depend on the balance between changes in productivity and rates of decomposition and GHG emission, both of which depend on climatic, land and management factors. Small increases in European soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks per unit land area are anticipated considering changes in climate

  17. Phylogenetic analyses of RPB1 and RPB2 support a middle Cretaceous origin for a clade comprising all agriculturally and medically important fusaria.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kerry; Rooney, Alejandro P; Proctor, Robert H; Brown, Daren W; McCormick, Susan P; Ward, Todd J; Frandsen, Rasmus J N; Lysøe, Erik; Rehner, Stephen A; Aoki, Takayuki; Robert, Vincent A R G; Crous, Pedro W; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Kang, Seogchan; Geiser, David M

    2013-03-01

    Fusarium (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) is one of the most economically important and systematically challenging groups of mycotoxigenic phytopathogens and emergent human pathogens. We conducted maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian (B) analyses on partial DNA-directed RNA polymerase II largest (RPB1) and second largest subunit (RPB2) nucleotide sequences of 93 fusaria to infer the first comprehensive and well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis of evolutionary relationships within the genus and 20 of its near relatives. Our analyses revealed that Cylindrocarpon formed a basal monophyletic sister to a 'terminal Fusarium clade' (TFC) comprising 20 strongly supported species complexes and nine monotypic lineages, which we provisionally recognize as Fusarium (hypothesis F1). The basal-most divergences within the TFC were only significantly supported by Bayesian posterior probabilities (B-PP 0.99-1). An internode of the remaining TFC, however, was strongly supported by MP and ML bootstrapping and B-PP (hypothesis F2). Analysis of seven Fusarium genome sequences and Southern analysis of fusaria elucidated the distribution of genes required for synthesis of 26 families of secondary metabolites within the phylogenetic framework. Diversification time estimates date the origin of the TFC to the middle Cretaceous 91.3 million years ago. We also dated the origin of several agriculturally important secondary metabolites as well as the lineage responsible for Fusarium head blight of cereals. Dating of several plant-associated species complexes suggests their evolution may have been driven by angiosperm diversification during the Miocene. Our results support two competing hypotheses for the circumscription of Fusarium and provide a framework for future comparative phylogenetic and genomic analyses of this agronomically and medically important genus. PMID:23357352

  18. Introduction and domestication of woody plants for sustainable agriculture in desert areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelef, Oren; Soloway, Elaine; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2014-05-01

    plantation in arid conditions. 5) Balanites aegyptiaca is potentially a good biomass crop and good feed for grazers as goats. We illuminated differences related to drought tolerance between two distinct ecotypes. Attempts to develope sustainable agriculture based on local species will save resources (water, fertilizers, insecticides and herbicides), keep endangered plant species and enhance vegetation reestablishment.

  19. Short-term plant species impact on microbial community structure in soils with long-term agricultural history

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-microbial interactions influence a wide range of biogeochemical processes governing the cycling of biologically important elements. Plant species have distinct impacts on biogeochemical processes and plant-microbial interactions in the rhizosphere account for many of the observed differences ...

  20. Plastid genomics in horticultural species: importance and applications for plant population genetics, evolution, and biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, Marcelo; do Nascimento Vieira, Leila; Fraga, Hugo P.; Guerra, Miguel P.

    2015-01-01

    During the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, plastids, and mitochondria arose from an endosymbiotic process, which determined the presence of three genetic compartments into the incipient plant cell. After that, these three genetic materials from host and symbiont suffered several rearrangements, bringing on a complex interaction between nuclear and organellar gene products. Nowadays, plastids harbor a small genome with ∼130 genes in a 100–220 kb sequence in higher plants. Plastid genes are mostly highly conserved between plant species, being useful for phylogenetic analysis in higher taxa. However, intergenic spacers have a relatively higher mutation rate and are important markers to phylogeographical and plant population genetics analyses. The predominant uniparental inheritance of plastids is like a highly desirable feature for phylogeny studies. Moreover, the gene content and genome rearrangements are efficient tools to capture and understand evolutionary events between different plant species. Currently, genetic engineering of the plastid genome (plastome) offers a number of attractive advantages as high-level of foreign protein expression, marker gene excision, gene expression in operon and transgene containment because of maternal inheritance of plastid genome in most crops. Therefore, plastid genome can be used for adding new characteristics related to synthesis of metabolic compounds, biopharmaceutical, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we describe the importance and applications of plastid genome as tools for genetic and evolutionary studies, and plastid transformation focusing on increasing the performance of horticultural species in the field. PMID:26284102

  1. The Importance of Pollinator Generalization and Abundance for the Reproductive Success of a Generalist Plant

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, María Belén; Lomáscolo, Silvia Beatriz; Vázquez, Diego Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have examined separately how pollinator generalization and abundance influence plant reproductive success, but none so far has evaluated simultaneously the relative importance of these pollinator attributes. Here we evaluated the extent to which pollinator generalization and abundance influence plant reproductive success per visit and at the population level on a generalist plant, Opuntia sulphurea (Cactaceae). We used field experiments and path analysis to evaluate whether the per-visit effect is determined by the pollinator’s degree of generalization, and whether the population level effect (pollinator impact) is determined by the pollinator’s degree of generalization and abundance. Based on the models we tested, we concluded that the per-visit effect of a pollinator on plant reproduction was not determined by the pollinators’ degree of generalization, while the population-level impact of a pollinator on plant reproduction was mainly determined by the pollinators’ degree of generalization. Thus, generalist pollinators have the greatest species impact on pollination and reproductive success of O. sulphurea. According to our analysis this greatest impact of generalist pollinators may be partly explained by pollinator abundance. However, as abundance does not suffice as an explanation of pollinator impact, we suggest that vagility, need for resource consumption, and energetic efficiency of generalist pollinators may also contribute to determine a pollinator’s impact on plant reproduction. PMID:24116049

  2. The relative importance of rapid evolution for plant-microbe interactions depends on ecological context.

    PubMed

    Terhorst, Casey P; Lennon, Jay T; Lau, Jennifer A

    2014-06-22

    Evolution can occur on ecological time-scales, affecting community and ecosystem processes. However, the importance of evolutionary change relative to ecological processes remains largely unknown. Here, we analyse data from a long-term experiment in which we allowed plant populations to evolve for three generations in dry or wet soils and used a reciprocal transplant to compare the ecological effect of drought and the effect of plant evolutionary responses to drought on soil microbial communities and nutrient availability. Plants that evolved under drought tended to support higher bacterial and fungal richness, and increased fungal : bacterial ratios in the soil. Overall, the magnitudes of ecological and evolutionary effects on microbial communities were similar; however, the strength and direction of these effects depended on the context in which they were measured. For example, plants that evolved in dry environments increased bacterial abundance in dry contemporary environments, but decreased bacterial abundance in wet contemporary environments. Our results suggest that interactions between recent evolutionary history and ecological context affect both the direction and magnitude of plant effects on soil microbes. Consequently, an eco-evolutionary perspective is required to fully understand plant-microbe interactions. PMID:24789894

  3. Presence of plant protection products in three agricultural areas of Regione Lazio.

    PubMed

    Conte, E; Rossi, E; Spera, G; Pompi, V; Carfi', F; Spadoni, A R; Rosati, M; Montereali, M R; Donnarumma, L; Perconti, W

    2003-01-01

    Aim of the research was to verify the impact of plant protection products on three significant agricultural areas of Regione Lazio: Maccarese, Cisterna di Latina, Sabaudia-Terracina. This research studied the presence of some active ingredients, indicated by technicians as distributed, on soil, water, crop and air samples, the last one in greenhouse; the analysis, carried out by multi-residue methods, allowed to investigate also on a large amount of active ingredients not indicated by technicians. The determinations have been obtained, using internal standards, by GC-NPD, GC-ECD, HPLC-UV, HPLC-DAD, with different columns, conditions and wavelength of adsorption. Taking into account the results we could to assert that only a small part of the molecules searched were found in the samples and that they are typical for the crops and the environment treated. In greenhouse, more persistence was founded in wood greenhouse, treated from the outside, probably for the release of a.i. in time from wood and for a better distribution. The active ingredients more frequently founded must be controlled to avoid possible accumulation or leaching, especially for herbicides in the areas of Maccarese and Cisterna di Latina. Furthermore, the molecule on which more attention must be done when applied, are: linuron on carrots, penconazole on zucchini and cymoxanil, often used inappropriately, particularly on minor crops, like red-radish. Although the number of sampling was limited, it has been possible to outline the situation in the three zones considered, for directing choices, that could be more sensible at sanitary spin-off and at the environment. PMID:15151325

  4. Relative Importance of Biotic and Abiotic Soil Components to Plant Growth and Insect Herbivore Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Vandegehuchte, Martijn L.; de la Peña, Eduardo; Bonte, Dries

    2010-01-01

    Background Plants are affected by several aspects of the soil, which have the potential to exert cascading effects on the performance of herbivorous insects. The effects of biotic and abiotic soil characteristics have however mostly been investigated in isolation, leaving their relative importance largely unexplored. Such is the case for the dune grass Ammophila, whose decline under decreasing sand accretion is argued to be caused by either biotic or abiotic soil properties. Methodology/Principal Findings By manipulating dune soils from three different regions, we decoupled the contributions of region, the abiotic and biotic soil component to the variation in characteristics of Ammophila arenaria seedlings and Schizaphis rufula aphid populations. Root mass fraction and total dry biomass of plants were affected by soil biota, although the latter effect was not consistent across regions. None of the measured plant properties were significantly affected by the abiotic soil component. Aphid population characteristics all differed between regions, irrespective of whether soil biota were present or absent. Hence these effects were due to differences in abiotic soil properties between regions. Although several chemical properties of the soil mixtures were measured, none of these were consistent with results for plant or aphid traits. Conclusions/Significance Plants were affected more strongly by soil biota than by abiotic soil properties, whereas the opposite was true for aphids. Our results thus demonstrate that the relative importance of the abiotic and biotic component of soils can differ for plants and their herbivores. The fact that not all effects of soil properties could be detected across regions moreover emphasizes the need for spatial replication in order to make sound conclusions about the generality of aboveground-belowground interactions. PMID:20886078

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion plants for the revaluation of agricultural waste: Sustainable location sites from a GIS analysis.

    PubMed

    Villamar, Cristina Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Aguayo, Mauricio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish sustainably feasible areas for the implementation of anaerobic co-digestion plants for agricultural wastes (cattle/swine slurries and cereal crop wastes). The methodology was based on the use of geographic information systems (GIS), the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and map algebra generated from hedges related to environmental, social and economic constraints. The GIS model obtained was applied to a region of Chile (Bío Bío Region) as a case study showing the energy potential (205 MW-h) of agricultural wastes (swine/cattle manures and cereal crop wastes) and thereby assessing its energy contribution (3.5%) at country level (Chile). From this model, it was possible to spatially identify the influence of each factor (environmental, economic and social) when defining suitable areas for the siting of anaerobic co-digestion plants. In conclusion, GIS-based models establish appropriate areas for the location of anaerobic co-digestion plants in the revaluation of agricultural waste from the production of energy through biogas production. PMID:26862147

  6. Indigenous and introduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi contribute to plant growth in two agricultural soils from south-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Gazey, C; Abbott, L K; Robson, A D

    2004-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi occur in all agricultural soils but it is not easy to assess the contribution they make to plant growth under field conditions. Several approaches have been used to investigate this, including the comparison of plant growth in the presence or absence of naturally occurring AM fungi following soil fumigation or application of fungicides. However, treatments such as these may change soil characteristics other than factors directly involving AM fungi and lead to difficulties in identifying the reason for changes in plant growth. In a glasshouse experiment, we assessed the contribution of indigenous AM fungi to growth of subterranean clover in undisturbed cores of soil from two agricultural field sites (a cropped agricultural field at South Carrabin and a low input pasture at Westdale). We used the approach of estimating the benefit of AM fungi by comparing the curvature coefficients (C) of the Mitscherlich equation for subterranean clover grown in untreated field soil, in field soil into which inoculum of Glomus invermaium was added and in soil fumigated with methyl bromide. It was only possible to estimate the benefit of mycorrhizas using this approach for one soil (Westdale) because it was the only soil for which a Mitscherlich response to the application of a range of P levels was obtained. The mycorrhizal benefit (C of mycorrhizal vs. non-mycorrhizal plants or C of inoculated vs. uninoculated plants) of the indigenous fungi corresponded with a requirement for phosphate by plants that were colonised by AM fungi already present in the soil equivalent to half that required by non-mycorrhizal plants. This benefit was independent of the plant-available P in the soil. There was no additional benefit of inoculation on plant growth other than that due to increased P uptake. Indigenous AM fungi were present in both soils and colonised a high proportion of roots in both soils. There was a higher diversity of morphotypes of mycorrhizal fungi

  7. 78 FR 36506 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Plants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request an extension of approval of an information collection associated with the regulations for the importation of plants for...

  8. Bioavailability of gold nanomaterials to plants: importance of particle size and surface coating.

    PubMed

    Judy, Jonathan D; Unrine, Jason M; Rao, William; Wirick, Sue; Bertsch, Paul M

    2012-08-01

    We used the model organisms Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi (tobacco) and Triticum aestivum (wheat) to investigate plant uptake of 10-, 30-, and 50-nm diameter Au manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) coated with either tannate (T-MNMs) or citrate (C-MNMs). Primary particle size, hydrodynamic size, and zeta potential were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and electrophoretic mobility measurements, respectively. Plants were exposed to NPs hydroponically for 3 or 7 days for wheat and tobacco, respectively. Volume averaged Au concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Spatial distribution of Au in tissue samples was determined using laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) and scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy (μXRF). Both C-MNMs and T-MNMs of each size treatment bioaccumulated in tobacco, but no bioaccumulation of MNMs was observed for any treatment in wheat. These results indicate that MNMs of a wide range of size and with different surface chemistries are bioavailable to plants, provide mechanistic information regarding the role of cell wall pores in plant uptake of MNMs, and raise questions about the importance of plant species to MNM bioaccumulation. PMID:22784043

  9. Importance of Mediator complex in the regulation and integration of diverse signaling pathways in plants

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Subhasis; Thakur, Jitendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Basic transcriptional machinery in eukaryotes is assisted by a number of cofactors, which either increase or decrease the rate of transcription. Mediator complex is one such cofactor, and recently has drawn a lot of interest because of its integrative power to converge different signaling pathways before channeling the transcription instructions to the RNA polymerase II machinery. Like yeast and metazoans, plants do possess the Mediator complex across the kingdom, and its isolation and subunit analyses have been reported from the model plant, Arabidopsis. Genetic, and molecular analyses have unraveled important regulatory roles of Mediator subunits at every stage of plant life cycle starting from flowering to embryo and organ development, to even size determination. It also contributes immensely to the survival of plants against different environmental vagaries by the timely activation of its resistance mechanisms. Here, we have provided an overview of plant Mediator complex starting from its discovery to regulation of stoichiometry of its subunits. We have also reviewed involvement of different Mediator subunits in different processes and pathways including defense response pathways evoked by diverse biotic cues. Wherever possible, attempts have been made to provide mechanistic insight of Mediator's involvement in these processes. PMID:26442070

  10. The relative importance of rapid evolution for plant-microbe interactions depends on ecological context

    PubMed Central

    terHorst, Casey P.; Lennon, Jay T.; Lau, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution can occur on ecological time-scales, affecting community and ecosystem processes. However, the importance of evolutionary change relative to ecological processes remains largely unknown. Here, we analyse data from a long-term experiment in which we allowed plant populations to evolve for three generations in dry or wet soils and used a reciprocal transplant to compare the ecological effect of drought and the effect of plant evolutionary responses to drought on soil microbial communities and nutrient availability. Plants that evolved under drought tended to support higher bacterial and fungal richness, and increased fungal : bacterial ratios in the soil. Overall, the magnitudes of ecological and evolutionary effects on microbial communities were similar; however, the strength and direction of these effects depended on the context in which they were measured. For example, plants that evolved in dry environments increased bacterial abundance in dry contemporary environments, but decreased bacterial abundance in wet contemporary environments. Our results suggest that interactions between recent evolutionary history and ecological context affect both the direction and magnitude of plant effects on soil microbes. Consequently, an eco-evolutionary perspective is required to fully understand plant–microbe interactions. PMID:24789894

  11. Importance and Use of Plants in Evaluating Water Flow and Contaminant Transport in Arid Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andraski, B. J.; Sandstrom, M. W.; Michel, R. L.; Radyk, J. C.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Johnson, M. J.; Mayers, C. J.

    2002-12-01

    -extraction method or from concentrations in soil-water vapor collected using gas-sampling methods. Thus, the solar distillation-SPE method provides a simple, cost-effective, and accurate alternative approach to identify areas of plant and soil contamination. Although work to date has focused on one plant, the approach may be transferable to other species and environments. Work at the ADRS has confirmed the importance of vegetation in arid-site hydrodynamics. Future studies will attempt to better quantify and understand the flux of tritium from the subsurface to the atmosphere through a combination of soil, plant, and evapotranspiration measurements.

  12. 75 FR 62096 - Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ..., Peanuts and Planting Seeds, and Grains, Feed and Oilseeds; Re- structure and Realignment AGENCY: Foreign... Planting Seeds (TCPPS) and in Grains, Feed and Oilseeds (GFO). The Secretary is also soliciting comments as... representation of the planting seeds industry from the Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting Seeds (TCPPS)...

  13. 7 CFR 319.40-6 - Universal importation options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Universal importation options. 319.40-6 Section 319.40-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Logs, Lumber, and Other Unmanufactured Wood Articles § 319.40-6...

  14. 7 CFR 319.40-6 - Universal importation options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Universal importation options. 319.40-6 Section 319.40-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Logs, Lumber, and Other Unmanufactured Wood Articles § 319.40-6...

  15. 7 CFR 319.59-2 - General import prohibitions; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General import prohibitions; exceptions. 319.59-2 Section 319.59-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases §...

  16. 7 CFR 319.59-2 - General import prohibitions; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General import prohibitions; exceptions. 319.59-2 Section 319.59-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases §...

  17. 7 CFR 319.59-2 - General import prohibitions; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General import prohibitions; exceptions. 319.59-2 Section 319.59-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases §...

  18. 7 CFR 319.59-2 - General import prohibitions; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General import prohibitions; exceptions. 319.59-2 Section 319.59-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases §...

  19. 7 CFR 319.59-2 - General import prohibitions; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General import prohibitions; exceptions. 319.59-2 Section 319.59-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases §...

  20. Habitat use and movement patterns of Northern Pintails during spring in northern Japan: the importance of agricultural lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.; Shigeta, Yusuke; Shimada, Tetsuo; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    From 2006 to 2009, we marked 198 Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) with satellite transmitters on their wintering areas in Japan to study their migration routes and habitat use in spring staging areas. We hypothesized that the distribution of pintails during spring staging was influenced by patterns of land use and expected that the most frequently used areas would have more agricultural habitat than lesser-used areas. We obtained 3031 daily locations from 163 migrant pintails marked with satellite transmitters and identified 524 stopover sites. Based on a fixed kernel home range analysis of stopover utilization distribution (UD), core staging areas (areas within the 50% UD) were identified in northern Honshu and western Hokkaido, and were used by 71% of marked pintails. Core staging areas had a greater proportion of rice fields than peripheral (51–95% UD) and rarely used (outside the 95% UD) staging areas. Stopover sites also contained more rice fields and other agricultural land than were available at regional scales, indicating that pintails selected rice and other agricultural habitats at regional and local scales. Pintails remained at spring staging areas an average of 51 d. Prolonged staging in agricultural habitats of northern Japan was likely necessary for pintails to prepare for transoceanic migration to Arctic nesting areas in eastern Russia.

  1. Importance of the specific heat anomaly in the design of binary Rankine cycle power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, W.L.; Doyle, P.A.; Fulton, R.L.; Silvester, L.F.

    1980-05-01

    The transposed critical temperature (TPCT) is shown to be an extremely important thermodynamic property in the selection of working fluids and turbine states for geothermal power plants operating on a closed organic (binary) Rankine cycle. When the optimum working fluid composition and process states are determined for specified source and sink conditions, turbine inlet states consistently lie adjacent to the working fluids' TPCT line for all resource temperatures, constraints, and cost and efficiency factors investigated.

  2. An Examination of Important Competencies Necessary for Vocational Agriculture in Selected Senior Secondary Students in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onanuga, Peter Abayomi

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses the relationship existing between some specified competencies important to vocational agriculture and preparation for occupation between male and female students in senior secondary schools in Ijebu-North Local Government Area, Nigeria. It adopted the classical design for change experiment (i.e. before and after measures) with…

  3. Plant available silicon in South-east Asian rice paddy soils - relevance of agricultural practice and of abiotic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marxen, A.; Klotzbücher, T.; Vetterlein, D.; Jahn, R.

    2012-12-01

    Background Silicon (Si) plays a crucial role in rice production. Si content of rice plants exceeds the content of other major nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous or potassium. Recent studies showed that in some environments external supply of Si can enhance the growth of rice plants. Rice plants express specific Si transporters to absorb Si from soil solutions in form of silicic acid, which precipitates in tissue cells forming amorphous silica bodies, called phytoliths. The phytoliths are returned to soils with plant residues. They might be a main source of plant available silicic acid in soils. Aims In this study we assess the effects of rice paddy cultivation on the stocks of `reactive` Si fractions in mineral topsoils of rice paddy fields in contrasting landscapes. The `reactive` Si fractions are presumed to determine the release of plant-available silicic acid in soils. We consider the relevance of abiotic factors (mineral assemblage; soil weathering status) and agricultural practice for these fractions. Agricultural practices, which were assumed to affect the stocks of `reactive` Si were (i) the usage of different rice varieties (which might differ in Si demand), (ii) straw residue management (i.e., whether straw residues are returned to the fields or removed and used e.g. as fodder), and (iii) yield level and number of crops per year. Material and methods Soils (top horizon of about 0-20 cm depth) were sampled from rice paddy fields in 2 mountainous and 5 lowland landscapes of contrasting geologic conditions in Vietnam and the Philippines. Ten paddy fields were sampled per landscape. The rice paddy management within landscapes differed when different farmers and/or communities managed the fields. We analysed the following fractions of `reactive` Si in the soils: acetate-extractable Si (dissolved and easily exchangeable Si), phosphate-extractable Si (adsorbed Si), oxalate extractable Si (Si associated with poorly-ordered sesquioxides), NaOH extractable Si

  4. Dinitrogen fixation associated with shoots of aquatic carnivorous plants: is it ecologically important?

    PubMed Central

    Sirová, Dagmara; Šantrůček, Jiří; Adamec, Lubomír; Bárta, Jiří; Borovec, Jakub; Pech, Jiří; Owens, Sarah M.; Šantrůčková, Hana; Schäufele, Rudi; Štorchová, Helena; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Rootless carnivorous plants of the genus Utricularia are important components of many standing waters worldwide, as well as suitable model organisms for studying plant–microbe interactions. In this study, an investigation was made of the importance of microbial dinitrogen (N2) fixation in the N acquisition of four aquatic Utricularia species and another aquatic carnivorous plant, Aldrovanda vesiculosa. Methods 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used to assess the presence of micro-organisms with known ability to fix N2. Next-generation sequencing provided information on the expression of N2 fixation-associated genes. N2 fixation rates were measured following 15N2-labelling and were used to calculate the plant assimilation rate of microbially fixed N2. Key Results Utricularia traps were confirmed as primary sites of N2 fixation, with up to 16 % of the plant-associated microbial community consisting of bacteria capable of fixing N2. Of these, rhizobia were the most abundant group. Nitrogen fixation rates increased with increasing shoot age, but never exceeded 1·3 μmol N g–1 d. mass d–1. Plant assimilation rates of fixed N2 were detectable and significant, but this fraction formed less than 1 % of daily plant N gain. Although trap fluid provides conditions favourable for microbial N2 fixation, levels of nif gene transcription comprised <0·01 % of the total prokaryotic transcripts. Conclusions It is hypothesized that the reason for limited N2 fixation in aquatic Utricularia, despite the large potential capacity, is the high concentration of NH4-N (2·0–4·3 mg L–1) in the trap fluid. Resulting from fast turnover of organic detritus, it probably inhibits N2 fixation in most of the microorganisms present. Nitrogen fixation is not expected to contribute significantly to N nutrition of aquatic carnivorous plants under their typical growth conditions; however, on an annual basis the plant–microbe system can supply nitrogen in the order of

  5. Phytotoxicity evaluation and phytochemical analysis of three medicinally important plants from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Nazif; Haq, Ihsan-Ul; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-05-01

    This work examines the crude methanolic extracts of three medicinally important plants native to Pakistan for potent phytotoxic activities and important phytochemicals. These plants include Euphorbia wallichii, Bergenia ciliata and Phytolacca latbenia. The phytotoxic effects were checked at 10,000, 1000, and 100 µg/ml against two economically important standard target species, Triticum aestivum (monocot representative) and Brassica napus (dicot representative). The phytotoxicity effects on seed germination, seedling growth and seedling weight were checked. A simple, cost-effective in vitro phytotoxicity assay (that uses petri plates) was used to evaluate the allelopathic properties of crude extracts. At highest concentration, extracts from all the three plants showed phytotoxic activities such that P. latbenia > E. wallichii > B. ciliata. In seedling growth, root length was affected more than shoot length, whereas among the target species B. napus was found to be more sensitive towards extracts when compared with T. aestivum. Phytochemical analysis showed that P. latbenia is rich in saponins and terpenoids, while E. wallichii and B. ciliata are rich in tannins, terpenoids and cardiac glycoside. P. latbenia also carries a moderate amount of cardiac glycosides. PMID:23344824

  6. Honeybees Increase Fruit Set in Native Plant Species Important for Wildlife Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P.

    2011-11-01

    Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wildcherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

  7. Complexities of nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry in plant-soil systems: implications for the study of ancient agricultural and animal management practices

    PubMed Central

    Szpak, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen isotopic studies have the potential to shed light on the structure of ancient ecosystems, agropastoral regimes, and human-environment interactions. Until relatively recently, however, little attention was paid to the complexities of nitrogen transformations in ancient plant-soil systems and their potential impact on plant and animal tissue nitrogen isotopic compositions. This paper discusses the importance of understanding nitrogen dynamics in ancient contexts, and highlights several key areas of archaeology where a more detailed understanding of these processes may enable us to answer some fundamental questions. This paper explores two larger themes that are prominent in archaeological studies using stable nitrogen isotope analysis: (1) agricultural practices (use of animal fertilizers, burning of vegetation or shifting cultivation, and tillage) and (2) animal domestication and husbandry (grazing intensity/stocking rate and the foddering of domestic animals with cultigens). The paucity of plant material in ancient deposits necessitates that these issues are addressed primarily through the isotopic analysis of skeletal material rather than the plants themselves, but the interpretation of these data hinges on a thorough understanding of the underlying biogeochemical processes in plant-soil systems. Building on studies conducted in modern ecosystems and under controlled conditions, these processes are reviewed, and their relevance discussed for ancient contexts. PMID:25002865

  8. A field-scale study of cadmium phytoremediation in a contaminated agricultural soil at Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand: (1) Determination of Cd-hyperaccumulating plants.

    PubMed

    Khaokaew, Saengdao; Landrot, Gautier

    2015-11-01

    The cadmium (Cd) phytoremediation capabilities of Gynura pseudochina, Chromolaena odorata, Conyza sumatrensis, Crassocephalum crepidioides and Nicotiana tabacum were determined by conducting in-situ experiments in a highly Cd-contaminated agricultural field at Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Most of these five plant species, which are commonly found in Thailand, previously demonstrated Cd-hyperaccumulating capacities under greenhouse conditions. This study represented an important initial step in determining if any of these plants could, under field-conditions, effectively remove Cd from the Mae Sot contaminated fields, which represent a health threat to thousands of local villagers. All plant species had at least a 95% survival rate on the final harvest day. Additionally, all plant species, except C. odorata, could hyperaccumulate the extractable Cd amounts present in the soil, based on their associated Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF), Translocation Factor (TF), and background Vegetation Factor (VF). Therefore, the four Cd-hyperaccumulating plant species identified in this study may successfully treat a majority of contaminated fields at Mae Sot, as it was previously reported that Cd amounts present in a number of these soils were mostly available. PMID:25454203

  9. Educational Plant Survey. The University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences on Campus--Alachua County. April 4-5, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This report presents the results of a systematic study and evaluation of the existing educational plants of the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), along with a determination of future plant needs. Section 1 contains an introduction to the educational plant survey, including statutory foundations, procedural…

  10. Improving the prediction of arsenic contents in agricultural soils by combining the reflectance spectroscopy of soils and rice plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tiezhu; Wang, Junjie; Chen, Yiyun; Wu, Guofeng

    2016-10-01

    Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy provides a beneficial tool for investigating soil heavy metal contamination. This study aimed to investigate mechanisms of soil arsenic prediction using laboratory based soil and leaf spectra, compare the prediction of arsenic content using soil spectra with that using rice plant spectra, and determine whether the combination of both could improve the prediction of soil arsenic content. A total of 100 samples were collected and the reflectance spectra of soils and rice plants were measured using a FieldSpec3 portable spectroradiometer (350-2500 nm). After eliminating spectral outliers, the reflectance spectra were divided into calibration (n = 62) and validation (n = 32) data sets using the Kennard-Stone algorithm. Genetic algorithm (GA) was used to select useful spectral variables for soil arsenic prediction. Thereafter, the GA-selected spectral variables of the soil and leaf spectra were individually and jointly employed to calibrate the partial least squares regression (PLSR) models using the calibration data set. The regression models were validated and compared using independent validation data set. Furthermore, the correlation coefficients of soil arsenic against soil organic matter, leaf arsenic and leaf chlorophyll were calculated, and the important wavelengths for PLSR modeling were extracted. Results showed that arsenic prediction using the leaf spectra (coefficient of determination in validation, Rv2 = 0.54; root mean square error in validation, RMSEv = 12.99 mg kg-1; and residual prediction deviation in validation, RPDv = 1.35) was slightly better than using the soil spectra (Rv2 = 0.42, RMSEv = 13.35 mg kg-1, and RPDv = 1.31). However, results also showed that the combinational use of soil and leaf spectra resulted in higher arsenic prediction (Rv2 = 0.63, RMSEv = 11.94 mg kg-1, RPDv = 1.47) compared with either soil or leaf spectra alone. Soil spectral bands near 480, 600, 670, 810, 1980, 2050 and

  11. Employing native shrubs to improve agricultural potential of arid lands: Drawing on plants to draw water (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragila, M. I.; Kizito, F.; Dick, R.

    2009-12-01

    Even though soil moisture poses limits on landscape dynamics, plant communities within the landscape can also regulate the spatial distribution of moisture, thus creating a biofeedback system that advances the system towards a specific landscape order. This behavior is evident in arid climates where specific parameters, such as soil moisture, are close to sustainability limits and result in a distinct spatial distribution of plant communities. Understanding plant-soil water relationships can lead to management tools to improve landscape function. Plant-soil interactions that influence soil moisture include, local changes in soil texture when plants trap airborne soil particles, increases in organic matter content below their foliage, and root distribution. We specifically focus on a process commonly referred to as hydraulic redistribution wherein plant roots draw moisture vertically to the near surface, raising the potential for seed germination and maintenance through short drought periods. Two fieldwork sites in Senegal were used to investigate the role of native shrubs in controlling soil moisture movement, and in particular, using these native plants to enhance agricultural potential.

  12. Ethnobotanic importance of plants used in pigeon-breeding in Eastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance that birds of the Columbidae family have had throughout history is visible on the Mediterranean coast. Pigeon fancying is the art of breeding and training carrier pigeons and currently, several breeds exist. The sport of racing pigeons consists in covering a distance at maximum possible speed. However, pigeon breeding has another modality called “sport pigeon”, where several males follow a female. This study focusses on ethnobotanical knowledge of native and exotic plant species that are used for diet, breeding, stimulation, healing illnesses and staining the plumage of pigeons bred in captivity. Methods Using semi-structured interviews, we gathered information about the different plant species traditionally used for pigeon-breeding in the region of Valencia. Background material on remedies for bird illnesses was gathered from folk botanical references, local books and journals.The plant species were collected in the study area, then identified in the laboratory using dichotomous keys and vouchered in the ABH (Herbarium of Alicante University). We used Excel ® 2003 to perform a simple statistical analysis of the data collected. Results We collected 56 species of plants (and one variety) that included 29 botanical families. The total number of species was made up of 35 cultivated and 21 wild plants. The most common were Gramineae (14 species), Leguminosae (6 species), and Compositae (4 species). Conclusions Pigeon breeding is an immensely popular activity in Eastern Spain, and ethnobiological knowledge about breeding pigeons and caring for them is considerable. The names and traditional uses of plants depend on their geographical location, vernacular names serve as an intangible heritage. Feeding, environmental features, and genetic makeup of individuals are relevant aspects in the maintenance of avian health. PMID:23688245

  13. 76 FR 65165 - Importation of Plants for Planting; Risk-Based Sampling and Inspection Approach and Propagative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... plant part) for or capable of propagation, including a tree, a tissue culture, a plantlet culture... data to establish that the plants for planting present a medium or low risk. If a taxon of plants for planting from a certain country is determined to present a medium or low risk, it will be sampled at...

  14. Bioavailability of silver and silver sulfide nanoparticles to lettuce (Lactuca sativa): Effect of agricultural amendments on plant uptake.

    PubMed

    Doolette, Casey L; McLaughlin, Michael J; Kirby, Jason K; Navarro, Divina A

    2015-12-30

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can enter terrestrial systems as sulfidised AgNPs (Ag2S-NPs) through the application of biosolids to soil. However, the bioavailability of Ag2S-NPs in soils is unknown. The two aims of this study were to investigate (1) the bioavailability of Ag to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) using a soil amended with biosolids containing Ag2S-NPs and (2) the effect of commonly used agricultural fertilisers/amendments on the bioavailability of Ag, AgNPs and Ag2S-NPs to lettuce. The study used realistic AgNP exposure pathways and exposure concentrations. The plant uptake of Ag from biosolids-amended soil containing Ag2S-NPs was very low for all Ag treatments (0.02%). Ammonium thiosulfate and potassium chloride fertilisation significantly increased the Ag concentrations of plant roots and shoots. The extent of the effect varied depending on the type of Ag. Ag2S-NPs, the realistic form of AgNPs in soil, had the lowest bioavailability. The potential risk of AgNPs in soils is low; even in the plants that had the highest Ag concentrations (Ag(+)+thiosulfate), only 0.06% of added Ag was found in edible plant parts (shoots). Results from the study suggest that agricultural practises must be considered when carrying out risk assessments of AgNPs in terrestrial systems; such practises can affect AgNP bioavailability. PMID:26322966

  15. REXPO: A catchment model designed to understand and simulate the loss dynamics of plant protection products and biocides from agricultural and urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmer, I. K.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Stamm, C.

    2016-02-01

    During rain events, biocides and plant protection products are transported from agricultural fields but also from urban sources to surface waters. Originally designed to be biologically active, these compounds may harm organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Although several models allow either urban or agricultural storm events to be predicted, only few combine these two sources, and none of them include biocide losses from building envelopes. This study therefore aims to develop a model designed to predict water and substance flows from urban and agricultural sources to surface waters. We developed a model based on physical principles for water percolation and substance flow including micro- (also called matrix-) and macropore-flows for the agricultural areas together with a model representing sources, sewer systems and a wastewater treatment plant for urban areas. In a second step, the combined model was applied to a catchment where an extensive field study had been conducted. The modelled and measured discharge and compound results corresponded reasonably well in terms of quantity and dynamics. The total cumulative discharge was only slightly lower than the total measured discharge (factor 0.94). The total modelled losses of the agriculturally used herbicide atrazine were slightly lower (∼25%) than the measured losses when the soil pore water distribution coefficient (describing the partition between soil particles and pore water) (Kd) was kept constant and slightly higher if it was increased with time. The modelled urban losses of diuron from facades were within a factor of three with respect to the measured values. The results highlighted the change in importance of the flow components during a rain event from urban sources during the most intensive rain period towards agricultural ones over a prolonged time period. Applications to two other catchments, one neighbouring and one on another continent showed that the model can be applied using site specific data for

  16. The use of biogas plant fermentation residue for the stabilisation of toxic metals in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geršl, Milan; Šotnar, Martin; Mareček, Jan; Vítěz, Tomáš; Koutný, Tomáš; Kleinová, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Our department has been paying attention to different methods of soil decontamination, including the in situ stabilisation. Possible reagents to control the toxic metals mobility in soils include a fermentation residue (FR) from a biogas plant. Referred to as digestate, it is a product of anaerobic decomposition taking place in such facilities. The fermentation residue is applied to soils as a fertiliser. A new way of its use is the in situ stabilisation of toxic metals in soils. Testing the stabilisation of toxic metals made use of real soil samples sourced from five agriculturally used areas of the Czech Republic with 3 soil samples taken from sites contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn and 2 samples collected at sites of natural occurrence of Cu, Pb and Zn ores. All the samples were analysed using the sequential extraction procedure (BCR) (determine the type of Cu, Pb and Zn bonds). Stabilisation of toxic metals was tested in five soil samples by adding reagents as follows: dolomite, slaked lime, goethite, compost and fermentation residue. A single reagent was added at three different concentrations. In the wet state with the added reagents, the samples were left for seven days, shaken twice per day. After seven days, metal extraction was carried out: samples of 10 g soil were shaken for 2 h in a solution of 0.1M NH4NO3 at a 1:2.5 (g.ml-1), centrifuged for 15 min at 5,000 rpm and then filtered through PTFE 0.45 μm mesh filters. The extracts were analysed by ICP-OES. Copper The best reduction of Cu concentration in the extract was obtained at each of the tested sites by adding dolomite (10 g soil + 0.3 g dolomite). The concentration of Cu in the leachate decreased to 2.1-18.4% compare with the leachate without addition. Similar results were also shown for the addition of fermentation residue (10 g soil + 1 g FR). The Cu concentration in the leachate decreased to 16.7-26.8% compared with the leachate without addition. Lead The best results were achieved by adding

  17. Agroterrorism, biological crimes, and biowarfare targeting animal agriculture. The clinical, pathologic, diagnostic, and epidemiologic features of some important animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T M; Gregg, D A; King, D J; Noah, D L; Perkins, L E; Swayne, D E; Inskeep, W

    2001-09-01

    In the past 100 years, to our knowledge there have been approximately 12 events involving the intentional introduction of microbiologic agents into livestock and animal populations worldwide, of which three were World War I events in the United States. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there has been no recent intentional introduction of microbiologic agents (viruses or bacteria) into livestock and animal populations in the United States. The criminal or terrorist use of chemicals against animals and agriculture products have been more common. With the political, economic, and military new world order, however, the United States must maintain a vigilant posture. The framework for this vigilance must be an intelligence system sensitive to the needs of agriculture and a first-class animal disease diagnostic surveillance and response system. PMID:11572141

  18. Bacterial Communities Associated with Culex Mosquito Larvae and Two Emergent Aquatic Plants of Bioremediation Importance

    PubMed Central

    Duguma, Dagne; Rugman-Jones, Paul; Kaufman, Michael G.; Hall, Michael W.; Neufeld, Josh D.; Stouthamer, Richard; Walton, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis), the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus), and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae), was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species. PMID:23967314

  19. Bacterial communities associated with culex mosquito larvae and two emergent aquatic plants of bioremediation importance.

    PubMed

    Duguma, Dagne; Rugman-Jones, Paul; Kaufman, Michael G; Hall, Michael W; Neufeld, Josh D; Stouthamer, Richard; Walton, William E

    2013-01-01

    Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis), the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus), and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae), was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species. PMID:23967314

  20. Elevated CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen, and water relations: six important lessons from FACE.

    PubMed

    Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Rogers, Alistair; Long, Stephen P; Ort, Donald R

    2009-01-01

    Plant responses to the projected future levels of CO(2) were first characterized in short-term experiments lasting days to weeks. However, longer term acclimation responses to elevated CO(2) were subsequently discovered to be very important in determining plant and ecosystem function. Free-Air CO(2) Enrichment (FACE) experiments are the culmination of efforts to assess the impact of elevated CO(2) on plants over multiple seasons and, in the case of crops, over their entire lifetime. FACE has been used to expose vegetation to elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) under completely open-air conditions for nearly two decades. This review describes some of the lessons learned from the long-term investment in these experiments. First, elevated CO(2) stimulates photosynthetic carbon gain and net primary production over the long term despite down-regulation of Rubisco activity. Second, elevated CO(2) improves nitrogen use efficiency and, third, decreases water use at both the leaf and canopy scale. Fourth, elevated CO(2) stimulates dark respiration via a transcriptional reprogramming of metabolism. Fifth, elevated CO(2) does not directly stimulate C(4) photosynthesis, but can indirectly stimulate carbon gain in times and places of drought. Finally, the stimulation of yield by elevated CO(2) in crop species is much smaller than expected. While many of these lessons have been most clearly demonstrated in crop systems, all of the lessons have important implications for natural systems. PMID:19401412

  1. Bioavailability and soil-to-plant transfer factors as indicators of potentially toxic element contamination in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Paola; Iavazzo, Pietro; Albanese, Stefano; Agrelli, Diana; De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria

    2014-12-01

    Soil pollution in agricultural lands poses a serious threat to food safety, and suggests the need for consolidated methods providing advisory indications for soil management and crop production. In this work, the three-step extraction procedure developed by the EU Measurement and Testing Programme and two soil-to-plant transfer factors (relative to total and bioavailable concentration of elements in soil) were applied on polluted agricultural soils from southern Italy to obtain information on the retention mechanisms of metals in soils and on their level of translocation to edible vegetables. The study was carried out in the Sarno river plain of Campania, an area affected by severe environmental degradation potentially impacting the health of those consuming locally produced vegetables. Soil samples were collected in 36 locations along the two main rivers flowing into the plain. In 11 sites, lettuce plants were collected at the normal stage of consumption. According to Italian environmental law governing residential soils, and on the basis of soil background reference values for the study area, we found diffuse pollution by Be, Sn and Tl, of geogenic origin, Cr and Cu from anthropogenic sources such as tanneries and intensive agriculture, and more limited pollution by Pb, Zn and V. It was found that metals polluting soils as a result of human activities were mainly associated to residual, oxidizable and reducible phases, relatively immobile and only potentially bioavailable to plants. By contrast, the essential elements Zn and Cu showed a tendency to become more readily mobile and bioavailable as their total content in soil increased and were more easily transported to the edible parts of lettuce than other pollutants. According to our results, current soil pollution in the studied area does not affect the proportion of metals taken up by lettuce plants and there is a limited health risk incurred. PMID:25217740

  2. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Important Molecular Networks and Metabolic Pathways of the Plant, Chlorophytum borivilianum

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Shikha; Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Kulshreshtha, Deepika; Kumar, Sunil; Kaur, Jagdeep; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Singh, Kashmir

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophytum borivilianum, an endangered medicinal plant species is highly recognized for its aphrodisiac properties provided by saponins present in the plant. The transcriptome information of this species is limited and only few hundred expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are available in the public databases. To gain molecular insight of this plant, high throughput transcriptome sequencing of leaf RNA was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 22,161,444 single end reads were retrieved after quality filtering. Available (e.g., De-Bruijn/Eulerian graph) and in-house developed bioinformatics tools were used for assembly and annotation of transcriptome. A total of 101,141 assembled transcripts were obtained, with coverage size of 22.42 Mb and average length of 221 bp. Guanine-cytosine (GC) content was found to be 44%. Bioinformatics analysis, using non-redundant proteins, gene ontology (GO), enzyme commission (EC) and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) databases, extracted all the known enzymes involved in saponin and flavonoid biosynthesis. Few genes of the alkaloid biosynthesis, along with anticancer and plant defense genes, were also discovered. Additionally, several cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and glycosyltransferase unique sequences were also found. We identified simple sequence repeat motifs in transcripts with an abundance of di-nucleotide simple sequence repeat (SSR; 43.1%) markers. Large scale expression profiling through Reads per Kilobase per Million mapped reads (RPKM) showed major genes involved in different metabolic pathways of the plant. Genes, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and unique sequences from this study provide an important resource for the scientific community, interested in the molecular genetics and functional genomics of C. borivilianum. PMID:24376689

  3. Soil-to-plant transfer factors for radiocesium and radiostrontium in agricultural systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nisbet, A.F.; Woodman, R.F.M.

    2000-03-01

    A database of soil-to-plant transfer factors for radiocesium and radiostrontium has been compiled for arable crops from published and unpublished sources. The database is more extensive than previous compilations of data published by the International Union of Radioecologists, containing new information for Scandinavia and Greece in particular. It also contains ancillary data on important soil characteristics. The database is sub-divided into 28 soil-crop combinations, covering four soil types and seven crop groups. Statistical analyses showed that transfer factors for radiocesium could not generally be predicted as a function of climatic region, type of experiment, age of contamination, or silt characteristics. However, significant relationships accounting for more than 30% of the variability in transfer factor were identified between transfer factors for radiostrontium and soil pH/organic matter status for a few soil-crop combinations. Best estimate transfer factors for radiocesium and radiostrontium were calculated for 28 soil-crop combinations, based on their geometric means: only the edible parts were considered. To predict the likely value of future individual transfer factors, 95% confidence intervals were also derived. A comparison of best estimate transfer factors derived in this study with recommended values published by the International Union of Radioecologists in 1989 and 1992 was made for comparable soil-crop groupings. While there were no significant differences between the best estimate values derived in this study and the 1992 data, radiological assessments that still use 1989 data may be unnecessarily cautious.

  4. Soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in digestate amended agricultural soils- a lysimeter scale experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Khalid; Berns, Anne E.; Pütz, Thomas; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry; Zoriy, Myroslav; Flucht, Reinhold; Opitz, Thorsten; Hofmann, Diana

    2014-05-01

    Radiocesium and radiostrontium are among the most problematic soil contaminants following nuclear fallout due to their long half-lives and high fission yields. Their chemical resemblance to potassium, ammonium and calcium facilitates their plant uptake and thus enhances their chance to reach humans through the food-chain dramatically. The plant uptake of both radionuclides is affected by the type of soil, the amount of organic matter and the concentration of competitive ions. In the present lysimeter scale experiment, soil-plant transfer of Cs-137 and Sr-90 was investigated in an agricultural silty soil amended with digestate, a residue from a biogas plant. The liquid fraction of the digestate, liquor, was used to have higher nutrient competition. Digestate application was done in accordance with the field practice with an application rate of 34 Mg/ha and mixing it in top 5 cm soil, yielding a final concentration of 38 g digestate/Kg soil. The top 5 cm soil of the non-amended reference soil was also submitted to the same mixing procedure to account for the physical disturbance of the top soil layer. Six months after the amendment of the soil, the soil contamination was done with water-soluble chloride salts of both radionuclides, resulting in a contamination density of 66 MBq/m2 for Cs-137 and 18 MBq/m2 for Sr-90 in separate experiments. Our results show that digestate application led to a detectable difference in soil-plant transfer of the investigated radionuclides, effect was more pronounced for Cs-137. A clear difference was observed in plant uptake of different plants. Pest plants displayed higher uptake of both radionuclides compared to wheat. Furthermore, lower activity values were recorded in ears compared to stems for both radionuclides.

  5. Inhibition of proliferation by agricultural plant extracts in seven human adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL)-related cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kai, Hisahiro; Akamatsu, Ena; Torii, Eri; Kodama, Hiroko; Yukizaki, Chizuko; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Matsuno, Koji

    2011-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) infection and is resistant to conventional chemotherapy. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of agricultural plants on the proliferation of seven ATL-related human leukaemia cells, using three ATL cell lines (ED, Su9T01 and S1T), two human T-cell lines transformed by HTLV-I infection (HUT-102 and MT-2) and two HTLV-I-negative human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines (Jurkat and MOLT-4). A total of 52 samples of 80% ethanol extracts obtained from 30 types of agricultural plants were examined. On the basis of IC(50) values, we selected samples with greater activity than genistein, which was used as a positive control. The highest inhibitory effect was observed with extracts from leaves of Vaccinium virgatum Aiton (blueberry) on four cell lines (ED, Su9T01, HUT-102 and Jurkat); seeds of Momordica charantia L. (bitter gourd) exhibited the second highest activity. The bitter gourd seeds suppressed the proliferation of three cell lines (Su9T01, HUT-102 and Jurkat). The extracts from edible parts of Ipomea batatas LAM. (sweet potato), edible parts of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (taro), skin of taro and seeds of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (mume) showed markedly greater inhibitory effects on Su9T01 than genistein. These findings suggest that ATL-preventative bioactive compounds may exist in these agricultural plants, which are considered to be functional foods. PMID:21293936

  6. Biomass Allocation is an Important Determinant of the Tannin Concentration in Growing Plants

    PubMed Central

    Häring, D. A.; Suter, D.; Amrhein, N.; Lüscher, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and aims Condensed tannins (CTs) in the diet affect consumers in a concentration-dependent manner. Because of their importance in plant defence against herbivores and pathogens as well as their potential application against gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants in agronomy, an understanding of the seasonal dynamics of CT concentrations during plant growth is essential. Methods Over a vegetation period, CT concentrations in leaves, stems and roots and the biomass proportions between these organs were investigated in Onobrychis viciifolia, Lotus corniculatus and Cichorium intybus. Based on the experimental data, a model has been suggested to predict CT concentrations in harvestable biomass of these species. Key Results During the experiment, leaf mass fractions of plants decreased from 85, 64, 85 to 30, 18, 39 % d. wt in Onobrychis, Lotus and Cichorium, respectively, and proportions of stems and roots increased accordingly. While CT concentrations almost doubled in leaves in Onobrychis (from 52 to 86 mg g−1 d. wt, P<0·001) and Lotus (from 25 to 54 mg g−1 d. wt, P<0·001), they were stable at low levels in expanding leaves of Cichorium (5 mg g−1 d. wt) and in stems and roots of all investigated species. Due to an inverse effect of the increasing CT concentrations in leaves and simultaneous dilution from increasing proportions of ‘CT-poor’ stems, CT concentrations in harvestable biomass were stable over time in all investigated species: 62, 26 and 5 mg g−1 d. wt for Onobrychis, Lotus and Cichorium, respectively. Conclusions As a consequence of the unequal distribution of tannins in different plant parts and due to the changing biomass proportions between them, various herbivores (e.g. a leaf-eating insect and a grazing ruminant) may find not only different concentrations of CT in their diets but also different CT dynamics during the season. For the prediction of seasonal variations of CT concentrations, biomass allocation and accumulation

  7. How To Produce and Characterize Transgenic Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savka, Michael A.; Wang, Shu-Yi; Wilson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the process of establishing transgenic plants which is a very important tool in plant biology and modern agriculture. Produces transgenic plants with the ability to synthesize opines. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  8. Source identification of PCDD/Fs in agricultural soils near to a Chinese MSWI plant through isomer-specific data analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng-Xia; Yan, Jian-Hua; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Tong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Dai, Hui-Fen; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2008-04-01

    Isomer-specific data were investigated in order to identify the sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in agricultural soils, including Fluvo-aquic and paddy soils, in the vicinity of a Chinese municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant. Homologue and isomer profiles of PCDD/Fs in soils were compared with those of potential sources, including combustion sources, i.e., MSWI flue gas and fly ash; and the impurities in agrochemicals, such as the pentachlorophenol (PCP), sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na) and 1,3,5-trichloro-2-(4-nitrophenoxy) benzene (CNP). The results showed that the PCDD/F isomer profiles of combustion sources and agricultural soils were very similar, especially for PCDFs, although their homologue profiles varied, indicating that all the isomers within each homologue behave identically in the air and soil. Moreover, factor analysis of the isomer compositions among 33 soil samples revealed that the contamination of PCDD/Fs in agricultural soils near the MSWI plant were primarily influenced by the combustion sources, followed by the PCP/PCP-Na and CNP sources. This implication is consistent with our previous findings based on chemometric analysis of homologue profiles of soil and flue gas samples, and identifies PCP/PCP-Na as an additional important source of PCDD/Fs in the local area. This makes the similarities and differences of isomer profiles between Fluvo-aquic and paddy soils more explainable. It is, therefore, advisable to use isomer-specific data for PCDD/F source identifications where possible. PMID:18279911

  9. THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS INSECTICIDES--PLANTS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS GUIDE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PROVIDE GROUP INSTRUCTION AND INDIVIDUAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPERIENCE FOR POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS PREPARING FOR EMPLOYMENT AS AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDY DATA. THE OBJECTIVES ARE TO DEVELOP (1) INTEREST, APPRECIATION, AND UNDERSTANDING…

  10. Agriculture and Education, Planting the Seeds of Opportunity. USDA Adopt-a-School Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of the Secretary.

    This guide explains how U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) agencies can join the 20 other USDA agencies that have implemented 18 adopt-a-school partnerships throughout the country. The following are among the topics discussed in the guide's five parts: (1) partnership basics (how adopt-a-school programs benefit both members of the…

  11. Marshner Review: Harnessing the rhizosphere microbiome through plant breeding and agricultural management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need to enhance the sustainability of intensive agricultural systems is widely recognized. One promising approach is to encourage beneficial functions provided by microorganisms to decrease the inputs of fertilizers and pesticides. However, tremendous uncertainty exists in how this might be best...

  12. The importance of phenological tracking to plant community structure under stationary versus nonstationary environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkovich, E. M.; Donahue, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work has found links between how a species' phenology shifts with climate change and its changes in performance with climate change. Species that appear to 'track' climate change, for example North American temperate plant species that shift leafing or flowering earlier with warmer springs, also tend to increase in abundance or other metrics of plant performance, while the reverse is generally seen for species that delay phenology with warming. This correlation between phenological tracking and performance has been implicated in plant invasions and appears to be an important factor in predicting future plant populations and communities under climate change scenarios. We have, however, little theory on why--or why not--species may phenologically track the start of spring. Early-season phenology gives priority access to light and soil resources and thus, in a simplistic model where the start of season varies between years, all species should strongly track the start of season, yet communities are always a mix of phenological tracking strategies (from species that do not track the start of season to strong trackers). Using a stochastic community assembly model we examined how phenological tracking influences species abundances across time under two different environmental scenarios: one with a stationary environment and one with a nonstationary environment where the start of season shifts earlier over time. Our model shows that trade-offs are required between phenological tracking and parameters related to species-specific resource use to maintain a community with a diversity of phenological tracking strategies and that nonstationary environments strongly favor species that track the start of season. Our results suggest that trade-offs established under a stationary climate that allow a diversity of phenological tracking strategies across species in a community may not hold under non-stationary environments to maintain the same diversity of species. Instead

  13. Infrared Spectroscopy as a Versatile Analytical Tool for the Quantitative Determination of Antioxidants in Agricultural Products, Foods and Plants

    PubMed Central

    Cozzolino, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods provide with very useful qualitative and quantitative information about the biochemistry and chemistry of antioxidants. Near infrared (NIR) and mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy are considered as powerful, fast, accurate and non-destructive analytical tools that can be considered as a replacement of traditional chemical analysis. In recent years, several reports can be found in the literature demonstrating the usefulness of these methods in the analysis of antioxidants in different organic matrices. This article reviews recent applications of infrared (NIR and MIR) spectroscopy in the analysis of antioxidant compounds in a wide range of samples such as agricultural products, foods and plants. PMID:26783838

  14. The importance of the riparian zone and in-stream processes in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed and agricultural watersheds – a review of the scientific literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ranalli, Anthony J.; MacAlady, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed published studies from primarily glaciated regions in the United States, Canada, and Europe of the (1) transport of nitrate from terrestrial ecosystems to aquatic ecosystems, (2) attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone of undisturbed and agricultural watersheds, (3) processes contributing to nitrate attenuation in riparian zones, (4) variation in the attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone, and (5) importance of in-stream and hyporheic processes for nitrate attenuation in the stream channel. Our objectives were to synthesize the results of these studies and suggest methodologies to (1) monitor regional trends in nitrate concentration in undisturbed 1st order watersheds and (2) reduce nitrate loads in streams draining agricultural watersheds. Our review reveals that undisturbed headwater watersheds have been shown to be very retentive of nitrogen, but the importance of biogeochemical and hydrological riparian zone processes in retaining nitrogen in these watersheds has not been demonstrated as it has for agricultural watersheds. An understanding of the role of the riparian zone in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed watersheds is crucial because these watersheds are increasingly subject to stressors, such as changes in land use and climate, wildfire, and increases in atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In general, understanding processes controlling the concentration and flux of nitrate is critical to identifying and mapping the vulnerability of watersheds to water quality changes due to a variety of stressors. In undisturbed and agricultural watersheds we propose that understanding the importance of riparian zone processes in 2nd order and larger watersheds is critical. Research is needed that addresses the relative importance of how the following sources of nitrate along any given stream reach might change as watersheds increase in size and with flow: (1) inputs upstream from the reach, (2) tributary inflow, (3) water derived from the riparian zone

  15. Light quality-dependent nuclear import of the plant photoreceptors phytochrome A and B

    PubMed Central

    Kircher, S; Kozma-Bognar, L; Kim, L; Adam, E; Harter, K; Schafer, E; Nagy, F

    1999-01-01

    The phytochrome (phy) family of plant photoreceptors controls various aspects of photomorphogenesis. Overexpression of rice phyA-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and tobacco phyB-GFP fusion proteins in tobacco results in functional photoreceptors. phyA-GFP and phyB-GFP are localized in the cytosol of dark-adapted plants. In our experiments, red light treatment led to nuclear translocation of phyA-GFP and phyB-GFP, albeit with different kinetics. Red light-induced nuclear import of phyB-GFP, but not that of phyA-GFP, was inhibited by far-red light. Far-red light alone only induced nuclear translocation of phyA-GFP. These observations indicate that nuclear import of phyA-GFP is controlled by a very low fluence response, whereas translocation of phyB-GFP is regulated by a low fluence response of phytochrome. Thus, light-regulated nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of phyA and phyB is a major step in phytochrome signaling. PMID:10449579

  16. Local-scale spatial modelling for interpolating climatic temperature variables to predict agricultural plant suitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Mathew A.; Hall, Andrew; Kidd, Darren; Minansy, Budiman

    2016-05-01

    Assessment of local spatial climatic variability is important in the planning of planting locations for horticultural crops. This study investigated three regression-based calibration methods (i.e. traditional versus two optimized methods) to relate short-term 12-month data series from 170 temperature loggers and 4 weather station sites with data series from nearby long-term Australian Bureau of Meteorology climate stations. The techniques trialled to interpolate climatic temperature variables, such as frost risk, growing degree days (GDDs) and chill hours, were regression kriging (RK), regression trees (RTs) and random forests (RFs). All three calibration methods produced accurate results, with the RK-based calibration method delivering the most accurate validation measures: coefficients of determination ( R 2) of 0.92, 0.97 and 0.95 and root-mean-square errors of 1.30, 0.80 and 1.31 °C, for daily minimum, daily maximum and hourly temperatures, respectively. Compared with the traditional method of calibration using direct linear regression between short-term and long-term stations, the RK-based calibration method improved R 2 and reduced root-mean-square error (RMSE) by at least 5 % and 0.47 °C for daily minimum temperature, 1 % and 0.23 °C for daily maximum temperature and 3 % and 0.33 °C for hourly temperature. Spatial modelling indicated insignificant differences between the interpolation methods, with the RK technique tending to be the slightly better method due to the high degree of spatial autocorrelation between logger sites.

  17. Plant physiological models of heat, water and photoinhibition stress for climate change modelling and agricultural prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, B.; Gilbert, M. E.; Paw U, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) models are based upon well understood steady state photosynthetic physiology - the Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry model (FvCB). However, representations of physiological stress and damage have not been successfully integrated into SVAT models. Generally, it has been assumed that plants will strive to conserve water at higher temperatures by reducing stomatal conductance or adjusting osmotic balance, until potentially damaging temperatures and the need for evaporative cooling become more important than water conservation. A key point is that damage is the result of combined stresses: drought leads to stomatal closure, less evaporative cooling, high leaf temperature, less photosynthetic dissipation of absorbed energy, all coupled with high light (photosynthetic photon flux density; PPFD). This leads to excess absorbed energy by Photosystem II (PSII) and results in photoinhibition and damage, neither are included in SVAT models. Current representations of photoinhibition are treated as a function of PPFD, not as a function of constrained photosynthesis under heat or water. Thus, it seems unlikely that current models can predict responses of vegetation to climate variability and change. We propose a dynamic model of damage to Rubisco and RuBP-regeneration that accounts, mechanistically, for the interactions between high temperature, light, and constrained photosynthesis under drought. Further, these predictions are illustrated by key experiments allowing model validation. We also integrated this new framework within the Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA). Preliminary results show that our approach can be used to predict reasonable photosynthetic dynamics. For instances, a leaf undergoing one day of drought stress will quickly decrease its maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), but it won't recover to unstressed levels for several days. Consequently, cumulative effect of photoinhibition on photosynthesis can cause

  18. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  19. Farmers' perception on the importance of variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus (L.)) in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kekeunou, Sévilor; Weise, Stephan; Messi, Jean; Tamò, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Background Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) is known as an agricultural pest in West and Central Africa. However, its importance in the agricultural production system in Cameroon has not been investigated. The study assesses farmers' perception on the importance of Z. variegatus in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. Methods Research was carried out in 5 villages of each of three Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks (AECD-Blocks) of the Forest Margin Benchmark Area (FMBA). In each village, a semi-structured survey was used; male and female groups of farmers were interviewed separately. Results Z. variegatus is present throughout the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon, where it is ranked as the third most economically important insect pest of agriculture. In the farmers' opinion, Z. variegatus is a polyphagous insect with little impact on young perennial crops. The length of the pre-farming fallow does not affect Z. variegatus pest pressure in the following crops. The increased impact of the grasshopper observed today in the fields, compared to what existed 10 years ago is as a result of deforestation and increase in surface of herbaceous fallow. The damage caused by Z. variegatus is higher in fields adjacent to C. odorata and herbaceous fallows than in those adjacent to forests and shrubby fallows. The fight against this grasshopper is often done through physical methods carried out by hand, for human consumption. The farmers highlight low usage of the chemical methods and a total absence of biological and ecological methods. Conclusion Farmers' perception have contributed to understanding the status of Z. variegatus in the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. The results are in general similar to those obtained in other countries. PMID:16573815

  20. Strategy for the Development of a Smart NDVI Camera System for Outdoor Plant Detection and Agricultural Embedded Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dworak, Volker; Selbeck, Joern; Dammer, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Matthias; Zarezadeh, Ali Akbar; Bobda, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The application of (smart) cameras for process control, mapping, and advanced imaging in agriculture has become an element of precision farming that facilitates the conservation of fertilizer, pesticides, and machine time. This technique additionally reduces the amount of energy required in terms of fuel. Although research activities have increased in this field, high camera prices reflect low adaptation to applications in all fields of agriculture. Smart, low-cost cameras adapted for agricultural applications can overcome this drawback. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for each image pixel is an applicable algorithm to discriminate plant information from the soil background enabled by a large difference in the reflectance between the near infrared (NIR) and the red channel optical frequency band. Two aligned charge coupled device (CCD) chips for the red and NIR channel are typically used, but they are expensive because of the precise optical alignment required. Therefore, much attention has been given to the development of alternative camera designs. In this study, the advantage of a smart one-chip camera design with NDVI image performance is demonstrated in terms of low cost and simplified design. The required assembly and pixel modifications are described, and new algorithms for establishing an enhanced NDVI image quality for data processing are discussed. PMID:23348037

  1. Strategy for the development of a smart NDVI camera system for outdoor plant detection and agricultural embedded systems.

    PubMed

    Dworak, Volker; Selbeck, Joern; Dammer, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Matthias; Zarezadeh, Ali Akbar; Bobda, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The application of (smart) cameras for process control, mapping, and advanced imaging in agriculture has become an element of precision farming that facilitates the conservation of fertilizer, pesticides, and machine time. This technique additionally reduces the amount of energy required in terms of fuel. Although research activities have increased in this field, high camera prices reflect low adaptation to applications in all fields of agriculture. Smart, low-cost cameras adapted for agricultural applications can overcome this drawback. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for each image pixel is an applicable algorithm to discriminate plant information from the soil background enabled by a large difference in the reflectance between the near infrared (NIR) and the red channel optical frequency band. Two aligned charge coupled device (CCD) chips for the red and NIR channel are typically used, but they are expensive because of the precise optical alignment required. Therefore, much attention has been given to the development of alternative camera designs. In this study, the advantage of a smart one-chip camera design with NDVI image performance is demonstrated in terms of low cost and simplified design. The required assembly and pixel modifications are described, and new algorithms for establishing an enhanced NDVI image quality for data processing are discussed. PMID:23348037

  2. The ozone component of global changes: Potential effects on agricultural and horticultural plant yield, product quality and interactions with invasive species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The performance and quality of agricultural and horticultural plants in many regions of the world are adversely affected by current and anticipated concentrations of ground-level, tropospheric ozone (O3). Numerous studies with a variety of plant species and experimental approaches lead to similar ...

  3. A method of variable spacing for controlled plant growth systems in spaceflight and terrestrial agriculture applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, J.

    1986-01-01

    A higher plant growth system for Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) applications is described. The system permits independent movement of individual plants during growth. Enclosed within variable geometry growth chambers, the system allocates only the volume required by the growing plants. This variable spacing system maintains isolation between root and shoot environments, providing individual control for optimal growth. The advantages of the system for hydroponic and aeroponic growth chambers are discussed. Two applications are presented: (1) the growth of soybeans in a space station common module, and (2) in a terrestrial city greenhouse.

  4. Vulnerability of Rehabilitated Agricultural Production Systems to Invasion by Nontarget Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Sara G.; Engle, David M.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; Langeland, Kenneth A.; Maxwell, Bruce D.; Menalled, Fabian D.; Symstad, Amy J.

    2009-02-01

    Vast areas of arable land have been retired from crop production and “rehabilitated” to improved system states through landowner incentive programs in the United States (e.g., Conservation and Wetland Reserve Programs), as well as Europe (i.e., Agri-Environment Schemes). Our review of studies conducted on invasion of rehabilitated agricultural production systems by nontarget species elucidates several factors that may increase the vulnerability of these systems to invasion. These systems often exist in highly fragmented and agriculturally dominated landscapes, where propagule sources of target species for colonization may be limited, and are established under conditions where legacies of past disturbance persist and prevent target species from persisting. Furthermore, rehabilitation approaches often do not include or successfully attain all target species or historical ecological processes (e.g., hydrology, grazing, and/or fire cycles) key to resisting invasion. Uncertainty surrounds ways in which nontarget species may compromise long term goals of improving biodiversity and ecosystem services through rehabilitation efforts on former agricultural production lands. This review demonstrates that more studies are needed on the extent and ecological impacts of nontarget species as related to the goals of rehabilitation efforts to secure current and future environmental benefits arising from this widespread conservation practice.

  5. Evaluation of Shiraz wastewater treatment plant effluent quality for agricultural irrigation by Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Using treated wastewater in agriculture irrigation could be a realistic solution for the shortage of fresh water in Iran, however, it is associated with environmental and health threats; therefore, effluent quality assessment is quite necessary before use. The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical and microbial quality of Shiraz wastewater treatment plant effluent for being used in agricultural irrigation. In this study, 20 physicochemical and 3 microbial parameters were measured during warm (April to September) and cold months (October to march). Using the measured parameters and the Canadian Water Quality Index, the quality of the effluent was determined in both warm and cold seasons and in all the seasons together. Results The calculated index for the physicochemical parameters in the effluent was equal (87) in warm and cold months and it was obtained as 85 for the seasons all together. When the microbial parameters were used in order to calculate the index, it declined to 67 in warm and cold seasons and 64 in all the seasons together. Also, it was found that three physicochemical parameters (TDS, EC, and NO3) and three microbial parameters (Fecal coliform, Helminthes egg, and Total coliform) had the most contribution to the reduction of the index value. Conclusions The results showed that the physicochemical quality of Shiraz Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent was good for irrigation in the warm, cold, and total of the two kinds of seasons. However, by applying the microbial parameter, the index value declined dramatically and the quality of the effluent was marginal. PMID:23566673

  6. The Importance of Change: Contextualizing Natural and Anthropogenic Hydrologic Variability in terms of agricultural and sectorial economies in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce de Leon Barido, D.; Nelson, H.; Thatikonda, S.; Smith, R.; Roe, T.; Foufoula, E.

    2012-12-01

    Freshwater availability and human prosperity are intricately connected. In many parts of the world however, water demands exceed the renewable water supply and groundwater resources are depleted at an alarming rate. Such is the case in India, especially in its agriculturally intensive regions of Punjab and Telagana where most of the country's rice and wheat is produced. Punjab (Northwest India; deep alluvial aquifers), and Telangana (Central India; shallow bedrock aquifers), with vastly different natural resource endowments (water and hydrogeology) and economic structures, present an exemplary case study for depicting the linkages that exist between hydrological variability, climate change adaptation, and regional sectorial economies. We focus our study on precipitation variability and key parameters that can explain how the Indian monsoon has been evolving over time: total and monthly monsoon rainfall, the frequency and length of dry spells, the spatial distribution of rainfall, and the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Using a social accounting matrix (SAM) to describe the sector composition and structure of the Punjab, Telengana and the rest of India, we evaluate the economic implications of variability, adaptation, and policy changes, via a general equilibrium framework. Hydrologic variability and change is given context as "water shocks" are translated to economic consequences allowing to study scenarios and trade-offs.

  7. Effects of fluoride emissions on enzyme activity in metabolism of agricultural plants

    SciTech Connect

    Moeri, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of fluoride on the activity of malatedehydrogenase (MDH) in rape seed and rye grass have been investigated. Fluoride, which has been absorbed from the air, seems to act differently from fluoride added to the soil. The action of airborne fluoride compounds resorbed by the plant on the activity of MDH significantly correlated with the distance from an aluminum plant, crop yield, and fluoride content. 5 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  8. The Importance of Considering the Temporal Distribution of Climate Variables for Ecological-Economic Modeling to Calculate the Consequences of Climate Change for Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plegnière, Sabrina; Casper, Markus; Hecker, Benjamin; Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The basis of many models to calculate and assess climate change and its consequences are annual means of temperature and precipitation. This method leads to many uncertainties especially at the regional or local level: the results are not realistic or too coarse. Particularly in agriculture, single events and the distribution of precipitation and temperature during the growing season have enormous influences on plant growth. Therefore, the temporal distribution of climate variables should not be ignored. To reach this goal, a high-resolution ecological-economic model was developed which combines a complex plant growth model (STICS) and an economic model. In this context, input data of the plant growth model are daily climate values for a specific climate station calculated by the statistical climate model (WETTREG). The economic model is deduced from the results of the plant growth model STICS. The chosen plant is corn because corn is often cultivated and used in many different ways. First of all, a sensitivity analysis showed that the plant growth model STICS is suitable to calculate the influences of different cultivation methods and climate on plant growth or yield as well as on soil fertility, e.g. by nitrate leaching, in a realistic way. Additional simulations helped to assess a production function that is the key element of the economic model. Thereby the problems when using mean values of temperature and precipitation in order to compute a production function by linear regression are pointed out. Several examples show why a linear regression to assess a production function based on mean climate values or smoothed natural distribution leads to imperfect results and why it is not possible to deduce a unique climate factor in the production function. One solution for this problem is the additional consideration of stress indices that show the impairment of plants by water or nitrate shortage. Thus, the resulting model takes into account not only the ecological

  9. Interconversion between Methoxylated and Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Rice Plants: An Important but Overlooked Metabolic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Su, Zhenzhu; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-04-01

    To date, there is limited knowledge on the methoxylation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the relationship between hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) and methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (MeO-PCBs) in organisms. In this study, rice (Oryza sativa L.) was chosen as the model organism to determine the metabolism of PCBs in plants. Limited para-substituted 4'-OH-CB-61 (major metabolite) and 4'-MeO-CB-61 (minor metabolite) were found after a 5-day exposure to CB-61, while ortho- and meta-substituted products were not detected. Interconversion between OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs in organisms was observed for the first time. The demethylation ratio of 4'-MeO-CB-61 was 18 times higher than the methylation ratio of 4'-OH-CB-61, indicating that formation of OH-PCBs was easier than formation of MeO-PCBs. The transformation products were generated in the roots after 24 h of exposure. The results of in vivo and in vitro exposure studies show that the rice itself played a key role in the whole transformation processes, while endophytes were jointly responsible for hydroxylation of PCBs and demethylation of MeO-PCBs. Metabolic pathways of PCBs, OH-PCBs, and MeO-PCBs in intact rice plants are proposed. The findings are important in understanding the fate of PCBs and the source of OH-PCBs in the environment. PMID:26928534

  10. Assessment of plant lectin antifungal potential against yeasts of major importance in medical mycology.

    PubMed

    Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Moreira, Gustavo Marçal Schmitt Garcia; Monte, Leonardo Garcia; Pereira, Juliano Lacava; Brandolt, Tchana Martinez; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Pinto, Luciano da Silva

    2013-02-01

    The search for new compounds with antifungal activity is accelerating due to rising yeast and fungal resistance to commonly prescribed drugs. Among the molecules being investigated, plant lectins can be highlighted. The present work shows the potential of six plant lectins which were tested in vitro against yeasts of medical importance, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus gattii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Malassezia pachydermatis, Rhodotorula sp. and Trichosporon sp. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing was performed in accordance with standard protocols to evaluate antifungal activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined at 80% yeast growth inhibition, whereas the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) was evaluated after making the subcultures of each dilution. Only C. parapsilosis growth was inhibited by the lectins tested. Abelmoschus esculentus lectin showed the highest MIC (0.97 μg ml(-1)). Lectins from Canavalia brasiliensis, Mucuna pruriens and Clitoria fairchildiana presented the highest MFC at (3.90 μg ml(-1)). These results encourage further studies with wider yeast strain selections, and open new perspectives for the development of pharmacological molecules. PMID:23161017

  11. 19 CFR 12.10 - Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Agriculture. 12.10 Section 12.10 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. The importation into the United States of plants and plant products is subject to regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture restricting...

  12. 19 CFR 12.10 - Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Agriculture. 12.10 Section 12.10 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. The importation into the United States of plants and plant products is subject to regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture restricting...

  13. 19 CFR 12.10 - Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Agriculture. 12.10 Section 12.10 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. The importation into the United States of plants and plant products is subject to regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture restricting...

  14. 19 CFR 12.10 - Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Agriculture. 12.10 Section 12.10 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. The importation into the United States of plants and plant products is subject to regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture restricting...

  15. 19 CFR 12.10 - Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Agriculture. 12.10 Section 12.10 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture. The importation into the United States of plants and plant products is subject to regulations and orders of the Department of Agriculture restricting...

  16. Relative contribution of oxygenated hydrocarbons to the total biogenic VOC emissions of selected mid-European agricultural and natural plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Georg; Brunda, Monika; Puxbaum, Hans; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Duckham, S. Craig; Rudolph, Jochen

    Emission rates of more than 50 individual VOCs were determined for eight plant species and three different types of grass land typical for natural deciduous and agricultural vegetation in Austria. In addition to the emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes, 33 biogenic oxygenated volatile organic compounds (BOVOCs) were detected. Of these, 2-methyl-l-propanol, 1-butanal, 2-butanal, 1-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, butanal and ethylhexylacetate were observed for the first time as plant emissions. In terms of prevalence of one of the groups of emitted VOCs (isoprene, terpenes, BOVOCs) the grain plants wheat and rye, grape, oilseed rape and the decidous trees hombeam and birch could be classified as "BOVOC"-emitters. For the grass plots examined, BOVOCs and terpenes appear to be of equal importance. The emission rates of the total assigned organic plant emissions ranged from 0.01 μ g -1 h -1 for wheat to 0.8 μg g -1 h -1 for oak (based on dry leaf weight). Intercomparison with available data from other studies show that our emission rates are rather at the lower end of reported ranges. The influence of the stage of growth was examined for rye, rape (comparing emissions of blossoming and nonblossoming plants) and for grape (with and without fruit). Emission rate differences for different stages of growth varied from nondetectable for blossoming and nonblossoming rye to a factor of six for the grape with fruits vs grape without fruits (emission rate based on dry leaf weight). The major decidous tree in Austria (beech) is a terpene emitter, with the contribution of BOVOCs below 5% of the total assigned emissions of 0.2 μg g -1 h -1 for the investigations of 20°C.

  17. Impact of biosolids and wastewater effluent application to agricultural land on corticosterone content in lettuce plants.

    PubMed

    Shargil, Dorit; Fine, Pinchas; Gerstl, Zev; Nitsan, Ido; Kurtzman, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    We studied corticosterone occurrence in lettuce plants grown on three biosolids amended soils under irrigation with either tap water or secondary wastewater effluent. Corticosterone was examined as it has possible implications for human health. It is a major glucocorticoid, and as such has an effect on regulation of metabolism, immune functions and stress response. The plants were grown in 220-L lysimeters packed with 3 soils which represent a wide range of physicochemical properties. Lettuce was grown in cycles (two in summer and two in winter) during 3 years, and in every spring season the sludges were re-applied. Corticosterone was quantified using ELISA and LCMS, and was found in the biosolids, tap water, wastewater effluent and lettuce plants. The respective ranges of concentrations were: 11-92 ng g(-1), 0.5-1.6 ng L(-1), 4.2-4.7 ng L(-1); and 1-900 ng g(-1) dry weight. A positive relationship was found between corticosterone concentrations in winter-grown lettuces and the plants fresh weight. The corticosterone content of the plants did not correspond with either the type of irrigation water or the biosolids type and rate of application or the soil properties. PMID:26437348

  18. High throughput imaging and analysis for biological interpretation of agricultural plants and environmental interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hyundae; Benac, Jasenka; Riggsbee, Daniel; Koutsky, Keith

    2014-03-01

    High throughput (HT) phenotyping of crops is essential to increase yield in environments deteriorated by climate change. The controlled environment of a greenhouse offers an ideal platform to study the genotype to phenotype linkages for crop screening. Advanced imaging technologies are used to study plants' responses to resource limitations such as water and nutrient deficiency. Advanced imaging technologies coupled with automation make HT phenotyping in the greenhouse not only feasible, but practical. Monsanto has a state of the art automated greenhouse (AGH) facility. Handling of the soil, pots water and nutrients are all completely automated. Images of the plants are acquired by multiple hyperspectral and broadband cameras. The hyperspectral cameras cover wavelengths from visible light through short wave infra-red (SWIR). Inhouse developed software analyzes the images to measure plant morphological and biochemical properties. We measure phenotypic metrics like plant area, height, and width as well as biomass. Hyperspectral imaging allows us to measure biochemcical metrics such as chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and foliar water content. The last 4 years of AGH operations on crops like corn, soybean, and cotton have demonstrated successful application of imaging and analysis technologies for high throughput plant phenotyping. Using HT phenotyping, scientists have been showing strong correlations to environmental conditions, such as water and nutrient deficits, as well as the ability to tease apart distinct differences in the genetic backgrounds of crops.

  19. The relative importance of fertilization and soil erosion on C-dynamics in agricultural landscapes of NE Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Madlen; Hoffmann, Mathias; Hagemann, Ulrike; Jurisch, Nicole; Remus, Rainer; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The hummocky ground moraine landscape of north-east Germany is characterized by distinct small-scale soil heterogeneity on the one hand, and intensive energy crop cultivation on the other. Both factors are assumed to significantly influence gaseous C exchange, and thus driving the dynamics of soil organic carbon stocks in terrestrial, agricultural ecosystems. However, it is not yet clear to which extent fertilization and soil erosional status influence soil C dynamics and whether one of these factors is more relevant than the other. We present seasonal and dynamic soil C balances of biogas maize for the growing season 2011, recorded at different sites located within the CarboZALF experimental area. The sites differ regarding soils (non-eroded Albic Luvisols (Cutanic), extremely eroded Calcaric Regosol and depositional Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol,) and applied fertilizer (100% mineral N fertilizer, 50% mineral and 50% N organic fertilizer, 100% organic N fertilizer). Fertilization treatments were established on the Albic Luvisol (Cutanic). Net-CO2-exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) were measured every four weeks using a dynamic flow-through non-steady-state closed manual chamber system. Gap filling was performed based on empirical temperature and PAR dependency functions to derive daily NEE values. At the same time, daily above-ground biomass production (NPP) was estimated based on biomass samples and final harvest, using a sigmoidal growth function. In a next step, dynamic soil C balances were generated as the balance of daily NEE and NPP considering the initial C input due to N fertilizers. The resulted seasonal soil C balances varied from strong C losses at the Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol (602 g C m-2) to C gains at the Calcaric Regosol (-132 g C m-2). In general, soils exerted a stronger impact on seasonal and dynamic C balances compared to differences in applied N fertilizer. There are indications that inter-annual variations in climate conditions

  20. 76 FR 44572 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of Availability of Data Sheets for Taxa of Plants for Planting That Are... pending pest risk analysis. We have prepared data sheets that detail the scientific evidence we evaluated... (76 FR 31172-31210, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0011), and effective on June 27, 2011, we established in...

  1. 76 FR 66033 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of Availability of Data Sheets for Taxa of Plants for Planting That Are.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On July 26, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 44572-44573, Docket No... pending pest risk analysis. The notice also made available to the public for review and comment...

  2. The chloroplast genome sequence of an important medicinal plant Dioscorea nipponica.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lan; Wang, Bo; Yang, Jun; Song, Chi; Wang, Ping; Chen, Shilin; Sun, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Dioscorea nipponica is an important medicinal plant belonging to Dioscoreaceae, a family which is vital for the evolution of monocotyledon. In the present study, the nucleotide sequence of the D. nipponica chloroplast genome was determined. It was an AT-rich (63.3%) chloroplast genome with 152,946 bp in length, containing a pair of 23,113 bp inverted repeats, which were separated by a large and a small single copy region of 83,557 bp and 23,064 bp in length, respectively. It encodes 120 unique genes, including 89 protein-coding genes, 27 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. The predicted gene-coding regions covered 58.7% of the genome sequences. Ten genes contained one intron, while two genes had two introns. Phylogenetic analyses showed the present chloroplast genome can be used as a potential supper barcode to distinguish D. nipponica from its closely related species. Furthermore, the chloroplast genome provides a molecular base for the next investigation on this important medicinal species. PMID:26017048

  3. Trace element biogeochemistry in the soil-water-plant system of a temperate agricultural soil amended with different biochars.

    PubMed

    Kloss, Stefanie; Zehetner, Franz; Buecker, Jannis; Oburger, Eva; Wenzel, Walter W; Enders, Akio; Lehmann, Johannes; Soja, Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    Various biochar (BC) types have been investigated as soil amendment; however, information on their effects on trace element (TE) biogeochemistry in the soil-water-plant system is still scarce. In the present study, we determined aqua-regia (AR) and water-extractable TEs of four BC types (woodchips (WC), wheat straw (WS), vineyard pruning (VP), pyrolyzed at 525 °C, of which VP was also pyrolyzed at 400 °C) and studied their effects on TE concentrations in leachates and mustard (Sinapis alba L.) tissue in a greenhouse pot experiment. We used an acidic, sandy agricultural soil and a BC application rate of 3% (w/w). Our results show that contents and extractability of TEs in the BCs and effectuated changes of TE biogeochemistry in the soil-water-plant system strongly varied among the different BC types. High AR-digestable Cu was found in VP and high B contents in WC. WS had the highest impact on TEs in leachates showing increased concentrations of As, Cd, Mo, and Se, whereas WC application resulted in enhanced leaching of B. All BC types increased Mo and decreased Cu concentrations in the plant tissue; however, they showed diverging effects on Cu in the leachates with decreased concentrations for WC and WS, but increased concentrations for both VPs. Our results demonstrate that BCs may release TEs into the soil-water-plant system. A BC-induced liming effect in acidic soils may lead to decreased plant uptake of cationic TEs, including Pb and Cd, but may enhance the mobility of anionic TEs like Mo and As. We also found that BCs with high salt contents (e.g., straw-based BCs) may lead to increased mobility of both anionic and cationic TEs in the short term. PMID:25315931

  4. An Analysis of Occupational Titles and Competencies Needed in Agricultural Food Products Processing Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeltz, LeRoy C.

    To identify, rate, and cluster groups of competencies and occupational titles at entry and advance levels for occupations in five food products commodity areas, data were collected by interviews with personnel managers in 25 Pennsylvania food processing plants. Some findings were: (1) There were meaningful competency factor and occupational title…

  5. Introduction to the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory Special Rangelands Issue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Labortory (PPRL) in Logan, UT will sponsor an edition of the magazine Rangelands. This paper provides a brief history and overview of the PPRL, mission statement, research objectives by CRIS, and the disciplines involved in the research....

  6. A comparison of the herbicide tolerances of rare and common plants in an agricultural landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining plant biodiversity in agroecosystems has often been attributed to escalating use of chemical herbicides, but other changes in farming practice including the clearing of semi-natural habitat fragments confound the influence of herbicides. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to evalua...

  7. Integrating Phytoextraction and Biofortification: Fungal Accumulation of Selenium in Plant Materials from Phytoremediation of Agricultural Drainage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytomanagement of Se-polluted soil and water is one strategy that may be environmentally sustainable and cost-effective for soils and waters enriched with natural-occurring Se. Several plant species, including Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), pickleweed (Salicornia bigelovii), and other salt/S...

  8. EVALUATION OF OZONE EXPOSURE INDICES FOR RELATING EXPOSURE TO PLANT PRODUCTION AND FOR ESTIMATING AGRICULTURAL LOSSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the report is: (1) to compare alternative ozone exposure indices that relate well to plant response and are useful in developing future standards for ozone; (2) to estimate standard errors and confidence intervals of regression coefficients and exposure levels of...

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans. PMID:27094336

  10. Micropropagation of Cyclopia genistoides, an endemic South African plant of economic importance.

    PubMed

    Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Hering, Anna; Ochocka, Renata; Gorynski, Krzysztof; Bucinski, Adam; Sowinski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    An efficient micropropagation protocol of Cyclopia genistoides (L.) Vent., an indigenous South African shrub of economic importance, was established. In vitro shoot cultures were obtained from shoot tip fragments of sterile seedlings cultured on solid Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) medium supplemented with 9.84 microM 6-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallylamino)purine (2iP) and 1.0 microM thidiazuron (TDZ). Maximum shoot multiplication rate [(8.2 +/- 1.3) microshoots/explant)] was observed on this medium composition. Prior to rooting, the multiplied shoots were elongated for 60 days (two 30-days passages) on SH medium with one-half sucrose concentration, supplemented with 4.92 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The rooting of explants was only possible in the case of the elongated shoots. The highest root induction rate (54.8%) was achieved on solid SH medium with one-half sucrose and one-half potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate concentration, respectively, supplemented with 28.54 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 260.25 microM citric acid. The plantlets were acclimatized for 30 days in the glasshouse, with the use of peat/gravel/perlite substrate (1:1:1). The highest acclimatization rate (80%) was obtained for explants rooted with the use of IAA-supplemented medium. The phytochemical profile of the regenerated plants was similar to that of the reference intact plant material. HPLC analyses showed that C. genistoides plantlets obtained by the micropropagation procedure kept the ability to produce xanthones (mangiferin and isomangiferin) and the flavanone hesperidin, characteristic of wild-growing shrubs. PMID:22486043

  11. Nutrient composition and nutritional importance of green leaves and wild food resources in an agricultural district, Koutiala, in southern Mali.

    PubMed

    Nordeide, M B; Hatløy, A; Følling, M; Lied, E; Oshaug, A

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the nutrient composition and the nutritional importance of green leaves and wild gathered foods in an area with surplus food production in Mali. In this West African country, there is little information about the nutrient composition and the nutritional quality of foods in general, and of wild gathered foods in particular. Food frequency was collected in two cross-sectional surveys. Focus group discussions with women in the area were used to collect information about seasonality, availability and preparation of various foods. Selected food samples were collected for chemical analysis of nutrient composition. The food samples of green leaves (Adansonia digitata, Amaranthus viridis, Tamarindus indica, Allium cepa), seeds and flour (Parkia biglobosa) and fruits (Tamarindus indica) were analysed for water, energy, fat, protein, minerals, amino acids and carotenoids. Availability and use of the foods varied with seasons. In the rainy season, wild gathered foods (e.g. A. digitata) were used as much as fresh cultivated foods (e.g., A. viridis and A. cepa). The wild food resources were more frequently used in rural than in urban areas, with A. digitata as the dominating green leaves. Green leaves were rich in energy, protein and minerals (calcium, iron). Leaves of A. viridis were, in particular, rich in beta-carotene (3290 micrograms/100 g). Chemical score in dried green leaves varied from 47 (A. cepa) to 81 (A. digitata), with lysine as the first limiting amino acid. P. biglobosa fermented seeds, with 35% fat and 37% protein were a complementary source of lysine in the diet. Based on the seasonality, the frequency of use and the nutrient contents of selected green leaves and wild gathered foods in Koutiala district, it is concluded that these traditional and locally produced foods are valuable and important nutrient contributors in the diet both in rural and urban areas, but most important in rural areas. PMID:8933199

  12. Alkaloids from marine sponges as stimulators of initial stages of development of agricultural plants.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Mikhail M; Chaikina, Elena L; Utkina, Natalia K

    2014-04-01

    Damirone A (1), damirone B (2), makaluvamine G (3), debromohymenialdisine (4), and dibromoagelaspongin (5) were examined for their ability to stimulate growth of seedling roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), corn (Zea mays L.), soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.}, and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It was shown that the stimulatory effects depend on the chemical structure of the alkaloids and on the plant species. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 are efficient for growth of seedling roots of barley, compounds 2-5, at different concentrations, stimulate growth of buckwheat roots, and compound 5 stimulates growth of wheat roots. These compounds can be recommended for field study as plant growth stimulators. PMID:24868854

  13. Influence of Merosesquiterpenoids from Marine Sponges on Seedling Root Growth of Agricultural Plants.

    PubMed

    Chaikina, Elena L; Utkina, Natalia K; Anisimov, Mikhail M

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the merosesquiterpenoids avarol (1), avarone (2), 18-methylaminoavarone (3), melemeleone A (4), isospongiaquinone (5), ilimaquinone (6), and smenoquinone (7), isolated from marine sponges of the Dictyoceratida order, was studied on the root growth of seedlings of buckwheat (Fagopyrumesculentum Moench), wheat (Triticumaestivum L.), soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and barley (Hordeumvulgare L.). Compounds 2and 6 were effective for the root growth of wheat seedlings, compound 3 stimulated the root growth of seedlings of buckwheat and soy, compound 4 affected the roots of barley seedlings, and compound 5 stimulated the root growth of seedlings of buckwheat and barley. Compounds 1 and 7 showed no activity on the root growth of the seedlings of any of the studied plants. The stimulatory effect depends on the chemical structure of the compounds and the type of crop plant. PMID:26996006

  14. Contaminated agricultural soils: Trace-elements speciation their phytoavailability and their uptake by flax plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legras, M.; Kharbouch, F.; Giron, F.; Bert, F.; Llorens, J.-M.

    2003-05-01

    Flax seeds are used in animal food because of their high content in Omega 3. A number of trace-elements (TEs) - essential as micronutrients, however toxic at supraoptimal concentrations - can accumulate in this plant at quantities incompatible with their introduction in food chain. In order to control this risk and evaluate the uptake of TEs, it is necessary to assess the contents of various species of TEs in soils and plants (each organ and total contents). We were mainly interested in evaluating the availability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils on which flax were grown. Two situations have been compared: the first corresponds to fields into which some sewage sludge were brought in agronomie doses and the second corresponds to plots of land irrigated by waste water over a 100 years period. We are currently performing TEs extractions from soils and plants using different methods : the data of sequential and total extractions (assisted by microwaves) are presented. We have studied two flax varieties in four stages of culture (sowing, stage 10cm. tlowering, maturation). The content, speciation of TEs in soils as well as their transfer in flax seeds are discussed.

  15. Impact of acid effluent from Kawah Ijen crater lake on irrigated agricultural soils: Soil chemical processes and plant uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rotterdam-Los, A. M. D.; Heikens, A.; Vriend, S. P.; van Bergen, M. J.; van Gaans, P. F. M.

    2008-12-01

    Volcanogenic contamination of irrigation water, caused by effluent from the hyperacid Ijen crater lake, has severely affected the properties of agricultural soils in East Java, Indonesia. From a comparison of acidified topsoil with subsoil and with top- and subsoil in a reference area, we identified processes responsible for changes in soil and soil solution chemistry induced by acid irrigation water, with emphasis on the nutrients Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn, and on Al, which may become phytotoxic under acid conditions in soils. Compositional data for bulk soil composition and selective extractions with 1 M KCl and 0.2 M acid ammonium oxalate are used in a mass balance approach to specify element fluxes, including uptake by rice plants. The results show that input via irrigation water has produced an increase in the total aluminum content in the affected topsoil, which is of the same order of magnitude as the increase in labile Al. High bioavailability of Al, as reflected by concentrations in KCl extracts, is consistent with elevated concentrations observed in rice plants. In contrast, and despite the high input via irrigation water, Ca and Mg concentrations have decreased in all measured soil fractions through dissolution of amorphous phases and minerals, and through competition of Al for adsorption sites on the exchange complex and plant roots. Strong leaching is also evident for Fe and especially Mn. In terms of the overall mass balance of the topsoil, plant uptake of Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn is negligible. If the use of acid irrigation would be stopped and the soil pH were to increase to values above 4.5, the observed phytotoxicity of Al will be halted. However, crops may then become fully dependent on the input from irrigation water or fertilizer for essential elements, due to the previous removal from the topsoil through leaching.

  16. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  17. Relative importance of plant uptake and plant associated denitrification for removal of nitrogen from mine drainage in sub-arctic wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hallin, Sara; Hellman, Maria; Choudhury, Maidul I; Ecke, Frauke

    2015-11-15

    Reactive nitrogen (N) species released from undetonated ammonium-nitrate based explosives used in mining or other blasting operations are an emerging environmental problem. Wetlands are frequently used to treat N-contaminated water in temperate climate, but knowledge on plant-microbial interactions and treatment potential in sub-arctic wetlands is limited. Here, we compare the relative importance of plant uptake and denitrification among five plant species commonly occurring in sub-arctic wetlands for removal of N in nitrate-rich mine drainage in northern Sweden. Nitrogen uptake and plant associated potential denitrification activity and genetic potential for denitrification based on quantitative PCR of the denitrification genes nirS, nirK, nosZI and nosZII were determined in plants growing both in situ and cultivated in a growth chamber. The growth chamber and in situ studies generated similar results, suggesting high relevance and applicability of results from growth chamber experiments. We identified denitrification as the dominating pathway for N-removal and abundances of denitrification genes were strong indicators of plant associated denitrification activity. The magnitude and direction of the effect differed among the plant species, with the aquatic moss Drepanocladus fluitans showing exceptionally high ratios between denitrification and uptake rates, compared to the other species. However, to acquire realistic estimates of N-removal potential of specific wetlands and their associated plant species, the total plant biomass needs to be considered. The species-specific plant N-uptake and abundance of denitrification genes on the root or plant surfaces were affected by the presence of other plant species, which show that both multi- and inter-trophic interactions are occurring. Future studies on N-removal potential of wetland plant species should consider how to best exploit these interactions in sub-arctic wetlands. PMID:26360231

  18. Evidence for the importance of litter as a co-substrate for MCPA dissipation in an agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Omar; Pagel, Holger; Enowashu, Esther; Devers, Marion; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Streck, Thilo; Kandeler, Ellen; Poll, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Environmental controls of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) degradation are poorly understood. We investigated whether microbial MCPA degraders are stimulated by (maize) litter and whether this process depends on concentrations of MCPA and litter. In a microcosm experiment, different amounts of litter (0, 10 and 20 g kg(-1)) were added to soils exposed to three levels of the herbicide (0, 5 and 30 mg kg(-1)). The treated soils were incubated at 20 °C for 6 weeks, and samples were taken after 1, 3 and 6 weeks of incubation. In soils with 5 mg kg(-1) MCPA, about 50 % of the MCPA was dissipated within 1 week of the incubation. Almost complete dissipation of the herbicide had occurred by the end of the incubation with no differences between the three litter amendments. At the higher concentration (30 mg kg(-1)), MCPA endured longer in the soil, with only 31 % of the initial amount being removed at the end of the experiment in the absence of litter. Litter addition greatly increased the dissipation rate with 70 and 80 % of the herbicide being dissipated in the 10 and 20 g kg(-1) litter treatments, respectively. Signs of toxic effects of MCPA on soil bacteria were observed from related phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses, while fungi showed higher tolerance to the increased MCPA levels. The abundance of bacterial tfdA genes in soil increased with the co-occurrence of litter and high MCPA concentration, indicating the importance of substrate availability in fostering MCPA-degrading bacteria and thereby improving the potential for removal of MCPA in the environment. PMID:25943518

  19. Assessing Utilization and Environmental Risks of Important Genes in Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad S; Khan, Muhammad A; Ahmad, Dawood

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic plants with improved salt and drought stress tolerance have been developed with a large number of abiotic stress-related genes. Among these, the most extensively used genes are the glycine betaine biosynthetic codA, the DREB transcription factors, and vacuolar membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporters. The use of codA, DREBs, and Na(+)/H(+) antiporters in transgenic plants has conferred stress tolerance and improved plant phenotype. However, the future deployment and commercialization of these plants depend on their safety to the environment. Addressing environmental risk assessment is challenging since mechanisms governing abiotic stress tolerance are much more complex than that of insect resistance and herbicide tolerance traits, which have been considered to date. Therefore, questions arise, whether abiotic stress tolerance genes need additional considerations and new measurements in risk assessment and, whether these genes would have effects on weediness and invasiveness potential of transgenic plants? While considering these concerns, the environmental risk assessment of abiotic stress tolerance genes would need to focus on the magnitude of stress tolerance, plant phenotype and characteristics of the potential receiving environment. In the present review, we discuss environmental concerns and likelihood of concerns associated with the use of abiotic stress tolerance genes. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the uses of these genes in domesticated crop plants are safe for the environment. Risk assessment, however, should be carefully conducted on biofeedstocks and perennial plants taking into account plant phenotype and the potential receiving environment. PMID:27446095

  20. Assessing Utilization and Environmental Risks of Important Genes in Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad S.; Khan, Muhammad A.; Ahmad, Dawood

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic plants with improved salt and drought stress tolerance have been developed with a large number of abiotic stress-related genes. Among these, the most extensively used genes are the glycine betaine biosynthetic codA, the DREB transcription factors, and vacuolar membrane Na+/H+ antiporters. The use of codA, DREBs, and Na+/H+ antiporters in transgenic plants has conferred stress tolerance and improved plant phenotype. However, the future deployment and commercialization of these plants depend on their safety to the environment. Addressing environmental risk assessment is challenging since mechanisms governing abiotic stress tolerance are much more complex than that of insect resistance and herbicide tolerance traits, which have been considered to date. Therefore, questions arise, whether abiotic stress tolerance genes need additional considerations and new measurements in risk assessment and, whether these genes would have effects on weediness and invasiveness potential of transgenic plants? While considering these concerns, the environmental risk assessment of abiotic stress tolerance genes would need to focus on the magnitude of stress tolerance, plant phenotype and characteristics of the potential receiving environment. In the present review, we discuss environmental concerns and likelihood of concerns associated with the use of abiotic stress tolerance genes. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the uses of these genes in domesticated crop plants are safe for the environment. Risk assessment, however, should be carefully conducted on biofeedstocks and perennial plants taking into account plant phenotype and the potential receiving environment. PMID:27446095

  1. 7 CFR 319.40-5 - Importation and entry requirements for specified articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation and entry requirements for specified articles. 319.40-5 Section 319.40-5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Logs, Lumber, and Other Wood Articles §...

  2. 7 CFR 319.40-5 - Importation and entry requirements for specified articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation and entry requirements for specified articles. 319.40-5 Section 319.40-5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Logs, Lumber, and Other Unmanufactured Wood...

  3. 7 CFR 319.40-5 - Importation and entry requirements for specified articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation and entry requirements for specified articles. 319.40-5 Section 319.40-5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Logs, Lumber, and Other Unmanufactured Wood...

  4. 7 CFR 319.59-3 - Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation. 319.59-3 Section 319.59-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-3 Articles...

  5. 7 CFR 319.59-3 - Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation. 319.59-3 Section 319.59-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-3 Articles...

  6. 7 CFR 319.59-3 - Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation. 319.59-3 Section 319.59-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-3 Articles...

  7. 7 CFR 319.59-3 - Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation. 319.59-3 Section 319.59-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-3 Articles...

  8. 7 CFR 319.59-3 - Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation. 319.59-3 Section 319.59-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-3 Articles...

  9. Enhancement of the Initial Growth Rate of Agricultural Plants by Using Static Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung C; Mason, Alex; Im, Wooseok

    2016-01-01

    Electronic devices and high-voltage wires induce magnetic fields. A magnetic field of 1,300-2,500 Gauss (0.2 Tesla) was applied to Petri dishes containing seeds of Garden Balsam (Impatiens balsamina), Mizuna (Brassica rapa var. japonica), Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), and Mescluns (Lepidium sativum). We applied magnets under the culture dish. During the 4 days of application, we observed that the stem and root length increased. The group subjected to magnetic field treatment (n = 10) showed a 1.4 times faster rate of growth compared with the control group (n = 11) in a total of 8 days (p <0.0005). This rate is 20% higher than that reported in previous studies. The tubulin complex lines did not have connecting points, but connecting points occur upon the application of magnets. This shows complete difference from the control, which means abnormal arrangements. However, the exact cause remains unclear. These results of growth enhancement of applying magnets suggest that it is possible to enhance the growth rate, increase productivity, or control the speed of germination of plants by applying static magnetic fields. Also, magnetic fields can cause physiological changes in plant cells and can induce growth. Therefore, stimulation with a magnetic field can have possible effects that are similar to those of chemical fertilizers, which means that the use of fertilizers can be avoided. PMID:27500712

  10. 19 CFR 145.40 - Plant material imported for immediate exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture and the Postal Service. This procedure shall not affect the movement of... shall be dispatched in the mails from abroad, accompanied by a yellow and green special mail tag bearing..., according to the address on the green and yellow tag, and there submitted to the Customs officer and...

  11. 19 CFR 145.40 - Plant material imported for immediate exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture and the Postal Service. This procedure shall not affect the movement of... shall be dispatched in the mails from abroad, accompanied by a yellow and green special mail tag bearing..., according to the address on the green and yellow tag, and there submitted to the Customs officer and...

  12. 19 CFR 145.40 - Plant material imported for immediate exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture and the Postal Service. This procedure shall not affect the movement of... shall be dispatched in the mails from abroad, accompanied by a yellow and green special mail tag bearing..., according to the address on the green and yellow tag, and there submitted to the Customs officer and...

  13. 19 CFR 145.40 - Plant material imported for immediate exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture and the Postal Service. This procedure shall not affect the movement of... shall be dispatched in the mails from abroad, accompanied by a yellow and green special mail tag bearing..., according to the address on the green and yellow tag, and there submitted to the Customs officer and...

  14. 19 CFR 145.40 - Plant material imported for immediate exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture and the Postal Service. This procedure shall not affect the movement of... shall be dispatched in the mails from abroad, accompanied by a yellow and green special mail tag bearing..., according to the address on the green and yellow tag, and there submitted to the Customs officer and...

  15. Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in macrophyte, agricultural soil, and crop plants adjacent to discharge zone of sponge iron factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Nayek, S.; Saha, R. N.; Satpati, S.

    2008-08-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of effluent released from sponge iron industries and distribution of heavy metals in soil and macrophytes near to effluent discharge channel. Apart from this, accumulation of heavy metals in nearby soil and vegetation system irrigated with effluent-contaminated water is also the subject of this study. Physico-chemical analysis of effluent reveals that the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness (TH), iron (Fe2+), and oil and grease are greater than the IS (1981) norms for discharge of water into inland water body. The soil along the sides of the effluent channel also shows higher concentration of heavy metals than the background soil. The enrichment of the heavy metals are in the order of Chromium (Cr) > Iron (Fe) > Manganese (Mn) > Zinc (Zn) > Copper (Cu) > Cadmium (Cd). Macrophytes growing along the sides of the effluent channel also show significant accumulation of heavy metals almost in the same order as accumulated in soil. Higher uptake of heavy metals by these varieties reveals that these species can be used for future phytoremediation. The effluent as well as contaminated water is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables like tomato ( Lycopersicon esculatum) in the surrounding areas. Heavy metal accumulation in this agricultural soil are in the sequence of Cr > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cd. More or less similar type of accumulation pattern are also found in tomato plants except Fe and Zn exceeding Cr and Mn. Transfer Factor of heavy metals from soil to tomato plants (TFS) shows average value of <1, suggesting less uptake of heavy metals from soil. Among the plant parts studied, fruit shows least accumulation. Although tomato plants show some phenotypic changes, the survival of tomato plants as well as least accumulation of metals in fruit reveals their tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore it may be suggested that this plant can be grown successfully in the heavy metal

  16. Genome sequencing and analysis of the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) MEAM1, one of the most important vectors for plant viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among whiteflies, the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex is particularly important because of its ability to transmit hundreds of plant viruses, resulting in the loss of billions of U.S. dollars on agronomically important crops such as tomato, cucurbits, cassava, and cotton worl...

  17. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  18. Principles of Biomedical Agriculture Applied to the Plant Family Theaceae To Identify Novel Interventions for Cancer Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijun; Yang, Yunqiu; Wei, Chaoling; Wan, Xiaochun; Thompson, Henry J

    2016-04-13

    Plant materials from the family Theaceae have been used for over a thousand years as integral components within the food systems of many globally distributed cultures and to treat a variety of human ailments. These markedly different uses remain of considerable interest in the 21st century. This perspective draws heavily from the agricultural and biomedical literature published using plant materials from the genus Camellia. Our objective is to provide a rationale and framework for broadening the scope of investigation of genera and species within Theaceae beyond Camellia sinensis to accelerate the development of a new generation of Theaceae-based pharmaceuticals/nutraceuticals and the more general enhancement of the food supply with Theaceae-containing products that affect the development of chronic diseases such as cancer. This will require a concerted effort to systematically capitalize on the rapidly growing knowledge of germplasm resources within Theaceae using metabolomic profiling in combination with in vivo and in vitro approaches. The successful translation of this research into products that affect human health will be facilitated by recognition of the agronomic factors that are critical in making hot water infusions generically referred to as tea as well as food products containing ground leaf powders. PMID:27011038

  19. Environmental economics reality check: a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project.

    PubMed

    Isla, Ana; Thompson, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the Abanico Medicinal Plant and Organic Agriculture Microenterprise Project in the Arenal Conservation Area, Costa Rica. Microenterprise is the Sustainable Development and the Women in Development model for gender equity and environment of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and large non-government organizations, like the World Wildlife Fund-Canada. The authors of this paper argue that debt-for-nature investment in microenterprise and ecological economic models are not distinct from neoclassical economic and development models that created the environmental, social and cultural crises in the first place. This case study shows that the world market accommodates only one model of development: unsustainable export-oriented production based on flexible labour markets, low wages, indebtedness and low cost production. Working standards in those micro-enterprises are eroded due to many factors,including indebtedness. What happened at a national level in non-industrial countries with the international debt crisis is now mirrored in individual indebtedness through microenterprise. Is current development policy creating a new form of indentured servitude? Medicinal plants, prior to commodification, were a source of women's power and upon commodification in international development projects, are the source of their exploitation. PMID:12859005

  20. 7 CFR 305.31 - Irradiation treatment of imported regulated articles for certain plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Drug Administration under 21 CFR part 179. (2) Be constructed so as to provide physically separate... Quarantine, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, 1730 Varsity Drive, Suite 400, Raleigh, NC 27606... for Plant Health Science and Technology, 1730 Varsity Drive, Suite 400, Raleigh, NC 27606. The...

  1. Relationships between sunflower plant spacing and yield: Importance of uniformity in spacing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) production systems in semi-arid regions often have difficulties in seedling emergence and patchy stands, leading to lower yield. Our hypothesis was that plant spacing was positively related to individual plant yield, and this relationship would strengthen as water def...

  2. Gasification of agricultural residues in a demonstrative plant: Vine pruning and rice husks.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Enrico; Barontini, Federica; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Tests with vine pruning and rice husks were carried out in a demonstrative downdraft gasifier (350 kW), to prove the reactor operability, quantify the plant efficiency, and thus extend the range of potential energy feedstocks. Pressure drops, syngas flow rate and composition were monitored to study the material and energy balances, and performance indexes. Interesting results were obtained for vine pruning (syngas heating value 5.7 MJ/m(3), equivalent ratio 0.26, cold gas efficiency 65%, power efficiency 21%), while poorer values were obtained for rice husks (syngas heating value 2.5-3.8 MJ/m(3), equivalent ratio 0.4, cold gas efficiency 31-42%, power efficiency 10-13%). The work contains also a comparison with previous results (wood pellets, corn cobs, Miscanthus) for defining an operating diagram, based on material density and particle size and shape, and the critical zones (reactor obstruction, bridging, no bed buildup, combustion regime). PMID:26183923

  3. [Importance of competition for pollination in formation of the entomophylous plants complex structure].

    PubMed

    Dlusskiĭ, G M

    2013-01-01

    Many species of entomophylous plants have a wide range of pollinators, and the same insects visit flowers of many plants. The competition for pollination leads to decreasing in seed production of competing species. However, there exists a variety of adaptations that allow plants to reduce the intensity of competition. A comparative analysis of pollinators spectra has allowed to designate groups (subcomplexes) of plants with regard to dominance of various groups of pollinators: myiophylous (flies from the superfamily Muscomorha dominate), syphidophylous (flies from the family Syrphidae dominate), psychophylous (butterflies dominate), cantharophylous (beetles dominate), nonspecialized and specialized melittophylous (Apidae, mainly bumblebees, dominate). The belonging of plants to a specific subcomplex is defined mainly by the structure of flowers and inflorescences. Modes of mechanical and attractive isolation are discussed that lead to restriction of pollinators composition. Competition abatement between species with similar spectra of pollinators and belonging to the same subcomplex is achieved mainly by spatial (ecological) and temporal (different timing of flowering) isolation. PMID:25438575

  4. Glyceollin is an important component of soybean plant defense against Phytophthora sojae and Macrophomina phaseolina.

    PubMed

    Lygin, Anatoliy V; Zernova, Olga V; Hill, Curtis B; Kholina, Nadegda A; Widholm, Jack M; Hartman, Glen L; Lozovaya, Vera V

    2013-10-01

    The response of soybean transgenic plants, with suppressed synthesis of isoflavones, and nontransgenic plants to two common soybean pathogens, Macrophomina phaseolina and Phytophthora sojae, was studied. Transgenic soybean plants of one line used in this study were previously generated via bombardment of embryogenic cultures with the phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chalcone synthase, and isoflavone synthase (IFS2) genes in sense orientation driven by the cotyledon-preferable lectin promoter (to turn genes on in cotyledons), while plants of another line were newly produced using the IFS2 gene in sense orientation driven by the Cassava vein mosaic virus constitutive promoter (to turn genes on in all plant parts). Nearly complete inhibition of isoflavone synthesis was found in the cotyledons of young seedlings of transgenic plants transformed with the IFS2 transgene driven by the cotyledon-preferable lectin promoter compared with the untransformed control during the 10-day observation period, with the precursors of isoflavone synthesis being accumulated in the cotyledons of transgenic plants. These results indicated that the lectin promoter could be active not only during seed development but also during seed germination. Downregulation of isoflavone synthesis only in the seed or in the whole soybean plant caused a strong inhibition of the pathogen-inducible glyceollin in cotyledons after inoculation with P. sojae, which resulted in increased susceptibility of the cotyledons of both transgenic lines to this pathogen compared with inoculated cotyledons of untransformed plants. When stems were inoculated with M. phaseolina, suppression of glyceollin synthesis was found only in stems of transgenic plants expressing the transgene driven by a constitutive promoter, which developed more severe infection. These results provide further evidence that rapid glyceollin accumulation during infection contributes to the innate soybean defense response. PMID:23617338

  5. Biotechnological applications in in vitro plant regeneration studies of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology holds promise for genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop of the family Brassicaceae. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during commercial cultivation of broccoli. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient in vitro plant regeneration system with cell and tissue culture is a vital prerequisite for biotechnological application of crop improvement programme. An in vitro plant regeneration technique refers to culturing, cell division, cell multiplication, de-differentiation and differentiation of cells, protoplasts, tissues and organs on defined liquid/solid medium under aseptic and controlled environment. Recent progress in the field of plant tissue culture has made this area one of the most dynamic and promising in experimental biology. There are many published reports on in vitro plant regeneration studies in broccoli including direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. This review summarizes those plant regeneration studies in broccoli that could be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it to produce healthy, biotic and abiotic stress resistant plant material and to carry out genetic transformation studies for the production of transgenic plants. PMID:26721234

  6. Small RNA Profiling of Two Important Cultivars of Banana and Overexpression of miRNA156 in Transgenic Banana Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

    2015-01-01

    Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding, short RNAs having important roles in regulation of gene expression. Although plant miRNAs have been studied in detail in some model plants, less is known about these miRNAs in important fruit plants like banana. miRNAs have pivotal roles in plant growth and development, and in responses to diverse biotic and abiotic stress stimuli. Here, we have analyzed the small RNA expression profiles of two different economically significant banana cultivars by using high-throughput sequencing technology. We identified a total of 170 and 244 miRNAs in the two libraries respectively derived from cv. Grand Naine and cv. Rasthali leaves. In addition, several cultivar specific microRNAs along with their putative target transcripts were also detected in our studies. To validate our findings regarding the small RNA profiles, we also undertook overexpression of a common microRNA, MusamiRNA156 in transgenic banana plants. The transgenic plants overexpressing the stem-loop sequence derived from MusamiRNA156 gene were stunted in their growth together with peculiar changes in leaf anatomy. These results provide a foundation for further investigations into important physiological and metabolic pathways operational in banana in general and cultivar specific traits in particular. PMID:25962076

  7. Small RNA Profiling of Two Important Cultivars of Banana and Overexpression of miRNA156 in Transgenic Banana Plants.

    PubMed

    Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2015-01-01

    Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding, short RNAs having important roles in regulation of gene expression. Although plant miRNAs have been studied in detail in some model plants, less is known about these miRNAs in important fruit plants like banana. miRNAs have pivotal roles in plant growth and development, and in responses to diverse biotic and abiotic stress stimuli. Here, we have analyzed the small RNA expression profiles of two different economically significant banana cultivars by using high-throughput sequencing technology. We identified a total of 170 and 244 miRNAs in the two libraries respectively derived from cv. Grand Naine and cv. Rasthali leaves. In addition, several cultivar specific microRNAs along with their putative target transcripts were also detected in our studies. To validate our findings regarding the small RNA profiles, we also undertook overexpression of a common microRNA, MusamiRNA156 in transgenic banana plants. The transgenic plants overexpressing the stem-loop sequence derived from MusamiRNA156 gene were stunted in their growth together with peculiar changes in leaf anatomy. These results provide a foundation for further investigations into important physiological and metabolic pathways operational in banana in general and cultivar specific traits in particular. PMID:25962076

  8. Addressing the complexity and diversity of agricultural plant volatiles: a call for the integration of laboratory- and field-based analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the sophistication and sensitivity of chemical instrumentation increases so do the number of applications. Correspondingly, new questions and opportunities for systems previously studied also arise. As with most plants, the emission of volatiles from agricultural products is complex and varies am...

  9. Farewell to the Lose-Lose Reality of Policing Plant Imports.

    PubMed

    Zamir, Dani

    2016-04-01

    In an age of free international shipments of mail-ordered seeds and plants, more policing will not stop the global migration of hitchhiking pests. The solution is in a preemptive response based on an internationally coordinated genomic deployment of global biodiversity in the largest breeding project since the "Garden of Eden." This plan will enrich the narrow genetic basis of annual and perennial plants with adaptations to changing environments and resistances to the pests of the future. PMID:27093460

  10. [The change in efficiency of protective measures for reduction of 137Cs accumulation by agricultural plants in various periods after the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Panov, A V; Aleksakhin, R M; Muzalevskaia, A A

    2011-01-01

    Dynamics of 137Cs transfer factors to plants and the effects of protective measures on this radionuclide accumulation in the agricultural production is estimated on the example of the south-western regions of Bryansk District. Three periods in decreasing the 137Cs content in plants during 20 years after the Chernobyl accident are identified. The contribution of radionuclide decay, natural biogeochemical processes and protective measures aimed at reduction of the 137Cs accumulation in agricultural plants during various periods after radioactive fallout is shown. Maximum permissible levels of 137Cs contamination of cultivated lands, where crop products meeting current standards may be obtained, at different scopes of protective measures on radioactive-contaminated territories are forecasted. Periods after radioactive fallout, when crop and forage products meeting radiological standards are obtained, are assessed. PMID:21520624

  11. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet. PMID:26084100

  12. Farewell to the Lose–Lose Reality of Policing Plant Imports

    PubMed Central

    Zamir, Dani

    2016-01-01

    In an age of free international shipments of mail-ordered seeds and plants, more policing will not stop the global migration of hitchhiking pests. The solution is in a preemptive response based on an internationally coordinated genomic deployment of global biodiversity in the largest breeding project since the “Garden of Eden.” This plan will enrich the narrow genetic basis of annual and perennial plants with adaptations to changing environments and resistances to the pests of the future. PMID:27093460

  13. Community shifts in a well-operating agricultural biogas plant: how process variations are handled by the microbiome.

    PubMed

    Theuerl, Susanne; Kohrs, Fabian; Benndorf, Dirk; Maus, Irena; Wibberg, Daniel; Schlüter, Andreas; Kausmann, Robert; Heiermann, Monika; Rapp, Erdmann; Reichl, Udo; Pühler, Alfred; Klocke, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This study provides a comprehensive, long-term microbiological study of a continuously operated, mesophilic, agricultural biogas plant fed with whole-crop silages of maize and rye, cattle manure and cattle slurry. The microbial community structure was accessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. For the characterisation of the microbial dynamics, the community profiling method terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) in combination with a cloning-sequencing approach as well as a LC-MS/MS approach for protein identification were applied. Our results revealed that the anaerobic digestion is a highly sensitive process: small variations in the process performance induce fluctuations in the microbial community composition and activity. In this context, it could be proven that certain microbial species were better adapted to changing process condition such as temperature (interspecies competition) and that there is a physiological compensation between different microorganisms so that the reactor efficiency was not adversely affected despite of structural and functional changes within the microbial community. PMID:25998656

  14. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes and c60 fullerenes differentially impact the accumulation of weathered pesticides in four agricultural plants.

    PubMed

    De La Torre-Roche, Roberto; Hawthorne, Joseph; Deng, Yingqing; Xing, Baoshan; Cai, Wenjun; Newman, Lee A; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xingmao; Hamdi, Helmi; White, Jason C

    2013-01-01

    The effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) or C60 fullerenes on the uptake of weathered chlordane or DDx (DDT + metabolites) by Cucurbita pepo (zucchini), Zea mays (corn), Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), and Glycine max (soybean) was investigated. The plants were grown in 50 g of soil with weathered chlordane (2150 ng/g) and DDx (118 ng/g) that was amended with 0, 500, 1000, or 5000 mg/kg MWCNT or C60. After 28 d, the root and shoot content of chlordane components and DDx was determined by GC-MS. Zucchini and tomato growth were unaffected by carbon nanomaterial coexposure, although C60 at 500 mg/kg reduced corn and soybean biomass by 36.5-45.0%. Total chlordane content ranged from 1490 (tomato) to 4780 (zucchini) ng; DDx amounts ranged from 77.8 (corn) to 395 ng (zucchini). MWCNT coexposure decreased chlordane and DDx accumulation 21-80% across all crops, depending on species and nanotube concentration. Conversely, C60 had species- and contaminant-specific effects on pesticide uptake, ranging from complete suppression of DDx uptake (corn/tomato) to 34.9% increases in chlordane accumulation (tomato/soybean). The data show that pesticide accumulation varies greatly with crop species and carbon nanomaterial type/concentration. These findings have implications for food safety and for the use of engineered nanomaterials in agriculture. PMID:24079803

  15. Tracking Movement of Plant Carbon Through Soil to Water by Lignin Phenol Stable Carbon Isotope Composition in a Small Agricultural Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crooker, K.; Filley, T.; Six, J.; Frey, J.

    2005-12-01

    Few studies integrate land cover, soil physical structure, and aquatic physical fractions when investigating the fate of agricultural carbon in watersheds. In crop systems that involve rotations of soy (a C3 plant) and corn (a C4 plant) the large intrinsic differences in stable carbon isotope values and lignin plus cutin chemistry enable tracking of plant carbon movement from soil fractions to DOM and overland flow during precipitation events. In a small (~3Km2) agricultural basin in central Indiana, we studied plant carbon dynamics in a soy/corn agricultural rotation (2004-2005) to determine the relative inputs of these two plants to soil fractions and the resultant contributions to dissolved, colloidal, and particulate organic matter when mobilized. Using bulk isotope values the fraction of carbon derived from corn in macroaggregates (>250 micron), microaggregates (53-250 mm), and silts plus clays (<53 mm) ranged from 39, 49, to 42%, respectively. Unlike bulk analyses, compound specific isotope analysis of lignin in the soil fractions revealed a wide range of relative inputs among the monomers with cinnamyl phenols being almost exclusively (~ 93%) derived from corn. Syringyl phenols ranged from 75-56% corn and vanillyl phenols ranged from 37-40% corn carbon. The relative input among the fractions mirrors closely the comparative plant chemistry abundances between soy and corn. During export of DOM from the land to the stream the relative abundance of plant source varied with discharge (0.05-1.8 m3/sec) as increases in flow increased the relative export of corn-derived C from the fields. Over the full range of flows lignin phenols varied from 0.05 to 82% corn-derived with the greatest relative corn input for cinnamyl and syringyl carbon. The trend with stream discharge indicates a progressive movement of particulate corn residues with overland flow. Ongoing studies look to resolve contributions of algae, bacteria and terrestrial plants to soil fractions and their

  16. Repellent properties of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. (Family: Sapindaceae) plant leaf extracts against three important vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (C. halicacabum) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm×30 cm×25 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of three mosquito species and were assayed in the laboratory condition by using the protocol of WHO 2005; The plant leaf crude extracts of C. halicacabum was applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed area of the fore arm. Only ethanol served as control. Results In this observation, the plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. The tested plant crude extracts had exerted promising repellent against all the three mosquitoes. Conclusions From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of C. halicacabum was potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi mosquitoes. PMID:23569979

  17. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF IMPORTANT PLANT SPECIES IN THE CHIHUAHUAN DESERT OF NORTH AMERICA (1904-2002)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desert covers an area of 453,000 km2 in the United States and Mexico. Managers of military lands in the desert require a detailed understanding of installation natural resources. A comprehensive bibliography of current research and information on desert plants is needed. The objective of this wor...

  18. Glyceollin is an important component of soybean plant defense against Phytophthora sojae and Macrophomina phaseolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic soybean plants were generated using bombardment of embryogenic cultures with the PAL5 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase), CHS6 (chalcone synthase) and IFS2 (isoflavone synthase) genes in sense orientation, driven by the cotyledon-preferable lectin promoter, or with the IFS2 (isoflavone synthas...

  19. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.49...

  20. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.49...

  1. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.49...

  2. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.49...

  3. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.49...

  4. The role of soil microbes in the global carbon cycle: tracking the below-ground microbial processing of plant-derived carbon for manipulating carbon dynamics in agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Gougoulias, Christos; Clark, Joanna M; Shaw, Liz J

    2014-09-01

    It is well known that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) (and other greenhouse gases) have increased markedly as a result of human activity since the industrial revolution. It is perhaps less appreciated that natural and managed soils are an important source and sink for atmospheric CO2 and that, primarily as a result of the activities of soil microorganisms, there is a soil-derived respiratory flux of CO2 to the atmosphere that overshadows by tenfold the annual CO2 flux from fossil fuel emissions. Therefore small changes in the soil carbon cycle could have large impacts on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here we discuss the role of soil microbes in the global carbon cycle and review the main methods that have been used to identify the microorganisms responsible for the processing of plant photosynthetic carbon inputs to soil. We discuss whether application of these techniques can provide the information required to underpin the management of agro-ecosystems for carbon sequestration and increased agricultural sustainability. We conclude that, although crucial in enabling the identification of plant-derived carbon-utilising microbes, current technologies lack the high-throughput ability to quantitatively apportion carbon use by phylogentic groups and its use efficiency and destination within the microbial metabolome. It is this information that is required to inform rational manipulation of the plant-soil system to favour organisms or physiologies most important for promoting soil carbon storage in agricultural soil. PMID:24425529

  5. Sampling Plant Diversity and Rarity at Landscape Scales: Importance of Sampling Time in Species Detectability

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Nielsen, Scott E.; Grainger, Tess N.; Kohler, Monica; Chipchar, Tim; Farr, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Documenting and estimating species richness at regional or landscape scales has been a major emphasis for conservation efforts, as well as for the development and testing of evolutionary and ecological theory. Rarely, however, are sampling efforts assessed on how they affect detection and estimates of species richness and rarity. In this study, vascular plant richness was sampled in 356 quarter hectare time-unlimited survey plots in the boreal region of northeast Alberta. These surveys consisted of 15,856 observations of 499 vascular plant species (97 considered to be regionally rare) collected by 12 observers over a 2 year period. Average survey time for each quarter-hectare plot was 82 minutes, ranging from 20 to 194 minutes, with a positive relationship between total survey time and total plant richness. When survey time was limited to a 20-minute search, as in other Alberta biodiversity methods, 61 species were missed. Extending the survey time to 60 minutes, reduced the number of missed species to 20, while a 90-minute cut-off time resulted in the loss of 8 species. When surveys were separated by habitat type, 60 minutes of search effort sampled nearly 90% of total observed richness for all habitats. Relative to rare species, time-unlimited surveys had ∼65% higher rare plant detections post-20 minutes than during the first 20 minutes of the survey. Although exhaustive sampling was attempted, observer bias was noted among observers when a subsample of plots was re-surveyed by different observers. Our findings suggest that sampling time, combined with sample size and observer effects, should be considered in landscape-scale plant biodiversity surveys. PMID:24740179

  6. Spatial decoupling of agricultural production and consumption: quantifying dependences of countries on food imports due to domestic land and water constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, Marianela; Gerten, Dieter; Krause, Michael; Lucht, Wolfgang; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    In our globalizing world, the geographical locations of food production and consumption are becoming increasingly disconnected, which increases reliance on external resources and their trade. We quantified to what extent water and land constraints limit countries’ capacities, at present and by 2050, to produce on their own territory the crop products that they currently import from other countries. Scenarios of increased crop productivity and water use, cropland expansion (excluding areas prioritized for other uses) and population change are accounted for. We found that currently 16% of the world population use the opportunities of international trade to cover their demand for agricultural products. Population change may strongly increase the number of people depending on ex situ land and water resources up to about 5.2 billion (51% of world population) in the SRES A2r scenario. International trade will thus have to intensify if population growth is not accompanied by dietary change towards less resource-intensive products, by cropland expansion, or by productivity improvements, mainly in Africa and the Middle East. Up to 1.3 billion people may be at risk of food insecurity in 2050 in present low-income economies (mainly in Africa), if their economic development does not allow them to afford productivity increases, cropland expansion and/or imports from other countries.

  7. Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational Services.

    Designed for use in the Connecticut Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers, this curriculum provides exploratory and specialization units for four major areas of agriculture. These are Agriculture Mechanics, Animal Science, Natural Resources, and Plant Science. The exploratory units are required for grades 9 and 10, while the specialization units…

  8. 7 CFR 319.40-6 - Universal importation options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... the Tropic of Cancer may be imported in accordance with paragraphs (b)(2) (i) and (ii) of this section... north of the Tropic of Cancer may be imported in accordance with this paragraph. (i) The wood chips...

  9. Importance of protein quality versus quantity in alternative host plants for a leaf-feeding insect.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, Raymond V; Niewiadomski, Julie; Kochmanski, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    The nutritional value of alternative host plants for leaf-feeding insects such as caterpillars is commonly measured in terms of protein quantity. However, nutritional value might also depend on the quality of the foliar protein [i.e., the composition of essential amino acids (EAAs)]. A lack of comparative work on the EAA compositions of herbivores and their host plants has hampered the testing of this hypothesis. We tested the "protein quality hypothesis" using the tree-feeding caterpillars of Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) and two taxonomically unrelated host plants, red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Because L. dispar has higher fitness on oak than on maple, support for the hypothesis would be found if protein were of higher quality from oak than from maple. The whole-body EAA composition of L. dispar larvae was measured to estimate its optimum dietary protein composition, which was compared with the EAA compositions of oak and maple leaves. Contrary to the protein quality hypothesis, the EAA compositions of oak and maple were not significantly different in the spring. The growth-limiting EAAs in both tree species were histidine and methionine. Similar results were observed in the summer, with the exception that the histidine composition of oak was between 10 and 15 % greater than in maple leaves. The two main factors that affected the nutritional value of protein from the tree species were the quantities of EAAs, which were consistently higher in oak, and the efficiency of EAA utilization, which decreased from 80 % in May to <50 % in August. We conclude that the relative nutritional value of red oak and sugar maple for L. dispar is more strongly affected by protein quantity than quality. Surveys of many wild herbaceous species also suggest that leaf-feeding insects would be unlikely to specialize on plants based on protein quality. PMID:23297046

  10. Degree of herbivore feeding damage as an important contributor to multitrophic plant-parasitoid signaling under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) serve as signals mediating information between plants and their higher trophic level beneficials, such as parasitoids and predators of herbivores. We recently demonstrated with oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants, herbivorous diamond-back moth (Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)) larvae and Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoids that atmospheric pollution, i.e., elevated ozone (O3), can disturb attraction of natural enemies by plant-emitted host-induced volatile cues. Additionally, we found that the degree of herbivore feeding damage is an important contributor to this O3 interference. Low feeding damage in herbivore-resistant plants was sufficient to attract C. vestalis females to host-damaged plants under ambient air, but this tritrophic signaling turned non-functional in the combination of low feeding damage and high O3 concentration. Here we present some additional data of how climate change factors may modify feeding patterns and growth of herbivores. We further discuss how the degree of herbivore feeding damage and the tritrophic signaling interaction relaying on the herbivore-induced VOCs from attacked plants might change through direct and indirect effects of increased levels of carbon dioxide, temperature and O3. PMID:19721765

  11. Genetic and Symbiotic Diversity of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Agricultural Soils in the Western Amazon by Using Cowpea as the Trap Plant

    PubMed Central

    Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Duque Jaramillo, Paula Marcela; Simão Abrahão Nóbrega, Rafaela; Florentino, Ligiane Aparecida; Barroso Silva, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Cowpea is a legume of great agronomic importance that establishes symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of these bacteria in distinct ecosystems. Our study evaluated the genetic diversity and symbiotic efficiencies of 119 bacterial strains isolated from agriculture soils in the western Amazon using cowpea as a trap plant. These strains were clustered into 11 cultural groups according to growth rate and pH. The 57 nonnodulating strains were predominantly fast growing and acidifying, indicating a high incidence of endophytic strains in the nodules. The other 62 strains, authenticated as nodulating bacteria, exhibited various symbiotic efficiencies, with 68% of strains promoting a significant increase in shoot dry matter of cowpea compared with the control with no inoculation and low levels of mineral nitrogen. Fifty genotypes with 70% similarity and 21 genotypes with 30% similarity were obtained through repetitive DNA sequence (BOX element)-based PCR (BOX-PCR) clustering. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of strains representative of BOX-PCR clusters showed a predominance of bacteria from the genus Bradyrhizobium but with high species diversity. Rhizobium, Burkholderia, and Achromobacter species were also identified. These results support observations of cowpea promiscuity and demonstrate the high symbiotic and genetic diversity of rhizobia species in areas under cultivation in the western Amazon. PMID:22798370

  12. 7 CFR 319.40-4 - Application for a permit to import regulated articles; issuance and withdrawal of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application for a permit to import regulated articles; issuance and withdrawal of permits. 319.40-4 Section 319.40-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Logs, Lumber,...

  13. The importance of plant diversity in maintaining the pollinator bee, Eulaema nigrita (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in sweet passion fruit fields.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cláudia Inês; Bordon, Natali Gomes; da Rocha Filho, Léo Correia; Garófalo, Carlos Alberto

    2012-12-01

    The euglossine bee Eulaema nigrita plays an important role for the pollination of native and economically important plants, such as the sweet passion-fruit Passiflora alata. E. nigrita uniquely collects the nectar from the flowers of P. alata, nevertheless, it needs to visit other plants to collect pollen, nectar and other resources for its survival. There are two methods to identify the species of plants used by bees in their diet: by direct observation of the bees in the flowers, and through identification of pollen grains present in brood cells, feces, or in the bees' body. In order to identify the other plants that E. nigrita visits, we analyzed samples of pollen grains removed from the bee's body in the course of the flowering period of P. alata. Among our results, the flora visited by E. nigrita comprised 40 species from 32 genera and 19 families, some of them used as a pollen source or just nectar. In spite of being a polyletic species, E. nigrita exhibited preference for some plant species with poricidal anthers. P. alata which has high sugar concentration nectar was the main source of nectar for this bee in the studied area. Nonetheless, the pollinic analysis indicated that others nectariferous plant species are necessary to keep the populations of E. nigrita. Studies such as this one are important since they indicate supplementary pollen-nectar sources which must be used for the conservation of the populations of E. nigrita in crops neighbouring areas. In the absence of pollinators, growers are forced to pay for hand pollination, which increases production costs; keeping pollinators in cultivated areas is still more feasible to ensure sweet passion fruit production. PMID:23342510

  14. 9 CFR 98.10 - Other importations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other importations. 98.10 Section 98.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant...

  15. 9 CFR 98.4 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Import permit. 98.4 Section 98.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and...

  16. The importance of aboveground–belowground interactions on the evolution and maintenance of variation in plant defense traits

    PubMed Central

    van Geem, Moniek; Gols, Rieta; van Dam, Nicole M.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Fortuna, Taiadjana; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades a growing body of empirical research has shown that many ecological processes are mediated by a complex array of indirect interactions occurring between rhizosphere-inhabiting organisms and those found on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground–belowground studies have thus far focused on elucidating processes and underlying mechanisms that mediate the behavior and performance of invertebrates in opposite ecosystem compartments. Less is known about genetic variation in plant traits such as defense as that may be driven by above- and belowground trophic interactions. For instance, although our understanding of genetic variation in aboveground plant traits and its effects on community-level interactions is well developed, little is known about the importance of aboveground–belowground interactions in driving this variation. Plant traits may have evolved in response to selection pressures from above- and below-ground interactions from antagonists and mutualists. Here, we discuss gaps in our understanding of genetic variation in plant-related traits as they relate to aboveground and belowground multitrophic interactions. When metabolic resources are limiting, multiple attacks by antagonists in both domains may lead to trade-offs. In nature, these trade-offs may critically depend upon their effects on plant fitness. Natural enemies of herbivores may also influence selection for different traits via top–down control. At larger scales these interactions may generate evolutionary “hotspots” where the expression of various plant traits is the result of strong reciprocal selection via direct and indirect interactions. The role of abiotic factors in driving genetic variation in plant traits is also discussed. PMID:24348484

  17. Science of Agricultural Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Ashleigh Barbee, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  18. The importance of plant water use on evapotranspiration covers in semi-arid Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Arnold, S.; Doley, D.; Mulligan, D. R.; Baumgartl, T.

    2012-10-01

    We estimated the evapotranspiration (ET) for an area vegetated with characteristic semi-arid native Australian plant species on ET mine waste cover systems. These systems aim to minimise drainage into underlying hazardous wastes by maximising evaporation (E) from the soil surface and transpiration from vegetation. An open top chamber was used to measure diurnal and daily ET of two plant species - Senna artemisioides (silver cassia) and Sclerolaena birchii (galvanised burr) - after a simulated rainfall event, as well as E from bare soil. Both ET and E decreased with increasing time after initial watering. Different temporal patterns were observed for daily ET from the two plant species and E from bare soil, revealing Senna artemisioides as intensive and Sclerolaena birchii as extensive water exploiters. A strong positive linear relationship was identified between ET (and E), and the atmospheric water demand represented by the vapour pressure deficit. The relationship always was more pronounced in the morning than in the afternoon, indicating a diminishing water supply from the soil associated with a declining unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil in the afternoon. The slopes of the regression lines were steepest for Senna artemisioides, reflecting its intensive water-exploiting characteristics. We used the derived estimates of ET and E to predict the effect of species composition on plot ET in relation to total vegetation coverage. Although both species proved suitable for an operational ET cover system, vegetation coverage should exceed at least 50% in order to markedly influence plot ET, a value which is likely to be unsustainable in semi-arid climates.

  19. Crop Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Agricultural Extension Services in Bangladesh: Cases of Selected Villages in Two Important Agro-Ecological Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uddin, Ektear MD.; Gao, Qijie; Mamun-Ur-Rashid, MD.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Globally, many extension professionals and policy-makers are advocating fee based services, in addressing the fund shortage and sustainable provision of agricultural advisory services. Hence, the article attempts to expose the farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) as agricultural extension in Bangladesh is experiencing chronic fund crisis.…

  20. 76 FR 13890 - Importation of Bromeliad Plants in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ..., respectively. In Sec. 319.37-8(e), current footnote 10, which indicates that Bromeliads imported into Hawaii... footnote 9. As Bromeliads, Aechmea, Cryptanthus, Guzmania, Hohenbergia, Neoregelia, Tillandsia, and...

  1. Floral volatiles in a sapromyiophilous plant and their importance in attracting house fly pollinators.

    PubMed

    Zito, Pietro; Dötterl, Stefan; Sajeva, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Floral scent in sapromyiophilous plants often consists of complex blends with not only fetid (e.g., sulfides) but also sweet (e.g., terpenoids) volatile organic compounds, and a recent study suggests that both groups of compounds are involved in pollinator attraction. However, little is known about the number and identity of compounds involved in pollinator attraction in these deceptive plants that mimic breeding sites of fly pollinators. In the present paper, we studied flower volatiles of sapromyiophilous Periploca laevigata and their capability to elicit biological responses in one of the pollinator species, Musca domestica. Floral volatiles were collected by dynamic headspace and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and electrophysiological (GC/EAD) and behavioral assays (two choice olfactometer) were conducted. In the floral scent of P. laevigata, we detected 44 compounds, of which indole, β-caryophyllene, and germacrene D, as well as dimethyl trisulfide, which was present in trace amounts, were electrophysiologically active in the antennae of M. domestica. However, when we evaluated in behavioral experiments the attractiveness of the electrophysiologically active compounds (complete mixture against partial mixtures or against single compounds), we found that indole was the only attractive compound for the flies. PMID:25833217

  2. Extinction rate estimates for plant populations in revisitation studies: Importance of detectability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many researchers have obtained extinction-rate estimates for plant populations by comparing historical and current records of occurrence. A population that is no longer found is assumed to have gone extinct. Extinction can then be related to characteristics of these populations, such as habitat type, size, or species, to test ideas about what factors may affect extinction. Such studies neglect the fact that a population may be overlooked, however, which may bias estimates of extinction rates upward. In addition, if populations are unequally detectable across groups to be compared, such as habitat type or population size, comparisons become distorted to an unknown degree. To illustrate the problem, I simulated two data sets, assuming a constant extinction rate, in which populations occurred in different habitats or habitats of different size and these factors affected their detectability The conventional analysis implicitly assumed that detectability equalled 1 and used logistic regression to estimate extinction rates. It wrongly identified habitat and population size as factors affecting extinction risk. In contrast, with capture-recapture methods, unbiased estimates of extinction rates were recovered. I argue that capture-recapture methods should be considered more often in estimations of demographic parameters in plant populations and communities.

  3. The potential for tree planting strategies to reduce local and regional ecosystem impacts of agricultural ammonia emissions.

    PubMed

    Bealey, W J; Dore, A J; Dragosits, U; Reis, S; Reay, D S; Sutton, M A

    2016-01-01

    Trees are very effective at capturing both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere. But while studies have often focussed on PM and NOx in the urban environment, little research has been carried out on the tree effect of capturing gaseous emissions of ammonia in the rural landscape. To examine the removal or scavenging of ammonia by trees a long-range atmospheric model (FRAME) was used to compare two strategies that could be used in emission reduction policies anywhere in the world where nitrogen pollution from agriculture is a problem. One strategy was to reduce the emission source strength of livestock management systems by implementing two 'tree-capture' systems scenarios - tree belts downwind of housing and managing livestock under trees. This emission reduction can be described as an 'on-farm' emission reduction policy, as ammonia is 'stopped' from dispersion outside the farm boundaries. The second strategy was to apply an afforestation policy targeting areas of high ammonia emission through two planting scenarios of increasing afforestation by 25% and 50%. Both strategies use trees with the aim of intercepting NH3 emissions to protect semi-natural areas. Scenarios for on-farm emission reductions showed national reductions in nitrogen deposition to semi-natural areas of 0.14% (0.2 kt N-NHx) to 2.2% (3.15 kt N-NHx). Scenarios mitigating emissions from cattle and pig housing gave the highest reductions. The afforestation strategy showed national reductions of 6% (8.4 kt N-NHx) to 11% (15.7 kt N-NHx) for 25% and 50% afforestation scenarios respectively. Increased capture by the planted trees also showed an added benefit of reducing long range effects including a decrease in wet deposition up to 3.7 kt N-NHx (4.6%) and a decrease in export from the UK up to 8.3 kt N-NHx (6.8%). PMID:26413804

  4. Regional gene flow and population structure of the wind-dispersed plant species Hypochaeris radicata (Asteraceae) in an agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Mix, C; Arens, P F P; Rengelink, R; Smulders, M J M; Van Groenendael, J M; Ouborg, N J

    2006-06-01

    Using microsatellites, we investigated population structure and gene flow of the short-lived, wind-dispersed plant species Hypochaeris radicata in a fragmented agricultural landscape where more than 99% of the nutrient-poor grasslands have disappeared over the last century. We sampled populations in the few remaining high density populations in conservation areas, as well as individuals that occurred, with lower densities, in linear landscape elements, at two spatial scales. In a re-inventory of the landscape, after 3 years, both extinctions and colonizations of populations were observed. Contrary to expectations, no differences in genetic diversity between high and low density populations were observed. Both types of populations had relatively high levels of diversity. Overall genetic differentiation (theta) was 0.04 and significantly different from zero (P < 0.01). A significant isolation-by-distance pattern was found when all populations were simultaneously analysed (r = 0.24, P = 0.013). Isolation by distance was (marginally) significant at the small scale (r = 0.32, P = 0.06), whereas nonsignificant at the large spatial scale (r = -0.05, P = 0.66). A maximization-of-explained-variance procedure resulted in a threshold distance of 3.5 km above which populations were effectively genetically isolated. An additional partial exclusion Bayesian-based assignment test showed that overall 32.3% of the individuals were assigned to their population of origin, 48% were assigned to another population in the area and 19.7% were not assigned. Together, these results suggest high levels of gene flow. Seed dispersal contributes to the observed gene flow up to several hundred metres, which is higher than previously modelled using aerodynamic models on seed dispersal of H. radicata. We discuss the consequences of these results for an evaluation of the probability of persistence of this species in the fragmented landscape. PMID:16689895

  5. Soil nutrient competition in earth system models: an important but underappreciated driver of plant responses to nutrient fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.; Koven, C.

    2015-12-01

    Earth System Models (ESMs) used to project future biosphere-climate feedbacks rely on predictions of terrestrial carbon dynamics. Furthermore, soil nutrient availability strongly modulates land surface carbon dynamics, including plant sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Plant growth under future environmental changes (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus deposition) depends on how well plants compete with microbial and abiotic competitors. Here, we surveyed recent developments of nutrient competition representations in ESMs that participated in the CMIP5 project. We found that nutrient competition is over-simplified despite its ecological significance. Existing ESMs either assume that soil-decomposing microbes (1) outcompete plants or (2) are evenly competitive, both of which are inconsistent with theoretical understanding and field observations. We compiled and synthesized global data of forest carbon productivity in response to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization experiments. Using this synthesis, we show that existing ESMs with the first and second competition schemes lead to underestimation and overestimation, respectively, of fertilization effects on plant growth. We reduced these systematic biases by applying a new competition scheme in CLM4.5 and the essentially equivalent ACME land model (ALMv0) based on the Equilibrium Chemistry Approximation, which is based on classical equilibrium chemical kinetics theory. This approach dynamically updates nutrient competitiveness among multiple consumers (e.g., plants, decomposing microbes, nitrifier, denitrifier, mineral surfaces) as a function of soil nutrient status. There has been a long-term debate regarding how to implement theoretically realistic and computationally efficient nutrient competition schemes in ESMs. Our approach reconciles the complex nature of ecosystem nutrient competition with a computationally tractable approach applicable to ESMs. More importantly, our results imply that previous estimates of plant

  6. The importance of living botanical collections for plant biology and the “next generation” of evo-devo research

    PubMed Central

    Dosmann, Michael; Groover, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Living botanical collections include germplasm repositories, long-term experimental plantings, and botanical gardens. We present here a series of vignettes to illustrate the central role that living collections have played in plant biology research, including evo-devo research. Looking toward the future, living collections will become increasingly important in support of future evo-devo research. The driving force behind this trend is nucleic acid sequencing technologies, which are rapidly becoming more powerful and cost-effective, and which can be applied to virtually any species. This allows for more extensive sampling, including non-model organisms with unique biological features and plants from diverse phylogenetic positions. Importantly, a major challenge for sequencing-based evo-devo research is to identify, access, and propagate appropriate plant materials. We use a vignette of the ongoing 1,000 Transcriptomes project as an example of the challenges faced by such projects. We conclude by identifying some of the pinch points likely to be encountered by future evo-devo researchers, and how living collections can help address them. PMID:22737158

  7. The Identification of Genes Important in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola Plant Colonisation Using In Vitro Screening of Transposon Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, John T.; Jackson, Robert W.; Arnold, Dawn L.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) colonises the surface of common bean plants before moving into the interior of plant tissue, via wounds and stomata. In the intercellular spaces the pathogen proliferates in the apoplastic fluid and forms microcolonies (biofilms) around plant cells. If the pathogen can suppress the plant’s natural resistance response, it will cause halo blight disease. The process of resistance suppression is fairly well understood, but the mechanisms used by the pathogen in colonisation are less clear. We hypothesised that we could apply in vitro genetic screens to look for changes in motility, colony formation, and adhesion, which are proxies for infection, microcolony formation and cell adhesion. We made transposon (Tn) mutant libraries of Pph strains 1448A and 1302A and found 106/1920 mutants exhibited alterations in colony morphology, motility and biofilm formation. Identification of the insertion point of the Tn identified within the genome highlighted, as expected, a number of altered motility mutants bearing mutations in genes encoding various parts of the flagellum. Genes involved in nutrient biosynthesis, membrane associated proteins, and a number of conserved hypothetical protein (CHP) genes were also identified. A mutation of one CHP gene caused a positive increase in in planta bacterial growth. This rapid and inexpensive screening method allows the discovery of genes important for in vitro traits that can be correlated to roles in the plant interaction. PMID:26325299

  8. Irrigated agriculture is an important risk factor for West Nile virus disease in the hyperendemic Larimer-Boulder-Weld area of north central Colorado.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lars; Barker, Christopher M; Moore, Chester G; Pape, W John; Winters, Anna M; Cheronis, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    This study focused on two West Nile virus (WNV) disease outbreak years, 2003 and 2007, and included a three-county area (Larimer, Boulder, and Weld) in North Central Colorado that is hyperendemic for WNV disease. We used epidemiological data for reported WNV disease cases at the census tract scale to: (1) elucidate whether WNV disease incidence differs between census tracts classified as having high versus lower human population density (based on a threshold value of 580 persons/km2) and (2) determine associations between WNV disease incidence and habitat types suitable as development sites for the larval stage of Culex mosquito vectors. WNV disease incidence was significantly elevated in census tracts with lower human population density, compared with those with high density of human population, in both 2003 (median per census tract of 223 and 143 cases per 100,000 population, respectively) and 2007 (median per census tract of 46 and 19 cases per 100,000 population). This is most likely related, in large part, to greater percentages of coverage in less densely populated census tracts by habitats suitable as development sites for Culex larvae (open water, developed open space, pasture/hay, cultivated crops, woody wetlands, and emergent herbaceous wetlands) and, especially, for the subset of these habitats made up by irrigated agricultural land (pasture/hay and cultivated crops) that presumably serve as major producers of the locally most important vector of WNV to humans: Culex tarsalis. A series of analyses produced significant positive associations between greater coverage of or shorter distance to irrigated agricultural land and elevated WNV disease incidence. As an exercise to produce data with potential to inform spatial implementation schemes for prevention and control measures within the study area, we mapped the spatial patterns, by census tract, of WNV disease incidence in 2003 and 2007 as well as the locations of census tracts that had either low (<25th

  9. Multilocus phylogeny reveals an association of agriculturally important Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) 11, and clinically important FSSC 5 and FSSC 3 + 4 with soybean roots in the north central United States.

    PubMed

    Chitrampalam, P; Nelson, B

    2016-02-01

    The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) includes important root pathogens of soybean in the United States, but the evolutionary lineages associated with soybean root rot are unknown. A multilocus phylogeny based on 93 isolates from soybean and pea roots from North Dakota and Minnesota revealed that root rot was associated with three known phylogenetic species, FSSC 3 + 4 (=Fusarium falciforme) (3 % of isolates), FSSC 5 (60 %), FSSC 11 (34 %), and one unknown species, FSSC X (2 %). Of these species FSSC 5 and FSSC 3 + 4 are clinically important while FSSC 11 is a plant pathogen. Isolates from FSSC 11 were pathogenic on soybean, dry bean, pea and lentil, and did not grow at 37 °C. However, isolates from FSSC 5 were weakly to non-pathogenic, but grew at 37 °C. Isolates from both FSSC 5 and FSSC 11 were highly resistant to fludioxonil in vitro. This is the first study revealing the pathogenic robustness of FSSC 11 in causing root rot among Fabaceae crops and also the association of clinically important members of the FSSC with roots of a widely grown field crop in the United States. PMID:26671414

  10. Energy benchmarking in wastewater treatment plants: the importance of site operation and layout.

    PubMed

    Belloir, C; Stanford, C; Soares, A

    2015-01-01

    Energy benchmarking is a powerful tool in the optimization of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in helping to reduce costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Traditionally, energy benchmarking methods focused solely on reporting electricity consumption, however, recent developments in this area have led to the inclusion of other types of energy, including electrical, manual, chemical and mechanical consumptions that can be expressed in kWh/m3. In this study, two full-scale WWTPs were benchmarked, both incorporated preliminary, secondary (oxidation ditch) and tertiary treatment processes, Site 1 also had an additional primary treatment step. The results indicated that Site 1 required 2.32 kWh/m3 against 0.98 kWh/m3 for Site 2. Aeration presented the highest energy consumption for both sites with 2.08 kWh/m3 required for Site 1 and 0.91 kWh/m3 in Site 2. The mechanical energy represented the second biggest consumption for Site 1 (9%, 0.212 kWh/m3) and chemical input was significant in Site 2 (4.1%, 0.026 kWh/m3). The analysis of the results indicated that Site 2 could be optimized by constructing a primary settling tank that would reduce the biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and NH4 loads to the oxidation ditch by 55%, 75% and 12%, respectively, and at the same time reduce the aeration requirements by 49%. This study demonstrated that the effectiveness of the energy benchmarking exercise in identifying the highest energy-consuming assets, nevertheless it points out the need to develop a holistic overview of the WWTP and the need to include parameters such as effluent quality, site operation and plant layout to allow adequate benchmarking. PMID:25413121

  11. Processed vs. Non-Processed Biowastes for Agriculture: Effects of Post-Harvest Tomato Plants and Biochar on Radish Growth, Chlorophyll Content and Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Mozzetti Monterumici, Chiara; Rosso, Daniele; Montoneri, Enzo; Ginepro, Marco; Baglieri, Andrea; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Kwapinski, Witold; Negre, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP), the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed. PMID:25906472

  12. Processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture: effects of post-harvest tomato plants and biochar on radish growth, chlorophyll content and protein production.

    PubMed

    Mozzetti Monterumici, Chiara; Rosso, Daniele; Montoneri, Enzo; Ginepro, Marco; Baglieri, Andrea; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Kwapinski, Witold; Negre, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP), the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed. PMID:25906472

  13. Geologic research in support of sustainable agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Herring, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The importance and role of the geosciences in studies of sustainable agriculture include such traditional research areas as, agromineral resource assessments, the mapping and classification of soils and soil amendments, and the evaluation of landscapes for their vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation. Less traditional areas of study, that are increasing in societal importance because of environmental concerns and research into sustainable systems in general, include regional geochemical studies of plant and animal trace element deficiencies and toxicities, broad-scale water quality investigations, agricultural chemicals and the hydrogeologic interface, and minimally processed and ion-exchange agrominerals. We discuss the importance and future of phosphate in the US and world based on human population growth, projected agromineral demands in general, and the unavailability of new, high-quality agricultural lands. We also present examples of studies that relate geochemistry and the hydrogeologic characteristics of a region to the bioavailability and cycling of trace elements important to sustainable agricultural systems. ?? 1993.

  14. Large-scale sequestration of atmospheric carbon via plant roots in natural and agricultural ecosystems: why and how

    PubMed Central

    Kell, Douglas B.

    2012-01-01

    The soil holds twice as much carbon as does the atmosphere, and most soil carbon is derived from recent photosynthesis that takes carbon into root structures and further into below-ground storage via exudates therefrom. Nonetheless, many natural and most agricultural crops have roots that extend only to about 1 m below ground. What determines the lifetime of below-ground C in various forms is not well understood, and understanding these processes is therefore key to optimising them for enhanced C sequestration. Most soils (and especially subsoils) are very far from being saturated with organic carbon, and calculations show that the amounts of C that might further be sequestered (http://dbkgroup.org/carbonsequestration/rootsystem.html) are actually very great. Breeding crops with desirable below-ground C sequestration traits, and exploiting attendant agronomic practices optimised for individual species in their relevant environments, are therefore important goals. These bring additional benefits related to improvements in soil structure and in the usage of other nutrients and water. PMID:22527402

  15. Plant-borne ovicides in the fight against mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a huge threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. Culicidae control is of crucial importance. Mosquito eggs, larvae, and pupae are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators, and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment, and induce resistance in a number of species. Eco-friendly tools have been recently implemented against mosquito vectors, including botanical insecticides. The majority of researches focused on larvicides (745 SCOPUS results, July 2015) and adult repellents (434 SCOPUS results), while limited efforts were conducted to identify effective ovicides of botanical origin (59 SCOPUS results). Here, I review current knowledge on the effectiveness of plant-borne ovicides against major mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The majority of researches focused on the toxicity of crude extracts, their fractions, or essential oils against three important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. As a general trend, C. quinquefasciatus eggs were the most resistant to botanical ovicides. Five studies proposed selected compounds from plant extracts and essential oils as ovicides effective at few parts per million. However, no efforts were conducted to shed light on possible mechanisms underlying the toxicity of plant-borne ovicides. In the final section, a number of hot issues needing further research and cooperation among parasitologists, entomologists, and researchers working in natural product chemistry are outlined. PMID:26239801

  16. Host races in plant-feeding insects and their importance in sympatric speciation.

    PubMed Central

    Drès, Michele; Mallet, James

    2002-01-01

    The existence of a continuous array of sympatric biotypes - from polymorphisms, through ecological or host races with increasing reproductive isolation, to good species - can provide strong evidence for a continuous route to sympatric speciation via natural selection. Host races in plant-feeding insects, in particular, have often been used as evidence for the probability of sympatric speciation. Here, we provide verifiable criteria to distinguish host races from other biotypes: in brief, host races are genetically differentiated, sympatric populations of parasites that use different hosts and between which there is appreciable gene flow. We recognize host races as kinds of species that regularly exchange genes with other species at a rate of more than ca. 1% per generation, rather than as fundamentally distinct taxa. Host races provide a convenient, although admittedly somewhat arbitrary intermediate stage along the speciation continuum. They are a heuristic device to aid in evaluating the probability of speciation by natural selection, particularly in sympatry. Speciation is thereby envisaged as having two phases: (i) the evolution of host races from within polymorphic, panmictic populations; and (ii) further reduction of gene flow between host races until the diverging populations can become generally accepted as species. We apply this criterion to 21 putative host race systems. Of these, only three are unambiguously classified as host races, but a further eight are strong candidates that merely lack accurate information on rates of hybridization or gene flow. Thus, over one-half of the cases that we review are probably or certainly host races, under our definition. Our review of the data favours the idea of sympatric speciation via host shift for three major reasons: (i) the evolution of assortative mating as a pleiotropic by-product of adaptation to a new host seems likely, even in cases where mating occurs away from the host; (ii) stable genetic differences in

  17. The role of soil microbes in the global carbon cycle: tracking the below-ground microbial processing of plant-derived carbon for manipulating carbon dynamics in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Gougoulias, Christos; Clark, Joanna M; Shaw, Liz J

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) (and other greenhouse gases) have increased markedly as a result of human activity since the industrial revolution. It is perhaps less appreciated that natural and managed soils are an important source and sink for atmospheric CO2 and that, primarily as a result of the activities of soil microorganisms, there is a soil-derived respiratory flux of CO2 to the atmosphere that overshadows by tenfold the annual CO2 flux from fossil fuel emissions. Therefore small changes in the soil carbon cycle could have large impacts on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here we discuss the role of soil microbes in the global carbon cycle and review the main methods that have been used to identify the microorganisms responsible for the processing of plant photosynthetic carbon inputs to soil. We discuss whether application of these techniques can provide the information required to underpin the management of agro-ecosystems for carbon sequestration and increased agricultural sustainability. We conclude that, although crucial in enabling the identification of plant-derived carbon-utilising microbes, current technologies lack the high-throughput ability to quantitatively apportion carbon use by phylogentic groups and its use efficiency and destination within the microbial metabolome. It is this information that is required to inform rational manipulation of the plant–soil system to favour organisms or physiologies most important for promoting soil carbon storage in agricultural soil. PMID:24425529

  18. Phylogenetic and Genomic Analyses Resolve the Origin of Important Plant Genes Derived from Transposable Elements

    PubMed Central

    Joly-Lopez, Zoé; Hoen, Douglas R.; Blanchette, Mathieu; Bureau, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Once perceived as merely selfish, transposable elements (TEs) are now recognized as potent agents of adaptation. One way TEs contribute to evolution is through TE exaptation, a process whereby TEs, which persist by replicating in the genome, transform into novel host genes, which persist by conferring phenotypic benefits. Known exapted TEs (ETEs) contribute diverse and vital functions, and may facilitate punctuated equilibrium, yet little is known about this process. To better understand TE exaptation, we designed an approach to resolve the phylogenetic context and timing of exaptation events and subsequent patterns of ETE diversification. Starting with known ETEs, we search in diverse genomes for basal ETEs and closely related TEs, carefully curate the numerous candidate sequences, and infer detailed phylogenies. To distinguish TEs from ETEs, we also weigh several key genomic characteristics including repetitiveness, terminal repeats, pseudogenic features, and conserved domains. Applying this approach to the well-characterized plant ETEs MUG and FHY3, we show that each group is paraphyletic and we argue that this pattern demonstrates that each originated in not one but multiple exaptation events. These exaptations and subsequent ETE diversification occurred throughout angiosperm evolution including the crown group expansion, the angiosperm radiation, and the primitive evolution of angiosperms. In addition, we detect evidence of several putative novel ETE families. Our findings support the hypothesis that TE exaptation generates novel genes more frequently than is currently thought, often coinciding with key periods of evolution. PMID:27189548

  19. Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

    2010-08-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds, the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds, two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL), were investigated in suspension cultures of lemon balm. MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 cDNAs were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and the enzymes characterised. Expression analysis of both genes showed a correlation with the enzyme activities and rosmarinic acid content during a cultivation period of the suspension culture. Southern-blot analysis suggested the presence of most probably two gene copies in the M. officinalis genome of both PAL and 4CL. The genomic DNA sequences of MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 were amplified and sequenced. MoPAL1 contains one phase 2 intron of 836 bp at a conserved site, whilst Mo4CL1 was devoid of introns. PMID:20563822

  20. Phylogenetic and Genomic Analyses Resolve the Origin of Important Plant Genes Derived from Transposable Elements.

    PubMed

    Joly-Lopez, Zoé; Hoen, Douglas R; Blanchette, Mathieu; Bureau, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Once perceived as merely selfish, transposable elements (TEs) are now recognized as potent agents of adaptation. One way TEs contribute to evolution is through TE exaptation, a process whereby TEs, which persist by replicating in the genome, transform into novel host genes, which persist by conferring phenotypic benefits. Known exapted TEs (ETEs) contribute diverse and vital functions, and may facilitate punctuated equilibrium, yet little is known about this process. To better understand TE exaptation, we designed an approach to resolve the phylogenetic context and timing of exaptation events and subsequent patterns of ETE diversification. Starting with known ETEs, we search in diverse genomes for basal ETEs and closely related TEs, carefully curate the numerous candidate sequences, and infer detailed phylogenies. To distinguish TEs from ETEs, we also weigh several key genomic characteristics including repetitiveness, terminal repeats, pseudogenic features, and conserved domains. Applying this approach to the well-characterized plant ETEs MUG and FHY3, we show that each group is paraphyletic and we argue that this pattern demonstrates that each originated in not one but multiple exaptation events. These exaptations and subsequent ETE diversification occurred throughout angiosperm evolution including the crown group expansion, the angiosperm radiation, and the primitive evolution of angiosperms. In addition, we detect evidence of several putative novel ETE families. Our findings support the hypothesis that TE exaptation generates novel genes more frequently than is currently thought, often coinciding with key periods of evolution. PMID:27189548

  1. In vitro micropropagation of Dracaena sanderiana Sander ex Mast: An important indoor ornamental plant

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Junaid; Mujib, Abdul; Sharma, Maheshwar Prasad

    2012-01-01

    A protocol has been developed for in vitro plant regeneration from a nodal explant of Dracaena sanderiana Sander ex Mast. Nodal explant showed high callus induction potentiality on MS medium supplemented with 6.78 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) followed by 46.5 μM chlorophenoxy acetic acid (CPA). The highest frequency of shoot regeneration (85%) and number of shoots per explant (5.6) were obtained on medium supplemented with 7.84 μM N6-benzylaminopurine (BA). Rooting was high on MS solid compared to liquid medium when added with 7.38 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Fifty percent of the roots were also directly rooted as microcuttings on soil rite, sand and peat mixture (1:1:1). In vitro and ex vitro raised plantlets were used for acclimatization. More than 90% of the plantlets was successfully acclimatized and established in plastic pots. Ex vitro transferred plantlets were normal without any phenotypic aberrations. PMID:23961221

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of the Arabidopsis Megaspore Mother Cell Uncovers the Importance of RNA Helicases for Plant Germline Development

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Anja; Wuest, Samuel E.; Vijverberg, Kitty; Baroux, Célia; Kleen, Daniela; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2011-01-01

    Germ line specification is a crucial step in the life cycle of all organisms. For sexual plant reproduction, the megaspore mother cell (MMC) is of crucial importance: it marks the first cell of the plant “germline” lineage that gets committed to undergo meiosis. One of the meiotic products, the functional megaspore, subsequently gives rise to the haploid, multicellular female gametophyte that harbours the female gametes. The MMC is formed by selection and differentiation of a single somatic, sub-epidermal cell in the ovule. The transcriptional network underlying MMC specification and differentiation is largely unknown. We provide the first transcriptome analysis of an MMC using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with a combination of laser-assisted microdissection and microarray hybridizations. Statistical analyses identified an over-representation of translational regulation control pathways and a significant enrichment of DEAD/DEAH-box helicases in the MMC transcriptome, paralleling important features of the animal germline. Analysis of two independent T-DNA insertion lines suggests an important role of an enriched helicase, MNEME (MEM), in MMC differentiation and the restriction of the germline fate to only one cell per ovule primordium. In heterozygous mem mutants, additional enlarged MMC-like cells, which sometimes initiate female gametophyte development, were observed at higher frequencies than in the wild type. This closely resembles the phenotype of mutants affected in the small RNA and DNA-methylation pathways important for epigenetic regulation. Importantly, the mem phenotype shows features of apospory, as female gametophytes initiate from two non-sister cells in these mutants. Moreover, in mem gametophytic nuclei, both higher order chromatin structure and the distribution of LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 were affected, indicating epigenetic perturbations. In summary, the MMC transcriptome sets the stage for future functional characterization as

  3. Water flow in soil and plants: the importance of good contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carminati, A.

    2009-04-01

    Water flow in unsaturated porous media is controlled by the continuity of the liquid phase through the pore system. In many cases, the pore system is composed of regions with different material properties separated by interfaces containing macro-pores or gaps that are easily drained. When these gaps are drained the continuity of the liquid flow path may break, with a consequent decrease in the conductivity of the medium. We present two examples demonstrating the controlling role of interfaces on water flow. The first example describes an aggregated soil. Due to the aggregate roughness, the inter-aggregate contacts contain macro-pores which are rapidly drained. The hydraulic behavior of contacts varies from highly conductive when water fills the contact to a bottle-neck to flow as water pressure drops and contact asperities rapidly drained. The conductivity of the system is determined by the water-filled contact area between aggregates, rather then by the average volumetric water content. The second example refers to the contacts between soil and roots. By means of X-ray tomography we showed that during periods of drought, roots shrink and may lose contact with the soil, with a consequent reduction in water uptake. When the soil is irrigated again, roots swell partially refilling the gaps. Opening and closing of gaps may help plant to optimize water use, to prevent water loss when soil dries, and to restore the soil-root continuity after irrigation. Additionally, soil-root continuity is improved by root exudates and root hairs, which make the soil-root interface a complex and dynamic biomaterial with specific and unique properties. These two examples show that interfaces between heterogeneous media can have a big impact on water flow in porous media and demonstrate that volumetric averaging for predicting transport properties can lead to wrong results. An approach based on flow cross sections and interfacial properties may be the way to a deeper understanding and

  4. Comparative Analysis of Putative Orthologues of Mitochondrial Import Motor Subunit: Pam18 and Pam16 in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuejin; Ghazanfar, Bushra; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui

    2013-01-01

    Pam18/Tim14 and Pam16/Tim16, highly conserved proteins among eukaryotes, are two essential subunits of protein import motors localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The heterodimer formed by Pam18 and Pam16 via their J-type domains serves a regulatory function in protein translocation. Here, we report that thirty-one Pam18 and twenty-six Pam16 putative orthologues in twelve plant species were identified and analyzed through bioinformatics strategy. Results data revealed that Pam18 and Pam16 were also highly conserved among plants including their J-type domains within the hydrophilic region. Key amino acid residues and an HPD motif of Pam18 were identical among the orthologues except OsPam18L5. N-myristoylation sites of Pam18 and casein kinase II phosphorylation sites of Pam 16 were more abundant, which might be important functional sites. Some Pam18 and Pam16 proteins contained a transmembrane region at the N-terminal region. Sub-cellular prediction results indicated that many orthologues localized at mitochondria. Gene expression analyses revealed that Pam18 and Pam16 in Arabidopsis might play roles in senescence and abiotic stress responses. Our detailed study provides a better understanding of Pam18 and Pam16 in plant kingdom. PMID:24194927

  5. Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

  6. Importance of temperature control for HEFLEX, a biological experiment for Spacelab 1. [plant gravitational physiology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of temperature control to HEFLEX, a Spacelab experiment designed to measure kinetic properties of Helianthis nutation in a low-g environment, is discussed. It is argued that the development of the HEFLEX experiment has been severely hampered by the inadequate control of ambient air temperature provided by the spacecraft module design. A worst case calculation shows that delivery of only 69% of the maximum yield of useful data from the HEFLEX system is guaranteed; significant data losses from inadequate temperature control are expected. The magnitude of the expected data losses indicates that the cost reductions associated with imprecise temperature controls may prove to be a false economy in the long term.

  7. Processes entangling interactions in communities: forbidden links are more important than abundance in a hummingbird–plant network

    PubMed Central

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Sazima, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the relative importance of multiple processes on structuring species interactions within communities is one of the major challenges in ecology. Here, we evaluated the relative importance of species abundance and forbidden links in structuring a hummingbird–plant interaction network from the Atlantic rainforest in Brazil. Our results show that models incorporating phenological overlapping and morphological matches were more accurate in predicting the observed interactions than models considering species abundance. This means that forbidden links, by imposing constraints on species interactions, play a greater role than species abundance in structuring the ecological network. We also show that using the frequency of interaction as a proxy for species abundance and network metrics to describe the detailed network structure might lead to biased conclusions regarding mechanisms generating network structure. Together, our findings suggest that species abundance can be a less important driver of species interactions in communities than previously thought. PMID:24552835

  8. Processes entangling interactions in communities: forbidden links are more important than abundance in a hummingbird-plant network.

    PubMed

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Sazima, Marlies

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the relative importance of multiple processes on structuring species interactions within communities is one of the major challenges in ecology. Here, we evaluated the relative importance of species abundance and forbidden links in structuring a hummingbird-plant interaction network from the Atlantic rainforest in Brazil. Our results show that models incorporating phenological overlapping and morphological matches were more accurate in predicting the observed interactions than models considering species abundance. This means that forbidden links, by imposing constraints on species interactions, play a greater role than species abundance in structuring the ecological network. We also show that using the frequency of interaction as a proxy for species abundance and network metrics to describe the detailed network structure might lead to biased conclusions regarding mechanisms generating network structure. Together, our findings suggest that species abundance can be a less important driver of species interactions in communities than previously thought. PMID:24552835

  9. Selected Landscape Plants. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Kevin

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with commercially important woody ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 253 slides illustrating 92 different plants. Several slides are used to illustrate each plant: besides a view of…

  10. Herbaceous Ornamental Plants. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with commercially important herbaceous ornamental plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 338 slides illustrating 150 different plants. Generally, two slides are used to illustrate each plant: one slide shows…

  11. Response of plant tundra communities to changes in abiotic and biotic environments: Importance of the temporal dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccone, P.; Virtanen, R.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding of ecosystem response to changing environment have been improved by the convergence of observational and experimental approaches that allow disentangling mechanisms involved and large scale subsequent patterns. However, such approaches often face context-dependence of underlying processes, and a major challenge of community ecology is to deepen our understanding of this context-dependency for reliable upscaling. Here we used the results from several transplant experiments of heath communities in the Northern Fennoscandian during the last two decades to investigate the relative importance of abiotic and biotic drivers and the plant functional response. The plant community composition of blocks of heath vegetation from diverse origins transplanted in contrasted abiotic and biotic conditions was monitored from 6 to 23 years depending on the design. Considering both abiotic severity and biotic environment, the transplantation along altitudinal gradient constituted major habitat perturbation, in particular for communities from the mountain tundra vulnerable to strong functional shift. In addition, the joint effects of multiple drivers associated to grazing pressure and abiotic micro heterogeneity resulted in divergent community in the long-term. However, the different factors operated on different temporal scales. The vegetation depending on their origin and functional type also showed contrasted patterns from immediate and transient response to strong biological inertia. Our results reveal the potential for alternative response of plant communities depending on the interplay between the multiple drivers and the functional attributes of the vegetation. This interplay should drive plant communities toward divergent alternative states, but our ability to extrapolate longer-term trajectories from partial dynamics is challenged by the temporal differences in drivers pressure and plant response. The responses to manipulation appear as successional processes and

  12. 7 CFR 319.40-3 - General permits; articles that may be imported without a specific permit; articles that may be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General permits; articles that may be imported without a specific permit; articles that may be imported without either a specific permit or an importer document. 319.40-3 Section 319.40-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  13. Plant or fungal-produced conophthorin as an important component of host plant volatile-based attractants for agricultural lepidopteran insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conophthorin (7-methyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane) is a semiochemical common to numerous coleopteran and hymenopteran insects, and possess varying semiochemical behavior among these species. Conophthorin has recently gained attention as a semiochemical for navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepi...

  14. PRODUCTION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING SUBSTANCES IN BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM THE SEAGRASS RHIZOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants and rhizosphere bacteria have evolved chemical signals that enable their mutual growth. These relationships have been well investigated with agriculturally important plants, but not in seagrasses, which are important to the stability of estuaries. Seagrasses are rooted in ...

  15. Climate and Agriculture: Challenges for Efficient Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate has always been and will continue to be an important factor in agricultural production. Evidence of this is apparent when looking at where plants or animals are distributed around the world and the variation among years in terms of grain, forage, vegetable, and fruit production. The recent r...

  16. Leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from power plant lignite ash--influence of parameters important for environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Pergal, Miodrag M; Relić, Dubravka; Tešić, Zivoslav Lj; Popović, Aleksandar R

    2014-03-01

    Nikola Tesla B power plant (TENT B), located at the Sava River, in Obrenovac, 50 km west from the Serbian's capital, Belgrade, is the second largest coal-fired power plant in the country, consisting of two blocks, each of 620 MW capacity. In order to investigate the threat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from deposited coal ash, obtained by coal combustion in this power plant, can represent for the surrounding environment, samples of coal ash were submitted to extraction with river water used for transport of coal ash to the dump, as well as with water of different ionic strength and acidity. It was found that, out of 16 EPA priority PAHs, only naphthalene, acenaphthylene, fluorene, phenantrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were found in measurable concentrations in the different extracts. Their combined concentration was around 0.1 μg/L, so they do not, in terms of leached concentrations, represent serious danger for the surrounding environment. In all cases of established (and leached) PAH compounds, changes of ionic strength, acidity, or the presence of organic compounds in river water may to some extent influence the leached concentrations. However, under the examined conditions, similar to those present in the environment, leached concentrations were not more than 50 % greater than the concentrations leached by distilled water. Therefore, water desorption is likely the most important mechanism responsible for leaching of PAH compounds from filter coal ash. PMID:24243163

  17. The importance of natural habitats to Brazilian free-tailed bats in intensive agricultural landscapes in the Winter Garden Region of Texas, United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of natural lands to agriculture affects the distribution of biological diversity across the landscape. In particular, cropland monocultures alter insect abundance and diversity compared to adjacent natural habitats, but nevertheless can provide large numbers of insect pests as prey i...

  18. U.S. Farm and Farm-Related Employment in 1988. How Large, Important, and Regionally Different? Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 634.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majchrowicz, T. Alexander; Hopkins, David E.

    Farm and farm-related industries account for almost 18 percent of total U.S. employment in 1988. This share is based on a broad definition of the agricultural sector, including not only farm production but also industries that mine, manufacture, and sell farm inputs; process commodities; and sell consumer goods. Many jobs in industries that…

  19. Impact assessment of treated/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Mohan, Dinesh; Sinha, Sarita; Dalwani, R

    2004-04-01

    Studies were undertaken to assess the impact of wastewater/sludge disposal (metals and pesticides) from sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Jajmau, Kanpur (5 MLD) and Dinapur, Varanasi (80 MLD), on health, agriculture and environmental quality in the receiving/application areas around Kanpur and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India. The raw, treated and mixed treated urban wastewater samples were collected from the inlet and outlet points of the plants during peak (morning and evening) and non-peak (noon) hours. The impact of the treated wastewater toxicants (metals and pesticides) on the environmental quality of the disposal area was assessed in terms of their levels in different media samples viz., water, soil, crops, vegetation, and food grains. The data generated show elevated levels of metals and pesticides in all the environmental media, suggesting a definite adverse impact on the environmental quality of the disposal area. The critical levels of the heavy metals in the soil for agricultural crops are found to be much higher than those observed in the study areas receiving no effluents. The sludge from the STPs has both positive and negative impacts on agriculture as it is loaded with high levels of toxic heavy metals and pesticides, but also enriched with several useful ingredients such as N, P, and K providing fertilizer values. The sludge studied had cadmium, chromium and nickel levels above tolerable levels as prescribed for agricultural and lands application. Bio-monitoring of the metals and pesticides levels in the human blood and urine of the different population groups under study areas was undertaken. All the different approaches indicated a considerable risk and impact of heavy metals and pesticides on human health in the exposed areas receiving the wastewater from the STPs. PMID:14761695

  20. TALE1 from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis acts as a transcriptional activator in plant cells and is important for pathogenicity in cassava plants.

    PubMed

    Castiblanco, Luisa F; Gil, Juliana; Rojas, Alejandro; Osorio, Daniela; Gutiérrez, Sonia; Muñoz-Bodnar, Alejandra; Perez-Quintero, Alvaro L; Koebnik, Ralf; Szurek, Boris; López, Camilo; Restrepo, Silvia; Verdier, Valérie; Bernal, Adriana J

    2013-01-01

    Many plant-pathogenic bacteria suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity by injecting effector proteins into the host cytoplasm during infection through the type III secretion system (TTSS). This type III secretome plays an important role in bacterial pathogenicity in susceptible hosts. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam), the causal agent of cassava bacterial blight, injects several effector proteins into the host cell, including TALE1(Xam) . This protein is a member of the Transcriptional Activator-Like effector (TALE) protein family, formerly known as the AvrBs3/PthA family. TALE1(Xam) has 13.5 tandem repeats of 34 amino acids each, as well as two nuclear localization signals and an acidic activation domain at the C-terminus. In this work, we demonstrate the importance of TALE1(Xam) in the pathogenicity of Xam. We use versions of the gene that lack different domains in the protein in structure-function studies to show that the eukaryotic domains at the 3' end are critical for pathogenicity. In addition, we demonstrate that, similar to the characterized TALE proteins from other Xanthomonas species, TALE1(Xam) acts as a transcriptional activator in plant cells. This is the first report of the identification of a TALE in Xam, and contributes to our understanding of the pathogenicity mechanisms employed by this bacterium to colonize and cause disease in cassava. PMID:22947214

  1. The relative importance for plant invasiveness of trait means, and their plasticity and integration in a multivariate framework.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Oscar; Valladares, Fernando; Castro-Díez, Pilar

    2012-09-01

    Functional traits, their plasticity and their integration in a phenotype have profound impacts on plant performance. We developed structural equation models (SEMs) to evaluate their relative contribution to promote invasiveness in plants along resource gradients. We compared 20 invasive-native phylogenetically and ecologically related pairs. SEMs included one morphological (root-to-shoot ratio (R/S)) and one physiological (photosynthesis nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE)) trait, their plasticities in response to nutrient and light variation, and phenotypic integration among 31 traits. Additionally, these components were related to two fitness estimators, biomass and survival. The relative contributions of traits, plasticity and integration were similar in invasive and native species. Trait means were more important than plasticity and integration for fitness. Invasive species showed higher fitness than natives because: they had lower R/S and higher PNUE values across gradients; their higher PNUE plasticity positively influenced biomass and thus survival; and they offset more the cases where plasticity and integration had a negative direct effect on fitness. Our results suggest that invasiveness is promoted by higher values in the fitness hierarchy--trait means are more important than trait plasticity, and plasticity is similar to integration--rather than by a specific combination of the three components of the functional strategy. PMID:22709277

  2. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  3. ADJUSTMENT, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF TILLAGE, PLANTING, SPRAYING, AND FERTILIZING MACHINERY. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY-LEVEL STUDENTS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS. IT WAS DESIGNED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP (1) STUDENT UNDERSTANDING…

  4. Rural Industrialization in the Ozarks: Case Study of a New Shirt Plant at Gassville, Arkansas. Agricultural Economic Report No. 123.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordon, Max F.

    To determine the short term effects of a large apparel plant on the economy of a relatively isolated, highly rural Ozark area (8 counties), characterized by low income and few employment opportunities, this study compared 1959 data on the study area and the state of Arkansas with similar post plant data (1960-1963). Data were compared on income…

  5. Plants for Coastal Dunes of the Gulf and South Atlantic Coasts and Puerto Rico. Agriculture Information Bulletin 460.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Robert M.

    Plants that have been identified as stabilizers and beautifiers of coastal dunes are described in this publication from the Soil Conservation Service (SCS). After years of tests and field trials, the SCS has singled out 43 plants as having good potential for dune revegetation based on their characteristics for erosion control, frequency of…

  6. Rhizoctonia Crown and Root Rot Resistance of Beta Plant Introductions from the USDA, Agricultural Research Service's National Plant Germplasm System, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty wild beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang) plant introduction (PI) accessions from the Beta collection of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System were screened for resistance to Rhizoctonia root and crown rot, at the USDA-ARS Fort Collins, CO Research Farm. The Rhizoctonia sc...

  7. Plant Pathogen Culture Collections: It Takes a Village to Preserve These Resources Vital to the Advancement of Agricultural Security and Plant Pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathogen culture collections are essential resources in our fight against plant disease and for connecting discoveries of the present with established knowledge of the past. However, available infrastructure in support of culture collections is in serious need of improvement, and we continual...

  8. Importance of rhizobia in Agriculture: potential of the commercial inoculants and native strains for improving legume yields in different land-use systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesueur, D.; Atieno, M.; Mathu, S.; Herrmann, L.

    2012-04-01

    Legumes play an important role in the traditional diets of many regions throughout the world because they provide a multitude of benefits to both the soil and other crops grown in combination with them or following them in several cropping systems. The ability of legumes to fix atmospheric nitrogen in association with rhizobia gives them the capacity to grow in very degraded soils. But do we have to systematically inoculate legumes? For example our results suggested that the systematic inoculation of both cowpea and green gram in Kenya with commercial inoculants to improve yields is not really justified, native strains performing better than inoculated strains. But when native rhizobia nodulating legumes are not naturally present, application of rhizobial inoculants is very commonly used. Our results showed that the utilization of effective good-quality rhizobial inoculants by farmers have a real potential to improve legume yields in unfertile soils requesting high applications of mineral fertilizers. For example an effective soybean commercial inoculants was tested in different locations in Kenya (in about 150 farms in 3 mandate areas presenting different soil characteristics and environmental conditions). Application of the rhizobial inoculant significantly increased the soybean yields in all mandate areas (about 75% of the farms). Nodule occupancy analysis showed that a high number of nodules occupied by the inoculated strain did not obviously lead to an increase of soybean production. Soil factors (pH, P, C, N…) seemed to affect the inoculant efficiency whether the strain is occupying the nodules or not. Our statistic analysis showed that soil pH significantly affected nodulation and yield, though the effect was variable depending on the region. We concluded that the competitiveness of rhizobial strains might not be the main factor explaining the effect (or lack of) of legumes inoculation in the field. Another study was aiming to assess if several factors

  9. 7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.75 Section 319.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...; disposal of articles refused importation. (a) The Secretary has determined that in order to prevent the... States of plant pests, i.e., conditions of treatment, processing, growing, shipment, disposal; and...

  10. 7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.75 Section 319.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...; disposal of articles refused importation. (a) The Secretary has determined that in order to prevent the... States of plant pests, i.e., conditions of treatment, processing, growing, shipment, disposal; and...

  11. 7 CFR 319.75 - Restrictions on importation of restricted articles; disposal of articles refused importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; disposal of articles refused importation. 319.75 Section 319.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...; disposal of articles refused importation. (a) The Secretary has determined that in order to prevent the... States of plant pests, i.e., conditions of treatment, processing, growing, shipment, disposal; and...

  12. Antibody array in a multiwell plate format for the sensitive and multiplexed detection of important plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Elliott, Christopher T; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-07-15

    The global seed market is considered to be an important industry with a total value of $10,543 million US dollars in 2012. Because plant pathogens such as bacteria and viruses cause a significant economic loss to both producers and exporters, the seed export industry urgently requires rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive testing for the pathogens to prevent disease spreading worldwide. This study developed an antibody array in a multiwell plate format to simultaneously detect four crucial plant pathogens, namely, a bacterial fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV, potyvirus), Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV), and Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). The capture antibodies specific to the pathogens were immobilized on each well at preassigned positions by an automatic microarrayer. The antibodies on the arrays specifically captured the corresponding pathogens present in the sample extracts. The presence of pathogens bound on the capture antibodies was subsequently detected by a cocktail of fluorescently conjugated secondary antibodies. The limits of detection of the developed antibody array for the detection of Aac, ChiVMV, WSMoV, and MYSV were 5 × 10(5) CFU/mL, 30 ng/mL, 1000 ng/mL, and 160 ng/mL, respectively, which were very similar to those of the conventional ELISA method. The antibody array in a multiwell plate format accurately detected plant pathogens in single and multiple detections. Moreover, this format enables easy handling of the assay at a higher speed of operation. PMID:24945525

  13. In vitro regeneration and optimization of factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated transformation in Artemisia Pallens, an important medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Alok, Anshu; Shukla, Vishnu; Pala, Zarna; Kumar, Jitesh; Kudale, Subhash; Desai, Neetin

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia pallens is an important medicinal plant. In-vitro regeneration and multiplication of A. pallens have been established using attached cotyledons. Different growth regulators were considered for regeneration of multiple shoots. An average of 36 shoots per explants were obtained by culturing attached cotyledons on Murashige and Skoog's medium containing 2 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L NAA, after 45 days. The shoots were rooted best on half Murashige and Skoog's medium with respect to media containing 1 mg/L IBA or 1 mg/L NAA. Different parameters such as type of bacterial strains, OD600 of bacterial culture, co-cultivation duration, concentration of acetosyringone and explants type were optimized for transient expression of the reporter gene. Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring pCambia1301 plasmid carrying β-glucuronidase as a reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase as plant selectable marker genes were used for genetic transformation of A. pallens. Hygromycin lethality test showed concentration of 15 mg/L were sufficient to inhibit the growth of attached cotyledons and multiple shoot buds of nontransgenics in selection media. Up to 83 % transient transformation was found when attached cotyledons were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strain AGL1 for 2 days at 22 °C on shoot induction medium. The bacterial growth was eliminated by addition of cefotaxime (200 mg/L) in selection media. T0 transgenic plants were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay and further by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using uidA and hpt gene specific primers. The study is useful in establishing technological improvement in A. pallens by genetic engineering. PMID:27436917

  14. In vitro regeneration in Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb.) -an important medicinal plant of semi-arid ecosystem of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Mahender S; Shekhawat, Narpat S

    2013-04-01

    An efficient regeneration protocol for Sarcostemma acidum - an important medicinal plant has been established. Callus initiated from nodal explant on MS medium with 2.0 mg L(-1) of NAA + additives. Callus initiated was subcultured on MS medium containing various concentrations of NAA or 2,4-D. Out of these combinations, MS medium +1.0 mg L(-1) of NAA + additives was found to be effective for the multiplication of callus. Subculture was done after an interval of 20-22 days. For differentiation of callus BAP or Kinetin alone was found to be less effective. Maximum frequency of shoot regeneration recorded on MS medium +1.0 mg L(-1) of BAP + 0.5 mg L(-1) of Kinetin and 0.1 mg L(-1) of NAA + additives. The in vitro differentiated shoots were excised and inoculated on 1/4 strength MS medium +2.0 mg L(-1) of IBA + 0.02 % activated charcoal for in vitro rooting. Maximum response (90 %) was recorded on this medium. In vitro differentiated shoots were inoculated on autoclaved soilrite® after treatment with root inducing auxins. Ex vitro rooting in this plant species has been reported for the first time. Eighty five percent of the shoots rooted under ex vitro conditions. Both in vitro and ex vitro rooted plantlets were hardened in a green house. PMID:24431495

  15. The Structure of a Plant Tyrosinase from Walnut Leaves Reveals the Importance of "Substrate-Guiding Residues" for Enzymatic Specificity.

    PubMed

    Bijelic, Aleksandar; Pretzler, Matthias; Molitor, Christian; Zekiri, Florime; Rompel, Annette

    2015-12-01

    Tyrosinases and catechol oxidases are members of the class of type III copper enzymes. While tyrosinases accept both mono- and o-diphenols as substrates, only the latter substrate is converted by catechol oxidases. Researchers have been working for decades to elucidate the monophenolase/diphenolase specificity on a structural level and have introduced an early hypothesis that states that the reason for the lack of monophenolase activity in catechol oxidases may be its structurally restricted active site. However, recent structural and biochemical studies of this enzyme class have raised doubts about this theory. Herein, the first crystal structure of a plant tyrosinase (from Juglans regia) is presented. The structure reveals that the distinction between mono- and diphenolase activity does not depend on the degree of restriction of the active site, and thus a more important role for amino acid residues located at the entrance to and in the second shell of the active site is proposed. PMID:26473311

  16. Waste ashes for use in agricultural production: I. Liming effect, contents of plant nutrients and chemical characteristics of some metals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fu-Shen; Yamasaki, S; Nanzyo, M

    2002-02-01

    The chemical characteristics of 89 municipal waste ashes, including food scrap ash (FSA), animal waste ash (AWA), horticulture waste ash (HWA), sewage sludge ash (SSA) and incinerator bottom ash (IBA), from various locations in Japan were examined with the aim of evaluating their suitability for use in agriculture. Although the waste ashes came from different sources and consisted of various materials, the gross elemental composition was similar. Acid neutralization capacity (liming effect) for the waste ashes was equivalent to 10-30% of CaO and followed the sequence SSA > IBA > AWA > FSA > HWA. Average P concentrations for the five types of waste ashes ranged from 10 to 29 g kg(-1) and average K concentrations ranged from 14 to 63 g kg(-1), respectively. Metal contents in the waste ashes were compared with levels in Japanese agricultural soils. K in the waste ashes was 1.3-6 times higher and Ca was 3-12 times higher; contents of the other metals in FSA, AWA and HWA were generally less than five times higher, but Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb in SSA or IBA were approximately 10-200 times higher than those in soils. Moreover, the ceiling amounts of waste ashes that may be applied to main Japanese agricultural soils were calculated by using soil contamination standards for Cu. Water solubility of P and metals in the waste ashes were also examined. PMID:11846166

  17. Mass and number size distributions of emitted particulates at five important operation units in a hazardous industrial waste incineration plant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Hsiao, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Past studies indicated particulates generated by waste incineration contain various hazardous compounds. The aerosol characteristics are very important for particulate hazard control and workers' protection. This study explores the detailed characteristics of emitted particulates from each important operation unit in a rotary kiln-based hazardous industrial waste incineration plant. A dust size analyzer (Grimm 1.109) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were used to measure the aerosol mass concentration, mass size distribution, and number size distribution at five operation units (S1-S5) during periods of normal operation, furnace shutdown, and annual maintenance. The place with the highest measured PM10 concentration was located at the area of fly ash discharge from air pollution control equipment (S5) during the period of normal operation. Fine particles (PM2.5) constituted the majority of the emitted particles from the incineration plant. The mass size distributions (elucidated) made it clear that the size of aerosols caused by the increased particulate mass, resulting from work activities, were mostly greater than 1.5 μm. Whereas the number size distributions showed that the major diameters of particulates that caused the increase of particulate number concentrations, from work activities, were distributed in the sub micrometer range. The process of discharging fly ash from air pollution control equipment can significantly increase the emission of nanoparticles. The mass concentrations and size distributions of emitted particulates were different at each operation unit. This information is valuable for managers to take appropriate strategy to reduce the particulate emission and associated worker exposure. PMID:26771771

  18. Facilitated by nature and agriculture: performance of a specialist herbivore improves with host-plant life history evolution, domestication, and breeding.

    PubMed

    Dávila-Flores, Amanda M; DeWitt, Thomas J; Bernal, Julio S

    2013-12-01

    Plant defenses against herbivores are predicted to change as plant lineages diversify, and with domestication and subsequent selection and breeding in the case of crop plants. We addressed whether defense against a specialist herbivore declined coincidently with life history evolution, domestication, and breeding within the grass genus Zea (Poaceae). For this, we assessed performance of corn leafhopper (Dalbulus maidis) following colonization of one of four Zea species containing three successive transitions: the evolutionary transition from perennial to annual life cycle, the agricultural transition from wild annual grass to primitive crop cultivar, and the agronomic transition from primitive to modern crop cultivar. Performance of corn leafhopper was measured through seven variables relevant to development speed, survivorship, fecundity, and body size. The plants included in our study were perennial teosinte (Zea diploperennis), Balsas teosinte (Zea mays parviglumis), a landrace maize (Zea mays mays), and a hybrid maize. Perennial teosinte is a perennial, iteroparous species, and is basal in Zea; Balsas teosinte is an annual species, and the progenitor of maize; the landrace maize is a primitive, genetically diverse cultivar, and is ancestral to the hybrid maize; and, the hybrid maize is a highly inbred, modern cultivar. Performance of corn leafhopper was poorest on perennial teosinte, intermediate on Balsas teosinte and landrace maize, and best on hybrid maize, consistent with our expectation of declining defense from perennial teosinte to hybrid maize. Overall, our results indicated that corn leafhopper performance increased most with the agronomic transition, followed by the life history transition, and least with the domestication transition. PMID:23868032

  19. N-acetylcysteine in agriculture, a novel use for an old molecule: focus on controlling the plant-pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Muranaka, Lígia S; Giorgiano, Thais E; Takita, Marco A; Forim, Moacir R; Silva, Luis F C; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Machado, Marcos A; de Souza, Alessandra A

    2013-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen bacterium that causes diseases in many different crops. In citrus, it causes Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC). The mechanism of pathogenicity of this bacterium is associated with its capacity to colonize and form a biofilm in the xylem vessels of host plants, and there is not yet any method to directly reduce populations of this pathogen in the field. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine analogue used mainly to treat human diseases, on X. fastidiosa in different experimental conditions. Concentrations of NAC over 1 mg/mL reduced bacterial adhesion to glass surfaces, biofilm formation and the amount of exopolysaccharides (EPS). The minimal inhibitory concentration of NAC was 6 mg/mL. NAC was supplied to X. fastidiosa-infected plants in hydroponics, fertigation, and adsorbed to organic fertilizer (NAC-Fertilizer). HPLC analysis indicated that plants absorbed NAC at concentrations of 0.48 and 2.4 mg/mL but not at 6 mg/mL. Sweet orange plants with CVC symptoms treated with NAC (0.48 and 2.4 mg/mL) in hydroponics showed clear symptom remission and reduction in bacterial population, as analyzed by quantitative PCR and bacterial isolation. Experiments using fertigation and NAC-Fertilizer were done to simulate a condition closer to that normally is used in the field. For both, significant symptom remission and a reduced bacterial growth rate were observed. Using NAC-Fertilizer the lag for resurgence of symptoms on leaves after interruption of the treatment increased to around eight months. This is the first report of the anti-bacterial effect of NAC against a phytopathogenic bacterium. The results obtained in this work together with the characteristics of this molecule indicate that the use of NAC in agriculture might be a new and sustainable strategy for controlling plant pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24009716

  20. Evolution of the teachings of chemistry in the new degrees of School of Agricultural Engineering and its importance in the acquisition of competencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, Augusto; Tarquis, Ana M.; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Requejo, Maria Isabel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen

    2014-05-01

    The academic year 2012-13 is the third year of implementation of the Bologna process in ETSI Agricultural for the subjects Chemistry I and Chemistry II in the new four Degrees: Graduate in Engineering and Agricultural Science, Food Engineering Graduate, Graduate in Engineering Environmental and Biotechnology graduate. We have implemented new interactive methodologies in the teaching-learning process based on the use of the virtual platform of the UPM, and teaching support materials and new laboratory practice developing has. It has also launched new continuous assessment systems that promote active student participation. A comparative study of academic achievements by students of the new grades in the subjects of chemistry during the last three academic years was performed to correlating the results obtained, the success rate and the drop out, and compare with the level of prior knowledge to those entering students. Possible solutions to try and fix these results in future courses are proposed Finally, the general competencies that contribute this course, how they are acquired and how they should be evaluated correctly are indicated. Acknowledgments: Innovation educative projects Nº IE02054-11/12 UPM. 2012

  1. In Situ 3D Segmentation of Individual Plant Leaves Using a RGB-D Camera for Agricultural Automation

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Chunlei; Wang, Longtan; Chung, Bu-Keun; Lee, Jang-Myung

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a challenging task of 3D segmentation of individual plant leaves from occlusions in the complicated natural scene. Depth data of plant leaves is introduced to improve the robustness of plant leaf segmentation. The low cost RGB-D camera is utilized to capture depth and color image in fields. Mean shift clustering is applied to segment plant leaves in depth image. Plant leaves are extracted from the natural background by examining vegetation of the candidate segments produced by mean shift. Subsequently, individual leaves are segmented from occlusions by active contour models. Automatic initialization of the active contour models is implemented by calculating the center of divergence from the gradient vector field of depth image. The proposed segmentation scheme is tested through experiments under greenhouse conditions. The overall segmentation rate is 87.97% while segmentation rates for single and occluded leaves are 92.10% and 86.67%, respectively. Approximately half of the experimental results show segmentation rates of individual leaves higher than 90%. Nevertheless, the proposed method is able to segment individual leaves from heavy occlusions. PMID:26295395

  2. 7 CFR 319.24-1 - Applications for permits for importation of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for permits for importation of corn. 319... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-1 Applications for permits for importation...

  3. 7 CFR 319.24-1 - Applications for permits for importation of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applications for permits for importation of corn. 319... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-1 Applications for permits for importation...

  4. 7 CFR 319.24-1 - Applications for permits for importation of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applications for permits for importation of corn. 319... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-1 Applications for permits for importation...

  5. 7 CFR 319.24-1 - Applications for permits for importation of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applications for permits for importation of corn. 319... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-1 Applications for permits for importation...

  6. 7 CFR 319.24-1 - Applications for permits for importation of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applications for permits for importation of corn. 319... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-1 Applications for permits for importation...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-10 - Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. 319... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-10 Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (a) General permit for fruits...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-10 - Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. 319... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-10 Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (a) General permit for fruits...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-10 - Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. 319... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-10 Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (a) General permit for fruits...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-10 - Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. 319... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-10 Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (a) General permit for fruits...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-10 - Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. 319... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-10 Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (a) General permit for fruits...

  12. Plant-mediated biosynthesis of nanoparticles as an emerging tool against mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance: a review.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. Mosquito young instars are usually targeted with organophosphates, insect growth regulators and microbial control agents. Indoors residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have strong negative effects on human health and the environment. Newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance control of mosquitoes. In this review, I focus on characterization, effectiveness, and non-target effects of mosquitocidal nanoparticles synthesized using botanical products (mosquitocidal nanoparticles, MNP). The majority of plant-fabricated MNP are silver ones. The synthesis of MNP is usually confirmed by UV-visualization spectroscopy, followed by scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. Interestingly, plant-synthesized metal nanoparticles have been reported as effective ovicides, larvicides, pupicides, adulticides, and oviposition deterrents against different mosquito species of medical and veterinary importance. Few parts per million of different MNP are highly toxic against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and the filariasis mosquito Culex quiquefasciatus. However, despite the growing number of evidences about the effectiveness of MNP, moderate efforts have been carried out to shed light on their possible non-target effects against mosquito's natural enemies and other aquatic organisms. In the final section, particular attention was dedicated to this issue. A number of hot areas that need further research and cooperation among parasitologists and entomologists are highlighted. PMID:26541154

  13. Ruminal Prevotella spp. may play an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into human health beneficial antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Schogor, Ana L B; Huws, Sharon A; Santos, Geraldo T D; Scollan, Nigel D; Hauck, Barbara D; Winters, Ana L; Kim, Eun J; Petit, Hélène V

    2014-01-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the most abundant lignan in flaxseed, is metabolized by the ruminal microbiota into enterolignans, which are strong antioxidants. Enterolactone (EL), the main mammalian enterolignan produced in the rumen, is transferred into physiological fluids, with potentially human health benefits with respect to menopausal symptoms, hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and diabetes. However, no information exists to our knowledge on bacterial taxa that play a role in converting plant lignans into EL in ruminants. In order to investigate this, eight rumen cannulated cows were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed with four treatments: control with no flax meal (FM), or 5%, 10% and 15% FM (on a dry matter basis). Concentration of EL in the rumen increased linearly with increasing FM inclusion. Total rumen bacterial 16S rRNA concentration obtained using Q-PCR did not differ among treatments. PCR-T-RFLP based dendrograms revealed no global clustering based on diet indicating between animal variation. PCR-DGGE showed a clustering by diet effect within four cows that had similar basal ruminal microbiota. DNA extracted from bands present following feeding 15% FM and absent with no FM supplementation were sequenced and it showed that many genera, in particular Prevotella spp., contributed to the metabolism of lignans. A subsequent in vitro study using selected pure cultures of ruminal bacteria incubated with SDG indicated that 11 ruminal bacteria were able to convert SDG into secoisolariciresinol (SECO), with Prevotella spp. being the main converters. These data suggest that Prevotella spp. is one genus playing an important role in the conversion of plant lignans to human health beneficial antioxidants in the rumen. PMID:24709940

  14. The reactivity of plant-derived organic matter and the potential importance of priming effects along the lower Amazon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Nicholas D.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Gagne-Maynard, William; Cunha, Alan C.; Brito, Daimio C.; Neu, Vania; Matos Valerio, Aline; Silva, Rodrigo; Krusche, Alex V.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Keil, Richard G.

    2016-06-01

    Here we present direct measurements of the biological breakdown of 13C-labeled substrates to CO2 at seven locations along the lower Amazon River, from Óbidos to the mouth. Dark incubation experiments were performed at high and low water periods using vanillin, a lignin phenol derived from vascular plants, and at the high water period using four different 13C-labeled plant litter leachates. Leachates derived from oak wood were degraded most slowly with vanillin monomers, macrophyte leaves, macrophyte stems, and whole grass leachates being converted to CO2 1.2, 1.3, 1.7, and 2.3 times faster, respectively, at the upstream boundary, Óbidos. Relative to Óbidos, the sum degradation rate of all four leachates was 3.3 and 2.6 times faster in the algae-rich Tapajós and Xingu Rivers, respectively. Likewise, the leachates were broken down 3.2 times more quickly at Óbidos when algal biomass from the Tapajós River was simultaneously added. Leachate reactivity similarly increased from Óbidos to the mouth with leachates breaking down 1.7 times more quickly at Almeirim (midway to the mouth) and 2.8 times more quickly across the river mouth. There was no discernible correlation between in situ nutrient levels and remineralization rates, suggesting that priming effects were an important factor controlling reactivity along the continuum. Further, continuous measurements of CO2, O2, and conductivity along the confluence of the Tapajós and Amazon Rivers and the Xingu and Jarauçu Rivers revealed in situ evidence for enhanced O2 drawdown and CO2 production along the mixing zone of these confluences.

  15. How much detail and accuracy is required in plant growth sub-models to address questions about optimal management strategies in agricultural systems?

    PubMed Central

    Renton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Simulations that integrate sub-models of important biological processes can be used to ask questions about optimal management strategies in agricultural and ecological systems. Building sub-models with more detail and aiming for greater accuracy and realism may seem attractive, but is likely to be more expensive and time-consuming and result in more complicated models that lack transparency. This paper illustrates a general integrated approach for constructing models of agricultural and ecological systems that is based on the principle of starting simple and then directly testing for the need to add additional detail and complexity. Methodology The approach is demonstrated using LUSO (Land Use Sequence Optimizer), an agricultural system analysis framework based on simulation and optimization. A simple sensitivity analysis and functional perturbation analysis is used to test to what extent LUSO's crop–weed competition sub-model affects the answers to a number of questions at the scale of the whole farming system regarding optimal land-use sequencing strategies and resulting profitability. Principal results The need for accuracy in the crop–weed competition sub-model within LUSO depended to a small extent on the parameter being varied, but more importantly and interestingly on the type of question being addressed with the model. Only a small part of the crop–weed competition model actually affects the answers to these questions. Conclusions This study illustrates an example application of the proposed integrated approach for constructing models of agricultural and ecological systems based on testing whether complexity needs to be added to address particular questions of interest. We conclude that this example clearly demonstrates the potential value of the general approach. Advantages of this approach include minimizing costs and resources required for model construction, keeping models transparent and easy to analyse, and ensuring the model

  16. Effects of agricultural tillage and sediment accumulation on emergent plant communities in playa wetlands of the U.S. High Plains.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Jessica L; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Daniel, Dale W; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A

    2013-05-15

    Identifying community assembly filters is a primary ecological aim. The High Plains, a 30 million ha short-grass eco-region, is intensely cultivated. Cultivation disturbance, including plowing and eroded soil deposition down-slope of plowing, influences plant composition in depressional wetlands, such as playas, within croplands. We evaluated influences of wetland cultivation and sediment deposition on plant composition in playas embedded within croplands (46 plowed and 32 unplowed) and native grasslands (79) across 6 High Plains' states. Sediment accumulation ranged from 7 to 78 cm in cropland and 1 to 35 cm in grassland playas. Deeper sediments and plowing each decreased wetland plant richness, 28% and 70% respectively in cropland wetlands. Sediment depth reduced richness 37% in small grasslands playas while it increased richness 22% in larger ones, suggesting moderate disturbance increased richness when there were nearby propagule sources. Sediment depth was unrelated to species richness in plowed wetlands, probably because plowing was a strong disturbance. Plowing removed perennial plants from vegetation communities. Sediment accumulation also influenced species composition in cropland playas, e.g., probability of Eleocharis atropurpurea increased with sediment depth, while probability of Panicum capillare decreased. In grassland playas, observed lighter sediment depths did not influence species composition after accounting for wetland area. Sediment accumulation and plowing shift wetland plant communities toward annual species and decrease habitat connectivity for wetland-dependent organisms in cropland playas over 39,000 and 23,400 ha respectively. Conservation practices lessening sediment accumulation include short-grass buffer strips surrounding wetlands. Further, wetland tillage, allowed under federal agricultural conservation programs, should be eliminated. PMID:23500104

  17. Impact of temperature on the dynamics of organic matter and on the soil-to-plant transfer of Cd, Zn and Pb in a contaminated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Jean-Yves; Denaix, L; Lacoste, J; Sappin-Didier, V; Nguyen, C; Schneider, A

    2016-02-01

    Predicting the soil-to-plant transfer of metals in the context of global warming has become a major issue for food safety. It requires a better understanding of how the temperature alters the bioavailability of metals in cultivated soils. This study focuses on one agricultural soil contaminated by Cd, Zn and Pb. DGT measurements were performed at 10, 20 and 30 °C to assess how the bioavailability of metals was affected by a rise in soil temperature. A lettuce crop was cultivated in the same conditions to determine if the soil-to-plant transfer of metals increased with a rise in soil temperature. A gradual decline in Cd and Zn bioavailability was observed from 10 to 30 °C, which was attributed to more intense complexation of metals in the pore water at higher temperatures. Together with its aromaticity, the affinity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) for metals was indeed suspected to increase with soil temperature. One main output of the present work is a model which satisfactorily explains the thermal-induced changes in the characteristics of DOM reported in Cornu et al. (Geoderma 162:65-70, 2011) by assuming that the mineralization of initial aliphatic compounds followed a first-order reaction, increased with soil temperature according to the Arrhenius law, and due to a priming effect, led to the appearance of aromatic molecules. The soil-to-plant transfer of Cd and Zn was promoted at higher soil temperatures despite a parallel decrease in Cd and Zn bioavailability. This suggests that plant processes affect the soil-to-plant transfer of Cd and Zn the most when the soil temperature rises. PMID:26452657

  18. POTENTIAL ECOLOGICAL AND NONTARGET EFFECTS OF TRANSGENIC PLANT GENE PRODUCTS ON AGRICULTURE, SILVICULTURE, AND NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS: GENERAL INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A symposium was held at the University of Maryland Nov. 30 - Dec. 2, 1992, to discuss transgenic plant risk assessment issues for measurement and identification of potential ecological and nontarget organism effects. he goal was to identify available scientific information and hi...

  19. 7 CFR 361.8 - Cleaning of imported seed and processing of certain Canadian-origin screenings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cleaning of imported seed and processing of certain... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.8 Cleaning of imported seed and processing of certain...

  20. Formulations of polymeric biodegradable low-cost foam by melt extrusion to deliver plant growth-promoting bacteria in agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, Paulo Ricardo Franco; Milani, Karina Maria Lima; Mali, Suzana; Santos, Odair José Andrade Pais Dos; de Oliveira, André Luiz Martinez

    2016-08-01

    The extrusion technology of blends formed by compounds with different physicochemical properties often results in new materials that present properties distinctive from its original individual constituents. Here, we report the use of melt extrusion of blends made from low-cost materials to produce a biodegradable foam suitable for use as an inoculant carrier of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). Six formulations were prepared with variable proportions of the raw materials; the resulting physicochemical and structural properties are described, as well as formulation performance in the maintenance of bacterial viability during 120 days of storage. Differences in blend composition influenced foam density, porosity, expansion index, and water absorption. Additionally, differences in the capability of sustaining bacterial viability for long periods of time were more related to the foam composition than to the resulting physicochemical characteristics. Microscopic analyses showed that the inoculant bacteria had firmly attached to the extruded material by forming biofilms. Inoculation assays using maize plants demonstrated that the bacteria attached to the extruded foams could survive in the soil for up to 10 days before maize sowing, without diminishing its ability to promote plant growth. The results presented demonstrate the viability of the new matrix as a biotechnological material for bacterial delivery not only in agriculture but also in other biotechnological applications, according to the selected bacterial strains. PMID:27147530

  1. Effectiveness of Rice Agricultural Waste, Microbes and Wetland Plants in the Removal of Reactive Black-5 Azo Dye in Microcosm Constructed Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Saba, Beenish; Jabeen, Madeeha; Khalid, Azeem; Aziz, Irfan; Christy, Ann D

    2015-01-01

    Azo dyes are commonly generated as effluent pollutants by dye using industries, causing contamination of surface and ground water. Various strategies are employed to treat such wastewater; however, a multi-faceted treatment strategy could be more effective for complete removal of azo dyes from industrial effluent than any single treatment. In the present study, rice husk material was used as a substratum in two constructed wetlands (CWs) and augmented with microorganisms in the presence of wetland plants to effectively treat dye-polluted water. To evaluate the efficiency of each process the study was divided into three levels, i.e., adsorption of dye onto the substratum, phytoremediation within the CW and then bioremediation along with the previous two processes in the augmented CW. The adsorption process was helpful in removing 50% dye in presence of rice husk while 80% in presence of rice husk biocahr. Augmentation of microorganisms in CW systems has improved dye removal efficiency to 90%. Similarly presence of microorganisms enhanced removal of total nitrogen (68% 0 and Total phosphorus (75%). A significant improvement in plant growth was also observed by measuring plant height, number of leaves and leave area. These findings suggest the use of agricultural waste as part of a CW substratum can provide enhanced removal of textile dyes. PMID:25849115

  2. Ancient oak climate proxies from the agricultural heartland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyette, Richard P.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Dey, Daniel C.

    2004-11-01

    Understanding the long-term variability in climate has important societal implications, particularly for agricultural regions that are suppliers to global food markets such as the central United States. Paleoclimate information from agriculturally important regions of the central United States is limited in length and resolution.Tree rings provide one of the longest and highest-resolution paleoclimate records for North America; however, millennium-length records are primarily from extreme environments (e.g., deserts, cliffs, high elevations) and do not represent climate-plant responses in the central U.S. agricultural region.

  3. Effects of climate change on agricultural-plant pests. Volume II, Part 10 of environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Plant pests and their community of biotic cohorts respond to climatic changes, whether temporal aberrations or long term shifts. How they respond depends on the magnitude of the change and the ability of the species to tolerate or adapt to the new environment. Scientists see several climatological scenarios concerning the increase of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ and ambient temperature. Those who foresee a slow incremental raising of temperatures base their predictions mainly on the available empirical evidence and the notion that long term weather is basically a cyclical phenomena that continually adjusts and readjusts through time. The other scenario interprets the available empirical data as a gradual buildup that pushes the climatic picture towards a threshold or a trigger point that, once arrived at, is irreversible and dramatic. This paper explores the possible climatic scenarios as they relate to the ecological principles that affect pest abundance and the distribution and impact on domestic and international agriculture.

  4. Piper nigrum Leaf and Stem Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial Activity Against Agricultural Plant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Paulkumar, Kanniah; Gnanajobitha, Gnanadhas; Vanaja, Mahendran; Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of biological materials in synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the hottest topics in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the present investigation, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using the leaf and stem extract of Piper nigrum. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The observation of the peak at 460 nm in the UV-vis spectra for leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Further, XRD analysis has been carried out to confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The TEM images show that the leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles were within the size of about 7–50 nm and 9–30 nm, respectively. The FTIR analysis was performed to identify the possible functional groups involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further, the antibacterial activity of the green-synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined against agricultural plant pathogens. The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles is a beneficial application in the field of agricultural nanotechnology. PMID:24558336

  5. Phylogenetic analyses of RPB1 and RPB2 support a middle Cretaceous origin for a clade comprising all agriculturally and medically important fusaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) is one of the most economically important and systematically challenging groups of mycotoxigenic phytopathogens and emergent human pathogens. We conducted maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian (B) analyses on partial RNA polymerase largest (...

  6. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  7. Deletion of a gene cluster encoding pectin degrading enzymes in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii reveals an important role for pectin in plant biomass recalcitrance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chung, Daehwan; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Biswal, Ajaya K.; Hahn, Michael G.; Mohnen, Debra; Westpheling, Janet

    2014-10-10

    A major obstacle, and perhaps the most important economic barrier to the effective use of plant biomass for the production of fuels, chemicals, and bioproducts, is our current lack of knowledge of how to efficiently and effectively deconstruct wall polymers for their subsequent use as feedstocks. Plants represent the most desired source of renewable energy and hydrocarbons because they fix CO2, making their use carbon neutral. Their biomass structure, however, is a barrier to deconstruction, and this is often referred to as recalcitrance. Members of the bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor have the ability to grow on unpretreated plant biomass and thusmore » provide an assay for plant deconstruction and biomass recalcitrance. Using recently developed genetic tools for manipulation of these bacteria, a deletion of a gene cluster encoding enzymes for pectin degradation was constructed, and the resulting mutant was reduced in its ability to grow on both dicot and grass biomass, but not on soluble sugars. The plant biomass from three phylogenetically diverse plants, Arabidopsis (a herbaceous dicot), switchgrass (a monocot grass), and poplar (a woody dicot), was used in these analyses. These biomass types have cell walls that are significantly different from each other in both structure and composition. While pectin is a relatively minor component of the grass and woody dicot substrates, the reduced growth of the mutant on all three biomass types provides direct evidence that pectin plays an important role in biomass recalcitrance. Glycome profiling of the plant material remaining after growth of the mutant on Arabidopsis biomass compared to the wild-type revealed differences in the rhamnogalacturonan I, homogalacturonan, arabinogalactan, and xylan profiles. In contrast, only minor differences were observed in the glycome profiles of the switchgrass and poplar biomass. In conclusion, the combination of microbial digestion and plant biomass analysis provides a new and

  8. Deletion of a gene cluster encoding pectin degrading enzymes in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii reveals an important role for pectin in plant biomass recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Daehwan; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Biswal, Ajaya K.; Hahn, Michael G.; Mohnen, Debra; Westpheling, Janet

    2014-10-10

    A major obstacle, and perhaps the most important economic barrier to the effective use of plant biomass for the production of fuels, chemicals, and bioproducts, is our current lack of knowledge of how to efficiently and effectively deconstruct wall polymers for their subsequent use as feedstocks. Plants represent the most desired source of renewable energy and hydrocarbons because they fix CO2, making their use carbon neutral. Their biomass structure, however, is a barrier to deconstruction, and this is often referred to as recalcitrance. Members of the bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor have the ability to grow on unpretreated plant biomass and thus provide an assay for plant deconstruction and biomass recalcitrance. Using recently developed genetic tools for manipulation of these bacteria, a deletion of a gene cluster encoding enzymes for pectin degradation was constructed, and the resulting mutant was reduced in its ability to grow on both dicot and grass biomass, but not on soluble sugars. The plant biomass from three phylogenetically diverse plants, Arabidopsis (a herbaceous dicot), switchgrass (a monocot grass), and poplar (a woody dicot), was used in these analyses. These biomass types have cell walls that are significantly different from each other in both structure and composition. While pectin is a relatively minor component of the grass and woody dicot substrates, the reduced growth of the mutant on all three biomass types provides direct evidence that pectin plays an important role in biomass recalcitrance. Glycome profiling of the plant material remaining after growth of the mutant on Arabidopsis biomass compared to the wild-type revealed differences in the rhamnogalacturonan I, homogalacturonan, arabinogalactan, and xylan profiles. In contrast, only minor differences were observed in the glycome profiles of the switchgrass and poplar biomass. In conclusion, the combination of microbial digestion and plant biomass analysis provides a new

  9. 75 FR 62484 - Importation of Shepherd's Purse With Roots From the Republic of Korea Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... while the plant is in foreign commerce. Fresh fruits are generally imported for immediate distribution...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD26 Importation... Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We are proposing to amend...

  10. Root and bacterial secretions regulate the interaction between plants and PGPR leading to distinct plant growth promotion effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have garnered interest in agriculture due to their ability to influence the growth and production of host plants. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play important roles in plant-microbe interactions by modulating plant root exudation. The present stu...

  11. Infestation of Raoiella indica Hirst (Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) on Host Plants of High Socio-Economic Importance for Tropical America.

    PubMed

    Otero-Colina, G; González-Gómez, R; Martínez-Bolaños, L; Otero-Prevost, L G; López-Buenfil, J A; Escobedo-Graciamedrano, R M

    2016-06-01

    The mite Raoiella indica Hirst was recently introduced into America, where it has shown amazing ability to disseminate and broaden its range of hosts. An experiment was conducted in Cancún, Mexico, to determine infestation levels of this mite on plants recorded as hosts: coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) of cultivars Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) hybrids Deli x Ghana and Deli x Nigeria, Dwarf Giant banana (Musa acuminata, AAA subgroup Cavendish), Horn plantain (M. acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB subgroup Plantain), lobster claw (Heliconia bihai), and red ginger (Alpinia purpurata). Nursery plants of these host species or cultivars were artificially infested with R. indica in February 2011. In the four replications of 10 plants, each plant was infested with 200 R. indica specimens, and the numbers of infesting mites were recorded for 6 months. A maximum of 18,000 specimens per plant were observed on coconut Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, followed by lobster claw, with a maximum of 1000 specimens per plant. Infestations were minimal for the remaining plants. Mite numbers on all plants declined naturally during the rainy season. All plant materials sustained overlapping mite generations, indicating that they are true hosts. Complementarily, infestation level was determined in backyard bananas and plantains. Correlations of infestation with plant height, distance from coconuts, and exposure to direct sunlight were estimated. Both bananas and plantains were infested by R. indica even when situated far from infested coconut palms. A Spearman correlation was found between infestation and plant height, although it was significant only for Silk plantain. PMID:26874954

  12. Recognising Differences in Weed and Crop Species Recognition Skills of Agriculture Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Geoffrey E.

    2012-01-01

    Students in an agricultural science degree were surveyed to assess their ability to recognise plants of agricultural importance. The survey consisted of high quality images of 25 species. Students were surveyed at the start of their studies in first year, and at various times during their second year of studies. At the start of their studies…

  13. [Impact of pesticides on biodiversity in agricultural areas].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunhua; Chen, Xin

    2004-02-01

    Large amount application of pesticides caused a lot of ecological and environmental problems, among which, the impact of pesticides on biodiversity was most important. In this paper, an overview of the impacts of pesticides on biodiversity in agricultural areas, including the community structure of insects, populations of soil invertebrates and microorganisms, and plant communities was provided, and the reasonable use of pesticides and the measures of protecting biodiversity in agricultural areas were also put forward. PMID:15146653

  14. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on non-native plants: comparison of two important Southeastern ornamentals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some of the plants intentionally introduced to the U.S. for use as horticultural crops have become serious invasive weeds. Understanding how the increasing level of CO2 in the atmosphere will effect landscape plants will aid future selection and management of useful ornamentals and may help predic...

  15. Could structural similarity of specific domains between animal globins and plant antenna proteins provide hints important for the photoprotection mechanism?

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Non photochemical quenching is a fundamental mechanism in photosynthesis, which protects plants against excess excitation energy and is of crucial importance for their survival and fitness. In the last decades hundreds of papers have appeared that describe the role of antenna regulation in protection or the so called qE response. However, the exact quenching site is still obscure. Previously overlooked features of the antenna may provide hints towards the elucidation of its functionality and of the quenching mechanism. Recently it was demonstrated that the catalytic domain of human myoglobin that binds the pigment (i.e. heme) is similar in structure to the domain of the light harvesting complex II of pea that binds Chl a 614 (former known as b3). In addition, it is well accepted that conformational changes of the chlorophyll macrocycle result in reversible changes of fluorescence (the lowest fluorescence corresponds to non planar macrocycle). Here we put forward a hypothesis regarding the molecular mechanism that leads to the formation of a quenching center inside the antenna proteins. Our main suggestion is that a conformational change of helix H5 (known also as helix D) forces conformational changes in the macrocycle of Chl a 614 is implicated in the ΔA535 absorbance change and quenching during photoprotective qE. The specific features (some of them similar to those of heme domain of globins) of the b3 domain account for these traits. The model predicts that antenna proteins having b3 pigments (i.e. LHCII, CP29, CP26) can act as potential quenchers. PMID:25218499

  16. Association Mapping in Scandinavian Winter Wheat for Yield, Plant Height, and Traits Important for Second-Generation Bioethanol Production.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Andrea; Torp, Anna Maria; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Andersen, Sven B; Rasmussen, Søren K

    2015-01-01

    A collection of 100 wheat varieties representing more than 100 years of wheat-breeding history in Scandinavia was established in order to identify marker-trait associations for plant height (PH), grain yield (GY), and biomass potential for bioethanol production. The field-grown material showed variations in PH from 54 to 122 cm and in GY from 2 to 6.61 t ha(-1). The release of monomeric sugars was determined by high-throughput enzymatic treatment of ligno-cellulosic material and varied between 0.169 and 0.312 g/g dm for glucose (GLU) and 0.146 and 0.283 g/g dm for xylose (XYL). As expected, PH and GY showed to be highly influenced by genetic factors with repeatability (R) equal to 0.75 and 0.53, respectively, while this was reduced for GLU and XYL (R = 0.09 for both). The study of trait correlations showed how old, low-yielding, tall varieties released higher amounts of monomeric sugars after straw enzymatic hydrolysis, showing reduced recalcitrance to bioconversion compared to modern varieties. Ninety-three lines from the collection were genotyped with the DArTseq(®) genotypic platform and 5525 markers were used for genome-wide association mapping. Six quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for GY, PH, and GLU released from straw were mapped. One QTL for PH was previously reported, while the remaining QTLs constituted new genomic regions linked to trait variation. This paper is one of the first studies in wheat to identify QTLs that are important for bioethanol production based on a genome-wide association approach. PMID:26635859

  17. Association Mapping in Scandinavian Winter Wheat for Yield, Plant Height, and Traits Important for Second-Generation Bioethanol Production

    PubMed Central

    Bellucci, Andrea; Torp, Anna Maria; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Andersen, Sven B.; Rasmussen, Søren K.

    2015-01-01

    A collection of 100 wheat varieties representing more than 100 years of wheat-breeding history in Scandinavia was established in order to identify marker-trait associations for plant height (PH), grain yield (GY), and biomass potential for bioethanol production. The field-grown material showed variations in PH from 54 to 122 cm and in GY from 2 to 6.61 t ha-1. The release of monomeric sugars was determined by high-throughput enzymatic treatment of ligno-cellulosic material and varied between 0.169 and 0.312 g/g dm for glucose (GLU) and 0.146 and 0.283 g/g dm for xylose (XYL). As expected, PH and GY showed to be highly influenced by genetic factors with repeatability (R) equal to 0.75 and 0.53, respectively, while this was reduced for GLU and XYL (R = 0.09 for both). The study of trait correlations showed how old, low-yielding, tall varieties released higher amounts of monomeric sugars after straw enzymatic hydrolysis, showing reduced recalcitrance to bioconversion compared to modern varieties. Ninety-three lines from the collection were genotyped with the DArTseq® genotypic platform and 5525 markers were used for genome-wide association mapping. Six quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for GY, PH, and GLU released from straw were mapped. One QTL for PH was previously reported, while the remaining QTLs constituted new genomic regions linked to trait variation. This paper is one of the first studies in wheat to identify QTLs that are important for bioethanol production based on a genome-wide association approach. PMID:26635859

  18. Benefits to world agriculture through remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffalano, A. C.; Kochanowski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural land permits crop classification and mensuration which can lead to improved forecasts of production. This technique is particularly important for nations which do not already have an accurate agricultural reporting system. Better forecasts have important economic effects. International grain traders can make better decisions about when to store, buy, and sell. Farmers can make better planting decisions by taking advantage of production estimates for areas out of phase with their own agricultural calendar. World economic benefits will accrue to both buyers and sellers because of increased food supply and price stabilization. This paper reviews the econometric models used to establish this scenario and estimates the dollar value of benefits for world wheat as 200 million dollars annually for the United States and 300 to 400 million dollars annually for the rest of the world.

  19. Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that specialty crops are a vital part of agriculture in the United States, that the Committee on Agriculture should propose funding for programs that support specialty crops priorities, and that legislation should be passed that includes funding reflecting specialty crops as a growing and important part of United States agriculture.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. DelBene, Suzan K. [D-WA-1

    2013-04-25

    05/03/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Horticulture, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Screening of plant growth-promoting traits in arsenic-resistant bacteria isolated from agricultural soil and their potential implication for arsenic bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Das, Suvendu; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Kar, Sandeep; Chou, Mon-Lin; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2014-05-15

    Twelve arsenic (As)-resistant bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 10 to 30mM and 150 to 320mM for As(III) and As(V), respectively) were isolated from the agricultural soil of the Chianan Plain in southwestern Taiwan using enrichment techniques. Eight isolates capable of oxidizing As(III) (rate of oxidation from 0.029 to 0.059μMh(-1) 10(-9) cell) and exhibiting As(III)-oxidase enzyme activity belong to Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Klebsiella and Comamonas genera, whereas four isolates that did not show As(III)-oxidizing activity belong to Geobacillus, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Enterobacter genera. Assessment of the parameters of plant growth promotion revealed that Pseudomonas sp. ASR1, ASR2 and ASR3, Geobacillus sp. ASR4, Bacillus sp. ASR5, Paenibacillus sp. ASR6, Enterobacter sp. ASR10 and Comamonas sp. ASR11, and ASR12 possessed some or all of the studied plant growth-promoting traits, including phosphate-solubilization, siderophore, IAA-like molecules and ACC deaminase production. In addition, the ability of As-resistant isolates to grow over wide ranges of pH and temperatures signify their potential application for sustainable bioremediation of As in the environment. PMID:24685527