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Sample records for agriculture cattle ranching

  1. The expansion of intensive agriculture and ranching in Brazilian Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Robert; DeFries, Ruth; del Carmen Vera-Diaz, Maria; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Venturieri, Adriano

    Agriculture in Amazonia has often provoked controversy, given the tremendous ecological value of the region's environment. First with ranching, and now with the soybean boom, tractors and cattle have marched across lands that for millennia supported only closed moist forest, resident ecosystems, and dispersed indigenous peoples. The present chapter considers this expansion, focusing on the Brazilian portion of the basin. Its premise is that effective Amazonian policy must be grounded on an understanding of the region's agriculture. The chapter pursues its objectives by first addressing the development initiatives that created the preconditions for Amazonia's current agricultural economy. The region is remote and has therefore required sustained government intervention to release its potential. The policy discussion is followed by descriptions of cattle ranching and soy farming. For each, market settings and trajectories of expansion are presented. Although these sectoral descriptions are data rich, they do not provide a conceptual framework for analyzing the environmental impacts of evolving market conditions. To accomplish this, the chapter invokes the classical land use model of von Thünen to explain Amazonian land cover dynamics in relation to soy-cattle linkages. It addresses these dynamics with remote sensing data from Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, and then discusses scenarios of agricultural advances on the forest. Conclusions follow, considering possible policy responses to deforestation, and the social context of agricultural intensification, with special attention to the issues of land tenure security and distributional equity.

  2. The Road to Reappearance: Indians and Cattle Ranching in the American West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of cattle ranching in maintaining the resilience of western Native American tribes in the face of many ill-advised federal policies. Describes the historical impetus for Native American cattle ranching and its current economic viability, suggesting that ranching provides a traditional means for Native Americans to achieve…

  3. Hydrogeologic Assessment of the 4-S Land and Cattle CompanyRanch

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2006-04-10

    Hydrogeological assessment of the 4-S Land and Cattle Company (4-S Ranch) was conducted using a combination of field investigations and a survey of available literature from nearby agricultural water districts and other entities. The 4-S Ranch has been able to meet most of its own water needs providing irrigated pasture for beef cattle by an active program of shallow groundwater pumping in these miconfined aquifer above the Corcoran Clay. Comparison of groundwater pumping on the 4-S Ranch property with groundwater pumping in the adjacent Merquin and Stevinson Water Districts shows great similarity in the well screened depths and the quality of the groundwater produced by the well fields. The pump yield for the eight active production wells on the 4-S property are comparable to the production and drainage wells in the adjacent water districts. Like these Districts the 4-S Ranch lies close to the Valley trough in a historic discharge area. The 4-S Ranch is unique in that it is bounded and bisected by several major water conveyance facilities including Bear Creek. Although the large number of potential recharge structures would suggest significant groundwater conjunctive use potential the major well field development has occurred along the length of the Eastside Canal. The Eastside Canal is known to be leaky above the ''A'' Clay the Canal passes through sandy areas and experiences significant groundwater seepage. This seepage can be intercepted by adjacent groundwater wells. Pumping adjacent to, and along the alignment of the Canal, may induce higher rates of seepage from the Eastside Canal. Groundwater quality below and adjacent to the Eastside Canal is very good, reflecting the origin of this diverted water from the Merced River. Most of the pumpage occurs in a depth interval between 30 ft and 130 ft. Safe yield estimates made using the available data show that the 4-S Ranch has sufficient resources to meet its own needs. Further exploitation of the groundwater will

  4. Cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by sparing land from deforestation.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Avery S; Mosnier, Aline; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Schmid, Erwin; O'Hare, Michael; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-05-20

    This study examines whether policies to encourage cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can abate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sparing land from deforestation. We use an economic model of global land use to investigate, from 2010 to 2030, the global agricultural outcomes, land use changes, and GHG abatement resulting from two potential Brazilian policies: a tax on cattle from conventional pasture and a subsidy for cattle from semi-intensive pasture. We find that under either policy, Brazil could achieve considerable sparing of forests and abatement of GHGs, in line with its national policy targets. The land spared, particularly under the tax, is far less than proportional to the productivity increased. However, the tax, despite prompting less adoption of semi-intensive ranching, delivers slightly more forest sparing and GHG abatement than the subsidy. This difference is explained by increased deforestation associated with increased beef consumption under the subsidy and reduced deforestation associated with reduced beef consumption under the tax. Complementary policies to directly limit deforestation could help limit these effects. GHG abatement from either the tax or subsidy appears inexpensive but, over time, the tax would become cheaper than the subsidy. A revenue-neutral combination of the policies could be an element of a sustainable development strategy for Brazil and other emerging economies seeking to balance agricultural development and forest protection.

  5. Cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by sparing land from deforestation

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Avery S.; Mosnier, Aline; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Schmid, Erwin; O’Hare, Michael; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether policies to encourage cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can abate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sparing land from deforestation. We use an economic model of global land use to investigate, from 2010 to 2030, the global agricultural outcomes, land use changes, and GHG abatement resulting from two potential Brazilian policies: a tax on cattle from conventional pasture and a subsidy for cattle from semi-intensive pasture. We find that under either policy, Brazil could achieve considerable sparing of forests and abatement of GHGs, in line with its national policy targets. The land spared, particularly under the tax, is far less than proportional to the productivity increased. However, the tax, despite prompting less adoption of semi-intensive ranching, delivers slightly more forest sparing and GHG abatement than the subsidy. This difference is explained by increased deforestation associated with increased beef consumption under the subsidy and reduced deforestation associated with reduced beef consumption under the tax. Complementary policies to directly limit deforestation could help limit these effects. GHG abatement from either the tax or subsidy appears inexpensive but, over time, the tax would become cheaper than the subsidy. A revenue-neutral combination of the policies could be an element of a sustainable development strategy for Brazil and other emerging economies seeking to balance agricultural development and forest protection. PMID:24778243

  6. Intensification of cattle ranching production systems: socioeconomic and environmental synergies and risks in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Latawiec, A E; Strassburg, B B N; Valentim, J F; Ramos, F; Alves-Pinto, H N

    2014-08-01

    Intensification of Brazilian cattle ranching systems has attracted both national and international attention due to its direct relation with Amazon deforestation on the one hand and increasing demand of the global population for meat on the other. Since Brazilian cattle ranching is predominantly pasture-based, we particularly focus on pasture management. We summarize the most recurrent opportunities and risks associated with pasture intensification that are brought up within scientific and political dialogues, and discuss them within the Brazilian context. We argue that sustainable intensification of pasturelands in Brazil is a viable way to increase agricultural output while simultaneously sparing land for nature. Since environmental degradation is often associated with low-yield extensive systems in Brazil, it is possible to obtain higher yields, while reversing degradation, by adopting practices like rotational grazing, incorporation of legumes and integrated crop-livestock-forestry systems. Technical assistance is however essential, particularly for small- and medium-scale farmers. Sound complementary policies and good governance must accompany these measures so that a 'rebound effect' does not lead to increased deforestation and other adverse social and environmental impacts. It is also important that animal welfare is not compromised. Although the discussion is presented with respect to Brazil, some aspects are relevant to other developing countries.

  7. Agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil (13.0S, 43.5W) has been under study for several years. See scene STS-31-92-045 for comparison. This area has many small single family subsistence farms, large square and rectangular commercial farms and pastures for livestock grazing. Over the several years of observation, the number and size of farms has increased and center-pivot, swing-arm irrigation systems have been installed.

  8. Improving water quality for human and livestock consumption on cattle ranches in Lincoln and Socorro Counties New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Ilgen, Anastasia Gennadyevna; Dwyer, Brian P.; Rigali, Mark J.; Stewart, Thomas Austin

    2014-12-01

    This report summarizes the assistance provided to Shafer Ranches, Inc., Hightower Ranch, and Western Environmental by Sandia National Laboratories under a Leveraged New Mexico Small Business Assistance grant. The work was conducted between April to November, 2014. Therefore, Sandia National Laboratories has been asked to investigate and develop a water treatment system that would result in reduced cost associated with infrastructure, maintenance, elimination of importing water, and improved cattle health.

  9. The Family Partnership on the Ranch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeltje, Beverly J.

    This paper contends that women are as vital as men to the functioning of western ranches where cattle raising--or cattle culture--is central to the social system. The self-sufficient nuclear family is also emphasized, and a ranch couple is described as a business as well as a domestic partnership. Ranch women have four roles: rearing children,…

  10. Farm and Ranch Mechanical Repair and VEH Farm and Ranch Maintenance. Curriculum Guide for Agribusiness 121. Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for teachers to use in developing a 1- or 2-year course in agricultural mechanics for at-risk and special education students. It is one of 28 semester courses in agricultural science and technology for Texas high schools. The program prepares low-achieving students with employability skills that are…

  11. Evaluation of bull prolificacy on commercial beef cattle ranches using DNA paternity analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Eenennaam, A L; Weber, K L; Drake, D J

    2014-06-01

    SNP-based DNA testing was used to assign paternity to 5,052 calves conceived in natural service multisire breeding pastures from 3 commercial ranches in northern California representing 15 calf crops over 3 yr. Bulls present for 60 to 120 d at a 25:1 cow to bull ratio in both fall and spring breeding seasons in ∼40 ha or smaller fenced breeding pastures sired a highly variable (P < 0.001) number of calves (Ncalf), ranging from 0 (4.4% of bulls present in any given breeding season) to 64 calves per bull per breeding season, with an average of 18.9 ± 13.1. There was little variation in Ncalf among ranches (P = 0.90), years (P = 0.96), and seasons (P = 0.94). Bulls varied widely (P < 0.01) in the average individual 205-d adjusted weaning weight (I205) of progeny, and I205 varied between years (P < 0.01) and seasons (P < 0.01) but not ranches (P = 0.29). The pattern for cumulative total 205-d adjusted weaning weight of all progeny sired by a bull (T205) was highly correlated to Ncalf, with small differences between ranches (P = 0.35), years (P = 0.66), and seasons (P = 0.20) but large differences (P < 0.01) between bulls, ranging from an average of 676 to 8,838 kg per bull per calf crop. The peak Ncalf occurred at about 5 yr of age for bulls ranging from 2 to 11 yr of age. Weekly conception rates as assessed by date of calving varied significantly and peaked at wk 3 of the calving season. The distribution of calves born early in the calving season was disproportionately skewed toward the highly prolific bulls. The DNA paternity testing of the subset of those calves born in wk 3 of the calving season was highly predictive of overall bull prolificacy and may offer a reduced-cost DNA-based option for assessing prolificacy. Prolificacy of young bulls in their first breeding season was positively linearly related (P < 0.05) to subsequent breeding seasons, explaining about 20% of the subsequent variation. Prolificacy was also positively linearly related (P < 0.05) to

  12. Analyzing changes in the beef cattle ranching communities of acatic and tepatitlan de morelos, jalisco, Mexico related to land cover and climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevino-Pena, Melva B.

    The impacts of climate change on the environment at the global scale can be determined through the use of large-scale circulation models; however, the results from these models are difficult to interpret at the regional or local levels. Regional vulnerability analyses consider the knowledge of locals, which may provide insight into the effects of climate variability on the environment at smaller scales, and most importantly, the effects that these developments are having on society. The objective of this research was to analyze the vulnerability to climate variability of the beef cattle ranching communities of the municipalities of Acatic and of Tepatitlan de Morelos, Jalisco, Mexico. These municipalities are found in a region of the state referred to as "Los Altos". The economy of Los Altos largely relies on agricultural and farming practices; these sectors provide the largest source of employment in the area. In the two municipalities that comprise the study area, the beef cattle industry is one of the strongest economic activities. Climate variability poses great threat on these communities because the main economic activities of the region are highly dependent on natural resources. To have a better understanding of the human-environment interactions in this region, remote sensing methods were applied. Three Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (years: 1985, 1993 and 2000) were employed to generate land use and land cover classification maps of the study area; these maps were then subjected to a change detections analysis. Some of the land use and land cover categories experienced more change than others; among those was the category of water, shrub land and crop land. The area covered by water nearly doubled from 1985 to 1993 and then nearly decreased by half by the year 2000. From 1985 to 1993, here was a decrease in the shrub land of about 1200 ha and concurrently an increase in the crop land of about 1400 ha. From 1993 to 2000 there was an increase in the

  13. Industrial pollution with copper and other heavy metals in a beef cattle ranch

    SciTech Connect

    Parada, R.; Gonzalez, S.; Bergqvist, E.

    1987-04-01

    Experimental evidence of air borne heavy metal pollution as the cause of a disease of unknown etiology in beef cattle was obtained. Analysis of metals in natural grasses and leaves of tree defined Cu, Zn and Pb as the major pollutants, with Cd being a minor one. Emissions from a Cu smelter were traced as the main source of metallic pollution. No evidence of metal accumulation in the soil was found, mainly because of the short duration and intermittent pattern of pollution. A progressive intake of the several heavy metals contained in dusts deposited on the grasses was considered the cause of the sickness; this was associated with the grazing of cattle on contaminated grasses. The most severe cases were found in the most polluted pastures. With the exception of Cd, the concentrations of the metals in the livers and kidneys of affected cattle were high. No overlapping of the respective ranges between test and control samples from both organs was found. Mean hepatic levels of Cu (925.7 mg/kg DM), Zn (491.2 mg/kg) and Pb (26.7 mg/kg) reflected the decreasing order of the concentrations of these elements in the polluted grasses. The main clinical and pathological features of this disease were discussed in light of the organic levels of the investigated metals. Disease could not be ascribed to a pure chronic toxicosis with any one of these.

  14. Industrial pollution with copper and other heavy metals in a beef cattle ranch.

    PubMed

    Parada, R; Gonzalez, S; Bergqvist, E

    1987-04-01

    Experimental evidence of air borne heavy metal pollution as the cause of a disease of unknown etiology in beef cattle was obtained. Analysis of metals in natural grasses and leaves of tree defined Cu, Zn and Pb as the major pollutants, with Cd being a minor one. Emissions from a Cu smelter were traced as the main source of metallic pollution. No evidence of metal accumulation in the soil was found, mainly because of the short duration and intermittent pattern of pollution. A progressive intake of the several heavy metals contained in dusts deposited on the grasses was considered the cause of the sickness; this was associated with the grazing of cattle on contaminated grasses. The most severe cases were found in the most polluted pastures. Excepting Cd, the concentrations of the metals in the livers and kidneys of affected cattle were high. No overlapping of the respective ranges between test and control samples from both organs was found. Mean hepatic levels of Cu (925.7 mg/kg DM), Zn (491.2 mg/kg) and Pb (26.7 mg/kg) reflected the decreasing order of the concentrations of these elements in the polluted grasses. The main clinical and pathological features of this disease were discussed in light of the organic levels of the investigated metals. Disease could not be ascribed to a pure chronic toxicosis with any one of these.

  15. Prevalence of bovine dermatophilosis and disease-associated alleles in zebu Goudali cattle and their Italian Simmental crosses ranching in the western highland plateau savannah of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ojong, Bessong Willington; Saccà, Elena; Bessong, Pascal; Piasentier, Edi

    2016-10-01

    Abundance of native pastures makes Cameroon's western highland savannah (WHS) a hotspot for low-input beef-type cattle. Dumbo Ranch is central to cattle seed stock multiplication in WHS and holds that Dermatophilus congolensis infection undermines production. The bovine BoLA-DRB3 has been variously demonstrated as the principal gene of the major histocompatibility locus associated with immunity and resistance to dermatophilosis in cattle. We studied the profile of dermatophilosis prevalence in zebu Goudali (G) and its Simmental composite, SimGoud (SG), at Dumbo Ranch and determined the distribution of a dermatophilosis-associated susceptibility allele of the BoLA-DRB3 gene by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We recorded a 42 % prevalence of dermatophilosis in the studied cohort (337 animals). Dermatophilosis was more common in older cattle than in cattle ≤36 months (p ≤ 0.05). G was more affected compared to SG, because of the prevalence of the disease in the oldest animals and the age distribution of the experimental subjects. No susceptible homozygote was observed. About 85 and 15 % of the cohort carried the homozygous resistant and heterozygous condition, respectively. This genotype distribution was not affected by cattle type. The study confirms the presence of dermatophilosis among G and SG cattle in WHS. However, there was no correlation between the presence of the disease-associated susceptible allele considered and clinical manifestation. Screening for this dermatophilosis resistance-associated allele of BoLA-DRB3 gene appeared not useful for selection of G and SG in WHS.

  16. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  17. "We were all trespassers": George Edward Lemmon, Anglo-American cattle ranching, and the Great Sioux Reservation.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Nathan B

    2011-01-01

    With the opening of the Black Hills to white settlement in the mid-1870s, thousands of fortune-seekers made their way into Dakota Territory. George Edward Lemmon, a man later renowned as one of the world's most accomplished cowboys, was among them. During the 1880s his employer, the Sheidley Cattle Company, grazed thousands of cattle in western Dakota Territory, many of them on Sioux Indian land. Indeed, the company owed a great deal of its success to illegal grazing on the Great Sioux Reservation. Opportunists such as Lemmon supported Indian reservations because they could use those lands to make a profit. The interaction between large-scale white ranchers and the Indians of the Great Sioux Reservation provides insight into the development of the range cattle industry in the northern Great Plains and illuminates the motivations that led many ranchers to support, rather than oppose, the reservation system.

  18. 76 FR 73631 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... approaches to addressing water quality issues associated with agricultural production. DATES: The Farm, Ranch... on a range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and...

  19. When counting cattle is not enough: multiple perspectives in agricultural and veterinary research.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Gunnar; Schei, Vidar; Greve, Arent

    2011-01-01

    A traditional approach in agricultural and veterinary research is focussing on the biological perspective where large cattle-databases are used to analyse the dairy herd. This approach has yielded valuable insights. However, recent research indicates that this knowledge-base can be further increased by examining agricultural and veterinary challenges from other perspectives. In this paper we suggest three perspectives that may supplement the biological perspective in agricultural and veterinary research; the economic-, the managerial-, and the social perspective. We review recent studies applying or combining these perspectives and discuss how multiple perspectives may improve our understanding and ability to handle cattle-health challenges.

  20. 75 FR 55578 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of a meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is a policy... on a range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and...

  1. Infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes in cattle from two agricultural regions in NW Uruguay and NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanchís, J; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Macchi, M I; Piñeiro, P; Suárez, J L; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Maldini, G; Venzal, J M; Paz-Silva, A; Arias, M S

    2013-01-16

    The analysis of infection by Paramphistomidae trematodes was conducted in two agricultural regions with different knowledge on this parasitosis. Faecal and blood samples were collected from 374 cattle in Salto (NW Uruguay) where there is a lack of information about paramphistomosis. A total of 429 cattle from Galicia (NW Spain), an area with previous records of infection by gastric flukes, were sampled. Diagnostics of trematodosis was developed by using a copromicroscopic probe and an ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens collected from adult Calicophoron daubneyi (Paramphistomidae) specimens. Results were evaluated according intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the Uruguay, the percentage of cattle passing Paramphistomidae-eggs by faeces was 7% (95% Confidence Interval 5, 10). A significantly higher prevalence of paramphistomosis in the Hereford × Angus cattle (OR=3.5) was recorded, as observed for the oldest ruminants (>3.5 years). An overall seroprevalence of 29% (25, 34) was obtained by ELISA, with the highest values in the Friesians (OR=3), the youngest bovines (<2.5 years) and dairy cattle (Friesians). Twenty-six percent (22, 30) of the cattle from Spain passed eggs by faeces, and cattle aged 2.5-7 years reached significant highest prevalences. By means of the ELISA, a percentage of 55 cattle (50, 59) had antibodies against the gastric fluke, and the highest seroprevalence was observed among the bovines under 6 years. It is concluded that paramphistomosis is on the increase in cattle from NW Spain, partly due to the absence of an effective treatment against the trematode. There is a need for reducing the risk of infection by Paramhistomidae spp. in cattle from Uruguay, especially by improving their management to avoid exposure to the gastric trematode. Further studies are in progress for identifying the species of Paramphistomidae affecting ruminants in Uruguay.

  2. Diamond Ranch High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betsky, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Highlights award-winning Diamond Ranch High School (California) that was designed and built on a steep site around Los Angeles considered unsatisfactory for building due to its unstable soils. Building organization is discussed, and photos are provided. (GR)

  3. 77 FR 41185 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... on a range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and...

  4. 6. MCDONALD RANCH: AERIAL VIEW OF RANCH COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MCDONALD RANCH: AERIAL VIEW OF RANCH COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD NORTHERN TIP OF SAN ANDREAS RANGE - White Sands Missile Range, Trinity Site, Vicinity of Routes 13 & 20, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  5. 50. MCDONALD RANCH: INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST ROOM OF RANCH HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. MCDONALD RANCH: INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST ROOM OF RANCH HOUSE, VIEWED FROM WEST AND SHOWING STENCILED FRIEZE BELOW CEILING - White Sands Missile Range, Trinity Site, Vicinity of Routes 13 & 20, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  6. Mycoplasam Bovis - an emerging pathogen of ranched bison

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is an emerging bacterial pathogen that has caused severe disease among ranched bison (Bison bison) herds in North America. Unlike cattle, M. bovis in bison seems to be a primary pathogen, affecting animals in feedlots as well as breeding-age cows on pasture. Mortality r...

  7. AmeriFlux US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione. Site Description - Located in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains on privately owned land, the Vaira Ranch site is classified as a grassland dominated by C3 annual grasses. Managed by local rancher, Fran Vaira, brush has been periodically removed for cattle grazing. Species include a variety of grasses and herbs, including purple false brome, smooth cat's ear, and rose clover. Growing season is confined to the wet season only, typically from October to early May.

  8. The geomorphic signature of bare-nosed wombats ( Vombatus ursinus) and cattle ( Bos taurus) in an agricultural riparian ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchard, Philip; Eldridge, David J.

    2011-07-01

    Riparian agricultural environments in eastern Australia are widely used for cattle grazing, but are also preferred habitat for native, soil-disturbing mammals such as the bare-nosed wombat (Vombatus ursinus). We examined the effects of mound construction by wombats, and track development by cattle and wombats, on soil displacement in a riparian landscape at high and low levels of cattle usage. Splash erosion was measured on mounds and inter-mounds with splashboards, and changes in the profiles of cattle-wombat tracks were assessed using a profilemeter. Twice as much soil was detached by splash erosion from mounds than inter-mounds, irrespective of cattle usage, and about three-times more coarse sand and 40% more fine sand was detached from mounds and inter-mounds at the high cattle sites. Increasing amount of rainfall corresponded with increasing splash erosion, but only on the mounds. The volume of soil displaced from wombat and cattle tracks ranged from 7.9 to 88.8 m3 ha-1 (4.7 to 118.7 t ha-1), but there were no differences in relation to cattle usage. Our results indicate that track development by cattle and wombats and mound construction by wombats may be substantial geomorphic processes given the large mass of soil displaced. Our results suggest that mounding by wombats may be an important process in riparian environments by providing a range of microsites that favour different plant cover densities.

  9. Wolf presence in the ranch of origin: impacts on temperament and physiological responses of beef cattle following a simulated wolf encounter.

    PubMed

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Reis, M M; Cappellozza, B I

    2013-12-01

    This experiment evaluated temperament, vaginal temperature, and plasma cortisol in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, pregnant, nonlactating Angus-crossbreed cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center located near Burns, OR (CON; n = 50), and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; n = 50), were used. To date, grey wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves. Conversely, wolves are present around Council, ID, and WLF cows were selected from a herd that had experienced multiple confirmed wolf-predation episodes from 2008 to 2012. Following a 50-d commingling and adaptation period, CON and WLF cows were ranked by temperament, BW, and BCS and allocated to 5 groups (d 0; 10 CON and 10 WLF cows/group). Groups were individually subjected to the experimental procedures on d 2 (n = 3) and d 3 (n = 2). Before the simulated wolf encounter, cow temperament was assessed and blood samples and vaginal temperatures (using intravaginal data loggers) were collected (presimulation assessments). Cows were then sorted by origin, moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens (10 WLF and 10 CON cows/pen), and subjected to a simulated wolf encounter event for 20 min, which consisted of 1) cotton plugs saturated with wolf urine attached to the drylot fence, 2) continuous reproduction of wolf howls, and 3) 3 leashed dogs that were walked along the fence perimeter. Thereafter, WLF and CON cows were commingled and returned to the handling facility for postsimulation assessments, which were conducted immediately after exposure to wolf-urine-saturated cotton plugs, wolf howl reproduction, and 20-s exposure to the 3 dogs while being restrained in a squeeze chute. Chute score, temperament score, and plasma cortisol concentration increased (P ≤ 0.01) from pre- to postsimulation assessment in WLF but did not change in CON cows (P ≥ 0.19). Exit velocity decreased (P

  10. Power in the pasture: Energy and the history of ranching in western South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Jenika

    Transitions in the use of energy transformed the landscape, labor, and domestic life of cattle ranching in western South Dakota from the late-nineteenth to the middle of the twentieth centuries. The introduction of new energy sources to the Black Hills spurred the expansion of European Americans into the region, while helping to displace native peoples like the Lakotas. Changing energy use also intensified ranch labor in the pastures and in the household, drawing individual ranches into new connections with their surroundings. Examining cattle ranching through the lens of energy provides new insights into the momentum of energetic systems in societies, affording historians a way to understand past energy use as they consider present and future environmental concerns.

  11. The unique properties of agricultural aerosols measured at a cattle feeding operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Gramann, J.; Auvermann, B. W.

    2011-05-01

    Housing roughly 10 million head of cattle in the United States alone, open air cattle feedlots represent a significant but poorly constrained source of atmospheric particles. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of physical and chemical properties of particles emitted from a large representative cattle feedlot in the Southwest United States. In the summer of 2008, measurements and samplings were conducted at the nominally upwind and downwind edges of the facility. A series of far-field measurements and samplings was also conducted 3.5 km north of the facility. Two instruments, a GRIMM Sequential Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a GRIMM Portable Aerosol Spectrometer (PAS), were used to measure particle size distributions over the range of 0.01 to 25 μm diameter. Raman microspectroscopy (RM) was used to determine the chemical composition of particles on a single particle basis. Volume size distributions of fugitive dust were dominated by coarse mode particles. Twenty-four hour averaged concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less) were as high as 1200 μg m-3 during the campaign. The primary constituents of the particulate matter were carbonaceous materials, such as humic acid, water soluble organics, and less soluble fatty acids, including stearic acid and tristearin. A significant percentage of the organic particles, up to 28 %, were composed of internally mixed with salts. Basic characteristics such as size distribution and composition of agricultural aerosols were found to be different than the properties of those found in urban and semi-urban aerosols. Failing to account for such differences will lead to serious errors in estimates of aerosol effects on climate, visibility, and public health.

  12. The Unique Properties of Agricultural Aerosols Measured at a Cattle Feeding Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Brooks, S. D.; Gramann, J.; Auvermann, B. W.

    2011-05-11

    Housing roughly 10 million head of cattle in the United States alone, open air cattle feedlots represent a significant but poorly constrained source of atmospheric particles. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of physical and chemical properties of particles emitted from a large representative cattle feedlot in the Southwest United States. In the summer of 2008, measurements and samplings were conducted at the nominally upwind and downwind edges of the facility. A series of far-field measurements and samplings was also conducted 3.5 km north of the facility. Two instruments, a GRIMM Sequential Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a GRIMM Portable Aerosol Spectrometer (PAS), were used to measure particle size distributions over the range of 0.01 to 25 μm diameter. Raman microspectroscopy (RM) was used to determine the chemical composition of particles on a single particle basis. Volume size distributions of fugitive dust were dominated by coarse mode particles. Twenty-four hour averaged concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 µm or less) were as high as 1200 μg/m3 during the campaign. The primary constituents of the particulate matter were carbonaceous materials, such as humic acid, water soluble organics, and less soluble fatty acids, including stearic acid and tristearin. A significant fraction of the organic particles was composed of internally mixed with salts. Basic characteristics such as size distribution and composition of agricultural aerosols were found to be different than the properties of those found in urban and semi-urban aerosols. Failing to account for such differences will lead to serious errors in estimates of aerosol effects on climate, visibility, and public health.

  13. 78 FR 49444 - Council for Native American Farming and Ranching

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... rules that are applicable to the public. Notices of hearings #0;and investigations, committee meetings...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Council for Native American Farming and Ranching AGENCY: Office of Tribal Relations, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of...

  14. Trade-offs between cattle production and bird conservation in an agricultural frontier of the Gran Chaco of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, Matias E; Gavin, Michael C

    2012-12-01

    Intensification of food production in tropical landscapes in the absence of land-use planning can pose a major threat to biological diversity. Decisions on whether to spatially integrate or segregate lands for production and conservation depend in part on the functional relations between biological diversity and agricultural productivity. We measured diversity, density, and species composition of birds along a gradient of production intensification on an agricultural frontier of the Argentine Chaco, where dry tropical forests are cleared for cattle production. Bird species diversity in intact forests was higher than in any type of cattle-production system. Bird species richness decreased nonlinearly as cattle yield increased. Intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems, those in which forest understory is selectively cleared to grow pastures of non-native plants beneath the tree canopy, produced 80% of the mean cattle yield obtained in pastures on cleared areas and were occupied by 70-90% of the number of bird species present in the nearest forest fragments. Densities of >50% of bird species were significantly lower in open pastures than in silvopastoral systems. Therefore, intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems may have the greatest potential to sustain cattle yield and conserve a large percentage of bird species. However, compared with low-intensity production systems, in which forest structure and extent were intact, intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems supported significantly fewer forest-restricted bird species and fewer frugivorous birds. These data suggest that the integration of production and conservation through intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems combined with the protection of forest fragments may be required to maintain cattle yield, bird diversity, and conservation of forest-restricted species in this agricultural frontier.

  15. Starr Ranch Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Starr Ranch Renewable Energy success story is the summary of a renewable energy study by U.S. EPA Region 6. This publication summarizes the analyses to determine appropriate renewable energy options in Starr Ranch.

  16. Influence of arrival weight, season and calf supplier on survival in Holstein beef calves on a calf ranch in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dale A; Sischo, William M; Festa, David M; Reynolds, James P; Robert Atwill, E; Holmberg, Charles A

    2002-02-14

    On a yearly basis, large calf ranches rear thousands of neonatal cattle for replacement heifers, veal or dairy beef. Dairy beef ranches obtain bull-calves from multiple sources and with questionable colostrum intake histories. Such ranches accumulate large amounts of data that could be used to help them with calf purchasing and on-farm management practices to avoid losses. Our purpose was to describe some calf purchase factors associated with mortality in neonatal calves raised on a single large calf ranch. Computerized records describing 120,197 bull-calves purchased between January 1997 and November 1998 were used in a survival analysis. Risk factors for mortality within the first 4 weeks after arrival on the ranch included body weight on arrival, month of arrival, and the calf supplier. The strength of the effects was conditional on the week after arrival to the ranch.

  17. Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

  18. [Agricultural land use impacts on aquatic macroinvertebrates in small streams from La Vieja river (Valle del Cauca, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Lina Paola; Chará, Julián; Zúñiga, Maria del Carmen; Chará-Serna, Ana Marcela; Pedraza, Gloria

    2014-04-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier in Colombia has exerted significant pressure on its aquatic ecosystems during the last few decades. In order to determine the impacts of different agricultural land uses on the biotic and abiotic characteristics of first and second order streams of La Vieja river watershed, we evaluated 21 streams located between 1,060 and 1,534 m asl in the municipalities of Alcalá, Ulloa, and Cartago (Valle del Cauca, Colombia). Seven streams were protected by native vegetation buffers, eight had influence of coffee and plantain crops, and six were influenced by cattle ranching. Habitat conditions, channel dimensions, water quality, and aquatic macroinvertebrates were studied in each stream. Streams draining cattle ranching areas had significantly higher dissolved solids, higher phosphorus, higher alkalinity, higher conductivity, and lower dissolved oxygen than those covered by cropland and forests. Coarse substrates and diversity of flow regimes were significantly higher in cropland and protected streams when compared to streams affected by cattle ranching, whereas the percent of silt and slow currents was significantly higher in the latter. A total of 26,777 macroinvertebrates belonging to 17 orders, 72 families and 95 genera were collected. The most abundant groups were Diptera 62.8%, (Chironomidae 49.6%, Ceratopogonidae 6.7%), Mollusca 18.8% (Hydrobiidae 7.2%, Sphaeriidae 9.6%) and Trichoptera 5.7% (Hydropsychidae 3.7%). The Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera orders, known for their low tolerance to habitat perturbation, had high abundance in cropland and forested streams, whereas Diptera and Mollusca were more abundant in those impacted by cattle ranching. Results indicate that streams draining forests and croplands have better physical and biological conditions than those draining pastures, and highlight the need to implement protective measures to restore the latter.

  19. VIEW OF ONESTAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ONE-STAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See HABS No. CA-2347, DESERT QUEEN RANCH, for further documentation) - Desert Queen Ranch, One Stamp Gold Mill, Twentynine Palms, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. 27 CFR 9.42 - Cole Ranch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cole Ranch. 9.42 Section 9.42 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.42 Cole Ranch....

  1. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  2. Predicting bird response to alternative management scenarios on a ranch in Campeche, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, P.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Sauer, J.R.; Wilson, M.H.; Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D.

    2005-01-01

    We developed models to predict the potential response of wintering Neotropical migrant and resident bird species to alternative management scenarios, using data from point counts of birds along with habitat variables measured or estimated from remotely sensed data in a Geographic Information System. Expected numbers of occurrences at points were calculated for 100 species of birds, under current habitat conditions and under habitat conditions that would result from seven alternative management scenarios for Rancho Sandoval, a cattle ranch and private nature reserve in Campeche, Mexico. Most bird species of conservation concern would benefit from management scenarios that increase the amount of forest, but the highest priority resident species would not. To balance the somewhat conflicting habitat needs of these species and the concerns of ranch managers, we recommend that forest area and connectivity be increased, and pastures be maintained but more efficiently managed to support cattle and the priority resident and migrant birds that require open habitats.

  3. Evaluation of cattle bedding and grazing BMPs in an agricultural watershed in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Olson, Barry M; Kalischuk, Andrea R; Casson, Janna P; Phelan, Colleen A

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the environmental impacts of implementing beneficial management practices to address cattle bedding and direct access to the creek in a study watershed in southern Alberta, Canada. Approximately 35 cow-calf pairs grazed 194 ha of grass forage and had direct access to the creek in the spring and summer. During winter, the cattle were fed adjacent to the creek at an old bedding site. The practice changes included off-stream watering, bedding site relocation and fencing for rotational grazing. The cost was $15,225 and 60 h of labour. Four years of data were used in a before-and-after experimental design to evaluate the practice changes. After two years of post-implementation monitoring, riparian assessments showed an increase in plant diversity, but no change in the percent cover of the riparian species Salix exigua and Juncus balitus and a decrease in Carex sp. (P < 0.05). Water quality monitoring showed a decrease in the difference between upstream and downstream concentrations of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic nitrogen and Escherichia coli (P < 0.10). These results showed that improved environmental changes in riparian and water quality can be measured following the implementation of beneficial management practices for cattle bedding and grazing.

  4. Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano

    PubMed Central

    le Polain de Waroux, Yann; Garrett, Rachael D.; Heilmayr, Robert; Lambin, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand for agricultural commodities is causing the expansion of agricultural frontiers onto native vegetation worldwide. Agribusiness companies linking these frontiers to distant spaces of consumption through global commodity chains increasingly make zero-deforestation pledges. However, production and land conversion are often carried out by less-visible local and regional actors that are mobile and responsive to new agricultural expansion opportunities and legal constraints on land use. With more stringent deforestation regulations in some countries, we ask whether their movements are determined partly by differences in land-use policies, resulting in “deforestation havens.” We analyze the determinants of investment decisions by agricultural companies in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano, a region that has become the new deforestation “hot spot” in South America. We test whether companies seek out less-regulated forest areas for new agricultural investments. Based on interviews with 82 companies totaling 2.5 Mha of properties, we show that, in addition to proximity to current investments and the availability of cheap forestland, lower deforestation regulations attract investments by companies that tend to clear more forest, mostly cattle ranching operations, and that lower enforcement attracts all companies. Avoiding deforestation leakage requires harmonizing deforestation regulations across regions and commodities and promoting sustainable intensification in cattle ranching. PMID:27035995

  5. Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano.

    PubMed

    le Polain de Waroux, Yann; Garrett, Rachael D; Heilmayr, Robert; Lambin, Eric F

    2016-04-12

    Growing demand for agricultural commodities is causing the expansion of agricultural frontiers onto native vegetation worldwide. Agribusiness companies linking these frontiers to distant spaces of consumption through global commodity chains increasingly make zero-deforestation pledges. However, production and land conversion are often carried out by less-visible local and regional actors that are mobile and responsive to new agricultural expansion opportunities and legal constraints on land use. With more stringent deforestation regulations in some countries, we ask whether their movements are determined partly by differences in land-use policies, resulting in "deforestation havens." We analyze the determinants of investment decisions by agricultural companies in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano, a region that has become the new deforestation "hot spot" in South America. We test whether companies seek out less-regulated forest areas for new agricultural investments. Based on interviews with 82 companies totaling 2.5 Mha of properties, we show that, in addition to proximity to current investments and the availability of cheap forestland, lower deforestation regulations attract investments by companies that tend to clear more forest, mostly cattle ranching operations, and that lower enforcement attracts all companies. Avoiding deforestation leakage requires harmonizing deforestation regulations across regions and commodities and promoting sustainable intensification in cattle ranching.

  6. Contextual view of Warner's Ranch. Trees of spring area block ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Warner's Ranch. Trees of spring area block view of Ranch house and barn; visible building is newer barn. Note approximate location of Overland Trail crossing left to right and San Diego cutoff running up hill on right. Camera facing west-southwest. - Warner Ranch, Ranch House, San Felipe Road (State Highway S2), Warner Springs, San Diego County, CA

  7. AmeriFlux US-Ton Tonzi Ranch

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ton Tonzi Ranch. Site Description - Located in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the Tonzi Ranch site is classified as an oak savanna woodland on privately owned land. Managed by local rancher, Russell Tonzi, brush has been periodically removed for cattle grazing. The overstory is dominated by blue oak trees (40% of total vegetation) with intermittent grey pine trees (3 trees/ha). Understory species include a variety of grasses and herbs, including purple false brome, smooth cat's ear, and rose clover. These two distinctive layers operate in and out from one another. Growing season of the understory is confined to the wet season only, typically from October to early May. In contrast, the deciduous blue oak trees are dormant during the rainy winter months and reach maximum LAI in April. The blue oak ecosystem rings the Great Central Valley of California, inhabiting the lower reaches of the Sierra Nevada foothills.

  8. Characterizing Wyoming ranching operations: natural resource goals, management practices and information sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What are the characteristics of Wyoming ranches, and how do they manage natural resources on 29 million acres of rangelands? In cooperation with the Wyoming Stock Growers Association (WSGA)—a predominant agricultural organization in the state—we asked WSGA producer members about their goals, ranchi...

  9. Cullinan Ranch Tidal Marsh Restoration Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Cullinan Ranch Tidal Marsh Restoration Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  10. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  11. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  12. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  13. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  14. 25. MCDONALD RANCH: RUINS OF AN UNIDENTIFIED ADOBE OUTBUILDING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. MCDONALD RANCH: RUINS OF AN UNIDENTIFIED ADOBE OUTBUILDING WEST OF RANCH HOUSE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - White Sands Missile Range, Trinity Site, Vicinity of Routes 13 & 20, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  15. 78 FR 23206 - Council for Native American Farming and Ranching

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Council for Native American Farming and Ranching AGENCY: Office of Tribal Relations, USDA. ACTION: Notice... American Farming and Ranching (CNAFR) a public advisory committee of the Office of Tribal Relations (OTR... farming and ranching opportunities created through the farm loan program through enhanced extension...

  16. 76 FR 4027 - Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1491 RIN 0578-AA46 Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit... Conservation Service (NRCS) regulations for implementation of the Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program (FRPP...: Mail: Mark Rose, Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program Manager, Easement Programs...

  17. Predicting cattle age from eye lens weight and nitrogen content, dentition, and United States Department of Agriculture maturity score.

    PubMed

    Raines, C R; Dikeman, M E; Unruh, J A; Hunt, M C; Knock, R C

    2008-12-01

    This research explores the relationship between generally accepted and alternative cattle age-prediction methods and chronological age. Cattle (n = 386) of documented ages ranging from 370 to 1,115 d of age were used. Dentition (DEN), USDA maturity score (MS), lens weight (LW), and lens total N (LN) content were used as possible predictors of age. Correlations with age were determined: LW (r = 0.77); DEN (r = 0.74); LN (r = 0.71); and MS (r = 0.64). Stepwise backward regression was used to generate an age prediction equation: Age (mo) = -21.79 + 17.23(LW, g) + 0.038(DEN). By this equation, 38% of cattle cattle as cattle as <30 mo old. A separate group of cattle (n = 18) ranging in age from 1 to 12 yr were evaluated for lens properties, for which LW (R(2) = 0.91) and LN (R(2) = 0.92) were highly correlated with age. The LW and DEN were the best predictors of age for cattle 13- to 37-mo-old and yielded the most accurate age prediction when used in combination (R(2) = 0.67).

  18. Ranching modernization in tropical Brazil: foreign investment and environment in Mato Grosso, 1900-1950.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Accompanying the expansion of modern beef production in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were technologies and methods that proponents assumed were applicable to all ecosystems. successes in Europe, the United States, and Argentina convinced ranchers, investors, and animal scientists that these could be applied in the tropical Americas with ease. This assumption contributed to a wave of foreign ranching investment in semi-tropical Mato Grosso, Brazil, beginning in the early twentieth century. However, such a view failed to consider the specific characteristics of such environments and led to difficulties for several ventures and a re-evaluation of the relationship between ecosystems and the type of ranching appropriate to them. Ultimately, local Brazilian practice and experimentation proved more successful in tropical and semi-tropical Brazil, forcing foreign ranching concerns to adapt their techniques. Following the logic of earlier decades, more recently cattle-raising practices developed in Mato Grosso and similar regions have been applied in the tropical Amazon, resulting in widespread ecological devastation. The uneven experiences of foreign entrepreneurs in Mato Grosso offer valuable lessons for understanding the application of modernization technologies to diverse ecosystems; such knowledge can lead to a more sustainable approach to meat production.

  19. McGee Ranch CPT investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Cassem, B.R.

    1993-06-15

    Applied Research Associated, Inc. (ARA), under contract to Argonne National Laboratory to perform work for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), conducted Peizo Cone Penetration (P-CPT) Tests as part of an investigation of the fine-textured soils at the McGee Ranch Site. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize a potential borrow area for fine-textured soil materials that would be used to construct multi-layer closure covers on the Hanford Site. As part of the investigation, WHC conducted non auger-drill borings on the site during September 1992. ARA`s objective was to characterize the soils at the McGee Ranch site using the cone penetrometer and compare the findings with the lithologic characterization obtained from geologic boring logs. This report documents ARA`s site investigation efforts, test techniques, and analysis of the data for field work conducted April 14 and 15, 1993.

  20. GPS Monitoring of Cattle Location Near Water Features in South Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to quantify the amount of time spent by grazing cattle near or in water locations (wetlands, ditches, and water troughs) across seasons of a cow-calf production ranch in South Florida. Prolonged hot summers in these regions can cause physiological heat stress in cattle and driv...

  1. Fascioloidiasis in game-ranched elk from Montana.

    PubMed

    Hood, B R; Rognlie, M C; Knapp, S E

    1997-10-01

    The distribution of Fascioloides magna in game-ranched elk and the potential for spread of the parasite through movement of infected animals was examined in Montana (USA). Fecal samples (n = 448) collected from captive elk on 29 game ranches were examined for eggs of F. magna by fecal sedimentation. Eggs were detected in elk on 5 ranches. This suggests that F. magna has been translocated by infected game-ranched elk. The wide distribution of snail intermediate hosts for F. magna in Montana indicates a potential to spread the parasite to other captive cervids domestic livestock or free-ranging wildlife.

  2. The impact of cattle access on ecological water quality in streams: Examples from agricultural catchments within Ireland.

    PubMed

    Conroy, E; Turner, J N; Rymszewicz, A; O'Sullivan, J J; Bruen, M; Lawler, D; Lally, H; Kelly-Quinn, M

    2016-03-15

    Unrestricted cattle access to rivers and streams represent a potentially significant localised pressure on freshwater systems. However there is no consensus in the literature on the occurrence and extent of impact and limited research has examined the effects on aquatic biota in the humid temperate environment examined in the present study. Furthermore, this is one of the first times that research consider the potential for cattle access impacts in streams of varying water quality in Northern Europe. We investigated the effects of cattle access on macroinvertebrate communities and deposited fine sediment levels, in four rivers of high/good and four rivers of moderate water quality status which drain, low gradient, calcareous grassland catchments in Ireland. We assessed the temporal variability in macroinvertebrates communities across two seasons, spring and autumn. Site specific impacts were evident which appeared to be influenced by water quality status and season. All four high/good water status rivers revealed significant downstream changes in community structure and at least two univariate metrics (total richness and EPT richness together with taxon, E and EPT abundance). Two of the four moderate water status rivers showed significant changes in community structure, abundance and richness metrics and functional feeding groups driven in the main by downstream increases in collectors/gatherers, shredders and burrowing taxa. These two moderate water status rivers had high or prolonged livestock activity. In view of these findings, the potential for some of these sites to achieve at least high/good water quality status, as set out in the EU Water Framework Directive, may be compromised. The results presented highlight the need for additional research to further define the site specific factors and livestock management practices, under different discharge conditions, that increase the risk of impact on aquatic ecology due to these cattle-river interactions.

  3. Walker Ranch 3D seismic images

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Mellors

    2016-03-01

    Amplitude images (both vertical and depth slices) extracted from 3D seismic reflection survey over area of Walker Ranch area (adjacent to Raft River). Crossline spacing of 660 feet and inline of 165 feet using a Vibroseis source. Processing included depth migration. Micro-earthquake hypocenters on images. Stratigraphic information and nearby well tracks added to images. Images are embedded in a Microsoft Word document with additional information. Exact location and depth restricted for proprietary reasons. Data collection and processing funded by Agua Caliente. Original data remains property of Agua Caliente.

  4. Texas Ranch House: Interactive Programming from Thirteen/WNET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Texas Ranch House, produced by Thirteen/WNET and Wall to Wall Television, is a dynamic look at life in Texas in the 1860s, before the development of modem conveniences. In addition to the video program series, Texas Ranch House boasts an extensive interactive website (www.pbs.org/wnetlranchhouse) that will be of interest to teachers and students.…

  5. Keys Ranch: Where Time Stood Still. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Jody

    In 1917 Bill Keys chose to establish a ranch and raise a family in the hostile high desert environment of California. Keys and other 20th-century homesteaders lived much as earlier pioneers in the West had, working hard to make marginal land holdings successful. Today, Keys Ranch is preserved as part of Joshua Tree National Park. This lesson is…

  6. 8. MCDONALD RANCH: GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST SHOWING (LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. MCDONALD RANCH: GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT) REMAINS OF GARAGE, BUNKHOUSE, RANCH HOUSE, AND WINDMILL TOWER. CORRAL FENCE IS IN FOREGROUND - White Sands Missile Range, Trinity Site, Vicinity of Routes 13 & 20, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  7. A Working Ranch with an Effective Medusahead Management Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2005, rancher Ben McGough, owner of the Circle Bar Ranch in Mitchell, Oregon, has been working with USDA-ARS rangeland ecologist Roger Sheley to implement EBIPM on the ranch. More than 600 acres were infested with medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) when they began working together. We de...

  8. 77 FR 6941 - Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1491 RIN 0578-AA46 Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit...) published in the Federal Register a final rule for the Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program (FRPP) on... program, and may conflict with State and local land preservation programs' approvals. The commenter...

  9. 78 FR 70259 - Council for Native American Farming and Ranching

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Council for Native American Farming and Ranching AGENCY: Office of Tribal Relations, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of The Council for Native American Farming and Ranching (CNAFR) a public advisory committee of the Office of Tribal Relations...

  10. Microbial ecology overview during anaerobic codigestion of dairy wastewater and cattle manure and use in agriculture of obtained bio-fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Jihen; Miladi, Baligh; Farhat, Amel; Nouira, Said; Hamdi, Moktar; Gtari, Maher; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2015-12-01

    The anaerobic co-digestion of dairy wastewater (DW) and cattle manure (CM) was examined and associated with microbial community's structures using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The highest volatile solids (VS) reduction yield of 88.6% and biogas production of 0.87 L/g VS removed were obtained for the C/N ratio of 24.7 at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days. The bacterial DGGE profile showed significant abundance of Uncultured Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Synergistetes bacterium. The Syntrophomonas strains were discovered in dependent association to H2-using bacteria such as Methanospirillum sp., Methanosphaera sp. and Methanobacterium formicicum. These syntrophic associations are essential in anaerobic digesters allow them to keep low hydrogen partial pressure. However, high concentrations of VFA produced from dairy wastes acidification allow the growth of Methanosarcina species. The application of the stabilised anaerobic effluent on the agriculture soil showed significant beneficial effects on the forage corn and tomato plants growth and crops.

  11. Can foraging behavior of Criollo cattle help increase agricultural production and reduce environmental impacts in the arid Southwest?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Longterm Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR) was formed to help the nation’s agricultural systems simultaneously increase production and reduce environmental impacts. Eighteen networked sites are conducting a Common Experiment to understand the environmental and economic problems associated wi...

  12. Feasibility Study for Paragon - Bisti Solar Ranch

    SciTech Connect

    Benally, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    The Navajo Hopi Land Commission Office (NHLCO) and Navajo Nation (NN) plan to develop renewable energy (RE) projects on the Paragon-Bisti Ranch (PBR) lands, set aside under the Navajo Hopi Land Settlement Act (NHLSA) for the benefit of Relocatees. This feasibility study (FS), which was funded under a grant from DOE’s Tribal Energy Program (TEP), was prepared in order to explore the development of the 22,000-acre PBR in northwestern New Mexico for solar energy facilities. Topics covered include: • Site Selection • Analysis of RE, and a Preliminary Design • Transmission, Interconnection Concerns and Export Markets • Financial and Economic Analysis • Environmental Study • Socioeconomic and Cultural Factors • Next Steps.

  13. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Mark E.

    2001-11-01

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring.

  14. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., dairy, poultry, fruit, fur-bearing animal, and truck farms, plantations, ranches, nurseries, ranges... or maple sugar do not constitute agricultural labor. On the other hand, services rendered in...

  15. East elevation of bunkhouse and agriculture storage sheds, looking west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East elevation of bunkhouse and agriculture storage sheds, looking west. The shower house is adjacent to the storage sheds and just south of the bunkhouse. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

  16. The Role of Agricultural Education and Extension in Influencing Best Practice for Managing Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, E. J.; Hennessy, T.; Cullinan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of agricultural education and extension in influencing the adoption of best practice with regard to herd-level mastitis management. Design/Methodology/Approach: Somatic cell count (SCC) is an indicator of herd health with regard to mastitis and is negatively related to productivity and profitability. Panel data…

  17. 78 FR 41795 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, EPA gives notice of a teleconference meeting of the Farm, Ranch... this teleconference is to discuss specific topics of relevance for consideration by the Committee...

  18. Neospora caninum serostatus is affected by age and species variables in cohabiting water buffaloes and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moore, D P; Konrad, J L; San Martino, S; Reichel, M P; Cano, D B; Méndez, S; Späth, E J L; Odeón, A C; Crudeli, G; Campero, C M

    2014-07-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate how Neospora caninum serostatus may be affected by variables such as host species (water buffaloes or cattle) and age in animals cohabiting in the same ranch. A convenience cross-sectional study was performed on four ranches in the Northeast of Argentina, where water buffalo are cohabitating with beef cattle. Blood samples were collected from 1350 female water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and 880 female beef cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus crossbreeds) from four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages at herd level for each ranch were also recorded. N. caninum antibody levels were measured by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (reciprocal antibody titers ≥ 100). Serological results were classified into 2 categories (0: negative; 1: positive). A logistic regression model was used to describe the relationship between N. caninum serostatus and specie (water buffalo or cattle), age or ranch and their interactions. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the significance of the model and their terms. Odds ratios were estimated and 95% profile likelihood (LR) and Wald confidence intervals (CI) obtained. Overall, specific antibody titers were found in 43.3% (584/1350) of water buffaloes and 28.6% (252/880) of cattle. Seropositive water buffaloes and cattle were observed on all ranches. Age was statistically significant (p=0.01) with an overall estimate of logit (log odds) of age of 0.03 for both species. This indicates that for every one year increase in age, the expected change in log odds of being seropositive increased by 0.03. On three of four ranches a water buffalo was 4.48, 1.54 and 2.25 times more likely to be seropositive than cattle for animals of the same age. The N. caninum serostatus was affected by age in the first place, but also by species on at least three of the four ranches. Calving and weaning percentages were higher in water buffaloes than in beef cattle (p<0.05). Even though the low

  19. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH...

  20. An outbreak of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in cattle in northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Burnes, J; López, A; Medellín, J; Haines, D; Loza, E; Martínez, M

    1997-01-01

    An outbreak of bovine rabies occurred on a ranch when cattle were bitten by vampire bats. Microscopic lesions showed a nonsuppurative encephalitis with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated viral antigen in the brain, and monoclonal antibodies identified a serotype 1 (vampire strain) of the rabies virus. Images Figure 1. PMID:9056070

  1. Economic impact of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) on Florida cattle production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A written survey administered to 3,500 Florida cattle producers in 2006 documented tropical soda apple, as the most common pasture weed across the state of Florida. Over 80% of the survey respondents reported tropical soda apple on their ranches, and over 65% declared the plant to be a major proble...

  2. 77 FR 8854 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee (FRRCC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee (FRRCC) AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee (FRRCC) will be renewed for an additional...

  3. 75 FR 52780 - Notice of Availability of Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Moore Ranch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Availability of Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Moore Ranch In...) regarding the Moore Ranch In-Situ Recovery Project in Campbell County, Wyoming. By letter dated October 2...), submitted an application to the NRC for a new source material license for the proposed Moore Ranch...

  4. 140° view of ranch core showing left to right: NPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140° view of ranch core showing left to right: NPS worm fence, planted cottonwood trees, ranch house, and barn. This negative forms a 360° composite panoramic when joined with AZ-2-73 and AZ-2-74. See AZ-2-81 for color version. - Tassi Ranch, Tassi Springs, Littlefield, Mohave County, AZ

  5. 140° view of the ranch core showing left to right: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140° view of the ranch core showing left to right: Pigeon Wash, parking area, NPS worm fence, planted cottonwood trees and ranch house. This negative forms a 360° composite panoramic when joined with AZ-2-79 and AZ-2-80. See AZ-2-87 for color version. - Tassi Ranch, Tassi Springs, Littlefield, Mohave County, AZ

  6. 76 FR 76120 - Establishment of the Council for Native American Farming and Ranching

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Establishment of the Council for Native American Farming and Ranching AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA... establishment of the Council for Native American Farming and Ranching (Council). The purpose of the Council is... farming and ranching opportunities created through the farm loan program through enhanced extension...

  7. 76 FR 42124 - Henwood Associates, Inc.; White Mountain Ranch, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Henwood Associates, Inc.; White Mountain Ranch, LLC; Notice of Transfer of... been transferred to White Mountain Ranch, LLC. The project is located on the Millner Creek Water System...\\ Henwood Associates, Inc., 16 FERC ] 62,075 (1981). White Mountain Ranch, LLC, located at 30130...

  8. 76 FR 28888 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Gruver Cluck Ranch Airport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class E Airspace; Gruver Cluck Ranch Airport... removes Class E airspace at Gruver, Cluck Ranch Airport, TX. The airport has been abandoned, thereby eliminating the need for controlled airspace in the Gruver, Cluck Ranch Airport, TX, area. The FAA is...

  9. 76 FR 22011 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carizzo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carizzo Springs, Glass Ranch... amends Class E airspace for the Carizzo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX, airspace area, to accommodate... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for the Carizzo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX, airspace...

  10. 76 FR 5303 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carrizo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ..., Glass Ranch Airport, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace for the Carrizo Springs, Glass... Carrizo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX Carrizo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX (Lat. 28 27'01''...

  11. 77 FR 14011 - Rainbow Ranch Wind, LLC, Rainbow West Wind, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Rainbow Ranch Wind, LLC, Rainbow West Wind, LLC; Notice of Petition for... Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), 16 USA 8242-3(h), Rainbow Ranch Wind, LLC (Rainbow Ranch) and Rainbow West Wind, LLC (Rainbow West) (collectively, Petitioners) filed a petition requesting the Federal...

  12. Implementation of data management and analysis system for marine ranching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaopeng; Gao, Zhiqiang; Shang, Weitao; Liu, Chaoshun; Sun, ZhiBin

    2016-09-01

    Marine environment protection is an important support for sustainable development of marine ranching. Based on the geographic information system(GIS) and remote sensing(RS), this study developed a 3S system, which integrate Sea surface temperature, chlorophyll concentration, turbidity of sea water and other factors into system. And these factors are important components of marine environment. The system provided data service including loading, browsing, information inquiry, cartography, and also supported the analysis of remote sensing image. In the implementation of the system, the key points of the related technologies have been paid much attention. The practical application shows that it can provide assistance for the environmental protection of marine ranching.

  13. Ecological effects of ranching: A six-point critique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freilich, Jerome E.; Emlen, John M.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Freeman, D. Carl; Cafaro, Philip J.

    2003-01-01

    Ranching is the dominant land use in much of the American West. Although a copious literature has examined the effects of various grazing practices on native ecosystems, we present here the idea that ranching has important impacts on the land independent of those caused by grazing itself. If biological conservation is to be successful on the western grasslands and shrublands, ranchers must be central to any plan. Focusing on the Great Plains of the United States, and on Wyoming in particular, we raise six points of concern that must be addressed before we can hope to restore or maintain native ecosystems on the range.

  14. A working ranch with an effective medusahead program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For EBIPM to be successfully adopted, producers need examples of where the method has been applied with positive results. The objective of this bulletin, which describes the management plan developed on a central Oregon ranch, is to provide ranchers a perspective on the actual treatments and level o...

  15. A working ranch with an effective medusahead management program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2005, ranchers Ben and Barbara McGough of the Circle Bar Ranch in Mitchell, OR have been implementing ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) for extensive infestations of the invasive annual grass, medusahead on their property. This video details the scope of the problem, the im...

  16. Mycoplasma bovis: an emerging pathogen of ranched bison

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is an emerging, primary pathogen of ranched bison (Bison bison) in North America. It causes severe disease among animals in feedlots as well as breeding-age cows and bulls on pasture. Mortality in adult bison is as high as 25 percent, resulting in significant economic l...

  17. 4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF DITCH OVERLOOKING THE GOULD RANCH SITE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF DITCH OVERLOOKING THE GOULD RANCH SITE, HIGHWAY 50'S OVERPASS FOR THE R/R & OLD PLACERVILLE ROAD ON LEFT. EAST BIDWELL STREET APPROACHES TO HIGHWAY 50 ON RIGHT; VIEW TO SOUTH. - Keefe-McDerby Mine Ditch, East of East Bidwell Street between Clarksville Road & Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  18. Keys Ranch: Where Time Stood Still. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan about the Keys' Desert Queen Ranch, located in the Joshua Tree National Park (California), that can be used in a unit on U.S. western expansion or desert environments. Explains students learn about life on a homestead and Ralph Waldo Emerson's ideas on self-reliance. (CMK)

  19. Contextual view of Johnson Ranch (Nunes Dairy) showing workers residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Johnson Ranch (Nunes Dairy) showing workers residence 2 (extreme left) residence 1, calf barn (in front of brick silo), barn 1 and pole barn (extreme right); view to southwest. - Nunes Dairy, 9854 Bruceville Road, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  20. 2. BASE CAMP: VIEW OF RANCH HOUSE #2, LOOKING NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BASE CAMP: VIEW OF RANCH HOUSE #2, LOOKING NORTH, WITH REMAINS OF GARAGE BUILDING ON LEFT AND REMAINS OF WATER TOWERS AND TANK VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND - White Sands Missile Range, Trinity Site, Vicinity of Routes 13 & 20, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  1. The Subtropical Grasslands LTAR: balancing agricultural production and conservation goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Boughton, E.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.; Sparks, J. P.; Silveira, M.; Boughton, R. K.; Swain, H.

    2015-12-01

    Subtropical grazing lands of peninsular Florida have been shaped by a long evolutionary history of lightning ignited fire followed by flooding resulting in a vast treeless prairie region in south-central Florida. In these grassland ecosystems fire return intervals are between 1-3 years. Beginning in the 1500's, Andalusian cattle began grazing in this region and the cattle industry began in earnest in the late 1800s/early 1900s. Today, Florida's prairie region is largely occupied by cow/calf ranch operations and also occupies the Northern Everglades watershed where water quality/quantity issues are at the forefront of environmental concerns. Florida ranches are characterized by a gradient of management intensities, ranging from sown pastures (most intensively managed) to semi-native pastures with a mix of introduced and native grasses, and rangeland (least managed ecosystem). Located at Archbold Biological Station, MacArthur Agro-ecology Research Center, and University of Florida Range Cattle Research Center (www.maerc.org; www.rcrec-ona.ifas.ufl.edu), a primary goal of the Subtropical Grasslands US Department of Agriculture Long-term Agro-Ecosystem Research LTAR is to balance intensification of sown pastures while enhancing management of native systems in a way that maximizes other ecosystem services (regulating, supporting, cultural, biodiversity). Here, we describe our proposed experimental design to compare ecosystem delivery from conventional and aspirational management regimes in sown pastures and native systems. Aspirational management goals are to (i) maximize productivity in sown pastures with a neutral effect on other ecosystem services, and (ii) manage native systems in a way that maximizes regulating, supporting, and biodiversity ecosystem services by utilizing patch burn grazing. Ultimately, we will determine if enhanced production in sown pasture under the aspirational management system can offset any reduction in productivity in semi

  2. Mineral inclusions in diamonds from the River Ranch kimberlite, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, Maya G.; Gurney, John J.; Daniels, Leon R. M.

    More than 99% of mineral inclusions in diamonds from the River Ranch pipe in the Late Archean Limpopo Mobile Belt (Zimbabwe), are phases of harzburgitic paragenesis, namely olivine (Fo92-93), orthopyroxene (Mg#=93), G10 garnets and chromites. The diamond inclusion (DI) chemistry demonstrates a limited overlap with River Ranch kimberlite macrocrysts: the DI garnets are more Ca-undersaturated, and DI spinel and garnet are more Mg-rich. Most River Ranch diamond inclusions were equilibrated at T=1080-1320°C, P=47-61kbar, and fO2 between IW and WM buffers. The P/T profile beneath the Limpopo Mobile Belt (LMB) is consistent with a paleo-heat flow of 41-42mW/m2, similar to calculations for Roberts Victor, but hotter than for the Finsch, Kimberley, Koffiefontein and Premier Mines. This is ascribed to the younger tectonothermal age of the LMB and its proximity to Late Archean oceans. Like diamond inclusions from all other kimberlites studied, the River Ranch DI have a lithospheric affinity and therefore indicate that an ancient, chemically depleted, thick (at least 200km) mantle root existed beneath the Limpopo Mobile Belt 530-540Ma ago. The mantle root might have developed beneath the continental Central Zone of the LMB as early as the Archean, and could be alien to the overthrust allochthonous sheet of the Limpopo Belt. Oxygen fugacity estimates for diamond inclusions at River Ranch are similar to other diamondiferous harzburgites beneath the Kaapvaal craton, indicating that the Kaapvaal mantle as a whole was well buffered and homogeneous with respect to fO2 at the time of peridotitic diamond crystallization.

  3. Farm & Ranch Business Management. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Jim; Jobes, Raleigh

    This practical guide for the agribusiness manager (the farmer, rancher, and other agribusiness people who work with agricultural commodities, supplies, and services) gives a basic understanding of modern management practices. It provides guidelines that can help them make practical business decisions. Chapter 1 is an introduction that highlights…

  4. Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schake, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

  5. Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project, Northwest Geysers, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Mark A.

    2013-04-25

    The purpose of the Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project was to drill, test, and confirm the present economic viability of the undeveloped geothermal reservoir in the 870 acre Caldwell Ranch area of the Northwest Geysers that included the CCPA No.1 steam field. All of the drilling, logging, and sampling challenges were met. Three abandoned wells, Prati 5, Prati 14 and Prati 38 were re-opened and recompleted to nominal depths of 10,000 feet in 2010. Two of the wells required sidetracking. The flow tests indicated Prati 5 Sidetrack 1 (P-5 St1), Prati 14 (P-14) and Prati 38 Sidetrack 2 (P-38 St2) were collectively capable of initially producing an equivalent of 12 megawatts (MWe) of steam using a conversion rate of 19,000 pounds of steam/hour

  6. Cultural Resource Survey Report. Hildebrand Ranch Area: Proposed Chatfield Arboretum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    investigation of these areas consisted of exhaustive literature reviws and intensive (100%) on-the-ground inventories of both areas. The re- sults of the...literature search for the Hildebrand Ranch are contained in Sections C and D of this report. When it became clear from the physical examination of...manner consistent with accepted practices in modern field and research archeology and in accord with the stipulations of Federal Register Vol. 41, No

  7. Biotechnology: An Assessment of Agricultural Science Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…

  8. AmeriFlux US-FR2 Freeman Ranch- Mesquite Juniper

    SciTech Connect

    Litvak, Marcy

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-FR2 Freeman Ranch- Mesquite Juniper. Site Description - Freeman Ranch is a 4200 ha research area owned by Texas State University. It is located on the easter Edwards Plateau in central Texas and overlies and recharges the Edwards Aquifer. Most of the ranch is occupied by upland habitats.

  9. The Zambian Wildlife Ranching Industry: Scale, Associated Benefits, and Limitations Affecting Its Development

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Peter A.; Barnes, Jonathan; Nyirenda, Vincent; Pumfrett, Belinda; Tambling, Craig J.; Taylor, W. Andrew; Rolfes, Michael t’Sas

    2013-01-01

    The number and area of wildlife ranches in Zambia increased from 30 and 1,420 km2 in 1997 to 177 and ∼6,000 km2 by 2012. Wild ungulate populations on wildlife ranches increased from 21,000 individuals in 1997 to ∼91,000 in 2012, while those in state protected areas declined steeply. Wildlife ranching and crocodile farming have a turnover of ∼USD15.7 million per annum, compared to USD16 million from the public game management areas which encompass an area 29 times larger. The wildlife ranching industry employs 1,200 people (excluding jobs created in support industries), with a further ∼1,000 individuals employed through crocodile farming. Wildlife ranches generate significant quantities of meat (295,000 kg/annum), of which 30,000 kg of meat accrues to local communities and 36,000 kg to staff. Projected economic returns from wildlife ranching ventures are high, with an estimated 20-year economic rate of return of 28%, indicating a strong case for government support for the sector. There is enormous scope for wildlife ranching in Zambia due to the availability of land, high diversity of wildlife and low potential for commercial livestock production. However, the Zambian wildlife ranching industry is small and following completion of field work for this study, there was evidence of a significant proportion of ranchers dropping out. The industry is performing poorly, due to inter alia: rampant commercial bushmeat poaching; failure of government to allocate outright ownership of wildlife to landowners; bureaucratic hurdles; perceived historical lack of support from the Zambia Wildlife Authority and government; a lack of a clear policy on wildlife ranching; and a ban on hunting on unfenced lands including game ranches. For the wildlife ranching industry to develop, these limitations need to be addressed decisively. These findings are likely to apply to other savanna countries with large areas of marginal land potentially suited to wildlife ranching. PMID:24367493

  10. The Zambian wildlife ranching industry: scale, associated benefits, and limitations affecting its development.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Peter A; Barnes, Jonathan; Nyirenda, Vincent; Pumfrett, Belinda; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; t'Sas Rolfes, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The number and area of wildlife ranches in Zambia increased from 30 and 1,420 km(2) in 1997 to 177 and ∼6,000 km(2) by 2012. Wild ungulate populations on wildlife ranches increased from 21,000 individuals in 1997 to ∼91,000 in 2012, while those in state protected areas declined steeply. Wildlife ranching and crocodile farming have a turnover of ∼USD15.7 million per annum, compared to USD16 million from the public game management areas which encompass an area 29 times larger. The wildlife ranching industry employs 1,200 people (excluding jobs created in support industries), with a further ∼1,000 individuals employed through crocodile farming. Wildlife ranches generate significant quantities of meat (295,000 kg/annum), of which 30,000 kg of meat accrues to local communities and 36,000 kg to staff. Projected economic returns from wildlife ranching ventures are high, with an estimated 20-year economic rate of return of 28%, indicating a strong case for government support for the sector. There is enormous scope for wildlife ranching in Zambia due to the availability of land, high diversity of wildlife and low potential for commercial livestock production. However, the Zambian wildlife ranching industry is small and following completion of field work for this study, there was evidence of a significant proportion of ranchers dropping out. The industry is performing poorly, due to inter alia: rampant commercial bushmeat poaching; failure of government to allocate outright ownership of wildlife to landowners; bureaucratic hurdles; perceived historical lack of support from the Zambia Wildlife Authority and government; a lack of a clear policy on wildlife ranching; and a ban on hunting on unfenced lands including game ranches. For the wildlife ranching industry to develop, these limitations need to be addressed decisively. These findings are likely to apply to other savanna countries with large areas of marginal land potentially suited to wildlife ranching.

  11. 76 FR 33280 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... agriculture such as effective approaches to addressing water quality issues associated with agricultural... on a range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and...

  12. 76 FR 59396 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... agriculture such as effective approaches to addressing water quality issues associated with agricultural... on a range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and...

  13. 76 FR 11243 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... agriculture such as effective approaches to addressing water quality issues associated with agricultural... on a range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and...

  14. OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AND TRAINING NEEDS FOR NONFARM AGRICULTURAL JOBS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREAS OF LOUISIANA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CURTIS, C.M.; MONDART, C.L.

    A SURVEY OF 1,067 BUSINESSES OR AGENCIES HANDLING FARM PRODUCTS OR PROVIDING AGRICULTURAL SERVICE IN SEVEN METROPOLITAN AREAS IDENTIFIED PRESENT AND EMERGING AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS OTHER THAN FARMING AND RANCHING FOR WHICH INSTRUCTION IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE SHOULD BE MADE AVAILABLE. DATA PROVIDED EMPLOYEE INFORMATION FOR SELECTED OCCUPATIONAL…

  15. Watershed Restoration on Black Drake Ranch: Humility vs. hubris in applying incomplete scientific information to real world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulkley, G. B.; Mattenberger, S.

    2009-12-01

    Black Drake Ranch comprises ~1000 acres of Klamath Basin high desert in S. Central OR, containing 2.5m reaches each of the North Fork Sprague River (NFSR) and its major tributary, Five Mile Creek, a meandering meadow spring creek anchoring 26m of upstream habitat for several species of concern, including native redband trout. Decades of unenlightened management had resulted in substantial watershed degradation: channelization and diking by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (hubris), massive stream bank head cuts and erosion by cattle hooves, complete blockade of fish passage by two irrigation diversion dams, loss of eggs and fry in irrigation runoff, upland juniper overgrowth from fire suppression, and extensive infestation of noxious weeds. After in depth analysis by the Working Landscapes Alliance, Klamath Watershed Partnership, Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, and adjacent landowners, the landowner, a retired cellular biologist, collaborated with an United States Fish & Wildlife Service hydrologist to formulate a comprehensive Long Term Strategic Plan (LTSP) to restore a functioning ecosystem compatible with an economically viable cattle/hay ranching operation. The LTSP is based upon current best practices (CPBs) recommended by experts in relevant, but relatively young scientific fields, with the recognition that these CPBs are constantly evolving as new information becomes available, particularly relevant to this particular site. Consequently, the LTSP remains flexible, and is repeatedly revised as new information is culled from the literature, but mostly from on-site experience and errors. This LTSP entails: 1. Rotational cattle grazing and riparian fencing to allow the re-establishment of bank-stabilizing native plant populations; 2. At diversion dams, installation of fish screens and 3. re-establishment of fish passage using paleochannels revealed by aerial contour mapping; 4. Selective stream bank head cut repair to retain and thereby reduce irrigation

  16. Forrest Ranch Management and Implementation, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brent

    2004-01-01

    Through their John Day Basin Office, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Ranch during July of 2002. The property consists of two parcels located in the John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The mainstem parcel consists of 3,503 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem of the John Day River. The middle fork parcel consists of 820 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the middle fork John Day River. The Forrest Ranch Project is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. The Forrest Ranch acquisition was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by the operation of their hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Following lengthy negotiations with the BPA and property owner, the Tribes were able to conclude the acquisition of the Forrest Ranch in July of 2002. The intent of the acquisition project was to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, section 11.1, section 7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of program funding through a memorandum of agreement and annual statement of work. As early as 1997, the Tribes identified this property as a priority for restoration in the John Day basin. In 2000, the Tribes arranged an agreement with the landowner to seek funds for the acquisition of both the Middle Fork and upper Mainstem John Day River holdings of Mr. John Forrest. This property had been a priority of not only the Tribes, but of many other basin natural resource agencies. The

  17. Forrest Ranch Acquisition, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brent

    2003-08-01

    Through their John Day Basin Office, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Ranch during July of 2002. The property consists of two parcels located in the John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The mainstem parcel consists of 3,503 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem of the John Day River. The middle fork parcel consists of 820 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the middle fork John Day River. The Forrest Ranch Project is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. The Forrest Ranch acquisition was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by the operation of their hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Following lengthy negotiations with the BPA and property owner, the Tribes were able to conclude the acquisition of the Forrest Ranch in July of 2002. The intent of the acquisition project was to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, section 11.1, section 7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of program funding through a memorandum of agreement and annual statement of work. As early as 1997, the Tribes identified this property as a priority for restoration in the John Day basin. In 2000, the Tribes arranged an agreement with the landowner to seek funds for the acquisition of both the Middle Fork and upper Mainstem John Day River holdings of Mr. John Forrest. This property had been a priority of not only the Tribes, but of many other basin natural resource agencies. The

  18. 140° view of ranch core showing left to right: corrals, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140° view of ranch core showing left to right: corrals, NPS worm fence, and planted cottonwood trees. This negative forms a 360° composite panoramic when joined with AZ-2-72 and AZ-2-73. See AZ-2-83 for color version. - Tassi Ranch, Tassi Springs, Littlefield, Mohave County, AZ

  19. Estuarine Vegetation at Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve, San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve (Rush Ranch) includes the largest remaining undiked tidal wetland within the Suisun Marsh region of the San Francisco Estuary. The brackish tidal wetlands grade into transitional vegetation and undeveloped grasslands of the Potrero Hills. We present analysis of ...

  20. Tidal wetland vegetation and ecotone profiles: The Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve (Rush Ranch) is a component site of the San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (SF Bay NERR) that includes one of the largest undiked tidal wetlands in the San Francisco Estuary. The brackish tidal wetlands grade into transitional vegetation and unde...

  1. 76 FR 77890 - Swan Ranch Railroad, L.L.C.-Operation Exemption-Swan Industrial Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Swan Ranch Railroad, L.L.C.--Operation Exemption--Swan Industrial Park Swan Ranch Railroad, L.L.C. (SRR),\\1\\ a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR..., L.L.C., wherein Watco seeks Board approval to continue in control of SRR, upon SRR's becoming...

  2. 140° view of ranch core showing left to right: barn, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140° view of ranch core showing left to right: barn, corrals, and planted cottonwood tree. This negative forms a 360° composite panoramic when joined with AZ-2-72 and AZ-2-74. See AZ-2-82 for color version. - Tassi Ranch, Tassi Springs, Littlefield, Mohave County, AZ

  3. 77 FR 4290 - Conway Ranch Hydropower Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Conway Ranch Hydropower Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, KC LLC, California, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Conway Ranch Hydropower...

  4. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  5. Background on the development of a nonfunded cooperative agreement between USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding (CDCB)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers, dairy record providers, breed associations, artificial-insemination companies, and the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, which is part of USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in Beltsville, Maryland, have collaborated for many decades to provide the dairy industry with i...

  6. Criollo cattle: Heritage genetics for arid landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty cows and three bulls from the Chinipas region in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, were introduced onto the US Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research Service’s Jornada Experimental Range (JER) in 2005. Since then behavioral research has revealed these cattle, most accurately referre...

  7. Effects of selenium supplementation in cattle on aquatic ecosystems in northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, B.; Nader, G.; Oliver, M.; Delmas, R.; Drake, D.; George, H. )

    1992-09-15

    The potential impact on aquatic ecosystems of supplementing the diets of beef cattle with selenium (Se) was studied on 4 northern California ranches. All study sites included an area of concentrated use by cattle that had diets supplemented with Se. In each case, a stream flowed through the site and provided a control sampling area upstream and a treated sampling area downstream. Specimens of water, sediment, algae, aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, and fish were analyzed fluorometrically for total Se content. Significant differences in Se concentration were not found between specimens from upstream control areas and those from downstream areas subjected to use by Se-treated cattle. Evidence was not found that Se supplementation in cattle at maximal permitted concentrations caused Se accumulation in associated aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Determinants of elephant distribution at Nazinga Game Ranch, Burkina Faso

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Wicks, Zeno W.

    2007-01-01

    We used seasonal ground total counts and remote sensing and GIS technology to relate elephant (Loxodonta africana africana) distribution at Nazinga Game Ranch to environmental and anthropogenic factors. Variables used in analyses were normalized difference vegetation index, elevation, stream density, density of poaching and human illegal activities, distance to dams, distance to rivers, distance to roads, and distance to poaching risk. Contrary to our expectation, road traffic did not disturb elephants. Strong negative relationships were documented between elephant abundance and stream density, distance to dams, and poaching density. Density of poaching and other human illegal activities explained 81%, vegetation greenness 6%, and stream density 3% of the variation in elephant density. Elephant distribution represented a survival strategy affected by poaching, food quality and abundance, and water availability. 

  9. Cattle are eating the forest

    SciTech Connect

    DeWalt, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    World population growth is causing a trend for less-developed countries to become food importers because of short-sighted agricultural practices and land-use policies. Honduras illustrates how population growth pushes farming onto marginal lands. The land used to grow tropical fruit for export is shifting to pasture where cattle are raised for export. Improved transportation links are accelerating this shift. The results of slash-and-mulch cultivation has been to diminish forest and fallow land. Although the short-term effects benefit the landless as well as the land owners, a new class of migrant worker is finding unemployment on the rise, and local populations must compete with cattle for food because the cattle are sold to international meat processors. 17 references. (DCK)

  10. 75 FR 54619 - Vagabond Ranch; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and Motions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ..., 200 South College Avenue, Suite 100, P.O. Box 973, Fort Collins, CO 80522; e- mail: http: //www.brad..., and/or motions filed. k. Description of Project: The proposed run-of-river Vagabond Ranch Small...

  11. Agricultural Science Teachers' Barriers, Roles, and Information Source Preferences for Teaching Biotechnology Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowen, Diana L.; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Roberts, T. Grady; Harlin, Julie F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine barriers, roles, and information source preferences for teaching agricultural biotechnology topics. Agricultural science teachers were described primarily as 37 year-old males who had taught for 12 years, had bachelor's degrees, and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. Equipment was perceived as the…

  12. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  13. Pre-Employment Laboratory Training. General Agricultural Mechanics Volume II. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This course outline, the second volume of a two-volume set, consists of lesson plans for pre-employment laboratory training in general agricultural mechanics. Covered in the eight lessons included in this volume are cold metal work, soldering, agricultural safety programs, farm shops, farm structures, farm and ranch electrification, soil and water…

  14. 140° view of the ranch core showing left to right: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140° view of the ranch core showing left to right: parking area, planted cottonwood trees, barn, NPS worm fence, corrals, and Lake Mead NRA Approved Road 152A. This negative forms a 360° composite panoramic when joined with AZ-2-78 and AZ-2-80. See AZ-2-88 for color version. - Tassi Ranch, Tassi Springs, Littlefield, Mohave County, AZ

  15. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Asem-Hiablie, S; Dillon, J; Bonifacio, H

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of 7 regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, representative ranch and feedyard operations were defined and simulated for the varying climate and soil conditions throughout the region using the Integrated Farm System Model. These simulations predicted environmental impacts of each operation including cradle-to-farm gate footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, fossil-based energy use, nonprecipitation water use, and reactive N loss. Individual ranch and feedyard operations were linked to form 28 representative production systems. A weighted average of the production systems was used to determine the environmental footprints for the region where weighting factors were developed based on animal numbers reported in the survey and agricultural statistics data. Along with the traditional beef production systems, Holstein steer and cull cow production from the dairy industry in the region were also modeled and included. The carbon footprint of all beef produced was 18.3 ± 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg carcass weight (CW) with the range in individual production systems being 13 to 25 kg CO2e/kg CW. Energy use, water use, and reactive N loss were 51 ± 4.8 MJ/kg CW, 2,470 ± 455 L/kg CW, and 138 ± 12 g N/kg CW, respectively. The major portion of each footprint except water use was associated with the cow-calf phase; most of the nonprecipitation water use was attributed to producing feed for the finishing phase. These data provide a baseline for comparison as new technologies and strategies are developed and implemented to improve the sustainability of cattle production. Production information also will be combined with processing, marketing, and consumer data to complete a comprehensive life cycle assessment of beef.

  16. Free-flow variability on the Jess and Souza Ranches, Altamont Pass

    SciTech Connect

    Nierenberg, R.

    1988-04-25

    A central monitoring computer was installed on each ranch. The computers were connected by communication cables to 50 turbines on the Souza Ranch and 150 turbines on the Jess Ranch. Anemometers were installed on every other turbine on 12-foot booms at 35 feet above ground level (AGL). Spacing between anemometers was approximately 200 feet in the crosswind direction by 500 feet in the parallel direction. A total of 23 turbines on the Souza Ranch was instrumented in this fashion, as well as two multi-level meteorological towers. On the Jess Ranch, 77 turbines were instrumented; about half at 35 feet AGL and half at 50 feet AGL, plus four additional towers. Wind data were collected for approximately a 100 hour period on each ranch. All turbines were shut down during these periods so that no turbine wakes would be present. The data periods were selected by the meteorologist to insure that they occurred during typical spring-summer flow regimes. The terrain features upwind of the site appear to play as significant a role in the flow variability as terrain features within the site.

  17. Free-flow variability on the Jess and Souza Ranches, Altamont Pass. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nierenberg, R.

    1988-04-25

    A central monitoring computer was installed on each ranch. The computers were connected by communication cables to 50 turbines on the Souza Ranch and 150 turbines on the Jess Ranch. Anemometers were installed on every other turbine on 12-foot booms at 35 feet above ground level (AGL). Spacing between anemometers was approximately 200 feet in the crosswind direction by 500 feet in the parallel direction. A total of 23 turbines on the Souza Ranch was instrumented in this fashion, as well as two multi-level meteorological towers. On the Jess Ranch, 77 turbines were instrumented; about half at 35 feet AGL and half at 50 feet AGL, plus four additional towers. Wind data were collected for approximately a 100 hour period on each ranch. All turbines were shut down during these periods so that no turbine wakes would be present. The data periods were selected by the meteorologist to insure that they occurred during typical spring-summer flow regimes. The terrain features upwind of the site appear to play as significant a role in the flow variability as terrain features within the site.

  18. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not... spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this section. (b) Brucellosis...

  19. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed...

  20. Genome sequencing identifies Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov., isolated from a ranch.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, Henk C; Manuel, Clyde S; Fortes, Esther D; Wiedmann, Martin; Nightingale, Kendra K

    2013-09-01

    Twenty Listeria-like isolates were obtained from environmental samples collected on a cattle ranch in northern Colorado; all of these isolates were found to share an identical partial sigB sequence, suggesting close relatedness. The isolates were similar to members of the genus Listeria in that they were Gram-stain-positive, short rods, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive; the isolates were similar to Listeria fleischmannii because they were non-motile at 25 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequencing for representative isolates and whole genome sequencing for one isolate was performed. The genome of the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii (strain LU2006-1(T)) was also sequenced. The draft genomes were very similar in size and the average MUMmer nucleotide identity across 91% of the genomes was 95.16%. Genome sequence data were used to design primers for a six-gene multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme. Phylogenies based on (i) the near-complete 16S rRNA gene, (ii) 31 core genes and (iii) six housekeeping genes illustrated the close relationship of these Listeria-like isolates to Listeria fleischmannii LU2006-1(T). Sufficient genetic divergence of the Listeria-like isolates from the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii and differing phenotypic characteristics warrant these isolates to be classified as members of a distinct infraspecific taxon, for which the name Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TTU M1-001(T) ( =BAA-2414(T) =DSM 25391(T)). The isolates of Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. differ from the nominate subspecies by the inability to utilize melezitose, turanose and sucrose, and the ability to utilize inositol. The results also demonstrate the utility of whole genome sequencing to facilitate identification of novel taxa within a well-described genus. The genomes of both subspecies of Listeria fleischmannii contained putative enhancin genes; the Listeria fleischmannii subsp

  1. Agua Caliente Wind/Solar Project at Whitewater Ranch

    SciTech Connect

    Hooks, Todd; Stewart, Royce

    2014-12-16

    Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI) was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy (DOE) to study the feasibility of a wind and/or solar renewable energy project at the Whitewater Ranch (WWR) property of ACBCI. Red Mountain Energy Partners (RMEP) was engaged to conduct the study. The ACBCI tribal lands in the Coachella Valley have very rich renewable energy resources. The tribe has undertaken several studies to more fully understand the options available to them if they were to move forward with one or more renewable energy projects. With respect to the resources, the WWR property clearly has excellent wind and solar resources. The DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has continued to upgrade and refine their library of resource maps. The newer, more precise maps quantify the resources as among the best in the world. The wind and solar technology available for deployment is also being improved. Both are reducing their costs to the point of being at or below the costs of fossil fuels. Technologies for energy storage and microgrids are also improving quickly and present additional ways to increase the wind and/or solar energy retained for later use with the network management flexibility to provide power to the appropriate locations when needed. As a result, renewable resources continue to gain more market share. The transitioning to renewables as the major resources for power will take some time as the conversion is complex and can have negative impacts if not managed well. While the economics for wind and solar systems continue to improve, the robustness of the WWR site was validated by the repeated queries of developers to place wind and/or solar there. The robust resources and improving technologies portends toward WWR land as a renewable energy site. The business case, however, is not so clear, especially when the potential investment portfolio for ACBCI has several very beneficial and profitable alternatives.

  2. Carbon emissions from agricultural expansion and intensification in the Chaco.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Matthias; Gasparri, Ignacio; Piquer-Rodríguez, María; Gavier Pizarro, Gregorio; Griffiths, Patrick; Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    Carbon emissions from land-use changes in tropical dry forest systems are poorly understood, although they are likely globally significant. The South American Chaco has recently emerged as a hot spot of agricultural expansion and intensification, as cattle ranching and soybean cultivation expand into forests, and as soybean cultivation replaces grazing lands. Still, our knowledge of the rates and spatial patterns of these land-use changes and how they affected carbon emissions remains partial. We used the Landsat satellite image archive to reconstruct land-use change over the past 30 years and applied a carbon bookkeeping model to quantify how these changes affected carbon budgets. Between 1985 and 2013, more than 142 000 km(2) of the Chaco's forests, equaling 20% of all forest, was replaced by croplands (38.9%) or grazing lands (61.1%). Of those grazing lands that existed in 1985, about 40% were subsequently converted to cropland. These land-use changes resulted in substantial carbon emissions, totaling 824 Tg C between 1985 and 2013, and 46.2 Tg C for 2013 alone. The majority of these emissions came from forest-to-grazing-land conversions (68%), but post-deforestation land-use change triggered an additional 52.6 Tg C. Although tropical dry forests are less carbon-dense than moist tropical forests, carbon emissions from land-use change in the Chaco were similar in magnitude to those from other major tropical deforestation frontiers. Our study thus highlights the urgent need for an improved monitoring of the often overlooked tropical dry forests and savannas, and more broadly speaking the value of the Landsat image archive for quantifying carbon fluxes from land change.

  3. Importance of the horse and financial impact of equine trypanosomiasis on cattle raising in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Moreno, S Andrea; Concepción, Juan Luis; Nava, Mayerly; Molinari, Jesús

    2013-11-01

    In Venezuela, horses are indispensable for extensive cattle raising, and extensive cattle raising prevails in all regions. This determines the numerical relationship between horses and cattle (r = 0.93) to be relatively constant nationwide. At regional level, the average extension of cattle ranches varies greatly. However, in relation to the area covered by pastures, the numbers of horses (r = 0.95) and cattle (r = 0.93) are relatively uniform nationwide. Water buffalo occupy small fractions of the territory; therefore, their numbers are related to the area of pastures less strongly (r = 0.56). There is no information on the numerical relationship between the numbers of horses and water buffalo. In the Llanos region of the country, equine trypanosomiasis is responsible for a high mortality in horses, causing considerable financial losses to cattle ranches. So far, such losses have not been assessed. For this region, in 2008, it can be calculated that: (1) with no treatment, losses owing to horse mortality caused by this hemoparasitosis would have amounted to US$7,486,000; (2) the diagnosis and treatment of affected horses would have required an investment of US$805,000; and (3) in terms of horses saved, this investment would have resulted in benefit of US$6,232,000. Therefore, for every monetary unit invested, there would be a benefit 7.75 times greater, this ratio being applicable to any year and all regions of the country. It follows that the profitability of investing in the diagnosis and treatment of equine trypanosomiasis is guaranteed.

  4. 77 FR 41400 - AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  5. 78 FR 2390 - CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v. California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Complaint Take notice... IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC and CSOLAR IV North, LLC...

  6. 76 FR 23582 - Golden Spread Panhandle Wind Ranch, LLC; Supplemental Notice That That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Golden Spread Panhandle Wind Ranch, LLC; Supplemental Notice That That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Golden Spread Panhandle Wind Ranch, LLC's...

  7. 76 FR 46287 - Hudson Ranch Power I LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hudson Ranch Power I LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Hudson Ranch Power I LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  8. Spatial-temporal dynamics of agricultural drought in the tallgrass prairie region of the Southern Great Plains during 2000-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, G.; Bajgain, R.; Dong, J.; Qin, Y.; Jin, C.; Wagle, P.; Basara, J. B.; McCarthy, H. R.; Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.; Otkin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tallgrass prairie is an important ecosystem type and a major feed for beef cattle in the Southern Great Plains (SGP: Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas). Frequent drought in the SGP affects the production of tallgrass prairie and ultimately the beef cattle production. It is, therefore, necessary to map drought vulnerable areas to help ranchers adapt cattle industry to drought conditions. In this study, we analyzed Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) calculated from near infrared and shortwave infrared bands of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and quantified the spatial-temporal dynamics of agricultural drought in the tallgrass prairie region of the SGP during 2000-2013. The number of days with LSWI < 0 during the thermal growing season (start and end dates as well as duration of land surface temperature > 5 °C) was defined as the duration of drought to generate drought duration maps for each year. Following the decreasing rainfall gradient from east to west in the SGP, counties in the west experienced whole growing season drought (WGSZ) more (three or more out of 14 years with WGSD), middle counties had one to two months summer drought, and eastern counties experienced less drought (mainly one year with WGSD and less than one month of summer drought). The LSWI-based drought duration map showed similar patterns with Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) and U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) in wet, summer drought, and whole growing season drought years. Our drought map has identified the vulnerability of counties to different droughts (summer drought and whole growing season drought) in the SGP. This finer resolution (500 m) drought map has the potential to show the drought condition for individual ranch, which can be used to guide drought mitigation activities and livestock production.

  9. Wildlife Impact Assessment: Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon, and Boise Diversion Projects, Idaho. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1986-05-01

    This report presents an analysis of impacts on wildlife and their habitats as a result of construction and operation of the US Bureau of Reclamation's Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon, and Boise Diversion Projects in Idaho. The objectives were to: (1) determine the probable impacts of development and operation of the Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon, and Boise Diversion Projects to wildlife and their habitats; (2) determine the wildlife and habitat impacts directly attributable to hydroelectric development and operation; (3) briefly identify the current major concerns for wildlife in the vicinities of the hydroelectric projects; and (4) provide for consultation and coordination with interested agencies, tribes, and other entities expressing interest in the project.

  10. Ongonite and topazite dikes in the Flying W ranch area, Tonto basin, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kortemeier, Winifred T.; Burt, Donald M.

    1988-01-01

    The petrogenesis of the topaz-rich ongonite and topazite dikes in the Flying W ranch area (Tonto basin, Arizona) was investigated, and the possible origin of the topaz in the Flying W rhyolite is discussed. The field, textural geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics of the topaz-bearing dikes in the Flying W ranch area all were found to support the genesis of the topaz-bearing bodies from a magma. The evidence obtained contradicts an origin for these rock types by greisenization or veining.

  11. Genome engineering in cattle: recent technological advancements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongde

    2015-02-01

    cattle for agricultural and biomedical applications.

  12. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

  13. Vaccination of cattle animals against tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine TB (bTB), mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a significant economic burden to the agricultural industries worldwide. It has been estimated that 50 million cattle are infected with M. bovis worldwide resulting in around US $3 billion losses annually and this is despite attempts to contro...

  14. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) as a host for the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Trinidad-Martínez, I C; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Ticante-Perez, V; Castro-Marín, J M; Tapia-Moo, C A; Vázquez-Gómez, G

    2013-08-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is the most economically important cattle tick in the Mexican tropics. Wild ungulate species, including red deer (Cervus elaphus), are gaining popularity in diversified livestock ranching operations in Mexico. However, there is no information available on the susceptibility of red deer to infestation with the cattle tick, R. microplus, under hot, subhumid tropical conditions in Mexico. Biological data on R. microplus as an ectoparasite of cattle and red deer in a farm in the Mexican tropics are presented here. Ticks collected from red deer were identified as R. microplus (97 %) and Amblyomma cajennense (3 %), and tick species infesting cattle included R. microplus (95 %) and A. cajennense (5 %). Standard counts of R. microplus engorged females on red deer were 11 times higher than on cattle (428 ± 43 vs. 40 ± 18; p < 0.001). The reproductive efficiency index and larval hatching of R. microplus collected from cattle and red deer were similar (p > 0.05). Hemolymph samples of R. microplus collected from cattle were positive for Babesia spp. (10 %, 2/50) and all the samples from ticks infesting red deer were negative. Seventeen and ten percent of the blood samples from cattle and red deer were positive for Anaplasma marginale, respectively. The role of red deer as a host of R. microplus in Yucatan, Mexico and the importance of this host-parasite relationship relative to the epidemiology of R. microplus-borne diseases are discussed.

  15. Distribution and interspecies contact of feral swine and cattle on rangeland in south Texas: implications for disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Susan M; Scott, H Morgan; de la Garza, Guadalupe R; Deck, Aubrey L; Cathey, James C

    2010-01-01

    The last outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the United States occurred in 1929. Since that time, numbers and distribution of feral swine (Sus scrofa) have increased greatly, especially in the southern states. This creates a potential risk to livestock production because swine are susceptible to, and can be carriers of, several economically harmful diseases of livestock. Most importantly, swine are potent amplifiers of FMD virus. In this study, global positioning system (GPS) collars were placed on rangeland cattle (Bos indicus x taurus) and feral swine to determine shared habitat use by these species on a large ranch in south Texas from 2004 to 2006. The aim was to identify locations and rates of interspecies contact that may result in effective transfer of FMD virus, should an outbreak occur. In shrubland and riparian areas, animals were dispersed, so contacts within and between species were relatively infrequent. Indirect contacts, whereby cattle and feral swine used the same location (within 20 m) within a 360-min period, occurred primarily at water sources, and seasonally in irrigated forage fields and along ranch roads. Direct contacts between species (animals <20 m apart and within 15 min) were rare and occurred primarily at water sources. Changes in ranch management practices are suggested to reduce interspecies contact should an FMD disease outbreak occur. This information can also be used to improve current epidemiologic models to better fit free-ranging animal populations.

  16. Factors affecting body weight loss during commercial long haul transport of cattle in North America.

    PubMed

    González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify and quantify several factors affecting shrink in cattle during commercial long-haul transport (≥400 km; n = 6,152 journeys). Surveys were designed and delivered to transport carriers to collect relevant information regarding the characteristics of animals, time of loading, origin and destination, and loaded weight before and after transport. In contrast to fat cattle, feeder cattle exhibited greater shrink (4.9 vs. 7.9 ± 0.2% of BW, respectively; P < 0.01), and experienced longer total transport durations (12.4 vs. 14.9 ± 0.99, respectively; P < 0.01) due to border crossing protocols which require mandatory animal inspection. Shrink was greater (P < 0.001) for feeder cattle loaded at ranches/farms and feed yards compared with those loaded at auction markets. Cattle loaded during the afternoon and evening shrank more than those loaded during the night and morning (P < 0.05). Shrinkage was less in cattle transported by truck drivers having 6 or more years of experience hauling livestock compared with those with 5 yr or less (P < 0.05). Shrink increased with both midpoint ambient temperature (% of BW/°C; P < 0.001) and time on truck (% of BW/h; P < 0.001). Temperature and time on truck had a multiplicative effect on each other because shrink increased most rapidly in cattle transported for both longer durations and at higher ambient temperatures (P < 0.001). The rate of shrink over time (% of BW/h) was greatest in cull cattle, intermediate in calves and feeder cattle, and slowest in fat cattle (P < 0.05) but such differences disappeared when the effects of place of origin, loading time, and experience of truck drivers were included in the model. Cull cattle, calves and feeder cattle appear to be more affected by transport compared with fat cattle going to slaughter because of greater shrink. Several factors should be considered when developing guidelines to reduce cattle transport stress and shrink including type

  17. Use of Antimicrobial Metaphylaxis for the Control of Bovine Respiratory Disease in High-Risk Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ives, Samuel E; Richeson, John T

    2015-11-01

    Despite research and increased availability of antimicrobials, the prevalence and challenges associated with BRD in stocker and feedlot operations remain. Preconditioned calves can better handle the transition from the origin ranch to the feedlot, yet there is incentive for buyers to purchase high-risk cattle at a reduced cost, and this is influenced by the proven efficacy and availability of antimicrobial metaphylaxis. The poor sensitivity of current BRD field diagnostic methods, typical pathogenesis of BRD, and labor issues are additional reasons to use metaphylaxis. Nevertheless, practitioners should consider comprehensive and novel approaches to judiciously guide decisions on metaphylactic use of antimicrobials.

  18. 140° view of two agricultural fields with traces of irrigation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140° view of two agricultural fields with traces of irrigation ditches south of the lower holding pond. This negative forms a 360° composite panoramic when joined with AZ-2-75 and AZ-2-76. See AZ-2-86 for color version. - Tassi Ranch, Tassi Springs, Littlefield, Mohave County, AZ

  19. 77 FR 27013 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... ranching, food production and processing, forestry research, crop and animal science, land-grant institutions, non-land grant college or university with a historic commitment to research in the food and agricultural sciences, food retailing and marketing, rural economic development, and natural resource...

  20. 78 FR 25691 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ..., each member has represented a specific category related to farming or ranching, food production and... university with a historic commitment to research in the food and agricultural sciences, food retailing and marketing, rural economic development, and natural resource and consumer interest groups, among many...

  1. 76 FR 5216 - Notice of Availability of Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Nichols Ranch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... dated November 30, 2007, Uranerz Energy Corporation (Uranerz), submitted an application to the NRC for a new source material license for the proposed Nichols Ranch In-situ Uranium Recovery Project, located... the proposed action, the NRC staff assessed two alternatives in the final SEIS: the...

  2. 77 FR 58181 - Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... certificate). Based upon this information, the Secretary will establish an electronic docket for the hearing in this proceeding if the Secretary has not already established an electronic docket. Information... COMMISSION Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request,...

  3. Horses: An Introduction to Horses: Racing, Ranching, and Riding for Blind and Physically Handicapped Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cylke, Frank Kurt, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography of materials focuses on horses, racing, ranching, and riding. Two articles are presented in full. They are: "Diary of a Blind Horseman: Confidence Springs from a Horse Named Sun" (Richard Vice and Steve Stone) and "Young Rider: Her Horses Show the Way" (Helen Mason). Each article tells the true story…

  4. Characterizing Wyoming ranching operations: Natural resource goals, management practices and information sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wyoming rangelands produce food and provide other vital ecosystem services, but the decision-making process of the ranchers who steward these lands is complex and poorly understood. What are the characteristics of Wyoming ranches, and how do ranchers manage natural resources? In cooperation with the...

  5. Animal Science Basic Core Curriculum. Kansas Postsecondary Farm and Ranch Management Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    Thirty-six units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in animal science for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into seven instructional areas: (1) Livestock Types, (2) Livestock Programs, (3) Nutrition, (4) Animal Health, (5) Animal Breeding, (6) Animal Improvement, and (7) Livestock…

  6. Air Force Health Study Summary of Findings in the Ranch Hand Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    interpretation of these results was appropriate until the relation between pre-clinical diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy had been further evaluated...Transient Peripheral Neuropathy .......................................................... 4-2 4.2.2. Chloracne...15-9 15.10.1. Serum Dioxin and Peripheral Neuropathy in Veterans of Operation Ranch Hand ..... 15-9 15.11. CONCLUSION

  7. Habitat characteristic of two selected locations for sea cucumber ranching purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartati, Retno; Trianto, Agus; Widianingsih

    2017-02-01

    Sea cucumbers face heavily overfished because of their high prices and very strong market demand. One effort suggested to overcome this problem is sea ranching. The objectives of present works were to determine biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of prospective location for sea ranching of sea cucumber Holothuria atra. Two location at Jepara Waters (Teluk Awur and Bandengan WateRs of Jepara Regency) were selected. The determination of chemical (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen of water, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium of water and sediment, organic matters of sediment), physical (transparancy, sedimen grains size, water current direction and its velocity), biologycal characteristic (coverage of seagrass and its macroalgae associated, phytoplankton as well as chlorophyl-a and phaeopytin of water and sediment) ware determined. The result of present work showed that some characteristic were matched with requirement as sea ranching location of sea cucumber because the density of sea cucumber in the sea is a function of habitat features. For sediment feeding holothurians of the family Aspidochirotida, the biologycal characteristic act as very important considerations by providing sea cucumber food. High cholophyl-a and phaeopytin in sediment also represent a prosperous habitat for sea cucumber ranching.

  8. Extending the Security Net: The Impact of Rangeland Insurance on Ranching Economy and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Rex J.

    2008-01-01

    Crop insurance is a relatively recent invention that attempts to level the playing field in our contest with the environment. It well represents the complexity and interaction within the human-land relationship. Ranching is another symbol of this relationship. The word stewardship captures a rancher's connection to the land. It denotes a respect…

  9. High School Students' Compositions of Ranch Designs: Implications for Academic and Personal Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter; Pettis, Victoria; Reed, Patty

    2004-01-01

    This research analyzed the composing processes of two high school students designing horse ranch plans for a course in equine management and production. The investigation focused on understanding the problems driving the design process, the tools through which the students inscribed and encoded meaning in their compositions, and the integration,…

  10. Circuits of Spectacle: The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West show ran from 1906 to 1931, outlasting the famous Buffalo Bill's Wild West show by more than a decade. From its beginnings in Oklahoma Territory, the Real Wild West show traveled national and international circuits and built a broad roster of performers, including more than 150 American Indians. During…

  11. [The prevalence, prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic during the Han-Tang Period].

    PubMed

    Han, Yi

    2013-03-01

    About 21 times of cattle epidemic with rather strong infectivity happened during the Han-Tang Period, including 6 in the Eastern Han Dynasty, 2 in the Jin Dynasty, 4 in the Southern and Northern Dynasties, 8 in the Tang Dynasty and 1in the Five Dynasty. Most of them were spread along the Yellow River and the northern region of the Huai River. The type of cattle epidemic included the acute cattle plague, cattle bovine mange, cattle yellow fever and cattle rotten hoof disease, etc. Its occurrence and prevalence brought a serious influentce on the society of the Han and Tang Dynasties, causing massive mortality of farm cattle, and then the shortage of animal power, and threatening the agriculture, which drew the attention of the governments, physicians, agriculturists, astrologists and Taoists. The medical measures and economic measures were adopted for the prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic. Especially, prescriptions in the books of medicine and agriculture exerted positive effects on the containment of cattle epidemic. On the other hand, its prevalence and the mass mortality of farm cattle, in a way, promoted, to certain extent, the improvement of the government's function of relief, the updating of the methods of agriculture and the creation of new farm tools, and being regarded as a main cause for the technological innovation of agriculture.

  12. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  13. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  14. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  15. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  16. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  17. Cattle herd vulnerability to rainfall variability: responses to two management scenarios in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Angassa, Ayana; Oba, Gufu

    2013-03-01

    We examine how the system of grazing management of cattle in savanna rangelands affects the herd response to drought. We have used long-term time series data to evaluate the effects of management on drought-induced cattle mortality using traditional livestock management practices. There was no control of stocking densities, as compared to a government ranch where stocking densities would be adjusted in accordance with available pasture. We tested the responses under two scenarios. Scenario 1: Response of cattle herds to inter-annual rainfall variability (IRV) under a regulated grazing management system; this provides more reliable predictions of cattle population and performance in terms of herd mortality and calving rates than does the communal land use system. Scenario 2: Regardless of the management system, similar trends in cattle populations will be observed in response to IRV. The results of the study showed that fluctuations in cattle numbers, herd mortality and calving rates were highly correlated with IRV, with stronger linear impacts in accordance with scenario 2. In both management systems, cattle herd sizes and calving rates declined during periods of drought, followed by slow recovery. Cattle populations in Borana rangelands in southern Ethiopia did not recover for a period of two decades. We conclude that a management system based on control of stocking densities did not improve herd survival, as compared with traditional drought management strategies. This contradicts common expectations. Increased drought frequencies aggravated cattle mortality and lowered calving rates. The implication of the findings is that regardless of adjusted stocking density, livestock populations in the arid savanna ecosystems of southern Ethiopia remain at risk from climate change.

  18. Landscape conditions predisposing grizzly bears to conflicts on private agricultural lands in the western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.M.; Madel, M.J.; Mattson, D.J.; Graham, J.M.; Merrill, T.

    2006-01-01

    We used multiple logistic regression to model how different landscape conditions contributed to the probability of human-grizzly bear conflicts on private agricultural ranch lands. We used locations of livestock pastures, traditional livestock carcass disposal areas (boneyards), beehives, and wetland-riparian associated vegetation to model the locations of 178 reported human-grizzly bear conflicts along the Rocky Mountain East Front, Montana, USA during 1986-2001. We surveyed 61 livestock producers in the upper Teton watershed of north-central Montana, to collect spatial and temporal data on livestock pastures, boneyards, and beehives for the same period, accounting for changes in livestock and boneyard management and beehive location and protection, for each season. We used 2032 random points to represent the null hypothesis of random location relative to potential explanatory landscape features, and used Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC/AICC) and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics for model selection. We used a resulting "best" model to map contours of predicted probabilities of conflict, and used this map for verification with an independent dataset of conflicts to provide additional insights regarding the nature of conflicts. The presence of riparian vegetation and distances to spring, summer, and fall sheep or cattle pastures, calving and sheep lambing areas, unmanaged boneyards, and fenced and unfenced beehives were all associated with the likelihood of human-grizzly bear conflicts. Our model suggests that collections of attractants concentrated in high quality bear habitat largely explain broad patterns of human-grizzly bear conflicts on private agricultural land in our study area. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Plans, Anderson Ranch and Black Canyon Facilities: Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1987-06-01

    Under direction of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, and the subsequent Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, projects have been developed in Idaho to mitigate the impacts to wildlife habitat and production due to the development and operation of the Anderson Ranch and Black Canyon Facilities (i.e., dam, power plant, and reservoir areas). The Anderson Ranch Facility covered about 4812 acres of wildlife habitat while the Black Canyon Facility covered about 1115 acres. These acreages include dam and power plant staging areas. A separate mitigation plan has been developed for each facility. A modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to assess the benefits of the mitigation plans to wildlife. The interagency work group used the target species Habitat Units (HU's) lost at each facility as a guideline during the mitigation planning process, while considering the needs of wildlife in the areas. Totals of 9619 and 2238 target species HU's were estimated to be lost in the Anderson Ranch and Black Canyon Facility areas, respectively. Through a series of projects, the mitigation plans will provide benefits of 9620 target species HU's to replace Anderson Ranch wildlife impacts and benefits of 2195 target species HU's to replace Black Canyon wildlife impacts. Target species to be benefited by the Anderson Ranch and/or Black Canyon mitigation plans include the mallard, Canada goose, mink, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, ruffed grouse, mule deer, blue grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, and peregrine falcon.

  20. 77 FR 7576 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... as oral and written communication skills; and an ability and willingness to participate in a... range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and rural communities... identified by name, occupation, organization, position, current business address, email address, and...

  1. Temporal patterns of domestic and wildlife rabies in central Namibia stock-ranching area, 1986-1996.

    PubMed

    Courtin, F; Carpenter, T E; Paskin, R D; Chomel, B B

    2000-01-05

    Eleven years (1986-1996) of wildlife- and domestic-rabies data from the agriculture stock-ranching area of central Namibia were studied using time-series analysis. Nine hundred and sixty three rabies cases were observed in domestic ruminants (5.4 cases/mo), black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas, 1.3 cases/mo), domestic dogs (0.5 case/mo), and bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis, 0.1 case/mo). The incidence of rabies for all species did not change significantly over the whole study period. However, seasonal variations with an increase in the number of cases between June and November of each year, as well as 34 yr cyclical fluctuations were identified in domestic ruminants and black-backed jackals. The black-backed jackal time-series variable was a significant predictor of the domestic-ruminant and dog time-series variables. The rainfall seasonality combined with the seasonal reproductive pattern of the black-backed jackal appeared to be plausible explanations for the seasonal variations of rabies. However, there was no overall significant correlation between the cyclical weather fluctuations and the 3-4 yr cyclical rabies variations.

  2. Agro-economic impact of cattle cloning.

    PubMed

    Faber, D C; Ferre, L B; Metzger, J; Robl, J M; Kasinathan, P

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the economic and social implications of cloned cattle, their products, and their offspring as related to production agriculture. Cloning technology in cattle has several applications outside of traditional production agriculture. These applications can include bio-medical applications, such as the production of pharmaceuticals in the blood or milk of transgenic cattle. Cloning may also be useful in the production of research models. These models may or may not include genetic modifications. Uses in agriculture include many applications of the technology. These include making genetic copies of elite seed stock and prize winning show cattle. Other purposes may range from "insurance" to making copies of cattle that have sentimental value, similar to cloning of pets. Increased selection opportunities available with cloning may provide for improvement in genetic gain. The ultimate goal of cloning has often been envisioned as a system for producing quantity and uniformity of the perfect dairy cow. However, only if heritability were 100%, would clone mates have complete uniformity. Changes in the environment may have significant impact on the productivity and longevity of the resulting clones. Changes in consumer preferences and economic input costs may all change the definition of the perfect cow. The cost of producing such animals via cloning must be economically feasible to meet the intended applications. Present inefficiencies limit cloning opportunities to highly valued animals. Improvements are necessary to move the applications toward commercial application. Cloning has additional obstacles to conquer. Social and regulatory acceptance of cloning is paramount to its utilization in production agriculture. Regulatory acceptance will need to address the animal, its products, and its offspring. In summary, cloning is another tool in the animal biotechnology toolbox, which includes artificial insemination, sexing of semen, embryo

  3. Agricultural applications of remote sensing: A true life adventure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaller, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    A study of agricultural applications of remote sensing with a major US agricultural firm was undertaken in mid-1973. The study continued for eighteen months, and covered the areas of crop monitoring and management as well as large scale crop inventories. Pilot programs in the application of aircraft remote sensing and LANDSAT data were conducted. An operational aircraft survey program for ranch management has subsequently been implemented by the agricultural firm. LANDSAT data was successfully used to produce a ninety-seven percent accurate inventory of cotton over 4.8 million acres of California's San Joaquin Valley.

  4. Model Assessment of Alternatives for Reducing Seepage from Buried Uranium Mill Talings at the Morton Ranch Site in Central Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R. W.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Gee, G. W.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine potential ground water contamination by seepage from buried tailings under four alternatives of clay liners and tailings placement, which have been proposed for possible use at the Morton Ranch Site. To accomplish this comparison of alternatives, laboratory work and numerous measurements were made on materials typical of the Morton Ranch Site. These measurements provide the soil characteristics necessary for input to the hydrologic flow and transport models.

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lakeview (Collins Ranch) disposal cell, which will be referred to as the Collins Ranch disposal cell throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  6. A Matched Analysis of Diabetes Mellitus and Herbicide Exposure in Veterans of Operation Ranch Hand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    AFRL-HE-BR-TR-2006-0016 Air Force Research Laboratory A MATCHED ANALYSIS OF DIABETES MELLITUS AND HERBICIDE EXPOSURE IN VETERANS OF OPERATION RANCH...TYPE 30-05-2001 Technical Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A Matched Analysis of Diabetes Mellitus and Herbicide Exposure in Veterans...been artifactual. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Diabetes mellitus , Agent Orange, dioxin, Vietnam veterans, herbicides. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  7. Stratigraphic sections showing coal correlations within the lower coal zone of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Fillmore Ranch and Seaverson Reservoir quadrangles, Carbon County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.G.; Hettinger, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Stratigraphic sections showing coal correlations within the lower coal zone of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Fillmore Ranch and Seaverson Reservoir quadrangles, Carbon County, Wyoming are presented.

  8. Recovery Act:Rural Cooperative Geothermal development Electric & Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Elzie Lynn

    2016-01-12

    Surprise Valley Electric, a small rural electric cooperative serving northeast California and southern Oregon, developed a 3mw binary geothermal electric generating plant on a cooperative member's ranch. The geothermal resource had been discovered in 1980 when the ranch was developing supplemental irrigation water wells. The 240°F resource was used for irrigation until developed through this project for generation of electricity. A portion of the spent geothermal fluid is now used for irrigation in season and is available for other purposes, such as greenhouse agriculture, aquaculture and direct heating of community buildings. Surprise Valley Electric describes many of the challenges a small rural electric cooperative encountered and managed to develop a geothermal generating plant.

  9. A new tool for estimating phosphorus loss from cattle barnyards and outdoor lots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) loss from agriculture can compromise quality of receiving water bodies. For cattle farms, P can be lost from cropland, pastures, and outdoor animal lots. We developed a new model that predicts annual runoff, total solids loss, and total and dissolved P loss from cattle lots. The model...

  10. Cattle Fever Ticks in the U.S.: Back to 1906?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keeping cattle fever ticks (CFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus, eradicated from the United States and thus keeping the national cattle herd free of bovine babesiosis is a current and critical agricultural biosecurity issue of national relevance. Also known as “Texas fever”, ...

  11. The role of bank credit for cattle raising in financing tropical deforestation: An economic case study from Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Ledec, G.

    1992-01-01

    Panama's rapid deforestation for cattle pasture is causing serious environmental problems, as well as negative economic and social consequences. Bank credit encourages deforestation by making cattle pasture expansion more affordable, more profitable, or less risky. Two governmental banks in Panama supply most of the institutional credit provided to small- and medium-scale ranchers, through loans from the Inter-American Development Bank and World Bank. Panama's large-scale ranchers obtain credit mostly from private commercial banks at subsidized interest rates. This study estimates that at least 7-10 percent of Panama's annual deforestation is due to governmental bank cattle credit. Cattle credit is more important in the loss of remaining forest fragments in long-settled areas than in forest-to-pasture conversion in frontier areas. However, because of the high environmental value of these forest remnants, their credit-induced loss is a serious public policy problem. Other incentives for cattle pasture expansion include beef markets, securing land claims, land price speculation, tax advantages, and the prestige value of cattle ranching. With care, the findings from this study can be generalized to many other tropical Latin American countries. Options available for minimizing deforestation include prohibiting or reducing institutional credit to cattle ranchers, restricting cattle credit to areas where little or no potential exists for additional deforestation, and eliminating interest rate subsidies on cattle credit. Such credit policy reforms would also improve economic efficiency and income distribution. other policy variables also influence Panama's deforestation rate: road construction and improvement, establishment and enforcement of protected areas, land titling laws and procedures, taxes, commercial forestry policies, beef pricing and export policies, the siting of hydroelectric projects, and policies that promote alternative employment for forest settlers.

  12. AIDS and agricultural production. Report of a land utilization survey, Masaka and Rakai districts of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hunter, S S; Bulirwa, E; Kisseka, E

    1993-07-01

    Increased AIDS mortality and other preexisting conditions have contributed to agricultural productivity declines in the districts of Masaka and Rakai in Uganda. These two districts were the most fertile in Uganda and also had the highest HIV seroprevalence rates in Africa. 66% of study households experienced land use decline to some extent over the past 5 years. The 11% decline in poultry production and 32% decline in cattle production was reportedly due to poor management and loss of grazing land from overpopulation and larger scale farms. The most frequently reported reasons for crop reductions were death and sickness; these was estimated as affecting 8% of families with children under 5 years in the study area. Morbidity and mortality as a reason for the decline was reported two times as much as poverty and decline in international coffee prices. Other reasons for loss of productivity were food shortages and insecurity, loss of income, and reduced ability to respond to educational and medical needs. Cassava is replacing the culturally preferred matooke banana as a crop that is more disease-, pest-, and drought resistant. The banana weevil has been a recent problem. Marginal farming systems have been the most affected by declines in land use and livestock production, but fertile areas have not been spared the impact from AIDS and adult mortality. Poverty has decreased the use of pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers in the districts. Policy has had an impact on agricultural practices: population growth and inheritance have added to loss of individual land holdings and contributed to fallow periods and infertility. Appropriate land management practices have not been adequately promoted in the agricultural extension service. Civil wars and the drop in coffee prices have reduced the number of farm laborers. Common grazing land has been turned over to large commercial ranches. Government should maintain research and monitoring of declines in food and cash crop

  13. Genome edited sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Chris; Carlson, Daniel F; Huddart, Rachel; Long, Charles R; Pryor, Jane H; King, Tim J; Lillico, Simon G; Mileham, Alan J; McLaren, David G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2015-02-01

    Genome editing tools enable efficient and accurate genome manipulation. An enhanced ability to modify the genomes of livestock species could be utilized to improve disease resistance, productivity or breeding capability as well as the generation of new biomedical models. To date, with respect to the direct injection of genome editor mRNA into livestock zygotes, this technology has been limited to the generation of pigs with edited genomes. To capture the far-reaching applications of gene-editing, from disease modelling to agricultural improvement, the technology must be easily applied to a number of species using a variety of approaches. In this study, we demonstrate zygote injection of TALEN mRNA can also produce gene-edited cattle and sheep. In both species we have targeted the myostatin (MSTN) gene. In addition, we report a critical innovation for application of gene-editing to the cattle industry whereby gene-edited calves can be produced with specified genetics by ovum pickup, in vitro fertilization and zygote microinjection (OPU-IVF-ZM). This provides a practical alternative to somatic cell nuclear transfer for gene knockout or introgression of desirable alleles into a target breed/genetic line.

  14. EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS AND GIARDIA CYSTS IN A WATERSHED RESERVOIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This investigation evaluated the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts at 17 sampling locations in Lake Texoma reservoir using method 1623 with standard Envirocheck™ capsule filters. The watershed serves rural agricultural communities active in cattle ranching, ...

  15. EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS AND GIARDIA CYSTS IN A WATERSHED RESERVOIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This investigation evaluated the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts at 17 sampling locations in Lake Texoma reservoir using method 1623 with standard Envirocheck" capsule filters. The watershed serves rural agricultural communities active in cattle ranching,...

  16. Cattle cults of the Arabian Neolithic and early territorial societies.

    PubMed

    McCorriston, Joy; Harrower, Michael; Martin, Louise; Oches, Eric

    2012-01-01

    At the cusp of food production, Near Eastern societies adopted new territorial practices, including archaeologically visible sedentism and nonsedentary social defenses more challenging to identify archaeologically. New archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence for Arabia's earliest-known sacrifices points to territorial maintenance in arid highland southern Yemen. Here sedentism was not an option prior to agriculture. Seasonally mobile pastoralists developed alternate practices to reify cohesive identities, maintain alliances, and defend territories. Archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence implies cattle sacrifices were commemorated with a ring of more than 42 cattle skulls and a stone platform buried by 6,400-year-old floodplain sediments. Associated with numerous hearths, these cattle rites suggest feasting by a large gathering, with important sociopolitical ramifications for territories. A GIS analysis of the early Holocene landscape indicates constrained pasturage supporting small resident human populations. Cattle sacrifice in southern Arabia suggests a model of mid-Holocene Neolithic territorial pastoralism under environmental and cultural conditions that made sedentism unsusta

  17. Eco-friendly porous concrete using bottom ash aggregate for marine ranch application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Jae; Prabhu, G Ganesh; Lee, Bong Chun; Kim, Yun Yong

    2016-03-01

    This article presents the test results of an investigation carried out on the reuse of coal bottom ash aggregate as a substitute material for coarse aggregate in porous concrete production for marine ranch applications. The experimental parameters were the rate of bottom ash aggregate substitution (30%, 50% and 100%) and the target void ratio (15%, 20% and 25%). The cement-coated granular fertiliser was substituted into a bottom ash aggregate concrete mixture to improve marine ranch applications. The results of leaching tests revealed that the bottom ash aggregate has only a negligible amount of the ten deleterious substances specified in the Ministry of Environment - Enforcement Regulation of the Waste Management Act of Republic Korea. The large amount of bubbles/air gaps in the bottom ash aggregate increased the voids of the concrete mixtures in all target void ratios, and decreased the compressive strength of the porous concrete mixture; however, the mixture substituted with 30% and 10% of bottom ash aggregate and granular fertiliser, respectively, showed an equal strength to the control mixture. The sea water resistibility of the bottom ash aggregate substituted mixture was relatively equal to that of the control mixture, and also showed a great deal of improvement in the degree of marine organism adhesion compared with the control mixture. No fatality of fish was observed in the fish toxicity test, which suggested that bottom ash aggregate was a harmless material and that the combination of bottom ash aggregate and granular fertiliser with substitution rates of 30% and 10%, respectively, can be effectively used in porous concrete production for marine ranch application.

  18. Wake deficit measurements on the Jess and Souza Ranches, Altamont Pass

    SciTech Connect

    Nierenburg, R. )

    1990-04-01

    This report is ninth in a series of documents presenting the findings of field test under DOE's Cooperative Field Test Program (CFTP) with the wind industry. This report provides results of a project conducted by Altamont Energy Corp. (AEC) to measure wake deficits on the Jess and Sousa Ranches in Altamont Pass, CA. This research enhances and complements other DOE-funded projects to refine estimates of wind turbine array effects. This project will help explain turbine performance variability caused by wake effects. 4 refs., 28 figs., 106 tabs.

  19. An Archaeological Sample Survey of the Whitlow Ranch Reservoir, Pinal County, Arizona.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    Ranch Reservoir project area. The lower Queen Creek basin was examined by the Gladwins of the Gila Pueblo Archaeological Foundation in the 1920s and...period habi- tation near AZ U:11:2 (ASU). The site consists of a small masonry pueblo of 5 rooms in 2 units (Antieau 1977:62). AZ U:11:4 (ASU) is a...Salade with the introduction of inhumiation, ,)olycircme pottery, pueblo arc’.hitecture, and other traits to the Hohckam. -’he z:do, who possessed

  20. The land held sacred: Principals and policies of sustainable urban design. Case study: The Ahmanson Ranch

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, D.M.

    1995-11-01

    The systems that have driven the planning process in the United States since the end of the last World War no longer provide the life style they were set up to support. A new way of thinking about cities and how they are designed and built is required. The Ahmanson Ranch Project begins to move in the direction of this new way of thinking but could do so much more. The proposed Sustainable New Town pushes the limits of current thought and technology. It provides a model of not only what is possible in terms of resource use and management but in terms of supporting diverse, vibrant, and interactive human experiences.

  1. Carcass quality and meat tenderness of Hawaii pasture-finished cattle and Hawaii-originated, mainland feedlot-finished cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Soo; Fukumoto, Glen Kazumi; Kim, Sunae

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the carcass quality and meat tenderness of Hawaii cattle finished on subtropical pasture with those of mainland US feedlot-finished cattle that were shipped from Hawaii after weaning. Rib-eye steak samples were collected from 30 feedlot-finished cattle harvested at a slaughter house in Washington State, USA and from 13 subtropical pasture-finished cattle harvested at a local slaughter house in Hawaii, then shipped to meat science laboratory at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. Samples were aged for 2 weeks at 4°C and frozen for later proximate analysis and meat tenderness measurement. Feedlot-finished cattle had significantly heavier carcass weight (353 vs 290 kg) and thicker backfat (13.5 vs 6.6 mm), but no significant difference was observed in rib-eye area between the two groups. Marbling score (Small) and United States Department of Agriculture quality grade (Choice) of the pasture-finished beef were not significantly (P < 0.05) different from those of feedlot-finished beef. The shear force value of pasture-finished beef (5.18 kg) was not statistically different (P < 0.05) from that of feedlot-finished beef (4.40 kg). In conclusion, results of this study suggest that Hawaii cattle finished on subtropical pasture produced as tender beef as mainland feedlot-finished cattle with less intramuscular fat.

  2. 69 FR 51960 - Tuberculosis in Cattle; Import Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-08-24

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 Tuberculosis in Cattle... heifers with any evidence of horn growth that are entering the United States meet the same tuberculosis... animal, the greater the chances are that, if exposed to tuberculosis, it will contract the...

  3. The U.S. beef cattle industry: The carbon footprint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This was an invited 20 minute oral presentation concerning the carbon footprint of the U.S. beef cattle industry. The audience at the workshop (about 30 people) included university professors and graduate students from agriculture and enviornmental sciences. The presentation included a brief revie...

  4. Archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Gard, H.A.; Poet, R.M.

    1992-09-01

    In response to a request for a cultural resources review from Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Action Plan for Characterization of McGee Ranch Soil, Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, located in the northwest portion of the Hanford Site. Staff members covered 8.4 km{sup 2} and recorded 42 cultural resources; 22 sites, and 20 isolated artifacts. Only 2 sites and 3 isolates were attributed to a prehistoric Native American occupation. The historic sites date from the turn of the century to the 1940s and are representative of the settlement patterns that occurred throughout the Columbia Basin. In addition to an archaeological pedestrian survey of the project area, we conducted literature and records searches and examined available aerial photographs. Records kept at HCRL were reviewed to determine if any archaeological survey had been conducted previously within the project area. Although no survey had been conducted, portions of the area adjacent to project boundaries were surveyed in 1988 and 1990. During those surveys, historic and prehistoric cultural resources were observed, increasing the possibility that similar land usage had taken place within the current project boundaries. Literature searches established a general historical sequence for this area. Aerial photographs alerted researchers to homesteads and linear features, such as roads and irrigation ditches, that might not be apparent from ground level.

  5. Archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Gard, H.A.; Poet, R.M.

    1992-09-01

    In response to a request for a cultural resources review from Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Action Plan for Characterization of McGee Ranch Soil, Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, located in the northwest portion of the Hanford Site. Staff members covered 8.4 km{sup 2} and recorded 42 cultural resources; 22 sites, and 20 isolated artifacts. Only 2 sites and 3 isolates were attributed to a prehistoric Native American occupation. The historic sites date from the turn of the century to the 1940s and are representative of the settlement patterns that occurred throughout the Columbia Basin. In addition to an archaeological pedestrian survey of the project area, we conducted literature and records searches and examined available aerial photographs. Records kept at HCRL were reviewed to determine if any archaeological survey had been conducted previously within the project area. Although no survey had been conducted, portions of the area adjacent to project boundaries were surveyed in 1988 and 1990. During those surveys, historic and prehistoric cultural resources were observed, increasing the possibility that similar land usage had taken place within the current project boundaries. Literature searches established a general historical sequence for this area. Aerial photographs alerted researchers to homesteads and linear features, such as roads and irrigation ditches, that might not be apparent from ground level.

  6. Vampire bat-transmitted rabies in cattle.

    PubMed

    Arellano-Sota, C

    1988-01-01

    A short history of bovine paralytic rabies in the Americas is given. Based on information from the Animal Health Yearbook--a cooperative publication of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Office of Epizootics (OIE)--a comparison is made of the epidemiology of the disease in 1968, 1978, and 1985. An important reduction in the number of cases of rabies was observed in some countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama), mainly as a result of the use of effective vaccines that are now available and of the application of new technology to reduce the vampire bat population, the vector of the disease in cattle. The trials performed in Argentina and Mexico in the 1960s and 1970s provide enough evidence that many vaccines will protect cattle against bovine paralytic rabies. Results of these trials are presented.

  7. Temporal dynamics between cattle in-stream presence and suspended solids in a headwater catchment.

    PubMed

    Terry, Julie A; McW H Benskin, Clare; Eastoe, Emma F; Haygarth, Philip M

    2014-07-01

    Cattle in-stream activity is potentially an important contributor to water pollution from agriculture. Here we present research on the physical movements of cattle within a stream on suspended solid concentrations (SSC). This study used camera surveillance to monitor the in-stream activity of dairy cattle in an unfenced reach over a four-month period. Results were compared against high-resolution SSC data. Over the days that cattle grazed the field, 57.9% of the instances when SSC crossed the 25 mg l(-1) Freshwater Fish Directive guideline threshold can be attributed to cattle presence in the stream. Flow was the main driver of total sediments transported over the study period, and no relationship was found between SSC and the absolute number of cattle feet in the water. Hysteresis analysis indicated a 'first-flush' of local sediments rapidly mobilised during the non-cattle related SSC events, a result of cattle proximity to channel margins. Results demonstrate a temporal lag between cattle in-stream presence and a critical amount of their contribution to sediment load, and that monitoring only instantaneously with cattle activity may lead to underestimation of their pollution impact.

  8. Role of energy in the structure of agriculture. Special report 639

    SciTech Connect

    Wyckoff, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    The impact of energy on agriculture in general and efficient use of energy in agriculture are discussed. The major inputs in the agricultural production process that reflect energy costs are fuels, fertilizer, chemicals, machinery, and equipment. These items are analyzed specifically for Oregon's farms and ranches. A measure of sales per dollar of energy-related costs was derived for comparisons among types of farms. Data for livestock, grain, field crops, vegetables and melons, fruit and tree nuts, and dairy farms are presented. (MCW)

  9. "History, Naturally!" A Teacher's Guide. An Educational Outreach Program for Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, Deer Lodge, Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. National Register of Historic Places.

    Part of the National Park Service "Parks as Classrooms" heritage education program, this educational outreach curriculum was designed for a wide range of grade levels to use the resources available at Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site (Montana). The curriculum subjects include cultural heritage education and environmental…

  10. Flora and ecological profile of native and exotic estuarine wetland vegetation by hydrogeomorphic setting at Rush Ranch, Suisun Marsh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The manuscript includes a profile of the ecology and distribution of estuarine wetland vegetation at the Rush Ranch reserve site in the brackish Suisun Marsh reach of San Francisco Estuary The data and analyses will serve as a baseline for future scientific research and conservation management. A ...

  11. Geomorphic data collected within and adjacent to Nebraska Public Power District's Cottonwood Ranch Property, Platte River, Nebraska, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinzel, Paul; Parker, Randolph; Nelson, Jonathan; Gyetvai, Steven; Burman, Aaron; Heckman, Ashley

    2003-01-01

    River-channel topographic surveys were conducted and bed-material samples were collected along transects across the Platte River during water year 2002 (October 1, 2001 to September 30, 2002). A total of 57 transect lines or cross sections were established within three study reaches located along the middle channel of the Platte River in a 2,650-acre parcel of land owned by the Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD), hereinafter referred to as the Cottonwood Ranch Property. Five additional cross sections were established downstream of the Cottonwood Ranch Property across the entire width of the Platte River as a component of a proposed future general monitoring program. A development and enhancement plan is proposed by NPPD on the Cottonwood Ranch Property to satisfy their Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing guidelines. The goal of the plan is to improve habitat along this reach for endangered species. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) designed a monitoring and research program to study and detect what effects, if any, these channel management actions have on channel morphology and sediment transport within and adjacent to the Cottonwood Ranch Property. This report presents the data-collection methods and summarizes the geomorphic data collected in support of the monitoring program for water year 2002.

  12. 77 FR 59414 - Application From Marys River Ranch, Elko County, NV, for an Enhancement of Survival Permit; Safe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ...; FF08E00000-FXES11120800000F2-123-F2] Application From Marys River Ranch, Elko County, NV, for an Enhancement... of availability and receipt of application. SUMMARY: In response to an application from Marys River... management activities on their property to enhance, restore, or maintain habitat benefiting species...

  13. 77 FR 60981 - TGP Granada, LLC and Roosevelt Wind Ranch, LLC v. Public Service Company of New Mexico, Tortoise...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EL12-42-000, EL12-42-001; EL12-43-000, EL12-43-001 TGP Granada, LLC and Roosevelt Wind Ranch, LLC v. Public Service Company of New Mexico, Tortoise Capital...

  14. 76 FR 46288 - Black Horse Ranch LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order and Soliciting Comments, Protests...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... surplus water or water power from a government dam; or (4) if applicable, has involved or would involve...: section 23(b)(1) of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 817(b). h. Applicant Contact: Jonathan Birnbaum, 504... Black Horse Ranch Micro Hydro Project consists of: (1) An intake directing water into two 50-...

  15. 78 FR 34090 - Lois Von Morganroth; Shiloh Warm Springs Ranch, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lois Von Morganroth; Shiloh Warm Springs Ranch, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On April 29, 2013, Lois Von Morganroth (transferor) and Shiloh...

  16. Course Outline for Lesson Plans for Pre-Employment Laboratory Training in CVAE-VEH Farm and Ranch Mechanical Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains 88 lesson plans for a laboratory course in farm and ranch mechanical repair. The lesson plans are organized into six units covering the following topics: occupational information, construction and maintenance (safety, farm carpentry, farm water supply and sanitation, farm electricity, concrete), hot metal work (oxyacetylene…

  17. The cattle farming activities in Aǧrı province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahinler, Zeki; Demir, Yücel

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to present the current data in the existing situation and potential of the cattle breeding. East Anatolia has an important place in Turkey's cattle breeding sector. Thus, Aǧrı is one of the key cities in the region and livestock breeding is a major resource of income for the population. According to Turkish Statistical Institute's data, the city of Aǧrı has the 8th place with its 321 710 head of cattle currently. In cattle gene types, with 170 583 head in local breeds it is in the first place, while it is in the 10thplace with a total of 131 195 head in crossbreeding and it stands in 63th place with 19 932 head culture race. Once again, according to the Turkish Statistical Institute's data, cattle farming brought in 382 987 750 TL as a result of 259 011 tons of the milk, 5 665 tons of meat and 8 887 skins. In 2014, Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock subsidized cattle farming in the city by paying 20 551 816 TL. Therefore, it is important to determine the existing conditions of livestock sector of the city, especially cattle farming, with regard to its potential and problems. Consequently, it would be possible to develop short term, mid-term, long term goals and solutions for the problems. As a conclusion, the city has a remarkable place in the region with its cattle population, characteristics of animal production and its position in the employment. Aǧrı represents a small model in local level for Turkey's overall livestock farming.

  18. Estrogenicity of agricultural by-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some Minnesota farms were found to have reduced conception rates in cattle receiving embryo transfers by a local veterinarian, and dietary components were called into question. Affected farms were feeding agricultural by-products, available in either a “shredded” form or a pelletized form. These by-...

  19. The cosmic ray spectrum above 10(19) EV at Volcano Ranch and Haverah Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsley, J.

    1986-01-01

    The cosmic ray energy per particle spectrum above 10 to the 19th power eV is measured the same way that energy spectra are measured at much lower energies, by counting all of the particles in a specified energy range that are incident per unit time with trajectories within specified geometrical limits. Difficulties with background or poorly known detection efficiency are markedly less than in some other cosmic ray measurements. The fraction of primary energy given to muons, neutrinos, and slow hadrons is less than 10% in this region, so the primary energy equals the track length integral of the secondary electrons with only a small correction for the energy given to other kinds of particles. Results from Volcano Ranch and Haverah Park are compared with results from the Yakutsk experiment.

  20. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  1. Air Quality at a Ranch Site in the Western Part of the Eagle Ford shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roest, G. S.; Schade, G. W.; Brooks, S. D.; Zenker, J.

    2015-12-01

    The booming unconventional oil and gas industry in the Eagle Ford shale in southern Texas continues to grow. Modeling studies of the air quality impacts of the Eagle Ford rely on emission inventories that may underestimate emissions from such operations, and air quality monitoring in the area remains limited. We conducted an air quality study on a ranch in Dimmit County, Texas, which was ranked 6th in Texas for natural gas production and 10th in Texas for oil production as of April 2015. An automated GC-FID was used to measure the concentration of hydrocarbons (C3 - C14), with concurrent measurements of CO, CO2, H2O, O3, NO/NOx. In addition, the concentration and sizing of aerosols ranging from 0.6 to 20 µm aerodynamic diameter were measured with a GRIMM aerosol spectrometer (GRIMM 1.108), and meteorological variables including wind speed, direction, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and insolation were recorded. We report on local air quality and changes during the process as observed during the measurement campaign. Local drilling on the ranch began in May 2015 and production started in June 2015, at a site approximately 5 km southeast of the air quality trailer. Local air quality showed typically low, near background abundances of CO and NOx early during the campaign, and more frequent local NOx plumes during the drilling and production phases. Aerosol mass measurements were also relatively low and well within attainment of NAAQS particulate matter standards. We assess OH radical reactivity of individual and/or groups of VOCs using observed concentrations and their reaction rate coefficient with OH, the dominant VOC sink in the troposphere.

  2. [Botulism in cattle].

    PubMed

    Braun, U

    2006-07-01

    Botulism is an intoxication caused by ingestion of feed or water contaminated with the toxin of Clostridium botulinum. In cattle, intoxication usually results from the ingestion of feed containing preformed type C or D toxin, either in feed which has been contaminated with toxin-containing carcasses or in feed in which there has been primary multiplication of C. botulinum and toxin production. The initial signs of botulism are progressive difficulty in chewing and swallowing, caused by paralysis of the tongue and muscles of mastication. This results in slow prehension and chewing of feed, water and feed falling out of the mouth, excessive salivation and weakness of the tongue. After 1 to 3 days, generalised paralysis occurs followed by death due to respiratory paralysis. Intravenous fluid therapy is the recommended treatment. The administration of antiserum is of limited value in advanced stages and is used mainly as a prophylactic measure in cattle herds in which an outbreak has just started. Active immunization of cattle in high-risk herds is also an option. It is critical that cattle not be fed feed contaminated with soil or carcasses.

  3. Agriculture: Newsroom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  4. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  5. Vitamin C nutrition in cattle.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T

    2012-05-01

    Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.

  6. Joint HVDC Agricultural Study : Annual Progress Report for the 1985 Study Period.

    SciTech Connect

    Raleigh, Robert J.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the first year of a 3-year study designed to assess the possible environmental effects of a +-500-kV dc transmission line. This first annual report documents site development, initiation of the livestock and crop studies, and the integration and interfacing of the agricultural and BPA's electrical monitoring study. The overall objective is to assess whether operation of a +-500-kV dc transmission line results in any detectable effects (beneficial or adverse) on plants or livestock, under controlled, simulated farming and ranching conditions. These two biological systems were selected because they can be expected to experience long-term exposure to maximum field and ion concentrations on the transmission right-of-way. This study is designed to provide data on end points and parameters of primary interest in commercial farming and ranching operations.

  7. Demographics of cattle movements in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The United Kingdom (UK) government has been recording the births, deaths, and movements of cattle for the last decade. Despite reservations about the accuracy of these data, they represent a large and valuable body of information about the demographics of the UK cattle herd and its contact structure. In this article, a range of demographic data about UK cattle, and particularly their movements, are presented, as well as yearly trends in the patterns of movements. Results A clear seasonal pattern is evident in the number of movements of cattle, as are the reductions in movement volume due to foot and mouth disease outbreaks in 2001 and 2007. The distribution of ages of cattle at their time of death is multimodal, and the impact of the over thirty months rule is marked. Most movements occur between agricultural holdings, markets, and slaughterhouses, and there is a non-random pattern to the types of holdings movements occur between. Most animals move only a short distance and a few times in their life. Most movements between any given pair of holdings only occurred once in the last 10 years, but about a third occurred between 2 and 10 times in that period. There is no clear trend to movement patterns in the UK since 2002. Conclusions Despite a substantial number of regulatory interventions during the last decade, movement patterns show no clear trend since 2002. The observed patterns in the repeatability of movements, the types of holdings involved in movements, the distances and frequencies of cattle movements, and the batch sizes involved give an insight into the structure of the UK cattle industry, and could act as the basis for a predictive model of livestock movements in the UK. PMID:21711520

  8. Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement, Cullinan Ranch Specific Plan, City of Vallejo, Solano County, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Each permit application has both an applicant’s purpose and need as well as a public S.purpose and need. When the permit applicant is a governmental ...body or agency the applicant’s purpose and need may be the same as the public purpose and need. Often when the permit applicant is not a governmental ...high-income households. The public benefit associated with the proposed Cullinan Ranch I development is additional housing . The project applicant has

  9. 77 FR 48138 - Topaz Solar Farms LLC; High Plains Ranch II, LLC; Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Rippey Wind Energy LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EG12-63-000; EG12-64-000; EG12-65-000; EG12-66-000; EG12- 67-000; EG12-68-000; EG12-69-000] Topaz Solar Farms LLC; High Plains Ranch II, LLC; Bethel Wind...

  10. Feedlot Processing and Arrival Cattle Management.

    PubMed

    Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn

    2015-11-01

    Acclimating newly arrived cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly arrived cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period.

  11. Water Quality Response to Changes in Agricultural Land Use Practices at Headwater Streams in Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Poorly managed agricultural watersheds may be one of the most important contributors to high levels of bacterial and sediment loadings in surface waters. We investigated two cattle farms with differing management schemes to compare how physicochemical and meteorological parameter...

  12. Drill baby drill: An analysis of how energy development displaced ranching's dominance over the BLM's subgovernment policymaking environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbis, Robert Earl, Jr.

    Academic literature analyzing the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land-use subgovernment stops at the Taylor Grazing Act and concludes that the historical development of administering grazing on public lands led to the capture of the BLM by ranching interests. Using a two-pronged methodological approach of process tracing and elite interviews this dissertation seeks to advance our collective knowledge of subgovernment theory by (a) clarifying the impact executive decision-making has on subgovernments and (b) identifying the conditions under which strategically competitive behavior between two competing subgovernment actors occurs. The dissertation seeks to update the literature by explaining what has caused the BLM to shift from a rancher-dominated agency to an energy dominated agency by identifying conditions under which subgovernment actors strategically respond to a political conflict. The research poses two questions: (1) how have executive actions disrupted an existing balance of power in a so-called "strong corner" of an entrenched subgovernment system and (2) what happens when conflict and competition break out between allied members of the system? Analysis indicates that as the BLM responded to Executive actions emphasizing domestic energy production, a conflict emerged between traditional allies: ranching and energy. Triggered by the unintended consequence of awakening long-dormant legislation, split-estate energy development---where property rights are severed between private surface and federal mineral estates---expanded across the West. In turn, this expansion helped establish the conditions for conflict and in doing so disrupted the balance of power between large public resource use interests in the relatively stable land-use subgovernment of the BLM. Indicative of energy's emerging dominance of the BLM's subgovernment, split-estate energy development led ranching interests to seek the protection of their Western state legislatures. This shift in

  13. High-resolution seismic-reflection data from offshore northern California — Bolinas to Sea Ranch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sliter, Ray W.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Chin, John L.; Allwardt, Parker; Beeson, Jeffrey; Triezenberg, Peter J.

    2016-12-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected high-resolution seismic-reflection data in September 2009, on survey S-8-09-NC, offshore of northern California between Bolinas and Sea Ranch.The survey area spans about 125 km of California’s coast and extends around Point Reyes. Data were collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey R/V Parke Snavely. Cumulatively, ~1,150 km of seismic-reflection data were acquired using a SIG 2mille minisparker. Subbottom acoustic depth of penetration spanned tens to several hundred meters and varied by location and underlying sediments and rock types.This report includes maps and a navigation file of the surveyed transects, utilizing Google Earth™ software, as well as digital data files showing images of each transect in SEG-Y and JPEG formats. The images of bedrock, sediment deposits, and tectonic structure provide geologic information that is essential to hazard assessment, regional sediment management, and coastal and marine spatial planning at Federal, State and local levels. This information is also valuable for future research on the geomorphic, sedimentary, tectonic, and climatic record of central California.

  14. Geology and mineral resources of the Mud Springs Ranch Quadrangle, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roehler, Henry W.

    1979-01-01

    The Mud Springs Ranch quadrangle occupies an area of 56 mF (square miles) on the southeast flank of the Rock Springs uplift in southwestern Wyoming. The climate is arid and windy. The landscape is mostly poorly vegetated and consists of north-trending ridges and valleys that are dissected by dry drainages. Sedimentary rocks exposed in the quadrangle are 5,400 ft (feet) thick and are mostly gray sandstone, siltstone, and shale, gray and brown carbonaceous shale, and thin beds of coal. They compose the Blair, Rock Springs, Ericson, Almond, and Lewis Formations of Cretaceous age and the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age. The structure is mostly homoclinal, having southeast dips of 5?-12? in the northern part of the quadrangle, but minor plunging folds and one small fault are present in the southern part of the quadrangle. Three coal beds in the Fort Union Formation and 15 coal beds in the Almond Formation exceed 2.5 ft in thickness, are under less than 3,000 ft of overburden, and are potentially minable. Geographic stratigraphic, and resource data are present for each bed of minable coal. The total minable coal resources are estimated to be about 283 million short tons. Nine coal and rock samples from outcrops were analyzed to determine their quality and chemical composition. Four dry oil and gas test wells have been drilled within the quadrangle area, but structurally controlled stratigraphic-trap prospects remain untested.

  15. Chronic oral exposure to bunker C fuel oil causes adrenal insufficiency in ranch mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Mohr, F C; Lasley, B; Bursian, S

    2008-02-01

    Animals living in the near-shore marine environment are predisposed to contact with chemical contaminants through land- and ocean-based activities. The release of petroleum hydrocarbons into the marine environment is a stressor to this environment and its resident wildlife. The stress response to chemical threats is dependent on an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which also may be a target to the effects of these chemicals. Ranch mink (Mustela vison) were used as surrogates for sea otters (Enhydra lutris) to examine the development of adrenal hypertrophy after chronic, oral exposure to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil. Animals were fed three different concentrations of fuel oil (48, 520, and 908 ppm) or mineral oil (control) for 60-62 days. At the end of the exposure, blood and fecal samples were collected and organs were weighed and examined microscopically. In all fuel oil groups, exposure resulted in adrenal hypertrophy, an adaptation suggestive of adrenal activation. However, concentrations of serum and fecal glucocorticoids and serum progesterone were not elevated over control values. Hematologic parameters and serum chemistries showed no changes consistent with increased adrenal activity. In addition, adrenal glands from animals fed the higher concentrations of fuel oil contained large numbers of heavily vacuolated cells. We conclude that petroleum hydrocarbons are inducing an adrenal insufficiency that leads to the adaptive enlargement of the gland. This would increase the susceptibility of fuel oil-exposed animals to the deleterious effects of other environmental stressors.

  16. Permian {open_quotes}Wolfcamp{close_quotes} limestone reservoirs: Powell Ranch field, Eastern Midland Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1996-09-01

    Deep-water carbonate channel reservoirs form important oil reservoirs along the toe of the Eastern Shelf of the Permian basin in west Texas. In northwestern Glasscock County, these `Wolfcamp` reservoirs are Leonardian (Early Permian) in age and define high-energy channels incised into surrounding carbonate detritus and basinal shale. Porous grain-flow material filling these channels, along with encasing detritus, was derived from the shallow shelf located six miles to the east. Reservoirs are in packstone and grainstone facies and have significant interparticle and moldic porosity. Relevant exploration began in the 1960s, but expanded slowly thereafter due to lack of success caused by complex patterns of channel occurrence. Results of a three-dimensional (3-D) seismic survey conducted in 1990 have greatly enhanced the identification and mapping of productive channels in the Powell Ranch field complex. Wells in this complex are capable of flowing 400-1200 bbl of oil per day, and have reserves ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 MBO. The new 3-D data have improved the relevant geologic model and dramatically increased rates of drilling success. Application of such data to this setting offers a potential model for other parts of the Permian basin.

  17. Field study - Steinle Ranch, an intermediate depth oil field, shows significant benefit from bauxite proppants

    SciTech Connect

    Kohlhaas, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Steinle Ranch field initially was developed in the mid-1970s. Wells were drilled, cased, perforated, and treated by chemical injection with lease-crude or condensate carriers to restore oil saturation to the formation, which is suspected to be hydrophobic. Stimulation by hydraulic fracturing of 4 wells was attempted from 1975 through 1977 with mixed results and no particular success. These treatments used sand and glass beads for proppant. A fifth hydraulic fracture treatment, in which sintered bauxite was used as the proppant was very successful. As a result, all wells in the field have been fractured. This program, in a mature field in late stages of depletion, at intermediate depth (10,600 ft), has been very successful; ca 940,000 bbl of additional reserves have resulted for a total cost of ca $2,000,000, a return on investment of 9.4:1. Comparing these reserves to estimated reserves if the wells had been propped with sand shows a 23:1 return by the incremental reserves on the incremental cost of the bauxite.

  18. Conforth Ranch Wildlife Mitigation Feasibility Study, McNary, Oregon : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Larry; Wright, Patrick; Giger, Richard

    1991-03-01

    The 2,860-acre Conforth Ranch near Umatilla, Oregon is being considered for acquisition and management to partially mitigate wildlife losses associated with McNary Hydroelectric Project. The Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) estimated that management for wildlife would result in habitat unit gains of 519 for meadowlark, 420 for quail, 431 for mallard, 466 for Canada goose, 405 for mink, 49 for downy woodpecker, 172 for yellow warbler, and 34 for spotted sandpiper. This amounts to a total combined gain of 2,495 habitat units -- a 110 percent increase over the existing values for these species combined of 2,274 habitat units. Current water delivery costs, estimated at $50,000 per year, are expected to increase to $125,000 per year. A survey of local interest indicated a majority of respondents favored the concept with a minority opposed. No contaminants that would preclude the Fish and Wildlife Service from agreeing to accept the property were identified. 21 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Development and Engineering Design in Support of "Rover Ranch": A K-12 Outreach Software Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascali, Raresh

    2003-01-01

    A continuation of the initial development started in the summer of 1999, the body of work performed in support of 'ROVer Ranch' Project during the present fellowship dealt with the concrete concept implementation and resolution of the related issues. The original work performed last summer focused on the initial examination and articulation of the concept treatment strategy, audience and market analysis for the learning technologies software. The presented work focused on finalizing the set of parts to be made available for building an AERCam Sprint type robot and on defining, testing and implementing process necessary to convert the design engineering files to VRML files. Through reverse engineering, an initial set of mission critical systems was designed for beta testing in schools. The files were created in ProEngineer, exported to VRML 1.0 and converted to VRML 97 (VRML 2.0) for final integration in the software. Attributes for each part were assigned using an in-house developed JAVA based program. The final set of attributes for each system, their mutual interaction and the identification of the relevant ones to be tracked, still remain to be decided.

  20. Competition on the range: science vs. perception in a bison–cattle conflict in the western USA

    PubMed Central

    Ranglack, Dustin H; Durham, Susan; du Toit, Johan T

    2015-01-01

    1. Competition between livestock and wild ungulates is commonly perceived to occur on shared rangelands. In the Henry Mountains (HM) of Utah, a free-ranging population of bison Bison bison has raised concerns among ranchers holding grazing permits on these public lands. Bison are the most conspicuous potential competitors with cattle, but lagomorphs (mainly jackrabbits Lepus californicus) are also abundant in this area. The local ranching community is applying political pressure on state and federal agencies to resolve ‘the bison problem’, but the relative grazing impacts of bison, cattle and lagomorphs have not previously been quantified. 2. We constructed 40 grazing exclosures (each 5·95 m2) in the conflict area: 20 excluded bison + cattle (‘partial’) and 20 excluded bison + cattle + lagomorphs (‘full’). All exclosures, each with a paired open reference plot, were monitored for 1 year, and above-ground plant production was measured. GPS telemetry (bison) and scheduled grazing (cattle) allowed visitation to be quantified for each ungulate species based on the number of ‘animal days’ in the area. Rancher perceptions of wildlife–cattle interactions were recorded in a questionnaire survey. 3. Ranchers perceived bison as a high-level competitor with cattle, whereas lagomorphs were perceived as low-level competitors. 4. Grazed reference plots yielded an average (±SE) of 22·7 g m−2 (±5·16) of grass, compared to 36·5 g m−2 (±7·33) in the partial exclosures and 43·7 g m−2 (±7·61) in the full exclosures. Exclusion of large herbivores thus resulted in a 13·8 g m−2 increase in grass biomass relative to the reference plots (P = 0·005), with the additional exclusion of lagomorphs resulting in a further 7·18 g m−2 increase (P = 0·048). 5. Overall, lagomorphs accounted for 34·1%, bison 13·7% and cattle 52·3% of the total grass biomass removed by all herbivores on the shared range. 6. Synthesis and applications. Cattle face a greater

  1. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  3. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rodeo cattle. 78.14 Section 78.14... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo cattle. (a) Rodeo cattle that are test... of interstate movement: Provided, however, That: The official test is not required for rodeo...

  4. Treatments to Optimize the Use of Artificial Insemination and Reproductive Efficiency in Beef Cattle under Tropical Environments

    PubMed Central

    de Sá Filho, Ocilon Gomes; Vasconcelos, José Luiz Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Bos indicus cattle, the preferred genetic group in tropical climates, are characterized by having a lower reproductive efficiency than Bos taurus. The reasons for the poorer reproductive efficiency of the Bos indicus cows include longer lengths of gestation and postpartum anestrus, a short length of estrous behavior with a high incidence of estrus occurring during the dark hours, and puberty at older age and at a higher percentage of body weight relative to mature body weight. Moreover, geography, environment, economics, and social traditions are factors contributing for a lower use of reproductive biotechnologies in tropical environments. Hormonal protocols have been developed to resolve some of the reproductive challenges of the Bos indicus cattle and allow artificial insemination, which is the main strategy to hasten genetic improvement in commercial beef ranches. Most of these treatments use exogenous sources of progesterone associated with strategies to improve the final maturation of the dominant follicle, such as temporary weaning and exogenous gonadotropins. These treatments have caused large impacts on reproductive performance of beef cattle reared under tropical areas. PMID:21076547

  5. Treatments to Optimize the Use of Artificial Insemination and Reproductive Efficiency in Beef Cattle under Tropical Environments.

    PubMed

    de Sá Filho, Ocilon Gomes; Vasconcelos, José Luiz Moraes

    2010-11-08

    Bos indicus cattle, the preferred genetic group in tropical climates, are characterized by having a lower reproductive efficiency than Bos taurus. The reasons for the poorer reproductive efficiency of the Bos indicus cows include longer lengths of gestation and postpartum anestrus, a short length of estrous behavior with a high incidence of estrus occurring during the dark hours, and puberty at older age and at a higher percentage of body weight relative to mature body weight. Moreover, geography, environment, economics, and social traditions are factors contributing for a lower use of reproductive biotechnologies in tropical environments. Hormonal protocols have been developed to resolve some of the reproductive challenges of the Bos indicus cattle and allow artificial insemination, which is the main strategy to hasten genetic improvement in commercial beef ranches. Most of these treatments use exogenous sources of progesterone associated with strategies to improve the final maturation of the dominant follicle, such as temporary weaning and exogenous gonadotropins. These treatments have caused large impacts on reproductive performance of beef cattle reared under tropical areas.

  6. The mitochondrial genome of a Texas outbreak strain of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, derived from whole genome sequencing Pacific Biosciences and Illumina reads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most significant medical veterinary pests in the world, vectoring several serious livestock diseases negatively impacting agricultural economies of tropical and subtropical countries around the world. We assembled the complete ...

  7. Biogas and energy production from cattle waste

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarthi, J.

    1997-12-31

    Biomass is one of the longest used energy sources employed in human activity. The bioconversion of organic matter to biogas is a complex anaerobic fermentation process involving the action of microorganisms such as methane producing bacteria. In this paper, biogas and energy production from cattle waste is investigated. There are two significant reasons that motivate this study. First, treating animal waste with the technology of anaerobic digestion can reduce environmental pollution and generate a relatively cheap and easily available source of energy in dairy farms. The gas produced can be used for space and water heating of farm houses, cooking, lighting, grain drying and as a fuel for heating greenhouses during cold weather. It also has the potential to run other small industries. Second, it is an effective way of managing cattle waste as well as producing a quick acting, non-toxic fertilizer for agricultural use. A working model of biogas plant is studied in this paper and its economic value as an alternative energy source is examined. An alternative to direct generation of electricity, is to convert the methane from the biomass to methanol. Methanol is an excellent fuel for internal combustion engines and can easily compete with gasoline in many nations where gasoline costs over $4 per US gallon.

  8. Assessment of rangeland ecosystem conditions, Salt Creek watershed and Dugout Ranch, southeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Miller, M.E.; Belote, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, dry rangelands are being valued for multiple services beyond their traditional value as a forage production system. Additional ecosystem services include the potential to store carbon in the soil and plant biomass. In addition, dust emissions from rangelands might be considered an ecosystem detriment, the opposite of an ecosystem service. Dust emitted may have far-reaching impacts, for example, reduction of local air quality, as well as altering regional water supplies through effects on snowpack. Using an extensive rangeland monitoring dataset in the greater Canyonlands region (Utah, USA), we developed a method to estimate indices of the provisioning of three ecosystem services (forage production, dust retention, C storage) and one ecosystem property (nativeness), taking into account both ecosystem type and alternative states within that ecosystem type. We also integrated these four indices into a multifunctionality index. Comparing the currently ungrazed Canyonlands National Park watersheds to the adjacent Dugout Ranch pastures, we found clearly higher multifunctionality was attained in the Park, and that this was primarily driven by greater C-storage and better dust retention. It is unlikely to maximize all benefits and minimize all detriments at the same time. Some goods and services may have synergistic interactions; for example, managing for carbon storage will increase plant and biocrust cover likely lowering dust emission. Likewise, some may have antagonistic interactions. For instance, if carbon is consumed as biomass for livestock production, then carbon storage may be reduced. Ultimately our goal should be to quantify the monetary consequences of specific land use practices for multiple ecosystem services and determine the best land use and adaptive management practices for attaining multiple ecosystem services, minimizing economic detriments, and maximizing economic benefits from multi-commodity rangelands. Our technique is the first step

  9. Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

  10. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  11. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  12. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  13. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  14. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  15. Significance of new potassium-argon ages from the Goldens Ranch and Moroni Formations, Sanpete-Sevier Valley area, central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkind, I.J.; Marvin, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Exposures of volcanic-sedimentary strata are widely distributed within central Utah. We believe that these volcanic and stratified sedimentary rocks, known by different formational names in different parts of this region, are, in fact, segments of one and the same suite of rocks that formed during the early and middle Tertiary. Potassium-argon ages indicate that both the Goldens Ranch and Moroni Formations formed during the late Eocene to middle Oligocene. The geochronology and stratigraphic relations are stong evidence that the Goldens Ranch and Moroni Formations are correlative, and that they are one and the same depositional unit. We recognize two sequences of repeated deformation: one that occurred prior to deposition and consolidation of the Goldens Ranch and Moroni Formations, and a second that occurred after these formations were emplaced, in essence, after early Oligocene time. In our view, multiple episodes of salt diapirism explain the structural complexity in central Utah. -from Authors

  16. History of zinc in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2012-11-01

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application.

  17. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste.

  18. Neodymium, strontium, and lead isotopes in the Maloin Ranch Pluton, Wyoming: Implications for the origin of evolved rocks at anorthosite margins

    SciTech Connect

    Kolker, A.; Hanson, G.N. ); Frost, C.D. ); Geist, D.J. )

    1991-08-01

    Neodymium, strontium, and lead isotopic data are used in this study to investigate the origin of chemically evolved rocks in the Maloin Ranch Pluton, a composite body that borders and intrudes the Laramie Anorthosite. In the Maloin Ranch Pluton, these include ferrodiorite at the base of the intrusion, overalain progressively by fine-grained monzonite, monzosyenite, and porphyritic granite. Biotite gabbro and fine-grained granitic dikes are present locally at various levels of this sequence. The origin of the evolved rocks and their possible relation to associated anorthositic bodies has been much debated. In the Maloin Ranch Pluton, each rock type has distinct isotopic characteristics which, together with trace-element data previously reported, suggest different source characteristics for each member. Strontium and neodymium isotopic data for Maloin Ranch ferrodiorite and Laramie anorthositic rocks show considerable overlap, consistent with a comagmatic relation. Biotite gabbro is chemically and isotopically the most primitive rock type in the Maloin Ranch Pluton. The data suggest that biotite gabbro has a mantle source, but has undergone extensive fractionation in the crust. The authors' results suggest that the remainder (and bulk) of the intrusion formed by partial melting of the lower crust due to the emplacement of the Laramie Anorthosite. Trace-element and isotopic characteristics of the fine-grained monzonite are explained by partial melting of mantle-dervied lower crust, added to the margin of the Archean Wyoming craton at about 1.8 Ga. Neodymium, strontium, and lead isotope data for Maloin Ranch monzosyenite and porphyritic granite also suggest a lower crustal source.

  19. Prospects for land-use sustainability on the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Galford, Gillian L.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Cerri, Carlos E. P.

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon frontier shows how remarkable leadership can work towards increased agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability without new greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to initiatives among various stakeholders, including national and state government and agents, farmers, consumers, funding agencies and non-governmental organizations. Change has come both from bottom-up and top-down actions of these stakeholders, providing leadership, financing and monitoring to foster environmental sustainability and agricultural growth. Goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from land-cover and land-use change in Brazil are being achieved through a multi-tiered approach that includes policies to reduce deforestation and initiatives for forest restoration, as well as increased and diversified agricultural production, intensified ranching and innovations in agricultural management. Here, we address opportunities for the Brazilian Amazon in working towards low-carbon rural development and environmentally sustainable landscapes. PMID:23610175

  20. Prospects for land-use sustainability on the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Cerri, Carlos E P

    2013-06-05

    The Brazilian Amazon frontier shows how remarkable leadership can work towards increased agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability without new greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to initiatives among various stakeholders, including national and state government and agents, farmers, consumers, funding agencies and non-governmental organizations. Change has come both from bottom-up and top-down actions of these stakeholders, providing leadership, financing and monitoring to foster environmental sustainability and agricultural growth. Goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from land-cover and land-use change in Brazil are being achieved through a multi-tiered approach that includes policies to reduce deforestation and initiatives for forest restoration, as well as increased and diversified agricultural production, intensified ranching and innovations in agricultural management. Here, we address opportunities for the Brazilian Amazon in working towards low-carbon rural development and environmentally sustainable landscapes.

  1. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  2. Wulf Cattle Depot NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0034606, the Wulf Cattle Depot is authorized to discharge and must operate their facility in accordance with effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, and other provisions set forth herein.

  3. Cattle Management for Dairying in Scandinavia's Earliest Neolithic.

    PubMed

    Gron, Kurt J; Montgomery, Janet; Rowley-Conwy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    New evidence for cattle husbandry practices during the earliest period of the southern Scandinavian Neolithic indicates multiple birth seasons and dairying from its start. Sequential sampling of tooth enamel carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratio analyses and strontium isotopic provenancing indicate more than one season of birth in locally reared cattle at the earliest Neolithic Funnel Beaker (EN I TRB, 3950-3500 cal. B.C.) site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden. The main purpose for which cattle are manipulated to give birth in more than one season is to prolong lactation for the production of milk and dairy-based products. As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers. This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy.

  4. Cattle Management for Dairying in Scandinavia’s Earliest Neolithic

    PubMed Central

    Gron, Kurt J.; Montgomery, Janet; Rowley-Conwy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    New evidence for cattle husbandry practices during the earliest period of the southern Scandinavian Neolithic indicates multiple birth seasons and dairying from its start. Sequential sampling of tooth enamel carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratio analyses and strontium isotopic provenancing indicate more than one season of birth in locally reared cattle at the earliest Neolithic Funnel Beaker (EN I TRB, 3950-3500 cal. B.C.) site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden. The main purpose for which cattle are manipulated to give birth in more than one season is to prolong lactation for the production of milk and dairy-based products. As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers. This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy. PMID:26146989

  5. Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roofer Coaster. The location had been used as a ranch by private citizens prior to government control of the area. According to historical records, Operation Roofer Coaster activities involved assessing the inhalation uptake of plutonium in animals from the nonnuclear detonation of nuclear weapons. Operation Roofer Coaster consisted of four nonnuclear destruction tests of a nuclear device. The four tests all took place during May and June 1963 and consisted of Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1, 11, and 111. Eighty-four dogs, 84 burros, and 136 sheep were used for the Double Tracks test, and ten sheep and ten dogs were used for Clean Slate 11. These animals were housed at Cactus Spring Ranch. Before detonation, all animals were placed in cages and transported to the field. After the shot, they were taken to the decontamination area where some may have been sacrificed immediately. All animals, including those sacrificed, were returned to Cactus Spring Ranch at this point to have autopsies performed or to await being sacrificed at a later date. A description of the Cactus Spring Ranch activities found in project files indicates the ranch was used solely for the purpose of the Roofer Coaster tests and bioaccumulation studies and was never used for any other project. No decontamination or cleanup had been conducted at Cactus Spring Ranch prior to the start of the project. When the project was complete, the pits at Cactus Spring Ranch were filled with soil, and trailers where dogs were housed and animal autopsies had been performed were removed

  6. Exploration of the Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Resource, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dick Benoit; David Blackwell

    2005-10-31

    The Upper Hot Creek Ranch (UHCR) geothermal system had seen no significant exploration activity prior to initiation of this GRED III project. Geochemical geothermometers calculated from previously available but questionable quality analyses of the UHCR hot spring waters indicated possible subsurface temperatures of +320 oF. A complex Quaternary and Holocene faulting pattern associated with a six mile step over of the Hot Creek Range near the UHCR also indicated that this area was worthy of some exploration activity. Permitting activities began in Dec. 2004 for the temperature-gradient holes but took much longer than expected with all drilling permits finally being received in early August 2005. The drilling and geochemical sampling occurred in August 2005. Ten temperature gradient holes up to 500’ deep were initially planned but higher than anticipated drilling and permitting costs within a fixed budget reduced the number of holes to five. Four of the five holes drilled to depths of 300 to 400’ encountered temperatures close to the expected regional thermal background conditions. These four holes failed to find any evidence of a large thermal anomaly surrounding the UHCR hot springs. The fifth hole, located within a narrow part of Hot Creek Canyon, encountered a maximum temperature of 81 oF at a depth of 105’ but had cooler temperatures at greater depth. Temperature data from this hole can not be extrapolated to greater depths. Any thermal anomaly associated with the UHCR geothermal system is apparently confined to the immediate vicinity of Hot Creek Canyon where challenges such as topography, a wilderness study area, and wetlands issues will make further exploration time consuming and costly. Ten water samples were collected for chemical analysis and interpretation. Analyses of three samples of the UHCR thermal give predicted subsurface temperatures ranging from 317 to 334 oF from the Na-K-Ca, silica (quartz), and Na-Li geothermometers. The fact that all

  7. Exploration of the Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Resource, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dick Benoit; David Blackwell

    2006-01-01

    The Upper Hot Creek Ranch (UHCR) geothermal system had seen no significant exploration activity prior to initiation of this GRED III project. Geochemical geothermometers calculated from previously available but questionable quality analyses of the UHCR hot spring waters indicated possible subsurface temperatures of +320 oF. A complex Quaternary and Holocene faulting pattern associated with a six mile step over of the Hot Creek Range near the UHCR also indicated that this area was worthy of some exploration activity. Permitting activities began in Dec. 2004 for the temperature-gradient holes but took much longer than expected with all drilling permits finally being received in early August 2005. The drilling and geochemical sampling occurred in August 2005. Ten temperature gradient holes up to 500’ deep were initially planned but higher than anticipated drilling and permitting costs within a fixed budget reduced the number of holes to five. Four of the five holes drilled to depths of 300 to 400’ encountered temperatures close to the expected regional thermal background conditions. These four holes failed to find any evidence of a large thermal anomaly surrounding the UHCR hot springs. The fifth hole, located within a narrow part of Hot Creek Canyon, encountered a maximum temperature of 81 oF at a depth of 105’ but had cooler temperatures at greater depth. Temperature data from this hole can not be extrapolated to greater depths. Any thermal anomaly associated with the UHCR geothermal system is apparently confined to the immediate vicinity of Hot Creek Canyon where challenges such as topography, a wilderness study area, and wetlands issues will make further exploration time consuming and costly. Ten water samples were collected for chemical analysis and interpretation. Analyses of three samples of the UHCR thermal give predicted subsurface temperatures ranging from 317 to 334 oF from the Na-K-Ca, silica (quartz), and Na-Li geothermometers. The fact that all

  8. Direct burial and vault emplacement data quality comparison at Dotson Ranch, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; Aderhold, K.; Anderson, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Parker, T.; Miller, P. E.; Slad, G. W.; Reusch, A.

    2013-12-01

    We compare the data quality of two emplacement methods for portable broadband seismic stations, traditional vault and direct burial, using power spectral density analysis to examine temporal trends in noise, the ratio of signal-to-noise for local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes, coherence of both noise and earthquake signal recordings as well as overall data return. Sensor emplacement in the past has been overwhelmingly dominated by traditional vaults requiring more materials, manpower and time. A new technique of directly burying sensors drastically reduces the expense, personnel and time required to install a seismic station. Comparisons between the data quality of vault and direct buried sensors are needed to show that the time and money saved in emplacement does not downgrade the quality of the data collected. Two identical shallow vaults were installed adjacent to two identical direct burial sites at Dotson Ranch in San Antonio, New Mexico, in a deliberately-chosen noisy, wet and generally inhospitable location. These four sites each used a Guralp 3T sensor retrofitted with a waterproof lid and connector. Eight months of data recorded during 2012 from these four sensors are compared in order to determine if the emplacement method has a profound and systematic effect on data quality using several different metrics that mimic the actual use of seismic data in research. A posthole installation with a Nanometrics Trillium 120PH sensor was also installed at the site for a portion of the study and six months of data are included in the analysis. Overall the variability in data quality metrics used in this study is comparable between sites with differing emplacement method as it is between sites with the same emplacement method. Noise in the vaults is higher in amplitude during the transition from spring to summer as compared to the direct burials and is especially evident on the horizontal components at long periods between 20-170 seconds. Diurnal changes in

  9. Benthic macroinvertebrate responses to increasing levels of cattle grazing in Blue Ridge Mountain streams, Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Braccia, Amy; Voshell, J Reese

    2007-08-01

    The relationship between benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages and cattle density was assessed from fall 2002 through spring 2004 in five small streams that represented a gradient of cattle grazing intensity. All study stream reaches were in pasture with no woody riparian vegetation, but varied in the intensity of cattle grazing (0 cattle ha(-1) at site 1 to 2.85 cattle ha(-1) at site 5). Regression analysis indicated highly significant and strong macroinvertebrate metric responses to cattle density during most sampling periods. The majority of metrics responded negatively to increased grazing, while a few (total taxa richness, number of sensitive taxa, and % collector filterers) increased along the gradient before declining at the most heavily grazed sites. Total number of sensitive taxa and % Coleoptera had the strongest relationship with cattle density throughout the study period. During some sampling periods, nearly 80% of the variation in these metrics was explained by cattle density. The elmid beetle, Oulimnius, had a particularly strong negative response to the grazing gradient. Study site groupings based on taxa composition, using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), indicated that benthic samples collected from the reference site and light rotational grazing site were more similar in macroinvertebrate taxa composition than samples collected from the intermediate grazing and heavy grazing sites. Our findings demonstrate that biological integrity, as measured by benthic macroinvertebrate metrics and assemblage composition, is highly related to cattle density in small streams in the Blue Ridge mountains, Virginia, USA. This suggests that the degree of agricultural intensity should be given consideration in stream assessments, as well as land use planning and regulatory decisions.

  10. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy soil due to the inherent differences in composition as a result of contrasting diets and digestive physiology between the two livestock types. To compare the effect of ruminant and non-ruminant animal manure applications on CH4 emissions and methanogenic archaeal diversity during rice cultivation (June to September, 2009), fresh cattle and swine manures were applied into experimental pots at 0, 20 and 40 Mg fresh weight (FW) ha−1 in a greenhouse. Applications of manures significantly enhanced total CH4 emissions as compared to chemical fertilization, with cattle manure leading to higher emissions than swine manure. Total organic C contents in cattle (466 g kg−1) and swine (460 g kg−1) manures were of comparable results. Soil organic C (SOC) contents were also similar between the two manure treatments, but dissolved organic C (DOC) was significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. The mcrA gene copy numbers were significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. Diverse groups of methanogens which belong to Methanomicrobiaceae were detected only in cattle-manured but not in swine-manured soil. Methanogens were transferred from cattle manure to rice paddy soils through fresh excrement. In conclusion, cattle manure application can significantly increase CH4 emissions in rice paddy soil during cultivation, and its pretreatment to suppress methanogenic activity without decreasing rice productivity should be considered. PMID:25494364

  11. Cattle grazing and conservation of a meadow-dependent amphibian species in the Sierra Nevada.

    PubMed

    Roche, Leslie M; Latimer, Andrew M; Eastburn, Danny J; Tate, Kenneth W

    2012-01-01

    World-wide population declines have sharpened concern for amphibian conservation on working landscapes. Across the Sierra Nevada's national forest lands, where almost half of native amphibian species are considered at risk, permitted livestock grazing is a notably controversial agricultural activity. Cattle (Bos taurus) grazing is thought to degrade the quality, and thus reduce occupancy, of meadow breeding habitat for amphibian species of concern such as the endemic Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus [ = Bufo] canorus). However, there is currently little quantitative information correlating cattle grazing intensity, meadow breeding habitat quality, and toad use of meadow habitat. We surveyed biotic and abiotic factors influencing cattle utilization and toad occupancy across 24 Sierra Nevada meadows to establish these correlations and inform conservation planning efforts. We utilized both traditional regression models and Bayesian structural equation modeling to investigate potential drivers of meadow habitat use by cattle and Yosemite toads. Cattle use was negatively related to meadow wetness, while toad occupancy was positively related. In mid and late season (mid July-mid September) grazing periods, cattle selected for higher forage quality diets associated with vegetation in relatively drier meadows, whereas toads were more prevalent in wetter meadows. Because cattle and toads largely occupied divergent zones along the moisture gradient, the potential for indirect or direct negative effects is likely minimized via a partitioning of the meadow habitat. During the early season, when habitat use overlap was highest, overall low grazing levels resulted in no detectable impacts on toad occupancy. Bayesian structural equation analyses supported the hypothesis that meadow hydrology influenced toad meadow occupancy, while cattle grazing intensity did not. These findings suggest cattle production and amphibian conservation can be compatible goals within this working landscape.

  12. Implications of the road traffic and aircraft noise exposure and children's cognition and health (RANCH) study results for classroom acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansfeld, Stephen A.; Clark, Charlotte

    2005-04-01

    Studies in West London have found associations between aircraft noise exposure and childrens' cognitive performance. This has culminated in the RANCH Study examining exposure-effect associations between aircraft and road traffic noise exposure and cognitive performance and health. The RANCH project, the largest cross-sectional study of noise and childrens health, examined 2844 children, 9-10 years old, from 89 schools around three major airports: in the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Children were selected by external aircraft and road traffic noise exposure at school predicted from noise contour maps, modeling and on-site measurements. A substudy indicated high internal levels of noise within classrooms. Schools were matched for socioeconomic position within countries. Cognitive and health outcomes were measured by standardized tests and questionnaires administered in the classroom. A parental questionnaire collected information on socioeconomic position, parental education and ethnicity. Linear exposure-effect associations were found between chronic aircraft noise exposure and impairment of reading comprehension and recognition memory, maintained after adjustment for mothers education, socioeconomic factors, longstanding illness and classroom insulation. Road traffic noise exposure was linearly associated with episodic memory. The implications of these results for childrens' learning environments will be discussed. [Work supported by European Community (QLRT-2000-00197) Vth framework program.

  13. Paleomagnetic dating of dedolomitization in Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group limestones and Pennsylvanian Collings Ranch Conglomerate, southern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nick, K.E.; Elmore, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and petrographic techniques have been used to date dedolomitization in stratigraphic and tectonic dolomites exposed in the Arbuckle Mountains, southern Oklahoma. The authors examined red dedolomites and their dolomite precursors from the Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group and dolomite clasts in the Pennsylvanian Collings Ranch Conglomerate. Authigenic hematite is associated with the dedolomite and precipitated as a result of the dedolomitization process. Dedolomite is associated with paleokarst and fractures, burrows, Liesegang bands, and red rims on conglomerate clasts. Magnetic directions from these dedolomitized rocks range from Dec = 145/sup 0/ to 154/sup 0/ and Inc = 2/sup 0/ to 9/sup 0/, with ks greater than 50 and /alpha/95s less than 5. The directions are constrained by fold tests to be post-structural (Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian) and in the Collings Ranch to post-depositional. These directions correspond to a reversed Pennsylvanian pole position and the magnetizations are interpreted as chemical remanent magnetizations (CRM) acquired when hematite precipitated during dedolomitization.

  14. Conserving wildlife amongst the cotton fields. A third of a century of experience at the Nazinga Game Ranch, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bouché, Philippe; Lejeune, Philippe; Bailly, Vincent; Muyle, Margaux; Zinque, Marie-Hélène; Mercier, Alizé; Cornélis, Daniel; Lungren, Clark; Portier, Bruno; Marchal, Antoine; Renault, Florent; Yaméogo, Dieudonné; Kafando, Pierre; Sawadogo, Prosper; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2016-07-01

    Established in the early 1970 as a participatory wildlife production area, the Nazinga Game Ranch turned into an island of conservation surrounded by cultivation. We asked ourselves how long-term ungulate trends are affected in a context of continuous human pressure. To find out, we compiled and analysed the data of yearly line-transect counts of mammals carried out since 1985. Results showed that large species such as the elephant (Loxodonta africana) and large antelopes increased or showed stable populations. In contrast, medium and small ungulates showed continuously decreasing trends. During the same period, rainfall, water availability from artificial water points and the crop encroaching outside Nazinga Game Ranch increased. After an initial significant reduction, illegal human signs increased. However, we showed that human signs were positively correlated with the abundance of large ungulates but negatively correlated with the abundance of medium and small ones. In conclusion, this study showed that some isolated mammal populations could be restored and maintained in the long term, in spite of being surrounded by highly cultivated areas.

  15. Evaluation of rectoanal mucosal swab sampling for molecular detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle are a primary reservoir of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and contaminated beef products are a source of human infections. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service declared the presence of seven EHEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157...

  16. A new model for phosphorus loss in runoff from outdoor cattle lots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) loss from agriculture persists as a water quality issue. For cattle farms, nutrients can be lost from cropland, pastures, and barnyards and feedlots. Barnyards and feedlots can be significant sources of P loss, but there are few modeling tools to estimate that loss. We developed a use...

  17. Monitoring runoff from cattle-grazed pastures for a phosphorus loss quantification tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from agriculture persists as a water quality impairment issue. For dairy farms, nutrients can be lost from cropland, pastures, barnyards, and outdoor cattle lots. We monitored N and P loss in runoff from dairy and beef grazed pastures for two years in southwest W...

  18. Research project for integrated control of the southern cattle fever tick in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puerto Rico (PR) is infested with the southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, which is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock worldwide. A research coalition involving the livestock industry in PR, the PR Department of Agriculture (...

  19. The Ash of Ohlson Ranch: A well-dated Stratigraphic Marker for Constraining Deformation Across the Northern San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, R. J.; Vazquez, J. A.; Fleck, R. J.; DeLong, S.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Wan, E.; Powell, C., II; Prentice, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    The marine to non-marine transgressional - regressional Ohlson Ranch Formation of northern California was deposited mainly east of the San Andreas Fault and the Gualala structural block during Pliocene sea level high stands. The formation transitions eastward from marine to fluvial deposits and the marine strata are deposited on a mildly warped, pholad-bored erosional surface cut near Pliocene sea level (probably above storm wave-base), on rocks of the Coastal and Central belts of the Franciscan Complex. West of the San Andreas fault near Point Arena, a right-laterally displaced remnant of the wave-cut surface occurs at ca. 100m above modern sea level. East of the fault this surface varies in elevation from ca. 200-350m and a 12-15 cm thick light gray silicic tephra, the ash of Ohlson Ranch (AOR) locally occurs ~10m above the base of the marine section. The AOR consists of very fine-grained glass shards with conspicuous brown biotite in the upper 2 cm and rare co-magmatic clinopyroxene, hornblende and euhedral, weakly zoned zircons. The zircons are relatively uniform in size and little abraded, suggesting they are primary and not re-worked. The fine-grained nature of the AOR deposit suggests it is water lain and chemical analysis of the volcanic glass indicates that the eruptive source was in the southern Cascade Range. We analyzed both polished section mounts of zircon crystals and unpolished rims by ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) and LA-ICPMS in order to establish a precise U-Pb age for the AOR. Ages were adjusted for initial 230Th deficiency in the U-Pb chain using Th/U measured in zircon and host glass shards. Thirty-two zircon grains measured by LA-ICPMS at the University of Arizona LaserChron Center yield a mean U-Pb age of 4.58 ± 0.30 Ma (2σ , MSWD=0.53, n=23). SHRIMP analyses of zircon interiors exposed in polished epoxy-mounts yield a mean U-Pb age of 4.36 ± 0.11 Ma (2σ, MSWD 0.72, n=19). To further refine the likely eruption age of the AOR, the SHRIMP was

  20. Farm Laboratory Aids Post-Secondary Instruction in Agricultural Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statler, Larry L.; Juhl, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    Reports a farm laboratory of 1500 swine, 40 beef cattle, 52 sheep, a 300-crop acres, and a full line of leased new farm machinery for post-secondary agricultural production students. A student board of directors manages the demonstration farm. (DM)

  1. Comparison of methanogen diversity of yak (Bos grunniens) and cattle (Bos taurus) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. It is worthwhile to compare methanogen from “energy-saving” animal (yak) and normal animal (cattle) in order to investigate the link between methanogen structure and low methane production. Results Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks (209 clones) and four cattle (205 clones) from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTP). Overall, a total of 414 clones (i.e. sequences) were examined and assigned to 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using MOTHUR, based upon a 98% species-level identity criterion. Forty-six OTUs were unique to the yak clone library and 34 OTUs were unique to the cattle clone library, while 15 OTUs were found in both libraries. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Linage C (TALC) were found to dominate in both libraries, accounting for 80.9% and 62.9% of the sequences from the yak and cattle clone libraries, respectively. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries. However, Methanobrevibacter wolinii (QTPC 110) was only found in the cattle library. The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle. Conclusion This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different from that of cattle

  2. Relationships between transport conditions and welfare outcomes during commercial long haul transport of cattle in North America.

    PubMed

    González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to document the relationships between selected welfare outcomes and transport conditions during commercial long haul transport of cattle (≥400 km; 6,152 journeys; 290,866 animals). Surveys were delivered to transport carriers to collect information related to welfare outcomes including the number of dead, non-ambulatory (downer) and lame animals during each journey. Transport conditions surveyed included the length of time animals spent on truck, ambient temperature, animal density, shrinkage, loading time, cattle origin, season, experience of truck drivers, and vehicle characteristics. Overall 0.012% of assessed animals became lame, 0.022% non-ambulatory and 0.011% died onboard. Calves and cull cattle were more likely to die and become non-ambulatory during the journey, feeders intermediate, and fat cattle appeared to be the most able to cope with the stress of transport (P ≤ 0.01). The likelihood of cattle becoming non-ambulatory, lame, or dead increased sharply after animals spent over 30 h on truck (P < 0.001). The likelihood of animal death increased sharply when the midpoint ambient temperature fell below -15°C (P = 0.01) while the likelihood of becoming non-ambulatory increased when temperatures rose above 30°C (P = 0.03). Animals that lost 10% of their BW during transport had a greater (P < 0.001) likelihood of dying and becoming non-ambulatory or lame. Animals were more likely to die at smaller space allowances (P < 0.05), particularly at allometric coefficients below 0.015 (P = 0.10), which occurred more frequently in the belly and deck compartments of the trailers, and also at high space allowances in the deck (allometric coefficients > 0.035). The proportion of total compromised animals decreased with more years of truck driving experience (P < 0.001). Mortality was greater in cattle loaded at auction markets compared with feed yards and ranches (P < 0.01). Cull cattle, calves and feeders appear to be more

  3. [Spatio-temporal pattern of larvae and eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle pastures in Veracruz, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Flota-Bañuelos, Carolina; Martínez, Imelda; López-Collado, José; Vargas Mendoza, Mónica; González Hernández, Hector; Fajersson, Pernilla

    2013-12-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle has been little studied in Mexico. Previous studies have described periods of higher larval presence, vertical and horizontal migration in grasslands, and the frequency of adult nematodes; as well as the effect of pasture trichomes on the migration and survival of Haemonchus larvae. The aim of this study was to determine the time-space layout and spread of gastrointestinal nematode larvae on pasture, and to estimate the effect of ivermectin applied to cattle on the time-dependent abundance of their eggs in a ranch in Veracruz. To determine the spatio-temporal arrangement, monthly morning grass samples were obtained from 30 sampling points from July 2008 to June 2009. Third stage larvae (L3) from each point were counted, and aggregation patterns were estimated through variance/mean and negative binomial K indices. Additionally, the number of eggs per gram in cattle feces was determined, from samples with (CI) and without ivermectin (SI), using standard techniques. A total of 20 276 L(3) larvae were recovered in the pasture, of which an 80% corresponded to Haemonchus contortus. The highest nematode density with more than 5 000L(3)/kgDM was detected in October 2008, and the lowest in February and March 2009. The L3 showed an aggregated spatial pattern of varying intensity throughout the year. The number of eggs in the stool was not reduced with the ivermectin application to cattle, which suggested a failure of control. However, the highest parasite loads were observed from July to November 2008. We concluded that the application of ivermectin was not effective to control nematodes eggs, and that L3 populations fluctuated on pasture for ten months, providing an infection source to grazing animals afterwards.

  4. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  5. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  6. Growing People: A Model That Works. Welcome to Success. The School Program Narrative of the Yellowstone Boys and Girls Ranch School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellowstone Boys and Girls Ranch School, Billings, MT.

    The booklet describes the philosophy and operation of the Yellowstone Boys and Girls Ranch School Program, an integrated public school residential treatment mainstream educational model located within an accredited residential psychiatric facility in Montana. The therapeutic milieu is designed to redirect children's self-perception. Descriptive…

  7. Phytotoxicity of floodplain soils contaminated with trace metals along the clark fork river, Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, Deer Lodge, Montana, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rader, B.R.; Nimmo, D.W.R.; Chapman, P.L.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of metals in sediments and soils deposited along the floodplain of the Clark Fork River, within the Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, Deer Lodge, Montana, USA, have exceeded maximum background concentrations in the United States for most metals tested. As a result of mining and smelting activities, portions of the Deer Lodge Valley, including the Grant-Kohrs Ranch, have received National Priority List Designation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act. Using a series of plant germination tests, pH measurements, and metal analyses, this study investigated the toxicity of soils from floodplain 'slicken' areas, bare spots devoid of vegetation, along the Clark Fork River. The slicken soils collected from the Grant-Kohrs Ranch were toxic to all four plant species tested. The most sensitive endpoint in the germination tests was root length and the least sensitive was emergence. Considering emergence, the most sensitive species was the resident grass species Agrostis gigantea. The sensitivities were reversed when root lengths were examined, with Echinochloa crusgalli showing the greatest sensitivity. Both elevated concentrations of metals and low pH were necessary to produce an acutely phytotoxic response in laboratory seed germination tests using slicken soils. Moreover, pH values on the Grant-Kohrs Ranch appear to be a better predictor of acutely phytotoxic conditions than total metal levels.

  8. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY POINT OF USE REVERSE OSMOSIS. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SUNSET RANCH DEVELOPMENT IN HOMEDALE, ID. SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the point of use arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Sunset Ranch Development in Homedale, ID. The objectives of the project are to evaluate t...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia CBF10-1, an Organophosphate-Degrading Bacterium Isolated from Ranch Soil in Fairchilds, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Damania, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia CBF10-1 was isolated from a ranch in Fairchilds, Texas, USA. Its genome reveals a highly adaptable microorganism with a large complement of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes, efflux pumps, multidrug transporters, and xenobiotic degradation pathways. PMID:27174285

  10. Isolation and identification of spoilage microorganisms using food-based media combined with rDNA sequencing: ranch dressing as a model food.

    PubMed

    Waite, Joy G; Jones, Joseph M; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2009-05-01

    Investigating microbial spoilage of food is hampered by the lack of suitable growth media and protocols to characterize the causative agents. Microbial spoilage of salad dressing is sporadic and relatively unpredictable, thus processors struggle to develop strategies to minimize or prevent spoilage of this product. The objectives of this study were to (i) induce and characterize spoilage events in ranch-style dressing as a model food, and (ii) isolate and identify the causative microorganisms using traditional and food-based media, coupled with rDNA sequence analysis. Ranch dressing (pH 4.4) was prepared and stored at 25 degrees C for 14 d and microbial populations were recovered on MRS agar and ranch dressing agar (RDA), a newly formulated food-based medium. When isolates suspected as the spoilage agents were inoculated into ranch dressing and held at 25 degrees C for 9-10 d, three unique spoilage events were characterized. Using rDNA sequence comparisons, spoilage organisms were identified as Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Torulaspora delbrueckii. P. acidilactici produced flat-sour spoilage, whereas Lb. brevis resulted in product acidification and moderate gas production. The RDA medium allowed for optimum recovery of the excessive gas-producing spoilage yeast, T. delbrueckii. The isolation and identification strategy utilized in this work should assist in the characterization of spoilage organisms in other food systems.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF VARIABLE ELIMINATION RATE AND BODY FAT MASS IN A PBPK MODEL FOR TCDD IN PREDICTING THE SERUM TCDD CONCENTRATIONS FROM VETERANS OF OPERATION RANCH HAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Influence of Variable Elimination Rate and Body Fat Mass in a PBPK Model for TCDD in Predicting the Serum TCDD Concentrations from Veterans of Operation Ranch Hand.
    C Emond1,2, LS Birnbaum2, JE Michalek3, MJ DeVito2
    1 National Research Council, National Academy of Scien...

  12. Relationships between residual feed intake and hepatic mitochondrial function in growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, P A; Carstens, G E; Michal, J J; Brennan, K M; Johnson, K A; Davis, M E

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hepatic mitochondrial function and residual feed intake (RFI) in growing beef cattle. In Trial 1, RFI was measured in 29 Angus heifers (initial BW = 258.0 ± 24.9 kg) from divergent IGF-I selection lines created at the Eastern Agricultural Research Station (The Ohio State University) fed a grain-based diet (calculated ME = 2.85 Mcal/kg DM). In Trial 2, RFI was measured in 119 Santa Gertrudis steers (initial BW = 308.4 ± 28.1 kg) fed a roughage-based diet (calculated ME = 2.21 Mcal/kg DM). At the end of the RFI measurement period, cattle in Trial 1 (n = 7 low RFI and n = 7 high RFI) and in Trial 2 (n = 6 low RFI and n = 8 high RFI) with measures of RFI exceeding 0.5 (Trial 1) or 1.0 (Trial 2) SD from the mean RFI were selected to measure mitochondrial function. Overall ADG, DMI, and RFI were 1.19 ± 0.15, 9.31 ± 1.12, and 0.00 ± 0.63 kg/d and 0.83 ± 0.16, 9.48 ± 1.00, and 0.00 ± 0.86 kg/d in Trial 1 and 2, respectively. Cattle with low RFI consumed 13 and 24% less (P < 0.05) DM and had 14 and 56% greater (P < 0.05) G:F than cattle with high RFI in Trial 1 and 2, respectively, even though ADG and BW were similar (P > 0.10). In Trial 1, cattle with low RFI tended (P = 0.06) to have greater state 3 respiration rates than cattle with high RFI, but state 3 respiration rates were similar (P > 0.10) between cattle with low and high RFI in Trial 2. In both trials, cattle with low RFI had greater (P < 0.05) acceptor control ratios than their high RFI counterparts. The respiratory control ratio tended (P = 0.09) to be greater for cattle with low RFI compared with high RFI cattle in Trial 1, but no difference (P > 0.10) was observed in Trial 2. Proton-leak kinetics were similar (P > 0.05) between cattle with low and high RFI in both trials. These data suggest that ADP has greater control of oxidative phosphorylation in liver mitochondrial of cattle with low RFI compared to their high RFI counterparts.

  13. Influence of cattle wastes on nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in pasture land

    SciTech Connect

    Flessa, H.; Doersch, P.; Beese, F.

    1996-11-01

    Agricultural practices are assumed to contribute significantly to the increase in atmospheric N{sub 2}O concentrations observed in the last decades, and they might influence the consumption of atmospheric CH{sub 4}. We report on measurements of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} exchange of a pasture soil, as influenced by droppings of a grazing cattle (Bos taurus) herd. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in pasture soil were largely determined by the emission rates from cattle excrement with dung patches being hot spots of CH{sub 4} production and urine-affected areas showing extremely high N{sub 2}O release rates. Methane emissions from dung patches (0.778 g CH{sub 4}-C per animal and day) were insignificant when compared with those from the rumen of the cattle. Total N{sub 2}O-N losses from the droppings were equivalent to 3.2% of the nitrogen excreted. Based on global data of total nitrogen excretion by dairy cattle, non-dairy cattle, buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and bison during grazing, we estimate the global N{sub 2}O emission from this source to be {approximately}1.18 teragrams N{sub 2}O-N per year, indicating that grazing cattle excretory products are one of the most important sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide. Our work suggests that these sources have been drastically underestimated. 27 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities.

  15. Eosinophilic myositis in Canadian cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E; Finley, G G

    1991-01-01

    Musculature from 198 Canadian cattle with suspected lesions of eosinophilic myositis were examined histologically and by pepsin digestion. Sera from 51 of the 198 animals were also examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-Trichinella antibodies. Viable larvae of Trichinella were not recovered from any of the cattle but one animal from Ontario tested positive for anti-Trichinella antibodies. Histologically, focal and/or diffuse eosinophilic myositis lesions were observed in 149 (75.2%) of the animals studied. Other conditions identified were sarcocystiosis, abscesses, cysticercosis, steatosis, fibrosis, granuloma, lymphosarcoma and necrosis. Sarcocystiosis was identified in 105 of the 198 animals in both normal and affected musculature. The study indicates that trichinosis is not a primary cause of eosinophilic myositis in cattle. PMID:1884289

  16. Sudden death of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Glock, R D; DeGroot, B D

    1998-01-01

    Sudden deaths or the sudden death syndrome are perceived as major concerns in cattle feedlots because most of these deaths occur in cattle near market weight. Etiology and preventive measures are poorly defined. The current literature indicates that sudden deaths are associated most commonly with digestive upsets. Death is thought to be the result of interactions between factors including acidosis, bloat, and endotoxemia. Trauma, peracute interstitial pneumonia, and other identifiable events are specifically defined but relatively uncommon. Enterotoxemia is of questionable significance as a cause of sudden deaths.

  17. Preliminary survey of the mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Big Bend Ranch State Park and Big Bend National Park

    PubMed Central

    Baumgardner, David E.; Bowles, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The mayfly (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) and caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) fauna of Big Bend National Park and Big Bend Ranch State Park are reported based upon numerous records. For mayflies, sixteen species representing four families and twelve genera are reported. By comparison, thirty-five species of caddisflies were collected during this study representing seventeen genera and nine families. Although the Rio Grande supports the greatest diversity of mayflies (n=9) and caddisflies (n=14), numerous spring-fed creeks throughout the park also support a wide variety of species. A general lack of data on the distribution and abundance of invertebrates in Big Bend National and State Park is discussed, along with the importance of continuing this type of research. PMID:17119610

  18. The modern feedlot for finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M

    2014-02-01

    The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations.

  19. Distribution of radioactive cesium in edible parts of cattle.

    PubMed

    Okada, Keiji; Sato, Itaru; Deguchi, Yoshitaka; Morita, Shigeru; Yasue, Takeshi; Yayota, Masato; Takeda, Ken-Ichi; Sato, Shusuke

    2013-12-01

    After the disastrous incident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, various agricultural, livestock and fishery products have been inspected for radioactive contamination with cesium in Japan. In this study, radioactive cesium was measured in various edible parts of cattle to verify the current inspection method for cattle, in which the neck tissues are generally used as samples. Radioactive cesium concentration in the short plate, diaphragm, liver, lung, omasum, abomasum and small intestine were lower and sirloin, tenderloin, top round meat and tongue were higher than that in the neck. There was no significant difference between the other organs (heart, kidney, lumen and reticulum) and the neck. Ninety-five percent upper tolerance limits of the relative concentration to the neck were 1.88 for sirloin, 1.74 for tenderloin, 1.87 for top round and 1.45 for tongue. These results suggest that a safety factor of 2 is recommended for the radioactivity inspection of cattle to prevent a marketing of meat with higher cesium than the legal limit. Re-inspection should be conducted using another part of muscle, for example, top round, when suspicious levels of 50-100 Bq/kg are detected in the neck.

  20. Tuberculosis-resistant transgenic cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that affects humans and many animal species. In humans, tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while most cases in cattle are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, Mb can also cause, albeit rarely, human TB. In this issue, Wu et al. ...

  1. Heat Stress in Feedlot Cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if supplementing the diet of near-finished beef cattle with a yeast product would mitigate the negative impact of a controlled HS on the physiological and endocrine responses. Crossbred beef heifers (n=111; BW=281.07 kg) were divided into 2 pens in a comm...

  2. Climate Adaptation of Tropical Cattle.

    PubMed

    Barendse, W

    2017-02-08

    There is sustained growth in the number of tropical cattle, which represent more than half of all cattle worldwide. By and large, most research in tropical areas is still focused on breeds of cattle, their particular advantages or disadvantages in tropical areas, and the tropical forages or feeds that could be usefully fed to them. A consistent issue for adaptation to climate is the heat of tropical environments. Changing the external characteristics of the animal, such as color and coat characteristics, is one way to adapt, and there are several major genes for these traits. However, further improvement in heat tolerance and other adaptation traits will need to use the entire genome and all physical and physiological systems. Apart from the response to heat, climate forcing through methane emission identifies dry season weight loss as an important if somewhat neglected trait in climate adaptation of cattle. The use of genome-estimated breeding values in tropical areas is in its infancy and will be difficult to implement, but will be essential for rapid, coordinated genetic improvement. The difficulty of implementation cannot be exaggerated and may require major improvements in methodology.

  3. Selenium in Cattle: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Youcef; Dufrasne, Isabelle

    2016-04-23

    This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism's use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se.

  4. Investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease in a beef cattle herd in southwestern Saskatchewan.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, L F; Van Donkersgoed, J; Radostits, O M; Booker, C W; Dubovi, E J; van den Hurk, J V; Janzen, E D

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease that occurred on a ranch in southwestern Saskatchewan. Over a six-month period during the fall and winter of 1991-1992, in a herd of 515 beef cattle and 96 bison, 20 yearling cattle from a group of 105 housed in one feedlot pen died from mucosal disease. A further eight yearlings were slaughtered for salvage because they were at risk of dying from mucosal disease. Mucosal disease mortalities were the first observed evidence of fetal infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus in this herd. Animals that died from mucosal disease exhibited signs of ill thrift prior to death. Deaths from mucosal disease were confined to the progeny of one herd of beef cows. Following an outbreak of fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus during 1989-1990, at least 28 (22%) of the 128 calves born from this herd of cows in the spring of 1990 were persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. However, only one calf born from this herd in 1991, and five calves born from all herds in 1992 were persistently infected. Of the five persistently infected calves born in 1992, three were born to persistently infected replacement heifers born in 1990. These heifers calved without assistance in 1992, but only one of their calves survived past three days of age, and it was persistently infected. In January 1992, 82% of the total herd had reciprocal antibody titers to bovine viral diarrhea virus of > or = 1024 which suggested a high level of herd immunity to bovine viral diarrhea virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8076288

  5. Investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease in a beef cattle herd in southwestern Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L F; Van Donkersgoed, J; Radostits, O M; Booker, C W; Dubovi, E J; van den Hurk, J V; Janzen, E D

    1994-07-01

    This study describes the epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease that occurred on a ranch in southwestern Saskatchewan. Over a six month period during the fall and winter of 1991-1992,in a herd of 515 beef cattle and 96 bison, 20 yearling cattle from a group of 105 housed in one feedlot pen died from mucosal disease. A further eight yearlings were slaughtered for salvage because they were at risk of dying from mucosal disease. Mucosal disease mortalities were the first observed evidence of fetal infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus in this herd. Animals that died from mucosal disease exhibited signs of ill thrift prior to death. Deaths from mucosal disease were confined to the progeny of one herd of beef cows. Following an outbreak of fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus during 1989-1990, at least 28 (22%) of the 128 calves born from this herd of cows in the spring of 1990 were persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. However, only one calf born from this herd in 1991, and five calves born from all herds in 1992 were persistently infected. Of the five persistently infected calves born in 1992, three were born to persistently infected replacement heifers born in 1990. These heifers calved without assistance in 1992, but only one of their calves survived past three days of age, and it was persistently infected. In January 1992, 82% of the total herd had reciprocal antibody titers to bovine viral diarrhea virus of >/=1024 which suggested a high level of herd immunity to bovine viral diarrhea virus. Thus, following the outbreak of fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in 1989-1990, herd immunity to bovine viral diarrhea virus had developed rapidly in the breeding cows and heifers. Subsequently, in the next two years, there was a dramatic decline in the number of calves born persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  6. Evaluating use of cattle winter feeding areas by elk and white-tailed deer: implications for managing bovine tuberculosis transmission risk from the ground up.

    PubMed

    Brook, Ryan K; Wal, Eric Vander; van Beest, Floris M; McLachlan, Stéphane M

    2013-02-01

    Transmission of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) among wildlife and livestock has created important risks for conservation and agriculture. Management strategies aimed at controlling TB have typically been top-down, regionally focused, and government-led programs that were at best only partially successful. The purpose of this study was to quantify co-mingling of elk and white-tailed deer (WTD) with cattle at multiple spatial scales (i.e., the regional farm scale and winter cattle feeding area patch) in southwestern Manitoba, Canada, to assess the potential for bovine tuberculosis transmission and identify alternative management strategies. For each spatial scale we quantified use of cattle farms by elk and white-tailed deer. We mailed questionnaires to rural households and then conducted personal interviews with 86 cattle farmers to map the spatial distribution of their cattle winter feeding areas at a fine scale. We deployed Global Positioning System (GPS) collars on 48 wild elk and 16 wild white-tailed deer from 2003 to 2011. Elk were observed on farms by 66% of cattle producers, including 5% and 20% who observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between elk and cattle. Cattle producers consistently (≈100%) observed white-tailed deer on their farms, including 11% and 47% whom observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between white-tailed deer and cattle. A higher probability of white-tailed deer-cattle contact at the regional scale occurs on farms that (1) left crop residues specifically for wildlife, (2) had larger cattle herds, (3) used round bale feeders, and (4) were farther away from protected areas. None of the GPS-collared elk locations overlapped with cattle winter feeding areas. In contrast, 21% of GPS-collared white-tailed deer locations overlapped with winter cattle winter feeding areas (22% of these were from male WTD and 78% were from female WTD). White-tailed deer selected cattle winter feeding areas with higher (1

  7. Bovine papillomaviruses, papillomas and cancer in cattle.

    PubMed

    Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Roperto, Franco

    2008-01-01

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) are DNA oncogenic viruses inducing hyperplastic benign lesions of both cutaneous and mucosal epithelia in cattle. Ten (BPV 1-10) different viral genotypes have been characterised so far. BPV 1-10 are all strictly species-specific but BPV 1/2 may also infect equids inducing fibroblastic tumours. These benign lesions generally regress but may also occasionally persist, leading to a high risk of evolving into cancer, particularly in the presence of environmental carcinogenic co-factors. Among these, bracken fern is the most extensively studied. The synergism between immunosuppressants and carcinogenic principles from bracken fern and the virus has been experimentally demonstrated for both urinary bladder and alimentary canal cancer in cows whose diets were based on this plant. BPV associated tumours have veterinary and agricultural relevance in their own right, although they have also been studied as a relevant model of Human papillomavirus (HPV). Recent insights into BPV biology have paved the way to new fields of speculation on the role of these viruses in neoplastic transformation of cells other than epithelial ones. This review will briefly summarise BPV genome organization, will describe in greater detail the functions of viral oncoproteins, the interaction between the virus and co-carcinogens in tumour development; relevant aspects of immunity and vaccines will also be discussed.

  8. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access.

    PubMed

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot

    2014-01-01

    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopia's national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian livestock population trends, distribution and marketing vary considerably across space and time due to a variety of reasons. This study was aimed to assess cattle and shoat population growth trend, distribution and their access to market. Regression analysis was used to assess the cattle and shoat population growth trend and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques were used to determine the spatial distribution of cattle and shoats, and their relative access to market. The data sets used are agricultural census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sample survey (1995/96 to 2012/13). In the past eighteen years, the livestock population namely cattle, sheep and goat grew from 54.5 million to over 103.5 million with average annual increment of 3.4 million. The current average national cattle, sheep and goat population per km(2) are estimated to be 71, 33 and 29 respectively (excluding Addis Ababa, Afar and Somali regions). From the total livestock population the country owns about 46% cattle, 43% sheep and 40% goats are reared within 10 km radius from major livestock market centres and all-weather roads. On the other hand, three fourth of the country's land mass which comprises 15% of the cattle, 20% of the sheep and 21% of goat population is not accessible to market (greater than 30 km from major livestock market centres). It is found that the central highland regions account for the largest share of livestock population and also more accessible to market. Defining the

  9. Hygroscopic, Morphological, and Chemical Properties of Agricultural Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Cheek, L.; Thornton, D. C.; Auvermann, B. W.; Littleton, R.

    2007-12-01

    Agricultural fugitive dust is a significant source of localized air pollution in the semi-arid southern Great Plains. In the Texas Panhandle, daily episodes of ground-level fugitive dust emissions from the cattle feedlots are routinely observed in conjunction with increased cattle activity in the late afternoons and early evenings. We conducted a field study to characterize size-selected agricultural aerosols with respect to hygroscopic, morphological, and chemical properties and to attempt to identify any correlations between these properties. To explore the hygroscopic nature of agricultural particles, we have collected size-resolved aerosol samples using a cascade impactor system at a cattle feedlot in the Texas Panhandle and have used the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) to determine the water uptake by individual particles in those samples as a function of relative humidity. To characterize the size distribution of agricultural aerosols as a function of time, A GRIMM aerosol spectrometer and Sequential Mobility Particle Sizer and Counter (SMPS) measurements were simultaneously performed in an overall size range of 11 nm to 20 µm diameters at a cattle feedlot. Complementary determination of the elemental composition of individual particles was performed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). In addition to the EDS analysis, an ammonia scrubber was used to collect ammonia and ammonium in the gas and particulate phases, respectively. The concentration of these species was quantified offline via UV spectrophotometry at 640 nanometers. The results of this study will provide important particulate emission data from a feedyard, needed to improve our understanding of the role of agricultural particulates in local and regional air quality.

  10. Cattle handling technique can induce fatigued cattle syndrome in cattle not fed a beta adrenergic agonist.

    PubMed

    Frese, D A; Reinhardt, C D; Bartle, S J; Rethorst, D N; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Depenbusch, B E; Corrigan, M E; Thomson, D U

    2016-02-01

    Angus crossbred steers (n = 40; 563 ± 44 kg) were used to examine the effects of handling method and fat thickness on the blood chemistry and physiology of market steers. Steers were blocked by backfat (BF) thickness and were randomly assigned to treatment groups: low-stress handling (LSH) and aggressive handling (AH). Cattle were then ran¬domly assigned to one of 5 blocks containing 4 steers from the LSH and AH treatments. Steers in the LSH treatment were walked and AH cattle were run through a course of 1,540 m. Blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture before handling (BASE), at 770 m (LAP1), at 1,540 m (LAP2), and at1 h (1H) and 2 h (2H) after finishing the course. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma lactate (LAC), creatinine kinase (CK), base excess (BE), blood pH (pH), serum cortisol (CORT) concentrations, and venous carbon dioxide (PvCO2) and oxygen (PvO2) pressures. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and rectal temperature (TEMP) were measured at the same intervals. Cattle in the AH treatment had greater ( < 0.05) LAC than those in LSH at BASE (4.1 vs. 3.0 mmol/L), LAP1 (16.5 vs. 2.3 mmol/L), LAP2 (22.3 vs. 2.4 mmol/L), 1H (7.2 vs. 2.7 mmol/L), and 2H (4.0 vs. 2.5 mmol/L), respectively. Creatinine kinase and RR were not different (P > 0.14). Blood pH in AH cattle was decreased compared with that in LSH cattle ( < 0.05) at LAP1 (7.25 vs. 7.45) and LAP2 (7.19 vs. 7.48) but was not different ( > 0.13) at BASE, 1H, or 2H. Heart rate and TEMP were increased in AH cattle compared to LSH ( > 0.01). Serum cortisol was increased ( < 0.05) in AH compared to that in LSH cattle at LAP1 (87.5 vs. 58.9 nmol/L), LAP2 (144.4 vs. 93.1 nmol/L), and 1H (113.5 vs. 53.1 nmol/L). Although RR was not differ¬ent between LSH and AH, PvCO2 was decreased in AH compared to that in LSH ( < 0.05) at LAP2 (30.6 vs. 39.3 mmHg) and PvO2 was increased at LAP1 (42.7 vs. 33.5 mmHg) and at LAP2 (51.5 vs. 36.6 mmHg). Lactate was increased in AH cattle in the thicker BF

  11. Moldy Sweetclover Poisoning in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Radostits, O. M.; Searcy, G. P.; Mitchall, K. G.

    1980-01-01

    Some selected clinical and laboratory aspects of moldy sweetclover poisoning in cattle are reviewed. The prothrombin time is preferred when the disease is suspected. The bleeding time and whole blood clotting time test are also used. Dicoumarol is not always detectable in the suspected feed which may be due to sampling technique or inaccuracy in the laboratory assay. The most effective treatment is a whole blood transfusion. Vitamin K1 (naturally occurring vitamin K) is an effective antidote but too expensive. Vitamin K3 (synthetic vitamin K) in both the injectable and oral forms are not as effective as K1 but are used extensively for treatment and prevention. Feeding the suspected feed for two weeks followed by a one week withdrawal successively or by dilution with other feeds will help to reduce the incidence of disease if other feeds are not available. Suspected feed should not be fed to cattle for at least three weeks before surgery or parturition. PMID:6159060

  12. 9 CFR 72.20 - Exhibition of noninfected cattle in the quarantined area; restrictions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhibition of noninfected cattle in the quarantined area; restrictions under which permitted. 72.20 Section 72.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION...

  13. 9 CFR 72.20 - Exhibition of noninfected cattle in the quarantined area; restrictions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhibition of noninfected cattle in the quarantined area; restrictions under which permitted. 72.20 Section 72.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION...

  14. Integrated control of the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, in Puerto Rico using new and alternative products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puerto Rico (PR) is plagued by the southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus microplus, which is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock worldwide. A research coalition involving the livestock industry in PR, the PR Department of Agriculture (PR-DA), and the...

  15. Urease inhibitor for reducing ammonia emissions from an open-lot beef cattle feedyard in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations is important from the perspective of environmental policy and its impact on agriculture. In laboratory studies, urease inhibitors have been effective in reducing NH3 emissions from beef cattle manure, however there has been little t...

  16. Haptoglobin concentrations from shipping through sickness and recovery in cattle either mass-medicated with gamithromycin or sham-treated

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious respiratory diseases of ruminants are a serious health and economic problem for U.S. agriculture. In cattle alone, bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) costs the feedlot industry approximately 1 billion USD annually. Respiratory disease results in inflammation and is associated with ...

  17. Agricultural Media Coverage of Farm Safety: Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jim; Heiberger, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural media merit increased attention in addressing dynamic changes in safety aspects of one of the nation's most hazardous industries. Changes in farming, such as larger-scale, new "niche" enterprises and new technologies, bring new forms of risk to the safety of those who live and work on farms and ranches. At the same time, traditional agricultural media--commercial firms that publish farm periodicals and commercial radio/television stations and networks that provide farm programming--are changing dramatically. In the face of media convergence, these enterprises provide an increasing menu of agricultural information services delivered by print, radio, and television, plus a host of new electronic media. This review of literature addressed the role and importance of commercial agricultural media in the United States, the scope and pattern of their safety coverage, and the opportunities they represent. The review involved searches of 14 bibliographic databases, as well as reference lists of relevant studies and contacts with farm safety experts. Analysis of 122 documents suggested that limited focus has been directed to the role of commercial agricultural media in safety decisions on US farms. Findings revealed that they continue to serve an efficient, early-stage role in creating awareness and interest, providing information, forming attitudes, and stirring consideration of farm safety. Potentials are seen as expanding through the interactive features of social media and other new services offered by these media firms. Findings also identified research needs, 100 farm safety topics for reporting, and opportunities for strengthening safety coverage by commercial agricultural media.

  18. AgrAbility mental/behavioral health for farm/ranch families with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Roberta A; Deboy, Gail R; Jones, Paul J; Field, William E

    2011-04-01

    Farmers and their families are at high risk for work-related stressors and incidents that may result in physically disabling conditions. Coping with the acute and chronic results of disability has been documented to contribute to mental and behavioral health issues. Improvements in the ability to cope with the impact of stressors and adjustment to living with a severe disability can enhance quality of life and well-being and decrease long-term emotional complications. Due to the unique characteristics of many rural or agricultural communities (including isolation, low population density, and lack of transportation services), residents with disabilities are at significant risk for mental/behavioral health issues complicated by the lack of mental/behavioral health services and resources. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) AgrAbility Program was authorized by Congress as part of the 1990 Farm Bill to assist farmers, ranchers, their workers, and families who are impacted by disability. Initially AgrAbility services targeted physical disabilities; but as the need has become more apparent, efforts are being made to expand mental/behavioral health-related services, including referrals to appropriate sources of treatment. A survey was conducted in 2009 by the National AgrAbility Project (NAP) to identify the types of mental/behavioral health services and resources that the 21 USDA-funded State and Regional AgrAbility Projects (SRAPs) provide for their clients. Resources were also identified from three other experts in the rural mental/behavioral health field who are associated with the AgrAbility Program. The purpose of this article is to report a summary of those services and resources that are currently available through the AgrAbility network. Recommendations for the NAP concerning mental/behavioral health initiatives and implementation strategies for the SRAPs are also presented.

  19. USSR Report, Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-10

    diverse, complete mixed feeds. If there are increases in the digestible protein content of green feeds in the rations of cattle and sheep (each feed unit...of clover contains 147 grams of digestible protein, of meadow grass -- 108 g, alfalfa -- 235 g, sainfoin -- 127 grams), then it is advisable to reduce...500,000 tons of digestible protein in the production of mixed feed for cattle during the summer and the creation of a solid reserves for the production

  20. Detection of Babesia spp. in free-ranging Pukus, Kobus vardonii, on a game ranch in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew Mubila; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Siamudaala, Victor M

    2011-12-01

    Babesia spp. were detected from 4 asymptomatic pukus captured on a game ranch in central Zambia in October 2008. Blood smears were examined in 4 species of aymptomatic free-ranging antelopes, namely the puku (Kobus vordanii), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), bushbuck (Tragelaphus sylvaticus), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and showed the presence of Babesia parasites only in the puku. In the puku, the prevalence of babesiosis was estimated at 33.3% (n = 12), while the overall prevalence in all examined animals was 8.5% (n = 47). The parasites showed morphological characteristics of paired ring-like stages with the length varying between 1.61 µm and 3.02 µm (mean = 2.12 µm, n = 27; SD = 0.76 µm). Both the infected and non-infected pukus showed good body condition scores (BCS), while the dominant tick species detected from all animals were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus spp., and Boophilus spp. To our knowledge this is the first report of Babesia spp. infection in pukus in Zambia. These findings suggest that wildlife could play an important role in the epidemiology of babesiosis in Zambia.

  1. Exposure-effect relations between aircraft and road traffic noise exposure at school and reading comprehension: the RANCH project.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Martin, Rocio; van Kempen, Elise; Alfred, Tamuno; Head, Jenny; Davies, Hugh W; Haines, Mary M; Lopez Barrio, Isabel; Matheson, Mark; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2006-01-01

    Transport noise is an increasingly prominent feature of the urban environment, making noise pollution an important environmental public health issue. This paper reports on the 2001-2003 RANCH project, the first cross-national epidemiologic study known to examine exposure-effect relations between aircraft and road traffic noise exposure and reading comprehension. Participants were 2,010 children aged 9-10 years from 89 schools around Amsterdam Schiphol, Madrid Barajas, and London Heathrow airports. Data from The Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom were pooled and analyzed using multilevel modeling. Aircraft noise exposure at school was linearly associated with impaired reading comprehension; the association was maintained after adjustment for socioeconomic variables (beta = -0.008, p = 0.012), aircraft noise annoyance, and other cognitive abilities (episodic memory, working memory, and sustained attention). Aircraft noise exposure at home was highly correlated with aircraft noise exposure at school and demonstrated a similar linear association with impaired reading comprehension. Road traffic noise exposure at school was not associated with reading comprehension in either the absence or the presence of aircraft noise (beta = 0.003, p = 0.509; beta = 0.002, p = 0.540, respectively). Findings were consistent across the three countries, which varied with respect to a range of socioeconomic and environmental variables, thus offering robust evidence of a direct exposure-effect relation between aircraft noise and reading comprehension.

  2. Vocational Agriculture Handbook for Agriculture Cooperative Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This handbook was designed to assist school administrators, vocational administrators, vocational agricultural teachers, and area consultants of vocational agriculture in developing, implementing, and improving an agricultural cooperative training program (especially in Texas). The handbook, which presents information in a narrative format,…

  3. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva.

    PubMed

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale.

  4. Cases of parasitic pneumonia in Scottish cattle.

    PubMed

    2016-02-06

    Parasitic pneumonia in cattleNutritional osteodystrophy in cattleWhite liver disease in lambsErysipelas in pigsLead poisoning and atherosclerosis in an eagle These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for October 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).

  5. Nitrification in Beef Cattle Feedlot Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims: Ammonia volatilization is the primary route for nitrogen loss from cattle feedlots. An additional, but poorly studied mechanism in feedlots is aerobic nitrification. The aim of this study is to characterize nitrifier activity, abundance, and diversity for a cattle production ...

  6. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  7. 59 FR- Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-02-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 [Docket 91-161-2] Tuberculosis in Cattle and... amending the tuberculosis regulations by adding a definition for States whose accredited-free status has been suspended due to detection of tuberculosis in any cattle or bison in those States, and by...

  8. Genomic characteristics of cattle copy number variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We performed a systematic analysis of cattle copy number variations (CNVs) using the Bovine HapMap SNP genotyping data, including 539 animals of 21 modern cattle breeds and 6 outgroups. After correcting genomic waves and considering the trio information, we identified 682 candidate CNV regions (CNVR...

  9. Inbreeding and purging at the genomic Level: the Chillingham cattle reveal extensive, non-random SNP heterozygosity.

    PubMed

    Williams, J L; Hall, S J G; Del Corvo, M; Ballingall, K T; Colli, L; Ajmone Marsan, P; Biscarini, F

    2016-02-01

    Local breeds of livestock are of conservation significance as components of global biodiversity and as reservoirs of genetic variation relevant to the future sustainability of agriculture. One such rare historic breed, the Chillingham cattle of northern England, has a 350-year history of isolation and inbreeding yet shows no diminution of viability or fertility. The Chillingham cattle have not been subjected to selective breeding. It has been suggested previously that the herd has minimal genetic variation. In this study, high-density SNP genotyping with the 777K SNP chip showed that 9.1% of loci on the chip are polymorphic in the herd, compared with 62-90% seen in commercial cattle breeds. Instead of being homogeneously distributed along the genome, these loci are clustered at specific chromosomal locations. A high proportion of the Chillingham individuals examined were heterozygous at many of these polymorphic loci, suggesting that some loci are under balancing selection. Some of these frequently heterozygous loci have been implicated as sites of recessive lethal mutations in cattle. Linkage disequilibrium equal or close to 100% was found to span up to 1350 kb, and LD was above r(2) = 0.25 up to more than 5000 kb. This strong LD is consistent with the lack of polymorphic loci in the herd. The heterozygous regions in the Chillingham cattle may be the locations of genes relevant to fitness or survival, which may help elucidate the biology of local adaptation in traditional breeds and facilitate selection for such traits in commercial cattle.

  10. History of Zinc in Agriculture12

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Forrest H.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

  11. Cloning cattle: the methods in the madness.

    PubMed

    Oback, Björn; Wells, David N

    2007-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is much more widely and efficiently practiced in cattle than in any other species, making this arguably the most important mammal cloned to date. While the initial objective behind cattle cloning was commercially driven--in particular to multiply genetically superior animals with desired phenotypic traits and to produce genetically modified animals-researchers have now started to use bovine SCNT as a tool to address diverse questions in developmental and cell biology. In this paper, we review current cattle cloning methodologies and their potential technical or biological pitfalls at any step of the procedure. In doing so, we focus on one methodological parameter, namely donor cell selection. We emphasize the impact of epigenetic and genetic differences between embryonic, germ, and somatic donor cell types on cloning efficiency. Lastly, we discuss adult phenotypes and fitness of cloned cattle and their offspring and illustrate some of the more imminent commercial cattle cloning applications.

  12. Eimeriosis in cattle: current understanding.

    PubMed

    Daugschies, A; Najdrowski, M

    2005-12-01

    This report addresses various aspects of the protozoan parasite Eimeria which contribute to their increasing recognition as important protozoal pathogens in cattle. Among others, questions of parasite biology and epidemiology, its impact on host physiology, and control strategies are dealt with. The tenacious oocysts are found ubiquitously in the environment making an infection of calves and young cattle, the most susceptible age group, almost inevitable. Further development, comprising of asexual multiplication, the merogony, and a subsequent sexual stage, the gamogony, takes place within cells of the small and large intestines, after which numerous unsporulated oocysts are formed and shed with the faeces. Of the more than a dozen species, Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii only are made responsible for severe clinical disease characterized by haemorrhagic diarrhoea with sometimes fatal outcome. To a lesser extent, Eimeria alabamensis also can cause clinical disease. Because of the damage inflicted on the intestinal tissue, the digestive process and overall homeostasis can become severely affected, even with absence of clinical disease, with adverse effects on animal welfare and performance. The consequent economic losses for the cattle industry are thus substantial. Active (species specific) immunity, both humoral and cellular, develops rapidly after first antigen contact, its intensity being dependent on the number of oocysts ingested. However, no absolute protection is achieved and even older animals can excrete oocysts, contributing to a state of endemic stability. For efficient control, exact diagnosis of the Eimeria species involved and the evaluation of animal management and husbandry practices are of utmost importance. Mixed infections are the rule and only an occurrence of pathogenic species, together with clinical symptoms, justifies the assumption of a coccidiosis. Proper hygiene regime and ensuring unfavourable conditions for oocyst survival in the

  13. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    PubMed

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle.

  14. Cattle-related injuries and farm management practices on Kentucky beef cattle farms.

    PubMed

    Browning, S R; Westneat, S C; Sanderson, W T; Reed, D B

    2013-01-01

    While working on farms with livestock increases the risk of injury among farm workers in comparison to other commodity farms, few studies have examined the role offarm management practices in association with the risk of cattle-related injury. We examined the farm management practices of Kentucky beef cattle farms in association with self-reported rates of cattle-related injuries among workers. We conducted a mail survey of a random sample of 2,500 members of the Kentucky Cattlemen's Association. Results from 1,149 farm operators who were currently raising beef cattle and provided complete survey response are reported. During the busy season, the principal operator worked 20 hours per week on the beef operation, and among all farm employees, the beef operation required 35 hours per week (median cumulative hours). There were 157 farms that reported a cattle-related injury in the past year among the principal operator or a family member, yielding an annual cattle-related injury rate of 13.7 beef cattle farms per 100 reporting at least one cattle-related injury. The majority of these injuries were associated with transporting cattle, using cattle-related equipment (head gates, chutes, etc.), and performing medical or herd health tasks on the animal. A multivariable logistic regression analysis of cattle-related injuries indicated that the risk of injury increased with increasing herd size, increasing hours devoted to the cattle operation per week by all workers, and the number of different medical tasks or treatments performed on cattle without the presence of a veterinarian. Farms that performed 9 to 13 tasks/treatments without a veterinarian had a two-fold increased risk of a cattle-related injury (OR = 1.98; 95% Cl: 1.08-3.62) in comparison to farms that performed 0 to 4 tasks without a veterinarian. In adjusted analyses, the use of an ATV or Gator for cattle herding was associated with a significantly reduced risk of cattle-related injury (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0

  15. Shifting Patterns of Pasturelands and Stocking Rates of Cattle in Brazil: 1940 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, L. C. P.; Santos, A.; Pimenta, F. M.; Costa, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the shifting in historical patterns of pastureland (natural and planted) in Brazil using a new high-resolution (approximately 1 km x 1 km) spatially explicit reconstruction of land use from 1940 to 2012 and stocking rate of cattle maps from 1990 to 2012. We also identified the top 5% (highest yields) pixels in the 2010 stocking rate map and we assessed the historical trends in intensification and extensification practices in Brazil. We focus our analyzes in Amazonia and Cerrado biomes, in Mato Grosso and Pará states, and in the new agricultural frontier called MATOPIBA - which is formed by Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia states. Natural pastureland expanded until the 1970s and, after that, most areas with natural pasture were replaced by planted pasture, which is more profitable. In 2012, natural pastures were still predominant in the Pampas (located in southern Rio Grande do Sul) and the Pantanal (located in western Mato Grosso do Sul). On the other hand, planted pastureland expanded in area between 1975 and 2012, especially in the Cerrado biome. Brazilian stocking rate of cattle increased, but remains close to 1.0 head/ha between 1990 and 2010 and the top 5% were about twice as high as the average in all regions analyzed. The yield gap (difference between average and the top 5% pixels) was largest in Pará state, where the stocking rate of cattle was below 50% of the potential given 2010 practices. The increase in cattle production in Amazonia biome and in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará came from both intensification and expansion of pasturelands. In contrast, pasturelands in Cerrado and MATOPIBA decreased in area while stocking rates of cattle increased gradually. Our results provide new insights about land use change and productivity in Brazilian territory that could guide future agricultural and conservation discussions, decisions, and policies.

  16. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  17. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  18. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  19. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  20. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interstate in accordance with § 78.8(a). (2) Movement to quarantined feedlots. (i) Cattle from qualified... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas....

  1. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interstate in accordance with § 78.8(a). (2) Movement to quarantined feedlots. (i) Cattle from qualified... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas....

  2. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... interstate in accordance with § 78.8(a). (2) Movement to quarantined feedlots. (i) Cattle from qualified... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas....

  3. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  4. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  5. Modelling the role of multi-transmission routes in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and buffalo populations.

    PubMed

    Phepa, Patrick B; Chirove, Faraimunashe; Govinder, Keshlan S

    2016-07-01

    A mathematical model that describes the transmission dynamics of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in both buffalo and cattle populations is proposed. The model incorporates cross-infection and contaminated environment transmission routes. A full analysis of the model is undertaken. The reproduction number of the entire model is comprised of cross-infection and contaminated parameters. This underscores the importance of including both cross-infection and contaminated environment transmission routes. Crucially our simulations suggest that the disease has a more devastating effect on cattle populations than on buffalo populations when all transmission routes are involved. This has important implications for agriculture and tourism.

  6. Genetic diversity in South African Nguni cattle ecotypes based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Sanarana, Yandisiwe; Visser, Carina; Bosman, Lydia; Nephawe, Khathutshelo; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi; van Marle-Köster, Este

    2016-02-01

    The Nguni cattle breed is a landrace breed adapted to different ecological regions of South Africa. A number of ecotypes are recognised based on phenotype within the breed, but it is not known if they are genetically distinct. In this study, molecular characterisation was performed on Makhathini (MAK), Pedi (PED), Shangaan (SHA) and Venda (VEN) Nguni cattle ecotypes. Two Nguni cattle populations, not kept as separate ecotypes, from the University of Fort Hare (UFH) and Agricultural Research Council Loskop South farm (LOS) were also included. Genotypic data was generated for 189 unrelated Nguni cattle selected based on pedigree records using 22 microsatellite markers. The expected heterozygosity values varied from 69 % (UFH) to 72 % (PED) with a mean number of alleles ranging from 6.0 to 6.9. The F ST estimate demonstrated that 4.8 % of the total genetic variation was due to the genetic differentiation between the populations and 92.2 % accounted for differences within the populations. The genetic distances and structure analysis revealed the closest relationship between MAK, PEDI and SHA ecotypes, followed by SHA and VEN. The UFH population clustered with the MAK ecotype, indicating that they are more genetically similar, while the LOS cattle grouped as a distinct cluster. Results suggest that the genetic differentiation between the PED and SHA ecotypes is low and can be regarded as one ecotype based on limited genetic differences. The results of this study can be applied as a point of reference for further genetic studies towards conservation of Nguni cattle ecotypes.

  7. Public and farmer perceptions of dairy cattle welfare in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wolf, C A; Tonsor, G T; McKendree, M G S; Thomson, D U; Swanson, J C

    2016-07-01

    This research used surveys of the public and dairy farmers in the United States to assess perceptions and attitudes related to dairy cattle welfare. Sixty-three percent of public respondents indicated that they were concerned about dairy cattle welfare. Most public respondents agreed that animal welfare was more important than low milk prices but that the average American did not necessarily agree. Most public respondents had not viewed media stories related to dairy cattle welfare. Respondents who had viewed these stories did so on television or Internet. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was viewed as the most accurate source of information related to dairy cattle welfare, followed by the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA). Both public and dairy farmer respondents viewed farmers as having the most influence on dairy cattle welfare. However, there was a general pattern of public respondents indicating that groups including USDA, HSUS, and AVMA had a relatively larger influence on dairy cattle welfare than did farmer respondents. In contrast, dairy farmers indicated that individual actors-farmers, veterinarians, consumers-had more influence than the public indicated. When asked about production practices, most public respondents indicated that they would vote for a ban on antibiotic use outside of disease treatment or for the mandated use of pain control in castration. However, a minority indicated they would vote to ban the use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) or to pay a premium for milk produced without rbST. With respect to explaining public support for the production practice bans and limits, respondents were more likely to vote for the restrictions if they were older, female, had higher income, or had viewed animal welfare stories in the media.

  8. Pathogenesis of Influenza D Virus in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Alicia K.; Genova, Suzanne; Epperson, William B.; Smith, David R.; Schneider, Liesel; Barton, Kathleen; McCuan, Katlin; Webby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cattle have been proposed as the natural reservoir of a novel member of the virus family Orthomyxoviridae, which has been tentatively classified as influenza D virus (IDV). Although isolated from sick animals, it is unclear whether IDV causes any clinical disease in cattle. To address this aspect of Koch's postulates, three dairy calves (treatment animals) held in individual pens were inoculated intranasally with IDV strain D/bovine/Mississippi/C00046N/2014. At 1 day postinoculation, a seronegative calf (contact animal) was added to each of the treatment animal pens. The cattle in both treatment and contact groups seroconverted, and virus was detected in their respiratory tracts. Histologically, there was a significant increase in neutrophil tracking in tracheal epithelia of the treatment calves compared to control animals. While infected and contact animals demonstrated various symptoms of respiratory tract infection, they were mild, and the calves in the treatment group did not differ from the controls in terms of heart rate, respiratory rate, or rectal temperature. To mimic zoonotic transmission, two ferrets were exposed to a plastic toy fomite soaked with infected nasal discharge from the treatment calves. These ferrets did not shed the virus or seroconvert. In summary, this study demonstrates that IDV causes a mild respiratory disease upon experimental infection of cattle and can be transmitted effectively among cattle by in-pen contact, but not from cattle to ferrets through fomite exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that cattle are a natural reservoir for the virus. IMPORTANCE A novel influenza virus, tentatively classified as influenza D virus (IDV), was identified in swine, cattle, sheep, and goats. Among these hosts, cattle have been proposed as the natural reservoir. In this study, we show that cattle experimentally infected with IDV can shed virus and transmit it to other cattle through direct contact, but not to ferrets through

  9. Remote Sensing Analysis of the Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Hudspeth County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    LeMone, D. V.; Dodge, R.; Xie, H.; Langford, R. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2002-02-26

    Remote sensing images provide useful physical information, revealing such features as geological structure, vegetation, drainage patterns, and variations in consolidated and unconsolidated lithologies. That technology has been applied to the failed Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) shallow burial low-level radioactive waste disposal site selected by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority. It has been re-examined using data from LANDSAT satellite series. The comparison of the earlier LANDSAT V (5/20/86) (30-m resolution) with the later new, higher resolution ETM imagery (10/23/99) LANDSAT VII data (15-m resolution) clearly shows the superiority of the LANDSAT VII data. The search for surficial indications of evidence of fatal flaws at the Sierra Blanca site utilizing was not successful, as it had been in the case of the earlier remote sensing analysis of the failed Fort Hancock site utilizing LANDSAT V data. The authors conclude that the tectonic activity at the Sierra Blanca site is much less recent and active than in the previously studied Fort Hancock site. The Sierra Blanca site failed primarily on the further needed documentation concerning a subsurface fault underneath the site and environmental justice issues. The presence of this fault was not revealed using the newer LANDSAT VII data. Despite this fact, it must be remembered that remote sensing provides baseline documentation for determining future physical and financial remediation responsibilities. On the basis of the two sites examined by LANDSAT remote sensing imaging, it is concluded that it is an essential, cost-effective tool that should be utilized not only in site examination but also in all nuclear-related facilities.

  10. Determinants of Persistence and Tolerance of Carnivores on Namibian Ranches: Implications for Conservation on Southern African Private Lands

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Havemann, Carl Peter; Lines, Robin; Palazy, Lucille; Price, Aaron Ernest; Retief, Tarryn Anne; Rhebergen, Tiemen; Van der Waal, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    Changing land use patterns in southern Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large carnivores. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), leopards (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea) were widely distributed on Namibian farmlands, spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) had a narrower distribution, and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and lions (Panthera leo) are largely limited to areas near source populations. Farmers were most tolerant of leopards and least tolerant of lions, wild dogs and spotted hyaenas. Several factors relating to land use correlated consistently with carnivore-presence and landowner tolerance. Carnivores were more commonly present and/or tolerated where; wildlife diversity and biomass were higher; income from wildlife was higher; income from livestock was lower; livestock biomass was lower; in conservancies; game fencing was absent; and financial losses from livestock depredation were lower. Efforts to create conditions whereby the costs associated with carnivores are lowest, and which confer financial value to them are likely to be the most effective means of promoting carnivore conservation. Such conditions are achieved where land owners pool land to create conservancies where livestock are replaced with wildlife (or where livestock husbandry is improved) and where wildlife generates a significant proportion of ranch income. Additional measures, such as promoting improved livestock husbandry and educational outreach efforts may also help achieve coexistence with carnivores. Our findings provide insights into conditions more conducive to the persistence of and tolerance towards large carnivores might be increased on private (and even communal) lands in Namibia, elsewhere in southern and East Africa and other parts of the world where

  11. Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on Southern African private lands.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Havemann, Carl Peter; Lines, Robin; Palazy, Lucille; Price, Aaron Ernest; Retief, Tarryn Anne; Rhebergen, Tiemen; Van der Waal, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    Changing land use patterns in southern Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large carnivores. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), leopards (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea) were widely distributed on Namibian farmlands, spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) had a narrower distribution, and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and lions (Panthera leo) are largely limited to areas near source populations. Farmers were most tolerant of leopards and least tolerant of lions, wild dogs and spotted hyaenas. Several factors relating to land use correlated consistently with carnivore-presence and landowner tolerance. Carnivores were more commonly present and/or tolerated where; wildlife diversity and biomass were higher; income from wildlife was higher; income from livestock was lower; livestock biomass was lower; in conservancies; game fencing was absent; and financial losses from livestock depredation were lower. Efforts to create conditions whereby the costs associated with carnivores are lowest, and which confer financial value to them are likely to be the most effective means of promoting carnivore conservation. Such conditions are achieved where land owners pool land to create conservancies where livestock are replaced with wildlife (or where livestock husbandry is improved) and where wildlife generates a significant proportion of ranch income. Additional measures, such as promoting improved livestock husbandry and educational outreach efforts may also help achieve coexistence with carnivores. Our findings provide insights into conditions more conducive to the persistence of and tolerance towards large carnivores might be increased on private (and even communal) lands in Namibia, elsewhere in southern and East Africa and other parts of the world where

  12. STS-55 Earth observation of agricultural development in northern Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of agricultural development in northern Argentina. This photograph is from a mapping strip of photographs acquired by the STS-55 crew. This mapping strip runs from the 'eyelash forests' of the Bolivian Andes, southeast across the Chaco Plains, and into the upper Parana River Basin of north-central Argentina. The formerly densely forested areas between the upper Rio Pilcomayo and the Rio Teuco of NW Argentina rest on deep, rich alluvial and loess deposits. These modern soils were carried into the region by rivers from the Andes and by dust storms from large playa areas of the Altiplano (high plains) of Peru and Boliva. In this scene, representative of the long mapping strip, the process of converting forests to agriculture is far advanced. The original road network, a series of grids laid out in the forest, has nearly coalesced into a farm and ranch landscape. Some few relict forests are still visible as distin

  13. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian

    2000-04-12

    There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

  14. Vocational Agriculture Computer Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…

  15. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  16. Theme: Agricultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeds, Jacquelyn P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six theme articles attempt to define and advocate agricultural literacy, review the status of K-8 agricultural literacy programs in states, discuss an Oklahoma study of agricultural literacy, clarify the meaning of sustainable agriculture, and describe the Future Farmers of America's Food for America program for elementary students. (SK)

  17. Environmental and health impact by dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Havlikova, M; Kroeze, C; Huijbregts, M A J

    2008-06-25

    In this study we evaluate the potential environmental and health impact of dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic. We present a new approach for national assessments of the environmental impact of an agricultural sector. Emission estimates are combined with a country-specific set of indicators to assess the environmental impact in nine regions with specific environmental characteristics. We estimate the contribution of emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxides (NO) to acidification and terrestrial eutrophication, nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) to aquatic eutrophication, nitrogen oxides (NO), particulate matter (PM10) and (PM2.5) to human toxicity and methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (NO) to global warming. We present large regional differences in the environmental and health impact per unit of agricultural production. The regional acidifying, eutrophying and global warming impact of dairy cattle is calculated to be up to three times the national average, depending on the dairy cattle intensity. Aquatic eutrophication is found to be a problem in regions with relatively high eutrophying emissions per hectare of so-called nitrate vulnerable zones. Human toxicity problems caused by dairy cattle livestock and manure management are problematic in regions with a high population density in rural areas. The strength of our approach is the use of country-specific characterisation factors to assess the potential environmental and health impact of agriculture at the sub-national scale. We were able to analyse the potential environmental impact without explicit quantification of specific effects on humans and ecosystems. The results can be used to identify the most polluted areas as well as appropriate targets for emission reduction.

  18. The Deese and Collings ranch conglomerates of the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma: Evidence of strike-slip movement during the deformation stage of the southern Oklahoma Aulacogen

    SciTech Connect

    Cemen, I.; Pybas, K.; Stafford, C.; Al-Shaieb, Z. . School of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    It has been widely recognized that the Pennsylvanian conglomerates of the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma, record the deformation stage of the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen. Two of these units are the Desmoinesian Deese Conglomerate, exposed in the Mill Creek Syncline area between the Reagan and Mill Creek fault zones, and the Middle Virgilian Collings Ranch Conglomerate, exposed along the Washita Valley fault zone in the Turner Falls area. The authors investigated clast size, geometry, and content, primary sedimentary structures, petrography, petrology, and diagenesis of the two conglomerate units, as well as the geometric relationship of their basins with nearby faults. Their evidence suggests that the two conglomerates were deposited as alluvial fans in basins formed by strike-slip movements. The Collings Ranch Conglomerate was deposited in a basin formed as the result of left-stepping along the nearby Washita Valley strike-slip fault zone. The Deese Conglomerate was deposited in a basin formed due to the combined effect of strike-slip and dip-slip movements along the Reagan and Mill Creek fault zones. In the Collings Ranch basin, the deposition was accomplished primarily by channel-fill and sieve deposits in the proximal region of the fan. The Deese Conglomerate was deposited as an alluvial fan or fans which included several channel deposits while, in the deeper parts of the basin, fine-grained materials and limestones were deposited. These observations and their possible interpretations suggest that the Washita Valley, Mill Creek, and Reagan fault zones have experienced substantial strike-slip movement during the deformation stage of the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen.

  19. An investigation into beef calf mortality on five high-altitude ranches that selected sires with low pulmonary arterial pressures for over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Neary, Joseph M; Gould, Daniel H; Garry, Franklyn B; Knight, Anthony P; Dargatz, David A; Holt, Timothy N

    2013-03-01

    Producer reports from ranches over 2,438 meters in southwest Colorado suggest that the mortality of preweaned beef calves may be substantially higher than the national average despite the selection of low pulmonary pressure herd sires for over 20 years. Diagnostic investigations of this death loss problem have been limited due to the extensive mountainous terrain over which these calves are grazed with their dams. The objective of the current study was to determine the causes of calf mortality on 5 high-altitude ranches in Colorado that have been selectively breeding sires with low pulmonary pressure (<45 mmHg) for over 20 years. Calves were followed from branding (6 weeks of age) in the spring to weaning in the fall (7 months of age). Clinical signs were recorded, and blood samples were taken from sick calves. Postmortem examinations were performed, and select tissue samples were submitted for aerobic culture and/or histopathology. On the principal study ranch, 9.6% (59/612) of the calves that were branded in the spring either died or were presumed dead by weaning in the fall. In total, 28 necropsies were performed: 14 calves (50%) had lesions consistent with pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure, and 14 calves (50%) died from bronchopneumonia. Remodeling of the pulmonary arterial system, indicative of pulmonary hypertension, was evident in the former and to varying degrees in the latter. There is a need to better characterize the additional risk factors that complicate pulmonary arterial pressure testing of herd sires as a strategy to control pulmonary hypertension.

  20. Vulnerabilities of Southwestern U.S. rangeland-based animal agriculture to climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southwestern US is a 5-state region that has supported animal agriculture since the late 16th Century when European settlers crossed the Rio Grande into present day west Texas and southern New Mexico with herds of cattle, sheep, goats and horses. For the past 400 years the rangeland livestock i...

  1. Soil Sampling and Analysis Plan for the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope Units of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.

    2004-12-27

    This document describes soil sampling that will be performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Surface Environmental Surveillance Project on two units of the Hanford Reach National Monument: the McGee Ranch-Riverlands Unit (Riverlands Unit) and the North Slope made up of the Saddle Mountain Unit and the Wahluke Slope Unit. This sampling fulfills a U.S. Department of Energy requirement to evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5 prior to radiological release of the property.

  2. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-20) - Camas Prairie Acquisition, Anderson Ranch Dam Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Shannon C.

    2002-03-07

    BPA proposes to purchase approximately 1,370 acres of riparian and wetland habitat along Camas Creek near Hill City, Idaho as partial mitigation for impacts associated with the construction and operation of Anderson Ranch Dam. Title to the land will be held by IDFG. The land proposed for acquisition adjoins IDFG’s existing Camas Prairie Centennial Marsh Wildlife Management Area and will be managed as part of the management area. The goal of this project is to protect and enhance riparian, wetland, and upland habitats associated with the Camas Creek and Camas Prairie systems.

  3. Remote Sensing Analysis of Forest Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.

  4. Remote sensing analysis of forest disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.

  5. USSR Report, Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1st or 2d categories — by 8 and broilers — by 7 percent. The state pays the kolkhozes, state enterprises and private sheep raisers 264 rubles...of a high state of nutrition exceeds the purchase price for cattle in the same state of nutrition by 42 percent, swine — by 14 and broilers ~ by 26...feed units and 55-60 grams of digestible protein in each kilogram. The feed can be used for cattle and swine. According to data supplied by the

  6. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle: Large-scale epidemiological study in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Tagel, Maarja; Mõtus, Kerli; Viltrop, Arvo; Lassen, Brian

    2017-03-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012-2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 was set as cut-off: samples that tested positive at the dilution 1:100 were defined as positive. The apparent animal-level seroprevalence was 18.62%. At least one seropositive animal was found on 68.86% of the farms, and seropositive cattle were detected in all counties. The seroprevalence appeared to increase with age until five years (60-71 months) of age, but had no obvious pattern in the older animals. Animals of the local Estonian Red breed had higher odds to test seropositive than did animals of the Estonian Holstein breed. Whether the farm focused on dairy or beef cattle was not associated with an animal testing T. gondii seropositive nor with finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm. The odds of finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm were higher if the herd size was above median (105 in dairy and mixed dairy farms; 35 in beef and mixed beef farms). The results indicate that T. gondii is endemic within the agricultural setting in Estonia and present on the majority of cattle farms.

  7. Genomic heritabilities and genomic estimated breeding values for methane traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B J; Donoghue, K A; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bird-Gardiner, T; Herd, R M; Arthur, P F

    2016-03-01

    Enteric methane emissions from beef cattle are a significant component of total greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. The variation between beef cattle in methane emissions is partly genetic, whether measured as methane production, methane yield (methane production/DMI), or residual methane production (observed methane production - expected methane production), with heritabilities ranging from 0.19 to 0.29. This suggests methane emissions could be reduced by selection. Given the high cost of measuring methane production from individual beef cattle, genomic selection is the most feasible approach to achieve this reduction in emissions. We derived genomic EBV (GEBV) for methane traits from a reference set of 747 Angus animals phenotyped for methane traits and genotyped for 630,000 SNP. The accuracy of GEBV was tested in a validation set of 273 Angus animals phenotyped for the same traits. Accuracies of GEBV ranged from 0.29 ± 0.06 for methane yield and 0.35 ± 0.06 for residual methane production. Selection on GEBV using the genomic prediction equations derived here could reduce emissions for Angus cattle by roughly 5% over 10 yr.

  8. On-Farm Mitigation of Transmission of Tuberculosis from White-Tailed Deer to Cattle: Literature Review and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Walter, W. David; Anderson, Charles W.; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; Averill, James J.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2012-01-01

    The Animal Industry Division of the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) has been challenged with assisting farmers with modifying farm practices to reduce potential for exposure to Mycobacterium bovis from wildlife to cattle. The MDARD recommendations for on-farm risk mitigation practices were developed from experiences in the US, UK and Ireland and a review of the scientific literature. The objectives of our study were to review the present state of knowledge on M. bovis excretion, transmission, and survival in the environment and the interactions of wildlife and cattle with the intention of determining if the current recommendations by MDARD on farm practices are adequate and to identify additional changes to farm practices that may help to mitigate the risk of transmission. This review will provide agencies with a comprehensive summary of the scientific literature on mitigation of disease transmission between wildlife and cattle and to identify lacunae in published research. PMID:22991687

  9. Efficient generation of transgenic cattle using the DNA transposon and their analysis by next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Soo-Young; Lee, Song-Jeon; Kim, Hyun-Min; Choi, Woo-Jae; Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Won-Wu; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Hyeong-Jong; Bae, Seong-Hun; Lee, Je-Hyeong; Moon, Joo-Yeong; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Choong-Il; Son, Bong-Jun; Song, Sang-Hoon; Ji, Su-Min; Kim, Seong-Jin; Jang, Goo

    2016-01-01

    Here, we efficiently generated transgenic cattle using two transposon systems (Sleeping Beauty and Piggybac) and their genomes were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Blastocysts derived from microinjection of DNA transposons were selected and transferred into recipient cows. Nine transgenic cattle have been generated and grown-up to date without any health issues except two. Some of them expressed strong fluorescence and the transgene in the oocytes from a superovulating one were detected by PCR and sequencing. To investigate genomic variants by the transgene transposition, whole genomic DNA were analyzed by NGS. We found that preferred transposable integration (TA or TTAA) was identified in their genome. Even though multi-copies (i.e. fifteen) were confirmed, there was no significant difference in genome instabilities. In conclusion, we demonstrated that transgenic cattle using the DNA transposon system could be efficiently generated, and all those animals could be a valuable resource for agriculture and veterinary science. PMID:27324781

  10. Triennial Lactation Symposium: Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D

    2012-05-01

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P < 0.0001) in actual DMI between the efficient and inefficient groups (±0.5 SD from the mean RFI of 0), with no evidence of differences (P > 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and

  11. [Botulism in cattle, a review].

    PubMed

    Haagsma, J

    1991-07-01

    Botulism in cattle is reviewed in the present paper. General information concerning the aetiology and symptomatology of the disease is followed by a discussion of the epidemiological situation in the Netherlands. Since 1975 several outbreaks of botulism type C or D have occurred. Poultry litter in which toxic carcasses were present, was the most important source of the toxin. An increasing number of cases of botulism type D was reported in recent years, which was probably due to the fact that poultry is not susceptible to toxin type D and therefore the presence of type D toxin is difficult to recognise timely. In addition, atypical cases of type B botulism occurred in the Netherlands during the period from 1977 to 1978, which were caused by supplementary feeding of brewer's grains. Finally, the diagnostic problems, differential diagnosis, prevention, treatment and public health aspects are discussed.

  12. International genomic evaluation methods for dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. Economies of scale in genomics promote cooperation across country borders. Genomic information can be transferred across countries using simple conversion equations, by modifying mult...

  13. Validation of Deleterious Mutations in Vorderwald Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Reinartz, Sina; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    In Montbéliarde cattle two candidate mutations on bovine chromosomes 19 and 29 responsible for embryonic lethality have been detected. Montbéliarde bulls have been introduced into Vorderwald cattle to improve milk and fattening performance. Due to the small population size of Vorderwald cattle and the wide use of a few Montbéliarde bulls through artificial insemination, inbreeding on Montbéliarde bulls in later generations was increasing. Therefore, we genotyped an aborted fetus which was inbred on Montbéliarde as well as Vorderwald x Montbéliarde crossbred bulls for both deleterious mutations. The abortion was observed in an experimental herd of Vorderwald cattle. The objectives of the present study were to prove if one or both lethal mutations may be assumed to have caused this abortion and to show whether these deleterious mutations have been introduced into the Vorderwald cattle population through Montbéliarde bulls. The aborted fetus was homozygous for the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation (ss2019324563) on BTA29 and both parents as well as the paternal and maternal grandsire were heterozygous for this mutation. In addition, the parents and the paternal grandsire were carriers of the MH2-haplotype linked with the T-allele of the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation. For the SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation (rs38377500) on BTA19 (MH1), the aborted fetus and its sire were heterozygous. Among all further 341 Vorderwald cattle genotyped we found 27 SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T heterozygous animals resulting in an allele frequency of 0.0396. Among the 120 male Vorderwald cattle, there were 12 heterozygous with an allele frequency of 0.05. The SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation could not be found in further nine cattle breeds nor in Vorderwald cattle with contributions from Ayrshire bulls. In 69 Vorderwald cattle without genes from Montbéliarde bulls the mutated allele of SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T could not be detected. The SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation appeared unlikely to be responsible

  14. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  15. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  16. Cattle temperament influences metabolism: 1. Metabolic response to a glucose tolerance test in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperamental cattle are behaviorally, physiologically, and immunologically different in comparison to calm cattle. Recently, the metabolic differences between temperamental and calm cattle have begun to be explored; temperamental cattle maintain greater circulating concentrations of non-esterified ...

  17. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management.

  18. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shiori; Funato, Shingo; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2015-02-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy.

  19. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle

    PubMed Central

    CHIBA, Shiori; FUNATO, Shingo; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; INOKUMA, Hisashi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy. PMID:25421501

  20. Quantitative seismic reservoir characterization of tight sands (granite wash) play at Stiles Ranch field in the Anadarko Basin, Texas (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Muhammad Zahid Afzal

    The main objective of this study is to conduct quantitative seismic reservoir characterization study of the Granite Wash (Marmaton-tight sand) play at Stiles Ranch field in the Anadarko Basin, Texas (USA). The proposed methodology incorporates seismic petrophysics, rock physics, Amplitude Variation with Offset (AVO) analysis and seismic pre-stack simultaneous elastic impedance inversion. In addition, it utilizes geostatistical technique to improve the reservoir property estimation and quantify uncertainty in seismic lithology and fluid prediction. The general objective encompasses several more specific goals to study: well data conditioning and prediction of essential petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, permeability and saturation), and their relationship to the elastic properties. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of seismic petrophysics, only three core aspects are focused on that cover the desired objectives: 1) porosity modeling, 2) shear wave prediction, and (3) fluid substitution. The rock types are characterized by Rock Physics Diagnostic (RPD) approach conducted on well log data calibrated with core data and thin sections. The Granite Wash reservoir elastic properties are upscaled from log to seismic scale using Backus averaging to obtain a more coarsely (upscaled) sampled data set equivalent to the seismic scale. Anisotropy parametric (epsilon, gamma and delta) log curves are estimated consistent with seismic measurements using rock properties, seismic velocity and clay volume (Vsh) as a function of depth. The reservoir elastic properties are related to both the depositional environment and burial history through rock physics depth trends as function of depth. Furthermore, based on the practical aspects two separate inversion approaches; AVO and Elastic Impedance (EI) are evaluated prior to their application to real seismic. Various AVO derived attribute volumes such as intercept (A), gradient (B) and reflection coefficients (scaled Poisson's ratio

  1. Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 1997-2009.

    PubMed

    Skilbrei, O T; Finstad, B; Urdal, K; Bakke, G; Kroglund, F; Strand, R

    2013-03-01

    The impact of salmon lice on the survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts was studied by comparing the adult returns of sea-ranched smolts treated for sea lice using emamectin benzoate or substance EX with untreated control groups in the River Dale in western Norway. A total of 143 500 smolts were released in 35 release groups in freshwater from 1997 to 2009 and in the fjord system from 2007 to 2009. The adult recaptures declined gradually with release year and reached minimum levels in 2007. This development corresponded with poor marine growth and increased age at maturity of ranched salmon and in three monitored salmon populations and indicated unfavourable conditions in the Norwegian Sea. The recapture rate of treated smolts was significantly higher than the controls in three of the releases performed: the only release in 1997, one of three in 2002 and the only group released in sea water in 2007. The effect of treating the smolts against salmon lice was smaller than the variability in return rates between release groups, and much smaller that variability between release years, but its overall contribution was still significant (P < 0.05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P = 0.057), possibly due to a sublethal effect of salmon lice.

  2. Estimates of the half-life of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Vietnam veterans of operation ranch hand

    SciTech Connect

    Pirkle, J.L.; Wolfe, W.H.; Patterson, D.G.; Needham, L.L.; Philips, D.L. ); Michalek, J.E.; Miner, J.C.; Peterson, M.R. )

    1989-01-01

    A half-life of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD; commonly known as dioxin) in serum has been measured in 36 Air Force Vietnam Veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, which was the operation that aerially sprayed the herbicide Agent Orange in Vietnam. From serum specimens taken in 1982 and 1987, the median half-life of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in these Ranch Hand veterans was found to be 7.1 yr (95% confidence interval about the median of 5.8-9.6 yr). These veterans reported no civilian exposure to dioxin or herbicides. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the 1982 serum specimens from these veterans ranged from 16.9 to 423 parts per trillion on a lipid weight basis. The half-life estimates were not associated with the concentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the 1982 serum specimens. This half-life of 7.1 yr is much longer than the half-life of 2,3,7,8-TCDD reported in animals but is consistent with recent evidence from other human exposures to 2,3,7,8-TCDD.

  3. Residue levels of organochlorines and mercury in Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis, eggs from the Faiyum Oasis, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Mullie, W.C. Foundation for Ornithological Research in Egypt, Belfort ); Massi, A.; Focardi, S.; Renzoni, A. )

    1992-05-01

    In Egypt, the Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis is a common resident bird of the Nile Valley, the southern part of the Nile Delta, and the Suez Canal area. In the 1970s it disappeared as a breeding bird from the greater part of the Nile Delta, as did several other bird species, notably birds of prey. Only in recent years some of the species that had declined are markedly recovering, such as the Black-shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus and the Cattle Egret. There is circumstancial evidence that these birds declined - at least partially - as a result of pesticide use in the main cotton growing areas, but this has never been substantiated. The recent recovery of some bird populations, commencing in the 1980s, coincides with a general shift from the use of organochlorines (except for endrin and HCH which are still in use) towards synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates and carbamates in Egyptian agriculture: 30 million kg of formulated product annually, of which 70% are applied to cotton. The number of breeding pairs of Cattle Egrets in a well-known colony at Giza (30[degrees].01'N 31[degrees].13'E) steadily declined from 2500 in 1977 to 1100 in 1984. Therefore, it was decided to collect some eggs for residue analysis. Cattle Egrets are not piscivores, such as most other egrets, but mainly insectivores. They feed in agricultural areas and likely are good indicators for pesticide use in these habitats. Based on gizzard contents analysis, Kirkpatrick (1925) concluded that Cattle Egrets in Egypt only occasionally take (semi) aquatic prey, such as toads, and further predominantly Orthoptera and Diptera on arable land. Various studies have been published with respect to pesticides or heavy metals in the Egyptian environment but, surprisingly, birds have been almost completely ignored. The data presented are the first residue analyses of bird eggs from an agricultural area in Egypt, and as such they can be considered as baseline data for future research. 36 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. 204 POTENTIAL OF GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN LOCUS FOR GENE EDITING IN DNA TRANSPOSON-PRODUCED TRANSGENIC CATTLE.

    PubMed

    Yum, S-Y; Lee, S-J; Kim, H-M; Lee, C-I; Kim, H-S; Kim, H-J; Choi, W-J; Hahn, S-E; Lee, J-H; Kim, S-J; Jang, G

    2016-01-01

    demonstrated that transgenic cattle via transposon are healthy to date and germ-line competence was confirmed. The GFP locus will be used as the target region for future gene engineering via genome-editing technology. Finally, all those animals could be a valuable agricultural and veterinary science resource for studying the effects of gene manipulation on disease resistance and food production.

  5. Design and Formative Evaluation of an Information Kiosk on Cattle Health for Landless Cattle Owners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkumar, S.; Garforth, C.; Rao, S. V. N.; Heffernan, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the experience of designing, installing and evaluating a farmer-usable touch screen information kiosk on cattle health in a veterinary institution in Pondicherry. The contents of the kiosk were prepared based on identified demands for information on cattle health, arrived at through various stakeholders meetings.…

  6. Ticks on Deer and Cattle in the Cattle Fever Tick Permanent Quarantine Zone, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks were sampled from hosts in the cattle fever tick permanent quarantine zone along the Texas-Mexico border on five occasions in 2012. Three sample events involved white-tailed deer populations in Zapata and Starr Counties and two were from a cattle herd in Kinney County. Six species of ticks (n ...

  7. The mitochondrial genome of a Texas outbreak strain of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, derived from whole genome sequencing Pacific Biosciences and Illumina reads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most significant medical veterinary pests in the world, vectoring several serious livestock diseases negatively impacting agricultural economies of tropical and subtropical countries around the world. In our study, we assembled...

  8. Expression of phosphate transporter in small intestine, kidney, and parotid salivary gland of cattle fed differing levels of phosphorus from wet distiller's grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) in the diets of animals in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is of great importance with the increasing concern of environmental impact of animal agriculture. Excess phosphorus in diets of cattle is excreted in the manure and, if improperly managed, can be washed into loc...

  9. Agriculture: Climate Change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  10. Agriculture: Land Use

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  11. Strategies for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

  12. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  13. Use of microarray technology to profile gene expression patterns important for reproduction in cattle.

    PubMed

    Evans, A C O; Forde, N; O'Gorman, G M; Zielak, A E; Lonergan, P; Fair, T

    2008-07-01

    Fertility in cattle is a major component of many agricultural enterprises and there is pressure to devise methods to improve this. A number of approaches are ongoing, one of which is to better understand the cellular and molecular events of the development of reproductive tissues and to use these as targets for developing new strategies. Microarray technologies now allow us the potential to determine the transcriptional profile of expressed genes in a given tissue. This review focuses on the types of microarrays available for studies in cattle and concludes that genes associated with one or more of the cellular processes of cell survival/death, intracellular signalling, transcription and translation, cell division and proliferation and cellular metabolism are the main transcriptional pathways that control the development of ovarian follicles, oocytes, early embryos and the uterine endometrium about the time of the establishment of pregnancy.

  14. Geologic and hydrogeologic characteristics of the Ogallala Formation and White River Group, Belvoir Ranch near Cheyenne, Laramie County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Hallberg, Laura L.; Webster, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    The geologic and hydrogeologic characteristics of Tertiary lithostratigraphic units (Ogallala Formation and White River Group) that typically compose or underlie the High Plains aquifer system in southeastern Wyoming were described physically and chemically, and evaluated at a location on the Belvoir Ranch in Laramie County, Wyoming. On the basis of this characterization and evaluation, three Tertiary lithostratigraphic units were identified using physical and chemical characteristics determined during this study and previous studies, and these three units were determined to be correlative with three identified hydrogeologic units composing the groundwater system at the study site—a high-yielding aquifer composed of the entire saturated thickness of the heterogeneous and coarse-grained fluvial sediments assigned to the Ogallala Formation (Ogallala aquifer); an underlying confining unit composed primarily of very fine-grained volcaniclastic sediments and mudrocks assigned to the Brule Formation of the White River Group and some additional underlying sediments that belong to either the Brule or Chadron Formation, or both (Brule confining unit); and an underlying low-yielding aquifer composed primarily of poorly sorted fluvial sediments assigned to the Chadron Formation of the White River Group (Chadron aquifer). Despite widely varying sediment heterogeneity and consolidation, some limited hydraulic connection throughout the full vertical extent of the Ogallala aquifer was indicated but not conclusively proven by interpretation of similar chemical and isotopic characteristics, modern apparent groundwater ages, and similar hydraulic-head responses measured continuously in two Ogallala aquifer monitoring wells installed for this study at two different widely separated (83 feet) depth intervals. Additional work beyond the scope of this study, such as aquifer tests, would be required to conclusively determine hydraulic connection within the Ogallala aquifer. Groundwater

  15. Advanced agricultural biotechnologies and sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Thomas A

    2002-05-01

    Agricultural biotechnologies are anchored to a scientific paradigm rooted in experimental biology, whereas sustainable agriculture rests on a biological paradigm that is best described as ecological. Both biotechnology and sustainable agriculture are associated with particular social science paradigms: biotechnology has its foundation in neoclassical economics, but sustainability is framed by an emerging community-centered, problem-solving perspective. Fundamentally, biotechnology and neoclassical economics are reductionist in nature. Sustainability and community problem-solving, however, are nonreductionist. Given these differences, we might see the development of two rather distinct systems of food production in the near future.

  16. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  17. Chapter 3: Cropland Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, cropland agriculture resulted in total emissions of approximately 209 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases (GHG). Cropland agriculture is responsible for almost half (46%) of all emissions from the agricultural sector. Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) emissions from c...

  18. Agricultural Structures, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

    This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

  19. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  20. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  1. African Americans and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the opportunities available in the field of agriculture for African American students and notes efforts of the 136 colleges of agriculture to publicize their offerings and recruit students. Profiles six black leaders in agriculture, highlighting their achievements in research and aid to developing countries. A table provides data on annual…

  2. Agriculture, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…

  3. Methane and carbon dioxide production from simulated anaerobic degradation of cattle carcasses

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Qi; Saunders, Samuel E.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates methane and carbon dioxide production after land burial of cattle carcasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disposal of animal mortalities is often overlooked in evaluating the environmental impacts of animal production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer we quantify annual emissions from cattle carcass disposal in the United States as 1.6 Tg CO{sub 2} equivalents. - Abstract: Approximately 2.2 million cattle carcasses require disposal annually in the United States. Land burial is a convenient disposal method that has been widely used in animal production for disposal of both daily mortalities as well as during catastrophic mortality events. To date, greenhouse gas production after mortality burial has not been quantified, and this study represents the first attempt to quantify greenhouse gas emissions from land burial of animal carcasses. In this study, anaerobic decomposition of both homogenized and unhomogenized cattle carcass material was investigated using bench-scale reactors. Maximum yields of methane and carbon dioxide were 0.33 and 0.09 m{sup 3}/kg dry material, respectively, a higher methane yield than that previously reported for municipal solid waste. Variability in methane production rates were observed over time and between reactors. Based on our laboratory data, annual methane emissions from burial of cattle mortalities in the United States could total 1.6 Tg CO{sub 2} equivalents. Although this represents less than 1% of total emissions produced by the agricultural sector in 2009, greenhouse gas emissions from animal carcass burial may be significant if disposal of swine and poultry carcasses is also considered.

  4. Cattle genomics and its implications for future nutritional strategies for dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Seo, S; Larkin, D M; Loor, J J

    2013-03-01

    The recently sequenced cattle (Bos taurus) genome unraveled the unique genomic features of the species and provided the molecular basis for applying a systemic approach to systematically link genomic information to metabolic traits. Comparative analysis has identified a variety of evolutionary adaptive features in the cattle genome, such as an expansion of the gene families related to the rumen function, large number of chromosomal rearrangements affecting regulation of genes for lactation, and chromosomal rearrangements that are associated with segmental duplications and copy number variations. Metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome has revealed that core metabolic pathways are highly conserved among mammals although five metabolic genes are deleted or highly diverged and seven metabolic genes are present in duplicate in the cattle genome compared to their human counter parts. The evolutionary loss and gain of metabolic genes in the cattle genome may reflect metabolic adaptations of cattle. Metabolic reconstruction also provides a platform for better understanding of metabolic regulation in cattle and ruminants. A substantial body of transcriptomics data from dairy and beef cattle under different nutritional management and across different stages of growth and lactation are already available and will aid in linking the genome with metabolism and nutritional physiology of cattle. Application of cattle genomics has great potential for future development of nutritional strategies to improve efficiency and sustainability of beef and milk production. One of the biggest challenges is to integrate genomic and phenotypic data and interpret them in a biological and practical platform. Systems biology, a holistic and systemic approach, will be very useful in overcoming this challenge.

  5. Nitrate in aquifers beneath agricultural systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.; Stoner, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Research from several regions of the world provides spatially anecdotal evidence to hypothesize which hydrologic and agricultural factors contribute to groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination. Analysis of nationally consistent measurements from the U.S. Geological Survey's NAWOA program confirms these hypotheses for a substantial range of agricultural systems. Shallow unconfined aquifers are most susceptible to nitrate contamination associated with agricultural systems. Alluvial and other unconsolidated aquifers are the most vulnerable and shallow carbonate aquifers provide a substantial but smaller contamination risk. Where any of these aquifers are overlain by permeable soils the risk of contamination is larger. Irrigated systems can compound this vulnerability by increasing leaching facilitated by additional recharge and additional nutrient applications. The agricultural system of corn, soybeans, and hogs produced significantly larger concentrations of groundwater nitrate than all other agricultural systems, although mean nitrate concentrations in counties with dairy, poultry, cattle and grains, and horticulture systems were similar. If trends in the relation between increased fertilizer use and groundwater nitrate in the United States are repeated in other regions of the world, Asia may experience increasing problems because of recent increases in fertilizer use. Groundwater monitoring in Western and Eastern Europe as well as Russia over the next decade may provide data to determine if the trend in increased nitrate contamination can be reversed. If the concentrated livestock trend in the United States is global, it may be accompanied by increasing nitrogen contamination in groundwater. Concentrated livestock provide both point sources in the confinement area and intense non-point sources as fields close to facilities are used for manure disposal. Regions where irrigated cropland is expanding, such as in Asia, may experience the greatest impact of

  6. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY POINT-OF-USE (POU) REVERSE OSMOSIS. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SUNSET RANCH DEVELOPMENT IN HOMEDALE, ID. FINAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Sunset Ranch Development in Homedale, ID. The objectives of the project are to evaluate: 1) the effectiveness of a point of use (POU) re...

  7. Influence of cattle temperament on blood serum fatty acid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle temperament has been reported to influence blood metabolites. Specifically, temperament was related with increased circulation of serum NEFA, decreased blood urea nitrogen, and reduced insulin sensitivity. Metabolic alterations such as these may impact cattle immune function, performance trai...

  8. 9. Detail of viaduct's structural system with cattle pens beneath. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail of viaduct's structural system with cattle pens beneath. View to northeast. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Buckingham Road Viaduct, Twenty-ninth Street spanning Stockyard Cattle Pens, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  9. Pasture-scale measurement of methane emissions of grazing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying methane emission of cattle grazing on southern Great Plains pastures using micrometeorology presents several challenges. Cattle are elevated, mobile point sources of methane, so that knowing their location in relation to atmospheric methane concentration measurements becomes critical. St...

  10. Papillomas and cancer in cattle.

    PubMed

    Campo, M S

    1987-01-01

    Papillomaviruses induce hyperproliferation of epithelial cells of the skin or mucosa (papillomas), and certain types can also infect fibroblasts. They are a very heterogeneous group of viruses, and individual types are associated with specific lesions. The papillomas are mostly benign but some tumours may eventually undergo malignant conversion when genetic or environmental factors are involved. In cattle, bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) is the causative agent of papillomas of the alimentary canal, which can become the focus for the development of carcinomas in animals feeding on the bracken fern. These animals are immunosuppressed and are often affected also by adenocarcinomas of the lower bowel and by carcinomas and haemangiosarcomas of the urinary bladder. Persistent, widespread papillomatosis and cancers of both the alimentary tract and the urinary bladder have been experimentally reproduced in animals either kept on a diet of bracken or immunosuppressed with azathioprine. As is the case for the naturally occurring cancers, no viral DNA was detected in the experimental cancers of the upper alimentary canal or of the lower bowel, indicating that the viral genome is not required for the maintenance of the malignant state. On the contrary, BPV-2 DNA was detected in several bladder cancers, both natural and experimental, suggesting that this virus can be present in a latent form and can be involved in malignant transformation. Further evidence of latent infection was provided by the onset of BPV-1 or BPV-2 skin warts in papillomatosis-free animals. These findings are obviously relevant to the human disease.

  11. Postpartum uterine health in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, I M; Dobson, H

    2004-07-01

    Uterine health is often compromised in cattle because postpartum contamination of the uterine lumen by bacteria is ubiquitous, and pathogenic bacteria frequently persist causing clinical disease. The subfertility associated with uterine infection involves perturbation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary, in addition to the direct effects on the uterus, and appears to persist even after clinical resolution of the disease. Absorption of bacterial components from the uterus can prevent the follicular phase LH surge and ovulation. In addition, the first postpartum dominant follicle has a slower growth rate and secretes less estradiol at the end of the growth phase. There are also localised ovarian effects of high uterine bacterial growth density, because fewer first dominant follicles are selected in the ovary ipsilateral than contralateral to the previously gravid uterine horn. Thus, it is important to diagnose and treat uterine disease promptly and effectively. Examination of the contents of the vagina for the presence of pus is the most useful method for diagnosis of endometritis. The character and odor of the vaginal mucus can be scored and this endometritis score is correlated with the growth density of pathogenic bacteria in the uterus, and is prognostic for the likely success of treatment. The challenge for the future is to design prevention and control programs to reduce the incidence of disease, and understand how the immune and endocrine systems are integrated.

  12. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in local cattle breeds of Senegal based on autosomal microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Ndèye Penda; Sow, Adama; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Ndiaye, Saliou; Sawadogo, Germain Jerôme; Sembène, Mbacké

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In Senegal, uncontrolled cross-breeding of cattle breeds and changes in production systems are assumed to lead to an increase of gene flow between populations. This might constitute a relevant threat to livestock improvement. Therewith, this study was carried out to assess the current genetic diversity and the phylogenetic relationships of the four native Senegalese cattle breeds (Gobra zebu, Maure zebu, Djakoré, and N’Dama). Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 120 unrelated animals collected from three agro-ecological areas of Senegal according to their phenotypic traits. Genotyping was done using 11 specific highly polymorphic microsatellite makers recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization. The basic measures of genetic variation and phylogenetic trees were computed using bioinformatics’ software. Results: A total of 115 alleles were identified with a number of alleles (Na) at one locus ranging from 6 to 16. All loci were polymorphic with a mean polymorphic information content of 0.76. The mean allelic richness (Rs) lay within the narrow range of 5.14 in N’Dama taurine to 6.10 in Gobra zebu. While, the expected heterozygosity (HE) per breed was high in general with an overall mean of 0.76±0.04. Generally, the heterozygote deficiency (FIS) of 0.073±0.026 was relatively due to inbreeding among these cattle breeds or the occurrence of population substructure. The high values of allelic and gene diversity showed that Senegalese native cattle breeds represented an important reservoir of genetic variation. The genetic distances and clustering trees concluded that the N’Dama cattle were most distinct among the investigated cattle populations. So, the principal component analyses showed qualitatively that there was an intensive genetic admixture between the Gobra zebu and Maure zebu breeds. Conclusions: The broad genetic diversity in Senegalese cattle breeds will allow for greater opportunities for improvement of productivity

  13. Risk assessment of cattle handling on pasture using work environment screening tool.

    PubMed

    Geng, Qiuqing; Field, William E; Salomon, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Working with beef cattle in an open area or while on pasture has been shown to expose workers to a high risk of work-related injury. Prior research on this problem has been conducted using mail surveys, interviews, self-reporting of work practices and injury experiences, and summaries of published injury data, including media reports. Prior research on injury prevention has largely focused on worker education in a specific cultural or geographical setting. A pilot study was conducted to test the cross-cultural usability of the Working Environment Screening Tool in Agriculture (WEST-AG), a modification of the WEST, developed for Swedish industrial applications, to assess risk factors associated with farmers working with cattle being raised largely on pasture as compared with cattle raised in confined feeding operations. Swedish and English language versions of WEST-AG were developed and pilot-tested on a convenient sample of eight Swedish and eight Indiana farms that raise beef cattle primarily on pasture. On-site observations were conducted independently by Swedish and US agricultural safety professionals and documented using photography and a 15-risk-of-injury component on an 11-degree linear scale. Comparisons were made between independent observations documented from the Swedish and Indiana application of the WEST, including collective assessment of photographic record, and the results reported. Key findings included (a) a higher level of observed risks on Indiana farms studied as compared with their Swedish counterparts; (b) high levels of worker exposure to cattle, especially mature breeding bulls, on both sets of farms; (c) a higher frequency of self-reported farm-related injuries than anticipated on both Swedish and Indiana farms; (d) substantially different economic, social, cultural, and regulatory forces that influence small-operation Swedish and Indiana beef producers' decisions regarding adoption of safer work practices, including use of new and safer

  14. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sacco, R E; McGill, J L; Pillatzki, A E; Palmer, M V; Ackermann, M R

    2014-03-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a cause of respiratory disease in cattle worldwide. It has an integral role in enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV infection can predispose calves to secondary bacterial infection by organisms such as Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni, resulting in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Even in cases where animals do not succumb to bovine respiratory disease complex, there can be long-term losses in production performance. This includes reductions in feed efficiency and rate of gain in the feedlot, as well as reproductive performance, milk production, and longevity in the breeding herd. As a result, economic costs to the cattle industry from bovine respiratory disease have been estimated to approach $1 billion annually due to death losses, reduced performance, and costs of vaccinations and treatment modalities. Human and bovine RSV are closely related viruses with similarities in histopathologic lesions and mechanisms of immune modulation induced following infection. Therefore, where appropriate, we provide comparisons between RSV infections in humans and cattle. This review article discusses key aspects of RSV infection of cattle, including epidemiology and strain variability, clinical signs and diagnosis, experimental infection, gross and microscopic lesions, innate and adaptive immune responses, and vaccination strategies.

  15. Therapeutic management of botulism in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Pandian, S. Jegaveera; Subramanian, M.; Vijayakumar, G.; Balasubramaniam, G. A.; Sukumar, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To report the successful recovery of few dairy cattle from botulism in response to a modified therapeutic strategy. Materials and Methods: Seventy four naturally-occurring clinical cases of bovine botulism encountered during the period of 2012-2014 which were confirmed by mouse lethality test became material for this study. Affected animals were made into three groups based on the treatment modifications made during the course of study. Results and Discussion: With the modified therapeutic regimen, 17 animals recovered after 7-10 days of treatment. Clinical recovery took 2-30 days. Animals which were not given intravenous fluid and calcium recovered uneventfully. Cattle which were already treated with intravenous fluids, calcium borogluconate, and antibiotics did not recover. They were either died or slaughtered for salvage. Conclusion: In cattle with botulism, administration of Vitamin AD3E and activated charcoal aid the clinical recovery. Besides, strictly avoiding anti-clostridial antibiotics, fluid therapy, and calcium therapy may facilitate the clinical recovery. Upon fluid administration, the pulmonary congestion existed in the ailing cattle might have worsened the anoxia. Administration of antibiotics like penicillin, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines further worsen the neuronal paralysis by increasing the availability of botulinum neurotoxin. Cattle in early botulism have fair chances of recovery with the modified therapy. PMID:27047034

  16. Neurotuberculosis in cattle in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Konradt, Guilherme; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Bianchi, Matheus Viezzer; Bandinelli, Marcele Bettim; Driemeier, David; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis in cattle is a chronic infectious-contagious disease characterized by the development of nodular lesions (granulomas) in mainly the lungs and regional lymph nodes. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, an acid-fast bacillus (AFB). Tuberculosis in the central nervous system is a rare condition in cattle. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathological findings of six neurotuberculosis cases in cattle diagnosed in Southern Brazil. The average age of the cattle affected was 12 months, and they varied in breed and sex. The clinical history ranged from 5 to 30 days and was characterized by motor incoordination, opisthotonus, blindness, and progression to recumbency. The cattle were euthanized, and grossly, the leptomeninges at the basilar brain showed marked and diffuse expansion, with nodular yellowish lesions ranging in size. On microscopic examination, there were multifocal granulomas located mainly in the meninges, though sometimes extending to adjacent neuropil or existing as isolated granulomas in neuropil. AFBs were observed in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells through Ziehl-Neelsen histochemical staining and identified as Mycobacterium sp. through immunohistochemistry.

  17. Ageratum houstonianum toxicosis in zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Noa, Mario; Sánchez, Luz María; Durand, Reina

    2004-08-01

    Ageratum houstonianum (Ageratum, flossflower, blue billygoat weed) is an annual plant that tends to become a pest in gardens and pastures. Clinical signs for A. houstonianum toxicosis in cattle are characterized by either an acute hemorrhagic course or sub-acute photodynamic dermatitis. The toxicosis has often been associated with Holstein-Friesian or crossbreed Holstein cattle less resistant to tropical climate conditions. During a recent especially dry spring about 40 adult Zebu cattle were found dead, while another 40/800 animals were sacrificed. The animals had been relocated to the problem area about 4 mo before, where due to the prolonged drought, A. houstonianum was almost exclusively the only pasture available. The intoxicated cattle did not show the characteristic toxic dermatitis reported for A. houstonianum acute toxicosis; but post-mortem examination revealed bloody serous fluid in coccyx-femoral joints and hemorrhages in the large muscle tissues, while liver, kidney and heart also had hemorrhages. To confirm the toxic plant as cause of the toxicosis, phytochemical Qualitative screening and a novel thin-layer chromatographic characterization of plant extracts were done. The chromatographic profiles of coumarin compounds, alkaloids and triterpens in ruminal and intestinal contents were similar to those obtained from A. houstonianum plants from the same area, confirming ingestion of A. houstonianum as cause of the toxicosis. The coincidence of adverse nutritional conditions together with the cattle's ignorance of the grazing area predisposed the plant toxicosis.

  18. Characterization of Fog Water Collection Potential and Quality on California State University Monterey Bay and Glen Deven Ranch Near Big Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, G. E.

    2005-12-01

    Since June 25, 2005 I have had three standard fog collectors (SFCs) in place at various locales throughout the Greater Monterey Area. From June 25 until July 22, the three SFCs were all located on the California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB) campus, only a few meters above sea level. Their orientations were all due west. On July 22 two of the SFCs were relocated to a hilly coastal location in Big Sur several hundred meters above sea level known as Glen Deven Ranch. They will remain there until October 15. An SFC is a device that collects fog water from the air. They each consist of a 1 m2 copper frame with a mesh net wound around it. This frame is affixed to two steel posts and is 2 m off the ground. Below the frame sits a trough that has a bottom slanted so that all water in it flows towards a spout at one end. This spout is connected by a tube to a container or data logging rain gauge. Preliminary data analysis shows that maximal collection occurs in the early morning hours at CSUMB and during the evening at Glen Deven Ranch. The weekly volumes of water collected at Glen Deven thus far have been between 2 and 30 times the volume collected on CSUMB. During the time period of operation, the SFCs connected to containers collected 114.37 L in total. The maximum collected for one week is 6.75 L on campus and 19.21 L at the ranch. The data logged by the rain gauge is currently being analyzed to determine how much water has been collected by the SFC it has been connected to. Water from the Glen Deven SFCs and from the CSUMB SFC has been sent to the Santa Clara Municipal Water District where the purity and potability of the water are being investigated. Initially, I wanted to determine about how much water could be obtained in this fashion for use in the Monterey Bay Area. I assumed my results would be broadly applicable, but due to the high variability of fog collection rates I observed even in collectors only a couple hundred of meters apart, any conclusions I

  19. Promoting Sustainable Agricultural Practices Through Remote Sensing Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driese, K. L.; Sivanpillai, R.

    2007-12-01

    Ever increasing demand for food and fiber calls for farm management strategies such as effective use of chemicals and efficient water use that will maximize productivity while reducing adverse impacts on the environment. Remotely sensed data collected by satellites are a valuable resource for farmers and ranchers for gaining insights about farm and ranch productivity. While researchers in universities and agencies have made tremendous advances, technology transfer to end-users has lagged, preventing the farmers from taking advantage of this valuable resource. To overcome this barrier, the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), a NASA funded program headed by the University of North Dakota, has been working with end-users to promote the use of remote sensing technology for sustainable agricultural practices. We will highlight the UMAC activities in Wyoming aimed at promoting this technology to sugar-beet farmers in the Big Horn Basin. To assist farmers who might not have a computer at home, we provide them to local county Cooperative Extension Offices pre-loaded with relevant imagery. Our targeted outreach activities have resulted in farmers requesting and using new and old Landsat images to identify growth anomalies and trends which have enabled them to develop management zones within their croplands.

  20. Identification of Different Bartonella Species in the Cattle Tail Louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in Cattle Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity. PMID:24973066

  1. [Analysis of POU1F1 gene polymorphisms in Qinchuan cattle and Chinese Holstein cattle].

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin-Jun; Liu, Bo; Fang, Xin-Tang; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Run-Feng; Bao, Bin; Zhang, Hai-Jun

    2006-11-01

    PCR-RFLP was applied to analyze the polymorphisms of POU1F1 gene in 218 Qinchuan cattle (QQ) and Chinese Holstein cattle (HC). Results demonstrated Hinf I polymorphisms in the 451 bp PCR product in the two populations. The frequencies of alleles A/B in QQ and HC populations were 0.232/0.768 and 0.132/0.868, respectively. The frequencies of three genotypes AA, AB and BB were 0.030/0.403/0.567 and 0.007/0.251/0.742, respectively. Qinchuan cattle population was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at this locus, but Chinese Holstein cattle population was not. The gene heterozygosity/effective allele gene number/Shannon information entropy/polymorphism information content of Qinchuan cattle and Chinese Holstein cattle populations were listed for 0.356/1.553/0.541/0.292 and 0.229/1.297/0.390/0.203, respectively. All indices were higher in the Qinchuan cattle population.

  2. BCVA: Can recycled manure make a safe bed for cattle?

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Suzanne

    2014-11-15

    The use of recycled manure solids for cattle bedding was among the subjects considered at the British Cattle Veterinary Association's congress last month. Both cattle and sheep vets gathered in Hinckley, Leicestershire, from October 16 to 18 to discuss a range of clinical and political issues. Suzanne Jarvis reports.

  3. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... establishments. (1) Finished fed cattle from a quarantined feedlot may be moved interstate (i) Directly to a...) Movement to quarantined feedlots. Brucellosis exposed cattle for which no claim for indemnity is being made... brucellosis exposed cattle and then directly to a quarantined feedlot, or from a farm of origin directly to...

  4. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quarantined feedlots. (i) Cattle from qualified herds in a quarantined area may be moved interstate from a... then directly to a quarantined feedlot if the cattle are negative to an official test within 30 days... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas....

  5. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... establishments. (1) Finished fed cattle from a quarantined feedlot may be moved interstate (i) Directly to a...) Movement to quarantined feedlots. Brucellosis exposed cattle for which no claim for indemnity is being made... brucellosis exposed cattle and then directly to a quarantined feedlot, or from a farm of origin directly to...

  6. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... establishments. (1) Finished fed cattle from a quarantined feedlot may be moved interstate (i) Directly to a...) Movement to quarantined feedlots. Brucellosis exposed cattle for which no claim for indemnity is being made... brucellosis exposed cattle and then directly to a quarantined feedlot, or from a farm of origin directly to...

  7. Pasture-scale methane emissions of grazing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing cattle are mobile point sources of methane and present challenges to quantify emissions using noninterfering micrometeorological methods. Stocking density is low and cattle can bunch up or disperse over a wide area, so knowing cattle locations is critical. The methane concentration downwind ...

  8. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events

    PubMed Central

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Hillis, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  9. 66 FR 20187 - Tuberculosis Testing for Imported Cattle

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-04-20

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 Tuberculosis Testing for Imported Cattle AGENCY... tuberculosis prior to exportation to the United States, except cattle imported for immediate slaughter. The additional testing requirements will help us to better ensure that imported cattle are free of...

  10. 68 FR 35529 - Tuberculosis Testing for Imported Cattle

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-06-16

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 Tuberculosis Testing for Imported Cattle AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...; to require certification regarding the tuberculosis history of the herds from which a group of cattle... necessary to help us better ensure that imported cattle are free of tuberculosis, thereby protecting...

  11. 62 FR 3445 - Cattle Exportations; Tuberculosis and Brucellosis Test Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-01-23

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 91 Cattle Exportations; Tuberculosis and Brucellosis Test... requirements for pre- export diagnostic tests for tuberculosis and brucellosis in certain cattle being exported... tuberculosis and brucellosis test requirements for slaughter cattle exported from States free of brucellosis...

  12. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events.

    PubMed

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Hillis, David M

    2013-04-09

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment.

  13. USSR Report Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Cattle Raising (A. Cherekayev; SELSKAYA ZHIZN, 15 Nov 85) ................ 49 Livestock Sector Progress Review (0. Pavlov ; IZVESTIYA, 23 Jan 86...March 1986 LIVESTOCK LIVESTOCK SECTOR PROGRESS REVIEW Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 23 Jan 86 p 1 [Article by 0. Pavlov : "Our Livestock Farms in the Winter...operators Andrey Brovko and Ivan Shiyan gathered 52 to 54 quintals of wheat per hectare. The Mayak Kolkhoz gathered a harvest of 53 quintals per hectare

  14. Genetics of Prion Disease in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Brenda M.; Murdoch, Gordon K.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. As a transmissible disease of livestock, it has impacted food safety, production practices, global trade, and profitability. Genetic polymorphisms that alter the prion protein in humans and sheep are associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility or resistance. In contrast, there is no strong evidence that nonsynonymous mutations in the bovine prion gene (PRNP) are associated with classical BSE (C-BSE) disease susceptibility, though two bovine PRNP insertion/deletion polymorphisms, in the putative region, are associated with susceptibility to C-BSE. However, these associations do not explain the full extent of BSE susceptibility, and loci outside of PRNP appear to be associated with disease incidence in some cattle populations. This article provides a review of the current state of genetic knowledge regarding prion diseases in cattle. PMID:26462233

  15. [Clinical application of computed tomography in cattle].

    PubMed

    Nuss, K; Schnetzler, C; Hagen, R; Schwarz, A; Kircher, P

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography involves the use of x-rays to produce cross-sectional images of body regions. It provides non-overlapping, two-dimensional images of all desired planes as well as three-dimensional reconstruction of regions of interest. There are few reports on the clinical use of computed tomography in farm animals. Its use in cattle is limited by high cost, the application of off-label drugs and the need for general anaesthesia. In cattle computed tomography is indicated primarily for diseases of the head, e.g. dental diseases and otitis media, and neurological disorders. Less often it is used for diseases of the vertebrae and limbs. In valuable cattle, the results of computed tomography can be an important part of preoperative planning or be used to avoid unnecessary surgery when the prognosis is poor.

  16. Cestrum parqui (green cestrum) poisoning in cattle.

    PubMed

    McLennan, M W; Kelly, W R

    1984-09-01

    Naturally occurring cases of poisoning of cattle by Cestrum parqui were characterised by ataxia, depression, recumbency, convulsions and death. Three cattle were dosed experimentally by intrarumenal administration of fresh plant material. One calf died 48 h after receiving 30 g (wet weight) of plant/kg bodyweight. Doses of 11 and 17 g/kg caused only mild intoxication, with dullness and anorexia lasting 2 days. In natural and experimental cases the main lesion was hepatic periacinar necrosis. Elevated levels of plasma aspartate transaminase and prolonged prothrombin times were demonstrated in experimental cases. Haemorrhage beneath the serosa and into the intestinal lumen occurred in field cases, but not in the experimental. It is concluded that C. parqui poisoning in cattle is a primary hepatotoxicity.

  17. Analysis and frequency of bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) alleles in Iranian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Nassiry, M R; Shahroodi, F Eftekhar; Mosafer, J; Mohammadi, A; Manshad, E; Ghazanfari, S; Mohammad Abadi, M R; Sulimova, G E

    2005-06-01

    The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) gene encodes cell surface glycoproteins that initiate immune response by presenting processed antigenic peptides to CD4 T helper cells. DRB3 is the most polymorphic bovine MHC class II gene which encodes the peptide-binding groove. DRB3 gene has been extensively evaluated as a candidate marker for association with various bovine diseases and immunological traits. This study describes genetic variability in the BoLA-DRB3 in Iranian Holstein cattle. This is the first study of the DNA polymorphism of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in Iranian Holstein cattle. Hemi-nested PCR-RFLP method is used for identification the frequency of BoLA-DRB3 alleles. The BoLA-DRB3 locus is highly polymorphic in the studied herd (26 alleles). Almost 67% of the alleles were accounted for four alleles (BoLA-DRB3.2*8, *24, *11 and *16) in Iranian Holstein cattle. The DRB3.2*8 allele frequency (26.6%) was higher than the others. The frequencies of the DRB3.2*54, *37, *36, *28, *25, *14, *13, *10, *1 alleles were lower than 1%. Significant distinctions have been found between Iranian Holstein cattle and other cattle breeds studied. In Iranian Holstein cattle the alleles (BoLA-DRB3.2*22, *2 and *16) associated with a lower risk of cystic ovarian disease in Holstein cattle are found. The alleles associated with the resistance to mastitis and to bovine leukemia virus infection BoLA-DRB3.2*11 and *23 are detected with the frequencies 10.4% and 4.4%, respectively. Thus in the Iranian Holstein cows studied are found alleles which are associated with resistance to various diseases. The method of DNA-typing of animals can be used in agricultural practice for BoLA-DRB3 allele genotyping of cattle in order to reduce spreading of alleles providing susceptibility to mastitis or leukemia in cattle herds.

  18. Diné (Navajo) parents' and community leaders' perceptions of agriculture-related injury risk to youth: a social narrative.

    PubMed

    Shumway, K; Pate, M L; McNeal, L G

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a formative needs assessment of Diné (Navajo) parents for the prevention of childhood injuries resulting from livestock and horses. The research objectives were to identify parents' perceived livestock and horse related injury risks to Diné children and describe Diné community stakeholder input on prevention interventions for reducing injury risks to children associated with livestock and horse related activities on farms or ranches. The assessment used a survey constructed of closed and open-response questions to gauge Diné farmers' and ranchers' perceptions of injury risks to children who live or work on agricultural operations. Additional questions were asked to gauge Diné acceptance of an online training program as a prevention intervention to reduce livestock and horse related injuries to children. A total of 96 individuals agreed to participate in the survey and provided usable responses. A total of 53.2% (f = 50) of participants were female. Sixty-three percent of participants (f = 58) perceived that youth who work with intact male livestock were at high risk for injury. A total of 25 individuals perceived that youth who ride horses without equestrian helmets were at high risk for injury. Approximately 96% (f = 89) of those surveyed agreed or strongly agreed that they would use an online training program to promote agricultural health and safety for Diné youth. When participants were asked if there were safety issues associated with having youth working on a farm or ranch, a very large portion felt that the biggest issue was a lack of education and instruction from elders. A recommendation for an injury prevention practice included developing a user-friendly online network, giving parents and community leaders access to resources to assist in educating youth in local agricultural traditions integrated with safety training.

  19. Brazilian beef cattle feedlot manure management: a country survey.

    PubMed

    Costa, C; Goulart, R S; Albertini, T Z; Feigl, B J; Cerri, C E P; Vasconcelos, J T; Bernoux, M; Lanna, D P D; Cerri, C C

    2013-04-01

    No information regarding the management of manure from beef cattle feedlots is available for Brazil. To fill this knowledge gap, a survey of 73 feedlots was conducted in 7 Brazilian states. In this survey, questions were asked regarding animal characteristics, their diets, and manure handling management from generation to disposal. These feedlots finished 831,450 animals in 2010. The predominant breed fed was Nellore, with average feeding periods of 60 to 135 d. Corn was the primary source of grain used in the feedlot diets (76% of surveyed animals) with concentrate inclusion levels ranging from 81 to 90% (38% of surveyed animals). The most representative manure management practice was the removal of manure from pens only at the end of the feeding period. Subsequently, the manure was stored in mounds before being applied to crop and pasture lands. Runoff, mainly from rainwater, was collected in retention ponds and used for agriculture. However, the quantity of runoff was not known. Manure was composted for only 20% of the animals in the survey and was treated in anaerobic digesters for only 1% of the animals. Manure from 59% of the cattle surveyed was used as fertilizer, providing a cost savings over the use of synthetic fertilizers. Overall, chemical analysis of the manure before application to fields was conducted for the manure of 56% of the surveyed animals, but the exact quantity applied (per hectare) was unknown for 48%. Feedlots representing 48% of the surveyed animals noted similar or greater crop and pasture yields when using manure, rather than synthetic fertilizers. In addition, 32% mentioned an increase in soil organic matter. Feedlots representing 88% of the surveyed cattle indicated that information concerning management practices that improve manure use efficiency is lacking. Feedlots representing 93% of the animals in the survey reported having basic information regarding the generation of energy and fertilizer with anaerobic digesters. However

  20. Coxofemoral joint radiography in standing cattle.

    PubMed

    Wenzinger, Beatrice; Hagen, Regine; Schmid, Tanja; Nuss, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a technique for radiographic examination of the coxofemoral joint and adjacent bony structures in standing cattle. Left (or right) 30° dorsal-right (or left) ventral radiographic views of the coxofemoral joint region of standing cattle (n = 10) with hind limb lameness were evaluated retrospectively. In addition, an experimental study of oblique laterolateral views of the coxofemoral joint region of a bovine skeleton at angles of 15-45° was carried out to determine the optimal position for visualization of the hip region. In the 10 clinical patients, the bodies of the ilium and ischium, the acetabulum and proximal third of the femur could be assessed. Six of these cattle had fractures of the body of the ilium and body of the ischium, five with and one without involvement of the acetabulum, two had craniodorsal and one caudoventral luxation of the femur and one had a femoral neck fracture. The described laterodorsal-lateroventral radiographs of the hip region in standing cattle were suitable for assessing the coxofemoral joint, the proximal aspect of the femur and parts of the ischium, ilium and pubis. After testing the optimal angle on the skeleton, it was seen that distortion and superimposition were minimized by positioning the X-ray beam at an angle of 25° to the horizontal plane. It can be concluded that the described technique improves the evaluation of injuries of the coxofemoral region in cattle. With the appropriate angle, the technique can also be applied in recumbent cattle.

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting {sup 238}U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected {sup 241}Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area.

  2. Phase II. Environmental baseline survey of McCormick Ranch, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. Part 2. Final report, October 1993-January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hagaraty, G.; Johnson, J.; Middlebrooks, P.

    1996-01-31

    The Phase II EBS results document the extent of environmental contamination believed to be present on McCormick Ranch. Explosive test areas having the greatest potential for containing soil contaminants were identified using several geophysical survey methods: EM 31 terrain conductivity meter, magnetometer/gradiometer, and ground penetrating radar. From the geophysical surveys, five areas were selected to conduct further environmental analysis. A total of 310 soil samples were collected from the five areas and 13 specific high explosive test sites. The samples were screened for semi-volatile organic compounds, PETN, TNT, TNT-degradation products, nitrates and radioactivity. Laboratory analyses were performed and no explosives or degradation products were identified. Semi-volatile organic compounds were found in 2 samples, manganese was detected in 3 samples, nitrates were discovered below soil action levels, and radiation levels were below background. Consequently, it is unlikely that significant contamination exists.

  3. Phase II. Environmental baseline survey of McCormick Ranch, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. Part 1. Final report, October 1993-January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hagaraty, G.; Johnson, J.; Middlebrooks, P.

    1996-01-31

    The Phase II EBS results document the extent of environmental contamination believed to be present on McCormick Ranch. Explosive test areas having the greatest potential for containing soil contaminants were identified using several geophysical survey methods: EM 31 terrain conductivity meter, magnetometer/gradiometer, and ground penetrating radar. From the geophysical surveys, five areas were selected to conduct further environmental analysis. A total of 310 soil samples were collected from the and 13 specific high explosive test sites. The samples were screened for semi-volatile organic PETN, TNT, TNT-degradation products, nitrates and radioactivity. Laboratory analyses were and no explosives or degradation products were identified. Semi-volatile organic compounds were in 2 samples, manganese was detected in 3 samples, nitrates were discovered below soil action levels, and radiation levels were below background. Consequently, it is unlikely that significant contamination exists.

  4. Phase II. Environmental baseline survey of McCormick Ranch, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. Part 3. Final report, October 1993-January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hagaraty, G.; Johnson, J.; Middlebrooks, P.

    1996-01-31

    The Phase II EBS results document the extent of environmental contamination believed to be present on McCormick Ranch. Explosive test areas having the greatest potential for containing soil contaminants were identified using several geophysical survey methods: EM 31 terrain conductivity meter, magnetometer/gradiometer, and ground penetrating radar. From the geophysical surveys, five areas were selected to conduct further environmental analysis. A total of 310 soil samples were collected from the five areas and 13 specific high explosive test sites. The samples were screened for semi-volatile organic compounds, PETN, TNT, TNT-degradation products, nitrates and radioactivity. Laboratory analyses were and no explosives or degradation products were identified. Semi-volatile organic compounds were in 2 samples, manganese was detected in 3 samples, nitrates were discovered below soil action levels, and radiation levels were below background. Consequently, it is unlikely that significant contamination exists.

  5. Phase II. Environmental baseline survey of McCormick Ranch, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. Part 5. Final report, October 1993-January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hagaraty, G.; Johnson, J.; Middlebrooks, P.

    1996-01-31

    The Phase II EBS results document the extent of environmental contamination believed to be present on McCormick Ranch. Explosive test areas having the greatest potential for containing soil contaminants were identified using several geophysical survey methods: EM 31 terrain conductivity meter, magnetometer/gradiometer, and ground penetrating radar. From the geophysical surveys, five areas were selected to conduct further environmental analysis. A total of 310 soil samples were collected from the areas and 13 specific high explosive test sites. The samples were screened for semi-volatile organic compounds, PETN, TNT, TNT-degradation products, nitrates and radioactivity. Laboratory analyses were performed and no explosives or degradation products were identified. Semi-volatile organic compounds were in 2 samples, manganese was detected in 3 samples, nitrates were discovered below soil action levels and radiation levels were below background. Consequently, it is unlikely that significant contamination exists.

  6. Phase II. Environmental baseline survey of McCormick Ranch, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. Part 4. Final report, October 1993-January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hagaraty, G.; Johnson, J.; Middlebrooks, P.

    1996-01-31

    The Phase II EBS results document the extent of environmental contamination believed to be present on McCormick Ranch. Explosive test areas having the greatest potential for containing soil contaminants were identified using several geophysical survey methods: EM 31 terrain conductivity meter, magnetometer/gradiometer, and ground penetrating radar. From the geophysical surveys, five areas selected to conduct further environmental analysis. A total of 310 soil samples were collected from the five areas and 13 specific high explosive test sites. The samples were screened for semi-volatile organic compounds, PETN, TNT, TNT-degradation products, nitrates and radioactivity. Laboratory analyses were performed and no explosives or degradation products were identified. Semi-volatile organic compounds were in 2 samples, manganese was detected in 3 samples, nitrates were discovered below soil action levels, and radiation levels were below background. Consequently, it is unlikely that significant contamination exists.

  7. NEOSPORA CANINUM INFECTIONS IN CATTLE IN INDIA SEROPREVALENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN CATTLE AND WATER BUFFAOES IN INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is now recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but there is no report of N. caninum infection in cattle in India. Serum samples from 427 dairy cattle and 32 dairy water buffaloes from 7 organized dairy farms located in Punjab, India, were tested for N. caninum a...

  8. Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

    The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

  9. Tritrichomonas foetus Prevention and Control in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ondrak, Jeff D

    2016-07-01

    Bovine trichomoniasis has been recognized as a pathogen of the bovine reproductive tract for nearly 100 years. Although characteristics of the causative organism, Tritrichomonas foetus lend to control and there are examples of disease eradication, cattle producers are still faced with this disease. This article highlights the clinical presentation, magnitude of effect, risk factors, epidemiology, and sample collection and suggests applications in developing herd-level control measures for beef cattle producers including testing strategies for control, testing strategies for surveillance, strategies to eliminate trichomoniasis from infected herds, and strategies for prevention in uninfected herds.

  10. Estimation of decay rates for fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens in agricultural field-applied manure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field-applied manure is an important source of pathogenic exposure in surface water bodies for humans and ecological receptors. We analyzed the persistence and decay of fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens from three sources (cattle, poultry, swine) for agricultural f...

  11. Cattle scourge no more. The eradication of rinderpest and its lessons for global health campaigns.

    PubMed

    Youde, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) officially declared rinderpest eradicated. This cattle virus, which has historically had significant political, economic, and social consequences, is only the second infectious disease to disappear from the face of the planet due to concerted human actions. This paper explores the effects that rinderpest has had historically, chronicles the actions of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Campaign (GREP), and discusses the lessons that GREP can offer for combating other infectious diseases. I argue that rinderpest's unique viral characteristics made eradication particularly feasible, but that GREP's activities offer important lessons for fostering international cooperation on controlling infectious disease outbreaks.

  12. UAVSAR observations of triggered slip on the Imperial, Superstition Hills, and East Elmore Ranch Faults associated with the 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay; Hensley, Scott; Pierce, Marlon; Wang, Jun; Rundle, John

    2014-03-01

    4 April 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake that occurred in Baja California, Mexico and terminated near the U.S. Mexican border caused slip on the Imperial, Superstition Hills, and East Elmore Ranch Faults. The pattern of slip was observed using radar interferometry from NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) instrument collected on 20-21 October 2009 and 12-13 April 2010. Right-lateral slip of 36 ± 9 and 14 ± 2 mm occurred on the Imperial and Superstition Hills Faults, respectively. Left-lateral slip of 9 ± 2 mm occurred on the East Elmore Ranch Fault. The widths of the zones of displacement increase northward suggesting successively more buried fault motion to the north. The observations show a decreasing pattern of slip northward on a series of faults in the Salton Trough stepping between the El Mayor-Cucapah rupture and San Andreas Fault. Most of the motion occurred at the time of the M 7.2 earthquake and the UAVSAR observations are consistent with field, creepmeter, GPS, and Envisat observations. An additional 28 ± 1 mm of slip at the southern end of the Imperial Fault over a <1 km wide zone was observed over a 1 day span a week after the earthquake suggesting that the fault continued to slip at depth following the mainshock. The total moment release on the three faults is 2.3 × 1023-1.2 × 1024 dyne cm equivalent to a moment magnitude release of 4.9-5.3, assuming shallow slip depths ranging from 1 to 5 km.

  13. Methane emissions from beef cattle grazing on semi-natural upland and improved lowland grasslands.

    PubMed

    Richmond, A S; Wylie, A R G; Laidlaw, A S; Lively, F O

    2015-01-01

    In ruminants, methane (CH4) is a by-product of digestion and contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions attributed to agriculture. Grazed grass is a relatively cheap and nutritious feed but herbage species and nutritional quality vary between pastures, with management, land type and season all potentially impacting on animal performance and CH4 production. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and compare CH4 emissions from cattle of dairy and beef origin grazing two grassland ecosystems: lowland improved grassland (LG) and upland semi-natural grassland (UG). Forty-eight spring-born beef cattle (24 Holstein-Friesian steers, 14 Charolais crossbred steers and 10 Charolais crossbred heifers of 407 (s.d. 29), 469 (s.d. 36) and 422 (s.d. 50) kg BW, respectively), were distributed across two balanced groups that grazed the UG and LG sites from 1 June to 29 September at stocking rates (number of animals per hectare) of 1.4 and 6.7, respectively. Methane emissions and feed dry matter (DM) intake were estimated by the SF6 tracer and n-alkane techniques, respectively, and BW was recorded across three experimental periods that reflected the progression of the grazing season. Overall, cattle grazed on UG had significantly lower (P<0.001) mean daily DM intake (8.68 v. 9.55 kg/day), CH4 emissions (176 v. 202 g/day) and BW gain (BWG; 0.73 v. 1.08 kg/day) than the cattle grazed on LG but there was no difference (P>0.05) in CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake when expressed either on a DM basis (20.7 and 21.6 g CH4 per kg DM intake for UG and LG, respectively) or as a percentage of the gross energy intake (6.0% v. 6.5% for UG and LG, respectively). However, cattle grazing UG had significantly (P<0.001) greater mean daily CH4 emissions than those grazing LG when expressed relative to BWG (261 v. 197 g CH4/kg, respectively). The greater DM intake and BWG of cattle grazing LG than UG reflected the poorer nutritive value of the UG grassland. Although

  14. Nitrate in aquifers beneath agricultural systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.; Stoner, J.D.; ,

    2007-01-01

    Research from several regions of the world provides spatially anecdotal evidence to hypothesize which hydrologic and agricultural factors contribute to groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination. Analysis of nationally consistent measurements from the U.S. Geological Survey's NAWQA program confirms these hypotheses for a substantial range of agricultural systems. Shallow unconfined aquifers are most susceptible to nitrate contamination associated with agricultural systems. Alluvial and other unconsolidated aquifers are the most vulnerable and also shallow carbonate aquifers that provide a substantial but smaller contamination risk. Where any of these aquifers are overlain by permeable soils the risk of contamination is larger. Irrigated systems can compound this vulnerability by increasing leaching facilitated by additional recharge and additional nutrient applications. The system of corn, soybean, and hogs produced significantly larger concentrations of groundwater nitrate than all other agricultural systems because this system imports the largest amount of N-fertilizer per unit production area. Mean nitrate under dairy, poultry, horticulture, and cattle and grains systems were similar. If trends in the relation between increased fertilizer use and groundwater nitrate in the United States are repeated in other regions of the world, Asia may experience increasing problems because of recent increases in fertilizer use. Groundwater monitoring in Western and Eastern Europe as well as Russia over the next decade may provide data to determine if the trend in increased nitrate contamination can be reversed. If the concentrated livestock trend in the United States is global, it may be accompanied by increasing nitrogen contamination in groundwater. Concentrated livestock provide both point sources in the confinement area and intense non-point sources as fields close to facilities are used for manure disposal. Regions where irrigated cropland is expanding, such as

  15. Nitrate in aquifers beneath agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Burkart, M R; Stoner, J D

    2007-01-01

    Research from several regions of the world provides spatially anecdotal evidence to hypothesize which hydrologic and agricultural factors contribute to groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination. Analysis of nationally consistent measurements from the U.S. Geological Survey's NAWQA program confirms these hypotheses for a substantial range of agricultural systems. Shallow unconfined aquifers are most susceptible to nitrate contamination associated with agricultural systems. Alluvial and other unconsolidated aquifers are the most vulnerable and also shallow carbonate aquifers that provide a substantial but smaller contamination risk. Where any of these aquifers are overlain by permeable soils the risk of contamination is larger. Irrigated systems can compound this vulnerability by increasing leaching facilitated by additional recharge and additional nutrient applications. The system of corn, soybean, and hogs produced significantly larger concentrations of groundwater nitrate than all other agricultural systems because this system imports the largest amount of N-fertilizer per unit production area. Mean nitrate under dairy, poultry, horticulture, and cattle and grains systems were similar. If trends in the relation between increased fertilizer use and groundwater nitrate in the United States are repeated in other regions of the world, Asia may experience increasing problems because of recent increases in fertilizer use. Groundwater monitoring in Western and Eastern Europe as well as Russia over the next decade may provide data to determine if the trend in increased nitrate contamination can be reversed. If the concentrated livestock trend in the United States is global, it may be accompanied by increasing nitrogen contamination in groundwater. Concentrated livestock provide both point sources in the confinement area and intense non-point sources as fields close to facilities are used for manure disposal. Regions where irrigated cropland is expanding, such as

  16. Nitrate in aquifers beneath agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Burkart, M R; Stoner, J D

    2002-01-01

    Research from several regions of the world provides spatially anecdotal evidence to hypothesize which hydrologic and agricultural factors contribute to groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination. Analysis of nationally consistent measurements from the U.S. Geological Survey's NAWOA program confirms these hypotheses for a substantial range of agricultural systems. Shallow unconfined aquifers are most susceptible to nitrate contamination associated with agricultural systems. Alluvial and other unconsolidated aquifers are the most vulnerable and shallow carbonate aquifers provide a substantial but smaller contamination risk. Where any of these aquifers are overlain by permeable soils the risk of contamination is larger. Irrigated systems can compound this vulnerability by increasing leaching facilitated by additional recharge and additional concentrations of groundwater nitrate than all other agricultural systems, although mean nitrate concentrations in counties with dairy, poultry, cattle and grains, and horticulture systems were similar. If trends in the relation between increased fertilizer use and groundwater nitrate in the United States are repeated in other regions of the world, Asia may experience increasing problems because of recent increases in fertilizer use. Groundwater monitoring in Western and Eastern Europe as well as Russia over the next decade may provide data to determine if the trend in increased nitrate contamination can be reversed. If the concentrated livestock trend in the United States is global, it may be accompanied by increasing nitrogen contamination in groundwater. Concentrated livestock provide both point sources in the confinement area and intense non-point sources as fields close to facilities are used for manure disposal. Regions where irrigated cropland is expanding, such as in Asia, may experience the greatest impact of this practice.

  17. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  18. Kappa-casein polymorphisms among cattle breeds and bison herds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.A.; Cockett, N.

    1993-01-01

    We identified the HindIII restriction site polymorphism Of kappa-casein in cattle reported by Pinder et al. (Animal Genetics 22, 11, 1991) and found an additonal polymorphism (RsaI) in cattle and bison. The Hin dIII and Rsa I restriction sites were mapped and three haplotypes (alleles) were identified. Preliminary screening of 39 cattle and 71 bison revealed one allele restricted to cattle, one restricted to bison, and one shared by the species. No fixed allelic differences were observed among cattle breeds or among bison herds or subspecies.

  19. Evaluation of real time PCR assays for the detection and enumeration of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli directly from cattle feces.

    PubMed

    Luedtke, Brandon E; Bono, James L; Bosilevac, Joseph M

    2014-10-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are a growing concern in the area of food safety, and the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service has identified the serotypes O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 as adulterants in certain types of raw beef. The most relevant to human disease are the enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strains that possess intimin (eae), Shiga toxin 1 and/or 2 (stx1-2), and in most cases the conserved pO157 or pO157 like virulence plasmid. Contamination of raw beef with EHEC is likely to occur via the transfer of cattle feces on hides to the carcass. To detect EHEC directly from cattle feces, we evaluated the utility of a multiplex real time PCR assay that targets the EHEC associated gene target ecf1 in combination with eae and stx1-2. Our assay had an increased sensitivity and provided a reliable limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25×10(3)colony-forming unitspermL (CFUs/mL) in an EHEC spiked fecal background. In addition, we evaluated the use of a duplex qPCR assay using ecf1 for the enumeration of total EHEC directly from cattle feces. The reliable limit of quantification (LOQ) was determined to be 1.25×10(3)CFUs/mL. Our assay requires minimal sample processing and provides LOD and LOQ of EHEC directly from cattle feces that are the lowest reported. The application of this assay towards the identification of cattle shedding EHEC at a level above 1.25×10(3)CFUs/mL could be a first line of defense in identifying cattle shedding these pathogens.

  20. Effects of Grazing Management and Cattle on Aquatic Habitat Use by the Anuran Pseudopaludicola mystacalis in Agro-Savannah Landscapes.

    PubMed

    Pelinson, Rodolfo M; Garey, Michel V; Rossa-Feres, Denise C

    Because of their strong dependence on the environment, the spatial distribution of pond-breeding amphibians can be greatly influenced by anthropogenic habitat alteration. In some agricultural landscapes in Brazil, the anuran Pseudopaludicola mystacalis appears to be highly influenced by land use. Because adult males and tadpoles of this species are usually found in marshy areas with cattle hoof prints, we hypothesized that P. mystacalis preferentially occupies aquatic habitats with marshy areas that are trampled by cattle. To test our hypothesis, we assessed whether the occurrence of P. mystacalis is associated with the presence of cattle and trampled marshy areas, and which environmental features best explain the spatial distribution and abundance of P. mystacalis. To do so, we sampled 38 aquatic habitats in an area intensely used for livestock in southeastern Brazil. We found that the presence of cattle and trampled marshy areas in aquatic habitats are positively associated to P. mystacalis occurrence. Additionally, the abundance of calling males is better predicted by variables of landscape and local habitat structure. Specifically, the size of trampled marshy areas and the proportion of herbaceous vegetation within the aquatic habitat are positively associated with abundance, while distance to nearest aquatic habitat are negatively associated with abundance of calling males. All three of these variables can be directly or indirectly linked to the presence of cattle or grazing management. Therefore, this work shows evidence that Pseudopaludicola mystacalis is positively influenced by grazing management with cattle, and draws attention to other unknown potential consequences of different land use to fresh water diversity.

  1. Effects of Grazing Management and Cattle on Aquatic Habitat Use by the Anuran Pseudopaludicola mystacalis in Agro-Savannah Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Garey, Michel V.; Rossa-Feres, Denise C.

    2016-01-01

    Because of their strong dependence on the environment, the spatial distribution of pond-breeding amphibians can be greatly influenced by anthropogenic habitat alteration. In some agricultural landscapes in Brazil, the anuran Pseudopaludicola mystacalis appears to be highly influenced by land use. Because adult males and tadpoles of this species are usually found in marshy areas with cattle hoof prints, we hypothesized that P. mystacalis preferentially occupies aquatic habitats with marshy areas that are trampled by cattle. To test our hypothesis, we assessed whether the occurrence of P. mystacalis is associated with the presence of cattle and trampled marshy areas, and which environmental features best explain the spatial distribution and abundance of P. mystacalis. To do so, we sampled 38 aquatic habitats in an area intensely used for livestock in southeastern Brazil. We found that the presence of cattle and trampled marshy areas in aquatic habitats are positively associated to P. mystacalis occurrence. Additionally, the abundance of calling males is better predicted by variables of landscape and local habitat structure. Specifically, the size of trampled marshy areas and the proportion of herbaceous vegetation within the aquatic habitat are positively associated with abundance, while distance to nearest aquatic habitat are negatively associated with abundance of calling males. All three of these variables can be directly or indirectly linked to the presence of cattle or grazing management. Therefore, this work shows evidence that Pseudopaludicola mystacalis is positively influenced by grazing management with cattle, and draws attention to other unknown potential consequences of different land use to fresh water diversity. PMID:27658203

  2. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    increased emissions unless we improve production efficiencies and management. Developing countries currently account for about three-quarters of direct emissions and are expected to be the most rapidly growing emission sources in the future (FAO 2011). Reducing agricultural emissions and increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and biomass has the potential to reduce agriculture's contribution to climate change by 5.5-6.0 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq)/year. Economic potentials, which take into account costs of implementation, range from 1.5 to 4.3 GT CO2eq/year, depending on marginal abatement costs assumed and financial resources committed, with most of this potential in developing countries (Smith et al 2007). The opportunity for mitigation in agriculture is thus significant, and, if realized, would contribute to making this sector carbon neutral. Yet it is only through a robust and shared understanding of how much carbon can be stored or how much CO2 is reduced from mitigation practices that informed decisions can be made about how to identify, implement, and balance a suite of mitigation practices as diverse as enhancing soil organic matter, increasing the digestibility of feed for cattle, and increasing the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer applications. Only by selecting a portfolio of options adapted to regional characteristics and goals can mitigation needs be best matched to also serve rural development goals, including food security and increased resilience to climate change. Expansion of agricultural land also remains a major contributor of greenhouse gases, with deforestation, largely linked to clearing of land for cultivation or pasture, generating 80% of emissions from developing countries (Hosonuma et al 2012). There are clear opportunities for these countries to address mitigation strategies from the forest and agriculture sector, recognizing that agriculture plays a large role in economic and development potential. In this context

  3. Section 404 and Swampbuster: Wetlands on Agricultural Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many normal farming, silviculture, and ranching activities that involve discharges of dredged or fill materials into waters of the United States are exempted from Section 404; that is, they do not require a permit.

  4. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

  5. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

  6. Municipal waste compost as an alternative to cattle manure for supplying potassium to lowland rice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, P; Chakrabarti, K; Chakraborty, A; Nayak, D C; Tripathy, S; Powell, M A

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the use of potassium in agriculture is increasing in South Asia for making most productive use of the nutrient in terms of economic returns. Nutrient supply traditionally by cattle manure is constrained by its insufficient availability. Municipal waste compost may be an alternative source of nutrient supplements. Field experiments were conducted at the Experimental Farm of Calcutta University, West Bengal, India during the wet seasons of 1997, 1998 and 1999 on flooded lowland rice. Potassium fractions in municipal waste compost and cattle manure were determined by sequential extraction and also the potassium uptake by rice to compare the effectiveness of municipal waste compost with traditional manure. Potassium was significantly bound to the organic matter in municipal waste compost. Potassium uptake by rice grain and straw increased significantly with the combined application of organics and fertilizers and it was higher in grain than in straw. Water-soluble and non-exchangeable potassium contents of municipal waste compost and cattle manure were highly correlated with the uptake of potassium by straw and grain. Exchangeable and residual potassium were also significantly correlated with the uptake of potassium by straw and grain of rice. Much higher uptake of K in rice straw and rain resulted from applying the manures in conjunction with fertilizers than when applied singly.

  7. Willingness to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance: an analysis of dairy farmers in central India.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Ameer; Chander, Mahesh; Bardhan, Dwaipayan

    2013-02-01

    In India, insurance market especially in agricultural sector is usually underdeveloped. The idea of livestock insurance emerged in India before three decades, yet, it has not operated in a significant way till date. It is well noted that livestock insurance scheme is the relevant strategy in managing different risks related to livestock farming but very little attention has been paid to address the livestock insurance needs of the dairy farmers. This study, therefore, addresses the basic question that how many people and to what extent they are willing to pay for livestock insurance and determine the main factors which influence insurance participation of dairy farmers. The data was collected from Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in India with a sample survey of 120 cattle and buffalo farmers. For eliciting willingness to pay, a contingent valuation scenario was presented to dairy animal owners in the group of five to six. A logit discrete binary regression model was used to know the factors influencing adoption of livestock insurance. The results suggest that most of the farmers were willing to participate in cattle and buffalo insurance. The amount of premium varies across different breeds of dairy animals. The low level of education of many dairy farmers have negatively influenced the decision to purchase livestock insurance. Farmers having more experience in rearing dairy animals are more likely to be willing to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance.

  8. Geodecision system for traceability and sustainable production of beef cattle in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victoria, D. D.; Andrade, R. G.; Bolfe, L.; Batistella, M.; Pires, P. P.; Vicente, L. E.; Visoli, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Beef cattle production sustainability depends on incorporating innovative tools and technologies which are easy to comprehend, economically viable, and spatially explicit into the registration of precise, reliable data about production practices. This research developed from the needs and demands of food safety and food quality in extensive beef cattle production within the scope of the policies of Southern Cone and European Union's countries. Initially, the OTAG project (Operational Management and Geodecisional Prototype to Track and Trace Agricultural Production) focused on the development of a prototype traceability of cattle. The aim for the project's next phase is to enhance the electronic devices used in the identification and positioning of the animals, and the incorporation of more management and sanitary information. Besides, we intend to structure a database that enables the inclusion of greater amount of geospatial information linked to environmental aspects, such as water deficit, vegetation vigour, degradation indices of pasture areas, among others. For the extraction of knowledge, and the presentation of the results, we propose the development of a friendly interface to facilitate the exploration of the textual, tabular and geospatial information useful for the user.

  9. Thermophilic aeration of cattle slurry with whey and/or jam wastes.

    PubMed

    Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Kiuru, Tapio; Ruuskanen, Juhani; Korhonen, Kari; Koivunen, Jari; Ruokojärvi, Arja

    2005-01-01

    Thermophilic aeration of cattle slurry and food industrial by-products was studied with the aim to improve hygienic qualities of the slurry so that it could be used as a safe fertiliser for berries to be eaten raw. We also wanted to study if the process would be energetically favourable in an arctic climate. Cattle slurry alone or with whey and/or jam waste was treated. The tests were done in a well heat-insulated reactor with a 10 m(3) volume. Temperature increases up to over 70 degrees C could be recorded in 19 days even though some processes were carried out in winter time when the ambient air temperature was less than 0 degrees C. The heat energy formed was higher than the electrical energy needed to carry out the aeration. The hygienic qualities of the aerated product were good with only minor nitrogen losses. The end product could be useful as a fertiliser and soil improving compound to increase the organic matter content of agricultural soil. Cattle slurry alone was well suited as the raw material if attaining a high temperature was the main goal. A part of slurry could be replaced with food-industrial side products. Whey waste suited better for co-composting than jam waste but the mixture of whey, jam waste, and slurry was optimal for composting.

  10. Comparison of the effectiveness of composting and vermicomposting for the biological stabilization of cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Lazcano, Cristina; Gómez-Brandón, María; Domínguez, Jorge

    2008-07-01

    Cattle manure is produced in large quantities in industrial breeding facilities and the storage and/or spreading of this waste on land may cause contamination of the atmosphere, soil and water. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the active phases of composting, vermicomposting, and also a combination of composting and vermicomposting for reducing the polluting potential and for stabilizing cattle manure in the short-term. For this, the degree of decomposition as well as the microbial activity and microbial composition of the resulting products after the active phase of composting and vermicomposting were analysed. None of the treatments significantly reduced the dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen contents relative to the control, and therefore more time may be required for stabilization. Nevertheless, the lowest values of microbial biomass and activity corresponded to the earthworm-worked substrates, in which fungal growth was also promoted; the combined treatment (composting + vermicomposting) was the most effective in terms of stabilizing the cattle manure. Moreover, earthworms promoted the retention of nitrogen and gradual release of P, as well as a reduction in electrical conductivity, thereby producing improved substrates for agricultural use.

  11. Deer response to exclusion from stored cattle feed in Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Michael J; Henry, Campa Iii; LeDoux, Kyle; Ryan, Patrick J; Fischer, Justin W; Pepin, Kim M; Blass, Chad R; Glow, Michael P; Hygnstrom, Scott E; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-09-01

    Disease and damage from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) continually threaten the livelihood of agricultural producers and the economy in the United States, as well as challenge state and federal wildlife managers. Threats can be partially addressed by excluding free-ranging deer from livestock-related resources. Throughout the year, use of stored livestock feed by deer in northern Lower Michigan (MI), USA fluctuates, though their presence is relatively consistent. Since 2008, use of livestock areas and resources by deer has been reduced through intensive efforts by livestock producers in cooperation with state and federal agencies. These efforts focused on excluding deer from stored cattle feed in areas where deer were abundant. We monitored deer activity from Jan 2012 to June 2013 on 6 cattle farms in northern MI using GPS collars to evaluate behavioral effects of excluding deer from stored feed. We characterized areas deer occupied before and after installing 2361 m of fences and gates to exclude deer from stored cattle feed. Following fence installation, 9 deer previously accessing stored feed shifted to patterns of habitat use similar to 5 deer that did not use stored feed. However, continued attempts to regain access to stored feed were made at low frequencies, emphasizing the need to maintain the integrity of fences and keep gates closed for damage prevention and biosecurity.

  12. Altered Breast Development in Young Girls from an Agricultural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, Elizabeth A.; Conard, Craig; Lares, Fernando; Aguilar, Maria Guadalupe; McLachlan, John; Guillette, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    In several human populations, the age at which female breast development begins is reported to have declined over the last five decades. Much debate has occurred over whether this reported decline has actually occurred and what factors contribute to it. However, geographical patterns reflecting earlier developmental onset in some human populations suggest environmental factors influence this phenomenon. These factors include interactions between genetic makeup, nutrition, and possible cumulative exposure to estrogens, both endogenous as well as environmental beginning during in utero development. We examined the onset of breast development in a group of peripubertal girls from the Yaqui Valley of Sonora, Mexico. We observed that girls from valley towns, areas using modern agricultural practices, exhibited larger breast fields than those of girls living in the foothills who exhibited similar stature [e.g., weight, height, body mass index (BMI)], and genetic background. Further, girls from valley towns displayed a poorly defined relationship between breast size and mammary gland development, whereas girls from the Yaqui foothills, where traditional ranching occurs, show a robust positive relationship between breast size and mammary size. The differences noted were obtained by a medically based exam involving morphometric analysis and palpation of tissues, in contrast to visual staging alone. In fact, use of the Tanner scale, involving visual staging of breast development for puberty, detected no differences between the study populations. Mammary tissue, determined by palpation, was absent in 18.5% of the girls living in agricultural areas, although palpable breast adipose tissue was present. No relationship was seen between mammary diameter and weight or BMI in either population. These data suggest that future in-depth studies examining mammary tissue growth and fat deposition in breast tissue are required if we are to understand environmental influences on these

  13. Cattle veterinary services in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Statham, Jonathan; Green, Martin

    2015-03-14

    In the first of a series of feature articles in Veterinary Record discussing the state of different sectors of the veterinary profession in the UK and what the future might hold, Jonathan Statham and Martin Green give their perspective on developments affecting the provision of cattle veterinary services.

  14. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  15. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (bRSV) is a cause of respiratory disease in cattle world-wide. It has an integral role in enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bRSV infection can predispose calves to secondary bacterial infection by org...

  16. [Botulism in cattle and meat inspection].

    PubMed

    Smit, M P

    1991-04-01

    Three animals suspected of the presence of botulism, which were found to be infected with Clostridium botulinum type D were slaughtered in a special slaughter-house. The presence of C. botulinum in cattle and the decision reached by the meat inspection are discussed. Central registration of all cases of botulism observed in The Netherlands is advocated.

  17. Clostridium botulinum in cattle and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Miia; Myllykoski, Jan; Sivelä, Seppo; Korkeala, Hannu

    2010-04-01

    The use of plastic-wrapped and nonacidified silage as cattle feed has led to an increasing number of botulism outbreaks due to Clostridium botulinum Groups I-III in dairy cattle. The involvement of Groups I and II organisms in cattle botulism has raised concern of human botulism risk associated with the consumption of dairy products. Multiplication of C. botulinum in silage and in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle with botulism has been reported, thus contamination of the farm environment and raw milk, and further transmission through the dairy chain, are possible. The standard milk pasteurization treatment does not eliminate spores, and the intrinsic factors of many dairy products allow botulinal growth and toxin production. Although rare, several large botulism outbreaks due to both commercial and home-prepared dairy products have been reported. Factors explaining these outbreaks include most importantly temperature abuse, but also unsafe formulation, inadequate fermentation, insufficient thermal processing, post-process contamination, and lack of adequate quality control for adjunct ingredients were involved. The small number of outbreaks is probably explained by a low incidence of spores in milk, the presence of competitive bacteria in pasteurized milk and other dairy products, and growth-inhibitory combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in cultured and processed dairy products.

  18. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... surveillance system at slaughter plants: Canada and Mexico. (b) Brucellosis. All cattle over 6 months of age shall be negative to a test for brucellosis conducted as prescribed in “Standard Agglutination Test Procedures for the Diagnosis of Brucellosis” 2 or “Supplemental Test Procedures for the Diagnosis...

  19. Cattle site preference in northeastern Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-roaming beef cattle naturally gravitate to locations on the landscape that provide them food, water, shelter, and security. In mountainous environments, animals are also sensitive to land physiography, generally preferring level terrain near established trails and travel routes. Our study was...

  20. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions.

  1. Beef cattle in the year 2050.

    PubMed

    Seidel, George E

    2014-01-01

    In 2050, beef likely will be produced much as occurs currently, as (1) a by-product of dairying-cull cows and calves not needed as replacements; (2) intensively managed cattle in environments rich in feed resources; or (3) extensively managed cattle grazing land unsuitable for tillage, with calves often moving to richer feed environments. Genetic progress will continue to depend on information such as weaning weights, but in addition, genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic information will be obtained from blood, hair, semen, and/or biopsies of embryos.Most cattle will be genetically modified for efficient growth, desirable carcass traits, and management traits such as disease resistance. Some strains of cattle will have Y-chromosome-dependent terminal cross traits; sexed semen thus will automatically result in males with terminal cross characteristics and females with maternally desirable traits. In most cases, mother cows will have shorter gestations and smaller frame sizes than currently to decrease nutrient requirements for maintenance. The cow herd may disappear with some intensively managed systems; with sexed semen, each female can replace herself with a female calf and then be fattened for slaughter. The flexibility of being a ruminant will continue to be exploited by using a variety of feedstuffs, some of which are otherwise of little value.

  2. Energy and nutrient recovery from cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective harvesting of manure can benefit cattle producers by creating a product of value. A tool that identifies locations of manure accumulation has been developed using a sub-surface sensor (Dualem-1S, Milton, ON) and software designed for salt mapping (ESAP, Riverside, CA). The combination al...

  3. Novel Orthobunyavirus in Cattle, Europe, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Bernd; Scheuch, Matthias; Höper, Dirk; Jungblut, Ralf; Holsteg, Mark; Schirrmeier, Horst; Eschbaumer, Michael; Goller, Katja V.; Wernike, Kerstin; Fischer, Melina; Breithaupt, Angele; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, an unidentified disease in cattle was reported in Germany and the Netherlands. Clinical signs included fever, decreased milk production, and diarrhea. Metagenomic analysis identified a novel orthobunyavirus, which subsequently was isolated from blood of affected animals. Surveillance was initiated to test malformed newborn animals in the affected region. PMID:22376991

  4. Valuing Fed Cattle Using Objective Tenderness Measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef tenderness is critical in consumer satisfaction with beef steak products. Current fed cattle valuation systems do not differentiate carcasses based upon tenderness variation. However, considerable research indicates consumers are willing to pay more for tender relative to tough beef steak. T...

  5. Genetic relationships among breeds of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic distance among 16 populations of beef cattle from within the U.S. Thirty-three microsatellite markers representing 26 autosomes were used. MicroSatellite Analyzer 3.15 (MSA) program was used to quantify number of alleles per marker, and observed and expected het...

  6. Predicting forage intake by grazing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voluntary intake by cattle is controlled by a complex mix of physical and physiological factors that interact with a variety of environmental, geo-spatial, and experiential influences external to the animal. These factors are intensified in grazing ruminants, where selective grazing and variability...

  7. Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...

  8. Pregnancy establishment and maintenance in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GnRH-induced ovulation of a small dominant follicle reduced pregnancy success in cattle. A reciprocal embryo transfer study was conducted at Fort Keogh from 2007 to 2009 in order to differentiate between follicular effects on pregnancy mediated through oocyte quality or uterine environment. Estrou...

  9. Are methane production and cattle performance related?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane is a product of fermentation of feed in ruminant animals. Approximately 2 -12% of the gross energy consumed by cattle is released through enteric methane production. There are three primary components that contribute to the enteric methane footprint of an animal. Those components are dry ...

  10. Reactive N emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) are fed to meet the nutritional needs of beef cattle in feedlots. However, only from 10 to 15% of fed N is retained in animals. Most N is excreted. Chemical and biological processes transform manure N into ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. These reactive forms of ...

  11. Genotype imputation efficiency in Nelore Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotype imputation efficiency in Nelore cattle was evaluated in different scenarios of lower density (LD) chips, imputation methods and sets of animals to have their genotypes imputed. Twelve commercial and virtual custom LD chips with densities varying from 7K to 75K SNPs were tested. Customized L...

  12. Production of cattle lacking prion protein.

    PubMed

    Richt, Jürgen A; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Hamir, Amir N; Castilla, Joaquin; Sathiyaseelan, Thillai; Vargas, Francisco; Sathiyaseelan, Janaki; Wu, Hua; Matsushita, Hiroaki; Koster, Julie; Kato, Shinichiro; Ishida, Isao; Soto, Claudio; Robl, James M; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    Prion diseases are caused by propagation of misfolded forms of the normal cellular prion protein PrP(C), such as PrP(BSE) in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and PrP(CJD) in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. Disruption of PrP(C) expression in mice, a species that does not naturally contract prion diseases, results in no apparent developmental abnormalities. However, the impact of ablating PrP(C) function in natural host species of prion diseases is unknown. Here we report the generation and characterization of PrP(C)-deficient cattle produced by a sequential gene-targeting system. At over 20 months of age, the cattle are clinically, physiologically, histopathologically, immunologically and reproductively normal. Brain tissue homogenates are resistant to prion propagation in vitro as assessed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification. PrP(C)-deficient cattle may be a useful model for prion research and could provide industrial bovine products free of prion proteins.

  13. Mastitis associated transcriptomic disruptions in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is ranked as the top disease for dairy cattle based on traditional cost analysis. Greater than 100 organisms from a broad phylogenetic spectrum are able to cause bovine mastitis. Transcriptomic characterization facilitates our understanding of host-pathogen relations and provides mechanisti...

  14. Multibreed Genomic Evaluations in Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multibreed models are currently used in traditional USDA dairy cattle genetic evaluations of yield and health traits, but within-breed models are used in genomic evaluations. Multibreed genomic evaluation models were developed and tested using 19,686 genotyped bulls included in the official August 2...

  15. Energy and nutrient recovery from cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective harvesting of manure can benefit cattle producers by creating a product of value. A tool that identifies locations of manure accumulation has been developed and demonstrated. A dual geometry sub-surface sensor (Dualem-1S, Milton, ON) was used with software designed for salt mapping (ESAP...

  16. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides bac...

  17. Immunopathogenesis of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerosol and intratracheal inoculation routes are commonly used for experimental biology purposes to infect cattle with virulent Mycobacterium bovis, each resulting primarily in a respiratory tract infection including lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes. Disease severity is dose and time dependent...

  18. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  19. Agriculture Power and Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Tom

    This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

  20. Precision agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...