Science.gov

Sample records for agriculture child nutrition

  1. Women's work in agriculture and child nutrition in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wandel, M; Holmboe-Ottesen, G

    1992-10-01

    This paper examines the food related work that women are doing, and the possible effect on child feeding and nutritional status. Women's participation in food production may have positive as well as negative consequences for child nutrition. On the one hand, it may augment the total amount of food procured, while on the other, it may give women less time for child care and feeding. The data show that women are using less time in cooking and children are fed less often during the peak labour seasons. However, a profound and conclusive negative effect of mother's agricultural work on child nutritional status could not be shown. This finding is explained by various compensatory mechanisms employed by the mothers which may buffer the negative effect of the women's time constraints. The norm of feeding children at the maximum only three times a day was seen as the major contributing factor to child malnutrition. According to the women, this feeding frequency was seen as the maximum possible taking into account their heavy work in agricultural production.

  2. 76 FR 16724 - Child Nutrition Programs-Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs--Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces the Department's..., Supervisory Program Analyst, School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition...

  3. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  4. 78 FR 19179 - Child Nutrition Programs; Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... agency #0;statements of organization and functions are examples of documents #0;appearing in this section...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs; Income Eligibility...

  5. The Child Nutrition Labeling Program: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Cheryl; And Others

    This manual establishes policies and procedures for the Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program, a voluntary federal program run by the United States Department of Agriculture. The program is responsible for reviewing a product formulation to determine the contribution a single serving of that product makes toward the child nutrition meal pattern…

  6. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 226 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 226 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Pt. 226,...

  7. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 226 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 226 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Pt. 226,...

  8. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 226 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 226 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Pt. 226,...

  9. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 226 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 226 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Pt. 226,...

  10. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 226 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 226 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Pt. 226,...

  11. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  12. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 210 - Child Nutrition Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Child Nutrition Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM Pt. 210, App. C Appendix...

  13. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 220 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM Pt. 220, App....

  14. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 210 - Child Nutrition Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Child Nutrition Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM Pt. 210, App. C Appendix...

  15. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 210 - Child Nutrition Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Child Nutrition Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM Pt. 210, App. C Appendix...

  16. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM Pt. 225, App....

  17. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM Pt. 225, App....

  18. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM Pt. 225, App....

  19. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 220 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM Pt. 220, App....

  20. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 220 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM Pt. 220, App....

  1. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM Pt. 225, App....

  2. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM Pt. 225, App....

  3. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 220 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM Pt. 220, App....

  4. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 220 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM Pt. 220, App....

  5. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 210 - Child Nutrition Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Child Nutrition Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM Pt. 210, App. C Appendix...

  6. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 210 - Child Nutrition Labeling Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Child Nutrition Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM Pt. 210, App. C Appendix...

  7. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  8. Social inequalities and health in rural Chiapas, Mexico: agricultural economy, nutrition, and child health in La Fraylesca region.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Díaz López, H; Sánchez-Pérez, H J; Ruíz-Flores, M; Fuller, M

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between farmers' socioeconomic conditions and their children's health in La Fraylesca, Chiapas. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 1046 households (5546 individuals) sampled from locations in two counties situated in the study area. The survey included anthropometric measurements, a 24-hour dietary recall, stool tests, and childhood mortality data. Children of private farmers and "wealthy peasants" displayed better nutritional status, higher quality diet, lower prevalence of intestinal parasites, and a lower risk of dying than those whose parents were communal farmers, from ejidos, or "poor peasants". The results suggest that using volume of maize production as a classification method proved more valuable than land tenure to identify agricultural groups with different health status. It appears that the main determinants of health differentials are structural inequities in resource distribution. Thus, the impact of medical interventions on inequalities will be limited unless they are accompanied by redistribution of resources.

  9. 76 FR 22603 - Geographic Preference Option for the Procurement of Unprocessed Agricultural Products in Child...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... / Friday, April 22, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition... Procurement of Unprocessed Agricultural Products in Child Nutrition Programs AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... Nutrition Programs to purchase unprocessed locally grown and locally raised agricultural products....

  10. Review and Reauthorization of Certain Child Nutrition Programs. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate. Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (March 12 and April 4, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Testimony is given in this report from two hearings concerning reauthorization of the nonentitlement child nutrition programs: the Women, Infants, and Children Feeding Program; the Summer Food Service Program; Nutrition Education and Training (NET); State Administrative Expenses, and authority for section 32 commodities. At the March 12, 1984…

  11. Child Nutrition Program Operations Study: First Year Report Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Robert; And Others

    Summarizing the first year report of a multi-year study of the Food and Nutrition Service's (Department of Agriculture) Child Nutrition Programs, this report describes the programs and methods of the study. Data were collected through telephone interviews with states and School Food Authorities (SFAs) between 1987 and 1992. Findings from 1987-1988…

  12. 45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child nutrition. 1304.23 Section 1304.23 Public... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.23 Child nutrition. (a) Identification of... into account staff and family discussions concerning: (1) Any relevant nutrition-related...

  13. 45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Child nutrition. 1304.23 Section 1304.23 Public... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.23 Child nutrition. (a) Identification of... into account staff and family discussions concerning: (1) Any relevant nutrition-related...

  14. 45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child nutrition. 1304.23 Section 1304.23 Public... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.23 Child nutrition. (a) Identification of... into account staff and family discussions concerning: (1) Any relevant nutrition-related...

  15. 45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child nutrition. 1304.23 Section 1304.23 Public... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.23 Child nutrition. (a) Identification of... into account staff and family discussions concerning: (1) Any relevant nutrition-related...

  16. 77 FR 17004 - Child Nutrition Programs-Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs--Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces the Department's annual adjustments..., School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA,...

  17. 78 FR 17628 - Child Nutrition Programs; Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs; Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This Notice announces the Department's annual adjustments..., School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA,...

  18. 76 FR 28727 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a... collection for the Child Nutrition Labeling Program. DATES: Comments on this document must be received by....regulations.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Child Nutrition Labeling Program. OMB Number:...

  19. Child Nutrition Programs: Administrative and Financial Handbook. Bulletin No. 96206.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Bureau for Food and Nutrition Services.

    This guide sets forth federal and Wisconsin state policy regarding administration and financial management of child nutrition programs. The first of the three main sections of the document covers United States Department of Agriculture administrative policies. The topics included in this section are as follows: (1) "Reimbursement"…

  20. Child Nutrition and the School Setting. Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry, United States Senate. One Hundred Tenth Congress, First Session (March 6, 2007). Senate Hearing 110-41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Senate, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Statements were presented by: Honorable Tom Harkin, Chairman, U.S. Senator from Iowa, Chairman, Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry; Honorable Robert B. Casey, Jr., U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania; Honorable Saxby Chambliss, U.S. Senator from Georgia; Honorable Richard G. Lugar; Honorable Ken Salazar, U.S. Senator from Colorado; Kelly…

  1. 78 FR 79660 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Child Nutrition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2013-31355] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Child Nutrition Database AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of...

  2. 45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... nutritional needs. Staff and families must work together to identify each child's nutritional needs, taking... and preschool children and assigned classroom staff, including volunteers, eat together family style... milk and formula. (The information collection requirements are approved by the Office of Management...

  3. Adapting Agriculture Platforms for Nutrition: A Case Study of a Participatory, Video-Based Agricultural Extension Platform in India.

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, Suneetha; Morgan, Emily H; Cyriac, Shruthi; Margolies, Amy; Roopnaraine, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Successful integration of nutrition interventions into large-scale development programmes from nutrition-relevant sectors, such as agriculture, can address critical underlying determinants of undernutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of on-going nutrition-specific activities. However, evidence on how this can be done is limited. This study examines the feasibility of delivering maternal, infant, and young child nutrition behaviour change communication through an innovative agricultural extension programme serving nutritionally vulnerable groups in rural India. The existing agriculture programme involves participatory production of low-cost videos promoting best practices and broad dissemination through village-level women's self-help groups. For the nutrition intervention, 10 videos promoting specific maternal, infant, and young child nutrition practices were produced and disseminated in 30 villages. A range of methods was used to collect data, including in-depth interviews with project staff, frontline health workers, and self-help group members and their families; structured observations of mediated video dissemination sessions; nutrition knowledge tests with project staff and self-help group members; and a social network questionnaire to assess diffusion of promoted nutrition messages. We found the nutrition intervention to be well-received by rural communities and viewed as complementary to existing frontline health services. However, compared to agriculture, nutrition content required more time, creativity, and technical support to develop and deliver. Experimentation with promoted nutrition behaviours was high, but sharing of information from the videos with non-viewers was limited. Key lessons learned include the benefits of and need for collaboration with existing health services; continued technical support for implementing partners; engagement with local cultural norms and beliefs; empowerment of women's group members to champion nutrition

  4. Adapting Agriculture Platforms for Nutrition: A Case Study of a Participatory, Video-Based Agricultural Extension Platform in India

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyala, Suneetha; Morgan, Emily H.; Cyriac, Shruthi; Margolies, Amy; Roopnaraine, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Successful integration of nutrition interventions into large-scale development programmes from nutrition-relevant sectors, such as agriculture, can address critical underlying determinants of undernutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of on-going nutrition-specific activities. However, evidence on how this can be done is limited. This study examines the feasibility of delivering maternal, infant, and young child nutrition behaviour change communication through an innovative agricultural extension programme serving nutritionally vulnerable groups in rural India. The existing agriculture programme involves participatory production of low-cost videos promoting best practices and broad dissemination through village-level women’s self-help groups. For the nutrition intervention, 10 videos promoting specific maternal, infant, and young child nutrition practices were produced and disseminated in 30 villages. A range of methods was used to collect data, including in-depth interviews with project staff, frontline health workers, and self-help group members and their families; structured observations of mediated video dissemination sessions; nutrition knowledge tests with project staff and self-help group members; and a social network questionnaire to assess diffusion of promoted nutrition messages. We found the nutrition intervention to be well-received by rural communities and viewed as complementary to existing frontline health services. However, compared to agriculture, nutrition content required more time, creativity, and technical support to develop and deliver. Experimentation with promoted nutrition behaviours was high, but sharing of information from the videos with non-viewers was limited. Key lessons learned include the benefits of and need for collaboration with existing health services; continued technical support for implementing partners; engagement with local cultural norms and beliefs; empowerment of women’s group members to champion

  5. Effects of integrated child development and nutrition interventions on child development and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Fernald, Lia C H; Kagawa, Rose M C; Walker, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies that examined the effect of interventions combining a child development component with a nutrition one; in some cases the nutrition interventions also included health-promotion components. Only papers with both child development and nutrition outcomes and rated as moderate-to-good quality were included. Eleven efficacy and two nonrandomized trials, and eight program evaluations were identified. Only six trials examined interventions separately and combined. The trials showed nutritional interventions usually benefited nutritional status and sometimes benefited child development. Stimulation consistently benefited child development. There was no significant loss of any effect when interventions were combined, but there was little evidence of synergistic interaction between nutrition and stimulation on child development. Only three trials followed up the children after intervention. All at-scale program evaluations were combined interventions. Five benefited child development, but one did not, and two showed deficits. There was generally little benefit of at-scale programs to nutritional status. We found no rigorous evaluations of adding stimulation to health and nutrition services at scale and there is an urgent need for them. There is also a need to establish quality-control mechanisms for existing scaled-up programs and to determine their long-term effects. There is also a need to determine if there are any sustained benefits for the children after programs finish.

  6. Nutrition Standards for Child Care Programs: Meeting Children's Nutrition and Education Needs. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Margaret E.; Grey, Cynthia R.

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on standards for American child care and early education programs participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Topics discussed include meal plans, nutritional requirements, food preparation and food service, cultural diversity, food safety and sanitation, nutrition education, and emotional climate at mealtimes. (KB)

  7. Oversight of Food and Nutrition Service Programs: Food Stamps, Child Nutrition, and Commodity Distribution. Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, April 25, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    The Federal government's oversight of its food and nutrition programs is discussed in this transcript of a Senate hearing. Testimony is presented regarding food stamps, the school lunch program, problems of targeting the needy, the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), commodity distribution, surplus dairy…

  8. The SDGs Will Require Integrated Agriculture, Nutrition, and Health at the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Canavan, Chelsey R; Graybill, Lauren; Fawzi, Wafaie; Kinabo, Joyce

    2016-03-01

    Child malnutrition is an urgent and complex issue and requires integrated approaches across agriculture, nutrition, and health. This issue has gained prominence at the global level. While national-level efforts are underway in many countries, there is little information on how to integrate at the community level. Here, we offer a community-based approach using cadres of agricultural and community health workers, drawing on qualitative work we have conducted in Tanzania. Agriculture is an important driver of nutritional and health outcomes, and improving child health will require practical solutions for integration that can add to the evidence base.

  9. Child Nutrition: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... HealthDay) Savvy Marketing Gets Schoolkids to Eat Their Greens (03/16/2017, HealthDay) More News on Child Nutrition Diagnosis and Tests Prealbumin Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Related Issues 5 Things To Know About Dietary ...

  10. McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (McGovern-Dole program) helps support education, child development, and food security for some of the world's poorest children. It provides for donations of U.S. agricultural products, as well as financial and technical assistance, for school feeding and maternal and…

  11. Nutrition and maternal, neonatal, and child health.

    PubMed

    Christian, Parul; Mullany, Luke C; Hurley, Kristen M; Katz, Joanne; Black, Robert E

    2015-08-01

    This article reviews the central role of nutrition in advancing the maternal, newborn, and child health agenda with a focus on evidence for effective interventions generated using randomized controlled trials in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The 1000 days spanning from conception to 2 years of life are a critical period of time when nutritional needs must be ensured; failure to do so can lead to adverse impacts on short-term survival as well as long-term health and development [corrected]. The burden of maternal mortality continues to be high in many under-resourced settings; prenatal calcium supplementation in populations with low intakes can reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia morbidity and mortality and is recommended, and antenatal iron-folic acid use in many countries may reduce anemia, a condition that may be an underlying factor in postpartum hemorrhage. Sufficient evidence exists to promote multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy to reduce fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. Early initiation of breastfeeding (within an hour), exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life, and vitamin A supplementation in the first few days of life in Asia (but not in Africa) reduce infant mortality. Biannual large-dose vitamin A supplements to children 6-59 months of age and zinc for treatment of diarrhea continue to be important strategies for improving child health and survival. Early nutrition and micronutrient status can influence child development but should be integrated with early responsive learning interventions. Future research is needed that goes beyond the 1000 days to ensure adequate preconceptional nutrition and health, with special emphasis on adolescents who contribute to a large proportion of first births in many LMIC. Thus, we make the case for integrating proven nutrition interventions with those for health in pregnant women, and with those for health and child development in neonates, infants, and

  12. [Malnutrition: a secular challenge to child nutrition

    PubMed

    Monte, C

    2000-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge about child malnutrition, including the historical aspects of the problem, its dimension as a childhood public health problem, its natural history, physiopathology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment, and strategies used by the health sector to control this disease. METHODS: Information was collected by researching the Medline system, the Bireme library, internet sites of interest, catalogues of publications produced by Brazilian governmental organizations and international institutions dealing with child nutrition. RESULTS: The review pointed out that despite recent world prevalence reduction, child malnutrition is a major public health problem in developing countries. Malnutrition, in any of its forms, contributes for more than 50% of deaths among children under 5 years in those countries. Mortality rates of severely malnourished children treated as in patients have been unchanged for the last five decades. Guidelines for improving the treatment and reducing mortality rates of severely malnourished children treated in hospitals were recently defined by the World Health Organization. Even though some positive results have been achieved by the health sector in reducing child malnutrition prevalence, the effectivity of the interventions is often low. Lack of food might limit the success in treating and preventing malnutrition. Factors that may contribute to the effectiveness of interventions against malnutrition include approaches which reassure the confidence of health professionals about achieving positive results with the proper treatment of malnourished children, establishment of an effective relationship between health professionals and mothers, as well as practical support to mothers in recognizing them as valuable active agents for their children nutrition rehabilitation at the household level. CONCLUSIONS: Throughout the centuries, malnutrition has been the biggest challenge faced by developing countries in

  13. Nutrition and child survival in India.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2010-03-01

    India recognized the importance of improving the health and nutritional status of children, and initiated steps to improve access to nutrition and health services soon after independence. Over the years, the infrastructure and human resources for manning the health and nutrition services have been built up and currently cover the entire country. However these are inadequacies in terms of content and quality of services and undernutrition rates and under five morality rates continue to be high. Undernutrition begins in utero, and with low birthweight, effective antenatal care can help in reducing low birth weight. The poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, repeated morbidity due to infections and poor utilization of health and nutrition services are other causes of undernutrition in children in India. The key intervention to prevent undernutrition is nutritional and health education through all modes of communication, to bring about is a behavioral change towards appropriate IYCF and utilization of health care. Appropriate convergence and synergy between health and nutrition functionaries can play a major role in early detection and effective management of both undernutrition and infections, accelerate the pace of reduction in both undernutrition and under five mortality and enable India to reach Millennium Development Goals.

  14. Clinical practice: vegetarian infant and child nutrition.

    PubMed

    Van Winckel, Myriam; Vande Velde, Saskia; De Bruyne, Ruth; Van Biervliet, Stephanie

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this review is to give insight on the benefits and risks of vegetarianism, with special emphasis on vegetarian child nutrition. This eating pattern excluding meat and fish is being adopted by a growing number of people. A vegetarian diet has been shown to be associated with lower mortality of ischaemic heart disease and lower prevalence of obesity. Growth in children on a vegetarian diet including dairy has been shown to be similar to omnivorous peers. Although vegetarianism in adolescents is associated with eating disorders, there is no proof of a causal relation, as the eating disorder generally precedes the exclusion of meat from the diet. A well-balanced lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, including dairy products, can satisfy all nutritional needs of the growing child. In contrast, a vegan diet, excluding all animal food sources, has at least to be supplemented with vitamin B(12), with special attention to adequate intakes of calcium and zinc and energy-dense foods containing enough high-quality protein for young children. The more restricted the diet and the younger the child, the greater the risk for deficiencies.

  15. Maternal nutritional knowledge and child nutritional status in the Volta region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Appoh, Lily Yaa; Krekling, Sturla

    2005-04-01

    The relationship between mother's nutritional knowledge, maternal education, and child nutritional status (weight-for-age) was the subject of investigation in this study. The data were collected in Ghana on 55 well nourished and 55 malnourished mother-child pairs. A questionnaire designed to collect data on mother's knowledge and practices related to child care and nutrition was administered to the mothers. Data on mother's demographic and socio-economic characteristics as well as child anthropometric data were also collected. A nutrition knowledge score was calculated based on mother's responses to the nutrition related items. Bivariate analysis gave significant associations between child nutritional status and the following variables: time of initiating of breastfeeding, mother's knowledge of importance of colostrum and whether colostrum was given to child, age of introduction of supplementary food, and mother's knowledge about causes of kwashiorkor. The two groups also showed significant differences in their nutrition knowledge scores. Maternal formal education, and marital status were also found to be associated with child nutritional status in bivariate analyses. Further analysis with logistic regression revealed that maternal nutrition knowledge was independently associated with nutritional status after the effects of other significant variables were controlled for. Maternal education on the other hand was not found to be independently associated with nutritional status. These results imply that mother's practical knowledge about nutrition may be more important than formal maternal education for child nutrition outcome.

  16. Nutrition Education: USDA Provides Services through Multiple Programs, but Stronger Linkages among Efforts Are Needed. Report to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, U.S. Senate. GAO-04-528

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, David D.

    2004-01-01

    To help improve nutrition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides nutrition education through five of its programs: Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP); Food Stamp Program (FSP); Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); National School Lunch Program (NLP); and Child and Adult Care…

  17. Blue Ribbon Child Care Food and Nutrition Skill Series: Idaho Child Nutrition Programs. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    Noting that children have different appetites and adjust their food intake on a meal by meal basis, this self study guide presents ideas to help home child care providers meet the nutritional needs of the children in their care. The guide is to be used by individuals and small groups of adults working with infants and children. The guide's eight…

  18. Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Cheryl; And Others

    Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

  19. Domestic violence and child nutrition in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Sobkoviak, Rudina M; Yount, Kathryn M; Halim, Nafisa

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence against women is endemic globally and is an important social problem in its own right. A compounding concern is the impact of domestic violence against mothers on the nutritional status of their children. Liberia is an apt setting to examine this understudied topic, given the poor nutritional status of young children, high rate of domestic violence against women, and prolonged period of conflict that included systematic sexual violence against women. We expected that maternal exposure to domestic violence would predict lower anthropometric z-scores and higher odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight in children less than five years. Using data from 2467 mother-child dyads in the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey (LDHS) undertaken between December 24, 2006 and April 19, 2007, we conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the total, unadjusted and adjusted associations of maternal exposure to domestic violence with these anthropometric measures in children. Maternal reports of sexual domestic violence in the prior year predicted lower adjusted z-scores for height-for-age and weight-for-height as well as higher odds of stunting and underweight. The findings underscore the needs to (1) enhance and enforce conventional and customary laws to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence; (2) treat maternal survivors of domestic violence and screen their children for nutritional deficits; (3) heighten awareness of the intergenerational implications especially of recent sexual domestic violence; and (4) clarify the biological and behavior pathways by which domestic violence may influence child growth, thereby mitigating early growth failure and its adverse implications into adulthood.

  20. Agriculture and nutrition in India: mapping evidence to pathways.

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, Suneetha; Harris, Jody; Headey, Derek; Yosef, Sivan; Gillespie, Stuart

    2014-12-01

    In India, progress against undernutrition has been slow. Given its importance for income generation, improving diets, care practices, and maternal health, the agriculture sector is widely regarded as playing an important role in accelerating the reduction in undernutrition. This paper comprehensively maps existing evidence along agriculture-nutrition pathways in India and assesses both the quality and coverage of the existing literature. We present a conceptual framework delineating six key pathways between agriculture and nutrition. Three pathways pertain to the nutritional impacts of farm production, farm incomes, and food prices. The other three pertain to agriculture-gender linkages. After an extensive search, we found 78 research papers that provided evidence to populate these pathways. The literature suggests that Indian agriculture has a range of important influences on nutrition. Agriculture seems to influence diets even when controlling for income, and relative food prices could partly explain observed dietary changes in recent decades. The evidence on agriculture-gender linkages to nutrition is relatively weak. Sizeable knowledge gaps remain. The root causes of these gaps include an interdisciplinary disconnect between nutrition and economics/agriculture, a related problem of inadequate survey data, and limited policy-driven experimentation. Closing these gaps is essential to strengthening the agriculture sector's contribution to reducing undernutrition.

  1. Every Child's Right to Food: A Handbook on Federally-Funded Child Nutrition Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Rights Group, San Francisco, CA.

    In recognition of the fact that food is an important step in the educational process and in order to generate new child nutrition programs in communities across the nation (especially in rural communities with significant numbers of migrant farmworkers' children), basic information is presented about four federally funded child nutrition programs.…

  2. Role of Child Nutrition Programs in Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, M. Josephine

    The role of health educators in integrating child nutrition programs into school health education is discussed and issues attending such programs are considered. The importance of breakfast and lunch programs in the school is stressed with particular emphasis on using these programs to instruct children in sound nutritional practices. It is…

  3. The Status of Child Nutrition Programs in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Daniel C.; Vigil, Herminia J.

    This report provides descriptive and statistical data on the status of child nutrition programs in Colorado. The report contains descriptions of the National School Lunch Program, school breakfast programs, the Special Milk Program, the Summer Food Service Program, the Nutrition Education and Training Program, state dietary guidelines, Colorado…

  4. Maternal labour supply and child nutrition in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Glick, P; Sahn, D E

    1998-08-01

    Mothers who work may not have enough time to adequately breast-feed or prepare nutritious foods for their young children, or use public services designed to improve child nutrition. The authors quantify the effects of maternal labor supply and mothers' market labor force participation upon child nutrition using survey data from Conakry, Guinea, and child height, standardized for age and sex, as the indicator of nutritional status. 17% of children under age 5 years in Conakry are chronically malnourished. The conceptual framework and empirical strategy are described, followed by an examination of the data and construction of the labor supply and income measures. Analysis of the data found that additional time devoted by the mother to market work is associated with reductions in height-for-age of children under age 5 years. However, increases in mothers' labor income lead to greater child height. Deleterious impacts of mother's time in market work, controlling for income, were found for both self-employment and wage employment, despite differences in conditions of work and the feasibility of combining child and market-oriented activities. Furthermore, additions to maternal labor income yield larger increases in child height than do equivalent additions to other non-mother household income. It follows that income is not completely pooled within households and preferences differ among family members over the allocation of resources to child health-related goods and services and other uses. Despite the large estimated benefits of maternal income, maternal work overall does not appear to improve child nutrition.

  5. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture and the promotion of food and nutrition sovereignty and security in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maluf, Renato Sergio; Burlandy, Luciene; Santarelli, Mariana; Schottz, Vanessa; Speranza, Juliana Simões

    2015-08-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of the nutrition-sensitive agriculture approach in the context of the programs and actions towards promoting food and nutrition sovereignty and security in Brazil. To analyze the links between nutrition and agriculture, this paper presents the conceptual framework related to food and nutrition security, and stresses the correlations among concepts, institutional structures and program design in Brazil. Dominant models of food production and consumption are scrutinized in the light of these relationships. This paper also highlights differences amongst different ways to promote nutrition-sensitive agriculture through food-acquisition programs from family farmers, experiences in agro-ecology and bio-fortification programs. In the closing remarks, the paper draws some lessons learned from the Brazilian experience that highlight the advantages of family farming and rapid food production, distribution and consumption cycles in order to promote access to an affordable, diversified and more adequate diet in nutritional terms.

  6. Oklahoma Handbook: Child Nutrition Programs. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Nutrition concepts, school food service guidelines, and related materials (such as nutrition charts, menu planning worksheets, and student survey forms) are provided in this nutrition handbook. Prepared by the Oklahoma State Department of Education's School Lunch Section, the handbook consists of nine sections that are organized in outline format.…

  7. Early child growth: how do nutrition and infection interact?

    PubMed

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Mayers, Daniel R

    2011-10-01

    It is well known that the relationship between child nutrition and infection is bidirectional, i.e. frequent illness can impair nutritional status and poor nutrition can increase the risk of infection. What is less clear is whether infection reduces the effectiveness of nutrition interventions or, vice versa, whether malnutrition lessens the impact of infection control strategies. The objective of this paper is to review the evidence regarding this interaction between nutrition and infection with respect to child growth in low-income populations. Even when there are no obvious symptoms, physiological conditions associated with infections can impair growth by suppressing appetite, impairing absorption of nutrients, increasing nutrient losses and diverting nutrients away from growth. However, there is little direct evidence that nutrition interventions are less effective when infection is common; more research is needed on this question. On the other hand, evidence from four intervention trials suggests that the adverse effects of certain infections (e.g. diarrhoea) on growth can be reduced or eliminated by improving nutrition. Interventions that combine improved nutrition with prevention and control of infections are likely to be most effective for enhancing child growth and development.

  8. What could infant and young child nutrition learn from sweatshops?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adequate infant and young child nutrition demands high rates of breastfeeding and good access to nutrient rich complementary foods, requiring public sector action to promote breastfeeding and home based complementary feeding, and private sector action to refrain from undermining breastfeeding and to provide affordable, nutrient rich complementary foods. Unfortunately, due to a lack of trust, the public and private sectors, from both the North and the South, do not work well together in achieving optimal infant and young child nutrition. Discussion As the current debate in infant and young child nutrition is reminiscent of the "sweatshop" debate fifteen years ago, we argue that lessons from the sweatshops debate regarding cooperation between public and private sectors - and specific organizational experiences such as the Ethical Trading Initiative in which companies, trade unions, and civil society organizations work together to enhance implementation of labour standards and address alleged allegations - could serve as a model for improving cooperation and trust between public, civil society and private groups, and ultimately health, in infant and young child nutrition. Summary Lessons from the sweatshops debate could serve as a model to promote cooperation and trust between public and private groups, such that they learn to work together towards their common goal of improving infant and young child nutrition. PMID:21545745

  9. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development.

  10. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  11. Growing children's bodies and minds: maximizing child nutrition and development.

    PubMed

    Engle, Patrice; Huffman, Sandra L

    2010-06-01

    For their optimal growth, and for greater long-term human capital development, children profit not only from improved nutrition but also from improved learning opportunities in the earliest years of life. This paper describes how actions to enhance optimal infant and young child nutrition can be linked with child development interventions for children under 3 years of age. In countries with high rates of malnutrition, linking these two components will result in synergies of program activities, and will bring about a greater impact at reduced cost than either activity conducted separately. New understanding of social marketing and communication strategies can increase effectiveness of linked interventions. Public-private partnerships to improve both child development and nutrition offer promise for sustainable interventions.

  12. Cash cropping, subsistence agriculture, and nutritional status among mothers and children in lowland Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Shack, K W; Grivetti, L E; Dewey, K G

    1990-01-01

    The influence of cash crop income, subsistence agriculture, and purchased foods on nutritional status was examined among three ethnic groups in lowland Papua New Guinea. In their home areas, these groups had been hunter-gatherers, agriculturalists, and hunter-gatherers with limited agriculture. Multiple regression revealed that cash crop income was positively associated with anthropometric status and energy intake among children. Expenditure on food was related to the child's arm circumference but not to nutrient intake. The amount of food planted in the garden was not related to child nutritional status. In contrast, the amount of food planted was positively associated with body mass index of mothers. Consumption of rice and fish was related to food expenditures. Nutritional status was better among families who were agriculturalists prior to resettlement than among hunter-gatherers. The former had more income from cash crops, smaller households, and planted more food in their gardens. Therefore, cash cropping need not decrease nutritional status if home gardens are maintained.

  13. Infrastructure mitigates the sensitivity of child growth to local agriculture and rainfall in Nepal and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Shively, Gerald E

    2017-01-31

    This paper investigates linear growth and weight gain among 11,946 children below the age of 5 y in Nepal and Uganda, testing the hypothesis that child growth is sensitive to precipitation during key periods in a child's early life. The paper also tests the importance of the economic and physical environments in which children reside. Outcomes are not completely explained by agricultural performance or the observed characteristics of children or their households. Associations between height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) and rainfall are generally positive, but patterns are heterogeneous. At the mean, an increase of 1 SD in agricultural season rainfall is associated with a 0.05- to 0.25-point higher z-score, which translates into increases of roughly 4-13% for HAZ and 1-7% for WHZ. Nutrition sensitivity to rainfall is greater in Nepal, where rainfall is lower on average and wider ranging, than in Uganda. Health and transport infrastructure help to buffer children from the deleterious nutritional effects of precipitation shortfalls, underscoring the role of broadly based economic development in promoting child nutrition.

  14. Infrastructure mitigates the sensitivity of child growth to local agriculture and rainfall in Nepal and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Shively, Gerald E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates linear growth and weight gain among 11,946 children below the age of 5 y in Nepal and Uganda, testing the hypothesis that child growth is sensitive to precipitation during key periods in a child's early life. The paper also tests the importance of the economic and physical environments in which children reside. Outcomes are not completely explained by agricultural performance or the observed characteristics of children or their households. Associations between height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) and rainfall are generally positive, but patterns are heterogeneous. At the mean, an increase of 1 SD in agricultural season rainfall is associated with a 0.05- to 0.25-point higher z-score, which translates into increases of roughly 4–13% for HAZ and 1–7% for WHZ. Nutrition sensitivity to rainfall is greater in Nepal, where rainfall is lower on average and wider ranging, than in Uganda. Health and transport infrastructure help to buffer children from the deleterious nutritional effects of precipitation shortfalls, underscoring the role of broadly based economic development in promoting child nutrition. PMID:28096416

  15. Modifying agricultural crops for improved nutrition.

    PubMed

    McGloughlin, Martina Newell

    2010-11-30

    The first generation of biotechnology products commercialized were crops focusing largely on input agronomic traits whose value was often opaque to consumers. The coming generations of crop plants can be grouped into four broad areas each presenting what, on the surface, may appear as unique challenges and opportunities. The present and future focus is on continuing improvement of agronomic traits such as yield and abiotic stress resistance in addition to the biotic stress tolerance of the present generation; crop plants as biomass feedstocks for biofuels and "bio-synthetics"; value-added output traits such as improved nutrition and food functionality; and plants as production factories for therapeutics and industrial products. From a consumer perspective, the focus on value-added traits, especially improved nutrition, is undoubtedly one of the areas of greatest interest. From a basic nutrition perspective, there is a clear dichotomy in demonstrated need between different regions and socioeconomic groups, the starkest being inappropriate consumption in the developed world and under-nourishment in Less Developed Countries (LDCs). Dramatic increases in the occurrence of obesity and related ailments in affluent regions are in sharp contrast to chronic malnutrition in many LDCs. Both problems require a modified food supply, and the tools of biotechnology have a part to play. Developing plants with improved traits involves overcoming a variety of technical, regulatory and indeed perception hurdles inherent in perceived and real challenges of complex traits modifications. Continuing improvements in molecular and genomic technologies are contributing to the acceleration of product development to produce plants with the appropriate quality traits for the different regions and needs. Crops with improved traits in the pipeline, the evolving technologies and the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead are covered.

  16. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-03-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy 30 October-1 November, 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  17. Bellagio report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-02-05

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  18. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Bourne, Peter G.; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. PMID:23385371

  19. [Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People].

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-11-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  20. Ground to Grits. Scientific Concepts in Nutrition/Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Peggy W.; And Others

    This curriculum guide presents an activity-oriented program designed to give students experiences that will help them understand concepts concerning the relationship between science, agriculture, and nutritional needs. Covered in the six units of the guide are reasons for eating certain foods (taste and smell); the nature of food (the concept of…

  1. Tickle Your Appetite: Team Nutrition's Education Kit for Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Adapted for child care and Head Start providers, this educator's kit contains activities and information to improve nutrition experiences for preschool-age children. In addition to the educator's guide, the kit includes a short videotape and audiotape with three segments that teach about trying different types of foods; about the taste, touch, and…

  2. 75 FR 41140 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Child Nutrition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Child Nutrition Database AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... industry to update and expand the Child Nutrition Database in support of the School Meals Initiative...

  3. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What...

  4. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  5. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What...

  6. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits §...

  7. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits §...

  8. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  9. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What...

  10. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What...

  11. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits §...

  12. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What...

  13. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits §...

  14. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  15. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  16. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits §...

  17. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits §...

  18. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits §...

  19. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  20. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits §...

  1. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits §...

  2. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits §...

  3. Community Nutrition Action for Child Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This publication is designed for use by managers of community-based nutrition programs. The training modules included in this manual were produced and field-tested by the Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) as a special project providing focused technical assistance and project support to CEDPA training graduates. CEDPA…

  4. Looking upstream: enhancers of child nutritional status in post-flood rural settings

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan-Dash, Shishir; Mukhopadhyay, Alok; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    prevalence per year). In flooded communities, households dedicated to activities other than agriculture, a 50–51% lower prevalence of child wasting was estimated, suggesting farmers and fishermen as the most vulnerable livelihoods under flooding. In flooded areas, lower rank castes were at higher odds of both child wasting and stunting. Conclusions. In the short-term, protracted nutritional response in the aftermath of floods should be urgently implemented and target agricultural livelihoods and low-rank castes. Education promotion and schooling up to 14 years should have positive impacts on improving children nutritional health in the long run, especially under flooding. Policies effectively helping sustainable livelihood economic development and delayed motherhood are also recommended. PMID:26966670

  5. Child Labor in Agriculture. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelley

    An estimated 200,000-800,000 children and adolescents work in the United States as migrant agricultural laborers, either alone or with their families. This digest describes the statutory and economic factors contributing to the presence of children in the fields and the impact of this labor on their health and educational progress. The Fair Labor…

  6. Mobile-Based Nutrition and Child Health Monitoring to Inform Program Development: An Experience From Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Guyon, Agnes; Bock, Ariella; Buback, Laura; Knittel, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Implementing complex nutrition and other public health projects and tracking nutrition interventions, such as women's diet and supplementation and infant and young child feeding practices, requires reliable routine data to identify potential program gaps and to monitor trends in behaviors in real time. However, current monitoring and evaluation practices generally do not create an environment for this real-time tracking. This article describes the development and application of a mobile-based nutrition and health monitoring system, which collected monitoring data on project activities, women's nutrition, and infant and young child feeding practices in real time. Program Description: The Liberia Agricultural Upgrading Nutrition and Child Health (LAUNCH) project implemented a nutrition and health monitoring system between April 2012 and June 2014. The LAUNCH project analyzed project monitoring and outcome data from the system and shared selected behavioral and programmatic indicators with program managers through a short report, which later evolved into a visual data dashboard, during program-update meetings. The project designed protocols to ensure representativeness of program participants. Findings: LAUNCH made programmatic adjustments in response to findings from the monitoring system; these changes were then reflected in subsequent quarterly trends, indicating that the availability of timely data allowed for the project to react quickly to issues and adapt the program appropriately. Such issues included lack of participation in community groups and insufficient numbers of food distribution points. Likewise, the system captured trends in key outcome indicators such as breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, linking them to project activities and external factors including seasonal changes and national health campaigns. Conclusion: Digital data collection platforms can play a vital role in improving routine programmatic functions

  7. Paradoxical malnutrition in mother-child pairs: untangling the phenomenon of over- and under-nutrition in underdeveloped economies.

    PubMed

    Jehn, Megan; Brewis, Alexandra

    2009-03-01

    As economic development and urbanization proceed globally, the coexistence of under- and over-nutrition within the same household, sometimes termed 'paradoxical' or 'dual burden' malnutrition is increasingly being reported. We used Demographic and Health Survey data sets from 18 lower and middle income countries to explore paradoxical forms of malnutrition (maternal overweight with child underweight or stunting) in mother-child pairs. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of discordant pairs after adjusting for a number of important covariates. Several factors were significantly associated with an increased relative odds of discordant mother-child pairs, including working in subsistence agriculture, low levels of maternal education, more siblings in the household, and relative household poverty. However, many of these factors also predicted other combinations of poor nutritional status in mother-child pairs. We conclude that it is difficult to identify any specific factors that elevate risk above and beyond those that predict risk of maternal over-nutrition or child under-nutrition. Based on these analyses, it appears that paradoxical weight status between mothers and children can be best understood as a consequence of rapid secular increases in maternal weight, rather than a distinct nutritional condition with a discrete etiology.

  8. Leveraging Agriculture for Nutrition Impact through the Feed the Future Initiative.

    PubMed

    Du, Lidan; Pinga, Victor; Klein, Alyssa; Danton, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is a multisectoral problem; current state of empirical evidence for agricultural interventions' impacts on nutrition is weak. In the past 10 years, both agriculture and nutrition have risen on the global policy agenda. Several recent international movements have created great momentum for nutrition among global political leaders and policymakers. The 2008 world food price crisis prompted larger investment pledges to agricultural development. The U.S. Government launched the Feed the Future initiative in 2009 to address global hunger and food security, with a primary goal to reduce poverty and undernutrition by simultaneously promoting inclusive agriculture sector growth and improved nutritional status for women and children. With operations in 19 focus countries, Feed the Future provides an important laboratory of learning where efforts can be effective and, once proven, taken to scale to make agriculture work for nutrition. The Strengthening Partnerships, Results, and Innovations in Nutrition Globally (SPRING) project has been conducting a series of research on the Feed the Future initiative. This chapter will first provide a review of the nutrition narrative in relation to food and nutrition, introduce the current understanding of linkages between agriculture and nutrition and the Feed the Future initiative's efforts to strengthen the nutritional impact of agricultural and economic growth activities, and describe an extensive review of how the design and early implementation of Feed the Future activities linked agriculture and nutrition. Finally, the chapter presents an updated framework that incorporates ways to improve nutrition outcomes of agricultural programming in the broader context of food system.

  9. Building for the Future: Nutrition Guidance for the Child Nutrition Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This publication offers practical guidance to help food service professionals provide sound nutrition to America's children and serves as a basis for the revision of U.S. Department of Agriculture meal patterns, menu planning guides, and the development of new recipes. The guide is organized into two sections. The first, "Implementation of…

  10. Global hunger: a challenge to agricultural, food, and nutritional sciences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shiuan-Huei; Ho, Chi-Tang; Nah, Sui-Lin; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Hunger has been a concern for generations and has continued to plague hundreds of millions of people around the world. Although many efforts have been devoted to reduce hunger, challenges such as growing competitions for natural resources, emerging climate changes and natural disasters, poverty, illiteracy, and diseases are posing threats to food security and intensifying the hunger crisis. Concerted efforts of scientists to improve agricultural and food productivity, technology, nutrition, and education are imperative to facilitate appropriate strategies for defeating hunger and malnutrition. This paper provides some aspects of world hunger issues and summarizes the efforts and measures aimed to alleviate food problems from the food and nutritional sciences perspectives. The prospects and constraints of some implemented strategies for alleviating hunger and achieving sustainable food security are also discussed. This comprehensive information source could provide insights into the development of a complementary framework for dealing with the global hunger issue.

  11. Caregiver perceptions of child nutritional status in Magallanes, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Parra, Sonia G.; Barbosa, Clarita; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to identify risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity and the accuracy of caregivers’ perceptions of their child’s nutritional status in the Magallanes region, Patagonia, Chile. Methods Heights and weights of children attending day care centers and elementary schools were collected and caregivers completed questionnaires regarding their child’s health and behavior. The child’s nutritional status was diagnosed using the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards (for children under age 6) and the CDC 2000 Growth Charts (for children age 6 and older). Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors related to childhood overweight/obesity and weight underestimation by caregivers of overweight or obese children. Results Of the 795 children included in the study, 247 (31.1%) were overweight and 223 (28.1%) were obese. Risk factors for overweight/obesity included younger age and being perceived to eat more than normal by the caregiver. Caregivers were less likely to underestimate their child’s weight if the child was older or if the caregiver believed the child ate more than a normal amount. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Magallanes and the majority of caregivers underestimate the extent of the problem in their children. PMID:24548582

  12. Is Exposure to Poultry Harmful to Child Nutrition? An Observational Analysis for Rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Headey, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Although strategic thinking on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has prioritized reducing exposure to human feces in order to limit diarrheal infections, recent research suggests that elevated exposure to livestock–particularly poultry and poultry feces–may be an important risk factor for diarrhea, environmental enteric disorder (EED) and respiratory infections, all of which may seriously retard linear growth in young children. Yet a very different literature on nutrition-sensitive agriculture suggests that livestock ownership is highly beneficial for child growth outcomes through its importance for increasing consumption of nutrient-rich animal sourced foods, such as eggs. Together, these two literatures suggest that the net nutritional benefit of poultry ownership is particularly ambiguous and potentially mediated by whether or not children are highly exposed to poultry. We test this novel hypothesis using a large agricultural survey of rural Ethiopian households that includes measures of child height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), ownership of poultry and other types of livestock, and an indicator of whether livestock are kept within the main household dwelling overnight. We used least squares regression analysis to estimate unadjusted and adjusted models that control for a wide range of potentially confounding factors. We find that while poultry ownership is positively associated with child HAZ [β = 0.291, s.e. = 0.094], the practice of corralling poultry in the household dwelling overnight is negatively associated with HAZ [β = -0.250, s.e. = 0.118]. Moreover, we find no negative associations between HAZ and corralling other livestock species indoors. These results suggest that while poultry ownership can be beneficial to child growth, overly close exposure to poultry poses a concurrent risk factor for undernutrition, most likely because of increased risk of infection. PMID:27529178

  13. Macro shocks and micro outcomes: child nutrition during Indonesia's crisis.

    PubMed

    Block, Steven A; Kiess, Lynnda; Webb, Patrick; Kosen, Soewarta; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Bloem, Martin W; Timmer, C Peter

    2004-03-01

    A survey of households in rural Java is used to assess the nutritional impact of Indonesia's drought and financial crisis of 1997/1998. A time-age-cohort decomposition reveals significant nutritional impacts. However, child weight-for-age (WAZ) remained constant throughout the crisis, despite rapid increases in food prices and the consequent household consumption shock. The evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that within households, mothers buffered children's caloric intake, resulting in increased maternal wasting. However, reductions in the consumption of high-quality foods further resulted in increased prevalence of anemia for both mothers and children. The combined effects were particularly severe for cohorts conceived and weaned during the crisis.

  14. Economic perspectives on integrating early child stimulation with nutritional interventions.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Lopez-Boo, Florencia; Urzua, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    There is a strongly held view that a narrow window exists for effective nutritional interventions and a widely known stylized depiction of age-dependent economic rates of returns to investments in cognitive and socioemotional development. Both indicate critical periods in early life. Moreover, the fact that both the physical and cognitive development of a child in these early years are highly dependent on childcare practices and on the characteristics of the caregivers motivates an interest in finding effective means to enhance stimulation in the context of nutritional programs, or vice versa. Nevertheless, there is relatively little evidence to date on how to align integrated interventions to these age-specific patterns and how to undertake benefit-cost analyses for integrated interventions. Thus, many core questions need further consideration in order to design integrated nutritional and stimulation programs. This paper looks at some of these questions and provides some guidelines as to how the economic returns from joint nutrition and stimulation programs might be estimated.

  15. Breast feeding, nutritional state, and child survival in rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Briend, André; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rowland, Michael G M

    1988-01-01

    The effect of breast feeding on nutritional state, morbidity, and child survival was examined prospectively in a community in rural Bangladesh. Every month for six months health workers inquired about breast feeding and illness and measured arm circumference in an average of 4612 children aged 12-36 months. Data from children who died within one month of a visit were compared with those from children who survived. Roughly one third of the deaths in the age range 18-36 months were attributable to absence of breast feeding. Within this age range protection conferred by breast feeding was independent of age but was evident only in severely malnourished children. In communities with a high prevalence of malnutrition breast feeding may substantially enhance child survival up to 3 years of age. PMID:3129058

  16. Pioneers in pediatric psychology: integrating nutrition and child development interventions.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M

    2015-05-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology.

  17. Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology: Integrating Nutrition and Child Development Interventions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. PMID:25619198

  18. 7 CFR 215.12 - Claims against schools or child-care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN...-care institutions may be utilized, first, to make reimbursement payments for milk served during...

  19. 7 CFR 215.12 - Claims against schools or child-care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN...-care institutions may be utilized, first, to make reimbursement payments for milk served during...

  20. 7 CFR 215.12 - Claims against schools or child-care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN...-care institutions may be utilized, first, to make reimbursement payments for milk served during...

  1. 7 CFR 215.12 - Claims against schools or child-care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN...-care institutions may be utilized, first, to make reimbursement payments for milk served during...

  2. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments: Child Diet and the School Nutrition Environment.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lorrene D; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E; Loria, Catherine M; Wilson, Dawn K; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B; Webb, Karen L

    2015-10-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been adequately documented. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children's diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013-2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children's dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of "what is working" to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children.

  3. The Potential Impact of Animal Science Research on Global Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health: A Landscape Review.

    PubMed

    Odle, Jack; Jacobi, Sheila K; Boyd, R Dean; Bauman, Dale E; Anthony, Russell V; Bazer, Fuller W; Lock, Adam L; Serazin, Andrew C

    2017-03-01

    High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory. With the desire to catalyze disruptive advancements in global maternal and child health, this landscape review was commissioned by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to examine the nutritional and managerial practices used within the food-animal agricultural system that may have relevance to the challenges faced by global human health. The landscape was categorized into a framework spanning 1) preconception, 2) gestation and pregnancy, 3) lactation and suckling, and 4) postweaning and toddler phases. Twelve key findings are outlined, wherein research within the discipline of animal sciences stands to inform the global health community and in some cases identifies gaps in knowledge in which further research is merited. Notable among the findings were 1) the quantitative importance of essential fatty acid and amino acid nutrition in reproductive health, 2) the suggested application of the ideal protein concept for improving the amino acid nutrition of mothers and children, 3) the prospect of using dietary phytase to improve the bioavailability of trace minerals in plant and vegetable-based diets, and 4) nutritional interventions to mitigate environmental enteropathy. The desired outcome of this review was to identify potential interventions that may be worthy of consideration. Better appreciation of the close linkage between human health, medicine, and agriculture will identify opportunities that will enable faster and more efficient innovations in global

  4. What Do Informal (Unlicensed) Child Caregivers Want and Need To Know about Nutrition: A Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeshka, Judy; Burden, Trina; Crocker, Shannon; Lero, Donna S.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies determined nutrition practices of informal child caregivers and assessed the feasibility of providing a public-health nutrition-education program for these caregivers. Responses quantified interest in nutrition and feeding topics and preferred formats and times for such a program. (DLH)

  5. Heavy agricultural workloads and low crop diversity are strong barriers to improving child feeding practices in the Bolivian Andes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew D; Cruz Agudo, Yesmina; Galway, Lindsay; Bentley, Jeffery; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per

    2012-11-01

    Most nutrition initiatives to date aimed at improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) have emphasized addressing knowledge gaps through behavior change messaging with less focus on addressing the underlying environmental barriers that may shape these behaviors. This research integrates an analysis of longitudinal dietary data with qualitative data on barriers to improved child feeding to identify the nature and extent of the barriers caregivers face to improving IYCF practices in a farming region of the Bolivian Andes, and to determine the relative influence of these barriers on caregivers' abilities to improve IYCF practices. Sixty-nine caregivers were selected from a sample of 331 households that participated in a longitudinal survey assessing changes in IYCF practices among caregivers with children aged 0-36 months from March 2009 to March 2010. Forty-nine barriers within 12 categories of barriers were identified through semi-structured interviews with the 69 caregivers. The most frequently reported barriers were those related to women's time dedicated to agricultural labor, the limited diversity of household agricultural production, and lack of support for child feeding from spouses and mothers-in-law. In multivariate analyses controlling for several variables that could potentially influence IYCF practices, these barriers were negatively associated with changes to the diversity of child diets, child dietary energy intake, and child meal frequency. While knowledge gaps and individual-level influences affected IYCF practices, physical and social caregiving environments in this region of Bolivia were even more important. Behavior change communication alone will likely not address the social and environmental barriers to improved child feeding that often prevent translation of improved knowledge into action. Particularly in rural regions, agriculture may strongly influence child feeding, not only indirectly through household food security, but also directly

  6. Heavy agricultural workloads and low crop diversity are strong barriers to improving child feeding practices in the Bolivian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew D; Agudo, Yesmina Cruz; Galway, Lindsay; Bentley, Jeffery; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per

    2012-01-01

    Most nutrition initiatives to date aimed at improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) have emphasized addressing knowledge gaps through behavior change messaging with less focus on addressing the underlying environmental barriers that may shape these behaviors. This research integrates an analysis of longitudinal dietary data with qualitative data on barriers to improved child feeding to identify the nature and extent of the barriers caregivers face to improving IYCF practices in a farming region of the Bolivian Andes, and to determine the relative influence of these barriers on caregivers’ abilities to improve IYCF practices. Sixty-nine caregivers were selected from a sample of 331 households that participated in a longitudinal survey assessing changes in IYCF practices among caregivers with children aged 0–36 months from March 2009 to March 2010. Forty-nine barriers within 12 categories of barriers were identified through semi-structured interviews with the 69 caregivers. The most frequently reported barriers were those related to women’s time dedicated to agricultural labor, the limited diversity of household agricultural production, and lack of support for child feeding from spouses and mothers-in-law. In multivariate analyses controlling for several variables that could potentially influence IYCF practices, these barriers were negatively associated with changes to the diversity of child diets, child dietary energy intake, and child meal frequency. While knowledge gaps and individual-level influences affected IYCF practices, physical and social caregiving environments in this region of Bolivia were even more important. Behavior change communication alone will likely not address the social and environmental barriers to improved child feeding that often prevent translation of improved knowledge into action. Particularly in rural regions, agriculture may strongly influence child feeding, not only indirectly through household food security, but also

  7. Nutritional supplementation: effects on child stunting because of diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Lutter, C K; Mora, J O; Habicht, J P; Rasmussen, K M; Robson, D S; Sellers, S G; Super, C M; Herrera, M G

    1989-07-01

    Research has shown that the positive effect of nutritional supplementation on child growth in malnourished populations is small relative to the large negative effect of diarrheal disease. To test the hypothesis that the effects of supplementation and diarrhea are synergistic in that supplementation modifies the negative effect of diarrhea on linear growth, length and diarrheal morbidity were compared at 36 mo of age for two cohorts of Colombian children: supplemented from birth and unsupplemented. Among unsupplemented children diarrhea was negatively associated with length. Among supplemented children diarrhea had no effect on length and differed from that of unsupplemented children. Thus, supplementation completely offset the negative effect of diarrheal disease on length. Targeting supplementation programs to the critical period of high diarrheal prevalence among infants and young children should increase the effectiveness of such programs in preventing growth retardation associated with diarrhea.

  8. Characteristics and determinants of child nutritional status in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Martorell, R; Leslie, J; Moock, P R

    1984-01-01

    Herein, we examine characteristics and determinants of child malnutrition in the districts of Bara and Rautahat of the Terai region of Nepal. The sample studied consists of 510 rural children ranging in age from 3 to 10 yr. The Nepali children were found to have one of the highest reported prevalences of stunting (65% were less than 90% National study for Health Statistics median height for age). The study children were also 1 to 1.5 kg lighter when compared to US children of the same height. Fat deposits, as measured by anthropometric variables and Hb levels were also very low. Multiple regression analysis showed that age, district of residence, household income, breast-feeding, and several specific food items were significant predictors of nutritional status. Association with other factors such as caste and parental schooling, were not evident in multiple regressions. Boys were as likely to be malnourished as girls. Prolonged breast-feeding was associated with greater fat stores, but with reduced stature and low Hb values. Both landholdings and household income were found to be positively and significantly associated with almost all measures of nutritional status.

  9. For the Mouths of Babes: Nutrition Literacy Outreach to a Child Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Ballance, Darra; Webb, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is at crisis levels in the United States. Risk factors for obesity can begin as early as infancy. Approximately 12 million children up to five years of age spend about 22.5 hours per week in child care centers where they receive a significant portion of their daily nutrition. Child care center personnel may not know how to select nutritious meal and snack choices. A health sciences librarian, a child care center director and a dietitian designed an outreach program on nutrition that helped child care center teachers gain increased nutrition literacy. The teachers indicated that they gained increased personal understanding of formerly confusing nutrition issues (e.g., how to read a nutrition label and what defines a whole grain). Teachers were also able to identify aspects of web sites linked from MedlinePlus that indicated the sites served as reliable sources of health information. PMID:25983665

  10. Maternal education and child nutritional status in Bolivia: finding the links.

    PubMed

    Frost, Michelle Bellessa; Forste, Renata; Haas, David W

    2005-01-01

    This study models various pathways linking maternal education and child nutritional status in Bolivia, using a national sample of children. Pathways examined include socioeconomic status, health knowledge, modern attitudes towards health care, female autonomy, and reproductive behavior. The data come from the 1998 Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic regression results suggest that socioeconomic factors are the most important pathways linking maternal education and child nutritional status, and that modern attitudes about health care also explain the impact of education. Health care knowledge accounts for less of the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status, with autonomy being the weakest pathway. Other pathways, such as reproductive behaviors, appear to influence nutritional status independent of maternal education. Overall, the pathways examined accounted for 60 percent of the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status.

  11. Rural-urban disparities in child nutrition in Bangladesh and Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The persistence of rural-urban disparities in child nutrition outcomes in developing countries alongside rapid urbanisation and increasing incidence of child malnutrition in urban areas raises an important health policy question - whether fundamentally different nutrition policies and interventions are required in rural and urban areas. Addressing this question requires an enhanced understanding of the main drivers of rural-urban disparities in child nutrition outcomes especially for the vulnerable segments of the population. This study applies recently developed statistical methods to quantify the contribution of different socio-economic determinants to rural-urban differences in child nutrition outcomes in two South Asian countries – Bangladesh and Nepal. Methods Using DHS data sets for Bangladesh and Nepal, we apply quantile regression-based counterfactual decomposition methods to quantify the contribution of (1) the differences in levels of socio-economic determinants (covariate effects) and (2) the differences in the strength of association between socio-economic determinants and child nutrition outcomes (co-efficient effects) to the observed rural-urban disparities in child HAZ scores. The methodology employed in the study allows the covariate and coefficient effects to vary across entire distribution of child nutrition outcomes. This is particularly useful in providing specific insights into factors influencing rural-urban disparities at the lower tails of child HAZ score distributions. It also helps assess the importance of individual determinants and how they vary across the distribution of HAZ scores. Results There are no fundamental differences in the characteristics that determine child nutrition outcomes in urban and rural areas. Differences in the levels of a limited number of socio-economic characteristics – maternal education, spouse’s education and the wealth index (incorporating household asset ownership and access to drinking

  12. 7 CFR 226.17 - Child care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Child care center provisions. 226.17 Section 226.17... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Operational Provisions § 226.17 Child care center provisions. (a) Child care centers may participate in the Program either as...

  13. 7 CFR 226.17 - Child care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Child care center provisions. 226.17 Section 226.17... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Operational Provisions § 226.17 Child care center provisions. (a) Child care centers may participate in the Program either as...

  14. 7 CFR 226.17 - Child care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Child care center provisions. 226.17 Section 226.17... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Operational Provisions § 226.17 Child care center provisions. (a) Child care centers may participate in the Program either as...

  15. 7 CFR 226.17 - Child care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Child care center provisions. 226.17 Section 226.17... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Operational Provisions § 226.17 Child care center provisions. (a) Child care centers may participate in the Program either as...

  16. Foods: Where Innovation, Agriculture, Molecular Biosciences and Human Nutrition Meet.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Charles

    2012-11-21

    There is one commodity the world over that unites mankind-food. In 2011 the United Nations claimed that the world's population had reached the seven billion mark, a number which is set to increase dramatically in the decades to come. Food security, supply and sustainability are of paramount concern to the future economic and social progress of humanity. It is the responsibility of the food industry, together with food scientists and technologists, to shoulder the burden of ensuring an adequate supply of nutritious, safe and sensorially acceptable foods for a range of demanding consumers. In responding to this challenge, we need to understand the link between agriculture, engineering, food processing, molecular biosciences, human nutrition, commercialisation and innovation. Access to information concerning the composition and quality of foods has never been so easy for consumers and technologists alike. A plethora of research publications are made available each month to scientists and associated interested parties. The outcomes of these research manuscripts are often distilled and disseminated into messages available to everyone through bulletin boards, forums and the popular press. Newspapers and new agencies constantly report on the latest pharma-medical finding, or news regarding food safety and security concerns. We live in an age where information is so readily available to everyone that the task of finding credible and reputable data can be difficult at times. Providing sound evidenced based research is where a peer-reviewed journal can provide clarity. [...].

  17. Child-specific food insecurity and its sociodemographic and nutritional determinants among Iranian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Beytollah; Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh; Asghari, Somayye; Amirkhizi, Farshad; Dahri, Monireh; Abedimanesh, Nasim; Farsad-Naimi, Alireza; Hojegani, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    Despite strong evidence of the prevalence of food insecurity in adults and households with children in different areas of Iran, the prevalence of child-specific food insecurity in Iran and especially in Tabriz has not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of the current study is to evaluate the prevalence of food insecurity in schoolchildren and to identify its social, demographic, and nutritional determinants in Tabriz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted between April and September 2014 among 330 schoolchildren aged 7-11 years comprising 170 boys and 160 girls from ten public schools in Tabriz, Iran. Demographic and socioeconomic factors had been obtained from participants. Food security status was assessed by an eight-item U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Security Module previously validated for use in Iran. Dietary information was obtained by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). In our findings, the prevalence of food insecurity among children was 30% with 29.1% being low food secure and 0.9% being very low food secure. Mean weight for age Z-score (WAZ) in the food insecure group was significantly lower than in the food secure group. The prevalence of food insecurity was more prevalent in boys (p = .006). Food insecure children had a significantly lower intake of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and meat (p < .001) and higher prevalence of wasting compared with their counterparts in the food secure group (p = .004). These results suggest a proportionally high prevalence of food insecurity in schoolchildren in Tabriz and its significant association with poor nutritional status and dietary habits. Our findings also ensures the necessity of nutritional support programs and nutritional education in Iranian low-income families to improve their overall health.

  18. Livestock production, animal source food intake, and young child growth: the role of gender for ensuring nutrition impacts.

    PubMed

    Jin, Minchao; Iannotti, Lora L

    2014-03-01

    Animal source foods (ASF) provide critical micronutrients in highly bioavailable forms, with the potential to efficiently address undernutrition among young children living in developing countries. There is limited evidence for how livestock ownership might increase ASF intake in poor households either through own-consumption or income generation. Along with lack of nutrition knowledge, gender dimensions may affect the pathways leading from livestock ownership to child ASF intake and ultimately to young child growth. Using data from a large-scale impact evaluation conducted in Kenya, this study tested the hypothesis that co-owned/female-owned livestock would be associated with improved child growth, mediated by increases in ASF consumption. Data were collected from September 2010 to January 2011 from households in six provinces in Kenya on a broad range of agricultural, economic, social, health and nutrition factors. Children ages 6-60 months were included in this analysis (n = 183). In this sample, co-owned/female-owned livestock was valued at 18,861 Kenyan shillings in contrast with male-owned livestock valued at 66,343 Kenyan shillings. Multivariate linear regression models showed a positive association between co-owned/female-owned livestock with child weight-for-age z score (WAZ) after adjusting for caregiver education level, income, child age, and child sex. A mediating effect by child ASF intake was evident, explaining 25% of the relationship of livestock ownership with child WAZ, by Sobel-Goodman test (p < .05). A trend towards significance was demonstrated for co-owned/female-owned livestock and height-for-age z score (HAZ), and no effect was apparent for weight-for-height z score (WHZ). The partial mediating effect may be indicative of other factors inherent in co-owned/female-owned livestock such as higher status of females in these households with greater influence over other child care practices promoting growth. Nonetheless, our study suggests

  19. Nanotechnology and patents in agriculture, food technology, nutrition and medicine - advantages and risks: worldwide patented nano- and absorber particles in food nutrition and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Benckiser, Gero

    2012-12-01

    The keywords nanotechnology, super absorber, agriculture, nutrition, and food technology exhibited 28,149 positive matches under more than 68 million patents worldwide. A closer look at the first 500 nanotechnology, agriculture, nutrition and biotechnology related patents, published during 2011-2012, unveiled that 64% are parts of machines and control devices while about 36% comprise metal oxides, fertilizers, pesticides and drugs, which are compounds and often applied in combination with inorganic or organic super absorbing polymeric structures. The latter compounds are in the focus of this special issue.

  20. The Impact of Child Nutrition Budget Cuts: A Look at the States and Selected School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lynn

    Presented in this paper are results from a study conducted by the Food Research and Action Center to examine the immediate impact of the 1981 cuts in federal support for child nutrition programs on states, selected school districts, and students. The first step of the study included a brief review of literature regarding the nutritional problems…

  1. Nutrition Education for Preschoolers: A Resource Guide for Use in the Child Care Food Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batko, Margaret W.; And Others

    Developed to assist child care providers in starting or maintaining a nutrition education program, this guide lists resources primarily directed toward adults who care for young children (2 to 5 years of age) and toward the children themselves. Over 90 entries concerning nutrition education materials have been included. Each resource has been…

  2. Federal Child Nutrition Programs Are Important to Rural Households. Issue Brief No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauchope, Barbara; Shattuck, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This brief, based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau, examines how rural families use four of the major federal child nutrition programs. It finds that 29 percent of rural families with children participate but that there are barriers to these nutrition programs, such as the lack of public transportation and high operating costs for rural schools…

  3. Maternal nutrition in rural Kenya: health and socio-demographic determinants and its association with child nutrition.

    PubMed

    Gewa, Constance A; Oguttu, Monica; Yandell, Nanette S

    2012-07-01

    High levels of food insecurity and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection place most breastfeeding mothers in Kenya at high risk of malnutrition. We examined the role of selected socio-economic, demographic and health factors as determinants of nutritional status among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in rural Kenya and further examined the interrelationship between maternal nutritional and child nutritional status within this population. A cross-sectional design was used to collect data from non-pregnant mothers with children ages 4-24 months in Kisumu District, Kenya. Over 80% of the mothers were breastfeeding at the time of the study. Mean maternal body mass index (BMI) (21.60 ± 3.15) and percent body fat (22.29 ± 4.86) values were lower than among lactating mothers in other Sub-Sahara African countries. Maternal HIV status was not significantly associated with any of the maternal nutritional indicators assessed in the study. Breastfeeding, recent severe illness and having multiple children below 2 years of age were negatively associated with maternal nutritional status, while higher maternal age, socio-economic status and household food security were each positively associated with maternal nutritional status. Significant positive association was reported between maternal weight, height, BMI, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), body fat and fat-free mass estimates, and children's height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-height and MUAC-for-age z-score. This analysis identifies determinants of maternal nutritional status in rural Kenya and highlights the importance of interventions that address malnutrition in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in rural Kenya. Significant association between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the importance of addressing maternal and young child nutritional status as interrelated factors.

  4. The Child and Adult Care Food Program and the Nutrition of Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin S.; Kaestner, Robert; Gordon, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    Children spend a considerable amount of time in preschools and child care centers. As a result, these settings may have an influence on their diet, weight, and food security, and are potentially important contexts for interventions to address nutritional health. The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) is one such intervention. No national…

  5. Nutrition and Meal Planning in Child-Care Programs: A Practical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelstein, Sari

    Designed to assist child care center managers in planning nutritious meals for children in centers or licensed home day care programs, this guide presents information on the nutritional requirements of infants and children, sample menus for child care centers, and resources for further information. The first part of the guide details the…

  6. Genetically Engineered Crops and Certified Organic Agriculture for Improving Nutrition Security in Africa and South Asia.

    PubMed

    Pray, Carl; Ledermann, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    In Africa and South Asia, where nutrition insecurity is severe, two of the most prominent production technologies are genetically modified (GM) crops and certified organic agriculture. We analyze the potential impact pathways from agricultural production to nutrition. Our review of data and the literature reveals increasing farm-level income from cash crop production as the main pathway by which organic agriculture and GM agriculture improve nutrition. Potential secondary pathways include reduced prices of important food crops like maize due to GM maize production and increased food production using organic technology. Potential tertiary pathways are improvements in health due to reduced insecticide use. Challenges to the technologies achieving their impact include the politics of GM agriculture and the certification costs of organic agriculture. Given the importance of agricultural production in addressing nutrition security, accentuated by the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, the chapter concludes by stressing the importance of private and public sector research in improving the productivity and adoption of both GM and organic crops. In addition, the chapter reminds readers that increased farm income and productivity require complementary investments in health, education, food access and women's empowerment to actually improve nutrition security.

  7. 7 CFR 227.37 - State plan for nutrition education and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State plan for nutrition education and training. 227... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM State Coordinator Provisions § 227.37 State plan for nutrition education and training. (a)...

  8. 7 CFR Appendix to Part 227 - Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and Training

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Pt. 227, App. Appendix to Part 227—Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and...

  9. 7 CFR Appendix to Part 227 - Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and Training

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Pt. 227, App. Appendix to Part 227—Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and...

  10. 7 CFR 220.8 - Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for breakfasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.8 Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for breakfasts. (a) What are the nutrition standards...

  11. 7 CFR 227.37 - State plan for nutrition education and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State plan for nutrition education and training. 227... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM State Coordinator Provisions § 227.37 State plan for nutrition education and training. (a)...

  12. 7 CFR Appendix to Part 227 - Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and Training

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Pt. 227, App. Appendix to Part 227—Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and...

  13. 7 CFR Appendix to Part 227 - Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and Training

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Pt. 227, App. Appendix to Part 227—Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and...

  14. 7 CFR 220.8 - Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for breakfasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.8 Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for breakfasts. (a) What are the nutrition standards...

  15. 7 CFR 227.37 - State plan for nutrition education and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State plan for nutrition education and training. 227... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM State Coordinator Provisions § 227.37 State plan for nutrition education and training. (a)...

  16. 7 CFR 227.37 - State plan for nutrition education and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State plan for nutrition education and training. 227... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM State Coordinator Provisions § 227.37 State plan for nutrition education and training. (a)...

  17. 7 CFR Appendix to Part 227 - Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and Training

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Pt. 227, App. Appendix to Part 227—Apportionment of Funds for Nutrition Education and...

  18. 7 CFR 227.37 - State plan for nutrition education and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State plan for nutrition education and training. 227... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM State Coordinator Provisions § 227.37 State plan for nutrition education and training. (a)...

  19. Malnutrition in the Critically Ill Child: The Importance of Enteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Marta Botrán; Cid, Jesús López-Herce

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition affects 50% of hospitalized children and 25–70% of the critically ill children. It increases the incidence of complications and mortality. Malnutrition is associated with an altered metabolism of certain substrates, increased metabolism and catabolism depending on the severity of the lesion, and reduced nutrient delivery. The objective should be to administer individualized nutrition to the critically ill child and to be able to adjust the nutrition continuously according to the metabolic changes and evolving nutritional status. It would appear reasonable to start enteral nutrition within the first 24 to 48 hours after admission, when oral feeding is not possible. Parenteral nutrition should only be used when enteral nutrition is contraindicated or is not tolerated. Energy delivery must be individually adjusted to energy expenditure (40–65 kcal/100 calories metabolized/day) with a protein delivery of 2.5–3 g/kg/day. Frequent monitoring of nutritional and metabolic parameters should be performed. PMID:22163211

  20. [Preventing maternal and child malnutrition: the nutrition component of the Mesoamerican Health Initiative 2015].

    PubMed

    Rivera, Juan A; Martorell, Reynaldo; González, Wendy; Lutter, Chessa; Cossío, Teresa González de; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Uauy, Ricardo; Delgado, Hernán

    2011-01-01

    To describe the regional master plan of nutrition to address maternal and child malnutrition in a 5- year period developed by the Nutrition Technical Group. The Nutrition Technical Group developed a situation analysis describing the main nutrition problems, policies and programs in Mesoamerica. The situation analysis and a literature review about effective interventions to address malnutrition were conducted to develop a nutrition master plan. The Nutrition Technical Group held various meetings to develop, discuss and validate the master plan. Theory of change identified problems and barriers, the actions to be developed, the changes and impacts expected. A package of interventions is proposed to reduce undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies useful under different epidemiological contexts. The nutrition master plan provides a guideline of best practices that can be used for evidence-informed decision making and the development of national policies and programs to reduce malnutrition.

  1. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CASH IN LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult...

  2. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CASH IN LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult...

  3. Nutritional Needs of the Child with a Handicap or Chronic Illness. Manual II: Clinical Nutrition. Presentations from a National Interdisciplinary Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekvall, Shirley M.; Wheby, Elizabeth A.

    The following papers were presented at a symposium on clinical nutrition for the child who is chronically ill or handicapped: (1) "Food Allergy"; (2) "Anemia and the Chronically Ill or Handicapped Child"; (3) "Nutrition and Neurotransmitters--Clinical Implications"; (4) "The Importance of Lipid Type in the Diet after Burn Injury"; (5) "Advances of…

  4. Child labor in agriculture: some new developments to an ancient problem.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Dorianne

    2012-01-01

    Advocates for working children worldwide strive to eradicate the employment that minimizes a child's opportunities for education, good health and future potential. In agriculture, some promising developments in corporate social responsibility may generate partial solutions to child labor problems that have persisted for generations across world regions where food, fiber and fuel are produced. The purpose of this paper is to review these promising developments and propose recommendations in the context of a future of continued agricultural globalization and industrialization.

  5. Disclosure of children's free and reduced price meals and free milk eligibility information in the child nutrition programs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-03-12

    This final rule establishes requirements for the disclosure of children's free and reduced price meals or free milk eligibility information under the Child Nutrition Programs. The Child Nutrition Programs include the National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program, Special Milk Program, Summer Food Service Program, and Child and Adult Care Food Program. Within certain limitations, children's free and reduced price meal or free milk eligibility information may be disclosed, without parental/guardian consent, to persons directly connected to certain education programs, health programs, means-tested nutrition programs, the Comptroller General of the United States, and some law enforcement officials. Additionally, officials also may disclose children's free and reduced price meal or free milk eligibility information to persons directly connected with State Medicaid (Medicaid) and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) when parents/guardians do not decline to have their information disclosed. These regulations affect State agencies and local program operators that administer the Child Nutrition Programs and households which apply for and/or are approved for free and reduced price meals or free milk. The final rule reflects the disclosure provisions of the Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act of 1994 and comments received on the proposed rule published in anticipation of implementing those provisions. Additionally, this final rule includes the regulatory disclosure provisions implementing the Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000 and comments received on the interim rule issued to implement those provisions. This final rule also implements nondiscretionary provisions of the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004, allowing certain third party contractors access to children's eligibility status and will allow school officials to communicate with Medicaid and SCHIP officials to verify that children are eligible for free and reduced

  6. The Sustainable Development Goals cannot be achieved without improving maternal and child nutrition.

    PubMed

    Baye, Kaleab

    2017-02-01

    Poor nutrition is a global pandemic with social, economic, and environmental causes and consequences. Of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), only SDG2 explicitly mentions nutrition. Turning the aspirations of the SDGs into reality will require recognition that good nutrition ensured through sustainable agriculture, is simultaneously an absolutely fundamental input and output. Because all of the other SDGs are directly or indirectly linked to improving nutrition, funding to improve nutrition is essential to success for many SDGs. Greater focus on cooperation across disciplines to advance the science of program delivery and to understand the full contribution of nutrition to many desirable outcomes as part of development are surely the ways forward. Missing today's opportunities to advance thinking and program implementation for more effectively improving nutrition for all, especially for women and children, will lead to a wider failure to meet the SDGs.

  7. The role of nutrition in integrated early child development in the 21st century: contribution from the Maternal and Child Nutrition journal.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Moran, Victoria Hall

    2017-01-01

    Even though it is widely recognized that early childhood development (ECD) is one of the most important predictors of future social capital and national productivity, the recently published ECD Lancet Series reports that about 250 million children under 5 years are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential, mainly as a result of poverty and social injustice. So why is this and what will it take to reverse this situation? The purpose of this special issue is to highlight important contributions from previously published articles in Maternal & Child Nutrition to the field of nutrition and ECD. The collection of papers presented in this special issue collectively indicates that although nutrition-specific interventions are essential for child development, they are not sufficient by themselves for children to reach their full developmental potential. This is because ECD is influenced by many other factors besides nutrition, including hand washing/sanitation, parenting skills, psychosocial stimulation, and social protection. Future research should focus on mixed-methods implementation science seeking to understand how best to translate evidence-based integrated ECD packages into effective intersectoral policies and programs on a large scale. In addition to health and nutrition, these programs need to consider and include responsive parenting (including responsive feeding), learning stimulation, education, and social protection. Future studies should also address if and how childhood obesity affects human physical, socioemotional, and cognitive development.

  8. Psychiatric agriculture: systemic nutritional modification and mental health in the developing world.

    PubMed

    London, Douglas S; Stoll, Andrew L; Manning, Bruce B

    2006-01-01

    Modernization of agricultural systems to increase output causes changes to the nutritional content of food entire populations consume. Human nutritional needs differ from their "food", thus producing healthy agricultural products is not equivalent to providing agricultural products that are healthy for humans. Inclusion of the food production system as a factor in the increase of neuropsychiatric disorders and other chronic diseases helps explain negative trends in modern chronic diseases that remain unchecked despite stunning advances in modern medicine. Diseases in which our own technology plays a significant role include obesity and resulting disorders, such as diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and arthritis. Modernization's lure leads to importation of modern agricultural practices into a nutritionally vulnerable, malnourished and sometimes starving developing world. Wealthier nations hedge their food portfolio by having access to a wider variety of foods. The developing world's reliance on staple foods means even a minor widespread nutritional modification of one key food can have profound effects. New agricultural techniques may improve or exacerbate neuropsychiatric disorders through nutritional modification in regions where populations walk a nutritional tightrope with little margin for error. In most of the developing world western psychiatric interventions have failed to make inroads. People's consumption of fish has a demonstrated beneficial effect on their mental health and the omega-3 fatty acid content is a significant factor. Epidemiological, biological and agricultural studies implicate a lack of dietary omega-3s as a factor in certain mental disorders. Replenishing omega-3s has improved mental illnesses in controlled clinical trials. This article's detailed tilapia fish-farming model demonstrates how aquaculture/agriculture techniques can function as a public health intervention by increasing dietary omega-3s through creation of

  9. Nutritional Assessment of the Young Child with Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fee, Maureen A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy sometimes display nutritional inadequacy, as evaluated through anthropometric measurements and laboratory values. Causes of poor nutritional status include inadequate calories offered or adequate calories offered but not consumed. Inadequate caloric retention may be due to vomiting, rumination, or gastroesophageal…

  10. Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Family Child Care Homes in Oregon: Baseline Findings from the Healthy Home Child Care Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Katherine B.; Rice, Kelly R.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2012-01-01

    Baseline findings from the Healthy Home Child Care Project include data from Family Child Care Providers (FCCPs) in Oregon (n=53) who completed assessments of nutrition and physical activity policies and practices and BMI data for children in the care of FCCPs (n=205). Results show that a significant percentage of FCCPs failed to meet child care…

  11. 7 CFR 210.10 - Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for lunches and requirements for afterschool...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for... Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION... Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for lunches and requirements for afterschool snacks....

  12. 7 CFR 210.10 - Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for lunches and requirements for afterschool...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for... Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION... Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for lunches and requirements for afterschool snacks....

  13. Maternal social capital and child nutritional status in four developing countries.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Mary J; Harpham, Trudy

    2007-06-01

    Social capital has been shown to be positively associated with a range of health outcomes, yet no studies have explored the association between maternal social capital and child nutritional status. Using data from the Young Lives study comprising 7242 1-year-old children from Peru, Ethiopia, Vietnam and the state of Andhra Pradesh in India, we find significant differences in the levels of, in particular, structural social capital (group membership and citizenship) between countries. While few associations were found between structural measures of social capital, support from individuals and cognitive social capital (e.g. trust, social harmony) displayed fairly consistent positive associations with child nutritional status across countries.

  14. Shared Principles of Ethics for Infant and Young Child Nutrition in the Developing World

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The defining event in the area of infant feeding is the aggressive marketing of infant formula in the developing world by transnational companies in the 1970s. This practice shattered the trust of the global health community in the private sector, culminated in a global boycott of Nestle products and has extended to distrust of all commercial efforts to improve infant and young child nutrition. The lack of trust is a key barrier along the critical path to optimal infant and young child nutrition in the developing world. Discussion To begin to bridge this gap in trust, we developed a set of shared principles based on the following ideals: Integrity; Solidarity; Justice; Equality; Partnership, cooperation, coordination, and communication; Responsible Activity; Sustainability; Transparency; Private enterprise and scale-up; and Fair trading and consumer choice. We hope these principles can serve as a platform on which various parties in the in the infant and young child nutrition arena, can begin a process of authentic trust-building that will ultimately result in coordinated efforts amongst parties. Summary A set of shared principles of ethics for infant and young child nutrition in the developing world could catalyze the scale-up of low cost, high quality, complementary foods for infants and young children, and eventually contribute to the eradication of infant and child malnutrition in the developing world. PMID:20529339

  15. 7 CFR 215.13a - Determining eligibility for free milk in child-care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... application. The social security number is not required when you apply on behalf of a foster child or you list... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining eligibility for free milk in child-care... AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM...

  16. 7 CFR 215.13a - Determining eligibility for free milk in child-care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cannot approve your child for free milk. You must include the last four digits of the social security... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining eligibility for free milk in child-care... AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM...

  17. 7 CFR 215.13a - Determining eligibility for free milk in child-care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... application. The social security number is not required when you apply on behalf of a foster child or you list... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining eligibility for free milk in child-care... AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM...

  18. 7 CFR 215.13a - Determining eligibility for free milk in child-care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... application. The social security number is not required when you apply on behalf of a foster child or you list... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining eligibility for free milk in child-care... AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM...

  19. Recent applications of DNA sequencing technologies in food, nutrition and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Liu, George E

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation DNA sequencing technologies are able to produce millions of short sequence reads in a highthroughput, cost-effective fashion. The emergence of these technologies has not only facilitated genome sequencing but also changed the landscape of life sciences. This review surveys their recent applications in food, nutrition and agriculture ranging from whole-genome sequencing and resequencing, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq, structural, functional and comparative genomics to metagenomics and epigenetics. We already began to witness broad impacts of these DNA sequencing technologies for solving the complex biological problems in food, nutrition and agriculture. In this article, recent patent-based information is also included.

  20. Food parenting practices and their association with child nutrition risk status: comparing mothers and fathers.

    PubMed

    Watterworth, Jessica Charlotte; Mackay, Joy Miranda; Buchholz, Andrea C; Darlington, Gerarda; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Ma, David W L; Haines, Jess

    2017-02-14

    In Canada, little is known about how food parenting practices are associated with young children's dietary intakes and no studies have examined food parenting practices of Canadian fathers. This study aimed to examine associations between food parenting practices and preschool-age children's nutrition risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 31 two-parent families; 31 mothers, 31 fathers and 40 preschool-age children. Parents completed an adapted version of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. We calculated children's nutrition risk using their NutriSTEP® score. To account for sibling association, we used generalized estimating equations, adjusting for child age, sex, household income, and parental BMI. Both mothers' and fathers' involvement of children in meal preparation were associated with lower child nutrition risk (mother β=-3.45, p=0.02; father β=-1.74, p=0.01), as were their healthy home environment scores (mother β=-8.36, p<0.001; father β=-2.69, p=0.04). Mothers' encouragement of balance and variety was associated with lower nutrition risk (β=-8.88, p=0.01), whereas mothers' use of food as a reward was associated with higher nutrition risk (β=4.67, p<0.001). Fathers' modeling of healthy behaviours was associated with lower nutrition risk (β=-2.21, p=0.01), whereas fathers' restriction for health (β=2.21, p=0.03) and pressure-to-eat scores (β=3.26, p=<0.001) were associated with higher nutrition risk. No associations were found between child nutrition status and parental emotion regulation, control, monitoring, nor restriction for weight. In conclusion, both mothers' and fathers' food parenting practices are associated with their children's nutrition status. Fathers should be included in food parenting practices interventions.

  1. Supporting the goals and ideals of Global Child Nutrition Month.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Emerson, Jo Ann [R-MO-8

    2010-03-19

    06/18/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Department Operations, Oversight, Nutrition and Forestry. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Agricultural, Nutritional, and Physical Fitness Policies That Support National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    this seminal factor.42 It is common anthropological knowledge that prior to the Neolithic revolution, pre-historic or Paleolithic humans were nomadic...the environment.59 In contrast to what Paleolithic and Neolithic humans would face when they ate naturally occurring food sources, this risk has...calories then contribute to an increase in the likelihood of weight gain. 14 A comparative analysis of the nutrition practices between Paleolithic

  3. Sustainable development in agriculture, food and nutrition--a patent analysis.

    PubMed

    Vani, Kohila P; Doble, Mukesh

    2011-05-01

    The paper discusses the patents that have been filed in the areas of sustainable development in agriculture, food and nutrition and use of natural resources in achieving this goal. A large number of patents deal with the production of fertilizers from animal manure, plant sources and other organic wastes, which are more sustainable that the chemical fertilizers that are being currently used. Sustainability in agriculture is achieved in developing processes for the manufacture of biopesticides/insecticides and bioactive agricultural products. Development of novel sustainable agricultural processes has also been the focus of researchers and technologists. Plant derived nutritious food products are sustainable and can cater for the growing population burden. This has been the focus of several patents. Processes for enhancing the nutrition in food also serve the purpose of catering for the under nourished population.

  4. Position of the American Dietetic Association: child and adolescent nutrition assistance programs.

    PubMed

    Stang, Jamie; Bayerl, Cynthia Taft

    2010-05-01

    t is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children and adolescents should have access to an adequate supply of healthful and safe foods that promote optimal physical, cognitive, and social growth and development. Nutrition assistance programs, such as food assistance and meal service programs and nutrition education initiatives, play a vital role in meeting this critical need. Nutrition assistance programs create a safety net that ensures that children and adolescents at risk for poor nutritional intakes have access to a safe, adequate, and nutritious food supply. Federally funded nutrition assistance programs help ensure that children and adolescents receive meals that provide adequate energy and nutrients to meet their growth and development needs; children and adolescents have access to adequate food supplies; and women, infants, and children who have nutritional or medical risk factors, such as iron-deficiency anemia or overweight, receive supplemental nutritious foods as well as nutrition education. In addition, federally funded nutrition assistance programs serve as a means to combat hunger and food insecurity and as a vehicle for nutrition education and promotion of physical activity designed to prevent or reduce obesity and chronic disease. It is important that continued funding be provided for these programs that have been consistently shown to have a positive influence on child and adolescent well-being. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, are uniquely qualified to design, implement, and evaluate nutrition assistance programs for children and adolescents. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, are the only food and nutrition practitioners with adequate training in food science, nutrition, and food systems to implement research and surveillance programs to monitor, evaluate, and improve the nutritional status of children and adolescents.

  5. Child Nutritional Status by Rural/Urban Residence: A Cross-National Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Kiira; Heaton, Tim B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural children in developing countries have poor health outcomes in comparison with urban children. This paper considers 4 questions regarding the rural/urban difference, namely: (1) do individual-level characteristics account for rural/urban differences in child nutritional status; (2) do community-level characteristics account for…

  6. Evaluating the Impact of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on Child Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Meenakshi M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…

  7. Evaluating the Impacts of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on Child Health. PRGS Dissertation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Meenakshi Maria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…

  8. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  9. Formative research methods for designing culturally appropriate, integrated child nutrition and development interventions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Margaret E; Johnson, Susan L; Wasser, Heather; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Shroff, Monal; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Cunningham, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term effects on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of an individual's fullest potential, therefore, requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than 20 years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component in the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study--the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate, integrated interventions.

  10. Formative research methods for designing culturally appropriate, integrated child nutrition and development interventions: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Margaret E.; Johnson, Susan L.; Wasser, Heather; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Shroff, Monal; Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Cunningham, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term impacts on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of the individual's fullest potential therefore requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than twenty years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component to the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study—the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate integrated interventions. PMID:24673167

  11. Impact of the economic crisis and increase in food prices on child mortality: exploring nutritional pathways.

    PubMed

    Christian, Parul

    2010-01-01

    The current economic crisis and food price increase may have a widespread impact on the nutritional and health status of populations, especially in the developing world. Gains in child survival over the past few decades are likely to be threatened and millennium development goals will be harder to achieve. Beyond starvation, which is one of the causes of death in famine situations, there are numerous nutritional pathways by which childhood mortality can increase. These include increases in childhood wasting and stunting, intrauterine growth restriction, and micronutrient deficiencies such as that of vitamin A, iron, and zinc when faced with a food crisis and decreased food availability. These pathways are elucidated and described. Although estimates of the impact of the current crisis on child mortality are yet to be made, data from previous economic crises provide evidence of an increase in childhood mortality that we review. The current situation also emphasizes that there are vast segments of the world's population living in a situation of chronic food insecurity that are likely to be disproportionately affected by an economic crisis. Nutritional and health surveillance data are urgently needed in such populations to monitor both the impacts of a crisis and of interventions. Addressing the nutritional needs of children and women in response to the present crisis is urgent. But, ensuring that vulnerable populations are also targeted with known nutritional interventions at all times is likely to have a substantial impact on child mortality.

  12. Colorado Communique: Publication of the Child Nutrition Unit, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Kay, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of a newsletter published during 1998. The newsletter discusses topics pertinent to school food service and providing nutrition for elementary school students. The February/March issue discusses exemptions under the Competitive Foods Regulation, celebrating cultural diversity in cafeteria menus, and…

  13. African American Child-Women: Nutrition Theory Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha

    2006-01-01

    Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…

  14. Screening Children for Nutritional Status: Suggestions for Child Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Rockville, MD. Maternal and Child Health Service.

    This report details two screening programs aimed at determining childhood nutritional problems within a given community. Discussed in section I is a simplified screening approach which involves gathering information about the frequency of specific food stuffs and food nutrients in the community; obtaining family demographic and dietary information…

  15. 7 CFR 220.23 - Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for breakfasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for... AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.23 Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for breakfasts. (a) What are the...

  16. 7 CFR 220.23 - Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for breakfasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for... AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.23 Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for breakfasts. (a) What are the...

  17. Pediatric obesity in Texas: does the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy affect child nutrition?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant increase in the incidence of pediatric obesity has been reported in Texas. This study evaluated how effectively the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy promoted the understanding of proper nutrition by fourth-grade school children and their parents in three school districts in Bell Co...

  18. Reducing stunting by improving maternal, infant and young child nutrition in regions such as South Asia: evidence, challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Meeting the high nutrient needs of pregnant and lactating women and their young children in regions such as South Asia is challenging because diets are dominated by staple foods with low nutrient density and poor mineral bioavailability. Gaps in nutritional adequacy in such populations probably date back to the agricultural revolution ~10 000 years ago. Options for improving diets during the first 1000 days include dietary diversification and increased intake of nutrient‐rich foods, improved complementary feeding practices, micronutrient supplements and fortified foods or products specifically designed for these target groups. Evidence from intervention trials indicates that several of these strategies, both prenatal and post‐natal, can have a positive impact on child growth, but results are mixed and a growth response is not always observed. Nutrition interventions, by themselves, may not result in the desired impact if the target population suffers from frequent infection, both clinical and subclinical. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying both prenatal and post‐natal growth restriction. In the meantime, implementation and rigorous evaluation of integrated interventions that address the multiple causes of stunting is a high priority. These intervention packages should ideally include improved nutrition during both pregnancy and the post‐natal period, prevention and control of prenatal and post‐natal infection and subclinical conditions that restrict growth, care for women and children and stimulation of early child development. In regions such as South Asia, such strategies hold great promise for reducing stunting and enhancing human capital formation. PMID:27187908

  19. Age-appropriate infant and young child feeding practices are associated with child nutrition in India: insights from nationally representative data.

    PubMed

    Menon, Purnima; Bamezai, Apurva; Subandoro, Ali; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Aguayo, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Age-appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are critical to child nutrition. The objective of this paper was to examine the associations between age-appropriate IYCF practices and child nutrition outcomes in India using data from ∼18 463 children of 0-23.9 months old from India's National Family Health Survey, 2005-06-3. The outcome measures were child height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), weight-for-height z-score, stunting, underweight and wasting. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used, accounting for the clustered survey data. Regression models were adjusted for child, maternal, and household characteristics, and state and urban/rural residence. The analyses indicate that in India suboptimal IYCF practices are associated with poor nutrition outcomes in children. Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding were not associated with any of the nutrition outcomes considered. Not consuming any solid or semi-solid foods at 6-8.9 months was associated with being underweight (P < 0.05). The diet diversity score and achieving minimum diet diversity (≥4 food groups) for children 6-23 months of age were most strongly and significantly associated with HAZ, WAZ, stunting and underweight (P < 0.05). Maternal characteristics were also strongly associated with child undernutrition. In summary, poor IYCF practices, particularly poor complementary foods and feeding practices, are associated with poor child nutrition outcomes in India, particularly linear growth.

  20. Integrating nutrition and child development interventions: scientific basis, evidence of impact, and implementation considerations.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez

    2015-11-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5.

  1. Nutritional and growth issues related to child neglect.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Drennen, Chloe R

    2014-11-01

    Child neglect and obesity are major public health problems that undermine children's health and contribute to lifelong disparities. Most of the past research has focused on relations between child neglect and failure to thrive. This article finds that evidence linking child neglect with obesity is mixed. In a recent meta-analysis, five of the eight studies reviewed did not find an increased risk of obesity among neglected children. The case study and three longitudinal studies that reported a relationship between neglect and obesity were conducted among young children, and used caregiver or teacher/clinician definitions of neglect, rather than referrals to state protective service agencies. Dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system associated with neglect has been implicated, but further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that may increase children's risk for obesity. Findings suggest that under some conditions neglect may increase the risk for excessive weight gain, and that high body mass index may be an indicator of possible neglect. By exploring both possibilities, clinicians can promote children's healthy growth and development and prevent subsequent health disparities.

  2. The effects of maternal education on child nutritional status depend on socio-environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Reed, B A; Habicht, J P; Niameogo, C

    1996-06-01

    To clarify the inconsistent findings of earlier studies of the association between maternal education and child nutritional status, data collected on 435 children 13-36 months of age from 41 rural communities in Benin were analyzed. It was hypothesized that maternal education would exert a stronger effect in households of intermediate socioeconomic status, where formal education would equip mothers to make decisions about the allocation of limited resources, than in villages where resources were either inadequate or overabundant. Socio-environmental rankings of village wealth were used to divide the sample into three socioeconomic categories. As hypothesized, a significant (p 0.01) linear relationship between maternal education and child weight-for-age existed only in the middle socioeconomic group. Overall, child nutritional status showed a general improvement up to the Level 3 category (3-4 years) of maternal education, then declined in Levels 4 and 5 (highest). It is speculated that the decline in nutritional status observed among children of the most educated mothers reflects the tendency of these women to be employed, with child care responsibilities allocated to an older sibling. Needed are studies that identify the factors in well-educated mothers' lives that compromise their ability to use that education to advance the health of their children.

  3. The declaration of nutrition, health, and intelligence for the child-to-be.

    PubMed

    Katzen-Luchenta, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The Declaration of Nutrition, Health, and Intelligence for the Child-to-be is an urgent cry from the unborn child for a life-span of nutrients for physical and mental wellness. It is a proclamation of paramount importance for everyone involved in child development: parents, health professionals, teachers, government agencies, all producers of food--and children, so they may learn how to feed themselves well. The Declaration of Olympia on Nutrition and Fitness, 1996, came from a group pf nutritional scientists and medical doctors to commemorate the Olympic Games' 100th anniversary. They based it on the health principles of Hippocrates: genetics, the age of the individual, the powers of various foods, and exercise. Following today's vast wealth of nutritional research and expressing it with my teaching experience, I have revitalized the Declaration of Olympia by writing from the heart of the little learner and the hope of the child-to-be. The nutrients implicated in healthy reproduction and lifelong health include B vitamins, particularly B1, B6, folate, B1312 antioxidants, particularly vitamins C and E: minerals such as iron, zinc, magnesium, selenium, iodine, and copper; and essential fatty acids, particularly DHA. These nutrients also lower the risk of neural tube defects: autism, dyslexia, Down's syndrome: childhood cancers, obesity, and defective fetal cell membranes associated with maternal diabetes. Our metabolism is hugely influenced also by activity and by affection. Today's foods are often processed beyond the cells' recognition and can result in neurological and physical morbidity and mortality. A diet of unprocessed free-range animals and seafood: legumes, deep-colored vegetables and fruits: nuts, seeds, and whole grains, germ and bran, reinstates nutritional potency.

  4. Child Labour in Urban Agriculture: The Case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlozi, Malongo R. S.

    1995-01-01

    Urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam was found to use child labor of both children with parents of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES). Discusses policy implications and calls for the education of parents of lower SES not to expect an economic contribution from their children's labor, and the education of children about their rights. (LZ)

  5. 7 CFR 240.8 - Payments to program schools, service institutions, nonresidential child care institutions and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... child care institutions by FNSRO's in the same manner. (b) Unless the school food authority of a..., nonresidential child care institutions and commodity schools. 240.8 Section 240.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD...

  6. The Popeye principle: selling child health in the first nutrition crisis.

    PubMed

    Lovett, Laura

    2005-10-01

    The cartoon character Popeye the Sailor was capable of superhuman feats of strength after eating a can of spinach. Popeye ate spinach because the association of spinach with strength was a product of the first national nutrition crisis in the United States: the 1920s fight against child malnutrition. Spanning the first three decades of the twentieth century, the malnutrition crisis arose from the confluence of many different events including the invention of nutrition science and new standards for height and weight; international food crises created by world war; the rise of consumerism, advertising, and new forms of mass media; and Progressive reformers' conviction that education was a key component of any solution. The history of the malnutrition crisis presented in this essay synthesizes disparate histories concerning advertising, public health, education, consumerism, philanthropy, and Progressive Era reform with original analysis of a major nutrition education program sponsored by the Commonwealth Fund in the 1920s. Because the character of Popeye came to embody one of the nutritional norms advocated in the 1920s, I refer to the influence of culturally constructed social norms on children's beliefs about health and nutrition as the Popeye Principle. The history of the malnutrition crisis demonstrates the importance of understanding the cultural and economic conditions surrounding childhood nutrition, the use and influence of numerical norms, and the mutually reinforcing influences on children's nutritional norms from their parents, peers, teachers, and culture.

  7. Nutrition Education, Part One. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Domestic Marketing, Consumer Relations, and Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    These meetings of the House Subcommittee on Agriculture were held to discuss the state of public health and its relation to good nutrition. The education of consumers was the prime focus, and witnesses before the committee were nutrition experts and consumers, who expressed their concerns, demands, and needs. (JD)

  8. Nutritional requirements of the child and teenage athlete.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Anne Z; Goossen, Katie; Kretschmer, Tricia

    2008-05-01

    There has been an explosion in sports participation, especially for women, in the last 35 years mainly because of Title IX. In 2005-2006, nearly 3 million girls and 4.2 million boys participated in high school athletics, and many more participated in club sports and recreational activities. On the other end of the spectrum, the prevalence of obesity in the United States is at an all-time high. Proper nutrition in combination with the appropriate amount of physical activity is of paramount importance for this era of adolescents.

  9. Public opinion on nutrition-related policies to combat child obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011.

    PubMed

    Simon, Paul A; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret

    2014-06-05

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurants and convenience stores (44% and 37%, respectively). Support for food and beverage advertising restrictions and soda taxation is promising for future policy efforts to address child obesity.

  10. The role of enriched foods in infant and child nutrition.

    PubMed

    Shamah, Teresa; Villalpando, Salvador

    2006-08-01

    Since the last century, fortified and enriched foods are products whose original composition has been modified-through addition of essential nutrients-to satisfy specific population needs. For the fortification of foods to have a positive impact on nutritional status, the micronutrients added must be well absorbed and utilized by the organism (bioavailability). Diverse factors affect bioavailability, such as the nutritional status of individuals, the presence in the diet of substances which facilitate or inhibit its absorption, interactions among micronutrients, illnesses, and chemical characteristics of the compound used for fortification. In countries such as Chile, Venezuela and Mexico, important effects have been demonstrated in reducing iron deficiency anaemia in children under 5 years of age. In less than a decade, the salt iodization programme has also proven its effectiveness. Other programmes have fortified foods with Zn, vitamin A and folic acid, which are deficient in infants and children of many populations. In summary, food fortification is a low-cost, relatively simple strategy that may reach a wide range of people, and contribute to reducing the high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies affecting children, especially in poor countries. The costs due to losses of human capital and their repercussions on health and future development are very high. Building links among academic researchers, politicians, food manufacturers and consumers is essential in order for food fortification to be efficacious and effective, and therefore should be considered as part of an integral strategy to combat micronutrient deficiencies.

  11. Impacts of domestic violence on child growth and nutrition: a conceptual review of the pathways of influence.

    PubMed

    Yount, Kathryn M; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2011-05-01

    Domestic violence against women is a global problem, and young children are disproportionate witnesses. Children's exposure to domestic violence (CEDV) predicts poorer health and development, but its effects on nutrition and growth are understudied. We propose a conceptual framework for the pathways by which domestic violence against mothers may impair child growth and nutrition, prenatally and during the first 36 months of life. We synthesize literatures from multiple disciplines and critically review the evidence for each pathway. Our review exposes gaps in knowledge and opportunities for research. The framework also identifies interim strategies to mitigate the effects of CEDV on child growth and nutrition. Given the global burden of child malnutrition and its long-term effects on human-capital formation, improving child growth and nutrition may be another reason to prevent domestic violence and its cascading after-effects.

  12. The Child and Adult Care Food Program and the Nutrition of Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin S; Kaestner, Robert; Gordon, Rachel A

    2013-01-01

    Children spend a considerable amount of time in preschools and child care centers. As a result, these settings may have an influence on their diet, weight, and food security, and are potentially important contexts for interventions to address nutritional health. The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) is one such intervention. No national study has compared nutrition-related outcomes of children in CACFP-participating centers to those of similar children in non-participating centers. We use a sample of four-year old children drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort to obtain estimates of associations between CACFP program participation and consumption of milk, fruits, vegetables, fast food, and sweets, and indicators of overweight, underweight status and food insecurity. We find that, among low-income children, CACFP participation moderately increases consumption of milk and vegetables, and may also reduce the prevalence of overweight and underweight. Effects on other outcomes are generally small and not statistically significant.

  13. A qualitative study of beliefs about food relating to child nutrition in the Lower Jimi Valley.

    PubMed

    Keeble, Jessica; Keeble, Richard

    2006-01-01

    A previous study that we carried out confirmed that malnutrition is a problem amongst the young child population in the Lower Jimi Valley. This study begins to explore the cultural and traditional food beliefs in order to target the interventions of health services in reducing childhood malnutrition. The study was undertaken during maternal and child health clinics conducted on a foot patrol from Koinambe Health Centre in the villages of Kompiai, Komengwai, Kupeng, Injim and Kwiama. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with small groups of women to uncover beliefs regarding nutrition and feeding during pregnancy, infancy and childhood. This study has highlighted practices that nutritionally disadvantage young children. The four most significant are late weaning, restriction of foods, infrequency of feeding and the low priority given to children during meal times. It is suggested that it is the use, control and distribution of food, rather than its shortage, that contribute most significantly to the problem of childhood malnutrition in this area.

  14. Women's empowerment and child nutritional status in South Asia: a synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Kenda; Ruel, Marie; Ferguson, Elaine; Uauy, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Women's disempowerment is hypothesised to contribute to high rates of undernutrition among South Asian children. However, evidence for this relationship has not been systematically reviewed. This review of empirical studies aims to: (1) synthesise the evidence linking women's empowerment and child nutritional status in South Asia and (2) suggest directions for future research. We systematically searched Global Health, Embase (classic and Ovid), MEDLINE, Campbell Collaboration, Popline, Eldis, Web of Science, EconLit and Scopus. We generated 1661 studies for abstract and title screening. We full-text screened 44 of these, plus 10 additional studies the authors were aware of. Only 12 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We included English materials published between 1990 and 2012 that examined the relationship(s) of at least one women's empowerment domain and nutritional status among South Asian children. Data were extracted and synthesised within three domains of empowerment: control of resources and autonomy, workload and time, and social support. The results showed women's empowerment to be generally associated with child anthropometry, but the findings are mixed. Inter-study differences in population characteristics, settings or methods/conceptualisations of women's empowerment, and the specific domains studied, likely contributed to these inconsistencies. This review also highlights that different women's empowerment domains may relate differently to child nutritional status. Future research should aim to harmonise definitions of women's empowerment, which key domains it should include, and how it is measured. Rigorous evaluation work is also needed to establish which policies and programmes facilitate women's empowerment and in turn, foster child nutritional well-being.

  15. [Bolsa Família Program and child nutritional status: strategic challenges].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloíza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2011-07-01

    The main nutritional deficiencies during childhood, namely anemia and malnutrition, are predominantly related to socio-economic factors. Thus, as the Bolsa Família Program (BFP) is the main policy to combat poverty, it is expected that it will have an impact on child nutrition. The aim was to analyze the differences in the nutritional situation of children registered with the BFP of a municipality located in Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais state. 446 children aged between 6 and 84 months were evaluated, of which 262 were non-beneficiaries and 184 were beneficiaries. Nutritional evaluation included analysis of weight and height parameters through weight/age, weight/height, height/age and Body Mass Index/age indexes and hemoglobin levels, using the Hemocue. The prevalence of anemia, short stature and obesity were 22.6, 6.3 and 5.2%, respectively, and there were no statistical differences between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. The beneficiary group initially had worse socio-economic conditions, but with the BFP it managed to financially match the non-beneficiary group. It is possible that the similarity between the two groups, also in the nutritional status, can be attributed to the program benefits, due to the financial funding as well as to the nutritional monitoring required as a condition of the program.

  16. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    PubMed

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact.

  17. Associations between women's autonomy and child nutritional status: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Gwen J; Kordas, Katarzyna; Murray-Kolb, Laura E

    2015-10-01

    Around the world, many women continue to experience low levels of autonomy. Recent literature has reported that the health consequences of low maternal autonomy extend beyond mothers and translate into health consequences for their children, and may be an important causal factor in child malnutrition. This review summarises the current knowledge of the relationship between maternal autonomy and children's nutritional status (defined as any measure that reflects the nutritional state of the body, such as birthweight or anthropometric scores) and child-feeding practices. The review also includes both discussion of the limitations found in the literature and directions for future research. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Results of the studies included in the review strongly suggest that raising maternal autonomy is an important goal for improving children's nutritional status, yet gaps in the current knowledge exist, further confounded by issues with how autonomy is measured and limitations of cross-cultural comparability. A thorough understanding of the consequences of restricting women's autonomy will inform programmes and policy worldwide, and speed progress towards both empowering women and alleviating the global burden of child malnutrition.

  18. Targeted Nutritional and Behavioral Feeding Intervention for a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Barnhill, Kelly; Tami, Amanda; Schutte, Claire; Hewitson, Laura; Olive, Melissa L

    2016-01-01

    A variety of feeding issues and concerns, including food aversion, food selectivity, and complete food refusal, are not uncommon among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Other underlying issues are often comorbid with the concerns for feeding and ASD. These may include food allergies, gastrointestinal issues, oral motor issues, and swallowing disorders. The refusal to consume particular foods coupled with the inability to tolerate, digest, and absorb these foods can compromise an individual's overall nutrition status. Therefore, a child's behavior toward food and feeding activities has great impact on dietary intake, nutritional status, and growth. This case report is the first to document combined medical, behavioral, and nutritional intervention for a toddler with ASD and comorbid feeding disorder.

  19. Targeted Nutritional and Behavioral Feeding Intervention for a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tami, Amanda; Schutte, Claire; Hewitson, Laura; Olive, Melissa L.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of feeding issues and concerns, including food aversion, food selectivity, and complete food refusal, are not uncommon among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Other underlying issues are often comorbid with the concerns for feeding and ASD. These may include food allergies, gastrointestinal issues, oral motor issues, and swallowing disorders. The refusal to consume particular foods coupled with the inability to tolerate, digest, and absorb these foods can compromise an individual's overall nutrition status. Therefore, a child's behavior toward food and feeding activities has great impact on dietary intake, nutritional status, and growth. This case report is the first to document combined medical, behavioral, and nutritional intervention for a toddler with ASD and comorbid feeding disorder. PMID:27051550

  20. Urban-rural disparities of child health and nutritional status in China from 1989 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Fang, Hai; Zhao, Zhong

    2013-07-01

    This paper analyzes urban-rural disparities of China's child health and nutritional status using the China Health and Nutrition Survey data from 1989 to 2006. We investigate degrees of health and nutritional disparities between urban and rural children in China as well as how such disparities have changed during the period 1989-2006. The results show that on average urban children have 0.29 higher height-for-age z-scores and 0.19 greater weight-for-age z-scores than rural children. Urban children are approximately 40% less likely to be stunted (OR=0.62; p<0.01) or underweight (OR=0.62; p<0.05) during the period 1989-2006. We also find that the urban-rural health and nutritional disparities have been declining significantly from 1989 to 2006. Both urban and rural children have increased consumption of high protein and fat foods from 1989 to 2006, but the urban-rural difference decreased over time. Moreover, the urban-rural gap in child preventive health care access was also reduced during this period.

  1. Cost effectiveness of responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions on early child development outcomes in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Gowani, Saima; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Armstrong, Robert; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood programs are heralded as a way to improve children's health and educational outcomes. However, few studies in developing countries calculate the effectiveness of quality early childhood interventions. Even fewer estimate the associated costs of such interventions. The study here looks at the costs and effectiveness of a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial on children from birth to 24 months in rural Sindh, Pakistan. Responsive stimulation and/or enhanced nutrition interventions were integrated in the Lady Health Worker program in Pakistan. Outcomes suggest that children who receive responsive stimulation had significantly better development outcomes at 24 months than those who only received enhanced nutrition intervention. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the results verifies that early childhood interventions that include responsive stimulation are more cost effective than a nutrition intervention alone in promoting children's early development. Costs of a responsive stimulation intervention integrated in an existing community-based service providing basic health and nutrition care is approximately US$4 per month per child. We discuss these findings and make recommendations about scaling up and costs for future early child development programs.

  2. Beyond an Assumed Mother-Child Symbiosis in Nutritional Guidelines: The Everyday Reasoning behind Complementary Feeding Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    Researchers question the implications of the way in which "motherhood" is constructed in public health discourse. Current nutritional guidelines for Danish parents of young children are part of this discourse. They are shaped by an assumed symbiotic relationship between the nutritional needs of the child and the interest and focus of the…

  3. Making Nutrition Count for Children. Nutrition Guidance for Child Care Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This booklet serves to help all child-care providers with valuable information such as (1) How children grow and develop, (2) Nutrients needed for growth and development, (3) Dietary Guidelines for Americans, (4) The USDA Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children, and (3) Helping children learning about food and eating. The booklet also contains…

  4. The impact of child health and nutrition on education in developing countries: theory, econometric issues, and recent empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Glewwe, Paul

    2005-06-01

    Analysis of the impact of child health and nutrition on subsequent school performance is hampered by many difficulties. Research using retrospective data is complicated by the possibility that unobserved factors may determine both nutrition and education outcomes, which will generate correlation between these two outcomes that is not necessarily causal. Randomized trials offer a clearer method for identifying causal relationships, but they are relatively rare and encounter several difficulties in practice. This paper examines theory, estimation strategies, and recent empirical evidence to assess the current state of knowledge on the impact of child health and nutrition on education outcomes in developing countries.

  5. Integrating Nutrition and Child Development Interventions: Scientific Basis, Evidence of Impact, and Implementation Considerations123

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children’s linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5. PMID:26875208

  6. Maternal and child nutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and interventions.

    PubMed

    Lartey, Anna

    2008-02-01

    Women of child-bearing age (especially pregnant and lactating women), infants and young children are in the most nutritionally-vulnerable stages of the life cycle. Maternal malnutrition is a major predisposing factor for morbidity and mortality among African women. The causes include inadequate food intake, poor nutritional quality of diets, frequent infections and short inter-pregnancy intervals. Evidence for maternal malnutrition is provided by the fact that between 5 and 20% of African women have a low BMI as a result of chronic hunger. Across the continent the prevalence of anaemia ranges from 21 to 80%, with similarly high values for both vitamin A and Zn deficiency levels. Another challenge is the high rates of HIV infection, which compromise maternal nutritional status. The consequences of poor maternal nutritional status are reflected in low pregnancy weight gain and high infant and maternal morbidity and mortality. Suboptimal infant feeding practices, poor quality of complementary foods, frequent infections and micronutrient deficiencies have largely contributed to the high mortality among infants and young children in the region. Feeding children whose mothers are infected with HIV continues to remain an issue requiring urgent attention. There are successful interventions to improve the nutrition of mothers, infants and young children, which will be addressed. Interventions to improve the nutrition of infants and young children, particularly in relation to the improvement of micronutrient intakes of young children, will be discussed. The recent release by WHO of new international growth standards for assessing the growth and nutritional status of children provides the tool for early detection of growth faltering and for appropriate intervention.

  7. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), environmental enteropathy, nutrition, and early child development: making the links.

    PubMed

    Ngure, Francis M; Reid, Brianna M; Humphrey, Jean H; Mbuya, Mduduzi N; Pelto, Gretel; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    There is scarce research and programmatic evidence on the effect of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions of the physical environment on early child cognitive, sensorimotor, and socioemotional development. Furthermore, many common WASH interventions are not specifically designed to protect babies in the first 3 years of life, when gut health and linear growth are established. We review evidence linking WASH, anemia, and child growth, and highlight pathways through which WASH may affect early child development, primarily through inflammation, stunting, and anemia. Environmental enteropathy, a prevalent subclinical condition of the gut, may be a key mediating pathway linking poor hygiene to developmental deficits. Current early child development research and programs lack evidence-based interventions to provide a clean play and infant feeding environment in addition to established priorities of nutrition, stimulation, and child protection. Solutions to this problem will require appropriate behavior change and technologies that are adapted to the social and physical context and conducive to infant play and socialization. We propose the concept of baby WASH as an additional component of early childhood development programs.

  8. Maternal willingness to pay for infant and young child nutrition counseling services in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Hoang, Minh V.; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M.; Le, Chung H.; Menon, Purnima; Rawat, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Background Alive & Thrive Vietnam, a 6-year initiative (2009–2014), has developed and incorporated elements of social franchising into government health services to provide high-quality nutrition counseling services to improve infant and young child feeding practices. One element of franchising that has not yet been implemented is fee for service, which is a potential financing mechanism for sustaining services in the long run. Objective This research aims to estimate maternal willingness to pay (WTP) for nutrition counseling services and to examine potential factors associated with their WTP. Design and methods Data were drawn from an impact evaluation survey of 2,511 women with a child <2 years old from four provinces in Vietnam. An iterative bidding technique was employed to explore individual WTP. The first bid was defined as VND 20,000 (~US$ 1), which was approximately the level of the actual service cost. Depending on the participant response, the bid increased or decreased. Finally, the respondents were asked about the highest price they would be willing to pay for the service. Results Overall, 92.6% of clients reported a need for nutrition counseling services for children <2 years. The WTP rates at bid levels of VND 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 40,000, and 100,000 were 95.2, 94.4, 90.7, 68.9, and 33.4%, respectively. The mean and median of the maximum WTP were VND 58,500 and 50,000, respectively. In multiple regression models, WTP rates were higher among younger women, the Kinh majority group, and better educated and wealthier women. Conclusion A high demand for nutrition counseling coupled with a WTP by almost all segments of society would potentially cover costs of delivery for nutrition counseling services in Vietnam. PMID:26328947

  9. Reproductive health, and child health and nutrition in India: meeting the challenge.

    PubMed

    Paul, Vinod Kumar; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Mavalankar, Dileep; Ramachandran, Prema; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Bhandari, Nita; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Sundararaman, Thiagarajan; Govil, Dipti; Osrin, David; Kirkwood, Betty

    2011-01-22

    India, with a population of more than 1 billion people, has many challenges in improving the health and nutrition of its citizens. Steady declines have been noted in fertility, maternal, infant and child mortalities, and the prevalence of severe manifestations of nutritional deficiencies, but the pace has been slow and falls short of national and Millennium Development Goal targets. The likely explanations include social inequities, disparities in health systems between and within states, and consequences of urbanisation and demographic transition. In 2005, India embarked on the National Rural Health Mission, an extraordinary effort to strengthen the health systems. However, coverage of priority interventions remains insufficient, and the content and quality of existing interventions are suboptimum. Substantial unmet need for contraception remains, adolescent pregnancies are common, and access to safe abortion is inadequate. Increases in the numbers of deliveries in institutions have not been matched by improvements in the quality of intrapartum and neonatal care. Infants and young children do not get the health care they need; access to effective treatment for neonatal illness, diarrhoea, and pneumonia shows little improvement; and the coverage of nutrition programmes is inadequate. Absence of well functioning health systems is indicated by the inadequacies related to planning, financing, human resources, infrastructure, supply systems, governance, information, and monitoring. We provide a case for transformation of health systems through effective stewardship, decentralised planning in districts, a reasoned approach to financing that affects demand for health care, a campaign to create awareness and change health and nutrition behaviour, and revision of programmes for child nutrition on the basis of evidence. This agenda needs political commitment of the highest order and the development of a people's movement.

  10. Reproductive health, and child health and nutrition in India: meeting the challenge

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Vinod Kumar; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Mavalankar, Dileep; Ramachandran, Prema; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Bhandari, Nita; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Sundararaman, Thiagarajan; Govil, Dipti; Osrin, David; Kirkwood, Betty

    2012-01-01

    India, with a population of more than 1 billion people, has many challenges in improving the health and nutrition of its citizens. Steady declines have been noted in fertility, maternal, infant and child mortalities, and the prevalence of severe manifestations of nutritional deficiencies, but the pace has been slow and falls short of national and Millennium Development Goal targets. The likely explanations include social inequities, disparities in health systems between and within states, and consequences of urbanisation and demographic transition. In 2005, India embarked on the National Rural Health Mission, an extraordinary effort to strengthen the health systems. However, coverage of priority interventions remains insufficient, and the content and quality of existing interventions are suboptimum. Substantial unmet need for contraception remains, adolescent pregnancies are common, and access to safe abortion is inadequate. Increases in the numbers of deliveries in institutions have not been matched by improvements in the quality of intrapartum and neonatal care. Infants and young children do not get the health care they need; access to effective treatment for neonatal illness, diarrhoea, and pneumonia shows little improvement; and the coverage of nutrition programmes is inadequate. Absence of well functioning health systems is indicated by the inadequacies related to planning, financing, human resources, infrastructure, supply systems, governance, information, and monitoring. We provide a case for transformation of health systems through effective stewardship, decentralised planning in districts, a reasoned approach to financing that affects demand for health care, a campaign to create awareness and change health and nutrition behaviour, and revision of programmes for child nutrition on the basis of evidence. This agenda needs political commitment of the highest order and the development of a people’s movement. PMID:21227494

  11. Bee Abundance and Nutritional Status in Relation to Grassland Management Practices in an Agricultural Landscape.

    PubMed

    Smith, Griffin W; Debinski, Diane M; Scavo, Nicole A; Lange, Corey J; Delaney, John T; Moranz, Raymond A; Miller, James R; Engle, David M; Toth, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    Grasslands provide important resources for pollinators in agricultural landscapes. Managing grasslands with fire and grazing has the potential to benefit plant and pollinator communities, though there is uncertainty about the ideal approach. We examined the relationships among burning and grazing regimes, plant communities, and Bombus species and Apis mellifera L. abundance and nutritional indicators at the Grand River Grasslands in southern Iowa and northern Missouri. Treatment regimes included burn-only, grazed-and-burned, and patch-burn graze (pastures subdivided into three temporally distinct fire patches with free access by cattle). The premise of the experimental design was that patch-burn grazing would increase habitat heterogeneity, thereby providing more diverse and abundant floral resources for pollinators. We predicted that both bee abundance and individual bee nutritional indicators (bee size and lipid content) would be positively correlated with floral resource abundance. There were no significant differences among treatments with respect to bee abundance. However, some of the specific characteristics of the plant community showed significant relationships with bee response variables. Pastures with greater abundance of floral resources had greater bee abundance but lower bee nutritional indicators. Bee nutritional variables were positively correlated with vegetation height, but, in some cases, negatively correlated with stocking rate. These results suggest grassland site characteristics such as floral resource abundance and stocking rate are of potential importance to bee pollinators and suggest avenues for further research to untangle the complex interactions between grassland management, plant responses, and bee health.

  12. Nutrition, Agriculture and the Global Food System in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Barry M

    2014-08-01

    The entire food value chain and diet of low and middle income countries (LMICs) are rapidly shifting. Many of the issues addressed by the nutrition community ignore some of the major underlying shifts in purchases of consumer packaged foods and beverages. At the same time, the drivers of the food system at the farm level might be changing. There is a need for the agriculture and nutrition communities to understand these changes and focus on some of their implications for health. This rapid growth of the retail sector will change the diets of the food insecure as much as that of the food secure across rural and urban LMIC's. This short commentary contents that current research, programs and policies are ignoring these rapid dynamic shifts.

  13. Hunger in America: Hearings on Hunger and Related Nutritional Issues, before the Subcommittee on Nutrition and Investigations of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate. One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (Cedar Rapids, Iowa, January 30, 1988; Washington, D.C., March 1 and 28, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    This report presents the testimony of numerous expert witnesses who appeared at three hearings on the following topics: (1) Hunger and Related Nutritional Issues; (2) U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Assistance Programs; and (3) Domestic Hunger and Related Nutritional Issues. The following major issues were discussed: (1) the number of…

  14. Effects of a conditional cash transfer programme on child nutrition in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Paes-Sousa, Rômulo; Miazaki, Édina Shisue

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the association between Brazil’s Bolsa Familia programme (BFP), which is the world's largest conditional cash transfer programme, and the anthropometric indicators of nutritional status in children. Methods Using the opportunity provided by vaccination campaigns, the Brazilian government promotes Health and Nutrition Days to estimate the prevalence of anthropometric deficits in children. Data collected in 2005–2006 for 22 375 impoverished children under 5 years of age were employed to estimate nutritional outcomes among recipients of Bolsa Família. All variables under study, namely child birth weight, lack of birth certificate, educational level and gender of family head, access to piped water and electricity, height for age, weight for age and weight for height, were converted into binary variables for regression analysis. Findings Children from families exposed to the BFP were 26% more likely to have normal height for age than those from non-exposed families; this difference also applied to weight for age. No statistically significant deficit in weight for height was found. Stratification by age group revealed 19% and 41% higher odds of having normal height for age at 12–35 and 36–59 months of age, respectively, in children receiving Bolsa Familia, and no difference at 0–11 months of age. Conclusion The BFP can lead to better nutritional outcomes in children 12 to 59 months of age. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:21734763

  15. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Mali.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Coulibaly, Mouctar

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children <5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals. Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with a situational analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse and interpret available information on infant and young child feeding, and the nutrition situation of children <2 years of age in Mali, as one of the six targeted countries. Between June and September 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Mali were interviewed, and 117 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, screening and management of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, food security, and hygienic practices. Most of the key IYCN topics were addressed in national policies, training materials, and programme documents. Information on the national coverage and impact of these programmes is generally not available. Exclusive breastfeeding (<6 months) has increased in Mali, but no studies identified the contributors to this increase. Despite improvements in breastfeeding practices, optimal infant, and young child feeding is still practiced among too few young children in Mali. Several research articles were identified, but few of these were linked to programme development. Some programme monitoring and evaluation reports were available, but few of these were rigorous enough to identify whether IYCN-specific programme components were implemented as designed or were achieving desired outcomes. Therefore, we could not confirm which programmes contributed to reported improvements. Monitoring of programmes managing malnutrition identified gaps

  16. Early Child Development and Nutrition: A Review of the Benefits and Challenges of Implementing Integrated Interventions1234

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged <5 y. Single-sector interventions representing either early child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. PMID:26980819

  17. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Chad.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Nadjilem, Djasndibye

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children <5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse, and interpret available information on infant and child feeding, and the nutrition situation of children <2 years of age in Chad, as one of the six targeted countries. These findings are available to assist in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between June and October of 2008, key informants responsible for IYCN-related activities in Chad were interviewed, and 53 documents were examined on the following themes: the promotion of optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, management of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), food security, and promotion of good hygienic practices. Chad is not on track to reaching the MDGs of reducing mortality by two-thirds and malnutrition by half among children <5 years of age between 1990 and 2015. Most of the key IYCN topics were addressed in a national policy to combat malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. No national nutrition policy was yet ratified in Chad, so the target of many documents reviewed was the malnourished child. Researchers have identified some barriers to optimal feeding practices. However, the majority of these surveys were small scale, so they do not necessarily provide information relevant to the general population. Expanded surveys would be needed for developing evidence-based educational messages targeted to local needs. Reviewed training materials and related programmes being implemented in Chad

  18. School-based nutrition programs are associated with reduced child food insecurity over time among Mexican-origin mother-child dyads in Texas Border Colonias.

    PubMed

    Nalty, Courtney C; Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R

    2013-05-01

    In 2011, an estimated 50.2 million adults and children lived in US households with food insecurity, a condition associated with adverse health effects across the life span. Relying solely on parent proxy may underreport the true prevalence of child food insecurity. The present study sought to understand mothers' and children's (aged 6-11 y) perspectives and experiences of child food insecurity and its seasonal volatility, including the effects of school-based and summertime nutrition programs. Forty-eight Mexican-origin mother-child dyads completed standardized, Spanish-language food-security instruments during 2 in-home visits between July 2010 and March 2011. Multilevel longitudinal logistic regression measured change in food security while accounting for correlation in repeated measurements by using a nested structure. Cohen's κ statistic assessed dyadic discordance in child food insecurity. School-based nutrition programs reduced the odds of child food insecurity by 74% [OR = 0.26 (P < 0.01)], showcasing the programs' impact on the condition. Single head of household was associated with increased odds of child food insecurity [OR = 4.63 (P = 0.03)]. Fair dyadic agreement of child food insecurity was observed [κ = 0.21 (P = 0.02)]. Obtaining accurate prevalence rates and understanding differences of intrahousehold food insecurity necessitate measurement at multiple occasions throughout the year while considering children's perceptions and experiences of food insecurity in addition to parental reports.

  19. [Nutritional status and social determinants of child height in the Guarita Indigenous Territory, Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Menegolla, Ivone Andreatta; Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Rodrigues, Inajara Haubert; Schwingel, Lucio Roberto; Scapinello, Elaine; Pedroso, Maisa Beltrame; Leite, José Carlos de Carvalho

    2006-02-01

    The nutritional status of under-five children and the association between social conditions and child stature were examined using data from the program to control malnutrition and mortality in the Guarita Indigenous Territory, southern Brazil, 2001-2002. Anthropometric indices were calculated in z-scores of the CDC 2000 reference. At entrance into the program, 34.7% of the children presented stunting, 12.9% low weight for age, 4.2% wasting, and 8.7% overweight. Stunting was most prevalent among boys and children older than one year. Multivariate linear regression showed that, on average, children were shorter when the drinking water was collected directly in the environment (p = 0.046), there was no refrigerator for food preservation (p = 0.021), maternal age was less than 16 years at the birth of the oldest child among the under-fives (p = 0.019), and the mother was illiterate (p = 0.083). Sewage facilities only had an effect on the unadjusted model. There was no evidence that the number of under-five children had an effect on stature. Social inclusion policies and health and social provision which takes these factors into account are potentially relevant for improving health and nutrition in this population.

  20. Research-Based Recommendations to Improve Child Nutrition in Schools and Out-of-School Time Programs. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2009-27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wandner, Laura D.; Hair, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This brief discusses aspects of healthy diets for children in elementary and middle school. It summarizes the current guidelines and recommendations for child nutrition and provides information for schools and out-of-school time programs about how to measure child nutrition. (Contains 27 endnotes.)

  1. Prenatal nutrition: a critical window of opportunity for mother and child.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Niva

    2008-11-01

    The prenatal period encompasses a critical window for future health and functioning of mother and child. Attention previously focused on undernutrition risk (i.e., in developing countries and famine conditions) shifted to mismatch between prenatal 'programming' by undernutrition and postnatal overconsumption (i.e., low birthweight vs rapid postnatal growth), now to overconsumption/overweight throughout the reproductive cycle and short- and long-term health risks, including obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, overconsumption/overweight do not guarantee adequacy of critical nutrients (i.e., against birth defects or for brain development). Multinutrient supplementation - including zinc, iodine, choline and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3 - may have advantages over single-nutrient supplements, for example, iron or folate. Future nutritional care for healthy in utero programming may necessitate individual assessment and follow-up, including preconception nutritional preparation, appropriate weight gain, metabolic balance and food-based regimens enhanced by key nutrient fortification and/or supplementation, warranting further research into nutritional optimization of pregnancy outcomes.

  2. Maternal and young child nutrition adversely affected by external shocks such as increasing global food prices.

    PubMed

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Cogill, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Rising food prices, resulting from the ongoing global economic crisis, fuel price volatility, and climate change, have an adverse impact upon the poor, especially those in food-importing, resource-limited countries. The conventional approach by large organizations has been to advocate for increased staple crop yields of mainly cereals. High food prices are predicted to continue to at least 2015. Past shocks and their known impacts upon nutrition were reviewed. Price instability and increases have long been an existing global problem, which has been exacerbated by recent macroeconomic shocks such as acute emergencies due to war and civil strife, acute climatic events, increase in food prices, fuel price volatility, dysfunction of the global financial systems, long-term climate change, and the emergence of failed states. The FAO estimated that there were 815 million "hungry" people in 2006, with a now additional 75-135 million with increased vulnerability, and currently it is estimated that there are one billion people at risk of food insecurity. The shocks initially compromise maternal and child nutrition, mainly through a reduction in dietary quality and an increase in micronutrient deficiencies and concomitant increases in infectious disease morbidity and mortality. A further reduction in the quantity of diet may follow with greater underweight and wasting. Recent macroeconomic shocks have greatly increased the number of people who are vulnerable to hunger in developing countries. Nutritional surveillance systems need to be strengthened and expanded to inform policy decisions.

  3. Nutritional quality of foods and beverages on child-care centre menus in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Haines, Jess; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was to assess the nutritional quality of foods and beverages listed on menus serving children in government-sponsored child-care centres throughout Mexico. Design For this cross-sectional menu assessment, we compared (i) food groups and portion sizes of foods and beverages on the menus with MyPlate recommendations and (ii) macronutrients, sugar and fibre with Daily Reference Intake standards. Setting Menus reflected foods and beverages served to children attending one of 142 government-sponsored child-care centres throughout Mexico. Subjects There were fifty-four distinct menus for children aged 4–6 months, 7–9 months, 10–12 months, 13–23 months, 24–47 months and 48–72 months. Results Menus included a variety of foods meeting minimum MyPlate recommendations for each food category except whole grains for children aged 48–72 months. Menus listed excessive amounts of high-energy beverages, including full-fat milk, fruit juice and sugar-sweetened beverages for children of all ages. The mean daily energy content of menu items yielded an average of 2·76 MJ for infants, 4·77 MJ for children aged 13–23 months, 5·36 MJ for children aged 24–47 months and 5·87 MJ for children aged 48–72 months. Foods and beverages on menus provided sufficient grams of carbohydrate and fat, but excessive protein. Conclusions Menus provided a variety of foods but excessive energy. Whole grains were limited, and high-energy beverages were prevalent. Both may be appropriate targets for nutrition intervention. Future studies should move beyond menus and assess what children actually consume in child care. PMID:23036360

  4. Nutrition and the Elderly: A Selected Annotated Bibliography for Nutrition and Health Professionals. Bibliographies of Literature and Agriculture No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Evelyn, Comp.; Sandberg, Janet, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography of information on nutrition and the elderly was written for nutrition professionals, health care providers, and organizations that work with older adults. The focus is primarily on nutrition in the United States. The bibliography includes 399 citations of both print and nonprint resources that are readily available to…

  5. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). 250.61... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.61 Child and Adult Care Food... CACFP to distributing agencies, which provide them to child care and adult care...

  6. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). 250.61... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.61 Child and Adult Care Food... CACFP to distributing agencies, which provide them to child care and adult care...

  7. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). 250.61... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.61 Child and Adult Care Food... CACFP to distributing agencies, which provide them to child care and adult care...

  8. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). 250.61... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.61 Child and Adult Care Food... CACFP to distributing agencies, which provide them to child care and adult care...

  9. Health and disease: exploring the relation between parasitic infections, child nutrition status, and markets.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Research in bioarchaeology and among living people provides insight into the biological and biocultural consequences of subsistence, political, and economic transitions. Central to this effort is examining infectious disease, such as diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and parasitic infections because they are an important source of nutritional and energetic stress in both past and current groups. Although infection may not always result in overt disease, frequent exposure results in biological stress with a negative effect on child growth and, by extension, health. The goal of this article is to examine the association between a common class of infectious disease, soil-transmitted helminth worms, and nutritional status among youth living in communities that vary with respect to their distance from a commercial center. In 2007, anthropometric measurements and parasitological surveys were collected for 338 2-14-year-old children and adolescents living in lowland Bolivia as part of the Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study. Associations between the presence of helminth infections and markers of both short- and long-term nutritional status were overall weak. Youth living in communities distant from the commercial center were more likely to be positive for multiple parasite species than youth in near communities, but youth in mid-distance communities had lower infection rates. This article demonstrates the challenge of identifying associations between nutritional and disease stress when individual and household factors are nested in a larger context of socioeconomic and environmental change. Increased collaboration between bioarchaeology and human biology should continue to examine the connections between stress and disease across time.

  10. Introducing infant and young child feeding indicators into national nutrition surveillance systems: lessons from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Do Thanh; de Onis, Mercedes

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive set of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators for international use was published in 2008. We describe the process followed to incorporate these indicators into Vietnam's National Nutrition Surveillance System (NNSS). Following its establishment in 1980, the National Institute of Nutrition introduced the Vietnam NNSS to provide an evidence base for nutrition interventions. While anthropometric indicators based on international standards were regularly used for programme purposes, data on IYCF could not be collected with similar rigor until 2010. In 2009, with support from Alive & Thrive and UNICEF, the NNSS questionnaire was reviewed and additional content incorporated to measure IYCF practices. The tool was pilot-tested in 10 provinces and revised before nationwide roll-out in 2010.The tool comprises four pages, the first three of which focus on collecting data relating to maternal nutrition and IYCF. The last page is flexibly designed to incorporate planners' data requests for other relevant activities (e.g. mass media interventions, food security). Once analysed, the data are presented in a report comprising provincial profiles and maps illustrating IYCF practices. Importantly, the IYCF data have been used for policy advocacy (e.g. maternity leave legislation, advertisement law), programme planning, trend monitoring and capacity building. Adoption of the IYCF indicators was successful due to strategic timing, a phased approach, buy-in from stakeholders and capacity building at all levels to ensure the quality and use of data. Further revisions to the NNSS (e.g. sampling methodology, quality assurance systems) will be important to ensure the reliability of indicators.

  11. Nutritional status of women and child refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014.

    PubMed

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva

    2014-07-25

    As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia.

  12. Validity of a Measure to Assess the Child Care Nutrition and Physical Activity Environment

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Kathryn E; Grode, Gabrielle M; Middleton, Ann E; Kenney, Erica L; Falbe, Jennifer; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2014-01-01

    Background Licensed childcare centers, represent an opportunity to positively influence children's health behaviors. Valid and easy-to-use measures of the childcare environment are needed to assess the impact of environmental change on health. Objective To develop and validate a self-administered survey to assess the nutrition and physical activity environment of child care centers, and to identify domains which may be evaluated adequately through self-report. Design A survey was developed to assess four areas related to nutrition and physical activity: center policies, practices related to the social environment, physical environment, and nutrition quality. Development involved review of literature, existing measures, and regulations/standards; and collaboration with a working group. The survey was piloted and feedback sought from expert consultants. It was administered statewide and validated against a menu rating tool, a center director interview, and a direct observation tool developed for this study. Participants/Setting Participating sites were drawn from CACFP-participating licensed Connecting childcare centers serving 13 or greater 3 to 5 year olds. Survey responses from 146 center directors were included, as were 62 center menus, and director interviews and observational data from 33 sites. Primary Outcomes/Statistical Analyses Criterion validity of the survey was assessed through percent agreement with mirroring items in the additional measures. Healthy and unhealthy food scores were calculated for menu and survey tools, and Pearson correlations computed. Results Percent agreement with criterion outcomes ranged from 39 to 97%, with 61% of items achieving agreement at or above 80%. Agreement was highest for nutrition and policy domains, and lowest for physical activity and barriers to promoting health. Correlations between food scores across measures were moderate. Conclusions The self-report survey demonstrated adequate criterion validity; recommendations

  13. Review of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Proposed Rule, "Nutrition Objectives for School Meals." Hearing before the Subcommittee on Department Operations and Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    These hearing transcripts provide testimony on a rule proposed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), "Nutrition Objectives for School Meals," that would require meals served under the national school lunch program to be consistent with federal dietary guidelines. The majority of the testimony addressed the content of…

  14. Evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We have been studying the evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected organic materials for useful life-support systems in closed bio-ecosystems for space agriculture on Mars in the future. We have already proposed several species as food materials; cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 and the Japanese cherry tree. Nostoc sp. HK-01 is a terrestrial cyanobacterium which has high tolerances to several space environments. In addition to its high tolerances to serious environments, HK-01 has a high protein content. Total protein per 100 g of the dried colony of Nostoc sp. HK-01 was approximately 50 g. Woody plant materials also have several properties which can be utilized in our habitation environment and as food. We have already found abilities to produce important functional substances for humans in the selected trees. Here, we show the extended results of our experiments.

  15. Agriculture, nutrition, and health in global development: typology and metrics for integrated interventions and research.

    PubMed

    Masters, William A; Webb, Patrick; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Despite rhetoric arguing that enhanced agriculture leads to improved nutrition and health, there is scant empirical evidence about potential synergies across sectors or about the mix of actions that best supports all three sectors. The geographic scale and socioeconomic nature of these interventions require integration of previously separate research methods. This paper proposes a typology of interventions and a metric of integration among them to help researchers build on each other's results, facilitating integration in methods to inform the design of multisector interventions. The typology recognizes the importance of regional effect modifiers that are not themselves subject to randomized assignment, and trade-offs in how policies and programs are implemented, evaluated, and scaled. Using this typology could facilitate methodological pluralism, helping researchers in one field use knowledge generated elsewhere, each using the most appropriate method for their situation.

  16. Improving Individual, Child, and Family Nutrition, Health and Wellness. Secondary Learning Guide 8. Project Connect. Linking Self-Family-Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.

    This competency-based secondary learning guide on improving individual, child, and family nutrition is part of a series that are adaptations of guides developed for adult consumer and homemaking education programs. The guides provide students with experiences that help them learn to do the following: make decisions; use creative approaches to…

  17. Role of Young Child Formulae and Supplements to Ensure Nutritional Adequacy in U.K. Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Vieux, Florent; Brouzes, Chloé M. C.; Maillot, Matthieu; Briend, André; Hankard, Régis; Lluch, Anne; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) states that young child formulae (YCFs) “cannot be considered as a necessity to satisfy the nutritional requirements” of children aged 12–36 months. This study quantifies the dietary changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy in U.K. young children who consume YCFs and/or supplements and in those who do not. Dietary data from 1147 young children (aged 12–18 months) were used to identify, using linear programming models, the minimum changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy: (i) by changing the quantities of foods initially consumed by each child (repertoire-foods); and (ii) by introducing new foods (non-repertoire-foods). Most of the children consumed neither YCFs, nor supplements (61.6%). Nutritional adequacy with repertoire-foods alone was ensured for only one child in this group, against 74.4% of the children consuming YCFs and supplement. When access to all foods was allowed, smaller food changes were required when YCFs and supplements were initially consumed than when they were not. In the total sample, the main dietary shifts needed to ensure nutritional adequacy were an increase in YCF and a decrease in cow’s milk (+226 g/day and −181 g/day, respectively). Increasing YCF and supplement consumption was the shortest way to cover the EFSA nutrient requirements of U.K. children. PMID:27598195

  18. Role of Young Child Formulae and Supplements to Ensure Nutritional Adequacy in U.K. Young Children.

    PubMed

    Vieux, Florent; Brouzes, Chloé M C; Maillot, Matthieu; Briend, André; Hankard, Régis; Lluch, Anne; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-09-02

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) states that young child formulae (YCFs) "cannot be considered as a necessity to satisfy the nutritional requirements" of children aged 12-36 months. This study quantifies the dietary changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy in U.K. young children who consume YCFs and/or supplements and in those who do not. Dietary data from 1147 young children (aged 12-18 months) were used to identify, using linear programming models, the minimum changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy: (i) by changing the quantities of foods initially consumed by each child (repertoire-foods); and (ii) by introducing new foods (non-repertoire-foods). Most of the children consumed neither YCFs, nor supplements (61.6%). Nutritional adequacy with repertoire-foods alone was ensured for only one child in this group, against 74.4% of the children consuming YCFs and supplement. When access to all foods was allowed, smaller food changes were required when YCFs and supplements were initially consumed than when they were not. In the total sample, the main dietary shifts needed to ensure nutritional adequacy were an increase in YCF and a decrease in cow's milk (+226 g/day and -181 g/day, respectively). Increasing YCF and supplement consumption was the shortest way to cover the EFSA nutrient requirements of U.K. children.

  19. Application of agricultural biotechnology to improve food nutrition and healthcare products.

    PubMed

    Sun, Samuel S M

    2008-01-01

    Crop plants provide essential food nutrients to humans and livestock, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, minerals and vitamins, directly or indirectly. The level and composition of food nutrients vary significantly in different food crops. As a result, plant foods are often deficient in certain nutrient components. Relying on a single food crop as source of nutrients thus will not achieve a balanced diet and results in malnutrition and deficiency diseases, especially in the developing countries, due mainly to poverty. The development and application of biotechnology offers opportunities and novel possibilities to enhance the nutritional quality of crops, particularly when the necessary genetic variability is not available. While initial emphasis of agricultural biotechnology has been placed on input traits of crops such as herbicide tolerance, insect resistance and virus resistance, increasing effort and promising proof-of-concept products have been made in output traits including enhancing the nutritional quality of crops since 1990s. Advancements in plant transformation and transgene expression also allow the use of plants as bioreactors to produce a variety of bio-products at large scale and low cost. Many proof-of-concept plant-derived healthcare products have been generated and several commercialized.

  20. School Nutrition Programs. Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (March 15, 2005). Senate Hearing 109-124

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Senate, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This is traditionally an annual hearing of the Committee with school nutrition managers who travel to Washington, DC. Their representatives testify to the Committee regarding the practical benefits of the nutrition policies under the legislative review of the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Committee. Testimony was presented by Senators…

  1. Does Mass Azithromycin Distribution Impact Child Growth and Nutrition in Niger? A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Amza, Abdou; Yu, Sun N.; Kadri, Boubacar; Nassirou, Baido; Stoller, Nicole E.; Zhou, Zhaoxia; West, Sheila K.; Bailey, Robin L.; Gaynor, Bruce D.; Keenan, Jeremy D.; Porco, Travis C.; Lietman, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotic use on animals demonstrates improved growth regardless of whether or not there is clinical evidence of infectious disease. Antibiotics used for trachoma control may play an unintended benefit of improving child growth. Methodology In this sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial, we assess anthropometry of pre-school children in a community-randomized trial of mass oral azithromycin distributions for trachoma in Niger. We measured height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) in 12 communities randomized to receive annual mass azithromycin treatment of everyone versus 12 communities randomized to receive biannual mass azithromycin treatments for children, 3 years after the initial mass treatment. We collected measurements in 1,034 children aged 6–60 months of age. Principal Findings We found no difference in the prevalence of wasting among children in the 12 annually treated communities that received three mass azithromycin distributions compared to the 12 biannually treated communities that received six mass azithromycin distributions (odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.53 to 1.49). Conclusions/Significance We were unable to demonstrate a statistically significant difference in stunting, underweight, and low MUAC of pre-school children in communities randomized to annual mass azithromycin treatment or biannual mass azithromycin treatment. The role of antibiotics on child growth and nutrition remains unclear, but larger studies and longitudinal trials may help determine any association. PMID:25210836

  2. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Ouedraogo, Albertine Wendpagnagdé

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children < 5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals. Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The objectives of the present paper are to compare relevant national policies, training materials, programmes, and monitoring and evaluation activities with internationally accepted IYCN recommendations. These findings are available to assist countries in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and November 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Burkina Faso were interviewed, and 153 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, screening and treatment of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, food security and hygienic practices. National policy documents addressed nearly all of the key IYCN topics, specifically or generally. Formative research has identified some local barriers and beliefs related to general breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, and other formative research addressed about half of the IYCN topics included in this review. However, there was little evidence that this formative research was being utilized in developing training materials and designing programme interventions. Nevertheless, the training materials that were reviewed do provide specific guidance for nearly all of the key IYCN topics. Although many of the IYCN programmes are intended for national coverage, we could only confirm with available reports that programme coverage extended to certain regions. Some programme monitoring and evaluation were conducted, but few of these provided

  3. Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Infant and Young Child Nutrition: Protein and Amino Acid Needs and Relationship with Child Growth.

    PubMed

    Uauy, Ricardo; Kurpad, Anura; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Otoo, Gloria E; Aaron, Grant A; Toride, Yasuhiko; Ghosh, Shibani

    2015-01-01

    Over a third of all deaths of children under the age of five are linked to undernutrition. At a 90% coverage level, a core group of ten interventions inclusive of infant and young child nutrition could save one million lives of children under 5 y of age (15% of all deaths) (Lancet 2013). The infant and young child nutrition package alone could save over 220,000 lives in children under 5 y of age. High quality proteins (e.g. milk) in complementary, supplementary and rehabilitation food products have been found to be effective for good growth. Individual amino acids such as lysine and arginine have been found to be factors linked to growth hormone release in young children via the somatotropic axis and high intakes are inversely associated with fat mass index in pre-pubertal lean girls. Protein intake in early life is positively associated with height and weight at 10 y of age. This paper will focus on examining the role of protein and amino acids in infant and young child nutrition by examining protein and amino acid needs in early life and the subsequent relationship with stunting.

  4. Teaching mothers to read: evidence from Colombia on the key role of maternal education in preschool child nutritional health.

    PubMed

    Lomperis, A M

    1991-10-01

    The determinants of the severity of childhood malnutrition among a low income population in Cali, Colombia in 1974-76 were examined. Sections are devoted to the welfare maximization and household production model and methodology, the data set, the empirical results, the policy implications, and conclusions. The nutritional health of each preschooler is produced within the household with goods and time inputs (food, environmental sanitation, medical care, time invested in child care, and breastfeeding), and is conditioned by the state of household production technology (mother's literacy as a dummy variable -- version 1, and mother's level of schooling -- version 2) as well as by each child's sex, birth order, age, household size, and sociocultural setting. Constraints are total available income and time available (dummy variable). Reinhardt's version of the translog function is used to represent the production process. Household survey data were made available from a pilot study of a maternal and child health program (PRIMOPS) and includes 421 preschool children and 280 households, and food expenditure data for 197 children and 123 households. The main finding is that teaching Third World mothers to read holds the greatest promise of permanently improving the nutritional status of preschool children. The linear regression results show that the determinants of short-term nutritional status as reflected in weight for age (w/a) are the duration of breastfeeding, literacy, 1-3 years of schooling, and the available food in the household. The levels of significance are higher for version 2, but significance is achieved only with the lower levels of schooling. Birth order is statistically significant but weak and negative; i.e., higher birth orders are at higher risk of malnutrition. Long-term nutritional status is statistically significantly influenced by educational level, birth order, and food available, where older preschoolers are likely to experience stunting but

  5. Research and the promotion of child health: a position paper of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Kolacek, Sanja; Phillips, Alan; Troncone, Riccardo; Vandenplas, Yvan; Thapar, Nikhil; Baumann, Ulrich; van Goudoever, Johannes; Mihatsch, Walter; de Swarte, Casper; Benninga, Marc; Mearin, Luisa

    2014-08-01

    Children comprise one-fifth of Europe's population. Promoting child health and development is of key importance for society and its future. This position paper highlights opportunities of investing in gastrointestinal, liver, and nutritional research to promote child health and delineates priorities for research. Investing in child health plays a key role in the promotion of population health, well-being, and disease prevention lifelong, with large health economic benefits. Major opportunities for improving knowledge and translational application arise from recent scientific and technological developments, for example, the long-term impact of early environmental cues interacting with genes. Personalised approaches to therapy and prevention should be enhanced. Deciphering the microbiome and its effects on functions can help in promoting long-term health. Epigenetic research can help to understand how early environmental factors influence later gastrointestinal and hepatic health and disease. A linked nutrition and physical activity strategy can promote health and prevent nutritional deficiencies, inactivity, and chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as diabetes, to ensure optimal health and cognition. Special attention should be devoted to populations with low socioeconomic status, migrant background, and ethnic minorities, and to critical life periods, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, and childhood. Improved understanding of optimal nutrition and on maintaining gut and liver homeostasis throughout childhood will help prevent chronic diseases in later life.

  6. Challenges in the management of nutritional disorders and communicable diseases in child day care centers: a quantitative and qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Konstantyner, Tulio; Konstantyner, Thais Cláudia Roma de Oliveira; Toloni, Maysa Helena Aguiar; Longo-Silva, Giovana; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2017-03-01

    In Brazil, although many children from low income families attend day care centers with appropriate hygiene practices and food programs, they have nutritional disorders and communicable diseases. This quantitative and qualitative cross-sectional study identified staff challenges in child day care centers and suggested alternative activity management to prevent nutritional disorders and communicable diseases. The study included 71 nursery teachers and 270 children from public and philanthropic day care centers (teacher to child ratios of 1:2.57 and 1:6.40, respectively). Interviews and focus groups were conducted with teachers and parents, and anthropometry and blood samples were drawn from the children by digital puncture. Children in philanthropic child day care centers were more likely to be hospitalized due to communicable diseases. Teachers from philanthropic child day care centers had lower age, income and education and higher work responsibilities based on the number of children and working time. The focus groups characterized institutions with organized routines, standard food practices, difficulties with caretaking, and lack of training to provide healthcare to children. Strategies to improve children's health in day care settings should focus on training of teachers about healthcare and nutrition.

  7. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    PubMed Central

    Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6–59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families. PMID:26891313

  8. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    PubMed

    Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2016-02-15

    Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of "children left behind". The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6-59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families.

  9. Evaluation and Reauthorization of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Hearings before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate; and the Subcommittee on Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate. Ninety-Eighth Congress Second Session, March 15 and April 9, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    This document records hearings before the U.S. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry and its sub-committee on Nutrition. The hearings, dated March 15 and April 9, 1984, were conducted in order to evaluate and reauthorize the special supplemental food program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), due to expire in 1984. Testimony…

  10. [The vitamin D nutritional status in Chinese urban women of child-bearing age from 2010 to 2012].

    PubMed

    Lu, J X; Liu, X B; Chen, J; Hu, Y C; Yun, C F; Li, W D; Wang, R; Yang, Y H; Mao, D Q; Piao, J H; Yang, X G; Yang, L C

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To evaluate the vitamin D nutritional status in Chinese women of child-bearing age by analyzing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in 2010-2012. Methods: Data were obtained from the China Nutrition and Health Survey in 2010-2012. Using cluster sampling and proportional stratified random sampling, 1 514 women of child-bearing age (18-44 years old) from 34 metropolis and 41 small and medium-sized cities were included in this study. Demographic information was collected by questionnaire and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, in accordance with the 2010 Institute of Medicine of the National Academies standards. We compared differences in vitamin D levels, specifically serious deficiency, lack of deficiency, insufficiency, and excess. Results: The overall serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of Chinese urban women of child-bearing age (P(50) (P(25)-P(75))) was 20.1 (15.1-26.3) ng/ml; minorities had a significantly higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 22.0 (15.9-27.5) ng/ml compared with women of Han nationality (19.8 (14.9-26.2) ng/ml) (χ(2)=7.02, P=0.008). The proportions of women with serious deficiency, lack of deficiency, insufficiency, and excess vitamin D were 11.6% (n=175), 37.9% (n=574), 35.1% (n=531), and 0.3% (n=5), respectively. Only 15.1% (n=229) of women of child-bearing age had normal vitamin D nutritional status. No significant differences in vitamin D nutritional status were observed according to age, body mass index, city, nationality, educational level, marital status, or household income per capita (P>0.05). Conclusion: Most Chinese urban women of child-bearing age have poor vitamin D levels and require vitamin D supplementation.

  11. Assessment of energy balance of Indian farm women in relation to their nutritional profile in lean and peak agricultural seasons.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suman; Sinwal, Sushma; Rathore, Hemu

    2012-01-01

    In India, the farm women are not only involved in household activities but also contribute in various farm operations, animal husbandry. The objective was to assess nutritional profile of the farmwomen and their occupational health problems, to compare the physiological workload in lean and peak seasons and to find out relationship between physiological workload and nutritional intake. The study was conducted on a sample of 90 farmwomen. Energy Intake was calculated using physiological fuel values of carbohydrate, fat and protein. Energy Expenditure Rate (EER), Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) and Energy Balance were calculated. The physiological workload was assessed using sub-maximal workload technique. The results revealed that all the respondents of all categories were, more or less, performing all the agriculture, allied and household activities. In all the agriculture activities physiological hazards such as body pain and fatigue were dominant. Dietary, nutritional and energy intake was lower for heavy workers, from all landholding and BMI categories. HR and OCR were in linear relationship in all BMI categories. Physical work capacity increased with good nutritional status and decreased with age. Regression equations were suggested for calculating oxygen consumption (y) at their known heart rate (x) during various agriculture operations.

  12. 75 FR 11512 - Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: The Office of Negotiations and Agreements by phone on (202) 720-6219; by e-mail addressed... other models, that have been successful in reducing child labor and/or forced labor in the global supply chains within the agricultural sector or other industries; (b) The roles and responsibilities that may...

  13. Maternal employment, child care, and nutritional status of 12-18-month-old children in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, J F; Engle, P L; Zeitlin, M F

    1998-02-01

    Relationships among women's employment, child care strategies, and nutritional status of children 12-18 months of age were examined in 80 Nicaraguan households sampled by randomized block design in 10 low income urban communities. Multiple regression analyses showed that children of employed mothers (56%) fared better in weight/height than those whose mothers were not employed, with and without controlling for socioeconomic status and maternal education, paternal financial support, child care adequacy, and sex and age of the child. Children with inadequate alternate child care (care by a preteen or care at the work place) had lower height for age, even controlling for the same variables and for maternal employment. Differences in 10 caregiving behaviors between families as a function of work status of the mother and adequacy of child care were examined. In families with working mothers, caregivers were less likely to be observed washing their hands, suggesting that the positive associations of work for earnings might be due to income rather than improved care. Inadequate care was associated with less food variety, less use of health care, and marginally less hand-washing. Inadequate child care, which tends to be associated with informal work, nuclear families and poverty, should be a concern for child welfare.

  14. Nutrition for Children with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children and Cancer When Your Child Has Cancer Nutrition for Children with Cancer Nutrition is an important part of the health of ... help you ensure your child is getting the nutrition he or she needs. Why good nutrition is ...

  15. A review and meta-analysis of the impact of intestinal worms on child growth and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Hall, Andrew; Hewitt, Gillian; Tuffrey, Veronica; de Silva, Nilanthi

    2008-04-01

    More than a half of the world's population are infected with one or more species of intestinal worms of which the nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms are the most common and important in terms of child health. This paper: (1) introduces the main species of intestinal worms with particular attention to intestinal nematodes; (2) examines how such worms may affect child growth and nutrition; (3) reviews the biological and epidemiological factors that influence the effects that worms can have on the growth and nutrition of children; (4) considers the many factors that can affect the impact of treatment with anthelmintic drugs; (5) presents the results of a meta-analysis of studies of the effect of treating worm infections on child growth and nutrition; (6) discusses the results in terms of what is reasonable to expect that deworming alone can achieve; (7) describes some important characteristics of an ideal study of the effects of deworming; and (8) comments on the implications for programmes of recommendations concerning mass deworming.

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Agriculture and Nutrition (Montgomery), Operable Unit 2, Montgomery, AL, September 28, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the T.H. Agriculture and Nutrition (THAN) Site, Montgomery, Alabama. Operable Unit Two (OU2) encompasses the remediation of the contaminated soils and sediments on the Site, and also establishes the performance standards for the groundwater remedy. Upon reaching the cleanup standards for groundwater at an established point(s) of compliance, the groundwater pumping system will be shut down.

  17. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa—Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Laurencia; Pillay, Kirthee; Siwela, Muthulisi; Modi, Albert; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2016-01-01

    Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas. PMID:28036008

  18. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa-Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Govender, Laurencia; Pillay, Kirthee; Siwela, Muthulisi; Modi, Albert; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2016-12-27

    Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas.

  19. Integrated Child Development Services scheme (ICDS) and its impact on nutritional status of children in India and recent initiatives.

    PubMed

    Kapil, U; Pradhan, R

    1999-01-01

    Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme is the largest national programme for the promotion of the mother and child health and their development in the world. The beneficiaries include children below 6 years, pregnant and lactating mothers, and other women in the age group of 15 to 44 years. The package of services provided by the ICDS scheme includes supplementary nutrition, immunization, health check-up, referral services, nutrition and health education, and pre-school education. The distribution of iron and folic acid tablets and megadose of vitamin A is also undertaken, to prevent iron deficiency anaemia and xerophthalmia respectively. The scheme services are rendered essentially through the Anganwadi worker (AWW) at a village centre called "Anganwadi". The ICDS had led to (i) reduction in prevalence of severe grades of malnutrition and (ii) better utilization of services of national nutritional anaemia prophylaxis programme and the national programme for prevention of nutritional blindness due to vitamin A deficiency by ICDS beneficiaries. The ICDS scheme is being modified continuously to strengthen the programme.

  20. Disease externalities and net nutrition: Evidence from changes in sanitation and child height in Cambodia, 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Sangita; Kov, Phyrum; Smets, Susanna; Spears, Dean

    2016-12-01

    Child height is an important indicator of human capital and human development, in large part because early life health and net nutrition shape both child height and adult economic productivity and health. Between 2005 and 2010, the average height of children under 5 in Cambodia significantly increased. What contributed to this improvement? Recent evidence suggests that exposure to poor sanitation - and specifically to widespread open defecation - can pose a critical threat to child growth. We closely analyze the sanitation height gradient in Cambodia in these two years. Decomposition analysis, in the spirit of Blinder-Oaxaca, suggests that the reduction in children's exposure to open defecation can statistically account for much or all of the increase in average child height between 2005 and 2010. In particular, we see evidence of externalities, indicating an important role for public policy: it is the sanitation behavior of a child's neighbors that matters more for child height rather than the household's sanitation behavior by itself. Moving from an area in which 100% of households defecate in the open to an area in which no households defecate in the open is associated with an average increase in height-for-age z-score of between 0.3 and 0.5. Our estimates are quantitatively robust and comparable with other estimates in the literature.

  1. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  2. Nutritional Beliefs and Food Practices of Mexican-American Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Shirley

    In the locale of Hanford, California, this 1968 nutritional study was made to explore and evaluate the nutritional beliefs and food practices of Mexican American mothers among low-income agricultural working families. Some 35 mothers whose children attended the Hanford Child Day-Care Center were interviewed at home to determine family…

  3. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  4. Effectiveness of a community-based nutrition programme to improve child growth in rural Ethiopia: a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunhee; Kim, Sungtae; Sinamo, Sisay; Christian, Parul

    2017-01-01

    Few trials have shown that promoting complementary feeding among young children is effective in improving child linear growth in resource-challenged settings. We designed a community-based participatory nutrition promotion (CPNP) programme adapting a Positive Deviance/Hearth approach that engaged mothers in 2-week nutrition sessions using the principles of 'learning by doing' around child feeding. We aimed to test the effectiveness of the CPNP for improving child growth in rural Ethiopia. A cluster randomized trial was implemented by adding the CPNP to the existing government nutrition programmes (six clusters) vs. government programmes only (six clusters). A total of 1790 children aged 6 to 12 months (876 in the intervention and 914 in the control areas) were enrolled and assessed on anthropometry every 3 months for a year. Multi-level mixed-effect regression analysis of longitudinal outcome data (n = 1475) examined the programme impact on growth, adjusting for clustering and enrollment characteristics. Compared with children 6 to 24 months of age in the control area, those in the intervention area had a greater increase in z scores for length-for-age [difference (diff): 0.021 z score/month, 95% CI: 0.008, 0.034] and weight-for-length (diff: 0.042 z score/month, 95% CI: 0.024, 0.059). At the end of the 12-month follow-up, children in the intervention area showed an 8.1% (P = 0.02) and 6.3% (P = 0.046) lower prevalence of stunting and underweight, respectively, after controlling for differences in the prevalence at enrollment, compared with the control group. A novel CPNP programme was effective in improving child growth and reducing undernutrition in this setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Agricultural biology in the 3rd millennium: nutritional food security & specialty crops through sustainable agriculture and biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food security and agricultural sustainability are of prime concern in the world today in light of the increasing trends in population growth in most parts of the globe excepting Europe. The need to develop capacity to produce more to feed more people is complicated since the arable land is decreasin...

  6. [Case study: operation of a mother-child nutrition program in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Menchú, M T; de Márquez, D; Osegueda, O T; Sibrián, R

    1989-09-01

    One of the oldest international efforts in their combat of malnutrition have been the mother-child food programs (MCFP). The purpose of the study herein discussed was to detect the problems that affect the operation of the MCFP of the Ministry of Health of El Salvador, and to identify feasible measures to apply in a short term. This work analyzed the following: a) the operation of the program from the selection of the beneficiary to the delivery of the ration; b) the evolution of the beneficiaries, and c) the perception of the MCFP on mothers' part. The study covered 40 Health Services selected from all over the country; the revision of 556 children's files, and interviews to 136 mothers. It was found that the nurse is the person who plays the main role in the MCFP; that the most used criterion to enter or leave the program is the nutritional condition of the beneficiaries; that priority is given to children over pregnant women; that for most of the children there is a control kept on growth and vaccinations; and that what is mostly supervised is food handling and beneficiaries. Study of the children's files revealed that the average age of the children who enter the program is 18 months and at departure, 24 months, with a permanence of five months; and that the weight-for-age retardation when entering and leaving was similar for all the children studied, although it was different when the analysis was made by permanence and by age groups. Mothers' opinion on the MCFP permitted inference of what occurs at household levels with the donated foods; nevertheless, it is a subject that merits further study. Results of the study confirm some findings of others, although since they are specific for this Program, they allowed the appropriate decision-making for corrective measures of the MCPF.

  7. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Miranda L; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J J; Myers, Gary J; Bonham, Maxine P; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M W; Duffy, Emeir M; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W

    2011-01-01

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case

  8. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Miranda L.; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J.J.; Myers, Gary J.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W.

    2011-01-15

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case

  9. Translational research in agricultural biology - enhancing crop resistivity against environmental stress alongside nutritional quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural security, including producing nutritious food, is needed to make agriculture sustainable. All kinds of genetically engineered (transgenic) lines have been developed, including transgenic lines that have promise of withstanding environmental extremes (abiotic and biotic) and others that...

  10. Supporting Nutrition in Early Care and Education Settings: The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Child care centers, Head Start programs, and family child care providers serving young children--as well as after school programs and homeless shelters that reach older children, adults, and families--are supported in providing healthy meals and snacks by reimbursements through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Administered by the…

  11. How to engage across sectors: lessons from agriculture and nutrition in the Brazilian School Feeding Program

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna; Brazil, Bettina Gerken; de Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To provide insights for nutrition and public health practitioners on how to engage with other sectors to achieve public health goals. Specifically, this study provides lessons from the example of integrating family farming and a nutrition into a legal framework in Brazil on how to successfully shift other sectors toward nutrition goals. METHODS The study analyzed policy processes that led to a Brazilian law linking family farming with the National School Feeding Program. Main actors involved with the development of the law were interviewed and their narratives were analyzed using a well-established theoretical framework. RESULTS The study provides five key lessons for promoting intersectorality. First, nutrition and health practitioners can afford to embrace bold ideas when working with other sectors. Second, they should engage with more powerful sectors (or subsectors) and position nutrition goals as providing solutions that meet the interests of these sector. Third is the need to focus on a common goal – which may not be explicitly nutrition-related – as the focus of the intersectoral action. Fourth, philosophical, political, and governance spaces are needed to bring together different sectors. Fifth, evidence on the success of the intersectoral approach increases the acceptance of the process. CONCLUSIONS This study on policy processes shows how a convergence of factors enabled a link between family farming and school feeding in Brazil. It highlights that there are strategies to engage other sectors toward nutrition goals which provides benefits for all sectors involved. PMID:27533363

  12. Relationship between waterfowl nutrition and condition on agricultural drainwater ponds in the Tulare Basin, California: waterfowl body composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    We examined carcass composition and proximate food composition of ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis), northern shovelers (Anas clypeata), and northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering on agricultural drainwater ponds in California during 1983-84. Lipids varied seasonally in northern shovelers and northern pintails. Protein did not fluctuate except in ruddy ducks whose protein mass increased over winter, suggesting that some protein was catabolized prior to arrival on wintering areas or that a buildup of protein occurred prior to spring migration. Waterfowl diets varied among species and time, but the nutritional composition of the diets was relatively stable. Ruddy ducks and shovelers consumed mostly animal foods rich in protein (53-60%) and low in Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE)(1-7%). Pintail diets contained more NFE (23-38%) and less protein (14-38%) because of greater consumption of plant foods. Nutritional composition of pintail diets varied with lower protein consumption occurring from November through January.

  13. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  14. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): T, H, Agriculture and Nutrition Site, Operable Unit 1, Albany, GA, May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-21

    This decision document (Record of Decision), presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit One for the T H Agriculture and Nutrition (THAN) Site, Albany, Georgia. This operable unit is the first of two that are planned for the Site. The first operable unit addresses the source of the contamination on the western parcel of the Site as well as the principle threat of groundwater contamination across the entire Site. While this remedy does address the principal threats at the Site, the second operable unit will involve continued study and remediation of a second source of contamination on the eastern parcel of the Site.

  15. Nutritional status and cognitive performance of mother-child pairs in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bogale, Alemtsehay; Stoecker, Barbara J; Kennedy, Tay; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Thomas, David; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status and cognitive performance of women and their 5-year-old children using a cross-sectional design. Cognitive performance of mothers and children was assessed with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-II (KABC-II). Demographic characteristics, food consumption patterns and anthropometry were also measured. Four rural districts in Sidama, southern Ethiopia served as the setting for this study. Subjects were one hundred women and their 5-year-old children. Mean ± standard deviation age of the mothers was 29 ± 6 years and family size was 7.0 ± 2.6. Maternal body mass index (BMI) ranged from 15.3 to 29.0 with 14% of the mothers having BMI < 18.5. Anthropometric assessment of children revealed 29% to be stunted (height-for-age z-score < -2) and 12% to be underweight (weight-for-age z-score < -2). Mothers' education significantly contributed to prediction of both mothers' and children's cognitive test scores. There were significant differences in mean cognitive test scores between stunted and non-stunted, and between underweight and normal-weight children. Height-for-age z-scores were correlated with scores for short-term memory (r = 0.42, P < 0.001), and visual processing (r = 0.42, P < 0.001) indices and weight-for-age z-scores were also correlated with scores of short-term memory (r = 0.41, P < 0.001) and visual processing (r = 0.43, P < 0.001) indices. Malnutrition in the community likely contributed to the cognitive performance of the subjects. Performance on memory and visual processing tasks was significantly lower in children with growth deficits suggesting that efficient and cost effective methods to alleviate malnutrition and food insecurity would impact not only child health but also cognitive function.

  16. Educational Aspirations, Child Labour Imperatives and Structural Inequality in the South African Agricultural Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Norman; Bowman, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Despite the widespread condemnation of the practice of child labour, it remains a pervasive phenomenon in developing countries. In such contexts, labour and education often represent competing activities for children. Drawing on a study of child labour located within the critical social science tradition, this article explores insider accounts of…

  17. I Am Your Child: Health & Nutrition [and] Literacy [and] Safety. [Videotapes].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    I Am Your Child Foundation, Beverly Hills, CA.

    Noting the importance of early experiences for the healthy growth and development of children, these three videotapes for parents explore children's health and nutrition, literacy, and safety. Each videotape is 20-25 minutes long. The first video, "Your Healthy Baby," presents information parents need on children's health and nutrition.…

  18. Nutrition and Its Effects on the Hyperkinetic Child's Behavior and Learning: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Roberta L.

    This case study reviews the literature related to diet, behavior and learning and describes procedures and results of a change in the diet of an adolescent girl who had an extensive history of problems at home and at school. Studies of nutritional deficiency, nutritional imbalance, allergies, and synthetic food additives are briefly overviewed.…

  19. Promoting Wellness: A Nutrition, Health and Safety Manual for Family Child Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Pam S.

    This manual provides a reference source for use by sponsor organizations of the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) in training family child care providers. The manual begins with separate introductory sections for trainers and for providers. The trainer's section includes materials on: how adults learn, strengths and limitations of various…

  20. Nurturing the Citizens of the Future: Milk Stations and Child Nutrition in Puerto Rico, 1929–60

    PubMed Central

    González, Elisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Between the 1930s and 1960s Puerto Rico was transformed from a marginal United States territory into an industrialised ‘showcase of development’. This article investigates the organisation of milk station programmes on the island during this crucial period and how these reflected the circulation of child welfare knowledge, nutrition expertise and public health practices. During the Depression, these perspectives fostered a recast of the eugenic regeneration ideologies motivating medical assessments of and sanitary interventions with Puerto Rico’s rural poor since the nineteenth century. Innovations in nutrition knowledge and an emerging rural hygiene movement highlighted the negative health effects of the island’s monocrops economy. In this context, the nourishment of children’s bodies assumed symbolic and instrumental significance for the reconfiguration of colonial and developmental models promoted by the new Popular Democratic Party (PPD). The experience of public health professionals in relief work during the 1930s contributed to the articulation of food and nutrition as key elements of this party’s populist discourse. Programmes like milk stations became part of strategies to rear and manage the labour force needed in the industrial development model promoted by the PPD. From the perspective of poor Puerto Ricans, however, they were part of the materialisation of its promise of social justice for the poorer classes. PMID:25766539

  1. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in children exposed prenatally to maternal dental amalgam: the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gene E; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M T; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M W; Myers, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg⁰)) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children's neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of prenatal exposure to nutrients and methylmercury (MeHg) with neurodevelopment. A total of 236 mother-child pairs initially enrolled in the SCDNS in 2001 were eligible to participate. Maternal amalgam status was measured as number of amalgam surfaces (the primary metric) and number of occlusal points. The neurodevelopmental assessment battery was comprised of age-appropriate tests of cognitive, language, and perceptual functions, and scholastic achievement. Linear regression analysis controlled for MeHg exposure, maternal fatty acid status, and other covariates relevant to child development. Maternal amalgam status evaluation yielded an average of 7.0 surfaces (range 0-28) and 11.0 occlusal points (range 0-40) during pregnancy. Neither the number of maternal amalgam surfaces nor occlusal points were associated with any outcome. Our findings do not provide evidence to support a relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg⁰ from maternal dental amalgam and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age.

  2. Capacity building in the health sector to improve care for child nutrition and development.

    PubMed

    Yousafzai, Aisha K; Rasheed, Muneera A; Daelmans, Bernadette; Manji, Sheila; Arnold, Caroline; Lingam, Raghu; Muskin, Joshua; Lucas, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions promoting healthy child growth and development depends upon the capacity of the health system to deliver a high-quality intervention. However, few health workers are trained in providing integrated early child-development services. Building capacity entails not only training the frontline worker, but also mobilizing knowledge and support to promote early child development across the health system. In this paper, we present the paradigm shift required to build effective partnerships between health workers and families in order to support children's health, growth, and development, the practical skills frontline health workers require to promote optimal caregiving, and the need for knowledge mobilization across multiple institutional levels to support frontline health workers. We present case studies illustrating challenges and success stories around capacity development. There is a need to galvanize increased commitment and resources to building capacity in health systems to deliver early child-development services.

  3. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  4. The Progress of Nations: The Nations of the World Ranked According to Their Achievements in Child Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progress of Nations, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This report brings together the latest available statistics on national achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, family planning, and progress for women. Each section contains a commentary, a presentation of related statistics, and a discussion on achievement and disparity. The sections are: (1) Introduction, "Social…

  5. Guidelines for Mini-Grants: Child Nutrition, E.C.I.A. Chapter 1, E.C.I.A. Chapter 2, Exceptional Children, JTPA, Migrant Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Life Sciences.

    Competitive mini-grants are available to local education agencies in North Carolina for the implementation of nationally validated programs from the National Diffusion Network (NDN) in the following areas: (1) Child Nutrition; (2) Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA) Chapter 1; (3) Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA)…

  6. Guidelines for Mini-Grants: Child Nutrition, Dropout Prevention, E.C.I.A. Chapter 1, E.C.I.A. Chapter 2, Exceptional Children, JTPA Migrant Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Support Programs.

    This manual provides guidelines for submitting proposals for mini-grants distributed in North Carolina to school administrative units for implementation of nationally validated programs from the National Diffusion Network in the following areas: (1) child nutrition; (2) dropout prevention; (3) Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA)…

  7. The Progress of Nations: The Nations of the World Ranked According to Their Achievements in Child Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Peter, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This report brings together the latest available statistics to record national achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, family planning, and progress for women. Each section contains a commentary and a presentation of related statistics. The commentaries of the report are: (1) Introduction, "One Small Step for a…

  8. Farm to School and the Child Nutrition Act: Improving School Meals through Advocating Federal Support for Farm-to-School Programs. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, James

    2011-01-01

    From 2009 to 2010, the Community Food Security Coalition advocated for more federal support and funding for farm-to-school programs as Congress considered reauthorizing the Child Nutrition Act. Farm-to-school initiatives aim to improve the quality and healthfulness of student meals through the inclusion of more fresh fruits and vegetables provided…

  9. The Progress of Nations: The Nations of the World Ranked According to Their Achievements in Child Health, Nutrition, Education, Water and Sanitation, and Progress for Women, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This report summarizes the latest available statistics on international achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, water and sanitation, and the plight of women. Each section contains a commentary, related statistics, and a discussion on progress and disparity in the section's particular area. Following a foreword by United…

  10. The Progress of Nations, 1996: The Nations of the World Ranked According to Their Achievements in Child Health, Nutrition, Education, Family Planning, and Progress for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Peter, Ed.

    This report brings together the latest available statistics to record national achievements in child survival, health, nutrition, education, family planning, and progress for women. Each section contains a commentary and a presentation of related statistics. Following an introduction by UNICEF executive director Carol Bellamy, the commentaries…

  11. World Health Organization 2006 child growth standards and 2007 growth reference charts: A discussion paper by the committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique; Michaelsen, Kim F; Shamir, Raanan; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamás; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Kolacek, Sanja; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis A; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2013-08-01

    Growth charts are essential for evaluating children's health including their nutrition; however, the evaluation of child growth trajectories and consequently the decision to intervene are highly dependent on the growth charts used. The aim of this discussion paper of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition is to provide information on the background and rationale of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 child growth standards and WHO 2007 growth reference charts, describe their development, outline their main innovative aspects, discuss potential limitations, and make recommendations. WHO 2006 child growth standards (0-5 years) are based on prospectively collected data describing the growth of healthy infants who were breast-fed according to WHO recommendations, showing a pattern of linear growth, which is remarkably consistent between different countries and ethnic groups. WHO 2007 growth reference charts (5-19 years) are based mainly on a re-analysis of National Centre for Health Statistics data from 1977, without information on feeding. European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition recommends that WHO child growth standards should be used to monitor growth in all children in the age range 0 to 2 years in Europe, whether breast- or formula-fed, and that they should be considered to be used in the age range 2 to 5 years. Implementation of the WHO child growth standards should be preceded by evaluation of the implication of their use on national healthcare policies. Health professionals should be guided on their use and interpretation and an adequate communication strategy should be available locally to ensure that parents receive clear and consistent advice. The decision on whether to implement the WHO growth references (5-19 years) should be made by national bodies because the growth pattern during the 5- to 19-year period differs between

  12. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): T H Agriculture and Nutrition Site, Dougherty County, Albany, GA, April 26, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This decision document (Record of Decision), presents the selected Remedial Action for the Operable Unit Two for the T H Agriculture & Nutrition (THAN) Site, Albany, Georgia. The second operable unit addresses the source of the contamination on the eastern parcel of the Site. The major components of the selected remedy for operable unit two include: the excavation of all soil contaminated with organics necessary to meet performance standards; the staging and preconditioning of soil for low temperature thermal desorption treatment; the treatment of excavated soil by low temperature thermal desorption; the placement of treated, decontaminated soil back to the site; periodic sampling of treated soil during the treatment process to verify the effectiveness of the remedy; air monitoring to ensure safety of nearby residents and workers; groundwater monitoring to ensure that metals contaminated remaining in the subsurface soil will not result in contaminated groundwater migrating offsite in concentrations which exceed groundwater protection standards; and deed restrictions to prevent residential use of the property.

  13. Micronutrient-Efficient Genotypes for Crop Yield and Nutritional Quality in Sustainable Agriculture: A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronutrient deficiency is a limiting factor for crop productivity in many agricultural lands worldwide. Furthermore, many food systems in developing countries can not provide sufficient micronutrient contents to meet the demands of their people, especially low-income families. Several approaches...

  14. Effect of early childhood undernutrition and child labour on growth and adult nutritional status of rural Indian boys around Hyderabad.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, K; Prasanna Krishna, T; Narasinga Rao, B S

    1986-03-01

    A longitudinal study of rural Hyderabad children has been in progress from 1965. About 700 boys who are under follow-up are now in late adolescence and young adult stage. Of them, 410 had completed linear growth by the 1983-84 annual round. Severe growth retardation was observed among one-sixth at their 5th year of life. The severely undernourished group grew up as the shortest and lightest young adults. One-fifth of the boys under study worked for wages in their childhood. Their work experience ranged from 4 to 8 years at 14 years of age (child labourers or working children). Growth and development of working children was compared with students, who were matched for nutritional status at age 5. Working children lost considerable ground and suffered significant growth deficits.

  15. Women's work in farming, child feeding practices and nutritional status among under-five children in rural Rukwa, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nordang, Sunniva; Shoo, Tiransia; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Kinabo, Joyce; Wandel, Margareta

    2015-11-28

    Some progress has been achieved in reducing the prevalence of undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Tanzania. In the Rukwa region (2010), the level of stunted and underweight children was 50·4 and 13·5 %, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age, feeding practices and risk factors of undernutrition in a rural village in the Rukwa region, as well as to discuss the results in light of a similar study conducted in 1987/1988. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 152 households with children under 5 years of age. Data were obtained from the child's main caretaker and the household head, using a structured questionnaire and a 24 h dietary recall. Children's length/height and weight were measured. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was found to be 63·8 and 33·6 % (Z-score<-2 of WHO 2006 CGS), respectively. Sugar-water was given to 72·3 % of the children on the first day after birth. A thin gruel was introduced after a median of 2 months (25th-75th percentiles; 1-3). The time mothers spent farming was a significant risk factor for stunting (P=0·04). Illness, food shortage and dry-season cultivation were significant risk factors for underweight (P<0·01). Using the NCHS/WHO 1983 growth reference (<75 % of the median), the prevalence of underweight was 25·0 %, similar to that reported in 1987/1988 (26·4 %). In conclusion, the underweight prevalence was found to be at the same level in 2010 as was recorded in 1987/1988. Current child-feeding practices were not in line with WHO recommendations. Women working in farms, food shortage, dry-season cultivation and diseases partly explain the children's poor nutritional status.

  16. Child Nutrition: A Focus on Preschool. Guidance for Early Care and Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.

    Because the development of healthy eating and physical activity habits during early childhood can prevent disease and support a lifetime of good health, nutrition services are a critical component of early childhood programs. This publication provides guidance to preschool programs to help them meet the Connecticut state goal of practicing…

  17. Prevalence, consequences and prevention of childhood nutritional iron deficiency: a child public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Moy, R J D

    2006-10-01

    The true extent of nutritional iron deficiency (ID) in childhood is unclear because of uncertainty over its definition and the insensitivity of markers of ID. The major cause is likely to be the excessive and early use of cow's milk. Recent neurophysiological observations support the many field studies correlating ID with cognitive developmental delays. Prevention is best sought through supplementation of essential foods.

  18. Food habits and nutritional status of agricultural migrant workers in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Desai, I D; Garcia Tavares, M L; Dutra de Oliveira, B S; Douglas, A; Duarte, F A; Dutra de Oliveira, J E

    1980-03-01

    A new class of migrant workers, commonly known as "Boia-Frias", is rapidly growing in the periurban slumbs (favelas) of Brazil. In 1978 a collaborative study was undertaken to assess the food habits and nutritional status of 100 migrant worker families of Vila Recreio, a typical Boia-Fria settlement near Ribeirao Preto in the state of Sao Paulo. The findings of this survey revealed that the traditional diet of Boia-Frias is nutritionally inadequate both in quality and quantity. Their rice and bean-based diet lacks sufficient variety because of the infrequent use of fresh fruits and vegetables, which are available locally, and of supplemental amounts of protein-rich foods of animal origin. Empty-calorie foods such as carbonated drinks and alcoholic beverages are consumed freely; and starchy foods, traditionally used in the North and Northeast of Brazil, are used commonly as weaning foods. Although dietary practices of pregnant and lactating women are poor, breast-feeding is still practiced by most mothers. The biochemical analysis of blood samples did not indicate major subclinical deficiencies except low hematological values and low plasma vitamin A concentrations in about 25% of the population examined. Plasma cholesterol and plasma vitamin E values were found to be normal. However, anthropometric examinations revealed clear signs of malnutrition and/or undernourishment, which likely impairs their capacity for physical work and adversely affects their overall health.

  19. Recommendations to USDA for the 2009 Child Nutrition Programs Reauthorization. Testimony 08-337

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagert, Celia

    2008-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the Center for Public Policy Priorities (CPPP) has been a nonpartisan, nonprofit 501(c)(3) research organization committed to improving public policies and private practices to better the economic and social conditions of low- and moderate-income Texans. CPPP believes the upcoming reauthorization of the child nutrition…

  20. Assessing an Infant Feeding Web Site as a Nutrition Education Tool for Child Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Alena; Anderson, Jennifer; Adams, Elizabeth; Baker, Susan; Barrett, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Determine child care providers' infant feeding knowledge, attitude and behavior changes after viewing the infant feeding Web site and determine the effectiveness of the Web site and bilingual educational materials. Design: Intervention and control groups completed an on-line pretest survey, viewed a Web site for 3 months, and completed…

  1. Integrating nutrition and early child-development interventions among infants and preschoolers in rural India.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries.

  2. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  3. Forest cover associated with improved child health and nutrition: evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and satellite data

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kiersten B; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly E

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P = .002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystem services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes. PMID:25276536

  4. Assessment of Food and Nutrition Related Descriptors in Agricultural and Biomedical Thesauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartol, Tomaz

    Food- and human nutrition-related subject headings or descriptors of the following thesauri-databases are assessed: NAL Thesaurus/Agricola, Agrovoc/Agris, CAB Thesaurus, FSTA Thesaurus, MeSH/Medline. Food concepts can be represented by thousands of different terms but subject scope of a particular term is sometimes vague. There exist important differences among thesauri regarding same or similar concept. A term that represents narrower or broader concept in one thesaurus can in another stand for a related concept or be non-existent. Sometimes there is no clear implication of differences between scientific (Latin) and common (English) names. Too many related terms can confuse end-users. Thesauri were initially employed mostly by information professionals but can now be used directly by users who may be unaware of differences. Thesauri are assuming new roles in classification of information as metadata. Further development towards ontologies must pay constant attention to taxonomic problems of representation of knowledge.

  5. Oat agriculture, cultivation and breeding targets: implications for human nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Derek; McDougall, Gordon

    2014-10-01

    Oats are undervalued in comparison with wheat, rice and barley, despite their unique composition that includes many of the nutrients required for health and a reduced risk of degenerative disease incidence. Furthermore, oats as whole grain and some of their associated products also contain β-glucan, a complex polysaccharide that has an approved health claim to reduce blood cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of CHD incidence if consumed at ≥ 3 g/d. At the agronomic level, oats exhibit optimal growth in regions of moderate temperature and long day length. In addition, they can tolerate wet weather and acidic soils more effectively than other cereals, such as wheat. Studies have shown that there is diversity in the content and composition of nutrients and health-beneficial components within the available wild and cultivated germplasm and that these are amenable to be enhanced by different agronomic practices as well as are susceptible to climatic variation. The advances in modern plant genetics, developed in sister cereals such as wheat, rice and barley, mean that oat development and exploitation should see an acceleration in the coming decade as they are adopted and applied. These advances include approaches such as genome sequencing, genotyping by sequencing and the allied next-level analytical approaches of RNA sequencing, transcriptome profiling and metabolomics. The collation and coordination of these approaches should lead to the generation of new, tailored oat varieties that are nutritionally enhanced and contain a greater proportion of health-beneficial components that can be translated through into a wide(r) range of consumer products with the ultimate hope of associated benefits to human health and nutrition.

  6. Eggs: the uncracked potential for improving maternal and young child nutrition among the world's poor.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Lora L; Lutter, Chessa K; Bunn, David A; Stewart, Christine P

    2014-06-01

    Eggs have been consumed throughout human history, though the full potential of this nutritionally complete food has yet to be realized in many resource-poor settings around the world. Eggs provide essential fatty acids, proteins, choline, vitamins A and B12 , selenium, and other critical nutrients at levels above or comparable to those found in other animal-source foods, but they are relatively more affordable. Cultural beliefs about the digestibility and cleanliness of eggs, as well as environmental concerns arising from hygiene practices and toxin exposures, remain as barriers to widespread egg consumption. There is also regional variability in egg intake levels. In Latin American countries, on average, greater proportions of young children consume eggs than in Asian or African countries. In China and Indonesia, nutrition education and social marketing have been associated with greater amounts of eggs in the diets of young children, though generally, evidence from interventions is minimal. Homestead chicken-and-egg production with appropriate vaccination, extension service, and other supports can simultaneously address poverty and nutrition in very poor rural households. With undernutrition remaining a significant problem in many parts of the world, eggs may be an uncracked part of the solution.

  7. Impact of Maternal Household Decision-Making Autonomy on Child Nutritional Status in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mosfequr; Saima, Umme; Goni, Md Abdul

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between maternal household decision-making autonomy and children's nutritional status using data from 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. The analyses are restricted to 2056 currently married, nonpregnant women aged 15 to 49 years who had at least 1 birth 5 years preceding the survey. Theoretically relevant predictors of children's nutritional status including maternal autonomy are analyzed to identify factors significantly associated with children's nutritional status using stepwise logistic regression. Results indicate that 34.8% children are stunted, 16.1% are wasted, and 45.9% children are underweight. Children whose mothers participated in making all household decisions are 15%, 16%, and 32% significantly less likely to be stunted (odds ratio = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.67-0.98), underweight (odds ratio = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.70-0.98), and wasted (odds ratio = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.52-0.90), respectively, than mothers who did not participate in making any decision. Increasing maternal decision-making autonomy may reduce the prevalence of malnourished children as well as contribute to have a healthier future generation.

  8. Using formative research to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve infant and young child feeding practices and nutrition in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Locks, Lindsey M; Pandey, Pooja R; Osei, Akoto K; Spiro, David S; Adhikari, Debendra P; Haselow, Nancy J; Quinn, Victoria J; Nielsen, Jennifer N

    2015-10-01

    Global recommendations on strategies to improve infant feeding, care and nutrition are clear; however, there is limited literature that explains methods for tailoring these recommendations to the local context where programmes are implemented. This paper aims to: (1) highlight the individual, cultural and environmental factors revealed by formative research to affect infant and young child feeding and care practices in Baitadi district of Far Western Nepal; and (2) outline how both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve child nutrition. Quantitative data on 750 children aged 12-23 months and their families were collected via surveys administered to mothers. The participants were selected using a multistage cluster sampling technique. The survey asked about knowledge, attitude and behaviours relating to infant and young child feeding. Qualitative data on breastfeeding and complementary feeding beliefs and practices were also collected from a separate sample via focus group discussions with mothers, and key informant interviews with mothers-in-law and husbands. Key findings revealed gaps in knowledge among many informants resulting in suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices - particularly with relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding and dietary diversity of complementary foods. The findings from this research were then incorporated into a context-specific nutrition behaviour change communication strategy.

  9. Nutrition. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Adequate consumption of nutritious, wholesome foods is essential to the healthy development of young children. Unfortunately, many households throughout the U.S. and Colorado struggle to put sufficient food on the table. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, the percentage of American families who reported experiencing…

  10. Effect of nutritional supplementation of breastfeeding HIV positive mothers on maternal and child health: findings from a randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been well established that breastfeeding is beneficial for child health, however there has been debate regarding the effect of lactation on maternal health in the presence of HIV infection and the need for nutritional supplementation in HIV positive lactating mothers. Aims To assess the effect of nutritional supplementation to HIV infected lactating mothers on nutritional and health status of mothers and their infants. Methods A randomized controlled clinical trial to study the impact of nutritional supplementation on breastfeeding mothers. Measurements included anthropometry; body composition indicators; CD4 count, haemoglobin and albumin; as well as incidence rates of opportunistic infections; depression and quality of life scores. Infant measurements included anthropometry, development and rates of infections. Results The supplement made no significant impact on any maternal or infant outcomes. However in the small group of mothers with low BMI, the intake of supplement was significantly associated with preventing loss of lean body mass (1.32 kg vs. 3.17 kg; p = 0.026). There was no significant impact of supplementation on the infants. Conclusions A 50 g daily nutritional supplement to breastfeeding mothers had no or limited effect on mother and child health outcomes. Clinical trial registration ISRCTN68128332 (http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN68128332) PMID:22192583

  11. Food security and child nutritional status among Orang Asli (Temuan) households in Hulu Langat, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Zalilah, M S; Tham, B L

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of household food insecurity and its potential risk factors and outcomes among the Orang Asli (Temuan) households. Socioeconomic, demographic and food security information of the households and anthropometric measurements and dietary intakes of preschoolers (n = 64) were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Food security was assessed using the Radimer/Cornell hunger and food insecurity instrument. Diet quality was based on 24 hour recall and analyzed according to the Malaysian RDA and Food Guide Pyramid. Majority of the households (82%) reported some kind of household food insecurity. The prevalence of significant underweight, stunting and wasting were 45.3%, 51.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Dietary intakes were less than 2/3 RDA levels for calories, calcium and iron. However, the intakes of protein, vitamin A, vitamin C and niacin exceeded the RDA and the sources for these nutrients were mainly rice, fish and green leafy vegetables. Among the five food groups, only the number of servings from cereals/cereal products/tubers group was achieved while that of the milk/diary products was the worst. Majority of the children (68.7%) had poor, 31.3% had fair and none with excellent diet quality. In general, diet quality and nutritional status of the children decreased as household food insecurity worsened. It is recommended that the nutritional problems of Orang Asli children be addressed through health, nutrition and economic programs and further studies should be carried out on determinants and consequences of household food insecurity.

  12. Child hunger and the protective effects of supplemental nutrition assistance program (SNAP) and alternative food sources among Mexican-origin families in Texas border colonias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nutritional health is essential for children’s growth and development. Many Mexican-origin children who reside in limited-resource colonias along the Texas-Mexico border are at increased risk for poor nutrition as a result of household food insecurity. However, little is known about the prevalence of child hunger or its associated factors among children of Mexican immigrants. This study determines the prevalence of child hunger and identifies protective and risk factors associated with it in two Texas border areas. Methods This study uses 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA) data from 470 mothers who were randomly recruited by promotora-researchers. Participants from colonias near two small towns in two South Texas counties participated in an in-home community and household assessment. Interviewer-administered surveys collected data in Spanish on sociodemographics, federal food assistance program participation, and food security status. Frequencies and bivariate correlations were examined while a random-effects logistic regression model with backward elimination was used to determine correlates of childhood hunger. Results Hunger among children was reported in 51% (n = 239) of households in this C-HCFRA sample. Bivariate analyses revealed that hunger status was associated with select maternal characteristics, such as lower educational attainment and Mexican nativity, and household characteristics, including household composition, reliance on friend or neighbor for transportation, food purchase at dollar stores and from neighbors, and participation in school-based nutrition programs. A smaller percentage of households with child hunger participated in school-based nutrition programs (51%) or used alternative food sources, while 131 households were unable to give their child or children a balanced meal during the school year and 145 households during summer months. In the random effects model (RE = small town

  13. How parents process child health and nutrition information: A grounded theory model.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate low-income parents' experiences receiving, making meaning of, and applying sociocultural messages about childhood health and nutrition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents from 16 low-income Early Head Start families. Verbatim interview transcripts, observations, field notes, documentary evidence, and follow-up participant checks were used during grounded theory analysis of the data. Data yielded a potential theoretical model of parental movement toward action involving (a) the culture and context influencing parents, (b) parents' sources of social and cultural messages, (c) parental values and engagement, (d) parental motivation for action, (e) intervening conditions impacting motivation and application, and (f) parent action taken on the individual and social levels. Parent characteristics greatly impacted the ways in which parents understood and applied health and nutrition information. Among other implications, it is recommended that educators and providers focus on a parent's beliefs, values, and cultural preferences regarding food and health behaviors as well as his/her personal/family definition of "health" when framing recommendations and developing interventions.

  14. Animal products, diseases and drugs: a plea for better integration between agricultural sciences, human nutrition and human pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins) often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced). It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high) directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct costs for the farming sector

  15. Functional roles of melatonin in plants, and perspectives in nutritional and agricultural science.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Hardeland, Rudiger; Manchester, Lucien C; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Ma, Shuran; Rosales-Corral, Sergio; Reiter, Russel J

    2012-01-01

    The presence of melatonin in plants is universal. Evidence has confirmed that a major portion of the melatonin is synthesized by plants themselves even though a homologue of the classic arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) has not been identified as yet in plants. Thus, the serotonin N-acetylating enzyme in plants may differ greatly from the animal AANAT with regard to sequence and structure. This would imply multiple evolutionary origins of enzymes with these catalytic properties. A primary function of melatonin in plants is to serve as the first line of defence against internal and environmental oxidative stressors. The much higher melatonin levels in plants compared with those found in animals are thought to be a compensatory response by plants which lack means of mobility, unlike animals, as a means of coping with harsh environments. Importantly, remarkably high melatonin concentrations have been measured in popular beverages (coffee, tea, wine, and beer) and crops (corn, rice, wheat, barley, and oats). Billions of people worldwide consume these products daily. The beneficial effects of melatonin on human health derived from the consumption of these products must be considered. Evidence also indicates that melatonin has an ability to increase the production of crops. The mechanisms may involve the roles of melatonin in preservation of chlorophyll, promotion of photosynthesis, and stimulation of root development. Transgenic plants with enhanced melatonin content could probably lead to breakthroughs to increase crop production in agriculture and to improve the general health of humans.

  16. Nutritional indicators of adverse pregnancy outcomes and mother-to-child transmission of HIV among HIV-infected women2

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Saurabh; Manji, Karim P; Young, Alicia M; Brown, Elizabeth R; Chasela, Charles; Taha, Taha E; Read, Jennifer S; Goldenberg, Robert L; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2008-01-01

    Background Poor nutrition may be associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective The objective was to examine the relation of nutritional indicators with adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected women in Tanzania, Zambia, and Malawi. Design Body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and hemoglobin concentrations at enrollment and weight change during pregnancy were prospectively related to fetal loss, neonatal death, low birth weight, preterm birth, and MTCT of HIV. Results In a multivariate analysis, having a BMI < 21.8 was significantly associated with preterm birth [odds ratio (OR): 1.82; 95% CI: 1.34, 2.46] and low birth weight (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.41, 3.08). A U-shaped relation between weight change during pregnancy and preterm birth was observed. Severe anemia was significantly associated with fetal loss or stillbirth (OR: 3.67; 95% CI: 1.16, 11.66), preterm birth (OR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.39, 3.10), low birth weight (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.90), and MTCT of HIV by the time of birth (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.18, 4.34) and by 4−6 wk among those negative at birth (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.15, 4.73). Conclusions Anemia, poor weight gain during pregnancy, and low BMI in HIV-infected pregnant women are associated with increased risks of adverse infant outcomes and MTCT of HIV. Interventions that reduce the risk of wasting or anemia during pregnancy should be evaluated to determine their possible effect on the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes and MTCT of HIV. PMID:18541551

  17. Agriculture, food, and nutrition interventions that facilitate sustainable food production and impact health: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Haby, Michelle M; Chapman, Evelina; Clark, Rachel; Galvão, Luiz A C

    2016-08-01

    Objectives To identify the agriculture, food, and nutrition security interventions that facilitate sustainable food production and have a positive impact on health. Methods Systematic review methods were used to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations through a comprehensive search of 17 databases and 10 websites. The search employed a pre-defined protocol with clear inclusion criteria. Both grey and peer-reviewed literature published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese between 1 January 1997 and November 2013 were included. To classify as "sustainable," interventions needed to aim to positively impact at least two dimensions of the integrated framework for sustainable development and include measures of health impact. Results Fifteen systematic reviews and seven economic evaluations met the inclusion criteria. All interventions had some impact on health or on risk factors for health outcomes, except those related to genetically modified foods. Impact on health inequalities was rarely measured. All interventions with economic evaluations were very cost-effective, had cost savings, or net benefits. In addition to impacting health (inclusive social development), all interventions had the potential to impact on inclusive economic development, and some, on environmental sustainability, though these effects were rarely assessed. Conclusions What is needed now is careful implementation of interventions with expected positive health impacts but with concurrent, rigorous evaluation. Possible impact on health inequalities needs to be considered and measured by future primary studies and systematic reviews, as does impact of interventions on all dimensions of sustainable development.

  18. Nutrition and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…

  19. Maternal work and child-care strategies in peri-urban Guatemala: nutritional effects.

    PubMed

    Engle, P L

    1991-10-01

    Associations of 293 mothers' work for earnings and child-care arrangements with the anthropometric status of their children were examined in urban Guatemala. It was hypothesized that during the period of life in which growth often falters (8 through 35 months), maternal employment could be beneficial for children. Informal workers tended to be poorer, less educated, and have more undernourished children than formal workers or nonworkers. When poverty and mother's education were controlled for, no effects of maternal employment on children's anthropometric growth patterns were seen. However, the percent of the family income the mother earned was positively associated with all anthropometric indicators, controlling for confounds. Children taken care of by preteen siblings had significantly lower weight for height than those in other situations, even controlling for SES and maternal employment status. These effects were not found in a 36-48-month-old sample.

  20. Mainstreaming nutrition into maternal and child health programmes: scaling up of exclusive breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Nita; Kabir, A K M Iqbal; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2008-04-01

    Interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding have been estimated to have the potential to prevent 13% of all under-5 deaths in developing countries and are the single most important preventive intervention against child mortality. According to World Health Organization and United Nations Children Funds (UNICEF), only 39% infants are exclusively breastfed for less than 4 months. This review examines programme efforts to scale up exclusive breastfeeding in different countries and draws lesson for successful scale-up. Opportunities and challenges in scaling up of exclusive breastfeeding into Maternal and Child Health programmes are identified. The key processes required for exclusive breastfeeding scale-up are: (1) an evidence-based policy and science-driven technical guidelines; and (2) an implementation strategy and plan for achieving high exclusive breastfeeding rates in all strata of society, on a sustainable basis. Factors related to success include political will, strong advocacy, enabling policies, well-defined short- and long-term programme strategy, sustained financial support, clear definition of roles of multiple stakeholders and emphasis on delivery at the community level. Effective use of antenatal, birth and post-natal contacts at homes and through community mobilization efforts is emphasized. Formative research to ensure appropriate intervention design and delivery is critical particularly in areas with high HIV prevalence. Strong communication strategy and support, quality trainers and training contributed significantly to programme success. Monitoring and evaluation with feedback systems that allow for periodic programme corrections and continued innovation are central to very high coverage. Legal framework must make it possible for mothers to exclusively breastfeed for at least 4 months. Sustained programme efforts are critical to achieve high coverage and this requires strong national- and state-level leadership.

  1. A Health and Nutritional Evaluation of Changes in Agriculture in the Past Quarter Century in British Columbia: Implications for Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Ostry, Aleck; Morrison, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes change in local food production in British Columbia with a focus on changes in the production of foods recommended for increased consumption by nutritionists. We determine, in one of the most productive agricultural provinces in Canada, whether secular trends in agricultural land use and food production, over the past quarter century, have resulted in increased production of foods recommended by nutritionists as more healthy and nutritious. In particular we are concerned with estimating the extent to which changes in agriculture and food production are congruent with official nutrition advice to avoid less healthy foods and to consume more vegetables, fruit, and whole grains. We demonstrate, using regularly collected agricultural census data, in spite of nutritionists’ advocacy for improved access to locally produced fruits, vegetables, and grains, since 1986, that BC agriculture is moving firmly in the opposite direction with greater production of animal fats, and hay and grain for animal feed and much reduced production of traditional fruits, vegetables, and grains designed mainly for human consumption. While nutritionists advise us to increase consumption especially of whole grains, vegetables and fruit, local production capacity of these foods in BC has decreased markedly between 1986 and 2006. In conclusion, there is a structural disconnect between the kinds of foods produced in BC and the nutritional needs of the population. PMID:20644694

  2. A health and nutritional evaluation of changes in agriculture in the past quarter century in British Columbia: implications for food security.

    PubMed

    Ostry, Aleck; Morrison, Kathryn

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes change in local food production in British Columbia with a focus on changes in the production of foods recommended for increased consumption by nutritionists. We determine, in one of the most productive agricultural provinces in Canada, whether secular trends in agricultural land use and food production, over the past quarter century, have resulted in increased production of foods recommended by nutritionists as more healthy and nutritious. In particular we are concerned with estimating the extent to which changes in agriculture and food production are congruent with official nutrition advice to avoid less healthy foods and to consume more vegetables, fruit, and whole grains. We demonstrate, using regularly collected agricultural census data, in spite of nutritionists' advocacy for improved access to locally produced fruits, vegetables, and grains, since 1986, that BC agriculture is moving firmly in the opposite direction with greater production of animal fats, and hay and grain for animal feed and much reduced production of traditional fruits, vegetables, and grains designed mainly for human consumption. While nutritionists advise us to increase consumption especially of whole grains, vegetables and fruit, local production capacity of these foods in BC has decreased markedly between 1986 and 2006. In conclusion, there is a structural disconnect between the kinds of foods produced in BC and the nutritional needs of the population.

  3. Effect of a child care center-based obesity prevention program on body mass index and nutrition practices among preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Natale, Ruby A; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Asfour, Lila; Messiah, Sarah E

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention program on changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and nutrition practices. Eight child care centers were randomly assigned to an intervention or attention control arm. Participants were a multiethnic sample of children aged 2 to 5 years old (N = 307). Intervention centers received healthy menu changes and family-based education focused on increased physical activity and fresh produce intake, decreased intake of simple carbohydrate snacks, and decreased screen time. Control centers received an attention control program. Height, weight, and nutrition data were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Analysis examined height, weight, and BMI z-score change by intervention condition (at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months). Pearson correlation analysis examined relationships among BMI z-scores and home activities and nutrition patterns in the intervention group. Child BMI z-score was significantly negatively correlated with the number of home activities completed at 6-month post intervention among intervention participants. Similarly, intervention children consumed less junk food, ate more fresh fruits and vegetables, drank less juice, and drank more 1% milk compared to children at control sites at 6 months post baseline. Ninety-seven percent of those children who were normal weight at baseline were still normal weight 12 months later. Findings support child care centers as a promising setting to implement childhood obesity prevention programs in this age group.

  4. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): T. H. Agriculture and Nutrition Site, operable unit 1, Montgomery, AL, April 17, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This decision document presents the selected interim remedial action for the T H Agriculture and Nutrition (THAN) Site, Montgomery, Alabama. This interim remedial action employs the use of extraction wells combined with a pump and treat system to prevent further migration of contaminated groundwater from the Site and to initiate groundwater restoration pending completion of the RI/FS and implementation of the final remedial action.

  5. The impact of long-term participation in the supplemental nutrition assistance program on child obesity.

    PubMed

    Schmeiser, Maximilian D

    2012-04-01

    Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) reached an all-time high of 40.2 million persons in March 2010, which means the program affects a substantial fraction of Americans. A significant body of research has emerged suggesting that participation in SNAP increases the probability of being obese for adult women and has little effect on the probability for adult men. However, studies addressing the effects of participation on children have produced mixed results. This paper examines the effect of long-term SNAP participation on the Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile and probability of being overweight or obese for children ages 5-18 using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults data set. An instrumental variables identification strategy that exploits exogenous variation in state-level program parameters, as well as state and federal expansions of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), is used to address the endogeneity between SNAP participation and obesity. SNAP participation is found to significantly reduce BMI percentile and the probability of being overweight or obese for boys and girls ages 5-11 and boys ages 12-18. For girls ages 12-18, SNAP participation appears to have no significant effect on these outcomes.

  6. Programming for Early Child Development and Health: The Value of Combining Nutritional and Psycho-social Interventions and Some Ways To Do It. UNESCO-UNICEF Co-operative Programme Digest No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Robert G.

    This digest issues a call to make good on the rhetoric of "integrated attention to the whole child" and provides some suggestions about how that might be done, beginning with combined interventions aimed at improving the nutritional status and the psychosocial development of the young child. After an introductory chapter that provides a…

  7. Choline status and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years of age in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Kobrosly, Roni W; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; McAfee, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E; Thurston, Sally W; Wallace, Julie M W; Ueland, Per M; Myers, Gary J

    2013-07-28

    Choline is an essential nutrient that is found in many food sources and plays a critical role in the development of the central nervous system. Animal studies have shown that choline status pre- and postnatally can have long-lasting effects on attention and memory; however, effects in human subjects have not been well studied. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between plasma concentrations of free choline and its related metabolites in children and their neurodevelopment in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study, an ongoing longitudinal study assessing the development of children born to mothers with high fish consumption during pregnancy. Plasma concentrations of free choline, betaine, dimethylglycine (DMG), methionine and homocysteine and specific measures of neurodevelopment were measured in 210 children aged 5 years. The children's plasma free choline concentration (9·17 (sd 2·09) μmol/l) was moderately, but significantly, correlated with betaine (r 0·24; P= 0·0006), DMG (r 0·15; P= 0·03), methionine (r 0·24; P= 0·0005) and homocysteine (r 0·19; P= 0·006) concentrations. Adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that betaine concentrations were positively associated with Preschool Language Scale – total language scores (β = 0·066; P= 0·04), but no other associations were evident. We found no indication that free choline concentration or its metabolites, within the normal physiological range, are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age. As there is considerable animal evidence suggesting that choline status during development is associated with cognitive outcome, the issue deserves further study in other cohorts.

  8. The political process in global health and nutrition governance: the G8's 2010 Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Child, and Newborn Health.

    PubMed

    Kirton, John; Kulik, Julia; Bracht, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    Why do informal, plurilateral summit institutions such as the Group of Eight (G8) major market democracies succeed in advancing costly public health priorities such as maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH), even when the formal, multilateral United Nations (UN) system fails to meet such goals, when G8 governments afflicted by recession, deficit, and debt seek to cut expenditures, and when the private sector is largely uninvolved, despite the growing popularity of public-private partnerships to meet global health and related nutrition, food, and agriculture needs? Guided by the concert-equality model of G8 governance, this case study of the G8's 2010 Muskoka Initiative on MNCH traces the process through which that initiative was planned within Canada, internationally prepared through negotiations with Canada's G8 partners, produced at Muskoka by the leaders in June, multiplied in its results by the UN summit in September, and reinforced by the new accountability mechanism put in place. It finds that the Muskoka summit succeeded in mobilizing major money and momentum for MNCH. This was due to the initiative and influence of children-focused nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), working with committed individuals and agencies within the host Canadian government, as well as supportive public opinion and the help of those in the UN responsible for realizing its Millennium Development Goals. Also relevant were the democratic like-mindedness of G8 leaders and their African partners, the deference of G8 members to the host's priority, and the need of the G8 to demonstrate its relevance through a division of labor between it and the new Group of Twenty summit. This study shows that G8 summits can succeed in advancing key global health issues without a global shock on the same subject to galvanize agreement and action. It suggests that, when committed, focused NGOs and government officials will lead and the private sector will follow, but that there will be a lag in the

  9. Family Child Care Calendar-Keeper[TM] 2001: A Record Keeping System Including Nutrition Information for Child Care Providers. Twenty-Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beuch, Beth, Ed.; Beuch, Ethel, Ed.; Schloff, Pam, Ed.

    Noting that accurate recordkeeping for tax purposes is extremely important for family child care providers, this calendar provides a format for recording typical family child care expenses and other information. Included are the following: (1) monthly expense charts with categories matching Schedule C; (2) attendance and payment log; (3) payment…

  10. Food and Nutrition Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Farms and Farming Systems Food and Human Nutrition Marketing and Trade Natural Resources and Environment Plants and ... Food Purchasing, and Cooking Nutrition Education Nutrition Research Marketing and Trade Agricultural Subsidies Distribution, Imports, and Exports ...

  11. The application of GMOs in agriculture and in food production for a better nutrition: two different scientific points of view.

    PubMed

    Buiatti, M; Christou, P; Pastore, G

    2013-05-01

    This commentary is a face-to-face debate between two almost opposite positions regarding the application of genetic engineering in agriculture and food production. Seven questions on the potential benefits of the application of genetic engineering in agriculture and on the potentially adverse impacts on the environment and human health were posed to two scientists: one who is sceptical about the use of GMOs in Agriculture, and one who views GMOs as an important tool for quantitatively and qualitatively improving food production.

  12. Maternal and child nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers and clinicians have struggled to quantify the effects of malnutrition across populations. In this correspondence piece, the authors argue the need for studies examining the incidence of malnutrition rather than the population prevalence. The piece also touches on other social and politic...

  13. Nutritional stunting.

    PubMed

    Hizli, Samil; Abaci, Ayhan; Büyükgebiz, Benal; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2007-03-01

    Nutritional stunting is a common problem of the pediatric population especially in developing countries. Although it is a resolvable problem, it continues to be an important health issue. Stunting can be diagnosed when a child's height falls more than two standard deviations below the mean height for age. Stunting may be caused by genetic, hormonal, pharmaceutical, psychosocial and nutritional factors. Before doing extensive laboratory tests, nutritional factors must be searched for at the time of diagnosis. If the etiology is nutritional deficiency, meticulous dietary regulation must be done. The results of treatment must be assessed for guiding the nutritional rehabilitation during follow up. Here we review the interaction of wasting and nutritional stunting; the prevalence of nutritional stunting; diet components and growth; the pathophysiology of stunting; periods of accelerated growth; the diagnosis and clinical assessment of nutritional stunting; the anthropometric and laboratory nutritional indices that can be used at the time of diagnosis and for follow-up purposes during rehabilitation and also the management of nutritional stunting.

  14. Parents and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, Mary Maher

    Parents and the extended family are the most influential factors in the child's lifelong eating habits, general health and development, and brain power. Convincing parents of diet components that insure adequate nutrition is of prime importance; if the home does not support the content of the school's nutritional curriculum, the child may feel…

  15. Dietary analysis of randomly selected meals from the Child Hunger and Education Program School Nutrition Program in Saskatchewan, Canada, suggests that nutrient target levels are being provided.

    PubMed

    Gougeon, Laura A R; Henry, Carol J; Ramdath, Dan; Whiting, Susan J

    2011-03-01

    In Canada, school meals are regarded as important for social, educational, and nutritional reasons and have been provided for several years because of concerns about the health and welfare of children, especially those from low-income households. They are generally offered as local community organization and individual schools, are not regulated by law, and have no set national nutrition standards. The Canadian scientific literature lacks quantitative information on the nutritional adequacy of school meals. Better and more evaluation of such programs would encourage and guide administrators to assess other local programs in a similar fashion. Here, we describe the dietary assessment process of 1 school meal program in Canada and the nutritional adequacy of the meals. Throughout 10 years (1997-2007), the contents of 159 lunches and 90 breakfasts were collected mainly from elementary schools participating in the Child Hunger and Education Program Good Food, Inc's school nutrition program initiative in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. We collected, weighed, and analyzed food samples from meals served to children at participating schools. We then compared their nutrient content against standards based on the Dietary Recommended Intakes for children aged 4 to 8 and 9 to 13 years using one third of the recommendations as the standard for lunches and one fourth for breakfasts. Overall, both meals had a good nutrient profile and met the standards for most analyzed macronutrients and micronutrients throughout the years. Although energy was persistently low, vitamin and mineral contents were often above the standards, reflecting a tendency to offer nutrient-dense foods in lieu of energy-dense foods. The rigorous methodology described in this manuscript can be followed to assess other small local programs. Furthermore, the dietary assessment presented can encourage not only the implementation of school meal programs in other locations but also the assessment of already

  16. Nutrition Education in Medical Schools. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate. Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session on Current Status, Impediments, and Potential Solutions. September 20, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Testimonies and articles, letters, and statements from a congressional hearing of the U.S. Senate concerning nutrition education in medical schools are presented. The hearing was held to ascertain the present status of nutrition instruction in U.S. medical schools, to determine the need for such instruction, and to identify problems with…

  17. Maternal Literacy, Facility Birth, and Education Are Positively Associated with Better Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices and Nutritional Status among Ugandan Children123

    PubMed Central

    Ickes, Scott B; Hurst, Taylor E; Flax, Valerie L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Understanding maternal factors that influence child feeding is necessary to inform intervention planning in settings in which mothers experience substantial social vulnerabilities. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess maternal sociodemographic factors that may constrain women’s caring capabilities and subsequent child nutrition in Uganda. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2006 and 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys to model the associations between maternal sociodemographic factors, child feeding practices, and anthropometry with multivariate logistic regression models. Results: The proportion of children fed according to recommended guidelines declined in Uganda from 2006 to 2011. Mothers who lacked literacy skills were less likely to achieve recommended complementary feeding indicators; however, literacy was not associated with breastfeeding practices. Mothers in the upper 60% wealth percentile were more likely to meet minimum meal frequency, diversity, and adequacy indicators. Mothers who gave birth at health facilities (2006 OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.91; P < 0.05) and who were in the upper 60% wealth percentile (2011 OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.69) were less likely to exclusively breastfeed until 6 mo. There were no significant associations between age at first pregnancy, maternal education, and infant and young child feeding practices. Women with a formal education had children with lower stunting and underweight probabilities in both time periods (OR range: 0.43–0.74). Women who delivered in childbirth facilities were less likely to have a child with low weight-for-age, length-for-age, or weight-for-length z scores (OR range: 0.59–0.82). Marital status, the age at first child birth, not accepting domestic violence, freedom to travel away from home, and involvement in household and reproductive decisions were not associated with child anthropometry in either time period. Conclusions: Mothers with low literacy skills, who

  18. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Demos/Grant Projects FNS Strategic Plan Other Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center National Agriculture Library National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research Nutrition.gov Peer Review Plans and Guidelines ...

  19. Association between infant- and child-feeding index and nutritional status: results from a cross-sectional study among children attending an urban hospital in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Tahmina; Mollah, Md Abid Hossain; Choudhury, Ahmed Murtaza; Islam, M Munirul; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur

    2011-08-01

    Integration of infant- and child-feeding index (ICFI) addressing the multidimensional child-feeding practices into one age-specific summary index is gaining importance. This cross-sectional study was aimed at understanding the association between the ICFI and the nutritional status of 259 children, aged 6-23 months, who attended the paediatric outpatient department of the Dhaka Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh. The mean length-for-age z-score (LAZ) of children aged 12-23 months was significantly (p < 0.05) higher among those who were at the upper ICFI tercile compared to those who were at the middle or lower ICFI tercile (-2.01 and -3.20 respectively). A significant correlation was found between the ICFI and the LAZ (r = 0.24, p = 0.01 and r = 0.29, p = 0.01) in children aged 6-8-months and 12-23-months. Multivariable analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, also found a significant association between the ICFI and the LAZ (beta = 0.13, p = 0.03). The predictive capability of the proposed ICFI on nutritional status of children, especially length-for-age, needs to be further evaluated prospectively among healthy children in the community.

  20. Child Development Associate Training Program. Unit I: Health and Safety in the Classroom. Module 4: Nutrition for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Community Coll., PA.

    The importance of an adequate diet in a child's growth and development is the topic of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module. The material emphasizes different nutrients, their food sources and their availability through a variety and combination of different foods. Correct food handling, as well as safety precautions and the…

  1. Hearings on a Bill to Make Permanent Certain Child Nutrition Programs. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 7 (March 6, 7, and 13, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This report documents hearings concerning H.R. 7, amending the National School Lunch Act and the Child Nutrition Act of 1963. This bill (the text of which is included) proposes to make permanent five child nutrition programs: the Women, Infants, and Children Feeding Program (WIC); the Commodity Distribution Program; the Summer Feeding Program;…

  2. Travel Guide to Healthy School Meals: School Menu Planning to Meet Our Children's Nutritional Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    In 1994, Congress passed the Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act, requiring that Child Nutrition Programs comply with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and meet nutrient standards. In 1995, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) issued new regulations to define how the Dietary Guidelines would be applied to school meals, called the…

  3. Child health promotion program in South Korea in collaboration with US National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Improvement in dietary and nutrition knowledge of young children

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunjung; Kim, JiEun; Min, Jungwon; Carvajal, Nubia A.; Lloyd, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic. Development of effective and sustainable programs to promote healthy behaviors from a young age is important. This study developed and tested an intervention program designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity among young children in South Korea by adaptation of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mission X (MX) Program. SUBJECTS/METHODS The intervention program consisted of 4 weeks of fitness and 2 weeks of nutrition education. A sample of 104 subjects completed pre- and post-surveys on the Children's Nutrition Acknowledgement Test (NAT). Parents were asked for their children's characteristics and two 24-hour dietary records, the Nutrition Quotient (NQ) at baseline and a 6-week follow-up. Child weight status was assessed using Korean body mass index (BMI) percentiles. RESULTS At baseline, 16.4% (boy: 15.4%; girl: 19.2%) of subjects were overweight or obese (based on BMI≥85%tile). Fat consumption significantly decreased in normal BMI children (48.6 ± 16.8 g at baseline to 41.9 ± 18.1 g after intervention, P < 0.05); total NQ score significantly increased from 66.4 to 67.9 (P < 0.05); total NAT score significantly improved in normal BMI children (74.3 at baseline to 81.9 after the program), children being underweight (from 71.0 to 77.0), and overweight children (77.1 at baseline vs. 88.2 after intervention, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The 6-week South Korean NASA MX project is feasible and shows favorable changes in eating behaviors and nutritional knowledge among young children. PMID:27698964

  4. 77 FR 43229 - Food and Nutrition Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2012 Through June 30, 2013 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service... Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department...

  5. Child Care Provider Adherence to Infant and Toddler Feeding Recommendations: Findings from the Baby Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (Baby NAP SACC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten K.; Hesketh, Kathryn; Taveras, Elsie M.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Identifying characteristics associated with the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) recommended feeding practices among infant and toddler care providers in child care centers could help in preventing childhood obesity. Methods: In 2009, at baseline in a pilot intervention study of 29 licensed Massachusetts child care centers with at least 50% of enrolled children identified as racial minorities, 57 infant and 109 toddler providers completed feeding questionnaires. To assess provider adherence to six IOM-recommended behaviors, we used cluster-adjusted multivariable logistic regression models including provider type (infant or toddler), race, education, and center Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) participation. Results: In multivariable analysis, CACFP participation was associated with providers sitting with children at meals (odds ratio [OR], 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–21.7), offering fruits and vegetables (OR, 3.3; 95% CI 1.7–6.2), and limiting fast food (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.8–6.7). Providers at centers serving meals family style were less likely to allow children to leave food unfinished (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.09–0.77). Infant providers were more likely than toddler providers to sit with children at meals (OR, 6.98; 95% CI, 1.51–32.09), allow children to eat when hungry (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.34–9.16), and avoid serving sugary (OR, 8.74; 95% CI, 3.05–25.06) or fast foods (OR, 11.56; 95% CI, 3.20–41.80). Conclusions: CACFP participation may encourage IOM-recommended feeding practices among infant and toddler providers. Child care providers may benefit from education about how to feed infants and toddlers responsively, especially when offering foods family style. Future research should explore ways to promote child-centered feeding practices, while addressing barriers to providing children with nutrient-rich foods. PMID:25918873

  6. Oversight Hearing on Restoring Funding to the Child Nutrition Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Three witnesses gave testimony at this hearing on restoring $150 million in entitlement funding to Federal child nutrition programs. They were Ernest Morial, Mayor of New Orleans, representing the U.S. Conference of Mayors' Task Force on Joblessness and Hunger; Faith Gravenmier, representing the American School Food Service Association; and Lynn…

  7. Feeding the Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary Ann Harvey, Ed.

    Presented are 35 brief papers on nutrition and handicapped children (particularly mentally retarded children) which were given at nutrition workshops at the Child Development Center of the University of Tennessee. Topics such as the following are examined: interdisciplinary approaches to nutrition services; the relationship of social work,…

  8. 7 CFR 1150.116 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Order Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities intended...

  9. 7 CFR 1150.116 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Order Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities intended...

  10. 7 CFR 1150.116 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Order Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities intended...

  11. 7 CFR 1150.116 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Order Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities intended...

  12. The impact of the Bellagio Report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people: scientific and policy aspects and the International Network of Centers for Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2014-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People was the result of a meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in the fall of 2012. The meeting was science based but policy oriented. The Bellagio Report concluded that: (1) sugar consumption, especially in the form of high-energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, particularly for children; (2) current diets in most populations, albeit with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids but too high in omega-6 fatty acid intake, and (3) not all calories are the same since calories from different sources (i.e. glucose or fructose or omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids) have different metabolic and neurohormonal effects. This paper summarizes the scientific progress and policy actions that have occurred in these three areas. Genetic variation in populations and gene-nutrient interactions are fundamental concepts that need to be taken into consideration in growth and development and in the prevention and management of chronic noncommunicable diseases since there is enormous variation in both the frequency of genetic variants and dietary composition worldwide. Furthermore, this paper updates the Bellagio Report in terms of the scientific and policy aspects, both of which have expanded over the past 2 years, and describes the progress made in establishing an International Network of Centers for Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health.

  13. Public health assessment for T. H. Agriculture and Nutrition (Montgomery), Montgomery, Montgomery County, Alabama, Region 4. Cerclis No. ALD007454085. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-28

    The T.H. Agriculture and Nutrition/Montgomery Plant (THAN) National Priorities List (NPL) site is an industrial facility in Montgomery, Montgomery County, Alabama. Two different properties comprise the THAN site. On-site groundwater, subsurface soils, shallow soils, sediments, and surface water are contaminated. Some contaminants of concern were found in off-site monitoring and domestic water wells. Surface water, shallow soils, and sediment found off-site have been contaminated. The authors found no evidence to suggest that a completed exposure pathway exists for contaminants of concern to reach the Twin Lakes community. Also, the evidence indicates that fish caught in the ponds are not a completed human exposure pathway.

  14. THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

  15. Production of fortified food for a public supplementary nutrition program: performance and viability of a decentralised production model for the Integrated Child Development Services Program, India.

    PubMed

    Antier, Clémentine; Kumar, Salil; Bhagwat, Sadhana; Sankar, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Child Development Services in India through its supplementary nutrition programme covers over 100 million children, pregnant and lactating women across the country. Providing a hot cooked meal each day to children aged between 3-6 years and a take-home ration to children aged between 6-36 months, pregnant and lactating women, the Integrated Child Development Services faces a monumental task to deliver this component of services of desired quality and regularity at scale. From intermediaries or contractors who acted as agents for procuring and distributing food to procurement directly from large food manufacturers to using women groups as food producers, different State Governments have adopted a variety of strategies to procure and distribute food, especially the take-home ration. India's Supreme Court, through its directive of 2004, encouraged the Government to engage women's groups for the production of the supplementary food. This study was conducted to determine the operational performance, economic sustainability and social impact of a decentralised production model for India's Supplementary Nutrition Program, in which women groups run smallscale industrialised units. Data were collected through observation, interviews and group discussions with key stakeholders. Operational performance was analysed through standard performance indicators that measured consistency in production, compliance with quality standards and distribution regularity. Assessment of the economic viability included cost structure analysis, five-year projections, and financial ratios. Social impact was assessed using a qualitative approach. The pilot unit has demonstrated its operational performance and cost-efficiency. More data is needed to evaluate the scalability and sustainability of this decentralised model.

  16. Nutrition and Child Growth and Development in Tunisia. Interim Progress Report, (September 1, 1972--February 28, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Harben Boutourline

    This interim report of the Yale Project describes the progress made on the nutrition and growth study of Tunisian children from September 1, 1972 through February 28, 1973. A major part of the report is devoted to the organizational and data collection problems of the longitudinal study, discussed under the following categories: biomedics,…

  17. Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

  18. Identifying priorities to improve maternal and child nutrition among the Khmu ethnic group, Laos: a formative study.

    PubMed

    de Sa, Joia; Bouttasing, Namthipkesone; Sampson, Louise; Perks, Carol; Osrin, David; Prost, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    Chronic malnutrition in children remains highly prevalent in Laos, particularly among ethnic minority groups. There is limited knowledge of specific nutrition practices among these groups. We explored nutritional status, cultural beliefs and practices of Laos' Khmu ethnic group to inform interventions for undernutrition as part of a Primary Health Care (PHC) project. Mixed methods were used. For background, we disaggregated anthropometric and behavioural indicators from Laos' Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. We then conducted eight focus group discussions and 33 semi-structured interviews with Khmu villagers and health care workers, exploring beliefs and practices related to nutrition. The setting was two rural districts in Luang Prabang province, in one of which the PHC project had been established for 3 years. There was a higher prevalence of stunting in the Khmu than in other groups. Disaggregation showed nutrition behaviours were associated with ethnicity, including exclusive breastfeeding. Villagers described strong adherence to post-partum food restrictions for women, while little change was described in intake during pregnancy. Most children were breastfed, although early introduction of pre-lacteal foods was noted in the non-PHC district. There was widespread variation in introduction and diversity of complementary foods. Guidance came predominantly from the community, with some input from health care workers. Interventions to address undernutrition in Khmu communities should deliver clear, consistent messages on optimum nutrition behaviours. Emphasis should be placed on dietary diversity for pregnant and post-partum mothers, encouraging exclusive breastfeeding and timely, appropriate complementary feeding. The impact of wider governmental policies on food security needs to be further assessed.

  19. Constraints and opportunities for implementing nutrition-specific, agricultural and market-based approaches to improve nutrient intake adequacy among infants and young children in two regions of rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hotz, Christine; Pelto, Gretel; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret; Ferguson, Elaine F; Chege, Peter; Musinguzi, Enock

    2015-12-01

    Several types of interventions can be used to improve nutrient intake adequacy in infant and young child (IYC) diets, including fortified foods, home fortification, nutrition education and behaviour change communication (BCC) in addition to agricultural and market-based strategies. However, the appropriate selection of interventions depends on the social, cultural, physical and economic context of the population. Derived from two rural Kenyan populations, this analysis combined information from: (1) a quantitative analysis to derive a set of food-based recommendations (FBRs) to fill nutrient intake gaps in IYC diets and identify 'problem nutrients' for which intake gaps require solutions beyond currently available foods and dietary patterns, and (2) an ethnographic qualitative analysis to identify contextual factors posing opportunities or constraints to implementing the FBRs, including perceptions of cost, convenience, accessibility and appropriateness of the recommended foods for IYC diets and other social or physical factors that determine accessibility of those foods. Opportunities identified included BCC to increase the acceptability and utilisation of green leafy vegetables (GLV) and small fish and agronomic interventions to increase the productivity of GLV and millet. Value chains for millet, beans, GLV, milk and small fish should be studied for opportunities to increase their accessibility in local markets. Processor-level interventions, such as partially cooked fortified dry porridge mixes or unfortified cereal mixes incorporating millet and beans, may increase the accessibility of foods that provide increased amounts of the problem nutrients. Multi-sectoral actors and community stakeholders should be engaged to assess the feasibility of implementing these locally appropriate strategies.

  20. The effectiveness of nutrition education: Applying the Health Belief Model in child-feeding practices to use pulses for complementary feeding in Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mulualem, Demmelash; Henry, Carol J; Berhanu, Getenesh; Whiting, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Complementary foods (CFs) in Ethiopia are cereal based and adding locally grown pulses (legumes) to CF would provide needed nutrients. To assess the effects of nutrition education (NEd) using Health Belief Model (HBM) in promoting pulses for CF, a 6-month quasi-experimental study was conducted in 160 mother-child pairs. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questions were given to mothers at baseline, midline, and endline, along with anthropometric measurements of children. NEd involving discussions and recipe demonstrations was given twice monthly for 6 months to the intervention group (n = 80) while control mothers received usual education. At baseline, mothers' KAP scores were low at both sites; at 3 and 6 months of NEd, mean KAP scores of mothers increased (p < 0.05) compared to the control site. Significant improvements in children's mean weight, weight for height, and weight for age occurred in the intervention site only. Nutritional status of children improved after providing mothers with pulse-based NEd.

  1. Evaluation of the Color Me Healthy Program in Influencing Nutrition and Physical Activity in Mississippi Preschool Child Care Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huye, Holly F.; Bankston, Sarah; Speed, Donna; Molaison, Elaine F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the level of implementation and perceived value in creating knowledge and behavior change from the Color Me Healthy (CMH) training program in child care centers, family day carehomes, or Head Start facilities throughout Mississippi. Methods: A two-phase survey was used to initially…

  2. Understanding Child Stunting in India: A Comprehensive Analysis of Socio-Economic, Nutritional and Environmental Determinants Using Additive Quantile Regression

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Nora; Burns, Jacob; Hothorn, Torsten; Rehfuess, Eva A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. Objective We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. Design Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0–24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. Results At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. Conclusions Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role. PMID:24223839

  3. School Breakfast and School Lunch Programs. Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session on the School Breakfast and Lunch Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    These hearing transcripts present testimony to the Senate Committee on Agriculture regarding the School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. Statements were made by several senators, the president of the American School Food Service Association (Connecticut); a school food service program director (Florida); the director of nutrition and education for…

  4. [Nutrition mode eavulation among University of Agriculture students in Szczecin in 2006. Part II. Consumption of enriched food and supplements].

    PubMed

    Szczuko, Małgorzata; Seidler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate intake of enriched food and diet supplementation by 126 Academy of Agriculture students (mostly women). The information was taken by "Face to face" interview. Enriched food was eaten by 68.8% of the persons. Mostly were used juices (31.4%), milk products and breakfast cereals, especially during breakfast. Supplementation was practiced by 49.2% students, by own decision. Predominantly they were vitamin and mineral confections (46.8% interview participants).

  5. Nutrient composition and nutritional importance of green leaves and wild food resources in an agricultural district, Koutiala, in southern Mali.

    PubMed

    Nordeide, M B; Hatløy, A; Følling, M; Lied, E; Oshaug, A

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the nutrient composition and the nutritional importance of green leaves and wild gathered foods in an area with surplus food production in Mali. In this West African country, there is little information about the nutrient composition and the nutritional quality of foods in general, and of wild gathered foods in particular. Food frequency was collected in two cross-sectional surveys. Focus group discussions with women in the area were used to collect information about seasonality, availability and preparation of various foods. Selected food samples were collected for chemical analysis of nutrient composition. The food samples of green leaves (Adansonia digitata, Amaranthus viridis, Tamarindus indica, Allium cepa), seeds and flour (Parkia biglobosa) and fruits (Tamarindus indica) were analysed for water, energy, fat, protein, minerals, amino acids and carotenoids. Availability and use of the foods varied with seasons. In the rainy season, wild gathered foods (e.g. A. digitata) were used as much as fresh cultivated foods (e.g., A. viridis and A. cepa). The wild food resources were more frequently used in rural than in urban areas, with A. digitata as the dominating green leaves. Green leaves were rich in energy, protein and minerals (calcium, iron). Leaves of A. viridis were, in particular, rich in beta-carotene (3290 micrograms/100 g). Chemical score in dried green leaves varied from 47 (A. cepa) to 81 (A. digitata), with lysine as the first limiting amino acid. P. biglobosa fermented seeds, with 35% fat and 37% protein were a complementary source of lysine in the diet. Based on the seasonality, the frequency of use and the nutrient contents of selected green leaves and wild gathered foods in Koutiala district, it is concluded that these traditional and locally produced foods are valuable and important nutrient contributors in the diet both in rural and urban areas, but most important in rural areas.

  6. Proceedings of the 3rd Expert Consultation and Planning Meeting on Infant and Young Child Nutrition--(Part 1).

    PubMed

    Amarra, Sofia; Chan, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    During the 2nd ILSI SEA Region Expert Consultation and Planning Meeting in 2011, the following information gaps were identified: (i) Some Southeast Asian countries did not have data on infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators; (ii) There is a need to know the reasons for the disparities in duration of breastfeeding, age of giving complementary foods, and other breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in Southeast Asian populations; (iii) Optimal complementary feeding practices that are most suitable in the context of Southeast Asia need to be identified. This report presents highlights from a literature review regarding the above topics. Findings from nationwide surveys and small scale studies were compiled to provide a snapshot of the state of infant and young child feeding practices in the region. Results for Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam are presented here.

  7. Middle school-aged child enjoyment of food tastings predicts interest in nutrition education on osteoporosis prevention

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Feon W.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND NEEDs for Bones (NFB), based on the Health Belief Model, is a 4-lesson osteoporosis-prevention curriculum for 11-14 year-olds. This study examined the relationship between enjoyment of food tastings and interest in NFB. METHODS NFB was administered by teachers as part of standard practice and evaluated after the 4th lesson using a 21-item survey. Significant clustering of students within classrooms required use of random-intercept multilevel ordinal regression models in SAS proc GLIMMIX, with students nested within classrooms. Analyses considered tasting experience, eating attitudes, sex, grade, and cohort. RESULTS Students (N = 1619; 50% girls) participated from 85 4th-8th grade classrooms (47% 6th grade; 31% 7th grade) in 16 Pennsylvania SNAP-Ed eligible schools over 2 academic years. For all foods tasted, students who did not enjoy the food tasting were less interested in the lesson than students who did enjoy the food tasting (all p < .001); refried beans (OR 0.30), soy milk (OR = 0.55), cranapple juice (OR = 0.51), sunflower kernels (OR = 0.48), and Swiss cheese (OR = 0.49). CONCLUSIONS Enjoyment of food tasting activities can predict interest in nutrition education on osteoporosis prevention, supporting resource allocation and inclusion of food tasting activities in school-age nutrition education. PMID:26032277

  8. Obesity Prevention Practices and Policies in Child Care Settings Enrolled and Not Enrolled in the Child and Adult Care Food Program.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sherry T; Graffagino, Cheryl L; Leser, Kendall A; Trombetta, Autumn L; Pirie, Phyllis L

    2016-09-01

    Objectives The United States Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) provides meals and snacks to low-income children in child care. This study compared nutrition and physical activity practices and policies as well as the overall nutrition and physical activity environments in a sample of CACFP and non-CACFP child care settings. Methods A random stratified sample of 350 child care settings in a large Midwestern city and its suburbs, was mailed a survey on obesity prevention practices and policies concerning menu offerings, feeding practices, nutrition and physical activity education, activity levels, training, and screen time. Completed surveys were obtained from 229 of 309 eligible child care settings (74.1 % response rate). Chi square tests were used to compare practices and policies in CACFP and non-CACFP sites. Poisson and negative binomial regression were used to examine associations between CACFP and total number of practices and policies. Results Sixty-nine percent of child care settings reported CACFP participation. A significantly higher proportion of CACFP sites reported offering whole grain foods daily and that providers always eat the same foods that are offered to the children. CACFP sites had 1.1 times as many supportive nutrition practices as non-CACFP sites. CACFP participation was not associated with written policies or physical activity practices. Conclusions for Practice There is room for improvement across nutrition and physical activity practices and policies. In addition to food reimbursement, CACFP participation may help promote child care environments that support healthy nutrition; however, additional training and education outreach activities may be needed.

  9. Leveraging paraprofessionals and family strengths to improve coverage and penetration of nutrition and early child development services

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Mark; Rahman, Atif; Sanders, David; Maselko, Joanna; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    Children need to be protected in intergenerational networks, with parents who have positive mood, resources to feed their children, and skills to promote early childhood development (ECD). Globally, more than 200 million children are raised annually without these resources. This article reviews the potential contributions of increasing coverage and penetration of services for these children, challenges to achieving penetration of services in high risk families, the opportunities created by bundling multiple services within one provider, the potential leveraging of paraprofessionals to deliver care, and mobilizing communities to support children in households at high risk for negative outcomes. We end with a number of suggestions for how to ensure the equitable scale up of integrated ECD and nutrition services that take into account current global priorities, as well as coverage and penetration of services. PMID:24117669

  10. Influence of family size, household food security status, and child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajao, K O; Ojofeitimi, E O; Adebayo, A A; Fatusi, A O; Afolabi, O T

    2010-12-01

    Fertility pattern and reproductive behaviours affect infant death in Nigeria. Household food insecurity and poor care practices also place children at risk of morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of family size, household food security status, and child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 423 mothers of under-five children and their children in the households selected through multistage sampling methods. Food-insecure households were five times more likely than secure households to have wasted children (crude OR = 5.707, 95 percent CI = 1.31-24.85). Children with less educated mothers were significantly more likely to be stunted. The prevalence of food insecurity among households in Ile-Ife was high. Households with food insecurity and less educated mothers were more likely to have malnourished children.

  11. What Can Be Done to Improve Nutrition Education Efforts in the Schools? Report to the Secretary of Agriculture by the U.S. General Accounting Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses the importance of nutrition education in the elementary and secondary schools as it relates to (1) improving eating habits, (2) reducing food waste, and (3) aiding or reducing the need for other federally supported nutrition education activities. Also discussed is the status of nutrition education in the schools and what the…

  12. More nutritious food is served in child-care homes receiving higher federal food subsidies.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Pablo; Kirkpatrick, Shannon; Johnson, Donna B

    2011-05-01

    The US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) serves 2.3 million children by providing monetary subsidies for food to participating child-care providers. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that higher reimbursement rates for food result in higher food expenditures and higher nutritional quality of foods served in family child-care homes participating in CACFP. Sixty family home child-care providers were recruited in 2008-2009 from King County, Washington. Half the sample received higher reimbursements and the other half received the lower rates. Participants provided a 5-day menu of meals/snacks served and food shopping receipts. The nutritional quality of foods served was assessed from portion-standardized menus. Nutritional quality was quantified as the mean adequacy (mean percent of dietary reference intake) for seven nutrients of concern for child health. Food expenditures were calculated by linking menus with receipts. Student's t tests for independent samples and general linear models were used to test for between-group differences. The two groups of providers were socioeconomically and demographically similar with comparable professional backgrounds. However, higher reimbursement providers had significantly greater menu expenditures than the lower reimbursement group ($2.36 vs $1.96/child/day; P=0.031). Reimbursement level was not associated with a difference in calories, but menus of higher reimbursement providers showed a significantly higher mean nutritional adequacy (64.5% vs 56.3%; P=0.033). The finding that reimbursement rates were positively associated with food expenditures and the nutritional quality of foods served suggests that raising CACFP reimbursements can improve child nutrition.

  13. Effects of pre- and postnatal nutrition interventions on child growth and body composition: the MINIMat trial in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ashraful Islam

    2013-01-01

    Background Nutritional insults and conditions during fetal life and infancy influence subsequent growth and body composition of children. Objectives Effects of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation and exclusive breastfeeding counseling on growth of offspring aged 0-54 months and their body composition at 54 months of age were studied. Methods In the MINIMat trial (ISRCTN16581394) in Matlab, Bangladesh, pregnant women were randomized to early (around 9 weeks) or usual invitation (around 20 weeks) to food supplementation and to one of the three daily micronutrient supplements: 30-mg Fe and 400-µg folic acid (Fe30F), 60-mg Fe and 400-µg folic acid (Fe60F), and multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS). The supplements were also randomized to exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) counseling or to usual health messages. Results No differences in background characteristics were observed among the intervention groups. There was also no differential effect of prenatal interventions on birthweight or birthlength. Early food supplementation reduced the level of stunting from early infancy up to 54 months of age among boys (average difference - 6.5% units, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-11.3, p=0.01) but not among girls (average difference - 2.4% units, 95% CI -2.2-7.0, p=0.31). MMS resulted in more stunting compared to standard Fe60F (average difference - 4.8% units, 95% CI 0.8-8.9, p=0.02). Breastfeeding counseling prolonged the duration of EBF (difference - 35 days, 95% CI 30.6-39.5, p<0.001). Neither pregnancy interventions nor breastfeeding counseling influenced the body composition of children at 54 months of age. Conclusion Early food supplementation during pregnancy reduced the occurrence of stunting among boys aged 0-54 months, while prenatal MMS increased the proportion of stunting. Food and micronutrient supplementation or EBF intervention did not affect body composition of offspring at 54 months of age. The effects of prenatal interventions on postnatal

  14. Association between the Infant and Child Feeding Index (ICFI) and nutritional status of 6- to 35-month-old children in rural western China

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Pengfei; Mi, Baibing; Wang, Duolao; Zhang, Ruo; Yang, Jiaomei; Liu, Danmeng; Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the quality of feeding practices and children’s nutritional status in rural western China. Methods A sample of 12,146 pairs of 6- to 35-month-old children and their mothers were recruited using stratified multistage cluster random sampling in rural western China. Quantile regression was used to analyze the relationship between the Infant and Child Feeding Index (ICFI) and children’s nutritional status. Results In rural western China, 24.37% of all infants and young children suffer from malnutrition. Of this total, 19.57%, 8.74% and 4.63% of infants and children are classified as stunting, underweight and wasting, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, the quantile regression results suggested that qualified ICFI (ICFI > 13.8) was associated with all length and HAZ quantiles (P<0.05) and had a greater effect on the following: poor length and HAZ, the β-estimates (length) from 0.76 cm (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.99 cm) to 0.34 cm (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.59 cm) and the β-estimates (HAZ) from 0.17 (95% CI: 0.10 to 0.24) to 0.11 (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.19). Qualified ICFI was also associated with most weight quantiles (P<0.05 except the 80th and 90th quantiles) and poor and intermediate WAZ quantiles (P<0.05 including the 10th, 20th 30th and 40th quantiles). Additionally, qualified ICFI had a greater effect on poor weight and WAZ quantiles in which the β-estimates (weight) were from 0.20 kg (95% CI: 0.14 to 0.26 kg) to 0.06 kg (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.12 kg) and the β-estimates (WAZ) were from 0.14 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.21) to 0.05 (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10). Conclusions Feeding practices were associated with the physical development of infants and young children, and proper feeding practices had a greater effect on poor physical development in infants and young children. For mothers in rural western China, proper guidelines and messaging on complementary feeding practices are necessary. PMID:28207774

  15. Early Childhood Screen Time and Parental Attitudes Toward Child Television Viewing in a Low-Income Latino Population Attending the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children

    PubMed Central

    Kair, Laura R.; Arain, Yassar H.; Cervantes, Marlene; Oreskovic, Nicolas M.; Zuckerman, Katharine E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Early childhood media exposure is associated with obesity and multiple adverse health conditions. The aims of this study were to assess parental attitudes toward childhood television (TV) viewing in a low-income population and examine the extent to which child BMI, child/parent demographics, and household media environment are associated with adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for screen time. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey study of 314 parents of children ages 0–5 years surveyed in English or Spanish by self-administered questionnaire at a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) clinic in Oregon. Results: In this majority Latino sample (73%), half (53%) of the children met AAP guidelines on screen time limits, 56% met AAP guidelines for no TV in the child's bedroom, and 29% met both. Children were more likely to meet AAP guidelines when there were <2 TVs in the home, there was no TV during dinner, or their parents spent less time viewing electronic media. Parents who spent less time viewing electronic media were more likely to report believing that TV provides little value or usefulness. Conclusions: In this low-income, predominantly Latino population attending WIC, parent media-viewing and household media environment are strongly associated with child screen time. Programs aimed at reducing child screen time may benefit from interventions that address parental viewing habits. PMID:26390321

  16. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 15 Months A A A Toddlers this age are learning ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 15 Months Delayed Speech or Language Development Nutrition Guide for ...

  17. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 15 Months Print A A A en español ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 15 ... Speech or Language Development Nutrition Guide for Toddlers Safe Exploring for Toddlers ...

  18. Sustaining Our Nation's Seniors through Federal Food and Nutrition Programs.

    PubMed

    Gergerich, Erika; Shobe, Marcia; Christy, Kameri

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity is a pressing issue in the United States where one in six people suffer from hunger. The older adult population faces unique challenges to receiving adequate nutrition. The federal government currently employs four food and nutrition programs that target the senior population in an effort to address their specific needs. These are the Congregate Meals and Home Delivered Meals Programs (provided through the Older Americans Act), and the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program and Child and Adult Care Food Program (provided by the United States Department of Agriculture). As the older adult population continues to grow, it will be important to evaluate and improve these programs and the social policies related to them. This manuscript describes each policy in depth, considers economic and political elements that have shaped each policy, describes the level of program success, and offers suggestions for future research and program development.

  19. The Federal Government and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Margaret A.

    1980-01-01

    Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services conduct research related to food and human nutrition. Several federal programs supporting nutrition research and education are reviewed. Footnotes provide addresses and ways to obtain more detailed information about nutrition related programs. (JN)

  20. Food for nutrition: mainstreaming nutrition in WFP.

    PubMed

    2006-03-01

    Most preventable deaths among hungry people take place outside of emergency contexts. In countries not involved in conflicts or natural disasters malnutrition is directly implicated in the deaths of millions of children and mothers each year. Thus, WFP's great efforts focused on saving lives in emergencies should be mirrored by efforts aimed at tackling malnutrition, and hence saving lives, beyond emergencies as well. While food sufficiency is not the same as good nutrition, food is nevertheless an important part of the nutrition equation. New scientific evidence confirms that it is possible to have positive nutritional impacts with food aid. Consistent with Strategic Priority No. 3, WFP seeks to use food resources to achieve nutritional impacts in three complementary ways: a) enhancing the effectiveness and impact of targeted mother and child health and nutrition interventions (MCHN) that combine food and appropriate nonfood inputs; b) enhancing the nutritional value of WFP food (for instance, through micronutrient fortification); and c) enhancing the nutritional impact of other WFP (non-MCHN) interventions. These approaches represent a mainstreaming of nutrition across WFP's activities. Adoption of evidence-based programming, joint interventions with partners, and new project designs offer the promise of greater WFP effectiveness and impact in the coming years.

  1. The Child and Adult Care Food Program: Who Is Served and What Are Their Nutritional Outcomes? NBER Working Paper No. 16148

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Kaestner, Robert; Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses three basic questions about an under-studied food subsidy program, the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP): (1) Does CACFP reach targeted low-income children? (2) How do eligible families and child care providers who participate differ from those who do not participate? (3) What is the association between attending…

  2. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  3. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  4. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  5. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  6. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  7. Parenteral nutrition-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, S; Gimmon, Z; Ben Zvi, A; Katz, S

    1987-01-01

    A case report of a 4-yr-old child who developed an anaphylactic reaction to parenteral nutrition is presented. Dermal allergy tests demonstrated a sensitivity to Travasol solution and Armour multivitamin 2 solution. This is the first reported case known to us of such a response to elemental parenteral nutrition.

  8. Nutritional scientist or biochemist?

    PubMed

    Suttie, J W

    2011-08-21

    When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming.

  9. 7 CFR 1150.116 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research... broaden the understanding of sound nutritional principles, including the role of milk and dairy...

  10. Nutrition Programs for Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    Despite recognition of the importance of good nutrition for children's cognitive development, many children in America are poorly nourished. This digest reviews programs designed to address this problem and suggests ways to improve child nutrition and school meal programs. Federal programs administered by the Food and Nutrition Service of the…

  11. Characterization of the nutritional components in fruit and cladode of selenium-enriched nutraceutical cactus pear fruit varieties grown on agricultural sediment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different accessions of different colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus Indica) were grown in soils high in salts, boron and selenium (Se) located in the Westside of central California. The changes in the nutritional status and biological transformation of the absorbed inorganic Se from the soils into ...

  12. Contaminated Frozen Strawberries in School Lunches. Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session (June 5, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    This hearing includes testimony on contaminated strawberries in school lunches. Contaminated strawberries were determined to be the cause of an outbreak of hepatitis in the state of Michigan. In addition to statements by the committee members, testimony was given by: (1) Mary Ann Keeffe, Acting Under Secretary, Food Nutrition and Consumer…

  13. Nutrition Education Resource Guide: An Annotated Bibliography of Educational Materials for the WIC and CSF Programs. Bibliographies and Literature of Agriculture Number 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Elaine Casserly, Comp.; And Others

    This resource guide to evaluated print and audiovisual nutrition materials has been developed to assist state and local staff of the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and the Commodity Supplemental Foods Program (CSFP), in selecting, acquiring, and developing accurate and appropriate materials for nutrition…

  14. The Science of Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Pat; Burkman, Mary Anne; Streng, Katharina

    2000-01-01

    Nutrition and learning are inextricably connected. Protein, fat, B vitamins, iron, choline, and antioxidants promote brain functions. The USDA's "Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children" (and adaptations for school-age kids) offers guidelines for formulating a child's diet. Breakfast, family meal-sharing, and exercise are essential.…

  15. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  16. Hearing to Restore Eligibility in the Special Milk Program. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on H.R. 904 to Amend the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 to Eliminate Certain Restrictions on the Eligibility of Schools to Participate in the Special Milk Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    On March 23, 1983, testimony was heard concerning H.R. 904, a bill amending the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 to eliminate certain restrictions on the eligibility of schools to participate in the Special Milk Program. Included in this brief publication are statements focusing on (1) the "false economy" of not providing surplus milk to…

  17. Ecosystem management. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Agricultural Research, Conservation, Forestry, and General Legislation of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, April 14, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The hearing addresses Ecosystem management and the threats to forestry and agriculture and the environmental quality of the nation in general and public lands in particular. Resolution of conflicts between various legislative acts is noted as an issue to be resolved. Statements of government and industry officials and documents submitted for the record are included.

  18. How To Teach Nutrition to Kids: An Integrated, Creative Approach to Nutrition Education for Children Ages 6-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Connie Liakos

    This book presents nutrition education activities and strategies that are child-tested and teacher-endorsed. It targets educators, nutrition professionals, parents, and other caregivers, offering the tools to teach children ages 6-10 years about nutrition in a meaningful, integrated way. Divided by subject, this resource integrates nutrition into…

  19. The New Nutrition: Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This student guide on nutrition contains activities categorized according to the seven dietary guidelines for Americans developed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Agriculture. The seven goals for which activities are provided are (1) to eat a variety of foods (daily nutrition guide, nutrients,…

  20. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 4, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  1. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 1, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  2. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 6, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  3. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 2, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  4. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 3, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  5. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This curriculum guide for nutrition education grade 5, was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting dental health through nutrition; models for diet selection;…

  6. Urban conservation agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables are important sources of vitamins and nutrients for human nutrition. United States Department of Agriculture recommends filling half of the food plates with vegetables in every meal. While it is important in promoting good health, access to fresh vegetables is limited especially in urban ...

  7. Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Infant and Young Child Nutrition: Considerations for the Development and Delivery of High Quality Complementary Food Supplements.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shibani; Kurpad, Anura; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Otoo, Gloria E; Aaron, Grant A; Toride, Yasuhiko; Uauy, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of malnutrition in infants and children is multifaceted and requires the following: access to and intake of nutritious food starting at birth with exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 mo of life, continued breastfeeding in combination with complementary foods from 6-24 mo of age, access to clean drinking water and sanitation, and access to preventive and curative health care (including prenatal). Nutrient-dense complementary foods can improve nutritional status and have long-term benefits; however, in a review of plant-based complementary foods in developing countries, most of them failed to meet many micronutrient requirements. There is need to provide other cost-effective alternatives to increase the quality of the diet during the complementary feeding stage of the lifecycle. This paper provides an overview of the development, testing, efficacy and effectiveness of the delivery of KOKO Plus on the growth and nutritional status of infants 6-24 mo of age.

  8. Association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the women of child bearing age: a case-control study in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Milton, Abul H; Shahidullah, S M; Smith, Wayne; Hossain, Kazi S; Hasan, Ziaul; Ahmed, Kazi T

    2010-07-01

    The role of nutritional factors in arsenic metabolism and toxicity is yet to be fully elucidated. A low protein diet results in decreased excretion of DMA and increased tissue retention of arsenic in experimental studies. Malnourished women carry a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chronic exposure to high arsenic (>50 microg/L) through drinking water also increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The synergistic effects (if any) of malnutrition and chronic arsenic exposure may worsen the adverse pregnancy outcomes. This population based case control study reports the association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the rural women in Bangladesh. 348 cases (BMI < 18.5) and 360 controls (BMI 18.5-24.99) were recruited from a baseline survey conducted among 2,341 women. An excess risk for malnutrition was observed among the participants chronically exposed to higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water after adjusting for potential confounders such as participant's age, religion, education, monthly household income and history of oral contraceptive pills. Women exposed to arsenic >50 microg/L were at 1.9 times (Odds Ratio = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.6) increased risk of malnutrition compared to unexposed. The findings of this study suggest that chronic arsenic exposure is likely to contribute to poor nutritional status among women of 20-45 years.

  9. Call to Action: Better Nutrition for Mothers, Children, and Families National Workshop Proceedings (Washington, D.C., December 6-8, 1990). Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharbaugh, Carolyn S., Ed.

    This report summarizes proceedings and recommendations of a workshop on trends, needs, and issues in maternal and child nutrition services and presents 28 major recommendations and associated action strategies which address general areas, women's nutrition for optimal reproductive health, infant nutrition, child nutrition, adolescent nutrition,…

  10. Improving community development by linking agriculture, nutrition and education: design of a randomised trial of “home-grown” school feeding in Mali

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Providing food through schools has well documented effects in terms of the education, health and nutrition of school children. However, there is limited evidence in terms of the benefits of providing a reliable market for small-holder farmers through “home-grown” school feeding approaches. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school feeding programmes sourced from small-holder farmers on small-holder food security, as well as on school children’s education, health and nutrition in Mali. In addition, this study will examine the links between social accountability and programme performance. Design This is a field experiment planned around the scale-up of the national school feeding programme, involving 116 primary schools in 58 communities in food insecure areas of Mali. The randomly assigned interventions are: 1) a school feeding programme group, including schools and villages where the standard government programme is implemented; 2) a “home-grown” school feeding and social accountability group, including schools and villages where the programme is implemented in addition to training of community based organisations and local government; and 3) the control group, including schools and household from villages where the intervention will be delayed by at least two years, preferably without informing schools and households. Primary outcomes include small-holder farmer income, school participation and learning, and community involvement in the programme. Other outcomes include nutritional status and diet-diversity. The evaluation will follow a mixed method approach, including household, school and village level surveys as well as focus group discussions with small-holder farmers, school children, parents and community members. The impact evaluation will be incorporated within the national monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system strengthening activities that are currently underway in Mali. Baselines surveys are planned for 2012. A monthly

  11. Nutrition.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Providing easy, online access to government information on food and human nutrition for consumers. A service of the National Agricultural Library, USDA. USDA’s NEW (and FREE) #FoodKeeper App Will Help You Save Food Before it Spoils! How many times have you ...

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions on infant and young child nutrition and feeding among adolescent girls and young mothers in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Kristy M; Mukta, Umme S; Jalal, Chowdhury S B; Sellen, Daniel W

    2015-04-01

    Improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices have the potential to improve child health and development outcomes in poorly resourced communities. In Bangladesh, approximately 60% of rural girls become mothers before the age of 18, but most interventions to improve IYCF practices target older mothers. We investigated the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding IYCF among adolescent girls and young women aged 15-23 years old in two rural regions in north-west Bangladesh and identified the main points of concordance with, or mismatch to, key international IYCF recommendations. We compared qualitative data collected during interviews and focus groups with participants who were unmarried, married without a child and married with at least one child, and stratified by region. Qualitative indicators of concordance with international recommendations suggest that IYCF knowledge of participants was limited, irrespective of marriage or maternity. Young mothers in our study were no more knowledgeable about feeding practices than their nulliparous peers. Some participants were well aware of an IYCF recommendation (e.g. to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months), but their interpretation of the recommendation deviated from the intended public health message. Notions of insufficient or 'spoiled' breast milk, gender-based biases in feeding intentions and understandings of infant needs, and generational shifts in feeding practices were commonly reported. Conclusions are that female adolescence is a window of opportunity for improving health outcomes among future children, and increased investment in early education of adolescent girls regarding safe IYCF may be an effective strategy to promote and support improved infant feeding practices.

  13. Improving women's nutrition imperative for rapid reduction of childhood stunting in South Asia: coupling of nutrition specific interventions with nutrition sensitive measures essential

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The implications of direct nutrition interventions on women's nutrition, birth outcome and stunting rates in children in South Asia are indisputable and well documented. In the last decade, a number of studies present evidence of the role of non‐nutritional factors impacting on women's nutrition, birth outcome, caring practices and nutritional status of children. The implications of various dimensions of women's empowerment and gender inequality on child stunting is being increasingly recognised. Evidence reveals the crucial role of early age of marriage and conception, poor secondary education, domestic violence, inadequate decision‐making power, poor control over resources, strenuous agriculture activities, and increasing employment of women and of interventions such as cash transfer scheme and microfinance programme on undernutrition in children. Analysis of the nutrition situation of women and children in South Asia and programme findings emphasise the significance of reaching women during adolescence, pre‐conception and pregnancy stage. Ensuring women enter pregnancy with adequate height and weight and free from being anemic is crucial. Combining nutrition‐specific interventions with measures for empowerment of women is essential. Improvement in dietary intake and health services of women, prevention of early age marriage and conception, completion of secondary education, enhancement in purchasing power of women, reduction of work drudgery and elimination of domestic violence deserve special attention. A range of programme platforms dealing with health, education and empowerment of women could be strategically used for effectively reaching women prior to and during pregnancy to accelerate reduction in stunting rates in children in South Asia. PMID:27187909

  14. 7 CFR 2.57 - Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. 2.57... for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services § 2.57 Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. (a... delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services to...

  15. 76 FR 51274 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Major System Failures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 273 and 276 RIN 0584-AD98 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Major System Failures AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule proposes to amend Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program...

  16. 7 CFR 2.57 - Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. 2.57... for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services § 2.57 Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. (a... delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services to...

  17. 7 CFR 2.57 - Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. 2.57... for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services § 2.57 Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. (a... delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services to...

  18. 7 CFR 2.57 - Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. 2.57... for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services § 2.57 Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. (a... delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services to...

  19. 7 CFR 2.57 - Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. 2.57... for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services § 2.57 Administrator, Food and Nutrition Service. (a... delegations of authority are made by the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services to...

  20. The Rise and Fall of Industrial Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geno, Larry M.

    1976-01-01

    This article analyzes the evolution of industrial agriculture in Canada. Population pressures and technology caused the development of industrial agriculture. Although total crop yields have increased, energy efficiency and nutritional quality have decreased. Also intensive agriculture has degraded the soil and lowered air and water qualities. (MR)

  1. Learning about Activity and Understanding Nutrition for Child Health (LAUNCH): Rationale, design, and implementation of a randomized clinical trial of a family-based pediatric weight management program for preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Stark, Lori J; Filigno, Stephanie Spear; Bolling, Christopher; Ratcliff, Megan B; Kichler, Jessica C; Robson, Shannon L; Simon, Stacey L; McCullough, Mary Beth; Clifford, Lisa M; Stough, Cathleen O; Zion, Cynthia; Ittenbach, Richard F

    2017-01-01

    Obesity affects nearly 2 million preschool age children in the United States and is not abating. However, research on interventions for already obese preschoolers is limited. To address this significant gap in the literature, we developed an intervention targeting obesity reduction in 2 to 5year olds, Learning about Activity and Understanding Nutrition for Child Health (LAUNCH). This paper describes the rationale, design, participant enrollment, and implementation of a 3-arm randomized, parallel-group clinical trial comparing LAUNCH to a motivational-interviewing intervention (MI) and standard care (STC), respectively. Whereas LAUNCH was designed as a skills based intervention, MI focused on addressing the guardian's motivation to make changes in diet and activity and providing tools to do so at the guardian's level of readiness to implement changes. Child body mass index z-score was the primary outcome, assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment (Month 6), and 6 and 12month follow-ups (Months 12 and 18). Mechanisms of weight change (e.g., dietary intake, physical activity) and environmental factors associated with weight (e.g., foods available in the home, caregiver diet) were also assessed. This study is unique because it is one of the few randomized controlled trials to examine a developmentally informed, clinic and home skills based behavioral family intervention for preschoolers who are already obese. Being obese during the preschool years increases the likelihood of remaining obese as an adult and is associated with serious health conditions; if this intervention is successful, it has the potential to change the health trajectories for young children with obesity.

  2. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior and its predictors in southwest rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Lachat, Carl; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Background Inappropriate child feeding and caring practices are a major cause of malnutrition. To date, no studies have examined concordance and discordance of child feeding and preventive behavior and their predictors in developing countries. Methods We used baseline data generated from A 2-year-longitudinal agriculture-nutrition panel survey conducted from February 9 to April 9, 2014, in nine districts encompassing 20 randomly selected counties in Oromiya Region and Southern Nation, Nationality and Peoples Region in Ethiopia. Households were recruited using the Expanded Program on Immunization sampling method. A total of 623 children under the age of 5 years and their respective caregivers were included in the analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustered observations. Results Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was observed in 45.1% of the children, while 45.5% of the children were suffering from discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Concordance and discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior had almost different predictors. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was significantly associated with the age of the caretaker of ≥40 years (odds ratio (OR)=2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.41), low household dietary diversity (OR=3.69; 95% CI: 1.93, 7.04), medium household dietary diversity (OR=2.17; 95% CI: 1.17, 4.00), severe household food insecurity (OR=1.72; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.93), and increase with increasing child age. Conclusion A substantial number of children in the southwest of rural Ethiopia are exposed to both poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Low household dietary diversity and extreme food insecurity household were predictors of concordance of poor child feeding and poor preventive behavior and provide useful entry points for comprehensive interventions to address child feeding and caring in the area. PMID:27511625

  3. Nutritional assessment.

    PubMed

    Reilly, H

    Undernutrition and obesity have serious implications for both health and recovery from illness or surgery. These nutritional problems are common in hospital patients but often go unnoticed. This article reviews the means of carrying out nutritional assessment and recommends simple techniques for routine use at ward level to identify patients who need nutritional intervention. Nursing staff are in an ideal position to undertake nutritional screening and simple nutritional assessment should be routinely included as part of patient assessment.

  4. SPEAC for Nutrition: Preschool Unit. A Cooperative Adventure in Preschool Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn.

    Developed by the United States Department of Agriculture's SPEAC (Student Parent Educator Administrator Children) for Nutrition Demonstration Project, these four nutrition education curriculum components are designed to promote health and beneficial nutrition practices among preschool children. The SPEAC Preschool Unit is divided into three…

  5. Team Up at Home. Team Nutrition Activity Booklet. Fun Nutrition Activities for the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide booklet helps parents teach their children about healthy nutrition at home. It is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Team Nutrition, which is designed to improve the health and education of children and which actively involves children and their families in nutrition education activities in the school, community, and home. The…

  6. Team Nutrition School Activity Planner. A How-To Guide for Team Nutrition Schools and Supporters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This "how-to" guide for Team Nutrition fairs and tasting activities helps Team Nutrition supporters and schools understand how to work together to improve the health and education of children. Team Nutrition is the implementation tool for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children. Section 1 of the guide…

  7. Nutrition in Policy Planning for the Rural Sector. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 8 (1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Patricia M. O'Brien

    Through discussion and a test of theoretical models, the need to consider nutrition in development planning for rural areas is addressed, and the complex interaction of agricultural and food policies on family nutrition is described. Chapter I indicates the extent and types of malnutrition and discusses both the relationship of nutrition to…

  8. The Migrant Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Manuel C.

    A migrant child is one who has moved with his family from one school district to another during the preceding 12 months so that a parent or other immediate family member might secure employment in agricultural or fishery activity. In California, the 92,000 migrants living in 48 of the state's 58 counties include Chicanos, Mexican Americans,…

  9. ["How goes it, Awa?" Nutritional deficiency, emotional deprivation, severe depressive state in an child under 2 years of age. Diagnostic and therapeutic problems].

    PubMed

    Buffet, Y; Mazet, P

    1983-12-15

    The authors report a very illustrative case of analytic depression in an infant under two years of age. The significance of this observation is in the overwhelming nature of symptoms with a characteristic marasmus syndrome fitting classic descriptions, and in the deliberate approach which led a pedo-psychiatric team to an understanding of the problems and to a rapid and dramatic reparation. By the ascription of a significant role to the impact of mother-child, mother-family and social circle relationships, involved members were able to determine their place and reassume their role and function. This approach also draws attention to the susceptibility and vulnerability of children to separation and severance of bonds.

  10. Nutrition. Michigan School Food Service Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Definitions, advantages, and functions of nutrition are the starting point for this food service training manual, which includes lessons on proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins. Energy foods for child nutrition programs are also identified, as are balanced diets and meal pattern guidelines. Class activities,…

  11. Show 'n' Tell Nutrition at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhner, Jeanne Incantalupo

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Congress has passed a measure that would scrap the Child Nutrition Act's requirements and funding for more healthy lunches in schools. Unfortunately, foods of lower nutritional value are more available than healthier snacks in the nation's schools. The author argues that providing students with more fresh fruit and produce, whole grains…

  12. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  13. Nutrition interventions need improved operational capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lancet's Child Survival Series was a galvanising manifesto: it focused action plans to improve the well-being of children worldwide. However, the authors did not address in detail the importance of nutrition in child survival, and thus the current Undernutrition Series was born. This welcome n...

  14. SPEAC for Nutrition: Preschool Nutrition Education Project. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augsburg Coll., Minneapolis, Minn.

    This publication reports the Student Parent Educator Administrator Children (SPEAC) for Nutrition Program evaluation of the effectiveness of a child care food service personnel training curriculum and a model curriculum package for preschool children. Evaluation of the food service curriculum package was accomplished in part by a pre- and…

  15. Changes in fecal microbiota and metabolomics in a child with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) responding to two treatment periods with exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN).

    PubMed

    Berntson, Lillemor; Agback, Peter; Dicksved, Johan

    2016-06-01

    The microbiome and immune system of the digestive tract are highly important in both health and disease. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a common anti-inflammatory treatment in children with Crohn's disease in the European countries, and the mechanism is most likely linked to changes in the intestinal microbiome. In the present study, EEN was given in two treatment periods several months apart to a patient with very severe, disabling juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), with a remarkable clinical response as the result. The aim of the present study was to study how the EEN treatment influenced the microbiome and metabolome of this patient. Fecal samples from before, during, and between treatments with EEN were studied. The microbiome was analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons using Illumina MiSeq, and the metabolome was analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance. The microbiome changed markedly from treatment with EEN, with a strong reduction of the Bacteroidetes phylum. Metabolic profiles showed clear differences before, during, and between treatment with EEN, where butyrate, propionate, and acetate followed a cyclic pattern with the lowest levels at the end of each treatment period. This patient with JIA showed remarkable clinical improvement after EEN treatment, and we found corresponding changes in both the fecal microbiome and the metabolome. Further studies are needed to explore the pathophysiological role of the intestinal canal in children with JIA.

  16. School Nutrition Facility Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannell, Dorothy VanEgmond

    This publication is designed to help superintendents, local facilities coordinators, and food-service directors in planning the remodeling of an outdated food-service facility or the building of a new one. The introduction describes the roles of the local facility coordinator, the local child-nutrition director, the architect, the food-service…

  17. Nutrition and the Pregnant Teen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Vicki; McCamey, Jody

    This illustrated guide for pregnant teenagers discusses the nutritional needs of the mother and her unborn child in a month-by-month format. The information presented for each of the 9 months typically includes a sample daily menu; a checklist of recommended servings per day for each of four food groups; a description of the usual emotional and…

  18. Nutritional Support

    MedlinePlus

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in ...

  19. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  20. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural…

  1. Agricultural Disaster Assistance Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Lucas, Frank D. [R-OK-3

    2012-07-31

    09/10/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Agriculture-related anaemias.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A F

    1994-12-01

    Man evolved as a hunter-gatherer, and the invention and spread of agriculture was followed by changes in diet, the environment and population densities which have resulted in globally high prevalences of anaemias due to nutritional deficiencies of iron, folate and (locally) vitamin B12, to infestations by hookworm and schistosomes, to malaria, and to the natural selection for the genes for sickle-cell diseases, beta-thalassaemias, alpha-thalassaemias, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, ovalocytosis and possibly (locally) elliptocytosis. The present explosion of population is driving an expansion of agriculture, especially the cultivation of rice, and this has led often to disastrous increases of transmission of malaria, schistosomiasis and other diseases, to widespread chemical pollution, and to degradation of the environment. Anaemia, as the commonest manifestation of human disease, is a frequent consequence. The urgent need for increased food production is matched by the urgent need for assessment and control of the health impact of agricultural development.

  3. Age-Specific Correlates of Child Growth.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Matthias; Trommlerová, Sofia Karina

    2016-02-01

    Growth faltering describes a widespread phenomenon that height- and weight-for-age of children in developing countries collapse rapidly in the first two years of life. We study age-specific correlates of child nutrition using Demographic and Health Surveys from 56 developing countries to shed light on the potential drivers of growth faltering. Applying nonparametric techniques and exploiting within-mother variation, we find that maternal and household factors predict best the observed shifts and bends in child nutrition age curves. The documented interaction between age and maternal characteristics further underlines the need not only to provide nutritional support during the first years of life but also to improve maternal conditions.

  4. Making Nutrition Education Count: A Guide for Nutrition Education K-6. Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratky, Patricia; Haigh, Lois

    This guide is first of a series of curriculum guides dealing with nutrition education in grades K-6. The curriculum guide was designed to incorporate knowledge of thirteen concepts into the child's decision-making processes as a food consumer. These concepts, as covered by the guide, are: affecting bodily well-being through nutrition; affecting…

  5. New Nutrition Standards for Idaho School Meals. Nourishing News. Volume 4, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Idaho Child Nutrition Programs (CNP) released the New Nutrition Standards for Idaho School Meals in January 2009 with the recommendation that all School Food Authorities fully implement the New Nutrition Standards for Idaho School Meals into their programs starting August 2009. Along with the release of the New Nutrition Standards for Idaho School…

  6. Effects of food price shocks on child malnutrition: The Mozambican experience 2008/2009.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, M Azhar; Salvucci, Vincenzo; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2016-09-01

    A propitiously timed household survey carried out in Mozambique over the period 2008/2009 permits us to study the relationship between shifts in food prices and child nutrition status in a low income setting. We focus on weight-for-height and weight-for-age in different survey quarters characterized by very different food price inflation rates. Using propensity score matching techniques, we find that these nutrition measures, which are sensitive in the short run, improve significantly in the fourth quarter of the survey, when the inflation rate for basic food products is low, compared to the first semester or three quarters, when food price inflation was generally high. The prevalence of underweight, in particular, falls by about 40 percent. We conclude that the best available evidence points to food penury, driven by the food and fuel price crisis combined with a short agricultural production year, as substantially increasing malnutrition amongst under-five children in Mozambique.

  7. H.R. 4684--National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act of 1984. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology and the Subcommittee on Department Operations, Research, and Foreign Agriculture of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This report contains testimony regarding House Resolution 4684, the National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act of 1984. The primary purpose of the bill is to: (1) implement a coordinated national nutrition monitoring and related research program; (2) provide a scientific basis for the improvement of the nutritional status of the…

  8. Dairy intensification, mothers and children: an exploration of infant and young child feeding practices among rural dairy farmers in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Amanda J; Yount, Kathryn M; Null, Clair; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Webb Girard, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural strategies such as dairy intensification have potential to improve human nutrition through increased household food security. Increasing dairy productivity could also adversely affect infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices because of increased maternal stress, demands on maternal time, and beliefs about the timing and appropriate types of complementary foods. Yet, few studies have looked rigorously at how interventions can affect young children (0-60 months). The study explores, within the context of rural dairy farming in Kenya, the relationship between level of household dairy production and selected IYCF practices using a mixed-methods approach. Six focus group discussions with women involved in dairy farming investigated their attitudes towards breastfeeding, introduction of complementary foods and child diets. Ninety-two households involved in three levels of dairy production with at least one child 0-60 months participated in a household survey. Quantitative results indicated that women from higher dairy producing households were more likely to introduce cow's milk to infants before they reached 6 months than women from households not producing any dairy. Themes from the focus group discussions demonstrated that women were familiar with exclusive breastfeeding recommendations, but indicated a preference for mixed feeding of infants. Evidence from this study can inform nutrition education programmes targeted to farmers participating in dairy interventions in rural, low-income settings to minimise potential harm to the nutritional status of children.

  9. Team Nutrition e-Newsletter, February 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Team Nutrition (TN) e-Newsletter is published periodically to share TN resources developed by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and/or by State agencies, and to share ideas for promoting healthy eating and physical activity through Team Nutrition at the State and local levels. This February 2009 issue includes: (1) State Developed…

  10. Team Nutrition e-Newsletter, October 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Team Nutrition (TN) e-Newsletter is published periodically to share TN resources developed by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and/or by State agencies, and to share ideas for promoting healthy eating and physical activity through Team Nutrition at the State and local levels. This issue includes: (1) Materials Developed by…

  11. Tennessee's Extension Food and Nutrition Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Agricultural Extension Service.

    The Extension Food and Nutrition Education program was set up by the University of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service to assist low-income families in improving their diets. Carrying out the program on a one-to-one basis are 365 assistants who are taught the basics of nutrition by trained home economics extension agents. These assistants…

  12. Population, nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    1982-06-01

    The World Health Organization defines health as not only the absence of disease but as a more positive state of physical, mental, and social well-being. 1 of the most important influences on health is nutrition. Millions of people throughout the world either do not get enough to eat or do not get enough of the right kinds of food. Malnutrition is the biggest single contributor to child mortality in developing countries; malnourished children have an impaired ability to fight infection and disease. Children suffering protein-energy or protein-calorie malnutrition may develop nutritional deficiency diseases such as marasmus or kwashiorkor. Some estimates indicate that 2/3 of children in developing countries suffer from protein-calorie malnutrition. Some deficiency diseases caused by a lack of 1 or more nutrients are very widespread, such as anemia, endemic goiter, and xerophthalmia. Contributing factors for malnutrition may include low purchasing power of poor families, poor harvests due to crop failure, bad weather, food spoilage, pests, or a poor distribution system, or cultural practices that prevent the full utilization of available food resources. The decline in the incidence of breastfeeding in recent decades is a major factor in the malnutrition and ill health of children. The quality of nutrition affects the development of human beings in many ways that are sometimes overlooked, such as physical growth and intellectual development. In the long run, only economic development will eliminate malnutrition by eliminating its basic causes of food availability, poverty, ignorance, and overpopulation. Breastfeeding is an important nutritional source for infants and has a contraceptive value for mothers. Improved nutrition should have beneficial effects on the costs of providing education, health services, and housing. Improving the nutritional status of small children may increase their ability to withstand disease, resulting in the survival of greater numbers of

  13. Agriculture: Newsroom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  14. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  15. Food and nutrition security.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the deficits in food security in India. It is recommended that India commit to nutrition security by direct actions. Programs should provide essential staples and a nutrient distribution system with affordable prices. India should adopt an Employment Guarantee Program. Creches should provide maternal-child health care, nutrition, literacy, and employment. Government must resolve the internal conflicts of interest between overlapping sectors. India should resolve the "dysfunction" between macroeconomic policies and anti-poverty strategies. Interventions should be people oriented, rely on social mobilization, and provide information and financial resources in a nonconflict context. Efforts will require the cooperation between the private sector, voluntary organizations, state agencies, and local self-governing decentralized agencies. There is a need to build capacity and viable institutions. Poverty agencies do not have access to the minimum required cereals for the poor. The Public Distribution System (PDS) does not guarantee a minimum quantity of foodstuffs per household regardless of income level. More high quality varieties of rice are produced due to higher prices in the marketplace. Most state governments do not provide staple cereals to the PDS at affordable prices. The government sets fair prices for sugar, but not cereal. The government sells more cereal in the open market than to PDS. PDS should target poor households; that is, the 29.9% who live below the poverty line. Lack of nutrition security is due to poverty that is enhanced by ignorance and the lack of health and nutrition education.

  16. Nutrition in Africa.

    PubMed

    Murray-lee, M

    1989-07-01

    Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation.

  17. Geriatric Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Mavis

    1980-01-01

    After an introduction which defines the scope of geriatric nutrition, the current literature dealing with the subject is reviewed. Nutrition is seen as an important aspect of aging and health. The role of the practicing physician in the area of geriatric nutrition is discussed. The author relates personal experiences in this area. The concluding principle is that proper nutrition is an important tool in preventive medicine in the elderly in which the practicing physician can play a vital role. Imagesp803-a PMID:7401189

  18. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161...

  19. Perspectives on nutrition needs for the new millennium for South Asian regions.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, K

    2001-06-01

    South Asia is the most populated region of the world with several nutritional challenges. Though per capita food energy supply, child survival and life expectancy have improved, and even today large segments of the population are below the poverty line with high infant and maternal mortality rates. It is important to recognize the crucial role of nutrition throughout the life cycle-from conception to old age. It is very necessary now to move from food security to nutrition security and improve the quality of foods both in macro- and micronutrients in order to break the transgenerational effects of malnutrition. The key solutions to the problems should address the issue of social development, population stabilization, environmental degradation and inadequate health and nutritional services. Strategies for empowering women and actuating community participation as sustainable programmes for human development, measures to reduce underweight and stunting in children and prevention of micronutrient malnutrition across the population are required. Enhancing food and nutrition security through innovative diversified agriculture and dietary practices, prevention and control of infection, promotion of food safety and fortification of staples with appropriate attention on emerging chronic disorders are essential. Population control measures to stabilize the fertility rates, biotechnological approaches for genetically modified foods, nutrition surveillance based on assessment, analysis and action to address the logistic, technical and compliance issues with emphasis on promotion of breast feeding and complementary foods with adequate attention on the reproductive needs of adolescent girls, pregnant mothers and lactating women would eliminate low birth weight, stunting, and chronic energy deficiency in vulnerable groups. Focused studies on bioavailability of micronutrients and its enhancement, innovative horticulture interventions, fortifications, social marketing strategies

  20. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  1. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  2. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  3. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  4. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children™ study. Multimedia & Tools Videos, podcasts and widgets. Child Development: What's New Article: Differences in health care, family, ... and share it with the child’s doctor. More Child Development Basics Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting ...

  5. [Community Nutrition].

    PubMed

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  6. 7 CFR 248.22 - Nonprocurement debarment/suspension, drug-free workplace, and lobbying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Miscellaneous Provisions § 248.22 Nonprocurement...

  7. 7 CFR 248.22 - Nonprocurement debarment/suspension, drug-free workplace, and lobbying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Miscellaneous Provisions § 248.22 Nonprocurement...

  8. 7 CFR 248.22 - Nonprocurement debarment/suspension, drug-free workplace, and lobbying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Miscellaneous Provisions § 248.22 Nonprocurement...

  9. 7 CFR 248.22 - Nonprocurement debarment/suspension, drug-free workplace, and lobbying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Miscellaneous Provisions § 248.22 Nonprocurement...

  10. 7 CFR 248.22 - Nonprocurement debarment/suspension, drug-free workplace, and lobbying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Miscellaneous Provisions § 248.22 Nonprocurement...

  11. 7 CFR 249.22 - Nonprocurement debarment/suspension, drug-free workplace, and lobbying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Miscellaneous Provisions § 249.22 Nonprocurement...

  12. 7 CFR 2.19 - Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer... Deputy Secretary, Under Secretaries, and Assistant Secretaries § 2.19 Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition... Agriculture to the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services: (1) Related to food...

  13. 7 CFR 250.66 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD... ITS JURISDICTION Household Programs § 250.66 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women,...

  14. 7 CFR 250.66 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD... ITS JURISDICTION Household Programs § 250.66 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women,...

  15. 7 CFR 250.66 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD... ITS JURISDICTION Household Programs § 250.66 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women,...

  16. 7 CFR 250.66 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD... ITS JURISDICTION Household Programs § 250.66 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women,...

  17. 7 CFR 2.19 - Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer... Administration § 2.19 Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services. (a) The following delegations of authority are made by the Secretary of Agriculture to the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition,...

  18. 7 CFR 2.19 - Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer... Deputy Secretary, Under Secretaries, and Assistant Secretaries § 2.19 Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition... Agriculture to the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services: (1) Related to food...

  19. 7 CFR 250.66 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD... ITS JURISDICTION Household Programs § 250.66 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women,...

  20. 7 CFR 2.19 - Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer... Administration § 2.19 Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services. (a) The following delegations of authority are made by the Secretary of Agriculture to the Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition,...