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Sample records for agriculture continued emergency

  1. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops. PMID:26785813

  2. Agriculture Emergencies: A Primer for First Responders

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Regens, James L.; Burden, Ray W.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several years, the primary focus of emergency preparedness has been on terrorism, and how a CBRNE event would directly affect human health. Limited emphasis has been placed on the direct (eg, zoonotic infections) and indirect (eg, mental health, financial loss) effects that an agricultural emergency event can have on human health outcomes, and how they relate to emergency preparedness. We critically reviewed the resources and information readily accessible to our target audience, emergency responders; the resources included military and civilian books, personal communications, internet sites, GAO reports, and peer-reviewed journals. Among more than 2,000 bioterrorism-related articles, we found 51 that addressed either agroterrorism and/or veterinary public health: 2 cross-sectional studies, 28 review papers, and 21 commentary papers. In order to properly respond to future agriculture emergencies, emergency response professionals need to understand the nature and implications of the event as well as their roles and responsibilities, but the availability of educational and training opportunities is limited. The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that more resources, education, and training opportunities should be available to responders as well as to producers, importers and shippers, international travelers, and the general public. Increased education and training will raise awareness among these groups of the relationship between animal and human health. PMID:19635003

  3. Agriculture emergencies: a primer for first responders.

    PubMed

    Gilpen, Johnnie L; Carabin, Hélène; Regens, James L; Burden, Ray W

    2009-06-01

    Over the past several years, the primary focus of emergency preparedness has been on terrorism, and how a CBRNE event would directly affect human health. Limited emphasis has been placed on the direct (eg, zoonotic infections) and indirect (eg, mental health, financial loss) effects that an agricultural emergency event can have on human health outcomes, and how they relate to emergency preparedness. We critically reviewed the resources and information readily accessible to our target audience, emergency responders; the resources included military and civilian books, personal communications, internet sites, GAO reports, and peer-reviewed journals. Among more than 2,000 bioterrorism-related articles, we found 51 that addressed either agroterrorism and/or veterinary public health: 2 cross-sectional studies, 28 review papers, and 21 commentary papers. In order to properly respond to future agriculture emergencies, emergency response professionals need to understand the nature and implications of the event as well as their roles and responsibilities, but the availability of educational and training opportunities is limited. The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that more resources, education, and training opportunities should be available to responders as well as to producers, importers and shippers, international travelers, and the general public. Increased education and training will raise awareness among these groups of the relationship between animal and human health. PMID:19635003

  4. Detection, Occurrence and Fate of Emerging Contaminants in Agricultural Environments.

    PubMed

    Snow, Daniel D; Cassada, David A; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Li, Xu; D'Alessio, Matteo; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yuping; Sallach, J Brett

    2016-10-01

    A total of 59 papers published in 2015 were reviewed ranging from detailed descriptions of analytical methods, to fate and occurrence studies, to ecological effects and sampling techniques for a wide variety of emerging contaminants likely to occur in agricultural environments. New methods and studies on veterinary pharmaceuticals, steroids, antibiotic resistance genes in agricultural environments continue to expand our knowledge base on the occurrence and potential impacts of these compounds. This review is divided into the following sections: Introduction, Analytical Methods, Steroid Hormones, Pharmaceutical Contaminants, Transformation Products, and "Antibiotic Resistance, Drugs, Bugs and Genes". PMID:27620078

  5. Emerging Educational and Agricultural Trends and their Impact on the Secondary Agricultural Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ralsa Marshall, Jr.; Moore, Gary E.; Flowers, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify the emerging trends in education and agriculture and to determine their implications on the secondary agricultural education program. For this study, the researchers did a national solicitation for nominations with 1,160 national agricultural education leaders, state agricultural education leaders,…

  6. Identification of Emerging Science Competencies in Agriculture. Vocational Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. School of Vocational Education.

    A research project identified new and emerging science concepts that should be taught in high school vocational agriculture. Agricultural scientists on an advisory panel identified the emerging science concepts. The majority were in the areas of plant science and animal science. Animal science was completely reorganized with greater emphasis on…

  7. Emerging foodborne and agriculture-related viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses rapidly evolve and can emerge in unpredictable ways. Mechanisms by which food-borne viruses may enter human populations and become pathogens is discussed. It is known the majority of viruses emerge from zoonotic animal reservoirs, often by adapting and infecting intermediate hosts, such as ...

  8. Epidemiology of criniviruses, an emerging problem in world agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Crinivirus includes the whitefly-transmitted members of the family Closteroviridae. Whitefly-transmitted viruses have emerged as a major problem for world agriculture and are responsible for diseases that lead to losses measured in the billions of dollars annually. Criniviruses have emerge...

  9. Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bryony A.; Grace, Delia; Kock, Richard; Alonso, Silvia; Rushton, Jonathan; Said, Mohammed Y.; McKeever, Declan; Mutua, Florence; Young, Jarrah; McDermott, John; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to analyze qualitatively best available scientific evidence on the effect of agricultural intensification and environmental changes on the risk of zoonoses for which there are epidemiological interactions between wildlife and livestock. The study found several examples in which agricultural intensification and/or environmental change were associated with an increased risk of zoonotic disease emergence, driven by the impact of an expanding human population and changing human behavior on the environment. We conclude that the rate of future zoonotic disease emergence or reemergence will be closely linked to the evolution of the agriculture–environment nexus. However, available research inadequately addresses the complexity and interrelatedness of environmental, biological, economic, and social dimensions of zoonotic pathogen emergence, which significantly limits our ability to predict, prevent, and respond to zoonotic disease emergence. PMID:23671097

  10. Municipal resilience: A paradigm shift in emergency and continuity management.

    PubMed

    Solecki, Greg; Luchia, Mike

    More than a decade of emergency and continuity management vision was instrumental in providing the unprecedented level of response and recovery from the great flood of 2013. Earlier assessments, planning and validation promulgated development of corporate continuity, emergency and contingency plans along with tactical, strategic and recovery operations centres that all led to a reliable emergency management model that will continue to provide the backbone for municipal resilience. PMID:26642170

  11. 3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency Regarding Export Control Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of Emergency Regarding Export Control Regulations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of August 12, 2010 Continuation of Emergency Regarding Export Control Regulations On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided...

  12. 3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency Regarding Export Control Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of Emergency Regarding Export Control Regulations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of August 13, 2009 Continuation of Emergency Regarding Export Control Regulations On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided...

  13. Epidemiology of criniviruses: an emerging problem in world agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Tzanetakis, Ioannis E.; Martin, Robert R.; Wintermantel, William M.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Crinivirus includes the whitefly-transmitted members of the family Closteroviridae. Whitefly-transmitted viruses have emerged as a major problem for world agriculture and are responsible for diseases that lead to losses measured in the billions of dollars annually. Criniviruses emerged as a major agricultural threat at the end of the twentieth century with the establishment and naturalization of their whitefly vectors, members of the genera Trialeurodes and Bemisia, in temperate climates around the globe. Several criniviruses cause significant diseases in single infections whereas others remain asymptomatic and only cause disease when found in mixed infections with other viruses. Characterization of the majority of criniviruses has been done in the last 20 years and this article provides a detailed review on the epidemiology of this important group of viruses. PMID:23730300

  14. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 23, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba...

  15. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 22, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba...

  16. Is there a business continuity plan for emergencies like an Ebola outbreak or other pandemics?

    PubMed

    Kandel, Nirmal

    2015-01-01

    During emergencies, the health system will be overwhelmed and challenged by various factors like staff absenteeism and other limited resources. More than half of the workforce in Liberia has been out of work since the start of the Ebola outbreak. It is vital to continue essential services like maternal and child health care, emergency care and others while responding to emergencies like an Ebola outbreak other pandemic or disaster. Having a business continuity plan (BCP) and involving various sectors during planning and implementing the plan during a crisis will assist in providing essential services to the public. An established BCP will not only help the continuity of services, it also assists in maintaining achievements of sustainable development. This applies to all sectors other than health, for instance, energy sectors, communication, transportation, education, production and agriculture. PMID:25990974

  17. Continuous Passive Sampling of Solutes from Agricultural Subsurface Drainage Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindblad Vendelboe, Anders; de Jonge, Hubert; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Wollesen de Jonge, Lis

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural subsurface tube drain systems play an important role in water and solute transport. One study, focusing on lowland agricultural catchments, showed that subsurface tube drainage contributed up to 80% of the annual discharge and 90% of the annual NO3 load from agricultural fields to the receiving water bodies. Knowledge of e.g. nutrient loads and drainage volumes, based on measurements and modelling, are important for adequate water quality management. Despite the importance of tube drain transport of solutes, monitoring data are scarce. This scarcity is a result of the existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant load from tube drains being expensive and labor-extensive. The study presented here aimed at developing a cheap, simple, and robust method to monitor solute loads from tube drains. The method is based on the newly developed Flowcap, which can be attached to existing tube drain outlets and can measure total flow, contaminant load and flow-averaged concentrations of solutes in the drainage. The Flowcap builds on the existing Sorbicell principle, a passive sampling system that measures average concentrations over longer periods of time (days to months) for various compounds. The Sorbicell consists of two compartments permeable to water. One compartment contains an adsorbent and one contains a tracer. When water passes through the Sorbicell the compound of interest is absorbed while a tracer is released. Using the tracer loss to calculate the volume of water that has passed the Sorbicell it is possible to calculate the average concentration of the compound. When mounting Sorbicells in the Flowcap, a flow-proportional part of the drainage is sampled from the main stream. To accommodate the wide range of drainage flow rates two Flowcaps with different capacities were tested in the laboratory: one with a capacity of 25 L min-1 (Q25) and one with a capacity of 256 L min-1 (Q256). In addition, Sorbicells with two different hydraulic

  18. [Agriculture in Italy nowadays: ancient risks and emerging diseases].

    PubMed

    Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Since produce food using the environment, agricultural activities are fundamental for human and environmental health. They expose workers to all the known health and safety risks: pesticides and other chemicals, noise, vibrations, solar radiation, climate changes, organisational factors, biological, biomechanical and allergic risks. Also the risk of accidents is very relevant. Apart for these well-known risks, new risks and diseases are emerging, such as biological risk from vectors, modulated by climate changes, or risks related to new production modalities, such as the cases of peripheral neuropathy observed in pig butchers. The risks can affect particularly vulnerable groups, such as seasonal, temporary workers and migrants. Currently, in Italy, an increase in reports of occupational diseases in the sector is being observed, in particular for musculoskeletal disorders. Such increase finds an explanation not in a worsening situation at the workplace but in an increasing attention for rural workers accompanied by an increased reporting of occupational diseases. PMID:24303715

  19. Changing Agricultural Education to Meet Needs of Emerging Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Rick; Brase, Terry; Dewsnup, Mel; Anderson, Mandi; Collins, Ashley; Klopp, Deborah; Johnson, Brian; Feldmann, Holly

    2009-01-01

    With less than 2% of Americans involved in traditional production agriculture (cows, plows, and sows), agricultural programs at the secondary and postsecondary levels must change to address the workforce of the future. AgrowKnowledge works at the national level to provide tools for changing agriculture, food, and natural resource educational…

  20. Emerging Occupations in Agriculture: Impact upon Curricula and People, Part I. Yolo County, 1979. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Davis. Dept. of Applied Behavioral Sciences.

    A study was conducted to identify competencies needed by workers in new and emerging occupations in agriculture; to identify occupations in agriculture that are on the decline and occupations that may no longer be needed; to work toward the elimination of sex bias in preparation for entry into occupations in agriculture; and to assess the…

  1. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR REAL-TIME AND INTEGRATED AGRICULTURE DECISIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The papers in this special issue arise from the premise that precision agriculture information increases in value when data collection, data processing, and management actions are integrated. It seems evident that precision agriculture adoption has been hindered, in part, due to the lack of products...

  2. The emergency physician and knowledge transfer: continuing medical education, continuing professional development, and self-improvement.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Barbara J; Binder, Louis S; Marsden, Julian

    2007-11-01

    A workshop session from the 2007 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, Knowledge Translation in Emergency Medicine: Establishing a Research Agenda and Guide Map for Evidence Uptake, focused on developing a research agenda for continuing medical education (CME) in knowledge transfer. Based on quasi-Delphi methodology at the conference session, and subsequent electronic discussion and refinement, the following recommendations are made: 1) Adaptable tools should be developed, validated, and psychometrically tested for needs assessment. 2) "Point of care" learning within a clinical context should be evaluated as a tool for practice changes and improved knowledge transfer. 3) The addition of a CME component to technological platforms, such as search engines and databases, simulation technology, and clinical decision-support systems, may help knowledge transfer for clinicians or increase utilization of these tools and should, therefore, be evaluated. 4) Further research should focus on identifying the appropriate outcomes for physician CME. Emergency medicine researchers should transition from previous media-comparison research agendas to a more rigorous qualitative focus that takes into account needs assessment, instructional design, implementation, provider change, and care change. 5) In the setting of continued physician learning, barriers to the subsequent implementation of knowledge transfer and behavioral changes of physicians should be elicited through research. PMID:17967962

  3. Emergence of phenotype switching through continuous and discontinuous evolutionary transitions.

    PubMed

    Patra, Pintu; Klumpp, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial persistence (phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics) provides a prime example of bet-hedging, where normally growing cells generate slow-growing but antibiotic-tolerant persister cells to survive through periods of exposure to antibiotics. The population dynamics of persistence is explained by a phenotype switching mechanism that allows individual cells to switch between these different cellular states with different environmental sensitivities. Here, we perform a theoretical study based on an exact solution for the case of a periodic variation of the environment to address how phenotype switching emerges and under what conditions switching is or is not beneficial for long-time growth. Specifically we report a bifurcation through which a fitness maximum and minimum emerge above a threshold in the duration of exposure to the antibiotic. Only above this threshold, the optimal phenotype switching rates are adjusted to the time scales of the environment, as emphasized by previous theoretical studies, while below the threshold a non-switching population is fitter than a switching one. The bifurcation can be of different type, depending on how the phenotype switching rates are allowed to vary. If the switching rates for both directions of the switch are coupled, the transition is discontinuous and results in evolutionary hysteresis, which we confirm with a stochastic simulation. If the switching rates vary individually, a continuous transition is obtained and no hysteresis is found. We discuss how both scenarios can be linked to changes in the underlying molecular networks. PMID:26020274

  4. Emergence of phenotype switching through continuous and discontinuous evolutionary transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Pintu; Klumpp, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial persistence (phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics) provides a prime example of bet-hedging, where normally growing cells generate slow-growing but antibiotic-tolerant persister cells to survive through periods of exposure to antibiotics. The population dynamics of persistence is explained by a phenotype switching mechanism that allows individual cells to switch between these different cellular states with different environmental sensitivities. Here, we perform a theoretical study based on an exact solution for the case of a periodic variation of the environment to address how phenotype switching emerges and under what conditions switching is or is not beneficial for long-time growth. Specifically we report a bifurcation through which a fitness maximum and minimum emerge above a threshold in the duration of exposure to the antibiotic. Only above this threshold, the optimal phenotype switching rates are adjusted to the time scales of the environment, as emphasized by previous theoretical studies, while below the threshold a non-switching population is fitter than a switching one. The bifurcation can be of different type, depending on how the phenotype switching rates are allowed to vary. If the switching rates for both directions of the switch are coupled, the transition is discontinuous and results in evolutionary hysteresis, which we confirm with a stochastic simulation. If the switching rates vary individually, a continuous transition is obtained and no hysteresis is found. We discuss how both scenarios can be linked to changes in the underlying molecular networks.

  5. Emerging Ohio alcohol industry: impacts on agriculture. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, N.; Ott, S.

    1981-01-01

    A modest alcohol industry using corn is now being developed in Ohio. Other Corn Belt states are also developing alcohol industries. Substantial changes in land use, livestock feeding, and commodity prices will result from the additional demands put on agriculture to meet food, feed, fiber, and now energy needs. Export demand, crop yield changes, and land availability will have important impacts on these changes. A close monitoring of this new industry will be needed to assist farmers, agro-industries, and policymakers to make the necessary adjustments, to take advantage of the opportunities presented, and to preserve and enhance the productivity of agriculture. 3 tables.

  6. Emergence of the global research alliance on agricultural greenhouse gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing human population pressure on the Earth is of great concern and a key reason why agricultural and natural resource sciences must be fully engaged to develop solutions for a sustainable future. Increasing population puts pressure on the demand for food, clean water, healthy soil, and a sta...

  7. From Agricultural Extension to Capacity Development: Exploring the Foundations of an Emergent Form of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Al

    2013-01-01

    This essay argues that capacity development is a response to changes in the organization and practice of agricultural extension as these changes have excluded small resource farmers. In this essay I trace the changes in the organization of agricultural extension through to the emergence of the concept and practice of capacity development. The idea…

  8. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect... 11, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent... September 14, 2012. Therefore, I am continuing in effect for an additional year the national emergency...

  9. Emerging technologies in ethanol production. Agriculture information bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hohmann, N.; Rendleman, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The fuel ethanol industry is poised to adopt a wide range of technologies that would reduce costs at every stage of the production process. Improved enzymes and fermenter designs can reduce the time needed to convert corn to ethanol and lower capital costs. Membrane filtration can allow the recovery of high-value coproducts such as lactic acid. Adoption of these and other innovations in the next 5 years is expected in new ethanol plants constructed to cope with new demand resulting from Clean Air Act stipulations for cleaner burning fuel. Biomass (agricultural residues, municipal and yard waste, energy crops like switchgrass) can also be converted to ethanol, although commercial-scale ventures are limited by current technology. While biomass requires more handling and sorting before conversion, those costs may be offset by the abundance of biomass relative to corn.

  10. Continuing education in physical rehabilitation and health issues of agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Wilhite, Carla S; Jaco, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Limited attention has been devoted to the cultural and practice competencies needed by occupational therapy and physical therapy professionals who provide services to farming families impacted by chronic health or disability issues. Agricultural occupational safety and health should represent a continuum of services responsive to individuals, families, and agricultural communities across a life span and range of health status changes. Physical rehabilitation professionals have a key role in impacting an agricultural producer's sense of self-efficacy and capacities for returning to agricultural living and work. However, demonstration of competency is essential in providing person-centered rehabilitation services of assessment, evaluation, treatment planning, interventions, referrals, and discharge issues. The paper highlights methods utilized by a state AgrAbility program and a former National AgrAbility Project to develop a model of continuing education programming for occupational and physical therapists that evaluate and treat agricultural workers after acute injury or exacerbation of chronic health conditions. PMID:24959764

  11. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 23, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya On February 25, 2011, by Executive Order 13566, I declared a national emergency pursuant to...

  12. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 26, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the President declared a national emergency...

  13. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 13, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya On February 25, 2011, by Executive Order 13566, I declared a national emergency pursuant to...

  14. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Somalia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Somalia Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of April 10, 2012 Continuation... with that emergency, must continue in effect beyond April 12, 2012. Therefore, in accordance...

  15. 14 CFR 135.69 - Restriction or suspension of operations: Continuation of flight in an emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: Continuation of flight in an emergency. 135.69 Section 135.69 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: Continuation of flight in an emergency. (a) During operations under this part, if a certificate holder or pilot... continue toward any airport of intended landing under the conditions set forth in paragraph (a) of...

  16. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of September 10, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent... national emergency declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the...

  17. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil

  18. Study on emergency service location problem with continuous edge demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qing; Song, Jianshe; Cao, Jiping

    2013-03-01

    At the traditional location problems on networks consider discrete nodal demand. However, accidents may happen at any point in the road. Demand set is the continuum set of all points on a network graph. The issue of general absolute center was studied in this paper. With the assumption that the distance-matrix of the network is available, let | E | be the number of edges of a network. According to the character of the graph of distance function and its graphical nature which reflects the relationship between points and edges, an O(| E |2 ṡlg | E |) algorithm about the location problem of single emergency service was given, so that emergency service emergency response time of the maximum shortest.

  19. Agricultural sources of contaminants of emerging concern and adverse health effects on freshwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are generally thought of as certain classes of chemicals associated with animal feeding and production facilities. Veterinary pharmaceuticals used in animal food production systems represent one of the largest groups of CECs. In our review, we discuss the extensive increase in use of antibiotics in animal feeding operations (AFOs) around the world. AFOs are a major consumer of antibiotics and other veterinary pharmaceuticals and over the past decade there has been growing information on the occurrence, release, and fate of CECs from animal food production operations, including the application of pharmaceutical-containing manure to agricultural fields and releases from waste lagoons. Concentrations of CECs in surface and ground water in proximity to AFOs correspond to their presence in the AFO wastes. In many cases, the environmental concentrations of agriculturally-derived CECs are below toxicity thresholds. Hormones and hormone replacement compounds are a notable exception, where chemical concentrations near AFOs can exceed concentrations known to cause adverse effects on endocrine-related functions in fish. In addition, some agricultural pesticides, once thought to be safe to non-target organisms, have demonstrated endocrine-related effects that may pose threats to fish populations in agricultural regions. That is, we have pesticides with emerging concerns, thus, the concern is emerging and not necessarily the chemical. In this light, one must consider certain agricultural pesticides to be included in the list of CECs. Even though agricultural pesticides are routinely evaluated in regulatory testing schemes which have been used for decades, the potential hazards of some pesticides have only recently been emerging. Emerging concerns of pesticides in fish include interference with hormone signaling pathways; additive (or more than additive) effects from pesticide mixtures; and adverse population-level effects at

  20. Continuous and emerging challenges of Potato virus Y in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the oldest known plant viruses, and yet in the past 20 years it emerged in the U.S. as a relatively new and very serious problem in potato. The virus exists as a complex of strains that induce a wide variety of foliar and tuber symptoms leading to yield reduction and l...

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 10, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 8, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic...

  3. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of January 13, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of January 19, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of January 20, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

  6. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of January 17, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Burma

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Burma Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of May 13, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Burma On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive...

  8. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 8, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, the President declared a...

  9. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Burma

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Burma Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of May 14, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Burma On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to the Congress under section...

  10. 75 FR 68671 - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... HOUSE, November 4, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-28335 Filed 11-5-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Notice of November 4, 2010--Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction #0; #0... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive...

  11. 75 FR 64107 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, October 14, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-26355 Filed... Notice of October 14, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics... ] Notice of October 14, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant...

  12. 75 FR 55659 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ..., September 10, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-22988 Filed 9-10-10; 1:30 pm] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Notice of September 10, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist..., 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent...

  13. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Export Control Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect..., 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Export Control Regulations On August 17... effect beyond August 17, 2012. Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National...

  14. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 11, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the...

  15. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 22, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans On June 26, 2001, by Executive...

  16. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 12, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170,...

  17. 76 FR 37235 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... With Respect to North Korea Notice of June 23, 2011--Continuation of the National Emergency With... ] Notice of June 23, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26... also found that it was necessary to maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea...

  18. Continuous and emerging challenges of Potato virus Y in potato.

    PubMed

    Karasev, Alexander V; Gray, Stewart M

    2013-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the oldest known plant viruses, and yet in the past 20 years it emerged in the United States as a relatively new and very serious problem in potato. The virus exists as a complex of strains that induce a wide variety of foliar and tuber symptoms in potato, leading to yield reduction and loss of tuber quality. PVY has displayed a distinct ability to evolve through accumulation of mutations and more rapidly through recombination between different strains, adapting to new potato cultivars across different environments. Factors behind PVY emergence as a serious potato threat are not clear at the moment, and here an attempt is made to analyze various properties of the virus and its interactions with potato resistance genes and with aphid vectors to explain this recent PVY spread in potato production areas. Recent advances in PVY resistance identification and mapping of corresponding genes are described. An updated classification is proposed for PVY strains that takes into account the most current information on virus molecular genetics, serology, and host reactivity. PMID:23915135

  19. Safeguarding production agriculture and natural ecosystems against biological terrorism. A U.S. Department of Agriculture emergency response framework.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, R

    1999-01-01

    Foreign pest introductions and outbreaks represent threats to agricultural productivity and ecosystems, and, thus, to the health and national security of the United States. It is advisable to identify relevant techniques and bring all appropriate strategies to bear on the problem of controlling accidentally and intentionally introduced pest outbreaks. Recent political shifts indicate that the U.S. may be at increased risk for biological terrorism. The existing emergency-response strategies of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) will evolve to expand activities in coordination with other emergency management agencies. APHIS will evolve its information superstructure to include extensive application of simulation models for forecasting, meteorological databases and analysis, systems analysis, geographic information systems, satellite image analysis, remote sensing, and the training of specialized cadres within the emergency-response framework capable of managing the necessary information processing and analysis. Finally, the threat of key pests ranked according to perceived risk will be assessed with mathematical models and "what-if" scenarios analyzed to determine impact and mitigation practices. An infrastructure will be maintained that periodically surveys ports and inland regions for the presence of exotic pest threats and will identify trend abnormalities. This survey and monitoring effort will include cooperation from industry groups, federal and state organizations, and academic institutions. PMID:10681969

  20. Rome was not built in one day: Underlying biological and cognitive factors responsible for the emergence of agriculture and ultrasociality.

    PubMed

    Grotuss, Jason; Beard, Sarah Jean

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture represented a major transition in human evolution, but the appearance of ultrasociality must have included previous steps. We argue that ultrasociality would not have suddenly emerged with agriculture, but rather developed from pre-existing cognitive and social mechanisms. Discussions must include necessary depth about the historical origins of human ultrasociality, and agriculture's aftereffects on large-scale social organization. PMID:27562680

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Burma

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Burma Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of May 2, 2013 Continuation of... 13619 of July 11, 2012, must continue in effect beyond May 20, 2013. Therefore, in accordance...

  2. The spectrum of emergency care of agricultural trauma in central Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Stueland, D; Zoch, T; Stamas, P; Krieg, G; Boulet, W

    1990-11-01

    Agriculture is among the most dangerous occupations in the United States. When injuries do occur, the emergency department (ED) is the primary source of care. Over a 2-year period, the emergency medicine section of the Marshfield Clinic/St Joseph's Hospital, cared for 913 victims of agricultural trauma. Although 11% were initially admitted and 4% were later treated, the remainder received their care solely in the ED. Unlike most occupational injuries, people of any age may be involved in agricultural injuries; 27% in this series were less than 18 years of age and 5% were 65 years or older. Just over half of all injuries were from mechanical devices, including tractor and farm machinery. The remainder were from animals, falls, or exposure. Although several different types of injuries occurred, the most common diagnoses were soft tissue injuries and fractures and the most common procedure was diagnostic radiography followed by wound and fracture care. An ED in a rural setting should be prepared to deal with agricultural trauma. PMID:2222598

  3. Emergency department triage: a program assessment using the tools of continuous quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Cook, S; Sinclair, D

    1997-01-01

    An assessment was undertaken in the emergency department of a busy tertiary care center to illustrate the role of continuous quality improvement in the evaluation of an emergency triage program that utilizes the emergency medical attendant to provide triage. An evaluation team interviewed triage staff, charge nurses, internal customers, risk management, and the patient representative. A detailed review of staff job descriptions, organization charts, orientation manual, and physical facilities was conducted. A chart audit was completed on 100 triage notes. Direct observation was undertaken on nine occasions. An evaluation of the data gathered was performed using the tools of continuous quality improvement, and resulted in specific recommendations being made to improve the process of care. It was concluded that emergency medical attendants function very well in an emergency medicine triage system and the tools of continuous quality improvement can be applied to a clinical service to improve the quality of care. PMID:9404811

  4. Update on Emergency Department Visits Involving Energy Drinks: A Continuing Public Health Concern

    MedlinePlus

    Update on Emergency Department Visits Involving Energy Drinks: A Continuing Public Health Concern Energy drinks are flavored beverages containing high amounts of caffeine and typically other additives, such as ...

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 1, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan and, pursuant to the International...

  6. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 1, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

  7. 75 FR 67585 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, November 1, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-27876 Filed 11-1-10... Notice of November 1, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan #0; #0; #0... National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the...

  8. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 1, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

  9. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of October 30, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan and, pursuant to the International...

  10. 75 FR 12115 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, March 10, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-5662 Filed 3-11-10; 11:15 am] Billing code... Notice of March 10, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran #0; #0; #0... Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared...

  11. 75 FR 69567 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, November 10, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-28780 Filed 11-10-10; 11:15... Notice of November 10, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Iran #0; #0; #0... the National Emergency With Respect To Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170,...

  12. 76 FR 13283 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, March 8, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-5729 Filed 3-9-11; 11:15 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Notice of March 8, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On... Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with...

  13. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 12, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the International...

  14. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 12, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, the President issued Executive Order 12957, which declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the...

  15. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 7, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran, pursuant to the International...

  16. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 10, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran, pursuant to the International...

  17. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran Executive Order 12957

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Iran Executive Order 12957 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 13, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran Executive Order 12957 On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to...

  18. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 9, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the International...

  19. 78 FR 11547 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ..., February 13, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-03809 Filed 2-14-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Emergency With Respect to Libya #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... ] Notice of February 13, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya On February...

  20. 78 FR 37097 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... With Respect to the Western Balkans #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... President ] Notice of June 17, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western... respect to the Western Balkans, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50...

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Zimbabwe Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 3, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the... or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50...

  2. 75 FR 10155 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, February 26, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-4805 Filed 3-3-10; 11:15 am... Notice of February 26, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe #0; #0; #0... the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288,...

  3. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Disposition of Russian Highly Enriched...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect... Russian Highly Enriched Uranium On June 25, 2012, by Executive Order 13617, I declared a national... emergency declared in Executive Order 13617 of June 25, 2012, and the measures adopted on that date to...

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect... of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the... November 3, 1997, as expanded on April 26, 2006, and with respect to which additional steps were taken...

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Lebanon

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Lebanon Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of July 29, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Lebanon On August 1, 2007, by Executive Order 13441, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Lebanon pursuant to the International...

  6. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Zimbabwe Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 2, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the... or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50...

  7. Synchronous Environmental and Cultural Change in the Emergence of Agricultural Economies 10,000 Years Ago in the Levant

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, Ferran; Junno, Aripekka; Barceló, Joan Antón

    2015-01-01

    The commonly held belief that the emergence and establishment of farming communities in the Levant was a smooth socio-economic continuum during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (ca. 12,000-9,000 cal BP) with only rare minor disruptions is challenged by recently obtained evidence from this region. Using a database of archaeological radiocarbon dates and diagnostic material culture records from a series of key sites in the northern Levant we show that the hitherto apparent long-term continuity interpreted as the origins and consolidation of agricultural systems was not linear and uninterrupted. A major cultural discontinuity is observed in the archaeological record around 10,000 cal BP in synchrony with a Holocene Rapid Climate Change (RCC), a short period of climatic instability recorded in the Northern Hemisphere. This study demonstrates the interconnectedness of the first agricultural economies and the ecosystems they inhabited, and emphasizes the complex nature of human responses to environmental change during the Neolithic period in the Levant. Moreover, it provides a new environmental-cultural scenario that needs to be incorporated in the models reconstructing both the establishment of agricultural economy in southwestern Asia and the impact of environmental changes on human populations. PMID:26241310

  8. Synchronous Environmental and Cultural Change in the Emergence of Agricultural Economies 10,000 Years Ago in the Levant.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Ferran; Junno, Aripekka; Barceló, Joan Antón

    2015-01-01

    The commonly held belief that the emergence and establishment of farming communities in the Levant was a smooth socio-economic continuum during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (ca. 12,000-9,000 cal BP) with only rare minor disruptions is challenged by recently obtained evidence from this region. Using a database of archaeological radiocarbon dates and diagnostic material culture records from a series of key sites in the northern Levant we show that the hitherto apparent long-term continuity interpreted as the origins and consolidation of agricultural systems was not linear and uninterrupted. A major cultural discontinuity is observed in the archaeological record around 10,000 cal BP in synchrony with a Holocene Rapid Climate Change (RCC), a short period of climatic instability recorded in the Northern Hemisphere. This study demonstrates the interconnectedness of the first agricultural economies and the ecosystems they inhabited, and emphasizes the complex nature of human responses to environmental change during the Neolithic period in the Levant. Moreover, it provides a new environmental-cultural scenario that needs to be incorporated in the models reconstructing both the establishment of agricultural economy in southwestern Asia and the impact of environmental changes on human populations. PMID:26241310

  9. Are developed and emerging agricultural futures markets multifractal? A comparative perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ling-Yun; Chen, Shu-Peng

    2010-09-01

    Although there are many reports on the empirical evidence of the existence of multifractality in various financial or commodity markets in current literature, few can be found to compare the multifractal properties of emerging and developed economies, especially for agricultural futures markets in those countries (regions). We therefore chose China as the representative of the transition and emerging economies, and USA as the representative of developed ones. We attempt to find the answers to the following questions: (1) Are all those different markets multifractal? (2) What are the dynamical causes for multifractality in those markets (if any)? (3) Are the multifractality strengths in those markets of the transition and emerging economies weaker (or stronger) than those of the developed ones? To answer these questions, Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) are applied to study some of the representative agricultural futures markets in China and USA, namely, wheat, soy meal, soybean and corn. Our results suggest that all the markets of China and USA exhibit multifractal properties except US soybean market, which is much closer to mono-fractal comparing with China’s soybean market. To investigate the sources of multifractality, shuffling and phase randomization procedures are applied to destroy the temporal correlations and non-Gaussian distributions respectively. We found that multifractality can be mainly attributed to the non-Gaussian probability distribution and secondarily to the nonlinear temporal correlation mechanism for all the markets, except US soybean and soy meal, which derives from some other unknown factors. Furthermore, the average of τ(q) are applied to obtain the multifractal spectra of the two markets as a whole. The results show that the width of the multifractal spectrum of US agricultural futures markets is significantly narrower than that of China’s. Based on our findings, we proposed a hypothesis that the strength of

  10. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadhira, Vebi; Kurniadi, Deddy; Juliastuti, E.; Sutiswan, Adeline

    2014-03-01

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects.

  11. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    SciTech Connect

    Nadhira, Vebi Kurniadi, Deddy Juliastuti, E. Sutiswan, Adeline

    2014-03-24

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects.

  12. Relationship between the Damage Emergence of Agricultural Infrastructure and the Period after the Occurrence of the 2004 Chuetsu Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arita, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Safumi

    Although the disaster restoration in the agricultural land and rural villages has progressed since the 2004 Chuetsu Earthquake, potential small-scale damages of the agricultural infrastructure have been continuously coming to surface. The notable difference between the earthquake disaster and other disasters is that the former induces extensive ground damages which, in turn, lead to a long-term continuation of small-scale damage emergence. However, there exists no measure devised to deal with those small-scale damages due to the difficulty in technically proving the relationship between the damages and the earthquake even though the damages are actually caused by the earthquake. Although it has been pointed out that longer-term restoration measures are necessary to cope with the peculiar characteristic of a earthquake disaster, these are not realized in practice owing mainly to the unavailability of the secular change data of damages. In this research, the damage characteristics in the Chuetsu area were clarified through the analysis of tracking records of the Small-scale Disaster Restoration Project (SDRP: In Japanese "Tezukuri-tanaoshi-tou-shien" Project), and the results of questionnaires for the farmers. In conclusion, a proposition was made on long-term measures for the disaster restoration after the occurrence of a large-scale earthquake.

  13. Agricultural Diversification and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Secondary, Postsecondary, and Continuing Education Agriculture Programs in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Agriculture, Des Moines.

    These instructional materials on agricultural diversification and marketing were developed for use by Iowa's vocational and technical agricultural instructors and extension personnel. This document is one of three manuals making up a single package. (The other two are Christmas Tree Production and Marketing and Sod Production and Marketing). The…

  14. Business continuity, emergency planning and special needs: How to protect the vulnerable.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Emergencies and disasters affect all segments of the population. Some segments are more at risk during the emergency response and recovery efforts owing to vulnerabilities that increase the risk of harm. These vulnerabilities are due to individuals' disabilities, which must be incorporated into emergency and business continuity planning. Some disabilities are obvious, such as impaired vision, hearing or mobility, while other are less evident, but equally disabling, such as cognitive disorders, geographical or language isolation, and numerous age-related factors. Taken together when creating emergency or business continuity plans, the issues identified as disabilities can be grouped by functionality and termed as special needs. This paper will detail the identification of special needs populations, explain how these persons are vulnerable during the emergency or disaster response and recovery process, and provide examples of how to partner with individuals within identified special needs populations to improve the planning process. PMID:26420394

  15. The Continuing Child Protection Emergency: A Challenge to the Nation. Third Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, Washington, DC.

    Three years after the release of its original report (1990), the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect reports that the child protection emergency has clearly deepened in all parts of the nation. Reports of child abuse and neglect have continued to climb; an inordinate number of children continue to die at the hands of caretakers; and…

  16. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of September 10, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent... terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on...

  17. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of September 10, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain TerroristAttacks Consistent... terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001,and the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on...

  18. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of September 9, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent... terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on...

  19. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions and Policies of Certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions and Policies of Certain Members of the Government of Belarus and Other Persons That Undermine Democratic Processes or Institutions in Belarus Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 8, 2010 Continuation...

  20. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Risk of Nuclear Proliferation Created...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Risk of Nuclear Proliferation Created by the Accumulation of Weapons-Useable Fissile Material in the Territory of the Russian Federation Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 18, 2009 Continuation of the...

  1. Carbon and Phosphorus in soil particulate fraction: effect of continuous agriculture, tillage and fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaard, N.; Echeverrıa, H. E.; Vidaurreta, A.; Picone, L. I.; Divito, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    In Argentinean Pampas region, the practice of intensive agriculture has diminished total organic carbon (TOC) content in soil. This degradation process can impact over phosphorus (P) organic fractions associated to it, and therefore limit soil capacity to provide P through mineralization. Along this line, P content in soil particulate fraction (PF) has been proposed as an index to estimate this capacity. The aims of this work were to evaluate (1) the effect of continuous agriculture, tillage and P fertilization over TOC and P fractions content in soil and PF, and (2) the stability of P-PF as a mineralization index. To this end, a long term experiment initiated in 2001 in Balcarce, Argentina, under continuous agriculture, was analyzed. There, two tillage systems - conventional till (CT) and no till (NT) - and two fertilization treatments - nitrogen (N) and N + P (NP) - were evaluated. Phosphorus rate was 30 kg ha-1 year-1. In each plot, the following parameters were determined in 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2011: TOC, P Bray, total P (Pt), inorganic P (Pi), and organic P (Po) content in the whole soil and in the PF. Also, C supply by residues and P soil balance during the experiment were calculated, and the P sorption capacity was determined in samples from 2011. C supply was greater in CT (7% relative to NT) and in NP (14% relative to N). However, TOC in soil was not modified neither by tillage or fertilization. Even though, C in the PF decreased (3% annually) by the use of continuous agriculture. This reduction was positively associated to the one observed in other soil properties as Pt, Pi and Po in the PF. P fertilization lessened this reduction in Pt (18,9 mg kg-1 in N and 23,1 mg kg-1 in NP in 2011) and Pi (4,2 mg kg-1 in N and 6,2 mg kg-1 in NP in 2011), but not in Po. This indicates that, Po is affected by management practices and, contrary to Pt, is stable to fertilization. Therefore Po can be studied as a potential P mineralization index. The difference among P

  2. Evaluation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) behaviour in agricultural soil through laboratory continuous studies.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Rodríguez, B; Zafra-Gómez, A; Reis, M S; Duarte, B P M; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A; Pérez-Pascual, M; Vílchez, J L

    2015-07-01

    The behaviour of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) in agricultural soil is investigated in the laboratory using continuous-flow soil column studies in order to simultaneously analyze the three main underlying phenomena (adsorption/desorption, degradation and transport). The continuous-flow soil column experiments generated the breakthrough curves for each LAS homologue, C10, C11, C12 and C13, and by adding them up, for total LAS, from which the relevant retention, degradation and transport parameters could be estimated, after proposing adequate models. Several transport equations were considered, including the degradation of the sorbate in solution and its retention by soil, under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions between the sorbent and the sorbate. In general, the results obtained for the estimates of those parameters that were common to the various models studied (such as the isotherm slope, first order degradation rate coefficient and the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient) were rather consistent, meaning that mass transfer limitations are not playing a major role in the experiments. These three parameters increase with the length of the LAS homologue chain. The study will provide the underlying conceptual framework and fundamental parameters to understand, simulate and predict the environmental behaviour of LAS compounds in agricultural soils. PMID:25765258

  3. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Matamoros, Víctor; Bayona, Josep M

    2011-12-15

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L(-1) and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (>200 ng L(-1), on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from <1 to 7677 ng kg(-1), with the neutral compounds being the most abundant. Moreover, the predicted data obtained by fate models generally agreed with experimental data. Finally, human exposure to micropollutants through fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be 9.8 μg per person and week (Σ 27 contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers. PMID:22030249

  4. Using community partners to deliver low-cost and effective emergency management and business continuity services.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joan; Roggiero, Jean Paul; Silva, Brian

    2010-11-01

    Small to medium-sized organisations enhance their business mission as well as their communities by continuing to offer services in extreme circumstances. Developing emergency preparedness and business continuity plans that are cost-effective, comprehensive and operational for small to medium-sized organisations with limited resources requires a consistent, supportive, hands-on approach over time with professionals to create appropriate and sustainable strategies. Using a unique, multi-layered and applied approach to emergency preparedness training, organisations have successfully created plans that are effective and sustainable. PMID:21177218

  5. Emerging health risks associated with modern agriculture practices: a comprehensive study in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Aronson, Kristan J; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary W

    2012-05-01

    In order to enhance food production, India has adopted modern agriculture practices and achieved noteworthy success. This achievement was essentially the result of a paradigm shift in agriculture that included high inputs of agrochemicals, water, and widespread practice of monoculture, as well as bureaucratic changes that promoted these changes. There are very few comprehensive analyses of potential adverse health outcomes that may be related to these changes. The objective of this study is to identify health risks associated with modern agricultural practices in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. This study aims to compare high-input and low-input agricultural practices and the consequences for health of people in these communities. The fieldwork was conducted from May to August, 2009 and included a survey carried out in six villages. Data were collected by in-depth personal interviews among 240 households and key informants, field observations, laboratory analyses, and data from secondary sources. The study identified four major visible impacts: occupational hazards, vector borne diseases, changing nutritional status, and inequity in development. In the high-input area, mechanization has resulted in more occurrences of serious accidents and injuries. Ecological changes due to rice cultivation in this area have further augmented mosquito breeding, and there has been a surge in the incidence of Japanese encephalitis and malaria. The traditional coarse cereals (complex carbohydrates, high protein) have been replaced by mill-polished rice (simple carbohydrate, low protein). The prevalence of overweight (BMI>25) has emerged as a new public health challenge, and this is most evident in large-landholding households, especially in the high-input agriculture areas. In all agro-ecological areas, it was observed that women faced a greater risk of both extremes of under-nutrition and being overweight. Output-driven and market-oriented modern agricultural practices have

  6. Urbanization, Agricultural Intensification, and Habitat Alteration in Vietnam: Modeling Transitional Development and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, J.; Saksena, S.; Spencer, J.; Finucane, M.; Sultana, N.

    2012-12-01

    Our overarching hypothesis is that new risks, in this case the H5N1 strain of avian influenza, emerge during transitions between stages of development. Moreover, these risks are not coincidental but occur precisely because of the in-between nature of the coupled human-natural system at the point when things are neither traditional nor modern but resemble the state of chaos, release and reorganization. We are testing this hypothesis in Vietnam using demographic, social, economic, and environmental data collected in national censuses and analyzed at commune and district levels to identify communes and districts that are traditional, modern, and transitional (peri-urban). Using data from the 2006 agricultural census that capture both the changing nature of the built environment (types of sanitation systems) and the loss of and diversification of agriculture systems (percent of households whose major source of income is from agriculture, and percent of land under agriculture, forests, and aquaculture), and a normalized difference vegetation index from 2006 Landsat images we created a national scale urbanicity map for Vietnam. Field work in the summer of 2011 showed this map to be an accurate (approximately 85%) approximation of traditional (rural), transitional (periurban), and modern (urban) communes. Preliminary results suggest that over 7% of the country's land area and roughly 15% of its population resides in periurban neighborhoods, and that these areas do have a statistically significant greater incidence of AVI as measured in chicken deaths than traditional and modern communes (Table 1). Transitional neighborhoods such as these force planners to ask two questions. To what extent does the dichotomy of urban/rural makes sense in the context of Vietnam, when large areas and parts of the population are caught between the two? Second, how can planners and policy makers effectively provide for basic public goods and services in these contexts?Classification of places

  7. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  8. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to the Stabilization of Iraq Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of May 17, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq On May 22, 2003... reconstruction of Iraq, the restoration and maintenance of peace and security in the country, and the...

  9. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to the Stabilization of Iraq Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of May 18, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq On May 22, 2003... for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the...

  10. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to the Stabilization of Iraq Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of May 12, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq On May 22, 2003... for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the...

  11. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to the Stabilization of Iraq Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of May 17, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq On May 22, 2003... for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the...

  12. 76 FR 68053 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Register and transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, November 1, 2011. [FR Doc... With Respect to Sudan #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No... ] Notice of November 1, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November...

  13. 77 FR 66357 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ..., Washington, November 1, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-27035 Filed 11-1-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F3 ... With Respect to Sudan #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No... ] Notice of November 1, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November...

  14. 78 FR 65865 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ..., October 30, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-26413 Filed 10-31-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... With Respect to Sudan #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... ] Notice of October 30, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November...

  15. 78 FR 68321 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, November 12, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-27376 Filed 11-12-13; 11:15 am] Billing... With Respect to Iran #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... ] Notice of November 12, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November...

  16. 77 FR 67739 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ..., Washington, November 9, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-27742 Filed 11-9-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F3 ... With Respect to Iran #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No... ] Notice of November 9, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November...

  17. 77 FR 15227 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran Executive Order 12957

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, March 13, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-6426 Filed 3... With Respect to Iran Executive Order 12957 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal...;The President ] Notice of March 13, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to...

  18. 78 FR 16395 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, March 12, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-06113 Filed 3-13-13; 11:15 am... With Respect to Iran #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... ] Notice of March 12, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15,...

  19. 76 FR 70033 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Register and transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, November 7, 2011. [FR Doc... With Respect to Iran #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No... ] Notice of November 7, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November...

  20. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to North Korea Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 18, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that would otherwise have been lifted pursuant...

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to North Korea Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 23, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that would otherwise have been lifted pursuant...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Mass Destruction Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 4, 2010 Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means...

  3. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 9, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On... United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of...

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 1, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On... United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of...

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Yemen

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Yemen Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of May 13, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Yemen On May 16, 2012, by Executive Order 13611, I declared a... United States constituted by the actions and policies of certain members of the Government of Yemen...

  6. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in Zimbabwe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to the Situation in Zimbabwe Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 1, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003... persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the...

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in Zimbabwe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to the Situation in Zimbabwe Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 2, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003... persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the...

  8. 77 FR 49697 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Export Control Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, August 15, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-20378 Filed 8... With Respect to Export Control Regulations #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal...;The President ] Notice of August 15, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect...

  9. 77 FR 11381 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Libya

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, February 23, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-4615 Filed 2-23-12; 11:15 am] Billing code... Documents#0;#0; ] Notice of February 23, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to...

  10. 78 FR 49105 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Export Control Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, August 8, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-19699 Filed 8... With Respect to Export Control Regulations #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal...;The President ] Notice of August 8, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to...

  11. 78 FR 46487 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Lebanon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, July 29, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-18632 Filed 7-30-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... With Respect to Lebanon #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No... ] Notice of July 29, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Lebanon On August 1,...

  12. 77 FR 56515 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ..., 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-22708 Filed 9-11-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Notice of September 11, 2012--Continuation of the National... the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of...

  13. The Communication Model: An Emerging Systems Analysis Technique for Continuing Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, H. Griffin

    Continuing educators can gain knowledge about their programs' environments, as well as predict the outcomes of change processes, by utilizing an emerging systems concept called the communication model. Utilization of the communication model involves three steps: (1) diagramming the perceived reality of the organizational system, (2) using the…

  14. 3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Mass Destruction Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 6, 2009 Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means...

  15. 76 FR 12267 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ..., March 2, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-5152 Filed 3-3-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ...#0;#0; ] Notice of March 2, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Zimbabwe On... property of persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to...

  16. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Somalia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect... embargo imposed by the United Nations Security Council. On July 20, 2012, I issued Executive Order 13620... view of United Nations Security Council Resolution 2036 of February 22, 2012, and Resolution 2002...

  17. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... weapons-usable fissile material on the Korean Peninsula. The President also found that it was necessary to... Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 1-44) with respect to North Korea. On August 30, 2010, I signed...

  18. 14 CFR 135.69 - Restriction or suspension of operations: Continuation of flight in an emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restriction or suspension of operations: Continuation of flight in an emergency. 135.69 Section 135.69 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.69 Restriction or suspension of...

  19. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of Certain Persons To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of Certain Persons To Undermine the Sovereignty of Lebanon or its Democratic Processes and Institutions Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of July 30,...

  20. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to North Korea Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 14, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... necessary to maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that would otherwise have been...

  1. 75 FR 34317 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Notice of June 14, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea... President also found that it was necessary to maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that... 14, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-14729 Filed 6-15-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to North Korea Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 24, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... necessary to maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that would otherwise have been...

  3. The Relationship between Same-Day Access and Continuity in Primary Care and Emergency Department Visits

    PubMed Central

    Cordasco, Kristina M.; Chow, Adam

    2015-01-01

    We examined how emergency department (ED) visits for potentially preventable, mental health, and other diagnoses were related to same-day access and provider continuity in primary care using administrative data from 71,296 patients in 22 VHA clinics over a three-year period. ED visits were categorized as non-emergent; primary care treatable; preventable; not preventable; or mental health-related. We conducted multi-level regression models adjusted for patient and clinic factors. More same-day access significantly predicted fewer non-emergent and primary care treatable ED visits while continuity was not significantly related to any type of ED visit. Neither measure was related to ED visits for mental health problems. PMID:26332981

  4. Using continuous monitoring of physical parameters to better estimate phosphorus fluxes in a small agricultural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaudo, Camille; Dupas, Rémi; Moatar, Florentina; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus fluxes in streams are subjected to high temporal variations, questioning the relevance of the monitoring strategies (generally monthly sampling) chosen to assist EU Directives to capture phosphorus fluxes and their variations over time. The objective of this study was to estimate the annual and seasonal P flux uncertainties depending on several monitoring strategies, with varying sampling frequencies, but also taking into account simultaneous and continuous time-series of parameters such as turbidity, conductivity, groundwater level and precipitation. Total Phosphorus (TP), Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) concentrations were surveyed at a fine temporal frequency between 2007 and 2015 at the outlet of a small agricultural catchment in Brittany (Naizin, 5 km2). Sampling occurred every 3 to 6 days between 2007 and 2012 and daily between 2013 and 2015. Additionally, 61 storms were intensively surveyed (1 sample every 30 minutes) since 2007. Besides, water discharge, turbidity, conductivity, groundwater level and precipitation were monitored on a sub-hourly basis. A strong temporal decoupling between SRP and particulate P (PP) was found (Dupas et al., 2015). The phosphorus-discharge relationships displayed two types of hysteretic patterns (clockwise and counterclockwise). For both cases, time-series of PP and SRP were estimated continuously for the whole period using an empirical model linking P concentrations with the hydrological and physic-chemical variables. The associated errors of the estimated P concentrations were also assessed. These « synthetic » PP and SRP time-series allowed us to discuss the most efficient monitoring strategies, first taking into account different sampling strategies based on Monte Carlo random simulations, and then adding the information from continuous data such as turbidity, conductivity and groundwater depth based on empirical modelling. Dupas et al., (2015, Distinct export dynamics for

  5. Continuity of operations planning in college athletic programs: The case for incorporating Federal Emergency Management Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hall, Stacey A; Allen, Brandon L; Phillips, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    College athletic departments have a responsibility to provide a safe environment for student-athletes; however, most colleges do not have a crisis management plan that includes procedures for displaced student-athletes or alternate facilities to perform athletic events. Continuity of operations planning ensures athletic programs are equipped to maintain essential functions during, or shortly after, a disruption of operations due to possible hazards. Previous studies have identified a lack of emergency preparedness and continuity planning in college athletic departments. The purpose of this article is to illustrate in detail one approach to disaster planning for college athletic departments, namely the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) continuity of operations framework. By adhering to FEMA guidelines and promoting a best practices model, athletic programs can effectively plan to address potential hazards, as well as protect the organization's brand, image, and financial sustainability after a crisis event. PMID:26963231

  6. Review and Meta-analysis of Emerging Risk Factors for Agricultural Injury.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Rohan; Achutan, Chandran; Haynatzki, Gleb; Rajaram, Shireen; Rautiainen, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural injury is a significant public health problem globally. Extensive research has addressed this problem, and a growing number of risk factors have been reported. The authors evaluated the evidence for frequently reported risk factors earlier. The objective in the current study was to identify emerging risk factors for agricultural injury and calculate pooled estimates for factors that were assessed in two or more studies. A total of 441 (PubMed) and 285 (Google Scholar) studies were identified focusing on occupational injuries in agriculture. From these, 39 studies reported point estimates of risk factors for injury; 38 of them passed the Newcastle-Ottawa criteria for quality and were selected for the systematic review and meta-analysis. Several risk factors were significantly associated with injury in the meta-analysis. These included older age (vs. younger), education up to high school or higher (vs. lower), non-Caucasian race (vs. Caucasian), Finnish language (vs. Swedish), residence on-farm (vs. off-farm), sleeping less than 7-7.5 hours (vs. more), high perceived injury risk (vs. low), challenging social conditions (vs. normal), greater farm sales, size, income, and number of employees on the farm (vs. smaller), animal production (vs. other production), unsafe practices conducted (vs. not), computer use (vs. not), dermal exposure to pesticides and/or chemicals (vs. not), high cooperation between farms (vs. not), and machinery condition fair/poor (vs. excellent/good). Eighteen of the 25 risk factors were significant in the meta-analysis. The identified risk factors should be considered when designing interventions and selecting populations at high risk of injury. PMID:27088816

  7. Environmental assessment of anaerobically digested sludge reuse in agriculture: potential impacts of emerging micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Hospido, Almudena; Carballa, Marta; Moreira, Maite; Omil, Francisco; Lema, Juan M; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2010-05-01

    Agricultural application of sewage sludge has been emotionally discussed in the last decades, because the latter contains organic micropollutants with unknown fate and risk potential. In this work, the reuse of anaerobically digested sludge in agriculture is evaluated from an environmental point of view by using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. More specifically, the potential impacts of emerging micropollutants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, present in the sludge have been quantified. Four scenarios were considered according to the temperature of the anaerobic digestion (mesophilic or thermophilic) and the sludge retention time (20 or 10d), and they have been compared with the non-treated sludge. From an environmental point of view, the disposal of undigested sludge is not the most suitable alternative, except for global warming due to the dominance (65-85%) of the indirect emissions associated to the electricity use. Nutrient-related direct emissions dominate the eutrophication category impact in all the scenarios (>71.4%), although a beneficial impact related to the avoidance of industrial fertilisers production is also quantified (up to 6.7%). In terms of human and terrestrial toxicity, the direct emissions of heavy metals to soil dominate these two impact categories (>70%), and the contribution of other micropollutants is minimal. Moreover, only six (Galaxolide, Tonalide, Diazepam, Ibuprofen, Sulfamethoxazole and 17alpha-ethinyloestradiol) out of the 13 substances considered are really significant since they account for more than 95% of the overall micropollutants impact. PMID:20347114

  8. Ancient lipids reveal continuity in culinary practices across the transition to agriculture in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Oliver E.; Steele, Val J.; Fischer, Anders; Hartz, Sönke; Andersen, Søren H.; Donohoe, Paul; Glykou, Aikaterini; Saul, Hayley; Jones, D. Martin; Koch, Eva; Heron, Carl P.

    2011-01-01

    Farming transformed societies globally. Yet, despite more than a century of research, there is little consensus on the speed or completeness of this fundamental change and, consequently, on its principal drivers. For Northern Europe, the debate has often centered on the rich archaeological record of the Western Baltic, but even here it is unclear how quickly or completely people abandoned wild terrestrial and marine resources after the introduction of domesticated plants and animals at ∼4000 calibrated years B.C. Ceramic containers are found ubiquitously on these sites and contain remarkably well-preserved lipids derived from the original use of the vessel. Reconstructing culinary practices from this ceramic record can contribute to longstanding debates concerning the origins of farming. Here we present data on the molecular and isotopic characteristics of lipids extracted from 133 ceramic vessels and 100 carbonized surface residues dating to immediately before and after the first evidence of domesticated animals and plants in the Western Baltic. The presence of specific lipid biomarkers, notably ω-(o-alkylphenyl)alkanoic acids, and the isotopic composition of individual n-alkanoic acids clearly show that a significant proportion (∼20%) of ceramic vessels with lipids preserved continued to be used for processing marine and freshwater resources across the transition to agriculture in this region. Although changes in pottery use are immediately evident, our data challenge the popular notions that economies were completely transformed with the arrival of farming and that Neolithic pottery was exclusively associated with produce from domesticated animals and plants. PMID:22025697

  9. Ancient lipids reveal continuity in culinary practices across the transition to agriculture in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Craig, Oliver E; Steele, Val J; Fischer, Anders; Hartz, Sönke; Andersen, Søren H; Donohoe, Paul; Glykou, Aikaterini; Saul, Hayley; Jones, D Martin; Koch, Eva; Heron, Carl P

    2011-11-01

    Farming transformed societies globally. Yet, despite more than a century of research, there is little consensus on the speed or completeness of this fundamental change and, consequently, on its principal drivers. For Northern Europe, the debate has often centered on the rich archaeological record of the Western Baltic, but even here it is unclear how quickly or completely people abandoned wild terrestrial and marine resources after the introduction of domesticated plants and animals at ∼4000 calibrated years B.C. Ceramic containers are found ubiquitously on these sites and contain remarkably well-preserved lipids derived from the original use of the vessel. Reconstructing culinary practices from this ceramic record can contribute to longstanding debates concerning the origins of farming. Here we present data on the molecular and isotopic characteristics of lipids extracted from 133 ceramic vessels and 100 carbonized surface residues dating to immediately before and after the first evidence of domesticated animals and plants in the Western Baltic. The presence of specific lipid biomarkers, notably ω-(o-alkylphenyl)alkanoic acids, and the isotopic composition of individual n-alkanoic acids clearly show that a significant proportion (∼20%) of ceramic vessels with lipids preserved continued to be used for processing marine and freshwater resources across the transition to agriculture in this region. Although changes in pottery use are immediately evident, our data challenge the popular notions that economies were completely transformed with the arrival of farming and that Neolithic pottery was exclusively associated with produce from domesticated animals and plants. PMID:22025697

  10. 7 CFR 764.351 - Emergency loan uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency loan uses. 764.351 Section 764.351 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Emergency Loan Program § 764.351 Emergency loan uses. (a) Physical losses—(1) Real estate losses. EM...

  11. The form of early development. Continuity and discontinuity in emergent competences.

    PubMed

    Kagan, J

    1979-09-01

    Conceptions of psychological development devised by Western theorists have assumed connectivity of stages, stability of acquired structures, and continuity of process, and have resisted the possibility that some emerging psychological qualities might have relatively short histories. Empirical studies of the first two years of life suggest that the enhancement of retrieval memory at 8 to 10 months of age, the emergence of a linguistic set at 15 to 18 months of age, and sensitivity to standards of competence prior to the second birthday are emergent human competences that may not necessarily have a historical link to the events of early infancy. Developmental theorists should be as receptive to sequences that are relatively discontinuous as they are to those that are gradual and cumulative. PMID:475541

  12. 7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.24 Section 1540.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From...

  13. 7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.24 Section 1540.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From...

  14. 7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.44 Section 1540.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency...

  15. 7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.44 Section 1540.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency...

  16. 7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.24 Section 1540.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From...

  17. 7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.24 Section 1540.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From...

  18. 7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.44 Section 1540.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency...

  19. 7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.44 Section 1540.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency...

  20. 7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.24 Section 1540.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From...

  1. 7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.44 Section 1540.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency...

  2. Emerging Techniques in Stratified Designs and Continuous Gradients for Tissue Engineering of Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Dormer, Nathan H.; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Interfacial tissue engineering is an emerging branch of regenerative medicine, where engineers are faced with developing methods for the repair of one or many functional tissue systems simultaneously. Early and recent solutions for complex tissue formation have utilized stratified designs, where scaffold formulations are segregated into two or more layers, with discrete changes in physical or chemical properties, mimicking a corresponding number of interfacing tissue types. This method has brought forth promising results, along with a myriad of regenerative techniques. The latest designs, however, are employing “continuous gradients” in properties, where there is no discrete segregation between scaffold layers. This review compares the methods and applications of recent stratified approaches to emerging continuously graded methods. PMID:20411333

  3. Analysis of the Continuing Decline in Use of Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Roger

    1997-01-01

    When responses from 135 of 222 New York secondary agriculture teachers were compared with a 1983 study, a 10% decrease in supervised agricultural experience (SAE) was found. Barriers were low level of summer employment, limited release time, less funding for transportation, and scheduling problems. A comprehensive overhaul of the concept and…

  4. Effectiveness of capture techniques for rails in emergent marsh and agricultural wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Marie; King, S.L.; Linscombe, J.

    2010-01-01

    A reliable and effective technique for capturing rails would improve researchers' ability to study these secretive marsh birds. The time effectiveness and capture success of four methods for capturing rails in emergent marsh and agricultural wetlands in southern Louisiana and Texas were evaluated during winter and breeding seasons. Methods were hand and net capture from an airboat at night, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) at night, an ATV during daylight rice harvest and passive capture using drop-door traps with drift fencing. Five hundred and twenty rails were captured (and 21 recaptures): 192 King Rails (Rallus elegans), 74 Clapper Rails (R. longirostris), 110 Virginia Rails (R. limicola), 125 Sora (Porzana Carolina) and 40 Yellow Rails (Coturnicops noveboracensis). Methods used at night were effective at capturing rails: capture from airboats yielded 2.13 rails per hour each airboat was operated and capture from ATVs yielded 1.80 rails per hour each ATV was operated. During daylight, captures from ATVs during rice harvest (0.25 rails per hour each ATV was operated) and passive drop-door traps with drift fencing (0.0054 rails per trap hour) were both inefficient.

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect... of May 9, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government..., Executive Order 13582 of August 17, 2011, Executive Order 13606 of April 22, 2012, and Executive Order...

  6. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of July 16, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian...

  7. Occurrence of emerging contaminants in agricultural soils, sewage sludge and waters in Valencia (E Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boluda, Rafael; Marimon, Lupe; Atzeni, Stefania; Mormeneo, Salvador; Iranzo, María; Zueco, Jesús; Gamón, Miguel; Sancenón, José; Romera, David; Gil, Carlos; Amparo Soriano, Maria; Granell, Clara; Roca, Núria; Bech, Jaume

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, studies into the presence and distribution of emerging contaminants (ECs), like pharmaceutical products, some pesticides and mycotoxins in the natural environment, are receiving considerable attention. Thus, the presence of these compounds in waters, soils and wastes in different locations including agricultural systems has been stressed; very few studies into this matter are available in Spain. The main source of ECs in the environment is wastewater spillage from wastewater treatment plants (WTP), where these compounds arrive from the sewer system network. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of 35 ECs constituted by nine pharmaceutical products, 23 fungicides and three mycotoxins in soils, sewages sludge and waters adjacent to WTP from an agriculture area of Valencia (E Spain) influenced by intense urban and industrial activity. Seven samples from sludge, 13 soil samples and eight samples of waters from the area of influence of WTP were collected. The ECs extraction were performed using 5 g of fresh sample and a mixture of acetonitrile with 1% formic acid and water at the 3:1 ratio by shaking for 45 min and then centrifuging at 4,000 rpm for 5 min. The extract was filtered and determination was done by HPLC system connected to a 3200-Qtrap de triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray ion source. The results showed that soil-ECs concentrations were 10 times lower that in sewage sludge. The smaller number of detections and detected compounds should also be stressed. As in previous cases, fungicides azole (tebuconazole and tricyclazole), along with boscalid, were the most detected compounds with concentrations of between 100 and 400 µg kg-1 dw. In second place, propiconazole and azoxystrobin stood out, followed by carbendazim, dimetomorph, pyraclostrobin and propamocarb. The following drugs and mycotoxins were detected to have a higher to lower concentration (1-40 µg kg-1): telmisartan, irbesartan, venlafaxine

  8. Continuous emergency department monitoring of arterial saturation in adult patients with respiratory distress.

    PubMed

    Jones, J; Heiselman, D; Cannon, L; Gradisek, R

    1988-05-01

    Continuous measurement of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) using pulse oximetry has become a common monitoring and management technique in critically ill hospitalized patients. To determine the impact of SaO2 monitoring on emergency patient management, we conducted a prospective uncontrolled clinical trial on 40 adult patients presenting to the emergency department with acute respiratory illness, such as emphysema, asthma, or pulmonary edema. Recorded data included hemograms, arterial blood gases, subsequent therapy, and response to treatment. Additionally, the "early warning" capability of SaO2 monitoring was analyzed by recording the severity and outcome of hypoxemic events during treatment. Mean duration of usage for the 40 oximeters in the ED was 1.8 hours; all probes functioned reliably over a wide range of systolic pressures (80 to 206 mm Hg), heart rates (40 to 180 beats per minute), and hematocrits (20% to 58%). There was good correlation between simultaneous pulse oximeter values and both directly measured SaO2 (r = 0.95) and saturations derived from measured arterial PaO2 (r = 0.94). The device detected several otherwise unrecognized drops in arterial saturation that were confirmed by laboratory analysis. Other clinical situations in which the pulse oximeter was found useful in the ED are reviewed. We conclude that continuous measurement of SaO2 can improve the monitoring of ED patients, increase the precision of therapy, detect hypoxemia during intubation, suctioning, and other treatments, and detect clinically unsuspected changes in arterial oxygenation. PMID:3364826

  9. USDA-ARS Highlights and emerging research on agricultural water use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture production accounts for 16% of the $9 trillion gross domestic product, 8% of exports and 17% of employment. Although less than 2% of Americans work on farms, 100% of citizens are users of farm products. Since WWII, the growth of agricultural inputs has remained flat, while productivity h...

  10. Emerging Themes in Integrating Mathematics into Agricultural Education: A Qualitative Study of Star Teachers in Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ryan; Anderson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze outstanding agricultural education teachers' attitudes towards mathematics integration. An investigation into the collaboration efforts being made between the agricultural education and mathematics departments was also included. The objective of this study was to identify the primary themes to integration…

  11. Continuous 'Passive' Registration of Non-Point Contaminant Loads Via Agricultural Subsurface Drain Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Jansen, S.; de Jonge, H.; Lindblad Vendelboe, A.

    2014-12-01

    Considering their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring and modeling of agricultural subsurface tube drain systems is important for adequate water quality management. For example, previous work in lowland agricultural catchments has shown that subsurface tube drain effluent contributed up to 80% of the annual discharge and 90-92% of the annual NO3 loads from agricultural fields towards the surface water. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tube drains are expensive and labor-intensive. Therefore, despite the unambiguous relevance of this transport route, tube drain monitoring data are scarce. The presented study aimed developing a cheap, simple, and robust method to monitor loads from tube drains. We are now ready to introduce the Flowcap that can be attached to the outlet of tube drains and is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads, and flow-averaged concentrations. The Flowcap builds on the existing SorbiCells, a modern passive sampling technique that measures average concentrations over longer periods of time (days to months) for various substances. By mounting SorbiCells in our Flowcap, a flow-proportional part of the drain effluent is sampled from the main stream. Laboratory testing yielded good linear relations (R-squared of 0.98) between drainage flow rates and sampling rates. The Flowcap was tested in practice for measuring NO3 loads from two agricultural fields and one glasshouse in the Netherlands. The Flowcap registers contaminant loads from tube drains without any need for housing, electricity, or maintenance. This enables large-scale monitoring of non-point contaminant loads via tube drains, which would facilitate the improvement of contaminant transport models and would yield valuable information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality.

  12. 7 CFR 1410.12 - Emergency Forestry Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency Forestry Program. 1410.12 Section 1410.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.12 Emergency Forestry Program. (a) In addition...

  13. 78 FR 37925 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Disposition of Russian Highly Enriched...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Register and transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, June 20, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013... adopted on that date to deal with that emergency, must continue in effect beyond June 25, 2013....

  14. 7 CFR 1486.100 - What is the Emerging Markets Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is the Emerging Markets Program? 1486.100 Section 1486.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM General Information § 1486.100 What is the Emerging Markets Program?...

  15. Beyond land application: Emerging technologies for the treatment and reuse of anaerobically digested agricultural and food waste.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Johnathon P; Yang, Liangcheng; Ge, Xumeng; Wang, Zhiwu; Li, Yebo

    2015-10-01

    Effective treatment and reuse of the massive quantities of agricultural and food wastes generated daily has the potential to improve the sustainability of food production systems. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is used throughout the world as a waste treatment process to convert organic waste into two main products: biogas and nutrient-rich digestate, called AD effluent. Biogas can be used as a source of renewable energy or transportation fuels, while AD effluent is traditionally applied to land as a soil amendment. However, there are economic and environmental concerns that limit widespread land application, which may lead to underutilization of AD for the treatment of agricultural and food wastes. To combat these constraints, existing and novel methods have emerged to treat or reuse AD effluent. The objective of this review is to analyze several emerging methods used for efficient treatment and reuse of AD effluent. Overall, the application of emerging technologies is limited by AD effluent composition, especially the total solid content. Some technologies, such as composting, use the solid fraction of AD effluent, while most other technologies, such as algae culture and struvite crystallization, use the liquid fraction. Therefore, dewatering of AD effluent, reuse of the liquid and solid fractions, and land application could all be combined to sustainably manage the large quantities of AD effluent produced. Issues such as pathogen regrowth and prevalence of emerging organic micro-pollutants are also discussed. PMID:26235446

  16. ANALYSIS OF EMERGING NDE TECHNIQUES: METHODS FOR EVALUATING AND IMPLEMENTING CONTINUOUS ONLINE MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.; Taylor, Theodore T.; Lupold, Timothy R.; Hull, Amy; Malik, Shah

    2009-08-05

    One of the goals of the program for the proactive management of materials degradation (PMMD) is to manage proactively the in-service degradation of metallic components in aging NPPs. As some forms of degradation, such as stress corrosion cracking, are characterized by a long initiation time followed by a rapid growth phase, new inspection or monitoring technologies may be required. New nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that may be needed include techniques to find stress corrosion cracking (SCC) precursors, on-line monitoring techniques to detect cracks as they initiate and grow, as well as advances in NDE technologies. This paper reports on the first part of the development of a methodology to determine the effectiveness of these emerging NDE techniques for managing metallic degradation. This methodology will draw from experience derived from evaluating techniques that have "emerged" in the past. The methodology will follow five stages: a definition of inspection parameters, a technical evaluation, laboratory testing, round robin testing, and the design of a performance demonstration program. This methodology will formalize the path taken for previous techniques and set a predictable course for future NDE techniques. This paper then applies the expert review section of the methodology to the acoustic emission technique to evaluate the use of acoustic emission in performing continuous online monitoring of reactor components.

  17. Topological defects as relics of emergent continuous symmetry and Higgs condensation of disorder in ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shi-Zeng; Wang, Xueyun; Kamiya, Yoshitomo; Chern, Gia-Wei; Fan, Fei; Fan, David; Casas, Brian; Liu, Yue; Kiryukhin, Valery; Zurek, Wojciech H.; Batista, Cristian D.; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2014-12-01

    Lars Onsager and Richard Feynman envisaged that the three-dimensional (3D) superfluid-to-normal λ transition in 4He occurs through the proliferation of vortices. This process should hold for every phase transition in the same universality class. The role of topological defects in symmetry-breaking phase transitions has become a prime topic in cosmology and high-temperature superconductivity, even though direct imaging of these defects is challenging. Here we show that the U(1) continuous symmetry that emerges at the ferroelectric critical point of multiferroic hexagonal manganites leads to a similar proliferation of vortices. Moreover, the disorder field (vortices) is coupled to an emergent U(1) gauge field, which becomes massive by means of the Higgs mechanism when vortices condense (span the whole system) on heating above the ferroelectric transition temperature. Direct imaging of the vortex network in hexagonal manganites offers unique experimental access to this dual description of the ferroelectric transition, while enabling tests of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism.

  18. Aquatic Insect Emergence in Post-Harvest Flooded Agricultural Fields in the Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, R. C.; Blumenshine, S.; Fleskes, J.

    2005-05-01

    California's Southern San Joaquin Valley is one of the most important waterbird areas in North America, but has suffered a disproportionate loss of wetlands when compared to other California regions. This project analyzes the habitat value of post-harvest flooded cropland by measuring the emergence of aquatic insects across multiple crop types. Aquatic insect emergence was sampled from post-harvest flooded fields of four crop types (alfalfa, corn, tomato, wheat), August-October, 2003-2004. Emergence was measured using traps deployed with a stratified random distribution to sample between and within field variation. Emergence rate and emergent biomass was significantly higher in flooded tomato fields. Results from corn fields indicate that flooding depth was correlated (r=0.095) with both diel temperature fluctuation and emergence rate. Chironomus dilutus larvae were grown in environmental chambers, under two thermal treatments with the same mean but different amplitudes (high: 15°-32°C, low: 20°-26°C) to investigate thermal fluctuation effects on survival and biomass. Larval survival (4x) and biomass (2x) were significantly greater in the low versus high temperature fluctuation treatment. This research has the potential to affect agricultural management throughout the 12,600 km2 region, increase aquatic insect production and aid in the recovery of declining bird populations.

  19. Emerging tools for continuous nutrient monitoring networks: Sensors advancing science and water resources protection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellerin, Brian; Stauffer, Beth A; Young, Dwane A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Walbridge, Mark R; Clyde, Gerard A; Shaw, Denice M

    2016-01-01

    Sensors and enabling technologies are becoming increasingly important tools for water quality monitoring and associated water resource management decisions. In particular, nutrient sensors are of interest because of the well-known adverse effects of nutrient enrichment on coastal hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, and impacts to human health. Accurate and timely information on nutrient concentrations and loads is integral to strategies designed to minimize risk to humans and manage the underlying drivers of water quality impairment. Using nitrate sensors as an example, we highlight the types of applications in freshwater and coastal environments that are likely to benefit from continuous, real-time nutrient data. The concurrent emergence of new tools to integrate, manage and share large data sets is critical to the successful use of nutrient sensors and has made it possible for the field of continuous nutrient monitoring to rapidly move forward. We highlight several near-term opportunities for Federal agencies, as well as the broader scientific and management community, that will help accelerate sensor development, build and leverage sites within a national network, and develop open data standards and data management protocols that are key to realizing the benefits of a large-scale, integrated monitoring network. Investing in these opportunities will provide new information to guide management and policies designed to protect and restore our nation’s water resources.

  20. 7 CFR 330.106 - Emergency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency measures. 330.106 Section 330.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE,...

  1. 7 CFR 330.106 - Emergency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency measures. 330.106 Section 330.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE,...

  2. 7 CFR 330.106 - Emergency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency measures. 330.106 Section 330.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE,...

  3. 7 CFR 330.106 - Emergency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency measures. 330.106 Section 330.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE,...

  4. 7 CFR 330.106 - Emergency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency measures. 330.106 Section 330.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE General Provisions...

  5. 7 CFR 1940.332 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Emergencies. 1940.332 Section 1940.332 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.332 Emergencies. (a) Action requiring EIS. When an emergency circumstance makes it necessary to take an action with significant environmental...

  6. 7 CFR 1940.332 - Emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Emergencies. 1940.332 Section 1940.332 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.332 Emergencies. (a) Action requiring EIS. When an emergency circumstance makes it necessary to take an action with significant environmental...

  7. How agricultural management shapes soil microbial communities: patterns emerging from genetic and genomic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Amanda; Grandy, A. Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture is a predominant land use and thus a large influence on global carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) balances, climate, and human health. If we are to produce food, fiber, and fuel sustainably we must maximize agricultural yield while minimizing negative environmental consequences, goals towards which we have made great strides through agronomic advances. However, most agronomic strategies have been designed with a view of soil as a black box, largely ignoring the way management is mediated by soil biota. Because soil microbes play a central role in many of the processes that deliver nutrients to crops and support their health and productivity, agricultural management strategies targeted to exploit or support microbial activity should deliver additional benefits. To do this we must determine how microbial community structure and function are shaped by agricultural practices, but until recently our characterizations of soil microbial communities in agricultural soils have been largely limited to broad taxonomic classes due to methodological constraints. With advances in high-throughput genetic and genomic sequencing techniques, better taxonomic resolution now enables us to determine how agricultural management affects specific microbes and, in turn, nutrient cycling outcomes. Here we unite findings from published research that includes genetic or genomic data about microbial community structure (e.g. 454, Illumina, clone libraries, qPCR) in soils under agricultural management regimes that differ in type and extent of tillage, cropping selections and rotations, inclusion of cover crops, organic amendments, and/or synthetic fertilizer application. We delineate patterns linking agricultural management to microbial diversity, biomass, C- and N-content, and abundance of microbial taxa; furthermore, where available, we compare patterns in microbial communities to patterns in soil extracellular enzyme activities, catabolic profiles, inorganic nitrogen pools, and nitrogen

  8. Agricultural intensification, priming for persistence and the emergence of Nipah virus: a lethal bat-borne zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Pulliam, Juliet R C; Epstein, Jonathan H; Dushoff, Jonathan; Rahman, Sohayati A; Bunning, Michel; Jamaluddin, Aziz A; Hyatt, Alex D; Field, Hume E; Dobson, Andrew P; Daszak, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Emerging zoonoses threaten global health, yet the processes by which they emerge are complex and poorly understood. Nipah virus (NiV) is an important threat owing to its broad host and geographical range, high case fatality, potential for human-to-human transmission and lack of effective prevention or therapies. Here, we investigate the origin of the first identified outbreak of NiV encephalitis in Malaysia and Singapore. We analyse data on livestock production from the index site (a commercial pig farm in Malaysia) prior to and during the outbreak, on Malaysian agricultural production, and from surveys of NiV's wildlife reservoir (flying foxes). Our analyses suggest that repeated introduction of NiV from wildlife changed infection dynamics in pigs. Initial viral introduction produced an explosive epizootic that drove itself to extinction but primed the population for enzootic persistence upon reintroduction of the virus. The resultant within-farm persistence permitted regional spread and increased the number of human infections. This study refutes an earlier hypothesis that anomalous El Niño Southern Oscillation-related climatic conditions drove emergence and suggests that priming for persistence drove the emergence of a novel zoonotic pathogen. Thus, we provide empirical evidence for a causative mechanism previously proposed as a precursor to widespread infection with H5N1 avian influenza and other emerging pathogens. PMID:21632614

  9. Agricultural intensification, priming for persistence and the emergence of Nipah virus: a lethal bat-borne zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Dushoff, Jonathan; Rahman, Sohayati A.; Bunning, Michel; Jamaluddin, Aziz A.; Hyatt, Alex D.; Field, Hume E.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Daszak, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Emerging zoonoses threaten global health, yet the processes by which they emerge are complex and poorly understood. Nipah virus (NiV) is an important threat owing to its broad host and geographical range, high case fatality, potential for human-to-human transmission and lack of effective prevention or therapies. Here, we investigate the origin of the first identified outbreak of NiV encephalitis in Malaysia and Singapore. We analyse data on livestock production from the index site (a commercial pig farm in Malaysia) prior to and during the outbreak, on Malaysian agricultural production, and from surveys of NiV's wildlife reservoir (flying foxes). Our analyses suggest that repeated introduction of NiV from wildlife changed infection dynamics in pigs. Initial viral introduction produced an explosive epizootic that drove itself to extinction but primed the population for enzootic persistence upon reintroduction of the virus. The resultant within-farm persistence permitted regional spread and increased the number of human infections. This study refutes an earlier hypothesis that anomalous El Niño Southern Oscillation-related climatic conditions drove emergence and suggests that priming for persistence drove the emergence of a novel zoonotic pathogen. Thus, we provide empirical evidence for a causative mechanism previously proposed as a precursor to widespread infection with H5N1 avian influenza and other emerging pathogens. PMID:21632614

  10. Contrasting nutrient mitigation and denitrification potential of agricultural drainage environments with different emergent aquatic macrophytes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remediation of excess nitrogen (N) in agricultural runoff can be enhanced by establishing wetland vegetation but the role of denitrification in N removal is not well understood in drainage ditches. We quantified differences in N retention during experimental runoff events followed by stagnant period...

  11. A complete and continuous pesticide screening during one growing season in five small Swiss rivers with agricultural watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Simon; Comte, Rahel; Doppler, Tobias; Wittmer, Irene; Moschet, Christoph; Stamm, Christian; Singer, Heinz; Kunz, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural pesticides are regularly found in surface waters at concentration levels that raise ecotoxicological concerns. Due to large fluctuations in concentration over time and the potentially high number of pesticides in agricultural watersheds, it is difficult to obtain a comprehensive overview of the actual pollution level. This collaborative project between research and Swiss federal and cantonal authorities aimed for a comprehensive analysis of pesticide pollution in five small agricultural streams to address this knowledge gap. The five rivers are located in catchments (1.5 to 9 km2) with intensive agriculture covering a wide range of crops, such as grains, vegetables, vineyards and orchards. Urban activities and influences are low. Twelve-hour composite samples were collected continuously from March until the end of August with automatic sampling devices, resulting in 360 samples per site. Using precipitation and water level data, we differentiated between discharge events and low-flow periods. Samples taken during dry weather were pooled for the analysis. This procedure resulted in a complete concentration profile over the entire monitoring period covered by 60 samples per site. The analysis, using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap technology), involved a target screening of 248 pesticides including fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, as well as important transformation products. Data on the total number and distribution of pesticides, their detection frequency, crop specific applications and concentration time profiles will be presented. Preliminary results indicate substantial pesticide exposure since at least 20 different compounds were detected in all samples. One sample even contained a mixture of 80 pesticides. The majority of concentrations were in the low ng/L range but concentrations of a few compounds were very high (several micrograms/L) during discharge events as well as during low flow conditions

  12. In California, Primary Care Continuity Was Associated With Reduced Emergency Department Use And Fewer Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Pourat, Nadereh; Davis, Anna C.; Chen, Xiao; Vrungos, Shelley; Kominski, Gerald F.

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of health insurance coverage to millions of Americans through the Affordable Care Act has given rise to concerns over increased use of emergency department (ED) and hospital services by previously uninsured populations. Prior research has also demonstrated that continuity with a regular source of primary care is associated with lower utilization of ED and inpatient services and with better patient satisfaction. We assessed the impact of a policy to increase patient adherence with an individual primary care provider or clinic and subsequent use of ED and hospital services in a California coverage program for previously uninsured adults called the Health Care Coverage Initiative. We found that the policy was associated with increased probability of primary care provider adherence (change in probability = 42%). Furthermore, patients who were always adherent had a higher probability of having no ED visits (change in probability = 2.0%) and no hospitalizations (change in probability = 1.7%) compared to those who were never adherent. Primary care provider adherence can reduce utilization of costly care because it allows patients’ health care needs to be managed within the less-expensive primary care setting. PMID:26153305

  13. Household expansion linked to agricultural intensification during emergence of Hawaiian archaic states.

    PubMed

    Field, Julie S; Ladefoged, Thegn N; Kirch, Patrick V

    2011-05-01

    The Leeward Kohala Field System (LKFS) covering ∼ 60 km(2) on Hawai'i Island is one of the world's best-studied archaeological examples of preindustrial agricultural intensification. Archaeological correlates for households over a 400-y period of intensification of the LKFS (A.D. 1400-1800) indicate that household age, number, and distribution closely match the expansion of agricultural features at both macro- and microscales. We excavated and dated residential complexes within portions of five traditional Hawaiian land units (ahupua'a), two in the central core of the field system and three in the southern margins. Forty-eight radiocarbon dates from 43 residential features indicate an overall pattern of exponential increase in the numbers of households over time. Spatial distribution of these dates suggests that the core of the LKFS may have reached a population saturation point earlier than in the southern margins. Bayesian statistical analysis of radiocarbon dates from residential features in the core region, combined with spatial analysis of agricultural and residential construction sequences, demonstrates that the progressive subdivision of territories into smaller socioeconomic units was matched by addition of new residences, probably through a process of household fissioning. These results provide insights into the economic processes underlying the sociopolitical transformation from chiefdom to archaic state in precontact Hawai'i. PMID:21502516

  14. The Value of Continuous ST-Segment Monitoring in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Bovino, Leonie Rose; Funk, Marjorie; Pelter, Michele M; Desai, Mayur M; Jefferson, Vanessa; Andrews, Laura Kierol; Forte, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Practice standards for electrocardiographic monitoring recommend continuous ST-segment monitoring (C-STM) in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with signs and/or symptoms of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but few studies have evaluated its use in the ED. We compared time to diagnosis and 30-day adverse events before and after implementation of C-STM. We also evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of C-STM in detecting ischemia and infarction. We prospectively studied 163 adults (preintervention: n = 78; intervention: n = 85) in a single ED and stratified them into low (n = 51), intermediate (n = 100), or high (n = 12) risk using History, ECG, Age, Risk factors, and Troponin (HEART) scores. The principal investigator monitored participants, activating C-STM on bedside monitors in the intervention phase. We used likelihood ratios (LRs) as the measure of diagnostic accuracy. Overall, 9% of participants were diagnosed with ACS. Median time to diagnosis did not differ before and after implementation of C-STM (5.55 vs. 5.98 hr; p = 0.43). In risk-stratified analyses, no significant pre-/postdifference in time to diagnosis was found in low-, intermediate-, or high-risk participants. There was no difference in the rate of 30-day adverse events before versus after C-STM implementation (11.5% vs. 10.6%; p = 0.85). The +LR and -LR of C-STM for ischemia were 24.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4, 412.0) and 0.3 (95% CI: 0.02, 2.9), respectively, and for infarction were 13.7 (95% CI: 1.7, 112.3) and 0.7 (95% CI: 0.3, 1.5), respectively. Use of C-STM did not provide added diagnostic benefit for patients with signs and/or symptoms of myocardial ischemia in the ED. PMID:26509726

  15. 78 FR 28465 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Yemen

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, May 13, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-11690 Filed 5-14-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295... Emergency With Respect to Yemen On May 16, 2012, by Executive Order 13611, I declared a national emergency... by the actions and policies of certain members of the Government of Yemen and others that...

  16. Continuity Education in Emergency and Conflict Situations: The Case for Using Open, Distance and Flexible Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Charlotte; Morpeth, Roslyn Louise

    2014-01-01

    Emergency and conflict in countries such as Syria, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan have made us more aware of the long-term serial disruption and psychosocial damage faced by people caught up in emergency and conflict areas. Open, distance and flexible learning (ODFL) has sometimes been employed in these regions to maintain a degree of…

  17. 78 FR 56579 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 10, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-22406 Filed 9-11... Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50...

  18. Emergency response and disease control--a discussion of alternative objectives for zoning in the age of agricultural bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Fonda A

    2007-01-01

    Emergency planning activities in most developed countries have increased as a result of such events as the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and the emergence of the highly pathogenic Asian strain of avian influenza, H5N1. The threat of terrorist activities, combined with advances in science and technology, have resulted in an expanded spectrum of threat for humans, animals, plants and the environment. It is possible that an attack or disease incursion could be so catastrophic and devastating that the resources to combat it would be rapidly overwhelmed. In these cases, it may be necessary to develop an alternative strategy. The author discusses the concept of protective zoning. Protective zoning is a strategy to salvage or protect a smaller segment of an agriculture sector or geographic area when resources are insufficient to protect the entire sector or area. This change in orientation will be extremely controversial and the exact criteria to determine when the situation warrants a change in objective, as well as the precise activities to be performed, must be determined by all stakeholders well in advance. Changes to other activities in current emergency plans may be required. The impact on the recovery phase plans will be significant. PMID:20411521

  19. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by... security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States. As a result, the national emergency declared on... policies, including continuing support for terrorist organizations and pursuit of weapons of...

  20. 76 FR 24791 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, April 29, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-10912 Filed 5-2..., 2008, the President issued Executive Order 13399 and Executive Order 13460, respectively, to take... 13399, and on February 13, 2008, in Executive Order 13460, to deal with that emergency must continue...

  1. 75 FR 32841 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions and Policies of Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 111 / Thursday, June 10, 2010 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Notice of June 8, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions and Policies of Certain...

  2. 78 FR 36079 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions and Policies of Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 78 Friday, No. 115 June 14, 2013 Part III The President Notice of June 13, 2013--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions and Policies of Certain Members of the Government of Belarus and Other Persons To Undermine Belarus's Democratic...

  3. 75 FR 65933 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part V The President Notice of October 22, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 206 / Tuesday, October 26,...

  4. 7 CFR 1730.28 - Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP). 1730.28 Section 1730.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE... § 1730.28 Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS electric program...

  5. The Continuing Saga of Emergency Room Overcrowding: Are We Aiming at the Right Target?

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, Danièle; Pineault, Raynald; Larouche, Danielle; Poirier, Léo-Rock

    2010-01-01

    Emergency room utilization in Canada is considerably higher than in other industrialized countries. Despite significant investments, recurrent emergency room crises persist. Focusing particularly on the situation in Quebec, this paper examines the evolution of Canada's and Quebec's healthcare systems over the past 40 years and identifies the key developments that resulted in today's problems and the challenges that must be addressed. In this historical overview, we argue that emergency room problems arise from past decisions that gave hospitals a predominant role in the healthcare system and partly modified their original mission, as well as from counterproductive funding modalities. Other decisions have also weakened primary care services, which are strongly focused on acute health problems and are poorly coordinated with the rest of the system. Symptomatic remedies have only eased the pressure on emergency rooms, but the real solution is more complex and must address the historical residues that are paralyzing our healthcare system. PMID:21286266

  6. The continuing saga of emergency room overcrowding: are we aiming at the right target?

    PubMed

    Roberge, Danièle; Pineault, Raynald; Larouche, Danielle; Poirier, Léo-Rock

    2010-02-01

    Emergency room utilization in Canada is considerably higher than in other industrialized countries. Despite significant investments, recurrent emergency room crises persist. Focusing particularly on the situation in Quebec, this paper examines the evolution of Canada's and Quebec's healthcare systems over the past 40 years and identifies the key developments that resulted in today's problems and the challenges that must be addressed. In this historical overview, we argue that emergency room problems arise from past decisions that gave hospitals a predominant role in the healthcare system and partly modified their original mission, as well as from counterproductive funding modalities. Other decisions have also weakened primary care services, which are strongly focused on acute health problems and are poorly coordinated with the rest of the system. Symptomatic remedies have only eased the pressure on emergency rooms, but the real solution is more complex and must address the historical residues that are paralyzing our healthcare system. PMID:21286266

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency with respect to significant narcotics traffickers centered in...

  8. Holocene pedogenic change and the emergence and decline of rain-fed cereal agriculture on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zhou, Qunying; Chen, Shu'e.

    2004-12-01

    Multi-disciplinary investigations were carried out in a Holocene eolian loess-soil profile in the centre of the Chinese Loess Plateau at the transition between the arid Mongolian steppe and the semi-arid mixed forest, and also the transitional zone between nomadism and the rain-fed cereal agriculture in history. The cultural remains of an earliest rain-fed cereal agriculture, and also the remains of a Bronze Age nomadic community identified in the profile indicate that the regional emergence and decline of the rain-fed cereal agriculture was closely connected with the change in dust accumulation and soil formation. The climatic proxies derived from the profile show that monsoonal climatic variation, especially precipitation behind the pedogenic change, was ultimately responsible for the cultural and land-use change over the Loess Plateau. Increased precipitation brought on by southeast monsoon, conditioned the domestication and cultivation of millets in the southern part of the region during 8000-7000 a BP at the beginning of the Holocene climatic optimum. Sufficient precipitation and the well-developed fertile soils facilitated the expansion of millets cultivation to the northern Loess Plateau and the southern Mongolian Plateau between 7000 a BP and 3600 a BP. Reduced precipitation and deteriorated land-use conditions because of intensified northwest monsoon at the end of the Holocene climatic optimum caused a regional desertion by the arable farming communities and the invasion of the nomads in the northern part of the Loess Plateau from ca. 3600 a BP during the Bronze Age. Monsoonal climatic change and the resultant pedogenic change dramatically affected the cultural development over the Loess Plateau during the Holocene.

  9. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of Certain Persons to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rule of law in Lebanon, including through politically motivated violence and intimidation; to reassert... there have been some recent positive developments in the Syrian-Lebanese relationship, continuing...

  10. Discrete and continuous water-quality data and hydrologic parameters from seven agricultural watersheds in the United States, 2002-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Lampe, David C.; Capel, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Field and analytical methods; discrete organic and non-organic water-quality data and associated quality-control data; and continuous hydrologic and water-quality parameters are reported for sites in California, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Mississippi, Nebraska, and Washington. The sites were sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program?s Agricultural Chemicals Team study to better understand how environmental processes and agricultural practices interact to determine the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in the environment.

  11. Emerging aspects of nanotoxicology in health and disease: From agriculture and food sector to cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Piperigkou, Zoi; Karamanou, Konstantina; Engin, Ayse Basak; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Docea, Anca Oana; Vynios, Demitrios H; Pavão, Mauro S G; Golokhvast, Kirill S; Shtilman, Mikhail I; Argiris, Athanassios; Shishatskaya, Ekaterina; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an evolving scientific field that has allowed the manufacturing of materials with novel physicochemical and biological properties, offering a wide spectrum of potential applications. Properties of nanoparticles that contribute to their usefulness include their markedly increased surface area in relation to mass, surface reactivity and insolubility, ability to agglomerate or change size in different media and enhanced endurance over conventional-scale substance. Here, we review nanoparticle classification and their emerging applications in several fields; from active food packaging to drug delivery and cancer research. Nanotechnology has exciting therapeutic applications, including novel drug delivery for the treatment of cancer. Additionally, we discuss that exposure to nanostructures incorporated to polymer composites, may result in potential human health risks. Therefore, the knowledge of processes, including absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, as well as careful toxicological assessment is critical in order to determine the effects of nanomaterials in humans and other biological systems. Expanding the knowledge of nanoparticle toxicity will facilitate designing of safer nanocomposites and their application in a beneficial manner. PMID:26969113

  12. Continuing Education, Guideline Implementation, and the Emerging Transdisciplinary Field of Knowledge Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dave

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses continuing education and the implementation of clinical practice guidelines or best evidence, quality improvement, and patient safety. Continuing education focuses on the perspective of the adult learner and is guided by well-established educational principles. In contrast, guideline implementation and related concepts…

  13. Integrating business continuity, emergency preparedness and emergency response: How these seemingly different disciplines can come together to make a comprehensive integrated programme.

    PubMed

    Halsne, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The East Bay Municipal Utility District provides potable water to approximately 1.3 million customers and treats wastewater for approximately 680,000 customers on the eastern side of San Francisco Bay in Northern California. Corporate policy requires the District to create and maintain an active emergency preparedness programme to manage its critical functions during an emergency and protect people, property and the environment. The policy also requires the District to create and maintain a business continuity programme to minimise disruptions of critical business functions and enhance its capability to recover operations. For these programmes to work effectively they must be coordinated. As the programmes at the District have evolved, the natural interrelationship, overlaps and integration have become inherent in their success. To ensure integration and coordination of these programmes, the District has developed management systems to effectively drive towards a seamless overarching programme. PMID:25990976

  14. 76 FR 29141 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ..., 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-12551 Filed 5-18-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Stabilization of Iraq On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest,...

  15. 75 FR 27399 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ..., 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-11884 Filed 5-14-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in...

  16. 76 FR 56631 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 9, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-23609 Filed 9-12-11; 11:15 am] Billing... With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50 U.S.C....

  17. 77 FR 64221 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ..., Washington, October 17, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-25969 Filed 10-18-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by... narcotics traffickers centered in Colombia and the extreme level of violence, corruption, and harm...

  18. 77 FR 13177 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in Zimbabwe

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ..., March 2, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-5509 Filed 3-2-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Respect to the Situation in Zimbabwe #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the President declared a national emergency...

  19. 78 FR 14425 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in Zimbabwe

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ..., 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-05272 Filed 3-4-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Respect to the Situation in Zimbabwe #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... Zimbabwe On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the President declared a national emergency...

  20. 78 FR 62341 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, October 16, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-24523 Filed 10-17-13; 8:45 am... extreme level of violence, corruption, and harm such actions cause in the United States and abroad. The..., corruption, and harm in the United States and abroad. For these reasons, the national emergency declared...

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Actions of Certain Persons to Undermine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Actions of Certain Persons to Undermine the Sovereignty of Lebanon or Its Democratic Processes and... National Emergency With Respect to Actions of Certain Persons to Undermine the Sovereignty of Lebanon or... undermining the sovereignty of Lebanon or its democratic processes or institutions and certain other...

  2. 7 CFR 501.4 - Conformity with signs and emergency directions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conformity with signs and emergency directions. 501.4 Section 501.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  3. 7 CFR 501.4 - Conformity with signs and emergency directions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conformity with signs and emergency directions. 501.4 Section 501.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  4. 7 CFR 501.4 - Conformity with signs and emergency directions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conformity with signs and emergency directions. 501.4 Section 501.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  5. Continual evolution of type 2 diabetes: an update on pathophysiology and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Cornell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a complex and progressive disease that has a major societal and economic impact. The most common form of diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is a multifactorial disease, the pathophysiology of which involves not only the pancreas but also the liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, gastrointestinal tract, brain, and kidney. Novel therapies with mechanisms of action that are different from most existing drugs are emerging. One such class consists of compounds that inhibit renal sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, which is responsible for the bulk of glucose reabsorption by the kidneys. This new class of compounds improves glycemic control independently of insulin and promotes weight reduction, providing an additional tool to treat patients with T2DM. This review discusses the underlying pathophysiology of T2DM, clinical guidelines, and available and emerging treatment options, with particular emphasis on sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. PMID:25931824

  6. Emerging Pedagogies of Linguistic and Cultural Continuity in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickford, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores issues of linguistic and cultural continuity in vernacular education in the south pacific state of Papua New Guinea (PNG). It draws from an ongoing ethnographic study of the introduction of vernacular teaching in elementary and lower primary schooling where English has recently been replaced as the medium of instruction making…

  7. Recombination, decreased host specificity and increased mobility may have driven the emergence of maize streak virus as an agricultural pathogen.

    PubMed

    Varsani, Arvind; Shepherd, Dionne N; Monjane, Adérito L; Owor, Betty E; Erdmann, Julia B; Rybicki, Edward P; Peterschmitt, Michel; Briddon, Rob W; Markham, Peter G; Oluwafemi, Sunday; Windram, Oliver P; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Lett, Jean-Michel; Martin, Darren P

    2008-09-01

    Maize streak virus (MSV; family Geminiviridae, genus Mastrevirus), the causal agent of maize streak disease, ranks amongst the most serious biological threats to food security in subSaharan Africa. Although five distinct MSV strains have been currently described, only one of these - MSV-A - causes severe disease in maize. Due primarily to their not being an obvious threat to agriculture, very little is known about the 'grass-adapted' MSV strains, MSV-B, -C, -D and -E. Since comparing the genetic diversities, geographical distributions and natural host ranges of MSV-A with the other MSV strains could provide valuable information on the epidemiology, evolution and emergence of MSV-A, we carried out a phylogeographical analysis of MSVs found in uncultivated indigenous African grasses. Amongst the 83 new MSV genomes presented here, we report the discovery of six new MSV strains (MSV-F to -K). The non-random recombination breakpoint distributions detectable with these and other available mastrevirus sequences partially mirror those seen in begomoviruses, implying that the forces shaping these breakpoint patterns have been largely conserved since the earliest geminivirus ancestors. We present evidence that the ancestor of all MSV-A variants was the recombinant progeny of ancestral MSV-B and MSV-G/-F variants. While it remains unknown whether recombination influenced the emergence of MSV-A in maize, our discovery that MSV-A variants may both move between and become established in different regions of Africa with greater ease, and infect more grass species than other MSV strains, goes some way towards explaining why MSV-A is such a successful maize pathogen. PMID:18753214

  8. From continuous flow analysis to programmable Flow Injection techniques. A history and tutorial of emerging methodologies.

    PubMed

    Ruzicka, Jaromir Jarda

    2016-09-01

    Automation of reagent based assays, also known as Flow Analysis, is based on sample processing, in which a sample flows towards and through a detector for monitoring of its components. The Achilles heel of this methodology is that the majority of FA techniques use constant continuous forward flow to transport the sample - an approach which continually consumes reagents and generates chemical waste. Therefore the purpose of this report is to highlight recent developments of flow programming that not only save reagents, but also lead by means of advanced sample processing to selective and sensitive assays based on stop flow measurement. Flow programming combined with a novel approach to data harvesting yields a novel approach to single standard calibration, and avoids interference caused by refractive index. Finally, flow programming is useful for sample preparation, such as rapid, extensive sample dilution. The principles are illustrated by selected references to an available online tutorial http://www.flowinjectiontutorial,com/. PMID:27343609

  9. Review of 'emerging' organic contaminants in biosolids and assessment of international research priorities for the agricultural use of biosolids.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley O; Smith, Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    agricultural use of biosolids are provided. In particular, a number of 'emerging' OCs (PFOS, PFOA and PCAs) were identified for priority attention that are environmentally persistent and potentially toxic with unique chemical properties, or are present in large concentrations in sludge, that make it theoretically possible for them to enter human and ecological food-chains from biosolids-amended soil. PMID:20797791

  10. Management of hypertensive emergencies of pregnancy by hydralazine bolus injection vs continuous drip--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Begum, Mosammat Rashida; Quadir, Ehsan; Begum, Anowara; Akhter, Sayeba; Rahman, Khalilur

    2002-01-01

    This prospective study was conducted at Dhaka Medical College and Hospital, Bangladesh. The objective was to identify the time required to control high blood pressure levels in obstetric patients by injection of hydralazine in a bolus intravenous dose vs continuous drip. Seventy-seven patients with eclampsia and hypertensive emergencies comprised the target population. Patients were managed either by hydralazine drip in normal saline (existing official protocol, n = 33) or hydralazine bolus injection (as experiment, n = 44) until diastolic blood pressure fell to 90-95 mmHg. Results were compared. Student's t-test was done for statistical significance, and a P value of <.05 was considered as significant. The groups were similar with respect to maternal age and their mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure at the time of enrollment. Patients who received bolus injection required less time to achieve the therapeutic goal (65.23 +/- 23.38 minutes) than continuous drip (186.36 +/- 79.77 minutes; P <.001). The experimental group also required significantly lower doses (6.68 +/- 1.66 mg) in comparison to that required by control group (20.07 +/- 11.38 mg; P <.001). There was no overshoot hypotension in either group. The data suggest that hydralazine bolus dose is equally safe and more effective than continuous drip in the management of hypertensive emergencies in pregnancy. PMID:12466730

  11. Fever from the forest: prospects for the continued emergence of sylvatic dengue virus and its impact on public health

    PubMed Central

    Vasilakis, Nikos; Cardosa, Jane; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Holmes, Edward C.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes that circulate among humans emerged independently from ancestral sylvatic progenitors that were present in non–human primates, following the establishment of human populations that were large and dense enough to support continuous inter-human transmission by mosquitoes. This ancestral sylvatic–DENV transmission cycle still exists and is maintained in non-human primates and Aedes mosquitoes in the forests of Southeast Asia and West Africa. Here, we provide an overview of the ecology and molecular evolution of sylvatic DENV and its potential for adaptation to human transmission. We also emphasize how the study of sylvatic DENV will improve our ability to understand, predict and, ideally, avert further DENV emergence. PMID:21666708

  12. Continuous improvement and TQM in health care: an emerging operational paradigm becomes a strategic imperative.

    PubMed

    Swinehart, K; Green, R F

    1995-01-01

    Argues that US health care is in a state of crisis. Escalating costs account for 13 per cent of GNP, making health care the third largest industry in the USA, and spending is expected to increase. Claims health-care providers need to control rising costs, improve productivity and flexibility, adopt appropriate technologies, and maintain competitive levels of quality and value. States that TQM may provide an environment that will focus on quality of patient care and continuous quality improvement at all levels of the organization including the governing body, the administrative, managerial, and clinical areas. Any new national or state health-care plan will force providers to be more efficient while maintaining quality standards. Concludes that it will be strategically imperative that health-care providers ranging from family physicians to major medical centres and suppliers ranging from laboratories to pharmaceutical firms establish methods for making rapid continuous improvement and total quality management the cornerstone of the strategic planning process. PMID:10141762

  13. A Simulation Learning Approach to Training First Responders for Radiological Emergencies ? A Continuation of Work

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, Joe E; Cross, Butch; Sanders, Robert Lon

    2008-01-01

    Real-time gaming engines, such as Epic Game's Unreal Engine[1], provide an excellent resource as a training environment. These engines provide an alternate reality that can accurately depict not only real world geometry, but they can also achieve realistic physical effects such as radiation fields and blast physics. The real time photorealistic graphics available through the Unreal Engine add to its applicability to this project's needs. Moreover, this engine provides a very efficient means to modify the game's physics modeling, visual effects, and game play structure to fit the ever-evolving needs of a training curriculum. To this end, we have worked to extend the Unreal Engine to incorporate radiation effects dependent on distance from a radiological source, similar to what one would experience in the real world. In order to help better prepare first responders for using the radiological detection equipment vital for mission success, we have continued work, previously described by Sanders and Rhodes [2], on a Geiger counter readout display being implemented and added to the interface's Heads Up Display (HUD) as well as incorporating a physically accurate model within the engine that will allow the first responder to acclimate themselves to the sounds and possible size of the device. Moreover, the Karma Physics Engine, which works in conjunction with the Unreal Engine 2, accurately simulates fluid physics, blast effects, and basic player movements. It is this physics engine that has been the focus of our continued efforts and has been extended to include realistic modeling of radiological effects.

  14. Anatomy and propagation dynamics of continuous-flux release bottom gravity currents through emergent aquatic vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testik, F. Y.; Yilmaz, N. A.

    2015-05-01

    The anatomy and propagation dynamics of non-Newtonian fluid mud gravity currents through emergent aquatic vegetation were investigated experimentally. The motivation of this study was related to the pipeline disposal of the dredged fluid mud into vegetated wetlands and near-shore areas, during which bottom gravity currents form. Our experimental observations showed that the presence of vegetation affects the propagation dynamics, hence the anatomy, of the gravity currents significantly. Vegetation-induced drag force dominated the resisting forces acting on the gravity current, forcing the current to transition into a drag-dominated propagation phase. During this transition, the gravity current profile evolved into a well-defined triangular/wedge shape. The onset of the fully established drag-dominated propagation phase was marked by the establishment of an equilibrium slope angle for the upper interface of the current with the ambient fluid. This equilibrium/terminal slope angle value remained constant throughout the rest of the drag-dominated propagation phase. Parameterizations for the required propagation distance for the onset of the fully established drag-dominated propagation phase, the array-averaged drag coefficient at the onset of this propagation phase, and the value of the terminal slope angle were proposed. Our experimental observations on the anatomy of gravity currents during the drag-dominated propagation phase were discussed in detail. This study documented significant effects of the vegetation in the propagation dynamics and anatomy of gravity currents, which warrants future detailed studies.

  15. Emerging psychopathology moderates upward social mobility: The intergenerational (dis)continuity of socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2015-11-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is relatively stable across generations, but social policies may create opportunities for upward social mobility among disadvantaged populations during periods of economic growth. With respect to expanded educational opportunities that occurred in Québec (Canada) during the 1960s, we hypothesized that children's social and academic competence would promote upward mobility, whereas aggression and social withdrawal would have the opposite effect. Out of 4,109 children attending low-SES schools in 1976-1978, a representative subsample of 503 participants were followed until midadulthood. Path analyses revealed that parents' SES predicted offspring's SES through associations with offspring's likeability, academic competence, and educational attainment. Interaction effects revealed individual risk factors that moderated children's ability to take advantage of intrafamilial or extrafamilial opportunities that could enhance their educational attainment. Highly aggressive participants and those presenting low academic achievement were unable to gain advantage from having highly educated parents. They reached lower educational attainment than their less aggressive or higher achieving peers who came from a similarly advantaged family background. Growing up with parents occupying low-prestige jobs put withdrawn boys and outgoing girls at risk for low educational attainment. In conclusion, social policies can raise SES across generations, with great benefits for the most disadvantaged segments of the population. However, children presenting with emerging psychopathology or academic weaknesses do not benefit from these policies as much as others, and should receive additional, targeted services. PMID:26439072

  16. Levels and distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in agricultural soils in an emerging e-waste recycling town in Taizhou area, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xianjin; Shen, Chaofeng; Cheema, Sardar Alam; Chen, Lei; Xiao, Xi; Zhang, Congkai; Liu, Wenli; Li, Feng; Chen, Yingxu

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the levels, distributions, profiles and possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural soils around Zeguo, an emerging e-waste recycling town in Taizhou area, China. Concentrations of sixteen USEPA priority PAHs and soil organic matter were analyzed in 59 agricultural soil samples. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 262.6 to 3,420.2 microg/kg, with the average values in a gradually descending order: agricultural soil near e-waste recycling plants and workshops (1,336.0 microg/kg) > agricultural soil in villages with open burning and e-waste recycling activities (945.8 microg/kg) > agricultural soil in other villages (466.5 microg/kg). Analysis of the distribution patterns of the PAHs showed that phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene were the dominant species. The significant correlations among individual, low-molecular-weight (LMW), high-molecular-weight (HMW) and total PAHs and the very similar PAH profiles in the three sampling areas indicated that the PAHs might have come from similar sources. The ratios of Anthracene to sum of Anthracene and Phenanthrene concentrations (Ant/(Ant+Phe)) and fluoranthene to sum of fluoranthene and pyrene concentrations (Flt/(Flt+Pyr)) were calculated and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and the results suggested that an anthropogenic source such as the combustion of a petroleum product or coal during the e-waste recycling process seemed to be the main source of PAHs in the Zeguo agricultural soil. In conclusion, soils taken from Zeguo agricultural areas were considered to be heavily polluted, and the emerging e-waste recycling activities had definite effects on PAH soil concentrations. PMID:20535879

  17. Reticulated Origin of Domesticated Emmer Wheat Supports a Dynamic Model for the Emergence of Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent

    PubMed Central

    Civáň, Peter; Ivaničová, Zuzana; Brown, Terence A.

    2013-01-01

    We used supernetworks with datasets of nuclear gene sequences and novel markers detecting retrotransposon insertions in ribosomal DNA loci to reassess the evolutionary relationships among tetraploid wheats. We show that domesticated emmer has a reticulated genetic ancestry, sharing phylogenetic signals with wild populations from all parts of the wild range. The extent of the genetic reticulation cannot be explained by post-domestication gene flow between cultivated emmer and wild plants, and the phylogenetic relationships among tetraploid wheats are incompatible with simple linear descent of the domesticates from a single wild population. A more parsimonious explanation of the data is that domesticated emmer originates from a hybridized population of different wild lineages. The observed diversity and reticulation patterns indicate that wild emmer evolved in the southern Levant, and that the wild emmer populations in south-eastern Turkey and the Zagros Mountains are relatively recent reticulate descendants of a subset of the Levantine wild populations. Based on our results we propose a new model for the emergence of domesticated emmer. During a pre-domestication period, diverse wild populations were collected from a large area west of the Euphrates and cultivated in mixed stands. Within these cultivated stands, hybridization gave rise to lineages displaying reticulated genealogical relationships with their ancestral populations. Gradual movement of early farmers out of the Levant introduced the pre-domesticated reticulated lineages to the northern and eastern parts of the Fertile Crescent, giving rise to the local wild populations but also facilitating fixation of domestication traits. Our model is consistent with the protracted and dispersed transition to agriculture indicated by the archaeobotanical evidence, and also with previous genetic data affiliating domesticated emmer with the wild populations in southeast Turkey. Unlike other protracted models, we assume

  18. Reticulated origin of domesticated emmer wheat supports a dynamic model for the emergence of agriculture in the fertile crescent.

    PubMed

    Civáň, Peter; Ivaničová, Zuzana; Brown, Terence A

    2013-01-01

    We used supernetworks with datasets of nuclear gene sequences and novel markers detecting retrotransposon insertions in ribosomal DNA loci to reassess the evolutionary relationships among tetraploid wheats. We show that domesticated emmer has a reticulated genetic ancestry, sharing phylogenetic signals with wild populations from all parts of the wild range. The extent of the genetic reticulation cannot be explained by post-domestication gene flow between cultivated emmer and wild plants, and the phylogenetic relationships among tetraploid wheats are incompatible with simple linear descent of the domesticates from a single wild population. A more parsimonious explanation of the data is that domesticated emmer originates from a hybridized population of different wild lineages. The observed diversity and reticulation patterns indicate that wild emmer evolved in the southern Levant, and that the wild emmer populations in south-eastern Turkey and the Zagros Mountains are relatively recent reticulate descendants of a subset of the Levantine wild populations. Based on our results we propose a new model for the emergence of domesticated emmer. During a pre-domestication period, diverse wild populations were collected from a large area west of the Euphrates and cultivated in mixed stands. Within these cultivated stands, hybridization gave rise to lineages displaying reticulated genealogical relationships with their ancestral populations. Gradual movement of early farmers out of the Levant introduced the pre-domesticated reticulated lineages to the northern and eastern parts of the Fertile Crescent, giving rise to the local wild populations but also facilitating fixation of domestication traits. Our model is consistent with the protracted and dispersed transition to agriculture indicated by the archaeobotanical evidence, and also with previous genetic data affiliating domesticated emmer with the wild populations in southeast Turkey. Unlike other protracted models, we assume

  19. The Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (Apex) Model: An Emerging Tool for Landscape and Watershed Environmental Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Gassman, Philip W.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Wang, Xiuying; Saleh, Ali; Osei, Edward; Hauck, Larry; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Flowers, Joan

    2010-06-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was developed by the Blacklands Research and Extension Center in Temple, Texas. APEX is a flexible and dynamic tool that is capable of simulating a wide array of management practices, cropping systems, and other land uses across a broad range of agricultural landscapes, including whole farms and small watersheds.

  20. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 4, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire On February...

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 3, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire On February...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 4, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire On February...

  3. Noninvasive continuous versus intermittent arterial pressure monitoring: evaluation of the vascular unloading technique (CNAP device) in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring cardiovascular function in acutely ill patients in the emergency department (ED) is of paramount importance. Arterial pressure (AP) is usually monitored using intermittent oscillometric measurements with an upper arm cuff. The vascular unloading technique (VUT) allows continuous noninvasive AP monitoring. In this study, we compare continuous AP measurements obtained by VUT with intermittent oscillometric AP measurements in ED patients. In addition, we aimed to investigate whether continuous noninvasive AP monitoring allows detection of relevant hypotensive episodes that might be missed with intermittent AP monitoring. Methods In a German university hospital, 130 ED patients who required AP monitoring were analyzed in this prospective method comparison study. Continuous AP monitoring was performed using VUT (CNAP technology; CNSystems Medizintechnik AG, Graz, Austria) over a 2-hour period. The oscillometric AP values were recorded simultaneously every 15 minutes for the comparison of both methods. For statistical evaluation, Bland-Altman plots accounting for repeated AP measurements per individual were used. Results The mean difference (±standard deviation) between AP measurements obtained by VUT and oscillometric AP measurements was -5 mmHg (±22 mmHg) for systolic AP (SAP), -2 mmHg (±15 mmHg) for diastolic AP (DAP), and -6 mmHg (±16 mmHg) for mean AP (MAP), respectively. In the interval between two oscillometric measurements, the VUT device detected hypotensive episodes (≥4 minutes) defined as either SAP <90 mmHg or MAP <65 mmHg in 30 patients and 16 patients, respectively. In 11 (SAP <90 mmHg) and 6 (MAP <65 mmHg) of these patients, hypotension was also detected by the subsequent intermittent oscillometric AP measurement. Conclusions VUT using the CNAP system for noninvasive continuous AP measurement shows reasonable agreement with intermittent oscillometric measurements in acutely ill ED patients. Continuous AP monitoring

  4. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2L batch reactors and 5L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L(-1) of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology's effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off. PMID:26882523

  5. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application.

    PubMed

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Kim, Sang Yoon; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; van der Putten, Wim H; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2015-10-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over 2 months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues, we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotroph population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Hence, even if agriculture exerts an adverse impact on soil methane uptake, implementing carefully designed management strategies (e.g. repeated application of specific residues) may

  6. Native root-associated bacteria rescue a plant from a sudden-wilt disease that emerged during continuous cropping.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Rakesh; Luu, Van Thi; Weinhold, Arne; Goldberg, Jay; Oh, Youngjoo; Baldwin, Ian T

    2015-09-01

    Plants maintain microbial associations whose functions remain largely unknown. For the past 15 y, we have planted the annual postfire tobacco Nicotiana attenuata into an experimental field plot in the plant's native habitat, and for the last 8 y the number of plants dying from a sudden wilt disease has increased, leading to crop failure. Inadvertently we had recapitulated the common agricultural dilemma of pathogen buildup associated with continuous cropping for this native plant. Plants suffered sudden tissue collapse and black roots, symptoms similar to a Fusarium-Alternaria disease complex, recently characterized in a nearby native population and developed into an in vitro pathosystem for N. attenuata. With this in vitro disease system, different protection strategies (fungicide and inoculations with native root-associated bacterial and fungal isolates), together with a biochar soil amendment, were tested further in the field. A field trial with more than 900 plants in two field plots revealed that inoculation with a mixture of native bacterial isolates significantly reduced disease incidence and mortality in the infected field plot without influencing growth, herbivore resistance, or 32 defense and signaling metabolites known to mediate resistance against native herbivores. Tests in a subsequent year revealed that a core consortium of five bacteria was essential for disease reduction. This consortium, but not individual members of the root-associated bacteria community which this plant normally recruits during germination from native seed banks, provides enduring resistance against fungal diseases, demonstrating that native plants develop opportunistic mutualisms with prokaryotes that solve context-dependent ecological problems. PMID:26305938

  7. Native root-associated bacteria rescue a plant from a sudden-wilt disease that emerged during continuous cropping

    PubMed Central

    Santhanam, Rakesh; Luu, Van Thi; Weinhold, Arne; Goldberg, Jay; Oh, Youngjoo; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2015-01-01

    Plants maintain microbial associations whose functions remain largely unknown. For the past 15 y, we have planted the annual postfire tobacco Nicotiana attenuata into an experimental field plot in the plant’s native habitat, and for the last 8 y the number of plants dying from a sudden wilt disease has increased, leading to crop failure. Inadvertently we had recapitulated the common agricultural dilemma of pathogen buildup associated with continuous cropping for this native plant. Plants suffered sudden tissue collapse and black roots, symptoms similar to a Fusarium–Alternaria disease complex, recently characterized in a nearby native population and developed into an in vitro pathosystem for N. attenuata. With this in vitro disease system, different protection strategies (fungicide and inoculations with native root-associated bacterial and fungal isolates), together with a biochar soil amendment, were tested further in the field. A field trial with more than 900 plants in two field plots revealed that inoculation with a mixture of native bacterial isolates significantly reduced disease incidence and mortality in the infected field plot without influencing growth, herbivore resistance, or 32 defense and signaling metabolites known to mediate resistance against native herbivores. Tests in a subsequent year revealed that a core consortium of five bacteria was essential for disease reduction. This consortium, but not individual members of the root-associated bacteria community which this plant normally recruits during germination from native seed banks, provides enduring resistance against fungal diseases, demonstrating that native plants develop opportunistic mutualisms with prokaryotes that solve context-dependent ecological problems. PMID:26305938

  8. Is emergency management an integrated element of business continuity management? A case study with security professionals in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Frohde, Kenny; Brooks, David J

    2014-01-01

    Emergency management (EM) and business continuity management (BCM) frameworks incorporate various strategic and operational measures. Defined within a number of national and international standards and guidelines, such concepts may be integrated within one another to provide increased resilience to disruptive events. Nevertheless, there is a degree of dispute regarding concept integration among security and EM professionals and bodies of knowledge. In line with cognitive psychology exemplar-based concepts, such disputes may be associated with a lack of precision in communality in the approach to EM and BCM. This paper presents a two-stage study, where stage 1 critiqued national and international literature and stage 2 applied semi-structured interviews with security managers in Western Australia. Findings indicate the existence of contradictory views on EM and its integration within BCM. As such, this study concludes that EM is considered a vital component of BCM by the majority of security managers. However, there is broader dispute regarding its degree of integration. Understanding the underpinnings of such disputes will aid in raising the standards and application of professionalism within security, EM and BCM domains, supporting clarification and definition of professional boundaries. PMID:25193457

  9. Use of real-time and continuous water quality monitoring in Iowa streams to inform conservation strategy in an agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. S.; Kim, S. W.; Davis, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern U.S. are major contributors of nutrients to the Mississippi River Basin and the Gulf of Mexico. Many states within the Upper Mississippi River Basin, including Iowa, are developing nutrient reduction strategies to reduce non-point and point source loads of nitrogen and phosphorous in an effort to reverse degradation of streams and lakes. Quantifying nutrient loads in Iowa and assessing loads transported within Iowa rivers are important components of Iowa's strategy. Nutrient loads estimated with data collected using traditional methods of grab sampling are expensive and have met with limited usefulness to the agricultural community when assessing the effectiveness of implemented conservation practices. New sensor technology is allowing for real-time measurement of nutrient loads in many Iowa rivers. IIHR Hydroscience and Engineering has deployed 22 nitrate-nitrogen sensors in several Iowa rivers to provide accurate measure of nutrient loads. Combined with 17 sensors operated by the USGS, the sensor network captures nutrient transport and loading patterns in rivers across the state. A new Iowa Water Quality Information System (IWQIS) is being developed to display and share the continuous, real-time data. The data reported here will compare and contrast load calculations obtained using continuous monitors with those from a more traditional grab samples. We also will demonstrate how continuous nitrate monitoring informs watershed hydrology and the assessment of conservation practices designed to reduce nutrient loss from farmed fields. Finally, we will establish that the costs of real time continuous monitoring are modest when compared to grab sampling strategies and the costs of implementing conservation on productive lands in the Western Corn Belt of Iowa.

  10. The Effect of Continuity of Care on Emergency Room Use for Diabetic Patients Varies by Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia-Hsiang; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Pu, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Background Although many studies have reported that high-quality continuity of care (COC) is associated with improved patient outcomes for patients with diabetes, few studies have investigated whether this positive effect of COC depends on the level of diabetes severity. Methods A total of 3781 newly diagnosed diabetic patients selected from the 2005 National Health Insurance database were evaluated for the period 2005–2011. Generalized estimating equations combined with negative binomial estimation were used to determine the influence of COC on the overall emergency room (ER) use and diabetes mellitus (DM)-specific ER use. Analyses were stratified according to diabetes severity (measured using the Diabetes Complications Severity Index [DCSI]), comorbidities (measured using the Charlson comorbidity score), and age. Results COC effects varied according to diabetes severity. Stratified analysis showed that the positive effect of COC on DM-specific ER use was the highest for a DCSI of 0 (least severe), with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.49 (95% CI, 0.41–0.59) in the high-COC group (reference group: low-COC group). Compared with the low-COC group, high-quality COC had a significant beneficial effect on overall ER use in younger patients (IRR 0.51; 95% CI, 0.39–0.66 for the youngest [18–40 years] group, and IRR 0.67; 95% CI, 0.59–0.76 for the oldest [>65 years] group) and those with a high number of comorbidities. Conclusions The positive effects of high-quality COC on the treatment outcomes of patient with diabetes, based on the overall and DM-specific ER use, depends on the level of disease severity. Therefore, providing health education to enhance high-quality COC when the disease severity is low may be critical for ensuring optimal positive effects during diabetes disease progression. PMID:26902167

  11. Production of carbonaceous adsorbents from agricultural by-products and novolac resin under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Z; Simitzis, J

    2013-02-01

    Carbonaceous adsorbents based on novolac resin (N) and olive stone biomass (B) in a proportion of 20/80 and 40/60 w./w. N/O were produced. The specimens were cured (c) and pyrolyzed/carbonized (C) up to 1000 °C under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation (N20B-cC, N40B-cC). Commercial activated carbon (AC) was used for comparison reasons. Methylene blue adsorption from its aqueous solutions onto the adsorbents and kinetic analysis were investigated. The specific surface area of adsorbents and the gross calorific values (GCV) of cured materials were determined. The results show that N40B-cC presents lower weight loss and shrinkage but higher methylene blue adsorption than N20B-cC. Pseudo-second order mechanism describes better methylene blue adsorption onto all adsorbents. The specific surface area of carbonaceous and the gross calorific values of cured materials follow the order: AC>N20B-cC>N40B-cC and N100-c>N40B-c>N20B-c>B respectively. Olive stone biomass may constitute a suitable precursor for the production of carbonaceous materials. PMID:23246760

  12. Disease spread models to estimate highly uncertain emerging diseases losses for animal agriculture insurance policies: an application to the U.S. farm-raised catfish industry.

    PubMed

    Zagmutt, Francisco J; Sempier, Stephen H; Hanson, Terril R

    2013-10-01

    Emerging diseases (ED) can have devastating effects on agriculture. Consequently, agricultural insurance for ED can develop if basic insurability criteria are met, including the capability to estimate the severity of ED outbreaks with associated uncertainty. The U.S. farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry was used to evaluate the feasibility of using a disease spread simulation modeling framework to estimate the potential losses from new ED for agricultural insurance purposes. Two stochastic models were used to simulate the spread of ED between and within channel catfish ponds in Mississippi (MS) under high, medium, and low disease impact scenarios. The mean (95% prediction interval (PI)) proportion of ponds infected within disease-impacted farms was 7.6% (3.8%, 22.8%), 24.5% (3.8%, 72.0%), and 45.6% (4.0%, 92.3%), and the mean (95% PI) proportion of fish mortalities in ponds affected by the disease was 9.8% (1.4%, 26.7%), 49.2% (4.7%, 60.7%), and 88.3% (85.9%, 90.5%) for the low, medium, and high impact scenarios, respectively. The farm-level mortality losses from an ED were up to 40.3% of the total farm inventory and can be used for insurance premium rate development. Disease spread modeling provides a systematic way to organize the current knowledge on the ED perils and, ultimately, use this information to help develop actuarially sound agricultural insurance policies and premiums. However, the estimates obtained will include a large amount of uncertainty driven by the stochastic nature of disease outbreaks, by the uncertainty in the frequency of future ED occurrences, and by the often sparse data available from past outbreaks. PMID:23560798

  13. 75 FR 57159 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 16, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-23557 Filed 9-17-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0... Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001... commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic...

  14. 76 FR 58999 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, Or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 21, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-24631 Filed 9-21-11; 2:15 pm] Billing... Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism #0; #0; #0... the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, Or Support Terrorism...

  15. 78 FR 58149 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 18, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-23132 Filed 9-19-13; 11:15... Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism #0; #0; #0... the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism...

  16. 77 FR 42413 - The Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... 17, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-17703 Filed 7-17-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0... Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor On July 22, 2004, by Executive...

  17. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... unrest, and fatal attacks against international peacekeeping forces. Because the situation in or in... to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of January 26, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation...

  18. 7 CFR 58.315 - Continuous churns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND...

  19. Estimating soil water-holding capacities by linking the Food and Agriculture Organization Soil map of the world with global pedon databases and continuous pedotransfer functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C. A.; Jackson, T. J.; Rawls, W. J.

    2000-12-01

    Spatial soil water-holding capacities were estimated for the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) digital Soil Map of the World (SMW) by employing continuous pedotransfer functions (PTF) within global pedon databases and linking these results to the SMW. The procedure first estimated representative soil properties for the FAO soil units by statistical analyses and taxotransfer depth algorithms [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 1996]. The representative soil properties estimated for two layers of depths (0-30 and 30-100 cm) included particle-size distribution, dominant soil texture, organic carbon content, coarse fragments, bulk density, and porosity. After representative soil properties for the FAO soil units were estimated, these values were substituted into three different pedotransfer functions (PTF) models by Rawls et al. [1982], Saxton et al. [1986], and Batjes [1996a]. The Saxton PTF model was finally selected to calculate available water content because it only required particle-size distribution data and results closely agreed with the Rawls and Batjes PTF models that used both particle-size distribution and organic matter data. Soil water-holding capacities were then estimated by multiplying the available water content by the soil layer thickness and integrating over an effective crop root depth of 1 m or less (i.e., encountered shallow impermeable layers) and another soil depth data layer of 2.5 m or less.

  20. Use of antibiotics in animal agriculture & emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones: Need to assess the impact on public health

    PubMed Central

    Mehndiratta, P.L.; Bhalla, P.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread use of antibiotics in human, veterinary medicine and agricultural settings has played a significant role in the emergence of resistant MRSA clones due to selection pressure. MRSA has now become established in human population as well as in various animal species. An animal associated clone, MRSA ST 398 has been reported from animal foods and also from human infections in the community as well as from the health care associated infections. Clonal relationship between strains of animal and human origins are indicators of interspecies transmission of clones. Spread of these organisms may pose a great impact on public health if animal associated strains enter into the community and health care settings. Surveillance is important to correlate the genetic changes associated with their epidemiological shift and expansion to predict its impact on public health. Strict regulations on the use of antibiotics in humans as well as in animal food production are required to control the emergence of drug resistant clones. This article reviews the information available on the role of antibiotics in emergence of MRSA strains, their epidemiological shift between humans and animals and its impact on the public health. PMID:25366200

  1. 18 CFR 376.209 - Procedures during periods of emergency requiring activation of the Continuity of Operations Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... deviation. If the emergency prevents a Transmission Provider from posting information on the OASIS or... of § 358.4(a)(2) of this chapter to post this information on the OASIS or Internet Web site,...

  2. 18 CFR 376.209 - Procedures during periods of emergency requiring activation of the Continuity of Operations Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... deviation. If the emergency prevents a Transmission Provider from posting information on the OASIS or... of § 358.4(a)(2) of this chapter to post this information on the OASIS or Internet Web site,...

  3. 18 CFR 376.209 - Procedures during periods of emergency requiring activation of the Continuity of Operations Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... deviation. If the emergency prevents a Transmission Provider from posting information on the OASIS or... of § 358.4(a)(2) of this chapter to post this information on the OASIS or Internet Web site,...

  4. [Applicability of agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM) in simulating the production and water use of wheat-maize continuous cropping system in North China Plain].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Zheng, You-fei; Yu, Qiang; Wang, En-li

    2007-11-01

    The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) was applied to simulate the 1999-2001 field experimental data and the 2002-2003 water use data at the Yucheng Experiment Station under Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, aimed to verify the applicability of the model to the wheat-summer maize continuous cropping system in North China Plain. The results showed that the average errors of the simulations of leaf area index (LAI), biomass, and soil moisture content in 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 field experiments were 27.61%, 24.59% and 7.68%, and 32.65%, 35.95% and 10.26%, respectively, and those of LAI and biomass on the soils with high and low moisture content in 2002-2003 were 26.65% and 14.52%, and 23.91% and 27.93%, respectively. The simulations of LAI and biomass accorded well with the measured values, with the coefficients of determination being > 0.85 in 1999-2000 and 2002-2003, and 0.78 in 2000-2001, indicating that APSIM had a good applicability in modeling the crop biomass and soil moisture content in the continuous cropping system, but the simulation error of LAI was a little larger. PMID:18260451

  5. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  6. Continuous monitoring of surface CO2 flux and soil gas concentrations in an agricultural soil under the snow cover manipulation experiment in Hokkaido, northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, S.; Yanai, Y.; Nagata, O.; Iwata, Y.; Hirota, T.

    2010-12-01

    In the eastern part of Hokkaido, northern Japan, a timing of snow fall has been getting earlier and soil-frost depth has been decreasing in agricultural land year by year since late 1980. It is reported that the significant decrease in frost depths was due to the early development of snow cover that insulates ground from cold. Agricultural land is usually managed by human operations and so there is a possibility of controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is therefore important how snow and soil frost influence the dynamics of GHGs. CO2 is one of the main GHGs. We continuously and automatically observed CO2 flux above soil or snow surface and CO2 concentration in soil at 10 cm depth, using automatically controlled chambers and CO2 sensors over agricultural land at Sapporo site (141°25’E, 43°05’N) in northern Japan. Observations were conducted from 25 September 2009 to 31 May 2010, with occasional manual observations. We prepared two experimental plots, an untreated control and a snow cover removal plot, to evaluate the influence of soil-frost and snow depth on CO2 dynamics. Acquired automatic data in CO2 flux and soil gas CO2 concentration generally have diurnal variations which had a positive peak in the daytime as affected by soil temperature, except winter period. Rainfall increased CO2 flux and soil gas CO2 concentration. During soil freezing and snow covered period, few CO2 flux was observed. Soil gas CO2 concentration had been increasing during soil freezing period. After soil thawing, CO2 flux had increased and CO2 concentration had decreased temporarily. These phenomena being seen regardless of soil temperature, supportred that snow and soil-frost layer prevent gas diffusion to the air. The gas diffusion coefficient calculated from CO2 flux and soil gas CO2 concentration during soil gas CO2 concentration had been increasing during soil freezing period, was less than about one order of magnitudes of those in other periods. Temperature response

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic... to the Situation in or in Relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo Presidential Documents... Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo On October 27, 2006,...

  8. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to the Situation in or in Relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo Presidential Documents... Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo On October 27, 2006, by Executive Order 13413, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the situation in or...

  9. 76 FR 66597 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, October 25, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-27922 Filed 10... With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo #0; #0; #0... National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the Democratic Republic of the...

  10. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to the Situation in or in Relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo Presidential Documents... Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo On October 27, 2006, by Executive Order 13413, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the situation in or...

  11. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to the Situation in or in Relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo Presidential Documents... Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo On October 27, 2006, by Executive Order 13413, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the situation in or...

  12. 77 FR 65251 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... situation in or in relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and, pursuant to the International... Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, October 24, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-26547 Filed 10... Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo On...

  13. 77 FR 3065 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, January 19, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-1316 Filed 1-19-12; 2:00 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process #0; #0; #0... National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process...

  14. 78 FR 67289 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... HOUSE, November 7, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-27166 Filed 11-8-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by... proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means...

  15. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic... or reexportation of certain goods to Syria. On April 25, 2006, and February 13, 2008, the President... occupation of Lebanon, pursuing weapons of mass destruction and missile programs, and undermining U.S....

  16. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers..., pursuing weapons of mass destruction and missile programs, and undermining U.S. and international efforts... number of foreign fighters bound for Iraq, the regime's brutal war on the Syrian people, who have...

  17. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  18. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  19. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order..., or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  20. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  1. 77 FR 56519 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ..., 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-22710 Filed 9-11-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, the... terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  3. 78 FR 43751 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Register and transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, July 17, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013... Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor pursuant to...

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents... of Charles Taylor On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, the President declared a national... to the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor, pursuant to the International Emergency...

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic... to the Situation in or in Relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo Presidential Documents... Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo On October 27, 2006,...

  6. 78 FR 64149 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Register and transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, October 23, 2013. [FR Doc... With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo #0; #0; #0... National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to the Democratic Republic of the...

  7. Flavimonas oryzihabitans (Pseudomonas oryzihabitans; CDC group Ve-2): an emerging pathogen in peritonitis related to continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis?

    PubMed

    Bendig, J W; Mayes, P J; Eyers, D E; Holmes, B; Chin, T T

    1989-01-01

    A case of peritonitis caused by Flavimonas oryzihabitans (Pseudomonas oryzihabitans; CDC group VE-2) in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is reported. This is the seventh case of infection caused by this organism reported in the English literature and the third reported case of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis caused by this organism; it is the first case of infection of any kind caused by this organism in England. PMID:2913032

  8. 75 FR 45043 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of Certain Persons to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, July 29, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-19080 Filed 7-29-10; 4:15 pm] Billing code... politically motivated violence and intimidation; to reassert Syrian control or contribute to Syrian... positive developments in the Syrian-Lebanese relationship, continuing arms transfers to Hizballah...

  9. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Revised Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA-R) in a Sample of Continuation High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Grana, Rachel; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reifman, Alan; Sussman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    It is now presumed that youth do not move directly from adolescence to adulthood, but rather pass through a transitional period, “emerging adulthood.” The Revised Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA-R) is a self-report instrument developed to examine the attributes of this period. “At-risk” youth appear to enter emerging adulthood developmental tasks at a slightly earlier age than general population youth. In the present study, a 21-item version of the IDEA was administered to a sample of 1676 “at-risk” continuation (alternative) high school students in Southern California. Principal component factor analysis with orthogonal rotation revealed three factors the authors labeled “Identity Exploration,” “Experimentation/Possibilities,” and “Independence.” Overall, the measure demonstrated high internal consistency. Construct validity analyses indicated that the measure was correlated with demographics, risk behaviors, and psychological measures. The authors conclude that the IDEA-R is a useful instrument for measuring emerging adulthood in at-risk populations. PMID:22786874

  10. The Effectiveness of Instructional Methods Based on Learning Style Preferences of Agricultural Students: A Research Tool for Continuous Improvement for Faculty in Career and Technical Education (CTE) Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazarro, Dominick E.; Pannkuk, Tim; Pavelock, Dwayne; Hubbard, Darcy

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to research learning style preferences of agriculture students. Specifically, the objectives which guided the study were: (1) to determine the learning style preferences of undergraduate agricultural students enrolled in a given Soil Science course and (2) to ascertain if there were differences in the students' course…

  11. 7 CFR 1730.28 - Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP). 1730.28 Section... § 1730.28 Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS electric program loan... facilities; (4) A Business Continuity Section describing a plan to maintain or re-establish...

  12. 7 CFR 1730.28 - Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP). 1730.28 Section... § 1730.28 Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP). (a) Each borrower with an approved RUS electric program loan... facilities; (4) A Business Continuity Section describing a plan to maintain or re-establish...

  13. Food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.

    PubMed

    Newell, Diane G; Koopmans, Marion; Verhoef, Linda; Duizer, Erwin; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Sprong, Hein; Opsteegh, Marieke; Langelaar, Merel; Threfall, John; Scheutz, Flemming; van der Giessen, Joke; Kruse, Hilde

    2010-05-30

    The burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. Importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. It has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease, mainly due to contaminated food and water, as a cause of death will decline worldwide. Evidence for such a downward trend is limited. This prediction presumes that improvements in the production and retail of microbiologically safe food will be sustained in the developed world and, moreover, will be rolled out to those countries of the developing world increasingly producing food for a global market. In this review evidence is presented to indicate that the microbiological safety of food remains a dynamic situation heavily influenced by multiple factors along the food chain from farm to fork. Sustaining food safety standards will depend on constant vigilance maintained by monitoring and surveillance but, with the rising importance of other food-related issues, such as food security, obesity and climate change, competition for resources in the future to enable this may be fierce. In addition the pathogen populations relevant to food safety are not static. Food is an excellent vehicle by which many pathogens (bacteria, viruses/prions and parasites) can reach an appropriate colonisation site in a new host. Although food production practices change, the well-recognised food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli, seem able to evolve to exploit novel opportunities, for example fresh produce, and even generate new public health challenges, for example antimicrobial resistance. In addition, previously unknown food-borne pathogens, many of which are zoonotic, are constantly emerging. Current understanding of the trends in food-borne diseases for bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens has been reviewed. The bacterial pathogens are exemplified by those well

  14. Use of Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy for Removal of Dabigatran in a Patient in Need of Emergent Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the ability to remove serum dabigatran using continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in a patient with life-threatening bleeding. Summary. A 77-year-old female with history of atrial fibrillation who takes dabigatran for stroke prevention presented with abdominal pain. Patient was found to have bleeding and possible mesenteric ischemia and was taken to the operating room and had continued bleeding postoperatively. CRRT was initiated for the removal of any remaining dabigatran, with serum dabigatran levels collected to evaluate removal of dabigatran with CRRT. This patient had an increased dabigatran level prior to intervention, which decreased to an undetectable level after use of CRRT. Greater than 80% of the drug was removed due to 4 hours of CRRT and residual kidney function. Reversal of dabigatran is an area of current research with recent FDA approval of idarucizumab for use. Conclusion. Bleeding may occur as a result of the use of dabigatran and change in patient's clinical condition. Use of CRRT may be an option in removing serum dabigatran in the case of a life-threatening bleed. PMID:27313909

  15. Discussion about decision support systems using continuous multi-criteria methods for planning in areas with hydro-basins, agriculture and forests, from examples in Argentine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.; Sanchez, E.

    2012-04-01

    The authors were involved last years in projects considering diverse decision problems on the use of some regions in Argentine, and also related to rivers or rural services in them. They used sets of multi-criteria decision methods, first discrete when the problem included few distinct alternatives, such as e.g. forestry, traditional or intensive agriculture. For attributes they were different effects, classified then in environmental, economic and social criteria. Extending to other gentler areas, such as at South of the Province of Córdoba, Arg., they have balanced more delicately effects of continuous levels of actions, with a combination of Goal Programming linked methods, and they adopted compromises to have precise solutions. That has shown, and in part open, a line of research, as the setting of such models require various kinds of definitions and valuations, including optimizations, goals with penalties in deviations and restrictions. That can be in diverse detail level and horizon, in presence of various technical and human horizons, and that can influence politics of use of terrain and production that will require public and private agents. The research will consider consideration of use and conservation of soils, human systems and agro productions, and hence models for optimization, preferably in such Goal Programming ways. That will require considering various systems of models, first in theory to be reliable, and then in different areas to evaluate the quality of conclusions, and maybe that successively if results are found advantageous. The Bayesian ways will be considered, but they would require a prospective of sets of precise future states of nature or markets with elicited probabilities, which are neither evident nor decisive for the moment, as changes may occur in years but will be very unexpected or uncertain. The results will be lines of models to aid to establish policies of use of territories, by public agencies setting frames for private

  16. Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schake, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

  17. Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

  18. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  19. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  20. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  1. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  2. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  3. From the discovery of the Malta fever's agent to the discovery of a marine mammal reservoir, brucellosis has continuously been a re-emerging zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Godfroid, Jacques; Cloeckaert, Axel; Liautard, Jean-Pierre; Kohler, Stephan; Fretin, David; Walravens, Karl; Garin-Bastuji, Bruno; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Brucellosis is not a sustainable disease in humans. The source of human infection always resides in domestic or wild animal reservoirs. The routes of infection are multiple: food-borne, occupational or recreational, linked to travel and even to bioterrorism. New Brucella strains or species may emerge and existing Brucella species adapt to changing social, cultural, travel and agricultural environment. Brucella melitensis is the most important zoonotic agent, followed by Brucella abortus and Brucella suis. This correlates with the fact that worldwide, the control of bovine brucellosis (due to B. abortus) has been achieved to a greater extent than the control of sheep and goat brucellosis (due to B. melitensis), these latter species being the most important domestic animals in many developing countries. The long duration and high cost of treatment of human brucellosis reduces the efficacy of the therapy. There is no human vaccine for brucellosis and the occurrence of brucellosis is directly linked to the status of animal brucellosis in a region. In this context, the Word Health Organization has defined the development of a human vaccine, besides the implementation of control and eradication programs in animals, as a high priority. The pathogenicity for humans of B. suis biovars 1, 3 and 4 is well established, whereas B. suis biovar 2 seems to be less pathogenic. Indeed, although hunters and pig farmers have repeatably experienced infectious contact with B. suis biovar 2 (found in wild boar and outdoor-rearing pigs in Europe), isolation of B. suis biovar 2 from human samples have only been seldom reported. Marine mammal brucellosis, due to two new proposed Brucella species i.e. B. cetaceae and B. pinnipediae, represents a new zoonotic threat but the pathogenicity for humans of the different Brucella species found in cetaceans and pinnipeds still has to be clearly established. PMID:15845228

  4. Essential Features of Responsible Governance of Agricultural Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sarah; Wickson, Fern

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology continues to generate considerable controversy. We argue that to address this controversy, serious changes to governance are needed. The new wave of genomic tools and products (e.g., CRISPR, gene drives, RNAi, synthetic biology, and genetically modified [GM] insects and fish), provide a particularly useful opportunity to reflect on and revise agricultural biotechnology governance. In response, we present five essential features to advance more socially responsible forms of governance. In presenting these, we hope to stimulate further debate and action towards improved forms of governance, particularly as these new genomic tools and products continue to emerge. PMID:27144921

  5. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake by bio-based residue application: An emerging property of agricultural soils offsetting greenhouse gas balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Ruijs, Rienke; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; Putten, Wim H. vd.; Bodelier, Paul L. E.

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over two months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotrophic population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus spp. may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. Studies are under way to identify the active methane-oxidizers at near atmospheric methane concentrations using PLFA-Stable isotope probing (SIP). While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that the methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Moreover, the addition of

  6. Ecological Models: Agricultural Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agricultural research community is faced with a wide array of complex problems to solve. Continued population increases in developing countries require increased agricultural production, while agroecosystems are being stressed and negatively impacted by greater use of water and agrochemicals. F...

  7. Inservice Workshops on New and Emerging Agriculture/Natural Resources Occupation Instructional Materials. Final Report, January 1, 1980-June 30, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leising, J.; Wilkins, Russell

    This document contains the final report and appendixes from a project to develop resources for use by community college agricultural education instructors in better utilizing computer technology in instruction and to provide inservice workshops to make the instructors aware of available hard- and software. The four-page narrative lists objectives,…

  8. 7 CFR 1945.31 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Emergency Loan Assessment Teams (ELAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.31 FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

  9. Agricultural Education Teacher Leaders' Development of Ownership and Responsibility for the Profession through Participation in Continuing Professional Education Program Planning: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westfall-Rudd, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, planning and delivery of professional development for public school teachers was centralized in state departments of education and universities, with teachers having little input or control over the content. For many years the literature in adult and continuing education has reflected an emphasis on learner participation in program…

  10. The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them. PMID:25311906

  11. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential... or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire On February 7, 2006, by Executive Order 13396, the President declared a national emergency, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  12. 78 FR 8955 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to C[ocirc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ..., February 4, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-02857 Filed 2-5-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Situation in or in Relation to C te d'Ivoire On February 7, 2006, by Executive Order 13396, the President declared a national emergency, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  13. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  14. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  15. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  16. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  17. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  18. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  19. Vocational Agriculture Education. Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eddie; And Others

    To assist teachers in agricultural mechanics in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the mechanical skills and knowlege necessary for this specialized area. Six sections are included, as follow: orientation and safety; agricultural mechanics skills; agricultural power and machinery; agricultural…

  20. 7 CFR 8.7 - Continued use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continued use. 8.7 Section 8.7 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.7 Continued use. (a) The Cooperative... organziations recognized by the Secretary of Agriculture and the Cooperative Extension Service are authorized...

  1. 7 CFR 205.406 - Continuation of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of certification. 205.406 Section 205.406 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC...

  2. Effects of agricultural tillage and sediment accumulation on emergent plant communities in playa wetlands of the U.S. High Plains.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Jessica L; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Daniel, Dale W; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A

    2013-05-15

    Identifying community assembly filters is a primary ecological aim. The High Plains, a 30 million ha short-grass eco-region, is intensely cultivated. Cultivation disturbance, including plowing and eroded soil deposition down-slope of plowing, influences plant composition in depressional wetlands, such as playas, within croplands. We evaluated influences of wetland cultivation and sediment deposition on plant composition in playas embedded within croplands (46 plowed and 32 unplowed) and native grasslands (79) across 6 High Plains' states. Sediment accumulation ranged from 7 to 78 cm in cropland and 1 to 35 cm in grassland playas. Deeper sediments and plowing each decreased wetland plant richness, 28% and 70% respectively in cropland wetlands. Sediment depth reduced richness 37% in small grasslands playas while it increased richness 22% in larger ones, suggesting moderate disturbance increased richness when there were nearby propagule sources. Sediment depth was unrelated to species richness in plowed wetlands, probably because plowing was a strong disturbance. Plowing removed perennial plants from vegetation communities. Sediment accumulation also influenced species composition in cropland playas, e.g., probability of Eleocharis atropurpurea increased with sediment depth, while probability of Panicum capillare decreased. In grassland playas, observed lighter sediment depths did not influence species composition after accounting for wetland area. Sediment accumulation and plowing shift wetland plant communities toward annual species and decrease habitat connectivity for wetland-dependent organisms in cropland playas over 39,000 and 23,400 ha respectively. Conservation practices lessening sediment accumulation include short-grass buffer strips surrounding wetlands. Further, wetland tillage, allowed under federal agricultural conservation programs, should be eliminated. PMID:23500104

  3. Agriculture, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, R.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of remotely sensed data in agriculture are enumerated. These include: predictions of forage for range animal consumption, forest management, soil mapping, and crop inventory and management.

  4. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. 7 CFR 3434.5 - Agriculture-related fields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agriculture-related fields. 3434.5 Section 3434.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HISPANIC-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION PROCESS § 3434.5...

  6. 7 CFR 3434.5 - Agriculture-related fields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agriculture-related fields. 3434.5 Section 3434.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HISPANIC-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION PROCESS § 3434.5...

  7. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  8. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  9. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  10. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  11. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  13. Theme: Emerging Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malpiedi, Barbara J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Consists of six articles discussing the effect of emerging technologies on agriculture. Specific topics include (1) agriscience programs, (2) the National Conference on Agriscience and Emerging Occupations and Technologies, (3) biotechnology, (4) program improvement through technology, (5) the Agriscience Teacher of the Year program, and (6)…

  14. Partnership out of Conflict: The Emerging Relationship of Teacher Learning Representatives and Local Authority Continuing Professional Development Quality Improvement Officers in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrou, Alex; O'Brien, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Union learning representatives have become significant in the Scottish educational system--particularly in response to the McCrone Report, which dealt with the future of continuing professional development (CPD) of Scottish teachers and made significant recommendations in this area. The Educational Institute of Scotland, the teacher union that…

  15. Transforming Agricultural Education for a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2009

    2009-01-01

    During the next ten years, colleges of agriculture will be challenged to transform their role in higher education and their relationship to the evolving global food and agricultural enterprise. If successful, agriculture colleges will emerge as an important venue for scholars and stakeholders to address some of the most complex and urgent problems…

  16. 7 CFR 1945.30 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Emergency Loan Support Teams (ELST).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.30 FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 Emergency Loan Support Teams (ELST). (a) Use of ELSTs. ELSTs are to be used when a disaster...

  17. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans. PMID:27094336

  18. Climate Change and Agriculture in Africa: Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Molly E.; McCusker, Brent

    2008-11-01

    As climate change has emerged as a significant threat, there is much concern about how vulnerable agricultural communities will adapt, particularly as global population continues to rise. Much of the current lack of productivity and economic marginalization of African agriculture arises from global trade regimes that give a competitive advantage to Western farmers, from low use of agricultural inputs, and from a dearth of infrastructure and services for the agriculture sector. For centuries, African farmers have used a wide variety of risk-reducing livelihood strategies, including diversifying income sources, switching crops, and investing in marketing. However, improving their productivity to ``modern'' levels has remained a distant dream, resulting in a continual reduction in investment in the sector over the past five decades.

  19. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  20. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  1. Job Prospects for Agricultural Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the career outlook for agricultural engineers. Explains that the number of bachelor degrees awarded yearly continues to drop, and that the traditional industries that hire agricultural engineers are employing fewer each year. Suggests that future opportunities exist in the areas of information technology, biotechnology, and research. (TW)

  2. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste. PMID:26420088

  3. Emerging phleboviruses☆

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Richard M; Brennan, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyavidae family is the largest grouping of RNA viruses and arguably the most diverse. Bunyaviruses have a truly global distribution and can infect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. The majority of bunyaviruses are vectored by arthropods and thus have the remarkable capability to replicate in hosts of disparate phylogeny. The family has provided many examples of emerging viruses including Sin Nombre and related viruses responsible for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas, first identified in 1993, and Schmallenberg virus which emerged in Europe in 2011, causing foetal malformations in ruminants. In addition, some well-known bunyaviruses like Rift Valley fever and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses continue to emerge in new geographical locations. In this short review we focus on newly identified viruses associated with severe haemorrhagic disease in humans in China and the US. PMID:24607799

  4. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  5. A New Era in Agriculture: Reinventing Agricultural Education for the Year 2020.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Agricultural Education, Alexandria, VA.

    The Reinventing Agricultural Education for the Year 2020 initiative brought together a diverse group of people from across the nation to create a new vision for agriculture education. The group envisioned a system of agricultural education beginning in early childhood and continuing throughout life. The group examined agricultural education's…

  6. BEYOND GENOMICS REVOLUTION: EMERGENCE OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Today, one of the most exciting scientific fields of research is genetics. In view of rapid progress in genome science and its potential applications, genomic biology is expected to be the foremost science of the 21st century. The Human Genome Project (HGP) which began in 1990 in the United States a...

  7. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  8. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations. 1493.5 Section 1493.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS Restrictions and Criteria...

  9. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  10. 7 CFR 3430.312 - Emphasis on sustainable agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emphasis on sustainable agriculture. 3430.312 Section 3430.312 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...

  11. 7 CFR 3430.312 - Emphasis on sustainable agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emphasis on sustainable agriculture. 3430.312 Section 3430.312 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...

  12. 7 CFR 3430.312 - Emphasis on sustainable agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emphasis on sustainable agriculture. 3430.312 Section 3430.312 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...

  13. 7 CFR 3430.312 - Emphasis on sustainable agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emphasis on sustainable agriculture. 3430.312 Section 3430.312 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...

  14. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  15. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  16. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  17. 7 CFR 205.310 - Agricultural products produced on an exempt or excluded operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agricultural products produced on an exempt or excluded operation. 205.310 Section 205.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION...

  18. An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, Holger; Kanitz, Thomas; Engelmann, Ronny; Althausen, Dietrich; Heese, Birgit; Komppula, Mika; Preißler, Jana; Tesche, Matthias; Ansmann, Albert; Wandinger, Ulla; Lim, Jae-Hyun; Ahn, Joon Young; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Seifert, Patric; Hofer, Julian; Skupin, Annett; Schneider, Florian; Bohlmann, Stephanie; Foth, Andreas; Bley, Sebastian; Pfüller, Anne; Giannakaki, Eleni; Lihavainen, Heikki; Viisanen, Yrjö; Hooda, Rakesh Kumar; Nepomuceno Pereira, Sérgio; Bortoli, Daniele; Wagner, Frank; Mattis, Ina; Janicka, Lucja; Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Achtert, Peggy; Artaxo, Paulo; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Prakesh Sharma, Ved; Gideon van Zyl, Pieter; Beukes, Johan Paul; Sun, Junying; Rohwer, Erich G.; Deng, Ruru; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Zamorano, Felix

    2016-04-01

    A global vertically resolved aerosol data set covering more than 10 years of observations at more than 20 measurement sites distributed from 63° N to 52° S and 72° W to 124° E has been achieved within the Raman and polarization lidar network PollyNET. This network consists of portable, remote-controlled multiwavelength-polarization-Raman lidars (Polly) for automated and continuous 24/7 observations of clouds and aerosols. PollyNET is an independent, voluntary, and scientific network. All Polly lidars feature a standardized instrument design with different capabilities ranging from single wavelength to multiwavelength systems, and now apply unified calibration, quality control, and data analysis. The observations are processed in near-real time without manual intervention, and are presented online at http://polly.tropos.de/. The paper gives an overview of the observations on four continents and two research vessels obtained with eight Polly systems. The specific aerosol types at these locations (mineral dust, smoke, dust-smoke and other dusty mixtures, urban haze, and volcanic ash) are identified by their Ångström exponent, lidar ratio, and depolarization ratio. The vertical aerosol distribution at the PollyNET locations is discussed on the basis of more than 55 000 automatically retrieved 30 min particle backscatter coefficient profiles at 532 nm as this operating wavelength is available for all Polly lidar systems. A seasonal analysis of measurements at selected sites revealed typical and extraordinary aerosol conditions as well as seasonal differences. These studies show the potential of PollyNET to support the establishment of a global aerosol climatology that covers the entire troposphere.

  19. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources: Agriculture. Part 1: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornhauser, A. L.; Wilson, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Potential economic benefits obtainable from a state-of-the-art ERS system in the resource area of intensive use of living resources, agriculture, are studied. A spectrum of equal capability (cost saving), increased capability, and new capability benefits are quantified. These benefits are estimated via ECON developed models of the agricultural marketplace and include benefits of improved production and distribution of agricultural crops. It is shown that increased capability benefits and new capability benefits result from a reduction of losses due to disease and insect infestation given ERS's capability to distinguish crop vigor and from the improvement in world trade negotiations given ERS's worldwide surveying capability.

  20. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  1. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  2. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEALTON, ERNEST L.

    TODAY'S SUCCESSFUL FARMER MUST POSSESS THE SKILLS OF A BUSINESSMAN, SCIENTIST, AND MECHANIC TO SURVIVE COMPETITION IN AGRICULTURE, THE LARGEST INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES. THIS COMPETITION HAS CAUSED AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF FARMS AND RANCHES IN AN ATTEMPT TO CURTAIL OPERATIONAL EXPENSES AND TO INCREASE PRODUCTION. WITH THE SCIENTIFIC…

  3. Eye Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of ... light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye (the retina) from its supporting layers. It is ...

  4. Tension on the Farm Fields: The Death of Traditional Agriculture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguamanam, Chidi

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the historic transitions and progressions in agricultural science, this article examines the emergence of the phenomenon of agricultural biotechnology. It identifies pivotal sites of tension between agricultural biotechnology and alternative approaches to agriculture. The article identifies two distinct sources of contemporary…

  5. 7 CFR 701.44 - Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be subject to, the regulations for ACP contracts and the ACP program that were contained in the 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts. 701... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM EMERGENCY CONSERVATION...

  6. 7 CFR 701.44 - Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be subject to, the regulations for ACP contracts and the ACP program that were contained in the 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts. 701... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM EMERGENCY CONSERVATION...

  7. 7 CFR 701.44 - Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be subject to, the regulations for ACP contracts and the ACP program that were contained in the 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts. 701... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM EMERGENCY CONSERVATION...

  8. 7 CFR 701.44 - Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be subject to, the regulations for ACP contracts and the ACP program that were contained in the 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts. 701... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM EMERGENCY CONSERVATION...

  9. 7 CFR 701.44 - Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... regulations for ACP contracts and the ACP program that were contained in the 7 CFR, parts 700 to 899, edition... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) contracts. 701... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM EMERGENCY CONSERVATION PROGRAM...

  10. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789

  11. Deriving Continuous Fields of Tree Cover at 1-m over the Continental United States From the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) Imagery to Reduce Uncertainties in Forest Carbon Stock Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, S.; Basu, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Michaelis, A.; Milesi, C.; Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    An unresolved issue with coarse-to-medium resolution satellite-based forest carbon mapping over regional to continental scales is the high level of uncertainty in above ground biomass (AGB) estimates caused by the absence of forest cover information at a high enough spatial resolution (current spatial resolution is limited to 30-m). To put confidence in existing satellite-derived AGB density estimates, it is imperative to create continuous fields of tree cover at a sufficiently high resolution (e.g. 1-m) such that large uncertainties in forested area are reduced. The proposed work will provide means to reduce uncertainty in present satellite-derived AGB maps and Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) based regional estimates. Our primary objective will be to create Very High Resolution (VHR) estimates of tree cover at a spatial resolution of 1-m for the Continental United States using all available National Agriculture Imaging Program (NAIP) color-infrared imagery from 2010 till 2012. We will leverage the existing capabilities of the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) high performance computing and storage facilities. The proposed 1-m tree cover map can be further aggregated to provide percent tree cover at any medium-to-coarse resolution spatial grid, which will aid in reducing uncertainties in AGB density estimation at the respective grid and overcome current limitations imposed by medium-to-coarse resolution land cover maps. We have implemented a scalable and computationally-efficient parallelized framework for tree-cover delineation - the core components of the algorithm [that] include a feature extraction process, a Statistical Region Merging image segmentation algorithm and a classification algorithm based on Deep Belief Network and a Feedforward Backpropagation Neural Network algorithm. An initial pilot exercise has been performed over the state of California (~11,000 scenes) to create a wall-to-wall 1-m tree cover map and the classification accuracy has been assessed

  12. Psychiatric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Wheat, Santina; Dschida, Dorothy; Talen, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    Psychiatric emergencies are acute disturbances in thought, behavior, mood, or social relationship that require immediate intervention as defined by the patient, family, or social unit to save the patient and/or others from imminent danger. Ensuring the safety of the patient, surrounding persons, and the medical team is the first step of evaluation. Treatment focuses on stabilization of the patient, then on specific symptoms and ultimately the cause of symptoms. There are important legal considerations, particularly regarding involuntary admissions. It is important to debrief with the patient, surrounding family, and the health care team to ensure a continued therapeutic alliance and the emotional health of all involved. PMID:27262012

  13. Teacher Education for Technical Education in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halterman, Jerry J.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses educational qualifications of the technical teacher and identifies emerging trends in education and the agricultural complex. Implications are derived for selection and recruitment of teachers as well as preservice and inservice education. (SB)

  14. Trainers in Continuing VET: Emerging Competence Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jemeljanova, Irina

    2013-01-01

    This publication is based on the outcomes of a Cedefop study on certification processes and competence requirements supporting the professionalisation of in-company trainers. It also builds on Cedefop's work on the changing roles and professional development of VET teachers and trainers (Cedefop, 2010b; Volmari et al., 2009) and the studies…

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart G of... - Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Management Administration's Regional Offices J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940—Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's...

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart G of... - Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Management Administration's Regional Offices J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940—Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's...

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart G of... - Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Management Administration's Regional Offices J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940—Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's...

  18. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart G of... - Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Management Administration's Regional Offices J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940—Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's...

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit J to Subpart G of... - Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Management Administration's Regional Offices J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. J Exhibit J to Subpart G of Part 1940—Locations and Telephone Numbers of Federal Emergency Management Administration's...

  20. AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS OTHER THAN FARMING IN MISSOURI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRIFFITH, WARREN L.

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO--(1) IDENTIFY PRESENT AND EMERGING OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS, (2) DETERMINE EMPLOYMENT TRENDS, (3) RELATE TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS TO STATE REGIONS, (4) DETERMINE CHARACTERISTICS OF THESE OCCUPATIONS, AND (5) DETERMINE CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL BUSINESSES. A SURVEY OF 3,315 FIRMS IN RURAL AREAS OF THE…

  1. Defining an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future. PMID:26470448

  2. 75 FR 64681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 983 Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION..., Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio producers to determine whether they favor continuance of the...

  3. Book review: Darwinian agriculture: How understanding evolution can improve agriculture by R. Ford Dennison

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural research continually seeks to increase productivity while protecting soil, water and genetic resources. The book Darwinian Agriculture: How Understanding Evolution Can Improve Agriculture, by R. Ford Dennison, delivers a thought-provoking view of how principles of ecology and evolution ...

  4. Emergency Preparedness at NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Information to help prepare for an emergency. Includes resources for patients and health care providers to continue cancer care, NCI contacts for grantees, and resources to prepare and update NCI employees and contractors.

  5. Prospects for emerging infections in East and southeast Asia 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Horby, Peter W; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  6. Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  7. Hypertensive emergencies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, C

    1995-11-01

    Hypertensive emergencies are uncommon and physiologically diverse. Consequently, it is difficult for most physicians to develop a familiarity with all the different hypertensive crises and with all drugs available for treating them (Table 4). Clinicians should not agonize over which is the perfect therapeutic agent for a particular emergency, but instead, they should focus on scrupulous monitoring and familiarize themselves with a few agents that will serve in most situations. Generally, these agents will be sodium nitroprusside and nitroglycerin. Vigilant neurologic monitoring is mandatory in all hypertensive emergencies. The early symptoms and signs of cerebral hypoperfusion can be vague and subtle, but if recognized, serious complications of therapy can be avoided. Remember, the patient may still be hypertensive. Avoid acute (during the first hour) reductions in MAP of more than 20% whenever possible; subsequent reductions should be gradual. In patients known to have markedly elevated ICP and who need acute reductions in their BP, serious consideration should be given to direct monitoring of the ICP so that CPP can be maintained within safe limits. In general, oral agents should not be used for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies. Intravenous Labetalol and intravenous nicardipine are not suitable for general use in hypertensive emergencies. In special situations (e.g., perioperative hypertension and subarachnoid hemorrhage), however, they may be employed. Their role may expand with further study. Trimethaphan may be superior to nitroprusside for hypertension complicated by elevated ICP or cerebral dysfunction. Realistically, most physicians will continue to use nitroprusside. Intense neurologic monitoring is more important than the specific agent used. Nitroglycerin is the agent of choice for acute ischemic heart disease complicated by severe hypertension; if it fails, use nitroprusside. For aortic dissection, the combination of nitroprusside and IV

  8. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 3434 - List of Agriculture-Related Fields

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false List of Agriculture-Related Fields A Appendix A to Part 3434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HISPANIC-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION...

  9. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 3434 - List of Agriculture-Related Fields

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false List of Agriculture-Related Fields A Appendix A to Part 3434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HISPANIC-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION PROCESS...

  10. Chemical Emergency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency App Find our Emergency App in the Apple Store or Google Play Aplicación de Emergencias - ahora ... Lifesaving Blood Get Assistance Types of Emergencies Be Red Cross Ready Mobile Apps Workplaces & Organizations Resources For ...

  11. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraception are available: emergency contraceptive pills and the copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD). Emergency contraceptive pills include ... for emergency use, talk to your doctor. The copper-containing IUD (brand name: Paragard) is a small, ...

  12. Viewpoint. Community-Supported Agriculture: Opportunities for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Timothy P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Community Farm of Ann Arbor, Michigan, in the context of critical social, economic, and environmental issues related to agriculture and the rural environment and the emerging movement for community-supported agriculture (CSA) in the United States. Discusses how CSA works, biodynamic agriculture, and opportunities for environmental…

  13. Bats and emerging zoonoses: henipaviruses and SARS.

    PubMed

    Field, H E

    2009-08-01

    Nearly 75% of all emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) that impact or threaten human health are zoonotic. The majority have spilled from wildlife reservoirs, either directly to humans or via domestic animals. The emergence of many can be attributed to predisposing factors such as global travel, trade, agricultural expansion, deforestation/habitat fragmentation, and urbanization; such factors increase the interface and/or the rate of contact between human, domestic animal, and wildlife populations, thereby creating increased opportunities for spillover events to occur. Infectious disease emergence can be regarded as primarily an ecological process. The epidemiological investigation of EIDs associated with wildlife requires a trans-disciplinary approach that includes an understanding of the ecology of the wildlife species, and an understanding of human behaviours that increase risk of exposure. Investigations of the emergence of Nipah virus in Malaysia in 1999 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in China in 2003 provide useful case studies. The emergence of Nipah virus was associated with the increased size and density of commercial pig farms and their encroachment into forested areas. The movement of pigs for sale and slaughter in turn led to the rapid spread of infection to southern peninsular Malaysia, where the high-density, largely urban pig populations facilitated transmission to humans. Identifying the factors associated with the emergence of SARS in southern China requires an understanding of the ecology of infection both in the natural reservoir and in secondary market reservoir species. A necessary extension of understanding the ecology of the reservoir is an understanding of the trade, and of the social and cultural context of wildlife consumption. Emerging infectious diseases originating from wildlife populations will continue to threaten public health. Mitigating and managing the risk requires an appreciation of the connectedness between human

  14. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  15. [Focal point emergency departments].

    PubMed

    Lange, R; Popp, S; Erbguth, F

    2016-06-01

    The number of patients treated in hospital emergency departments in Germany has risen in recent years to approximately 20 million. This escalation also applies to the increasing numbers of patients presenting with neurological symptoms and diseases, which occur in approximately 20 % of emergency patients. In addition to patients with stroke, inflammatory or degenerative central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) disorders who need urgent treatment, more and more patients with nonspecific complaints or conditions attend emergency departments for elective treatment, not least because timely appointments with specialist neurologists in practices could not be obtained. Neurological expertise and presence in emergency departments at the level of specialist standard are therefore indispensable for providing a professional level of treatment, which also corresponds to current legal requirements. The implementation of a generalist emergency physician in Germany, as introduced in some European countries, would mean a retrograde step for neurological expertise in emergency admission management. The discipline of neurology must work together with other emergency disciplines to improve the financing of emergency departments and provide neurologists working there with a substantive curriculum of further and continuing education in emergency-related aspects of neurology. The discipline of neurology has a responsibility to emergency patients within its range of competencies and must, therefore, strengthen and improve its role in healthcare politics and concerning organizational and personnel aspects of neurological emergencies. PMID:27167888

  16. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  17. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-01-01

    Background Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms ‘sustainable’ and ‘intensification’ is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. Scope and Conclusions This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural–environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and

  18. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  19. The Land Grant Colleges of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the following alternatives for the colleges of agriculture: (1) continue the status quo; (2) specialize to serve the needs of a group not currently served by traditional colleges of agriculture; or (3) reduce the dependence on traditional clientele groups through more funding with grants from industries or governmental sources. Provides…

  20. 40 CFR 170.160 - Emergency assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency assistance. 170.160 Section... WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.160 Emergency assistance. If there is reason to... agricultural establishment, to an appropriate emergency medical facility. (b) Provide to that person or...

  1. An online agricultural genetics course.

    PubMed

    Moses, Vivian

    2014-07-01

    In this age of rapidly developing online learning, the advent of a series of talks and supplementary material devoted to genetics in agriculture from Henry Stewart Talks ( http://hstalks.com/main/browse_talks.php?r=776&c=252 ) is welcome indeed. The series is designed for researchers and graduate students in the fields of genetics, plant science, animal science, agricultural science, food science, human nutrition and environmental science, advanced undergraduate students, policy makers and managers in public and private sectors, and continuing professional education/development. PMID:25437233

  2. Interactions of U.S. Agricultural Production with Climatic Stresses and Reactive Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehl, R. J.; Robertson, G. P.; Bruulsema, T. W.; Kanter, D.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rotz, C. A.; Williams, C. O.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural production both contributes to and responds to climatic variations across spatial and temporal continuums. The agriculture sector is responsible for over 6% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, primarily as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases emitted by agricultural activities. Agriculture activities specifically account for about 69% of U.S. N2O emissions, largely as a result of production practices including fertilizer management, cropping systems, and manure management. Fertilizers, together with manure and legume fixation, are the three main inputs of N to US agricultural soils. All three sources have been increasing over the past two decades, while the rate at which they are removed in the form of harvested crops has been increasing at a slightly slower rate. The outlook for continued large areas of cultivation in the U.S., specifically for corn production and supported by biofuel production goals, is a major factor in sustaining demand for N fertilizer. However, rising fertilizer prices and environmental pressures on producers are encouraging increased adoption of emerging technologies such as precision agriculture, cultivars with higher N use efficiency, and enhanced-efficiency N sources such as controlled-release forms or forms with urease or nitrification inhibitors. Crop productivity also responds to climatic changes, as crop growth is affected by variables including heat, drought, ozone (O3), and increased ambient carbon dioxide (CO2). We summarize sources and fates of N for cropping systems and intensive animal systems and assess how climate change will affect crop response to and recovery of N and subsequent cascading effects on Nr. The complex interactions between agricultural Nr and climate present opportunities for mitigation/adaption relative to N use. N fertilizer and manure management, tillage, technology, and decision support models provide significant opportunities for climate mitigation and adaption in U.S. agriculture

  3. The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP): Overview and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Hatfield, J.; Jones, J. W.; Ruane, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) is an international effort to assess the state of global agricultural modeling and to understand climate impacts on the agricultural sector. AgMIP connects the climate science, crop modeling, and agricultural economic modeling communities to generate probabilistic projections of current and future climate impacts. The goals of AgMIP are to improve substantially the characterization of risk of hunger and world food security due to climate change and to enhance adaptation capacity in both developing and developed countries. This presentation will describe the general approach of AgMIP and highlight its findings and activities. AgMIP crop model intercomparisons have been established for wheat (27 models participating), maize (25 models), and rice (15+ models), and are being established for sugarcane, soybean, sorghum/millet, and peanut. In coordination with these pilots, methodologies to utilize weather generators and downscaled climate simulations for agricultural applications are under development. An AgMIP global agricultural economics model intercomparison with participation of 11 international groups is ongoing, and a number of global biophysical models are currently being evaluated for future climate impacts on agricultural lands both as part of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) and for contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). AgMIP is also organizing regional research efforts, and has already held workshops in South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Europe, and North America. Outcomes from these meetings have informed AgMIP activities, and 10 research teams from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have been selected for project funding. Additional activities are planned for Australia and East Asia. As the AgMIP research community continues to work towards its goals, three key cross-cutting scientific challenges have emerged and are being

  4. Emergency contraception

    MedlinePlus

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B ... Emergency contraception most likely prevents pregnancy in the same way as regular birth control pills: By preventing or delaying ...

  5. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ114 CONTRACEPTION Emergency Contraception • What is emergency contraception (EC)? • How does EC work? • What are the different types of EC? • What is the most ...

  6. Radiation Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... day from sources such as sunlight. A radiation emergency would involve larger amounts of radiation and could ... are no guarantees of safety during a radiation emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You ...

  7. Heat emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Heat emergencies or illnesses are caused by exposure to extreme heat and sun. Heat illnesses can be prevented by ... to regulate the temperature, and make a heat emergency more likely: Drinking alcohol before or during exposure ...

  8. Emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Emerging Technologies thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to help individuals establish technology areas that have national and commercial impact, and are outside the scope of the existing thrust areas. We continue to encourage innovative ideas that bring quality results to existing programs. We also take as our mission the encouragement of investment in new technology areas that are important to the economic competitiveness of this nation. In fiscal year 1992, we have focused on nine projects, summarized in this report: (1) Tire, Accident, Handling, and Roadway Safety; (2) EXTRANSYT: An Expert System for Advanced Traffic Management; (3) Odin: A High-Power, Underwater, Acoustic Transmitter for Surveillance Applications; (4) Passive Seismic Reservoir Monitoring: Signal Processing Innovations; (5) Paste Extrudable Explosive Aft Charge for Multi-Stage Munitions; (6) A Continuum Model for Reinforced Concrete at High Pressures and Strain Rates: Interim Report; (7) Benchmarking of the Criticality Evaluation Code COG; (8) Fast Algorithm for Large-Scale Consensus DNA Sequence Assembly; and (9) Using Electrical Heating to Enhance the Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Soil.

  9. Vocational Agriculture Computer Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…

  10. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USAGE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, which summarizes the use of agricultural chemicals is issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) as part of its series on Agricultural Chemical Usage. Other publications in the series present statistics for on-farm agricultural chemical usage for f...

  11. Emergent Expertise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  12. Childhood Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Tracker Save Your Life in the ER? Abdominal Pain Resources Home Safety Checklist ACEP Coloring Book Download the Coloring Book » Emergency Care For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency Physicians 2016 Privacy Policy Terms of Use

  13. Long-term fate of nitrate fertilizer in agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    Sebilo, Mathieu; Mayer, Bernhard; Nicolardot, Bernard; Pinay, Gilles; Mariotti, André

    2013-01-01

    Increasing diffuse nitrate loading of surface waters and groundwater has emerged as a major problem in many agricultural areas of the world, resulting in contamination of drinking water resources in aquifers as well as eutrophication of freshwaters and coastal marine ecosystems. Although empirical correlations between application rates of N fertilizers to agricultural soils and nitrate contamination of adjacent hydrological systems have been demonstrated, the transit times of fertilizer N in the pedosphere–hydrosphere system are poorly understood. We investigated the fate of isotopically labeled nitrogen fertilizers in a three–decade-long in situ tracer experiment that quantified not only fertilizer N uptake by plants and retention in soils, but also determined to which extent and over which time periods fertilizer N stored in soil organic matter is rereleased for either uptake in crops or export into the hydrosphere. We found that 61–65% of the applied fertilizers N were taken up by plants, whereas 12–15% of the labeled fertilizer N were still residing in the soil organic matter more than a quarter century after tracer application. Between 8–12% of the applied fertilizer had leaked toward the hydrosphere during the 30-y observation period. We predict that additional exports of 15N-labeled nitrate from the tracer application in 1982 toward the hydrosphere will continue for at least another five decades. Therefore, attempts to reduce agricultural nitrate contamination of aquatic systems must consider the long-term legacy of past applications of synthetic fertilizers in agricultural systems and the nitrogen retention capacity of agricultural soils. PMID:24145428

  14. Long-term fate of nitrate fertilizer in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Sebilo, Mathieu; Mayer, Bernhard; Nicolardot, Bernard; Pinay, Gilles; Mariotti, André

    2013-11-01

    Increasing diffuse nitrate loading of surface waters and groundwater has emerged as a major problem in many agricultural areas of the world, resulting in contamination of drinking water resources in aquifers as well as eutrophication of freshwaters and coastal marine ecosystems. Although empirical correlations between application rates of N fertilizers to agricultural soils and nitrate contamination of adjacent hydrological systems have been demonstrated, the transit times of fertilizer N in the pedosphere-hydrosphere system are poorly understood. We investigated the fate of isotopically labeled nitrogen fertilizers in a three-decade-long in situ tracer experiment that quantified not only fertilizer N uptake by plants and retention in soils, but also determined to which extent and over which time periods fertilizer N stored in soil organic matter is rereleased for either uptake in crops or export into the hydrosphere. We found that 61-65% of the applied fertilizers N were taken up by plants, whereas 12-15% of the labeled fertilizer N were still residing in the soil organic matter more than a quarter century after tracer application. Between 8-12% of the applied fertilizer had leaked toward the hydrosphere during the 30-y observation period. We predict that additional exports of (15)N-labeled nitrate from the tracer application in 1982 toward the hydrosphere will continue for at least another five decades. Therefore, attempts to reduce agricultural nitrate contamination of aquatic systems must consider the long-term legacy of past applications of synthetic fertilizers in agricultural systems and the nitrogen retention capacity of agricultural soils. PMID:24145428

  15. [Improving emergency department organisation].

    PubMed

    Yordanov, Youri; Beltramini, Alexandra; Debuc, Erwan; Pateron, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Emergency departments use has been constantly increasing over the world. Overcrowding is defined as a situation which compromises patient safety because of delayed cares. This situation is often reached. Emergency departments have to continuously improve their organization to be able to ensure the same quality of care to a higher number of patients. Thus a good organization is essential: it doesn't always avoid overcrowding. The rest of the hospital has to be involved in this process to ensure efficiency. We examine the various interventions and procedures that can be found in medical literature for improving patients flow and management in emergency departments. PMID:25842427

  16. 7 CFR 318.13-12 - Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 318.13-12 Section 318.13-12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES...

  17. 7 CFR 3100.46 - Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. 3100.46 Section 3100.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Enhancement, Protection,...

  18. 7 CFR 3100.46 - Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. 3100.46 Section 3100.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Enhancement, Protection,...

  19. 7 CFR 3017.635 - May the Department of Agriculture settle a debarment or suspension action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May the Department of Agriculture settle a debarment or suspension action? 3017.635 Section 3017.635 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. 7 CFR 318.13-12 - Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 318.13-12 Section 318.13-12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES...

  1. 7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE...

  2. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  3. 7 CFR 3100.46 - Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. 3100.46 Section 3100.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Enhancement, Protection,...

  4. 7 CFR 3100.46 - Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. 3100.46 Section 3100.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Enhancement, Protection,...

  5. 7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE...

  6. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  7. 7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE...

  8. 7 CFR 318.13-12 - Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 318.13-12 Section 318.13-12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES...

  9. 7 CFR 318.13-12 - Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 318.13-12 Section 318.13-12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES...

  10. 7 CFR 319.8-20 - Importations by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importations by the Department of Agriculture. 319.8-20 Section 319.8-20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton...

  11. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  12. 7 CFR 3100.46 - Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. 3100.46 Section 3100.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Enhancement, Protection,...

  13. 7 CFR 318.13-12 - Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 318.13-12 Section 318.13-12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES...

  14. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  15. 7 CFR 319.8-20 - Importations by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importations by the Department of Agriculture. 319.8-20 Section 319.8-20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton...

  16. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  17. Identifying Technical Content Training Needs of Georgia Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peake, Jason B.; Duncan, Dennis W.; Ricketts, John C.

    2007-01-01

    The continuing trend toward increasing diversity of curriculum offered within secondary agricultural education programs is driving a change in pre-service and in-service technical training for agriculture teachers. This study looks at agriculture teachers' perceived importance of, and competence in, traditional technical competencies such as…

  18. 44 CFR 351.26 - The United States Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true The United States Department of Agriculture. 351.26 Section 351.26 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... PREPAREDNESS Interagency Assignments § 351.26 The United States Department of Agriculture. (a) Assist FEMA...

  19. 44 CFR 351.26 - The United States Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The United States Department of Agriculture. 351.26 Section 351.26 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... PREPAREDNESS Interagency Assignments § 351.26 The United States Department of Agriculture. (a) Assist FEMA...

  20. 44 CFR 351.26 - The United States Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The United States Department of Agriculture. 351.26 Section 351.26 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... PREPAREDNESS Interagency Assignments § 351.26 The United States Department of Agriculture. (a) Assist FEMA...

  1. 44 CFR 351.26 - The United States Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The United States Department of Agriculture. 351.26 Section 351.26 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... PREPAREDNESS Interagency Assignments § 351.26 The United States Department of Agriculture. (a) Assist FEMA...

  2. 44 CFR 351.26 - The United States Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The United States Department of Agriculture. 351.26 Section 351.26 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... PREPAREDNESS Interagency Assignments § 351.26 The United States Department of Agriculture. (a) Assist FEMA...

  3. Agricultural Aircraft for Site-Specific Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a convenient platform to aid in precision agriculture, in which pesticide, fertilizer or other field inputs are applied only where they are needed. This saves on chemical and farm resources, and reduces environmental loading. Remote sensing is used to spot areas of the ...

  4. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  5. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  6. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.55 Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. Section 25(a)(1) of FIFRA instructs...

  7. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.55 Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. Section 25(a)(1) of FIFRA instructs...

  8. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.55 Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. Section 25(a)(1) of FIFRA instructs...

  9. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.55 Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. Section 25(a)(1) of FIFRA instructs...

  10. Agricultural Production. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in agricultural production: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed to deal with…

  11. Emergency contraception

    PubMed Central

    Langille, Donald B.; Allen, Michael; Whelan, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the extent to which Nova Scotian FPs prescribe and provide emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and to explore their knowledge of and attitudes toward ECPs. Design Survey of Nova Scotian FPs using a modified Dillman method. Setting All regions of Nova Scotia. Participants Family physicians registered with Dalhousie University’s Division of Continuing Medical Education. Main outcome measures Sex differences in the provision of ECPs and knowledge and attitudes about the ECP Plan B. Results Of 913 eligible FPs, 155 (17.0%) participated in the survey. Respondents resembled the sampling frame closely. Most physicians (64.0%) had prescribed ECPs in the previous year (mean number of prescriptions, 4.92); only 12.9% provided ECPs in advance of need. Knowledge about Plan B was quite good, except for knowledge of the time frame for potential effectiveness; only 29.2% of respondents answered that question correctly. Respondents generally supported nonprescription availability of ECPs, but 25.0% of FPs were concerned that this could lead to less use of more effective methods of contraception, and 39.2% believed that it would encourage repeat use. Younger FPs provided ECPs more often than their older colleagues, while female respondents had better knowledge about Plan B. In multivariate analysis being younger than 40 years was marginally associated with prescribing Plan B and with prescribing any form of ECP. Conclusion Most Nova Scotian FPs provided ECPs and had generally good knowledge about and attitudes toward providing such contraception without prescription. However, FPs were poorly informed about the length of time that Plan B can be effective, which could potentially affect use when patients consult several days after unprotected sex. There were some concerns about nonprescription availability of ECPs, which could have implications for recommending it to patients. Rarely were ECPs prescribed for advance use, which might represent a lost

  12. Biotechnology Enters Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Points out that the agriculture industry is changing and that vocational agriculture students must learn more science than before to be prepared. Iowa formed groups of educators and business representatives to advise on which curricula should be funded. (JOW)

  13. Strategies for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

  14. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  15. 46 CFR 131.840 - Emergency lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency lighting. 131.840 Section 131.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.840 Emergency lighting. Emergency lighting must be...

  16. 46 CFR 131.840 - Emergency lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency lighting. 131.840 Section 131.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.840 Emergency lighting. Emergency lighting must be...

  17. 46 CFR 131.840 - Emergency lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency lighting. 131.840 Section 131.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.840 Emergency lighting. Emergency lighting must be...

  18. 46 CFR 131.840 - Emergency lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency lighting. 131.840 Section 131.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.840 Emergency lighting. Emergency lighting must be...

  19. 46 CFR 131.840 - Emergency lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency lighting. 131.840 Section 131.840 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.840 Emergency lighting. Emergency lighting must be...

  20. Is rangeland agriculture sustainable?

    PubMed

    Heitschmidt, R K; Vermeire, L T; Grings, E E

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the sustainability of rangeland agriculture (i.e., managed grazing) on a world-wide basis, with a focus on North America. Sustainability is addressed on three fronts: 1) ecological, 2) economic, and 3) social acceptance. Based on previous and on-going research, we suggest that employment of science-based rangeland grazing management strategies and tactics can ensure ecological sustainability. The formidable challenge in employing such technology centers around the need to balance efficiency of solar energy capture and subsequent harvest efficiencies across an array of highly spatially and temporally variable vegetation growing conditions using animals that graze selectively. Failure to meet this fundamental challenge often accelerates rangeland desertification processes, and in some instances, enhances rate and extent of the invasion of noxious weeds. We also suggest that the fundamental reason that ecologically sound grazing management technologies are often not employed in the management of grazed ecological systems is because social values drive management decisions more so than ecological science issues. This is true in both well-developed societies with substantial economic resources and in less-developed societies with few economic resources. However, the social issues driving management are often entirely different, ranging from multiple-use issues in developed countries to human day-to-day survival issues in poorly developed countries. We conclude that the long-term sustainability of rangeland agriculture in 1) developed societies depends on the ability of rangeland agriculturalists to continually respond in a dynamic, positive, proactive manner to ever-changing social values and 2) less-developed societies on their ability to address the ecological and social consequences arising from unsustainable human populations before the adoption of science-based sustainable rangeland management technologies. PMID:15471792

  1. RNAi technologies in agricultural biotechnology: The Toxicology Forum 40th Annual Summer Meeting.

    PubMed

    Sherman, James H; Munyikwa, Tichafa; Chan, Stephen Y; Petrick, Jay S; Witwer, Kenneth W; Choudhuri, Supratim

    2015-11-01

    During the 40th Annual Meeting of The Toxicology Forum, the current and potential future science, regulations, and politics of agricultural biotechnology were presented and discussed. The meeting session described herein focused on the technology of RNA interference (RNAi) in agriculture. The general process by which RNAi works, currently registered RNAi-based plant traits, example RNAi-based traits in development, potential use of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) as topically applied pesticide active ingredients, research related to the safety of RNAi, biological barriers to ingested dsRNA, recent regulatory RNAi science reviews, and regulatory considerations related to the use of RNAi in agriculture were discussed. Participants generally agreed that the current regulatory framework is robust and appropriate for evaluating the safety of RNAi employed in agricultural biotechnology and were also supportive of the use of RNAi to develop improved crop traits. However, as with any emerging technology, the potential range of future products, potential future regulatory frameworks, and public acceptance of the technology will continue to evolve. As such, continuing dialogue was encouraged to promote education of consumers and science-based regulations. PMID:26361858

  2. Contextual Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald

    The concept of contextual emergence has been proposed as a nonreductive, yet well-defined relation between different levels of description of physical and other systems. It yields a formally sound and empirically applicable procedure to translate between descriptive levels in an overall consistent fashion. This will be discussed for the contextual emergence of mental states from a neural level of description.

  3. LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT FOR RESTORATION OF AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of CEAP, we conducted a review of the available literature on landscape management to achieve improvement of water quality, water quantity, soil quality, and air quality in agricultural systems. At least 15 general principles emerged from this review. These principles wil...

  4. Agriculture and the Community: The Sociological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, William D.; Campbell, Rex R.

    Emergence of a dual agricultural system, need for sophisticated knowledge and equipment, declining importance of labor, and geographic and organizational concentration of the production and processing of certain commodities are creating changes in rural communities. While some changes will have negative social/economic impacts, the importance of…

  5. Energy use in agriculture and the articulation of modes of production in Zimbabwe

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, D.

    1986-01-01

    The political economy of energy utilization in Zimbabwe's agricultural sector is analyzed. The geography of agricultural energy use is assessed by tracing the articulation of modes of production through time. It is argued that in the production process, labor mediates between humans and the environment. The level of development of the productive forces indicates the intensity that labor applies energy to a given space. Production relations influence the rate and direction of energy flows. Hence, energy is a fundamental component of a mode of production. The linkage between energy use in farming and the articulation of modes of production is made through the conceptualization of distinct agricultural production systems consisting of social relations and productive forces, the relationship to the state, and access to natural resources. After independence came changes in state-peasant relations and industrialization of African production in high potential reserves. Changing social relations on settler farms has caused a rapid displacement of labor by capital at a time when national job creation is dangerously low. In the absence of significant land transfers, a contradictory distribution of agricultural energy resources will continue. New forms of uneven agricultural development are emerging.

  6. GUIDELINES FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    AREAS OF TRAINING WHICH ARE OFFERED IN THE VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENTS OF MARYLAND ARE PRESENTED IN THIS DOCUMENT. AGRICULTURE TEACHERS AND ADVISORY GROUPS MAY SELECT AREAS OF TRAINING FROM THE TOPICAL OUTLINE OR ADD NEW AREAS AS NEEDED IN THE LOCAL INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM. PHILOSOPHY, SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES, GROUPS SERVED, AGRICULTURAL TRENDS…

  7. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  8. Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational Services.

    Designed for use in the Connecticut Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers, this curriculum provides exploratory and specialization units for four major areas of agriculture. These are Agriculture Mechanics, Animal Science, Natural Resources, and Plant Science. The exploratory units are required for grades 9 and 10, while the specialization units…

  9. Agriculture, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…

  10. Agricultural Structures, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

    This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

  11. Dutch Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, The Hauge.

    Agricultural Education in the Netherlands is categorized as Scientific, Higher Secondary, Middle Secondary, and Lower Secondary. Scientific education is given at the agricultural university which has a 6- or 7-year curriculum. Higher secondary education is given at agricultural and horticultural colleges with a 3- to 4-year curriculum. Middle…

  12. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  13. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  14. Chapter 3: Cropland Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, cropland agriculture resulted in total emissions of approximately 209 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases (GHG). Cropland agriculture is responsible for almost half (46%) of all emissions from the agricultural sector. Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) emissions from c...

  15. Agricultural ponds support amphibian populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Richardson, W.B.; Reineke, D.M.; Gray, B.R.; Parmelee, J.R.; Weick, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In some agricultural regions, natural wetlands are scarce, and constructed agricultural ponds may represent important alternative breeding habitats for amphibians. Properly managed, these agricultural ponds may effectively increase the total amount of breeding habitat and help to sustain populations. We studied small, constructed agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota to assess their value as amphibian breeding sites. Our study examined habitat factors associated with amphibian reproduction at two spatial scales: the pond and the landscape surrounding the pond. We found that small agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota provided breeding habitat for at least 10 species of amphibians. Species richness and multispecies reproductive success were more closely associated with characteristics of the pond (water quality, vegetation, and predators) compared with characteristics of the surrounding landscape, but individual species were associated with both pond and landscape variables. Ponds surrounded by row crops had similar species richness and reproductive success compared with natural wetlands and ponds surrounded by nongrazed pasture. Ponds used for watering livestock had elevated concentrations of phosphorus, higher turbidity, and a trend toward reduced amphibian reproductive success. Species richness was highest in small ponds, ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) present, and lacking fish. Multispecies reproductive success was best in ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, less emergent vegetation, and lacking fish. Habitat factors associated with higher reproductive success varied among individual species. We conclude that small, constructed farm ponds, properly managed, may help sustain amphibian populations in landscapes where natural wetland habitat is rare. We recommend management actions such as limiting livestock access to the pond to improve water quality, reducing nitrogen input, and

  16. Career Preparation Programs for Potential Agribusinessmen, Agricultural Agency Employees, and Agricultural Instructors. Final Report. July 1, 1976-June 30, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    The purpose of the project was to develop innovative agricultural education programs within the comprehensive high school setting in selected school districts in the state of Mississippi, with the project's second year (described here) focusing on continuing existing specialized career preparation program in agriculture and continuing to orient…

  17. Agro-energy: Redefining energy and agriculture in Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.T.

    1995-11-01

    Recent advantages in technology are leading to increased interest in agriculture as a source of energy. The replacement of fossil fuels with biomass is quite feasible in the near future. Investigation of renewable energy in Iowa has centered around the use of agricultural crops to generate electrical energy. Switchgrass, a native grass of Iowa, is one of the most promising biomass producers. Chariton Valley RC&D Inc., a USDA sponsored rural development organization based in southern Iowa and IES Utilities, a major Iowa energy company, are leading a statewide coalition of public and private interests to merge Iowa`s agricultural potential with long-term energy requirements to develop a locally sustainable source of biomass fuel. Many of the sois of southern Iowa are best suited to the production of forages and trees. Farm program changes, and the eventual end of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) make adding value and establishing long term markets for perennial forage crops vital for the area`s continued prosperity. Ten percent of the total land in the four county Chariton Valley area is in CRP -- 140,000 acres. Thousands more acres of marginal lands not in CRP, have limited production potential and would be available for biomass production. The associated benefits to water quality, sustainable soil capabilities and the local economy are phenomenal. IES Utilities is working with Iowa State University, R.W. Beck and other private industry interests to identify and develop the technology to convert agricultural crops to energy. The long term plan calls for 35 MW of electrical power production using a dedicated supply of biomass to be established in southern Iowa. This facility would use approximately 30,000 to 40,000 acres. Co-firing biomass with coal appears to provide a short cut to commercial use of biomass and will enhance interest in emerging advanced technologies.

  18. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    PubMed

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  19. Urologic Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Ludvigson, Adam E; Beaule, Lisa T

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of urologic emergencies are incorporated into the basic training of all urology residents. In institutions without access to urologic services, it is usually left to the General Surgeon or Emergency Medicine physician to provide timely care. This article discusses diagnoses that are important to recognize and treatment that is practically meaningful for the non-Urologist to identify and treat. The non-Urology provider, after reading this article, will have a better understanding and a higher comfort level with treating patients with urologic emergencies. PMID:27261785

  20. A STUDY OF NON-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS IN KANSAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Board for Vocational Education, Topeka.

    TO ASSIST IN DEVELOPING EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS, A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO IDENTIFY OCCUPATIONS, WHICH WERE EMERGING AND DEVELOPING, DECREASING IN IMPORTANCE, AND IN NEED OF EMPLOYEES WITH SPECIAL TRAINING. A STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLE OF 495 AGRICULTURAL BUSINESSES WAS INTERVIEWED BY A TRAINED TEAM USING AN…

  1. Pesticides in Air: New Challenges in Agricultural Air Quality Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As agricultural and urban communities have become more intertwined, and the average size of agricultural production operations have increased substantially, issues of air quality have emerged as an area of increasing regulatory pressure for farmers in many countries. The science of measuring emissi...

  2. Combining agricultural practices key to elevating soil microbial activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concept of soil health is an emerging topic in applied ecology, specifically as it pertains to the agriculture, which utilizes approximately 40% of earth’s land. However, rigorous quantification of soil health and the services provided by soil organisms to support agriculture production (e.g., n...

  3. Rheumatologic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-González, Luis Arturo

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatological conditions can sometimes present as emergencies. These can occur due to the disease process or infection; contrary to what many people think, rheumatologic emergencies like a pain, rheumatic crisis, or attack gout do not compromise the patient's life. This article mentioned only true emergencies: catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (cAPS), kidney-lung syndrome, central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis, anti-Ro syndrome (neonatal lupus), and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). The management of above emergencies includes critical care, immunosuppression when indicated, and use of a diagnostic flowchart as well as fast laboratory profile for making decisions. Anticoagulants have to be used in the management of antiphospholipid syndrome. A good understanding of these conditions is of paramount importance for proper management. PMID:26099604

  4. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... from an explosion, blow to the head, flying, scuba diving, falling while water skiing, or being slapped on ... Byyny RL, Shockley LW. Scuba diving and dysbarism. In: Marx JA, ... Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  5. Thoracic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Stephanie G; Demeester, Steven R

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses thoracic emergencies, including the anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, examination, diagnosis, technique, management, and treatment of acute upper airway obstruction, massive hemoptysis, spontaneous pneumothorax, and pulmonary empyema. PMID:24267505

  6. Anorectal emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-01-01

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up. PMID:27468181

  7. Anorectal emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-07-14

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up. PMID:27468181

  8. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Raymond, Elizabeth G

    2002-08-01

    Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy after a coital act not adequately protected by a regular method of contraception. In contrast to early medical abortion, emergency contraception prevents a pregnancy from starting and does not disrupt an established pregnancy. The most commonly used approaches consist of two oral doses of contraceptive steroids. The levonorgestrel-only regimen (levonorgestrel, 0.75 mg, repeated in 12 hours) appears to be more effective and better tolerated than the Yuzpe regimen (ethinyl estradiol, 100 microg, and levonorgestrel, 0.5 mg, repeated in 12 hours). In the largest randomized, controlled trial to date, levonorgestrel prevented about 85% of pregnancies that would have occurred without its use. Hormonal emergency contraception has no known medical contraindications, although it is not indicated for suspected or confirmed pregnancy. However, if hormonal emergency contraception is inadvertently taken in early pregnancy, neither the woman nor the fetus will be harmed. Nausea and vomiting associated with the Yuzpe regimen can be reduced by prophylactic use of meclizine. A strong medical and legal case exists for making hormonal emergency contraception available over the counter, as has happened in countries other than the United States. Easier access to and wider use of emergency contraception could dramatically lower the high rates of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion in the United States. PMID:12160366

  9. Emerging infections: a perpetual challenge

    PubMed Central

    Morens, David M; Folkers, Gregory K; Fauci, Anthony S

    2008-01-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, and their determinants, have recently attracted substantial scientific and popular attention. HIV/AIDS, severe acute respiratory syndrome, H5N1 avian influenza, and many other emerging diseases have either proved fatal or caused international alarm. Common and interactive co-determinants of disease emergence, including population growth, travel, and environmental disruption, have been increasingly documented and studied. Are emerging infections a new phenomenon related to modern life, or do more basic determinants, transcending time, place, and human progress, govern disease generation? By examining a number of historically notable epidemics, we suggest that emerging diseases, similar in their novelty, impact, and elicitation of control responses, have occurred throughout recorded history. Fundamental determinants, typically acting in concert, seem to underlie their emergence, and infections such as these are likely to continue to remain challenges to human survival. PMID:18992407

  10. Viroids: New and continuing risks for horticultural and agricultural crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most intriguing classes of plant pathogens are the viroids. Subviral pathogens that have been isolated from higher plants afflicted with specific diseases, their hosts include both herbaceous and woody species - agronomic as well as ornamental. Identification of viroid-infected plants ca...

  11. Continuous steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C.

    1995-02-01

    StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

  12. Agricultural Occupations Programs Planning Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A set of program planning guides that include seven areas (1) Agricultural Production, (2) Agricultural Supplies and Services, (3) Agricultural Mechanics, (4) Agricultural Products, (5) Ornamental Horticulture, (6) Agricultural Resources, and (7) Forestry, were developed and introduced to high school applied biological and agricultural occupations…

  13. 7 CFR 3021.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) Department of Agriculture awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are my responsibilities as a(n) Department of Agriculture awarding official? 3021.400 Section 3021.400 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home... Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan,...

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home... Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan,...

  16. 7 CFR 3021.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) Department of Agriculture awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are my responsibilities as a(n) Department of Agriculture awarding official? 3021.400 Section 3021.400 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  17. 7 CFR 3017.630 - May the Department of Agriculture impute conduct of one person to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May the Department of Agriculture impute conduct of one person to another? 3017.630 Section 3017.630 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  18. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

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