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Sample records for agriculture continued food

  1. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  2. Precision agriculture and food security.

    PubMed

    Gebbers, Robin; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I

    2010-02-12

    Precision agriculture comprises a set of technologies that combines sensors, information systems, enhanced machinery, and informed management to optimize production by accounting for variability and uncertainties within agricultural systems. Adapting production inputs site-specifically within a field and individually for each animal allows better use of resources to maintain the quality of the environment while improving the sustainability of the food supply. Precision agriculture provides a means to monitor the food production chain and manage both the quantity and quality of agricultural produce.

  3. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  4. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  5. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  6. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  7. Analysis of Fat Intake Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII, Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Fat Intake Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII, Final Report). For this report, the EPA conducted an analysis of fat consumption across the U.S. population based on data derived...

  8. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's Diet Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential ...

  9. Climate-smart agriculture for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipper, Leslie; Thornton, Philip; Campbell, Bruce M.; Baedeker, Tobias; Braimoh, Ademola; Bwalya, Martin; Caron, Patrick; Cattaneo, Andrea; Garrity, Dennis; Henry, Kevin; Hottle, Ryan; Jackson, Louise; Jarvis, Andrew; Kossam, Fred; Mann, Wendy; McCarthy, Nancy; Meybeck, Alexandre; Neufeldt, Henry; Remington, Tom; Sen, Pham Thi; Sessa, Reuben; Shula, Reynolds; Tibu, Austin; Torquebiau, Emmanuel F.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an approach for transforming and reorienting agricultural systems to support food security under the new realities of climate change. Widespread changes in rainfall and temperature patterns threaten agricultural production and increase the vulnerability of people dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods, which includes most of the world's poor. Climate change disrupts food markets, posing population-wide risks to food supply. Threats can be reduced by increasing the adaptive capacity of farmers as well as increasing resilience and resource use efficiency in agricultural production systems. CSA promotes coordinated actions by farmers, researchers, private sector, civil society and policymakers towards climate-resilient pathways through four main action areas: (1) building evidence; (2) increasing local institutional effectiveness; (3) fostering coherence between climate and agricultural policies; and (4) linking climate and agricultural financing. CSA differs from 'business-as-usual' approaches by emphasizing the capacity to implement flexible, context-specific solutions, supported by innovative policy and financing actions.

  10. Food and Agriculture Organization: A Clearinghouse for Agricultural Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joling, Carole

    1989-01-01

    Describes the functions of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which is an international clearinghouse for agricultural information. The discussion focuses on the information formats provided by the agency and the dissemination channels used for FAO information. Lists of finding aids for FAO materials and libraries…

  11. Microfluidics for food, agriculture and biosystems industries.

    PubMed

    Neethirajan, Suresh; Kobayashi, Isao; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Wu, Dan; Nandagopal, Saravanan; Lin, Francis

    2011-05-07

    Microfluidics, a rapidly emerging enabling technology has the potential to revolutionize food, agriculture and biosystems industries. Examples of potential applications of microfluidics in food industry include nano-particle encapsulation of fish oil, monitoring pathogens and toxins in food and water supplies, micro-nano-filtration for improving food quality, detection of antibiotics in dairy food products, and generation of novel food structures. In addition, microfluidics enables applications in agriculture and animal sciences such as nutrients monitoring and plant cells sorting for improving crop quality and production, effective delivery of biopesticides, simplified in vitro fertilization for animal breeding, animal health monitoring, vaccination and therapeutics. Lastly, microfluidics provides new approaches for bioenergy research. This paper synthesizes information of selected microfluidics-based applications for food, agriculture and biosystems industries.

  12. Lead Agency Responsibilities to Keep Informed of Personnel Needs in the Food and Agricultural Sciences are not being Fully Met.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-28

    General Foods Corp. - processors of packaged grocery products Hershey Foods Corp. - chocolates and confectionary products and pasta International...manpower development requirements for food and agricultural science personnel. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ACT OF 1977 Future growth of agricultural productivity ...and increases in production , distribution., and consumption efficiency require a continuing supply of qualified graduates in the food and agricul

  13. A Food Systems Approach To Healthy Food And Agriculture Policy.

    PubMed

    Neff, Roni A; Merrigan, Kathleen; Wallinga, David

    2015-11-01

    Food has become a prominent focus of US public health policy. The emphasis has been almost exclusively on what Americans eat, not what is grown or how it is grown. A field of research, policy, and practice activities addresses the food-health-agriculture nexus, yet the work is still often considered "alternative" to the mainstream. This article outlines the diverse ways in which agriculture affects public health. It then describes three policy issues: farm-to-school programming, sustainability recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and antibiotic use in animal agriculture. These issues illustrate the progress, challenges, and public health benefits of taking a food systems approach that brings together the food, agriculture, and public health fields.

  14. The roles and values of wild foods in agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Zareen; Pretty, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Almost every ecosystem has been amended so that plants and animals can be used as food, fibre, fodder, medicines, traps and weapons. Historically, wild plants and animals were sole dietary components for hunter–gatherer and forager cultures. Today, they remain key to many agricultural communities. The mean use of wild foods by agricultural and forager communities in 22 countries of Asia and Africa (36 studies) is 90–100 species per location. Aggregate country estimates can reach 300–800 species (e.g. India, Ethiopia, Kenya). The mean use of wild species is 120 per community for indigenous communities in both industrialized and developing countries. Many of these wild foods are actively managed, suggesting there is a false dichotomy around ideas of the agricultural and the wild: hunter–gatherers and foragers farm and manage their environments, and cultivators use many wild plants and animals. Yet, provision of and access to these sources of food may be declining as natural habitats come under increasing pressure from development, conservation-exclusions and agricultural expansion. Despite their value, wild foods are excluded from official statistics on economic values of natural resources. It is clear that wild plants and animals continue to form a significant proportion of the global food basket, and while a variety of social and ecological drivers are acting to reduce wild food use, their importance may be set to grow as pressures on agricultural productivity increase. PMID:20713393

  15. Oligosaccharides in Food and Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

    Oligosaccharides are an integral part of the daily diet for humans and animals. They are primarily used for their nutritional properties, however they are currently receiving much attention due to their physiological effect on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract. Galacto-oligosaccharides and the fructan-type oligosaccharides, namely FOS and inulin are well established as beneficial to the host and are classified as prebiotic based on data from clinical studies. These compounds dominate this sector of the market, although there are oligosaccharides emerging which have produced very interesting in vitro results in terms of prebiotic status and human trials are required to strengthen the claim. Such compounds include pectic oligosaccharides, gluco-oligosaccharides, gentio-oligosaccharides, kojio-oligosaccharides, and alternan oligosaccharides. The raw materials for production of these prebiotic compounds are derived from natural sources such as plants but also from by products of the food processing industry. In addition to being prebiotic these compounds can be incorporated into foodstuffs due to the physiochemical properties they possess.

  16. Climate change - Agricultural land use - Food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, János; Széles, Adrienn

    2015-04-01

    In Hungary, plougland decreased to 52% of its area by the time of political restructuring (1989) in comparison with the 1950s. Forested areas increased significantly (18%) and lands withdrawn from agricultural production doubled (11%). For today, these proportions further changed. Ploughlands reduced to 46% and forested areas further increased (21%) in 2013. The most significat changes were observed in the proportion of lands withdrawn from agricultural production which increased to 21%. Temperature in Hungary increased by 1°C during the last century and predictions show a further 2.6 °C increase by 2050. The yearly amount of precipitation significantly decreased from 640 mm to 560 mm with a more uneven temporal distribution. The following aspects can be considered in the correlation between climate change and agriculture: a) impact of agriculture on climate, b) future impact of climate change on agriculture and food supply, c) impact of climate change on food security. The reason for the significant change of climate is the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) which results from anthropological activities. Between 2008 and 2012, Hungary had to reduce its GHG emission by 6% compared to the base period between 1985-1987. At the end of 2011, Hungarian GHG emission was 43.1% lower than that of the base period. The total gross emission was 66.2 million CO2 equivalent, while the net emission which also includes land use, land use change and forestry was 62.8 million tons. The emission of agriculture was 8.8 million tons (OMSZ, 2013). The greatest opportunity to reduce agricultural GHG emission is dinitrogen oxides which can be significantly mitigated by the smaller extent and more efficient use of nitrogen-based fertilisers (precision farming) and by using biomanures produced from utilised waste materials. Plant and animal species which better adapt to extreme weather circumstances should be bred and maintained, thereby making an investment in food security. Climate

  17. Rural development, agriculture, and food security.

    PubMed

    Ayres, W S; Mccalla, A F

    1996-12-01

    Within 30 years the world will be supplying food for an additional 2.5 billion people, most of whom will live in developing countries. Developing countries in meeting future challenges will need to implement sound and stable macroeconomic and sector policies. The World Bank is providing analysis, policy dialogue, and financial support in specific countries for opening up agricultural markets globally. Developing countries need to enhance food supplies by encouraging rapid technological change, increasing the efficiency of irrigation, and improving natural resource management. Agricultural and income growth in developing countries is dependent upon transfer of the breakthroughs in agricultural technology to the millions of small farms in the developing world. People currently use about 70% of available fresh water for irrigation, and competition for water resources with urban and industrial users has increased. Agriculture and other sectors must increase the efficiency of water use. Natural resource planning and comprehensive water and natural resource management that rely on a community-based approach have proven successful. Developing countries need to improve access to food by strengthening markets and agribusinesses, providing education and health services to both boys and girls, investing in infrastructure, and fostering broad participation. The major challenge ahead is to ensure food security for the hundreds of millions of families living in poverty. This large and complex task involves increasing agricultural output worldwide, reducing poverty, and improving health and nutrition. Progress has been made in the past 25 years in improving living conditions, but not everyone has benefitted. Almost 75% of the poor live in rural areas without access to land, and 25% are urban poor without jobs. Most of the poor live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank mandate is to reduce poverty and hunger through revitalized rural development.

  18. Global hunger: a challenge to agricultural, food, and nutritional sciences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shiuan-Huei; Ho, Chi-Tang; Nah, Sui-Lin; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Hunger has been a concern for generations and has continued to plague hundreds of millions of people around the world. Although many efforts have been devoted to reduce hunger, challenges such as growing competitions for natural resources, emerging climate changes and natural disasters, poverty, illiteracy, and diseases are posing threats to food security and intensifying the hunger crisis. Concerted efforts of scientists to improve agricultural and food productivity, technology, nutrition, and education are imperative to facilitate appropriate strategies for defeating hunger and malnutrition. This paper provides some aspects of world hunger issues and summarizes the efforts and measures aimed to alleviate food problems from the food and nutritional sciences perspectives. The prospects and constraints of some implemented strategies for alleviating hunger and achieving sustainable food security are also discussed. This comprehensive information source could provide insights into the development of a complementary framework for dealing with the global hunger issue.

  19. Functional foods and urban agriculture: two responses to climate change-related food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Jane M; Donati, Kelly J; Pike, Lucy L; Hattersley, Libby

    2009-01-01

    Affluent diets have negative effects on the health of the population and the environment. Moreover, the ability of industrialised agricultural ecosystems to continue to supply these diets is threatened by the anticipated consequences of climate change. By challenging the ongoing supply the diets of affluent countries, climate change provides a population and environmental health opportunity. This paper contrasts two strategies for dealing with climate change-related food insecurity. Functional foods are being positioned as one response because they are considered a hyper-efficient mechanism for supplying essential micronutrients. An alternative response is civic and urban agriculture. Rather than emphasising increased economic or nutritional efficiencies, civic agriculture presents a holistic approach to food security that is more directly connected to the economic, environmental and social factors that affect diet and health.

  20. Continuing food-avoidance diets after negative food challenges.

    PubMed

    Eigenmann, Philippe A; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Zamora, Samuel A

    2006-12-01

    Negative food challenges for follow-up in patients previously diagnosed with food allergy should logically be followed by a normal diet. However, all patients do not reintroduce the food. The aims of the study were to define the proportion of negative food challenge not followed by a normal diet, and to identify possible reasons for not reintroducing the food. Patients with a negative food challenge were sent a questionnaire by mail. Items in the questionnaire included the symptoms at diagnosis, the duration of the diet, the fear of an accidental reaction during the avoidance diet and how it influenced the social life. Patients were also asked if the food was reintroduced after the negative food challenge, and if not, for which reasons. In 25.4% of the questionnaires (18/71) respondents reported that the food was not reintroduced. Patients with a previous diagnosis of peanut allergy tended to reintroduce the food less frequently than patients allergic to other foods. Girls were found to significantly less frequently reintroduce the food than boys. However, neither the severity of the initial reaction, the anxiety of an accidental reaction during the avoidance diet, nor a prolonged avoidance diet did influence the decision to reintroduce the food. Among other reasons listed, fears of persistence of allergies, with recurrent pruritus or non-specific skin rashes after eating the food, were reported in 12.7% of the total number of questionnaires. Patients who reintroduced the food reported that their social life generally improved. One quarter of previously allergic patients continue a food avoidance diet despite a negative challenge. We suggest reassessing food consumption in all patients after a negative food challenge, and in those still avoiding the specific food to consider a repeated challenge test.

  1. Agricultural and food chemistry: 50 years of synergy between AGFD and JAFC.

    PubMed

    Seiber, James N; Kleinschmidt, Loreen A

    2009-09-23

    The Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (AGFD) and the American Chemical Society had the foresight to launch the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry in 1953. JAFC, still closely connected with the Division, has grown to be the premier international journal in the field, providing an outlet for publishing original research articles, reviews, perspectives, and editorials, for agricultural and food chemists from many nations. JAFC has expanded coverage of current areas of intense interest, such as bioactive constituents of foods, biotechnology, and biobased products and biofuels, as well as continuing strong coverage of such mainstream categories as food chemistry/biochemistry, analytical methods, safety and toxicology, and agrochemistry. In 2008 alone, JAFC published over 1650 peer-reviewed manuscripts, several symposia (largely from AGFD symposia at ACS National Meetings), and a number of reviews. The synergy between AGFD and JAFC offers many benefits and exciting opportunities for advancing the science of agricultural and food chemistry for the future.

  2. ANALYSIS OF TOTAL FOOD INTAKE AND COMPOSITION OF INDIVIDUAL'S DIET BASED ON THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE'S 1994-96, 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKES BY INDIVIDUALS (CSFII) (FINAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential exposure to hazardous substances that are present in the environment. For this reason, a thorough analysis of the dietary habits of the American public would aid in the identification of potenti...

  3. World food and agriculture: Outlook for the medium and longer term

    PubMed Central

    Alexandratos, Nikos

    1999-01-01

    The world has been making progress in improving food security, as measured by the per person availability of food for direct human consumption. However, progress has been very uneven, and many developing countries have failed to participate in such progress. In some countries, the food security situation is today worse than 20 years ago. The persistence of food insecurity does not reflect so much a lack of capacity of the world as a whole to increase food production to whatever level would be required for everyone to have consumption levels assuring satisfactory nutrition. The world already produces sufficient food. The undernourished and the food-insecure persons are in these conditions because they are poor in terms of income with which to purchase food or in terms of access to agricultural resources, education, technology, infrastructure, credit, etc., to produce their own food. Economic development failures account for the persistence of poverty and food insecurity. In the majority of countries with severe food-security problems, the greatest part of the poor and food-insecure population depend greatly on local agriculture for a living. In such cases, development failures are often tantamount to failures of agricultural development. Development of agriculture is seen as the first crucial step toward broader development, reduction of poverty and food insecurity, and eventually freedom from excessive economic dependence on poor agricultural resources. Projections indicate that progress would continue, but at a pace and pattern that would be insufficient for the incidence of undernutrition to be reduced significantly in the medium-term future. As in the past, world agricultural production is likely to keep up with, and perhaps tend to exceed, the growth of the effective demand for food. The problem will continue to be one of persistence of poverty, leading to growth of the effective demand for food on the part of the poor that would fall short of that required for

  4. Food for Thought: What Education Could Learn from Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westera, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge is like food and drink, a necessity of life, the motor of the economy, and a precondition for any social activities. While considering these facts, one cannot fail to notice that education and agriculture have a lot in common. This article reflects on the parallels between agriculture and education. While agriculture started modernizing…

  5. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Agricultural and food biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Christine; Earl, Robert

    2006-02-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that agricultural and food biotechnology techniques can enhance the quality, safety, nutritional value, and variety of food available for human consumption and increase the efficiency of food production, food processing, food distribution, and environmental and waste management. The American Dietetic Association encourages the government, food manufacturers, food commodity groups, and qualified food and nutrition professionals to work together to inform consumers about this new technology and encourage the availability of these products in the marketplace.

  6. Food and Agricultural Imports from China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-17

    the many foods, medicines, and other products from China in particular. For example, in early 2007, evidence began to emerge that adulterated pet...public about adulterated foods, and for notifying the public about adulterated human or animal foods. The amendment includes elements of his... adulterated pet food ingredients from China had caused the deaths of an unknown number of dogs and cats. Furthermore, some ingredients also were fed to U.S

  7. Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture.

    PubMed

    Tilman, David; Balzer, Christian; Hill, Jason; Befort, Belinda L

    2011-12-13

    Global food demand is increasing rapidly, as are the environmental impacts of agricultural expansion. Here, we project global demand for crop production in 2050 and evaluate the environmental impacts of alternative ways that this demand might be met. We find that per capita demand for crops, when measured as caloric or protein content of all crops combined, has been a similarly increasing function of per capita real income since 1960. This relationship forecasts a 100-110% increase in global crop demand from 2005 to 2050. Quantitative assessments show that the environmental impacts of meeting this demand depend on how global agriculture expands. If current trends of greater agricultural intensification in richer nations and greater land clearing (extensification) in poorer nations were to continue, ~1 billion ha of land would be cleared globally by 2050, with CO(2)-C equivalent greenhouse gas emissions reaching ~3 Gt y(-1) and N use ~250 Mt y(-1) by then. In contrast, if 2050 crop demand was met by moderate intensification focused on existing croplands of underyielding nations, adaptation and transfer of high-yielding technologies to these croplands, and global technological improvements, our analyses forecast land clearing of only ~0.2 billion ha, greenhouse gas emissions of ~1 Gt y(-1), and global N use of ~225 Mt y(-1). Efficient management practices could substantially lower nitrogen use. Attainment of high yields on existing croplands of underyielding nations is of great importance if global crop demand is to be met with minimal environmental impacts.

  8. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The food industry, its energy consumption, and its energy conservation targets are discussed. Activities of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch are described. Summaries of research, development, and demonstration programs of the Branch are given. The programs are categorized into the following: energy integrated farm systems; irrigation systems; crop drying systems; fertilizer; dairy and milk processing; meat processing; sugar processing; citrus processing; ethanol production; food processing efficiency systems; and food sterilization. Summaries are presented of 26 completed projects. (MCW)

  9. Agriculture overview: US food/agriculture in a volatile world economy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    The persistence of troublesome conditions in the face of 50 years of government programs will not be easily or quickly resolved. At least three factors will prolong the debate on food/agricultural policy beyond passage of pending legislation: current programs geared to a stable, predictable domestic market may be inadequate to deal with today's volatile world market; the multiple and diverse goals of food/agriculture programs hinder the attainment of all objectives; and monetary, fiscal, tax, trade, and foreign policies have a major effect on market performance, irrespective of agricultural policy design. This report is an outgrowth of GAO's planning process that periodically assesses the food and agricultural concerns and issues facing decision makers. Purpose of the report is to help define trends in the US food/agricultural sector, where it is today, and what concerns must be dealt with to prepare for tomorrow.

  10. The cult of the amateur in agriculture threatens food security.

    PubMed

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2008-09-01

    The incorporation of science and technology into agriculture has led to enormous growth in crop yields, providing food security in many countries. From the 1950s onwards there has been increasing interference in agricultural policy by a few scientists who are marginal to agriculture and from a variety of unqualified groups. These groups and individuals have used fear and anxiety and have greatly exaggerated minor problems to persuade an unqualified public of supposed dangers in food and to try and change agricultural policy. Fear and emotion do not lead to good policy, and the cult of the amateur that has developed could have serious repercussions on vital food security and future agriculture in developing countries; it must be soundly rejected.

  11. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  12. Population, food situation and problems of agricultural development in Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Surendra, S

    1991-01-01

    Increased food production in less developed regions of India has been outpaced by unprecedented rapid population growth and a corresponding decline in the quality of life. This study analyses food supply and food requirements in Andhra Pradesh, with consideration of the relationships between population, food, land inequality, and agricultural development. To check population growth, the study found a need to more strongly emphasize family planning programs. More comprehensive measures are, however, recommended to combat widely spread inadequate nutrition. Accounting for 60% of all disease in the region, malnutrition is due to underproduction, lack of purchasing power among the poor, lack of proper spatial distribution, lack of irrigational facilities, and land inequality. Food production should be increased through extensive irrigation where needed, while landless agricultural laborers and small farmers should be assisted through housing, education, health facilities, agricultural subsidies, bank credits, HYV seeds, and other contributory interventions. Finally, land reforms already underway should continue until target goals are reached.

  13. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation--Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Joyce E.; Wagner, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency's educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural…

  14. Plasma agriculture and innovative food cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is predicted that humankind may face the global issues of a pandemic and food crisis due to the rapid growth of the population, reaching almost 10 billion by 2050. Contamination of foods with human pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and norovirus is an...

  15. Earth Observation for Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Heike; Mauser, Wolfram; Gernot, Klepper

    2016-08-01

    The global and regional potentials of Earth Observation (EO) to contribute to food security and sustainable agriculture in the 2050-timeframe were analysed in the ESA study EO4Food, whose outcome will be presented (www.EO4Food.org). Emphasis was put on the global societal, economic, environmental and technological megatrends that will create demand for food and shape the future societies. They will also constitute the background for developments in EO for food security and sustainable agriculture. The capabilities of EO in this respect were critically reviewed with three perspectives 1) the role of EO science for society, 2) observables from space and 3) development of future science missions.It was concluded that EO can be pivotal for the further development of food security and sustainable agriculture. EO allows to support the whole economic and societal value chain from farmers through food industry to insurance and financial industry in satisfying demands and at the same time to support society in governing sustainable agriculture through verifyable rules and regulations. It has the potential to become the global source of environmental information that is assimilated into sophisticated environmental management models and is used to make agriculture sustainable.

  16. "New World" and Mexican Contributions to Agriculture and Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochin, Refugio I.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that Hispanic-Americans can find reason for pride and positive self-images in their cultural heritage and contributions to California agriculture. Traces history of foods and plant propagation in Mesoamerica. Discusses corn, vanilla, chocolate, chiles, tomatoes, and other foods significant for their culinary legacy. (CH)

  17. "Something good can grow here": chicago urban agriculture food projects.

    PubMed

    Hatchett, Lena; Brown, Loretta; Hopkins, Joan; Larsen, Kelly; Fournier, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    Food security is a challenge facing many African-American low-income communities nationally. Community and university partners have established urban agriculture programs to improve access to high quality affordable fruits and vegetables by growing, distributing, and selling food in urban neighborhoods. While the challenge of food security is within communities of color, few studies have described these urban agriculture programs and documented their impact on the crew members who work in the programs and live in the low-income communities. More information is needed on the program impact for crew and community health promotion. Using a survey and focus group discussion from the crew and staff we describe the program and activities of four Chicago Urban Agriculture programs. We summarized the impact these programs have on crew members' perception of urban agriculture, health habits, community engagement, and community health promotion in low-income African-American neighborhoods.

  18. Agriculture as provider of both food and fuel.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Kersti; Liljequist, Karin; Ohlander, Lars; Aleklett, Kjell

    2010-03-01

    A database of global agricultural primary production has been constructed and used to estimate its energy content. The portion of crops available for food and biofuel after postharvest losses was evaluated. The basic conditions for agriculture and plant growth were studied, to ensure sustainable scenarios regarding use of residues. The available energy contents for the world and EU27 was found to be 7200-9300 and 430 TWh, respectively, to be compared with food requirements of 7100 and 530 TWh. Clearly, very little, or nothing, remains for biofuel from agricultural primary crops. However, by using residues and bioorganic waste, it was found that biofuel production could theoretically replace one-fourth of the global consumption of fossil fuels for transport. The expansion potential for global agriculture is limited by availability of land, water, and energy. A future decrease in supply of fossil energy and ongoing land degradation will thus cause difficulties for increased biofuel production from agriculture.

  19. The new political economy of food and agricultural development.

    PubMed

    Mellor, J W; Adams Rh

    1986-11-01

    This paper emphasizes the benefits of an agricultural strategy of development in developing countries. It begins by analyzing the close links between food and employment in the development process. In an underdeveloped country, food production is minimal, but demand is as well because of the small population growth. After development begins, income rises and food demand outstrips production. Only at later stages of development can food production meet demand. The middle stage of development describes most developing countries, which have averaged annual growth rates of 3% per capita in 1966-80. The growth in food demand must be met through technological advance in agriculture: high-yield seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation, which, for example, helped India increase cereal yields 29% between 1954-55 and 1964-65. The rate of growth in cropped areas has declined between 1961-1980, making increased yields more necessary. Growth in employment and income leads to higher food demand, which leads to higher prices and labor costs and a tendency towards capital-intensive agriculture. As the rural sector becomes wealthier, there is also more opportunity for non-agricultural rural workers, creating still more demand. In the final development stage, agricultural products can generate foreign exchange. In Asia, the priority is to ensure efficient outcomes of capital allocations, while in Africa, technology must be instituted. Public investment has been shown to be essential to rapid development in Japan, Taiwan, and the Punjab of India. The absence of this investment in Africa, partly because of an overemphasis on urban sector investment, is largely responsible for the backward state of African agriculture. Often rural areas are overtaxed, agricultural experts are lacking, and there is a growing presence of urban bureaucrats. Both experts in the donor community and farmers themselves must become more vocal in demanding investment in the agricultural sector.

  20. Attitudes of agricultural scientists in Indonesia towards genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Widyastuti, Tri Nisa; Iswarawanti, Dwi Nastiti

    2007-01-01

    Conflicting arguments and partial truths on genetically modified (GM) foods have left confusion. Although studies of consumer acceptance of GM foods are numerous, the study of scientists is limited. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of scientists towards GM foods. The study was a cross sectional study. A total of 400 scientists (involved in at least one of teaching, research and consultancy) in the Bogor Agricultural Institute, Indonesia were selected randomly from its faculties of agriculture, veterinary, fishery, animal husbandry, forestry, agricultural technology, mathematics and science, and the post graduate department. Data collection was done by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire and self-administered questionnaire. The result showed that the majority (72.8%) of the respondents were favorably disposed towards GM foods, 14.8% were neutral, and only 12.5% were against them. The majority (78.3%) stated that they would try GM food if offered. Most (71%) reported that they were aware of the term "GM foods". Only half of the respondents felt that they had a basic understanding about GM foods. However, based on a knowledge test, 69.8% had a good knowledge score. Nearly 50% indicated that they were more exposed to news which supported GM foods. Over 90% said that there should be some form of labeling to distinguish food containing GM ingredients from non-GM foods. Attitudes were significantly associated with willingness to try GM foods if offered, restrictions on GM foods, and exposure to media reports about the pros and cons of GM foods.

  1. 77 FR 7565 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Institute of Food and Agriculture Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture published a document in...

  2. Food bioactives research and the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Symposium introduction.

    PubMed

    Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Somoza, Veronika; Finley, John

    2012-07-11

    The bioactive compounds in foods have been the topic of many papers over the past 20 years and are among those that have received a higher citation in agriculture and food science journals. With the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, a Symposium on Food Bioactives was held during the 2011 American Chemical Society meeting in Denver, CO. The symposium was organized as an overview of the state of the art in knowledge of food bioactives and the perspectives and trends for the 21st century.

  3. Human health problems associated with current agricultural food production.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh V

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technological developments in the agricultural sectors in the recent past has resulted in increased food production and at the same time led to certain public health concerns. Unseasonal rains at the time of harvest and improper post harvest technology often results in agricultural commodities being contaminated with certain fungi and results in the production of mycotoxins. Consumption of such commodities has resulted in human disease outbreaks. Naturally occurring toxins, inherently present in foods and either consumed as such or mixed up with grains, had been responsible for disease outbreaks. Other possible causes of health concern include the application of various agrochemicals such as pesticides and the use of antibiotics in aquaculture and veterinary practices. Foodborne pathogens entering the food chain during both traditional and organic agriculture pose a challenge to public health. Modern biotechnology, producing genetically modified foods, if not regulated appropriately could pose dangers to human health. Use of various integrated food management systems like the Hazard Analysis and critical control system approach for risk prevention, monitoring and control of food hazards are being emphasized with globalization to minimise the danger posed to human health from improper agricultural practices.

  4. Factors influencing the dielectric properties of agricultural and food products.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Stuart O; Trabelsi, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radiofrequency or microwave electric fields, and water content, temperature, and density of the materials, are discussed on the basis of fundamental concepts. The dependence of measured dielectric properties on these factors is illustrated graphically and discussed for a number of agricultural and food products, including examples of grain, peanuts, fruit, eggs, fresh chicken meat, whey protein gel, and a macaroni and cheese preparation. General observations are provided on the nature of the variation of the dielectric properties with the major variables.

  5. [Occupational dermatitis in the agriculture-food industry environment].

    PubMed

    Tripodi, Dominique; Géraut, Christian

    2002-09-01

    The agricultural and food professions are those that touch agriculture, but also the restoration, the kitchens, and the employees of slaughterhouses. Various occupational skin diseases touch these salaried employees or craftsmen: eczemas or contact hives with plants or meats and fleshes of animals and all chemical substances that are added: pesticides, food additives and various preservatives. Irritation contact dermatitis or real skin burns are observed with housekeeping products imposed by the sanitary norms, increasingly powerful, but as increasingly caustic. Infectious illnesses transmitted from the animal to the man are sometimes observed especially among the breeders and employees of slaughterhouses.

  6. Agriculture in the climate change negotiations; ensuring that food production is not threatened.

    PubMed

    Muldowney, J; Mounsey, J; Kinsella, L

    2013-06-01

    With the human population predicted to reach nine billion by 2050, demand for food is predicted to more than double over this time period, a trend which will lead to increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. Furthermore, expansion in food production is predicted to occur primarily in the developing world, where adaptation to climate change may be more difficult and opportunities to mitigate emissions limited. In the establishment of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 'ensuring that food production is not threatened' is explicitly mentioned in the objective of the Convention. However, the focus of negotiations under the Convention has largely been on reducing GHG emissions from energy, and industrial activities and realizing the potential of forestry as a carbon sink. There has been little attention by the UNFCCC to address the challenges and opportunities for the agriculture sector. Since 2006, concerted efforts have been made to raise the prominence of agriculture within the negotiations. The most recent The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report and 'The Emissions Gap Report' by the UNEP highlighted the significant mitigation potential of agriculture, which can help contribute towards keeping global temperature rises below the 2°C limit agreed in Cancun. Agriculture has to be a part of the solution to address climate change, but this will also require a focus on how agriculture systems can adapt to climate change in order to continue to increase food output. However, to effectively realize this potential, systematic and dedicated discussion and decisions within the UNFCCC are needed. UNFCCC discussions on a specific agriculture agenda item started in 2012, but are currently inconclusive. However, Parties are generally in agreement on the importance of agriculture in contributing to food security and employment as well as the need to improve understanding of agriculture and how it can contribute to

  7. Antimicrobial potential of bacteriocins: in therapy, agriculture and food preservation.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Varish; Khan, Mohd Sajid; Jamal, Qazi Mohammad Sajid; Alzohairy, Mohammad A; Al Karaawi, Mohammad A; Siddiqui, Mughees Uddin

    2017-01-01

    Due to the appearance of antibiotic resistance and the toxicity associated with currently used antibiotics, peptide antibiotics are the need of the hour. Thus, demand for new antimicrobial agents has brought great interest in new technologies to enhance safety. One such antimicrobial molecule is bacteriocin, synthesised by various micro-organisms. Bacteriocins are widely used in agriculture, veterinary medicine as a therapeutic, and as a food preservative agent to control various infectious and food-borne pathogens. In this review, we highlight the potential therapeutic and food preservative applications of bacteriocin.

  8. Microwave sensing of quality attributes of agricultural and food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave sensors for real-time characterization of agricultural and food products have become viable solutions with recent advances in the development of calibration methods and the availability of inexpensive microwave components. The examples shown here for grain, seed, and in-shell peanuts indic...

  9. Electrospun nanofibres in agriculture and the food industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Noruzi, Masumeh

    2016-11-01

    The interesting characteristics of electrospun nanofibres, such as high surface-to-volume ratio, nanoporosity, and high safety, make them suitable candidates for use in a variety of applications. In the recent decade, electrospun nanofibres have been applied to different potential fields such as filtration, wound dressing, drug delivery, etc. and a significant number of review papers have been published in these fields. However, the use of electrospun nanofibres in agriculture is comparatively novel and is still in its infancy. In this paper, the specific applications of electrospun nanofibres in agriculture and food science, including plant protection using pheromone-loaded nanofibres, plant protection using encapsulation of biocontrol agents, preparation of protective clothes for farm workers, encapsulation of agrochemical materials, deoxyribonucleic acid extraction in agricultural research studies, pre-concentration and measurement of pesticides in crops and environmental samples, preparation of nanobiosensors for pesticide detection, encapsulation of food materials, fabrication of food packaging materials, and filtration of beverage products are reviewed and discussed. This paper may help researchers develop the use of electrospun nanofibres in agriculture and food science to address some serious problems such as the intensive use of pesticides. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Compound Identification: A journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This perspective is designed to summarize the standards that authors of manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry are expected to follow in establishing the structures of either new or unknown compounds identified in the course of a study. It is especially important tha...

  11. Foods: Where Innovation, Agriculture, Molecular Biosciences and Human Nutrition Meet.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Charles

    2012-11-21

    There is one commodity the world over that unites mankind-food. In 2011 the United Nations claimed that the world's population had reached the seven billion mark, a number which is set to increase dramatically in the decades to come. Food security, supply and sustainability are of paramount concern to the future economic and social progress of humanity. It is the responsibility of the food industry, together with food scientists and technologists, to shoulder the burden of ensuring an adequate supply of nutritious, safe and sensorially acceptable foods for a range of demanding consumers. In responding to this challenge, we need to understand the link between agriculture, engineering, food processing, molecular biosciences, human nutrition, commercialisation and innovation. Access to information concerning the composition and quality of foods has never been so easy for consumers and technologists alike. A plethora of research publications are made available each month to scientists and associated interested parties. The outcomes of these research manuscripts are often distilled and disseminated into messages available to everyone through bulletin boards, forums and the popular press. Newspapers and new agencies constantly report on the latest pharma-medical finding, or news regarding food safety and security concerns. We live in an age where information is so readily available to everyone that the task of finding credible and reputable data can be difficult at times. Providing sound evidenced based research is where a peer-reviewed journal can provide clarity. [...].

  12. Food security through large scale investments in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, M.; D'Odorico, P.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the human appropriation of freshwater resources is for food production. There is some concern that in the near future the finite freshwater resources available on Earth might not be sufficient to meet the increasing human demand for agricultural products. In the late 1700s Malthus argued that in the long run the humanity would not have enough resources to feed itself. Malthus' analysis, however, did not account for the emergence of technological innovations that could increase the rate of food production. The modern and contemporary history has seen at least three major technological advances that have increased humans' access to food, namely, the industrial revolution, the green revolution, and the intensification of global trade. Here we argue that a fourth revolution has just started to happen. It involves foreign direct investments in agriculture, which intensify the crop yields of potentially highly productive agricultural lands by introducing the use of more modern technologies. The increasing demand for agricultural products and the uncertainty of international food markets has recently drawn the attention of governments and agribusiness firms toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in the developing world. The targeted countries are typically located in regions that have remained only marginally utilized because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale land acquisitions for commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing yield gaps. While the extent of the acquired land and the associated appropriation of freshwater resources have been investigated in detail, the amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still need to be quantified. Here we use a unique dataset of verified land deals to provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of crop and food appropriation potentially associated with large scale land acquisitions. We

  13. Importance of Animals in Agricultural Sustainability and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan C; Aaron, Debra K; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    A conservative projection shows the world's population growing by 32% (to 9.5 billion) by 2050 and 53% (to 11 billion) by 2100 compared with its current level of 7.2 billion. Because most arable land worldwide is already in use, and water and energy also are limiting, increased production of food will require a substantial increase in efficiency. In this article, we highlight the importance of animals to achieving food security in terms of their valuable contributions to agricultural sustainability, especially in developing countries, and the high nutritional value of animal products in the diet.

  14. Agriculture and food availability -- remote sensing of agriculture for food security monitoring in the developing world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budde, Michael E.; Rowland, James; Funk, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    For one-sixth of the world’s population - roughly 1 billion children, women and men - growing, buying or receiving adequate, affordable food to eat is a daily uncertainty. The World Monetary Fund reports that food prices worldwide increased 43 percent in 2007-2008, and unpredictable growing conditions make subsistence farming, on which many depend, a risky business. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are part of a network of both private and government institutions that monitor food security in many of the poorest nations in the world.

  15. Agricultural and Food Processing Applications of Pulsed Power Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, Koichi; Ihara, Satoshi

    Recent progress of agricultural and food processing applications of pulsed power is described in this paper. Repetitively operated compact pulsed power generators with a moderate peak power have been developed for the agricultural and the food processing applications. These applications are mainly based on biological effects and can be categorized as decontamination of air and liquid, germination promotion, inhabitation of saprophytes growth, extraction of juice from fruits and vegetables, and fertilization of liquid medium, etc. Types of pulsed power that have biological effects are caused with gas discharges, water discharges, and electromagnetic fields. The discharges yield free radicals, UV radiation, intense electric field, and shock waves. Biologically based applications of pulsed power are performed by selecting the type that gives the target objects the adequate result from among these agents or byproducts. For instance, intense electric fields form pores on the cell membrane, which is called electroporation, or influence the nuclei.

  16. Plant genetics, sustainable agriculture and global food security.

    PubMed

    Ronald, Pamela

    2011-05-01

    The United States and the world face serious societal challenges in the areas of food, environment, energy, and health. Historically, advances in plant genetics have provided new knowledge and technologies needed to address these challenges. Plant genetics remains a key component of global food security, peace, and prosperity for the foreseeable future. Millions of lives depend upon the extent to which crop genetic improvement can keep pace with the growing global population, changing climate, and shrinking environmental resources. While there is still much to be learned about the biology of plant-environment interactions, the fundamental technologies of plant genetic improvement, including crop genetic engineering, are in place, and are expected to play crucial roles in meeting the chronic demands of global food security. However, genetically improved seed is only part of the solution. Such seed must be integrated into ecologically based farming systems and evaluated in light of their environmental, economic, and social impacts-the three pillars of sustainable agriculture. In this review, I describe some lessons learned, over the last decade, of how genetically engineered crops have been integrated into agricultural practices around the world and discuss their current and future contribution to sustainable agricultural systems.

  17. Plant Genetics, Sustainable Agriculture and Global Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    The United States and the world face serious societal challenges in the areas of food, environment, energy, and health. Historically, advances in plant genetics have provided new knowledge and technologies needed to address these challenges. Plant genetics remains a key component of global food security, peace, and prosperity for the foreseeable future. Millions of lives depend upon the extent to which crop genetic improvement can keep pace with the growing global population, changing climate, and shrinking environmental resources. While there is still much to be learned about the biology of plant–environment interactions, the fundamental technologies of plant genetic improvement, including crop genetic engineering, are in place, and are expected to play crucial roles in meeting the chronic demands of global food security. However, genetically improved seed is only part of the solution. Such seed must be integrated into ecologically based farming systems and evaluated in light of their environmental, economic, and social impacts—the three pillars of sustainable agriculture. In this review, I describe some lessons learned, over the last decade, of how genetically engineered crops have been integrated into agricultural practices around the world and discuss their current and future contribution to sustainable agricultural systems. PMID:21546547

  18. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cooperative agricultural extension program relating to agriculture, uses of solar energy with respect to... challenges in food and agricultural system productivity; development of new food, fiber, and energy sources; agricultural energy use and production; natural resources; promotion of the health and welfare of people;...

  19. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cooperative agricultural extension program relating to agriculture, uses of solar energy with respect to... challenges in food and agricultural system productivity; development of new food, fiber, and energy sources; agricultural energy use and production; natural resources; promotion of the health and welfare of people;...

  20. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cooperative agricultural extension program relating to agriculture, uses of solar energy with respect to... challenges in food and agricultural system productivity; development of new food, fiber, and energy sources; agricultural energy use and production; natural resources; promotion of the health and welfare of people;...

  1. 75 FR 25199 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Programs (CP) Unit; National Institute of Food and Agriculture; U.S. Department of Agriculture; STOP 2240... Programs (CP) Unit; National Institute of Food and Agriculture; U.S. Department of ] Agriculture; Room 2457... The program authorizes $700 million in grants for FY 2008-12, of which the Secretary may retain...

  2. Utilization of the Space food in Space Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    2012-07-01

    It is important that we think about the utilization of the Space food in the space agriculture. In addition, these studies may lead the food problem on the earth on the solution. This study thought about the utilization of the food and thought about doing a stem and the root of vegetables performed water culture of with food. I order Japan Food Research Laboratories to do the nutritional analysis of the root of a lettuce cultivated by water culture. The analysis items were lipid, carbohydrates, energy, protein, water, ash, Na, P, Fe, Ca, K, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, dietary fiber(water soluble or insoluble). Most were water, but, as for the root of the lettuce, it was revealed that it was rich in a mineral (calcium, iron and magnesium).To eat the root of the lettuce will be good nutritional supply of minerals (calcium, iron) in the space life. In the result, water and mineral supply could make good use of in low calorie at loots of the lettuce. We want to think about the utilization of each food more in future.

  3. Sustainable agriculture for Alaska and the circumpolar north: Part 1. Development and status of northeren agriculture and food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alaska is food insecure, importing an estimated 95% of all agricultural products and 50 commodities and only maintaining a year round food supply of about three to five days. We 51 review the history, development and current state of sustainable agriculture at high-latitudes, 52 especially Alaska, a...

  4. Continuous Passive Sampling of Solutes from Agricultural Subsurface Drainage Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindblad Vendelboe, Anders; de Jonge, Hubert; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Wollesen de Jonge, Lis

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural subsurface tube drain systems play an important role in water and solute transport. One study, focusing on lowland agricultural catchments, showed that subsurface tube drainage contributed up to 80% of the annual discharge and 90% of the annual NO3 load from agricultural fields to the receiving water bodies. Knowledge of e.g. nutrient loads and drainage volumes, based on measurements and modelling, are important for adequate water quality management. Despite the importance of tube drain transport of solutes, monitoring data are scarce. This scarcity is a result of the existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant load from tube drains being expensive and labor-extensive. The study presented here aimed at developing a cheap, simple, and robust method to monitor solute loads from tube drains. The method is based on the newly developed Flowcap, which can be attached to existing tube drain outlets and can measure total flow, contaminant load and flow-averaged concentrations of solutes in the drainage. The Flowcap builds on the existing Sorbicell principle, a passive sampling system that measures average concentrations over longer periods of time (days to months) for various compounds. The Sorbicell consists of two compartments permeable to water. One compartment contains an adsorbent and one contains a tracer. When water passes through the Sorbicell the compound of interest is absorbed while a tracer is released. Using the tracer loss to calculate the volume of water that has passed the Sorbicell it is possible to calculate the average concentration of the compound. When mounting Sorbicells in the Flowcap, a flow-proportional part of the drainage is sampled from the main stream. To accommodate the wide range of drainage flow rates two Flowcaps with different capacities were tested in the laboratory: one with a capacity of 25 L min-1 (Q25) and one with a capacity of 256 L min-1 (Q256). In addition, Sorbicells with two different hydraulic

  5. 78 FR 13855 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to the... International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD). The meeting will be held from 8:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m... Education Solutions Network and the Bureau for Food Security Feed the Future Food Security Innovation...

  6. Declining Global Per Capita Agricultural Production and Warming Oceans Threaten Food Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Chris C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that was grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be controlled by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices, and policies. In this paper we discuss several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia, and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14 percent between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21 st century food availability by disrupting Indian Ocean moisture transports and tilting the 21 st century climate toward a more El Nino-like state. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced main growing season rainfall along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, we present an analysis of

  7. Declining global per capita agricultural production and warming oceans threaten food security

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that is grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be determined by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices and policies. This paper discusses several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14% between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21st century food availability in some countries by disrupting moisture transports and bringing down dry air over crop growing areas. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced rainfall during the main growing season along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, this study presents an analysis of emerging

  8. 76 FR 36512 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... will include Paul Weisenfeld, Assistant Administrator, Bureau for Food Security; Julie Howard, Deputy.... Agency for International Development, Ronald Reagan Building, Bureau for Food Security, 1300 Pennsylvania...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice...

  9. Latinos with Diabetes and Food Insecurity in an Agricultural Community

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Gerardo; Morales, Leo S.; Isiordia, Marilu; de Jaimes, Fatima Nunez; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Noguera, Christine; Mangione, Carol M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Latinos from agricultural communities have a high prevalence of food insecurity and are at increased risk of obesity and diabetes, yet little is known about the associations between food insecurity and diabetes outcomes. Objective To examine the associations between food insecurity and diabetes outcomes among rural Latinos. Methods Cross-sectional survey with medical chart abstraction of 250 Latinos with diabetes. Primary outcomes are the control of three intermediate diabetes outcomes (hemoglobin A1C ≤ 8.0%, LDL-cholesterol ≤ 100 mg/dl, and blood pressure ≤ 140/90 mmHg), a composite of control of the three, and receipt of 6 processes of care. Secondary outcomes are cost-related medication underuse and participation in self-care activities. Results Fifty-two percent of patients reported food insecurity and one-in-four reported cost-related medication underuse. Patients with food insecurity were more likely to report cost-related medication underuse (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.49; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.30, 4.98; p = 0.003); less likely to meet the composite measure for control of the 3 intermediate outcomes (AOR 0.24; 95% CI 0.07, 0.84; p < 0.05), and less likely to receive a dilated eye exam (AOR 0.37; 95% CI 0.18, 0.77; p < 0.05) and annual foot exams (AOR 0.42; 95% CI 0.20, 0.84; p < 0.05) compared to those who were food secure. Conclusion Among this rural Latino population, food insecurity was independently associated with not having control of the intermediate diabetes outcomes captured in the composite measure, not receiving dilated eye and foot exams, and with self-reporting cost-related medication underuse. PMID:25811632

  10. Machine vision system: a tool for quality inspection of food and agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krishna Kumar; Kar, A; Jha, S N; Khan, M A

    2012-04-01

    Quality inspection of food and agricultural produce are difficult and labor intensive. Simultaneously, with increased expectations for food products of high quality and safety standards, the need for accurate, fast and objective quality determination of these characteristics in food products continues to grow. However, these operations generally in India are manual which is costly as well as unreliable because human decision in identifying quality factors such as appearance, flavor, nutrient, texture, etc., is inconsistent, subjective and slow. Machine vision provides one alternative for an automated, non-destructive and cost-effective technique to accomplish these requirements. This inspection approach based on image analysis and processing has found a variety of different applications in the food industry. Considerable research has highlighted its potential for the inspection and grading of fruits and vegetables, grain quality and characteristic examination and quality evaluation of other food products like bakery products, pizza, cheese, and noodles etc. The objective of this paper is to provide in depth introduction of machine vision system, its components and recent work reported on food and agricultural produce.

  11. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Joyce E.; Wagner, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency’s educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students’ critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. PMID:27587851

  12. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    PubMed

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  13. Phosphorus cycling in Montreal's food and urban agriculture systems.

    PubMed

    Metson, Geneviève S; Bennett, Elena M

    2015-01-01

    Cities are a key system in anthropogenic phosphorus (P) cycling because they concentrate both P demand and waste production. Urban agriculture (UA) has been proposed as a means to improve P management by recycling cities' P-rich waste back into local food production. However, we have a limited understanding of the role UA currently plays in the P cycle of cities or its potential to recycle local P waste. Using existing data combined with surveys of local UA practitioners, we quantified the role of UA in the P cycle of Montreal, Canada to explore the potential for UA to recycle local P waste. We also used existing data to complete a substance flow analysis of P flows in the overall food system of Montreal. In 2012, Montreal imported 3.5 Gg of P in food, of which 2.63 Gg ultimately accumulated in landfills, 0.36 Gg were discharged to local waters, and only 0.09 Gg were recycled through composting. We found that UA is only a small sub-system in the overall P cycle of the city, contributing just 0.44% of the P consumed as food in the city. However, within the UA system, the rate of recycling is high: 73% of inputs applied to soil were from recycled sources. While a Quebec mandate to recycle 100% of all organic waste by 2020 might increase the role of UA in P recycling, the area of land in UA is too small to accommodate all P waste produced on the island. UA may, however, be a valuable pathway to improve urban P sustainability by acting as an activity that changes residents' relationship to, and understanding of, the food system and increases their acceptance of composting.

  14. PATHWAY: a simulation model of radionuclide-transport through agricultural food chains

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, T.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Otis, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    PATHWAY simulates the transport of radionuclides from fallout through an agricultural ecosystem. The agro-ecosystem is subdivided into several land management units, each of which is used either for grazing animals, for growing hay, or for growing food crops. The model simulates the transport of radionuclides by both discrete events and continuous, time-dependent processes. The discrete events include tillage of soil, harvest and storage of crops,and deposition of fallout. The continuous processes include the transport of radionuclides due to resuspension, weathering, rain splash, percolation, leaching, adsorption and desorption of radionuclides in the soil, root uptake, foliar absorption, growth and senescence of vegetation, and the ingestion assimilation, and excretion of radionuclides by animals. Preliminary validation studies indicate that the model dynamics and simulated values of radionuclide concentrations in several agricultural products agree well with measured values when the model is driven with site specific data on deposition from world-wide fallout.

  15. Attitudes, Educational, and Career Choices of Food and Agricultural Sciences Institute Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Paula E.; Baggett, Connie D.; Bowen, Cathy F.; Bowen, Blannie E.

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic minority students traditionally pursue degrees and careers in the food and agricultural sciences at rates lower than their non-minority counterparts. To help improve upon this situation, the Food and Agricultural Sciences Institute (FASI) was created to expose academically talented high school students to opportunities within the food and…

  16. 78 FR 58267 - Notice of October 15 Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Reagan Building, Bureau for Food Security, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Room 2.09-067, Washington, DC...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Notice of October 15 Board for International Food and Agricultural... meeting of the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD). Date: Tuesday,...

  17. 77 FR 61378 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of... the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD). The meeting will be held from 8... Food Security and Nutrition and will present their findings from a review of the Collaborative...

  18. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  19. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  20. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  1. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  2. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadhira, Vebi; Kurniadi, Deddy; Juliastuti, E.; Sutiswan, Adeline

    2014-03-01

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects.

  3. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    SciTech Connect

    Nadhira, Vebi Kurniadi, Deddy Juliastuti, E. Sutiswan, Adeline

    2014-03-24

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects.

  4. US-Based Food and Agricultural Value Chains and Their Relevance to Healthy Diets.

    PubMed

    Gereffi, Gary; Lee, Joonkoo; Christian, Michelle

    2009-07-01

    This article examines the structure and health implications of two industries, chicken and tomatoes, that play prominent roles in US food and agricultural competitiveness. Both industries have become more concentrated over time, with powerful "lead firms" driving geographical, technological, and marketing changes. Overall, a processed food revolution has taken place in agricultural products that transforms the types of food and dietary options available to consumers. The nature of contemporary food and agricultural value chains affects the strategies and policies that can be effectively employed to address major health goals such as improved nutrition, food safety, and food security.

  5. US-Based Food and Agricultural Value Chains and Their Relevance to Healthy Diets

    PubMed Central

    Gereffi, Gary; Lee, Joonkoo; Christian, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the structure and health implications of two industries, chicken and tomatoes, that play prominent roles in US food and agricultural competitiveness. Both industries have become more concentrated over time, with powerful “lead firms” driving geographical, technological, and marketing changes. Overall, a processed food revolution has taken place in agricultural products that transforms the types of food and dietary options available to consumers. The nature of contemporary food and agricultural value chains affects the strategies and policies that can be effectively employed to address major health goals such as improved nutrition, food safety, and food security. PMID:23144675

  6. Agricultural biotechnologies in developing countries and their possible contribution to food security.

    PubMed

    Ruane, John; Sonnino, Andrea

    2011-12-20

    Latest FAO figures indicate that an estimated 925 million people are undernourished in 2010, representing almost 16% of the population in developing countries. Looking to the future, there are also major challenges ahead from the rapidly changing socio-economic environment (increasing world population and urbanisation, and dietary changes) and climate change. Promoting agriculture in developing countries is the key to achieving food security, and it is essential to act in four ways: to increase investment in agriculture, broaden access to food, improve governance of global trade, and increase productivity while conserving natural resources. To enable the fourth action, the suite of technological options for farmers should be as broad as possible, including agricultural biotechnologies. Agricultural biotechnologies represent a broad range of technologies used in food and agriculture for the genetic improvement of plant varieties and animal populations, characterisation and conservation of genetic resources, diagnosis of plant or animal diseases and other purposes. Discussions about agricultural biotechnology have been dominated by the continuing controversy surrounding genetic modification and its resulting products, genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The polarised debate has led to non-GMO biotechnologies being overshadowed, often hindering their development and application. Extensive documentation from the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies in Developing Countries (ABDC-10), that took place in Guadalajara, Mexico, on 1-4 March 2010, gave a very good overview of the many ways that different agricultural biotechnologies are being used to increase productivity and conserve natural resources in the crop, livestock, fishery, forestry and agro-industry sectors in developing countries. The conference brought together about 300 policy-makers, scientists and representatives of intergovernmental and international non

  7. Proceedings: EPRI's Agricultural and Food Technology Alliances: Memphis, Tennessee, May 12-14, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This document is a compilation of field trip overviews, presentations and committee reports from the EPRI Agricultural Technology Alliance (ATA) and Food Technology Alliance (FTA) Joint Meeting held in Memphis, Tennessee, May 12-14, 1998. Presentation titles include: Agricultural Research Programs in Tennessee; Tennessee's Food and Agricultural Research Programs; The TVA -- Formation and Evolution, Deregulation/Restructuring the Electric Utility Industry -- Status and Update; Water and Wastewater Program Interactions with the Food and Agricultural Technology Alliances; Aquaculture -- Its Importance to Food and Agriculture; The Poultry Industry -- The Original Agriculture and Food Integrator; Update on Electronic Pasteurization; and California's Electric Industry Restructuring New Options for Agricultural Customers. The document also includes steering committee actions of both the ATA and the FTA, a registration list, steering committee operating procedures and member services for the ATA and the FTA, project summaries, and minutes from the ozone workshop that took place prior to the meeting.

  8. Emissions and reduction of greenhouse gases from agriculture and food manufacturing -- A summary white paper

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.

    1999-12-01

    This paper summarizes the current scientific and technological knowledge about greenhouse gas emissions from various agricultural practices and the manufacturing of food. The study also provides estimates that compare agriculture-related alternatives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. 78 FR 35258 - Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Continuation of... revocation of the antidumping duty order \\1\\ on solid agricultural grade ammonium nitrate from Ukraine would... of the Order. \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Order: Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium Nitrate from...

  10. Evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We have been studying the evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected organic materials for useful life-support systems in closed bio-ecosystems for space agriculture on Mars in the future. We have already proposed several species as food materials; cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 and the Japanese cherry tree. Nostoc sp. HK-01 is a terrestrial cyanobacterium which has high tolerances to several space environments. In addition to its high tolerances to serious environments, HK-01 has a high protein content. Total protein per 100 g of the dried colony of Nostoc sp. HK-01 was approximately 50 g. Woody plant materials also have several properties which can be utilized in our habitation environment and as food. We have already found abilities to produce important functional substances for humans in the selected trees. Here, we show the extended results of our experiments.

  11. Choice, time and food: continuous cyclical changes in food probability between reinforcers.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Dukoski, Ludmila; Davison, Michael; Elliffe, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    The current experiment examined the degree to which locally varying food probabilities on two keys across time since food presentations can continue to control choice until the next food delivery. In two sets of conditions, the probability of food delivery being made available on one key relative to the other key varied sinusoidally across a 1-min period following each food delivery. In Set 1, food-probability changes were unsignaled and the number of cycles per min was varied across conditions. In Set 2, there were always two complete cycles of the sinusoid in the 1-min period, and brief key-color changes were arranged at a selection of fixed times since food delivery to signal portions of the sinusoid. In Set 1, control of choice by local probability of food on each key decreased over time since food delivery. Control by local food probabilities was greater in conditions that arranged fewer cycles per min. The onset of stimulus changes in Set 2 led to a transient reinstatement of local control by food probabilities regardless of the portion of the sinusoidal variation in food probabilities signaled by the stimuli. However, in conditions where the same colored stimuli signaled different portions of the sinusoidal variation in food-delivery probabilities, stimulus changes attenuated joint control by elapsed time and food-probability values. These results suggest that, changing relative food probabilities and stimuli can direct preference toward the likely location of the next food delivery across time since a food presentation, although the degree to which control over choice will be maintained across elapsed time depends on how experimenter-arranged contingencies are mapped onto elapsed time.

  12. Using biosolids from agricultural processing as food for animals

    SciTech Connect

    Belyea, R.L.; Clevenger, T.E.; Van Dyne, D.L.; Eckhoff, S.E.; Wallig, M.A.; Tumbleson, M.E.

    1993-12-31

    A diverse inventory of secondary products arise from processing of agricultural commodities. Societal, economic and physical constraints will curtail traditional disposal methods and create a need for alternatives that conserve, recycle and capitalize on these underutilized resources. Economic viability of some processes or primary products may depend upon practical alternatives for disposing of secondary products. The broad nature of secondary products and the process from which they emanate along with the complex transformations needed for remediation will require the efforts of multidisciplinary teams of scientists to identify creative solutions. Most secondary products have significant nutritional value and could be fed to animals as a means of disposal. However, detailed chemical and biological characterization is needed to determine nutrient concentrations and to ensure safety and efficacy. Feeding studies will be necessary to demonstrate palatability and to determine effects upon animal health and performance. New bioprocessing techniques will be needed to remediate the attributes of some secondary products into more appropriate forms or qualities. The potential for using wash water biosolids as animal food was investigated. Wash water biosolids from a broad cross section of food processing plants were found to be free from pollutants and other harmful entities. Nutrient composition varied considerably within and among different types of food processing plants (i.e., milk vs poultry). However, within a particular plant, variation in mineral concentration of biosolids over several months was quite small. Wash water biosolids from a milk processing plant were found to be free of pollutants and to have nutritional value. Diets containing biosolids were palatable when fed to sheep, cows, turkeys, or swine. Safety and efficacy studies with sheep and swine indicated that feeding up to 20% biosolids did not adversely affect growth, reproduction or survival.

  13. 77 FR 17001 - Notice of Meeting: Board for International Food and Agricultural Development

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ...; ] Agency for International Development Notice of Meeting: Board for International Food and Agricultural Development Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of the public meeting of the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD). The meeting will be held from...

  14. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to agriculture, uses of solar energy with respect to agriculture, home economics, and rural energy in... new food, fiber, and energy sources; agricultural energy use and production; natural resources... renewable energy workforce (7 U.S.C. 3319e). (146) Administer a competitive grants program to assist...

  15. Biotechnologies for the management of genetic resources for food and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lidder, Preetmoninder; Sonnino, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the land area under agriculture has declined as also has the rate of growth in agricultural productivity while the demand for food continues to escalate. The world population now stands at 7 billion and is expected to reach 9 billion in 2045. A broad range of agricultural genetic diversity needs to be available and utilized in order to feed this growing population. Climate change is an added threat to biodiversity that will significantly impact genetic resources for food and agriculture (GRFA) and food production. There is no simple, all-encompassing solution to the challenges of increasing productivity while conserving genetic diversity. Sustainable management of GRFA requires a multipronged approach, and as outlined in the paper, biotechnologies can provide powerful tools for the management of GRFA. These tools vary in complexity from those that are relatively simple to those that are more sophisticated. Further, advances in biotechnologies are occurring at a rapid pace and provide novel opportunities for more effective and efficient management of GRFA. Biotechnology applications must be integrated with ongoing conventional breeding and development programs in order to succeed. Additionally, the generation, adaptation, and adoption of biotechnologies require a consistent level of financial and human resources and appropriate policies need to be in place. These issues were also recognized by Member States at the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies for Developing Countries (ABDC-10), which took place in March 2010 in Mexico. At the end of the conference, the Member States reached a number of key conclusions, agreeing, inter alia, that developing countries should significantly increase sustained investments in capacity building and the development and use of biotechnologies to maintain the natural resource base; that effective and enabling national biotechnology policies and science-based regulatory frameworks can

  16. Evaluation of the Food and Agriculture Sector Criticality Assessment Tool (FASCAT) and the Collected Data.

    PubMed

    Huff, Andrew G; Hodges, James S; Kennedy, Shaun P; Kircher, Amy

    2015-08-01

    To protect and secure food resources for the United States, it is crucial to have a method to compare food systems' criticality. In 2007, the U.S. government funded development of the Food and Agriculture Sector Criticality Assessment Tool (FASCAT) to determine which food and agriculture systems were most critical to the nation. FASCAT was developed in a collaborative process involving government officials and food industry subject matter experts (SMEs). After development, data were collected using FASCAT to quantify threats, vulnerabilities, consequences, and the impacts on the United States from failure of evaluated food and agriculture systems. To examine FASCAT's utility, linear regression models were used to determine: (1) which groups of questions posed in FASCAT were better predictors of cumulative criticality scores; (2) whether the items included in FASCAT's criticality method or the smaller subset of FASCAT items included in DHS's risk analysis method predicted similar criticality scores. Akaike's information criterion was used to determine which regression models best described criticality, and a mixed linear model was used to shrink estimates of criticality for individual food and agriculture systems. The results indicated that: (1) some of the questions used in FASCAT strongly predicted food or agriculture system criticality; (2) the FASCAT criticality formula was a stronger predictor of criticality compared to the DHS risk formula; (3) the cumulative criticality formula predicted criticality more strongly than weighted criticality formula; and (4) the mixed linear regression model did not change the rank-order of food and agriculture system criticality to a large degree.

  17. Household food security is associated with agricultural livelihoods and diet quality in a marginalized community of rural Bedouins in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Hala; Barbour, Jessica M; Nord, Mark; Zurayk, Rami; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2013-10-01

    In the context of recent increases in international food prices, it is hypothesized that in rural communities retaining food production practices is important for protection against food insecurity at both the household and community levels, as well as for protection against the development of poor nutritional outcomes. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study of household food security and nutritional status was carried out in a rural community of settled Bedouins in Lebanon comprising 84 households with 474 individuals; this tribe's recent history of settlement in 2 locations that differ by access to land and food production practices provides the context for this study. Food insecurity was found to be highly prevalent (49%) in this Bedouin community and was negatively associated with household food production (P < 0.05) and the consumption of fruits, chicken, meat, and fish (P < 0.05) and positively associated with consumption of cereal products (P < 0.01). This study shows that in small rural communities in a transitional country, sustaining food production may protect from food insecurity. Agricultural livelihood support programs that promote continued involvement in food production at the household and community level, in conjunction with other income-generating activities, may build resilience against food insecurity and improve dietary diversity.

  18. Civic Engagement through Civic Agriculture: Using Food to Link Classroom and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, D. Wynne

    2006-01-01

    The maximization of productivity and labor efficiency has been a hallmark of the American agriculture and food system. The result of these twin processes is an industrial, concentrated, and consolidated provisioning system that produces cheap and plentiful food. Many view this model as a panacea for providing food to a modern industrial workforce,…

  19. Using a Training Video to Improve Agricultural Workers' Knowledge of On-Farm Food Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiasen, Lisa; Morley, Katija; Chapman, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A training video was produced and evaluated to assess its impact on the food safety knowledge of agricultural workers. Increasing food safety knowledge on the farm may help to improve the safety of fresh produce. Surveys were used to measure workers' food safety knowledge before and after viewing the video. Focus groups were used to determine…

  20. Peering into the Secrets of Food and Agricultural Co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for directing product development and is equally important for developing products from food crops and co-products from the agricultural waste after harvest. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to ...

  1. World Indices of Agricultural and Food Production, 1977-86. Statistical Bulletin Number 759.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    World food production reached a record high in 1986, exceeding 1985's record by about 1 percent, despite declining food output in Latin America, the United States, Western Europe, and Oceania. World food production generally increased faster than population from 1977 to 1986. Production of agricultural commodities increased at an annual compound…

  2. Transition in Food and Agricultural Policy: Key Stakeholder--Domestic Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Jean

    Assurance of an adequate and safe supply of food at a reasonable price is consumers' primary stake in the outcome of 1995 farm bill deliberations and related food and agricultural policies. Farm programs have provided an economically stable environment wherein farmers produce an abundance of food. The declining portion of household budgets…

  3. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  4. Problems of Manpower in Agriculture. OECD Documentation in Food and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Problems related to rapid reduction of the agricultural labor force were examined in the 21 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The size and changes of the agricultural labor force, economic forces tending towards change, technical requirements for labor in agriculture, and obstacles hindering economic adjustment of…

  5. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for..., AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS... sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral Fellowship Grants Program...

  6. World Food and Agriculture. Economic Problems and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asefa, Sisay, Ed.

    This book contains a series of essays based on public lectures delivered by six agricultural economists during the 1986-1987 academic year at Western Michigan University. Some of the main issues and problems addressed in the essays are the role of technical change in agricultural development, the value of learning from historical and comparative…

  7. Agricultural biology in the 3rd millennium: nutritional food security & specialty crops through sustainable agriculture and biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food security and agricultural sustainability are of prime concern in the world today in light of the increasing trends in population growth in most parts of the globe excepting Europe. The need to develop capacity to produce more to feed more people is complicated since the arable land is decreasin...

  8. Career Preparation in Agricultural Products (Food Processing): A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eddie A.

    This curriculum guide in agricultural products (food processing) is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes three occupational subgroups: meat, fish, poultry; dairy (milk) products; fruits and vegetables. It is meant as an…

  9. Biogas by semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cunsheng; Su, Haijia; Wang, Zhenbin; Tan, Tianwei; Qin, Peiyong

    2015-04-01

    The semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste was investigated in 1-L and 20-L continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs), to identify the optimum operation condition and the methane production of the semi-continuous anaerobic process. Results from a 1-L digester indicated that the optimum organic loading rate (OLR) for semi-continuous digestion is 8 g VS/L/day. The corresponding methane yield and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction were 385 mL/g VS and 80.2 %, respectively. Anaerobic digestion was inhibited at high OLRs (12 and 16 g VS/L/day), due to volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation. Results from a 20-L digester indicated that a higher methane yield of 423 mL/g VS was obtained at this larger scale. The analysis showed that the methane production at the optimum OLR fitted well with the determined kinetics equation. An obvious decrease on the methane content was observed at the initial of digestion. The increased metabolization of microbes and the activity decrease of methanogen caused by VFA accumulation explained the lower methane content at the initial of digestion.

  10. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Agriculture, Food and Forestry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the agriculture, food, and forestry industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  11. Quality and safety assessment of food and agricultural products by hyperspectral fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruoyu; Ying, Yibin; Rao, Xiuqin; Li, Jiangbo

    2012-09-01

    Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging (HSFI) is potentially useful for assessing food and agricultural products, because it combines the merits of both hyperspectral imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy. This paper provides an introduction to HSFI: the principle and components of HSFI, calibration and image processing are described. In addition, recent advances in the application of HSFI to food and agricultural product assessment are reviewed, such as contaminant detection, constituent analysis and quality evaluation. Finally, current limitations and likely future development trends are discussed.

  12. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture and the promotion of food and nutrition sovereignty and security in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maluf, Renato Sergio; Burlandy, Luciene; Santarelli, Mariana; Schottz, Vanessa; Speranza, Juliana Simões

    2015-08-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of the nutrition-sensitive agriculture approach in the context of the programs and actions towards promoting food and nutrition sovereignty and security in Brazil. To analyze the links between nutrition and agriculture, this paper presents the conceptual framework related to food and nutrition security, and stresses the correlations among concepts, institutional structures and program design in Brazil. Dominant models of food production and consumption are scrutinized in the light of these relationships. This paper also highlights differences amongst different ways to promote nutrition-sensitive agriculture through food-acquisition programs from family farmers, experiences in agro-ecology and bio-fortification programs. In the closing remarks, the paper draws some lessons learned from the Brazilian experience that highlight the advantages of family farming and rapid food production, distribution and consumption cycles in order to promote access to an affordable, diversified and more adequate diet in nutritional terms.

  13. Seed Aid for Food Security? Some Lessons from Zimbabwe's Agricultural Recovery Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Richard; Muringai, Violet; Mavunganidze, Zira

    2007-01-01

    Does agricultural input aid always lead to favourable food security outcomes? This paper describes Zimbabwe's agricultural recovery program for the 2003/2004 farming season and draws some lessons that can be used in the designing and implementation of future programs. Input aid was found to be most beneficial if it is packaged together with other…

  14. Special Examination of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Rashada; King, Jeanine; McKee, Benny

    In response to a legislative request, the efficiency of program operations of the University of Floridas Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) was evaluated using data from multiple sources. IFAS is the entity responsible for carrying out the University of Floridas land grant mission. IFAS offers programs in agriculture, family and…

  15. The Role of Education in Agricultural Projects for Food Security and Poverty Reduction in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walingo, Mary Khakoni

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural development projects have been promoted in many places as a feature of poverty-reduction strategies. Such projects have often been implemented without a strong in-built education component, and hence have had little success. Agricultural projects seek to improve food security by diversifying a household's resource base and…

  16. One hundred years of the Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (AGFD)of the American Chemical Society was 100 years old in 2008. ACS grouped papers into sections at its national meetings starting in 1904, including one dealing with agricultural, biological, and sanitary chemistry. This section became AGFD on Dec...

  17. Agriculture, Food Production, and Rural Land Use in Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, William G.; Watson, Nancy H.

    2016-01-01

    ''Agriculture, Food, and Rural Land Use" constitutes a major part of the AP Human Geography course outline. This article explores challenging topics to teach, emerging research trends in agricultural geography, and sample teaching approaches for concretizing abstract topics. It addresses content identified as "essential knowledge"…

  18. Continuing education in physical rehabilitation and health issues of agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Wilhite, Carla S; Jaco, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Limited attention has been devoted to the cultural and practice competencies needed by occupational therapy and physical therapy professionals who provide services to farming families impacted by chronic health or disability issues. Agricultural occupational safety and health should represent a continuum of services responsive to individuals, families, and agricultural communities across a life span and range of health status changes. Physical rehabilitation professionals have a key role in impacting an agricultural producer's sense of self-efficacy and capacities for returning to agricultural living and work. However, demonstration of competency is essential in providing person-centered rehabilitation services of assessment, evaluation, treatment planning, interventions, referrals, and discharge issues. The paper highlights methods utilized by a state AgrAbility program and a former National AgrAbility Project to develop a model of continuing education programming for occupational and physical therapists that evaluate and treat agricultural workers after acute injury or exacerbation of chronic health conditions.

  19. From Cutlass to Agribusiness: Caribbean Food and Agriculture in Transition within a Global System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael J.

    This examination of the future role of food and agriculture in world peace and prosperity presents a regional cross-country view of the Caribbean countries with emphasis on the Caricom English speaking countries within a global food system environment. Following an introductory section, the second of six sections focuses on two broad agricultural…

  20. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Further Provide Food Safety Information to Consumers Mar 24, 2017 Lakes Farm Raised Catfish, Inc. Recalls ... Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling Mar 31, 2017 FSIS Notice 20-17 Raw Pork ...

  1. Sustainable development in agriculture, food and nutrition--a patent analysis.

    PubMed

    Vani, Kohila P; Doble, Mukesh

    2011-05-01

    The paper discusses the patents that have been filed in the areas of sustainable development in agriculture, food and nutrition and use of natural resources in achieving this goal. A large number of patents deal with the production of fertilizers from animal manure, plant sources and other organic wastes, which are more sustainable that the chemical fertilizers that are being currently used. Sustainability in agriculture is achieved in developing processes for the manufacture of biopesticides/insecticides and bioactive agricultural products. Development of novel sustainable agricultural processes has also been the focus of researchers and technologists. Plant derived nutritious food products are sustainable and can cater for the growing population burden. This has been the focus of several patents. Processes for enhancing the nutrition in food also serve the purpose of catering for the under nourished population.

  2. [Agriculture and food in the Algerian reforms: a place for the farmers?].

    PubMed

    Chaulet, C

    1991-01-01

    Available documents, legal texts, press reports, and some contemporary observations and studies are used to assess aspects of Algeria's drive to reform agriculture and food distribution. Algeria, like many other countries, is striving to replace a centralized agricultural and food distribution system with a greater responsiveness to market conditions. This document examines the climatic and physical constraints on agriculture in Algeria, the government role in agriculture and food distribution since independence, the various groups involved in agricultural policy making and production, and recent changes in agricultural policy and development strategies. Lack of cultivable land, a semiarid climate with marked annual variations in rainfall, soil exhaustion and erosion, and competition for land and water from industry and the growing urban population are among the problems besetting agricultural production. Partial collectivization after independence led to progressive development of 2 parallel agricultural systems, a state portion relying ever more heavily on importation of basic foodstuffs to feed a rapidly growing population, and a private or informal sector outside state control and of unknown size that supplied fruits, vegetables and other nonstaples at market rates. The public sector agriculture was not able to become profitable because of the political functions it was required to fill. At the moment of its proposed agricultural reforms, Algeria has neither a solid agricultural base nor a population resigned to inequality. State intervention in food acquisition and distribution has, according to nutritional surveys, resulted in an improved nutritional status almost everywhere in Algeria. Consumers have become an important pressure group. Other groups whose interest would be affected by a new agricultural policy include diverse groups of agricultural producers ranging from salaried workers on large properties to peasants working family holdings, potential

  3. Food and agricultural waste: Sources of carbon for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, wastes derived from agriculture products have met with limited success in the production of biofuels. Our objective in this report is to showcase a new and meaningful concept (called “avoidance”), to measure the environmental importance of converting these waste streams into energy. Agr...

  4. Challenges and opportunities in supporting sustainable agriculture and food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2014 IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry (San Francisco, August, 2014) included a symposium on “Challenges Associated with Global Adoption of Agricultural Biotechnology” to review current obstacles in promoting GM crops. Challenges identified by symposium presenters included i) ...

  5. Agriculture Reform, Food, and Jobs Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Stabenow, Debbie [D-MI

    2012-05-24

    08/28/2012 By Senator Stabenow from Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry filed written report under authority of the order of the Senate of 08/02/2012. Report No. 112-203. Additional views filed. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Agriculture Reform, Food, and Jobs Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Loebsack, David [D-IA-2

    2013-06-25

    06/25/2013 Referred to the House Committee on Agriculture. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2642, which became Public Law 113-79 on 2/7/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Advanced Analytical Techniques for the Measurement of Nanomaterials in Food and Agricultural Samples: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nanotechnology offers substantial prospects for the development of state-of-the-art products and applications for agriculture, water treatment, and food industry. Profuse use of nanoproducts will bring potential benefits to farmers, the food industry, and consumers, equally. However, after end-user applications, these products and residues will find their way into the environment. Therefore, discharged nanomaterials (NMs) need to be identified and quantified to determine their ecotoxicity and the levels of exposure. Detection and characterization of NMs and their residues in the environment, particularly in food and agricultural products, have been limited, as no single technique or method is suitable to identify and quantify NMs. In this review, we have discussed the available literature concerning detection, characterization, and measurement techniques for NMs in food and agricultural matrices, which include chromatography, flow field fractionation, electron microscopy, light scattering, and autofluorescence techniques, among others. PMID:23483065

  8. Consumer preferences for food product quality attributes from Swedish agriculture.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Frykblom, Peter; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2005-06-01

    This paper employs a choice experiment to obtain consumer preferences and willingness to pay for food product quality attributes currently not available in Sweden. Data were obtained from a large mail survey and estimated with a random parameter logit model. We found evidence for intraproduct differences in consumer preferences for identical attributes, as well as interproduct discrepancies in ranking of attributes. Furthermore, we found evidence of a market failure relating to the potential use of genetically modified animal fodder. Finally, we found support for the idea that a cheap-talk script can alleviate problems of external validity of choice experiments. Our results are useful in forming product differentiation strategies within the food industry, as well as for the formation of food policy.

  9. Nanotechnology and patents in agriculture, food technology, nutrition and medicine - advantages and risks: worldwide patented nano- and absorber particles in food nutrition and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Benckiser, Gero

    2012-12-01

    The keywords nanotechnology, super absorber, agriculture, nutrition, and food technology exhibited 28,149 positive matches under more than 68 million patents worldwide. A closer look at the first 500 nanotechnology, agriculture, nutrition and biotechnology related patents, published during 2011-2012, unveiled that 64% are parts of machines and control devices while about 36% comprise metal oxides, fertilizers, pesticides and drugs, which are compounds and often applied in combination with inorganic or organic super absorbing polymeric structures. The latter compounds are in the focus of this special issue.

  10. Agriculture Reform, Food, and Jobs Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Stabenow, Debbie [D-MI

    2013-05-14

    09/04/2013 By Senator Stabenow from Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry filed written report under authority of the order of the Senate of 08/01/2013. Report No. 113-88. Additional views filed. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2642, which became Public Law 113-79 on 2/7/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Agriculture Reform, Food, and Jobs Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2013-01-22

    01/22/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. (text of measure as introduced: CR S48-156) (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2642, which became Public Law 113-79 on 2/7/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Importance of Animals in Agricultural Sustainability and Food Security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A conservative projection shows the world's population growing by 32% (to 9.5 billion) by 2050 and 53% (to 11 billion) by 2100 compared with its current level of 7.2 billion. Because most arable land worldwide is already in use, and water and energy also are limiting, increased production of food wi...

  13. Food Processing and Agriculture. Wisconsin Annual Farm Labor Report, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Employment Service, Madison.

    A yearly report on the migrant farm worker situation in Wisconsin evaluates the year 1968 in relation to past years and makes projections for the future. Comparisons are made of trends in year-round employment practices, seasonal food processing, the cherry industry, and the cucumber industry. The report includes a discussion on the social aspects…

  14. Urban Intensification and Expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa: Impacts on Urban Agriculture and Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzokwe, V. N. E. N.; Muchelo, R. O.; Odeh, I. A.

    2015-12-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), urban intensification and expansion are increasing at alarming rates due to rapid population growth and rural-to-urban migration. This has led to the premise that the proportion of SSA urban residents most vulnerable to food insecurity is the highest in the world. Using a focused survey and multi-temporal (decadal) land use/cover classification of Landsat images, we explored the effect of urban intensification and expansion on urban agriculture and food security, focusing on a megacity and a regional center in Uganda: Kampala and Mbarara, respectively. We found that food insecurity arose due to a number of reasons, among which are: i) expansion and intensification of of urban settlements into previously productive agricultural lands in urban and peri-urban areas; ii) loss of predominantly young (rural agricultural) adult labor force to urban centers, leading to decline in rural food production; iii) lack of proper urban planning incorporating green and agricultural development leading to low productive market garden systems. We discussed these outcomes in light of existing studies which estimated that urban agriculture alone supports over 800 million people globally and accounts for 15-20% of world food supply. In spite of this relatively low contribution by urban/peri-urban agriculture, it probably accounts for higher proportion of food supply to urban poor in SSA and thus are most vulnerable to the loss of urban and peri-urban agricultural land. Further recommendations require policy makers and urban planners to team up to design a suitable framework for sustainable urban planning and development.

  15. Food, Feed, or Fuel? Phosphorus Flows Embodied in US Agricultural Production and Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, G.; Bennett, E.; Carpenter, S.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is integral to sustainable food production and water quality regulation. Globalization of agricultural systems, changing diets, and increasing biofuel production pose new challenges for managing non-renewable P reserves, particularly in key agricultural producing regions such as the US. We used a detailed model of the US agricultural system to assess the quantity of mineral P fertilizers used to produce food crops, livestock, and biofuels relative to the P ultimately consumed in domestic diets. We also quantified linkages in fertilizer use between the US and its trading partners globally via agricultural trade. Feed and livestock production drove by far the largest demand for P fertilizers in the US (56% of all P use for domestic and imported products). Of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P), 28% were retained in agricultural soils as surplus P, 40% were lost through processing and waste prior to consumption in human diets, while 10% were diverted directly to biofuel production. One quarter of P fertilizer in the US was required to produce exports, particularly major food and feed crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) that drove a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P) with strongly crop-specific effects on soil P imbalances nationally. However, US meat consumption involved considerable reliance on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports linked primarily to soil P surpluses abroad. We show that changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer needed to produce food consumed in the US by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). More effective distribution of P use for major crops nationally and greater recycling of all agricultural wastes is critical to using US phosphate rock reserves as efficiently as possible while maintaining export-oriented agriculture.

  16. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-02-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted towards improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  17. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed. PMID:24790975

  18. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  19. Updated US Department of Agriculture Food Patterns meet goals of the 2010 dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Britten, Patricia; Cleveland, Linda E; Koegel, Kristin L; Kuczynski, Kevin J; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M

    2012-10-01

    The US Department of Agriculture Food Patterns were updated for the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans to meet new nutrition goals and incorporate results of food pattern modeling requested by the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. The purpose of this article is to describe the process used and changes in the updated patterns. Changes include renaming the Meat and Beans and Milk Groups to the Protein Foods and Dairy Groups, respectively, to be more encompassing of foods in each. Vegetable subgroups now provide more achievable intake recommendations. Calcium-fortified soymilk is now included in the Dairy Group because of its similarity to foods in that group. Increased amounts of seafoods are recommended in the Protein Foods Group, balanced by decreased amounts of meat and poultry. A limit on calories from solid fats and added sugars is included, replacing the previous discretionary calorie allowance and emphasizing the need to choose nutrient-dense forms of foods. Lacto-ovo vegetarian and vegan patterns that meet nutrition goals were created by making substitutions in the Protein Foods Group, and for vegan patterns, in the Dairy Group. Patterns identify food choices that meet nutritional needs within energy allowances and encourage choosing a variety of foods. They rely on foods in nutrient-dense forms, including a limited amount of calories from solid fats and added sugars. The Food Patterns provide a useful template for educating consumers about healthful food choices while highlighting a large gap between choices many Americans make and healthy eating patterns.

  20. Applications of natural zeolites on agriculture and food production.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Nazife; Emekci, Mevlut; Athanassiou, Christos

    2017-03-14

    Zeolites are crystalline hydrated aluminosilicates with remarkable physical and chemical properties including losing and receiving water in a reverse way, adsorbing molecules that act as molecular sieves, and replacing their constituent cations without structural change. Commercial production of natural zeolites has accelerated during last fifty years. The Structure Commission of the International Zeolite Association recorded more than 200 zeolites which currently include more than 40 naturally occurring zeolites. Recent findings supported their role in stored-pest management as inert dust applications, pesticide and fertilizer carriers, soil amendments, animal feed additives, mycotoxin binders and food packaging materials. There are many advantages of inert dust application including low cost, non-neurotoxic action, low mammalian toxicity and safety for human consumption. Latest consumer trends and government protocols have shifted toward organic origin materials to replace synthetic chemical products. In the current review, we summarized most of the main uses of zeolites in food and agruculture, with specific paradigms that illustrate their important role.

  1. Peering into the secrets of food and agricultural co-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Delilah; Williams, Tina; Glenn, Gregory; Pan, Zhongli; Orts, William; McHugh, Tara

    2010-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for understanding food contamination and directing product development of food and industrial products. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to eat. At the same time, these processed foods must be safe, high quality and maintain all or most of the nutritional value of the original whole foods. Minimally processed foods, is the phrase used to characterize these "new" foods. New techniques are needed which take advantage of minimal processing or processing which enhances the fresh properties and characteristics of whole foods while spending less time on food preparation. The added benefit coupled to less cooking time in an individual kitchen translates to an overall energy savings and reduces the carbon emissions to the environment. Food processing changes the microstructure, and therefore, the quality, texture and flavor, of the resulting food product. Additionally, there is the need to reduce waste, transportation costs and product loss during transportation and storage. Unlike food processing, structural changes are desirable in co-products as function follows form for food packaging films and boxes as well as for building materials and other industrial products. Thus, the standard materials testing procedures are coupled with SEM to provide direction in the development of products from agricultural residues or what would otherwise be considered waste materials. The use of agricultural residues reduces waste and adds value to a currently underutilized or unutilized product. The product might be biodegradable or compostable, thus reducing landfill requirements. Manufacturing industrial and packaging products from biological materials also reduces the amount of petroleum products currently standard in the industry.

  2. The Implementation of the Food Safety Modernization Act and the Strength of the Sustainable Agriculture Movement.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Samuel R

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of growing public concerns over salmonella outbreaks and other highly publicized food safety issues, Congress passed the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act in 2011, which placed more stringent standards on food growing and packaging operations. In negotiations preceding the Act's passage, farmers of local, sustainable food argued that these rules would unduly burden local agricultural operations or, at the extreme, drive them out of business by creating overly burdensome rules. These objections culminated in the addition of the Tester-Hagan Amendment to the Food Safety Modernization Act, which created certain exemptions for small farms. Proposed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rules to implement the Act threatened to weaken this victory for small farm groups, however, prompting a loud response from small farmers and local food proponents. The FDA's second set of proposed rules, issued in September 2014 in response to these and other complaints, were, perhaps surprisingly, responsive to small farmers' concerns. Using comments submitted to the FDA, this article explores the responses of the agriculture industry and public health organizations, as well as small farm groups, consumers of local food, and sustainable agriculture interests (which, for simplicity, I alternately describe as comprising the "sustainable agriculture" or "small farm" movement), to three aspects of the FDA's proposed rules--involving manure application, on-farm packing activities, and exemptions for very small farms--to assess the strength of the sustainable agriculture movement. The rules involving manure application and on-farm packing, it turns out, reveal little about the independent political strength of the local food movement, as large industry groups also objected to these provisions. But for the third issue discussed here--exemptions for very small farms--the interests of sustainable agriculture groups were directly opposed to both industry and public health organizations

  3. Vitamin D in foods: development of the US Department of Agriculture database.

    PubMed

    Holden, Joanne M; Lemar, Linda E; Exler, Jacob

    2008-04-01

    Specific data on vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 are needed to enable the assessment of vitamin D dietary intake. These forms of the vitamin can occur in foods, both naturally or from fortification. The Nutrient Data Laboratory at the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture collaborated with vitamin D experts in an analytic project with 2 major goals: 1) to review and develop methods for analyzing a variety of food items for vitamin D content and 2) to sample and analyze foods considered to be major contributors of vitamin D. During 2007, analysts from up to 6 laboratories compared methods, made modifications in some cases, and validated results with quality-control samples of similar food types in preparation for the analysis of sampled foods. The Nutrient Data Laboratory has prioritized foods for analysis and has identified the following as important contributors of vitamin D: finfish and shellfish, naturally occurring sources, and fortified foods such as milk, calcium-fortified orange juice, breakfast cereals, American cheese, margarines, and yogurt. A nationwide multistage sampling plan was designed and conducted to select and procure representative sample units of all such foods. After analysis of these food samples and review of the results, acceptable values for vitamin D2 and D3 will be disseminated in the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (Internet: http://www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata).

  4. The Urban Food-Water Nexus: Modeling Water Footprints of Urban Agriculture using CityCrop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooke, T. R.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Coops, N. C.; Johnson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Urban agriculture provides a potential contribution towards more sustainable food production and mitigating some of the human impacts that accompany volatility in regional and global food supply. When considering the capacity of urban landscapes to produce food products, the impact of urban water demand required for food production in cities is often neglected. Urban agricultural studies also tend to be undertaken at broad spatial scales, overlooking the heterogeneity of urban form that exerts an extreme influence on the urban energy balance. As a result, urban planning and management practitioners require, but often do not have, spatially explicit and detailed information to support informed urban agricultural policy, especially as it relates to potential conflicts with sustainability goals targeting water-use. In this research we introduce a new model, CityCrop, a hybrid evapotranspiration-plant growth model that incorporates detailed digital representations of the urban surface and biophysical impacts of the built environment and urban trees to account for the daily variations in net surface radiation. The model enables very fine-scale (sub-meter) estimates of water footprints of potential urban agricultural production. Results of the model are demonstrated for an area in the City of Vancouver, Canada and compared to aspatial model estimates, demonstrating the unique considerations and sensitivities for current and future water footprints of urban agriculture and the implications for urban water planning and policy.

  5. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD...

  6. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD...

  7. Recent applications of DNA sequencing technologies in food, nutrition and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Liu, George E

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation DNA sequencing technologies are able to produce millions of short sequence reads in a highthroughput, cost-effective fashion. The emergence of these technologies has not only facilitated genome sequencing but also changed the landscape of life sciences. This review surveys their recent applications in food, nutrition and agriculture ranging from whole-genome sequencing and resequencing, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq, structural, functional and comparative genomics to metagenomics and epigenetics. We already began to witness broad impacts of these DNA sequencing technologies for solving the complex biological problems in food, nutrition and agriculture. In this article, recent patent-based information is also included.

  8. 7 CFR 250.60 - Use of donated foods in the school food service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of donated foods in the school food service. 250.60 Section 250.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION...

  9. 7 CFR 250.60 - Use of donated foods in the school food service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of donated foods in the school food service. 250.60 Section 250.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION...

  10. 7 CFR 250.60 - Use of donated foods in the school food service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of donated foods in the school food service. 250.60 Section 250.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION...

  11. 7 CFR 250.60 - Use of donated foods in the school food service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of donated foods in the school food service. 250.60 Section 250.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION...

  12. Trends in Agricultural Growing Seasons Due to Climatic Shifts in Africa: Implications for Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; de Beurs, K.; Vrieling, A.

    2009-12-01

    Some of the most profound and direct impacts of climate change over the next few decades will be on agricultural production and the broader food system. Africa is one of the regions most vulnerable to these impacts due to their under developed economies and the predominance of small farmer, subsistence agriculture. This paper focuses on understanding variations in agricultural production due to rainfall and temperature fluctuations, which are a primary cause of food insecurity on the continent in Africa. A retrospective analysis on the relationship between climate indices and environmental productivity may provide the tools to better manage agricultural investment on the African continent. This paper will present an analysis of the relationship between phenology metrics derived from the 26 year AVHRR NDVI record and the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI). We explore spatial relationships between agricultural growing conditions as measured by the NDVI and the three climate indices in Eastern, Western and Southern Africa to determine the regions and periods when they have a significant impact. The results show that the start of season and cumulative NDVI were significantly affected by variations in the climate indices. The talk will conclude with analysis which will put these climate-related factors into perspective, as just one element in the overall food security of the region. Agricultural investment policies, the functioning of markets and trade, and an increasing population are at least as important for the food security on the continent. Sustainability of livelihoods will depend both on the ability of vulnerable populations to adapt to changing growing conditions and to compete on the global market for food.

  13. Food and agriculture in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hodges, H.F.; McKinion, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Agriculturalists in the 21st century will be farming crops in different climates than today. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} will likely exceed 700 {micro}l l{sup {minus}1} by the latter half of the next century, and the mean global temperature has been predicted to be 1.5 to 5.9 C higher than today. Further, the incidence of extreme weather events within a growing season has been predicated to increase. Extreme-weather events often limit crop yields even in today`s environment; e.g., a late spring may severely limit a citrus or winter wheat crop. Agricultural productivity is extremely sensitive to changes projected in the environment, particularly where crops are produced in marginal areas. The authors conducted several studies in which plants were grown in controlled environments with natural radiation levels. Carbon dioxide, water, temperature, and nutrients were each varied independently while the other factors were maintained at nearly optimum conditions. Photosynthesis, transpiration, growth and rate of development were measured. At nearly optimum temperature (26 to 28 C), doubling today`s atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration results in about 50% increase in biomass production with only trivial changes in the ratio of vegetative to fruit or grain production. However, fruit or grain production is drastically reduced at above-optimum temperatures. The authors examined long-term climatology data from four areas in the US Cotton Belt and a maritime climate, Maros, Indonesia.

  14. Health impact assessment of agriculture and food policies: lessons learnt from the Republic of Slovenia.

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Karen; Gabrijelcic-Blenkus, Mojca; Martuzzi, Marco; Otorepec, Peter; Wallace, Paul; Dora, Carlos; Robertson, Aileen; Zakotnic, Jozica Maucec

    2003-01-01

    The most important public health priority in agricultural policy-making is currently food safety, despite the relatively higher importance of food security, nutrition, and other agricultural-related health issues in terms of global burden of disease. There is limited experience worldwide of using health impact assessment (HIA) during the development of agriculture and food policies, which perhaps reflects the complex nature of this policy sector. This paper presents methods of HIA used in the Republic of Slovenia, which is conducting a HIA of proposed agricultural and food policies due to its accession to the European Union. It is the first time that any government has attempted to assess the health effects of agricultural policy at a national level. The HIA has basically followed a six-stage process: policy analysis; rapid appraisal workshops with stakeholders from a range of backgrounds; review of research evidence relevant to the agricultural policy; analysis of Slovenian data for key health-related indicators; a report on the findings to a key cross-government group; and evaluation. The experience in Slovenia shows that the HIA process has been a useful mechanism for raising broader public health issues on the agricultural policy agenda, and it has already had positive results for policy formation. HIA is one useful approach to more integrated policy-making across sectors, but clearly it is not the only mechanism to achieve this. A comparison of the approach used in Slovenia with HIA methods in other countries and policy contexts shows that there are still many limitations with HIA application at a government level. Lessons can be learnt from these case studies for future development and application of HIA that is more relevant to policy-makers, and assists them in making more healthy policy choices. PMID:12894321

  15. Agriculture and Energy: Implications for Food Security, Water, and Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokgoz, S.; Zhang, W.; Msangi, S.; Bhandary, P.

    2011-12-01

    Sustainable production of agricultural commodities and growth of international trade in these goods are challenged as never before by supply-side constraints (such as climate change, water and land scarcity, and environmental degradation) and by demand-side dynamics (volatility in food and energy markets, the strengthening food-energy linkage, population growth, and income growth). On the one hand, the rapidly expanding demand can potentially create new market opportunities for agriculture. On the other hand, there are many threats to a sufficient response by the supply side to meet this growing and changing demand. Agricultural production systems in many countries are neither resource-efficient, nor producing according to their full potential. The stock of natural resources such as land, water, nutrients, energy, and genetic diversity is shrinking relative to demand, and their use must become increasingly efficient in order to reduce environmental impacts and preserve the planet's productive capacity. World energy prices have increased rapidly in recent years. At the same time, agriculture has become more energy-intensive. Higher energy costs have pushed up the cost of producing, transporting and processing agricultural commodities, driving up commodity prices. Higher energy costs have also affected water use and availability through increased costs of water extraction, conveyance and desalinization, higher demand for hydroelectric power, and increased cost of subsidizing water services. In the meantime, the development of biofuels has diverted increasing amounts of agricultural land and water resources to the production of biomass-based renewable energy. This more "intensified" linkage between agriculture and energy comes at a time when there are other pressures on the world's limited resources. The related high food prices, especially those in the developing countries, have led to setbacks in the poverty alleviation effort among the global community with more

  16. Quantitation of sensory-active and bioactive constituents of food: A Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry perspective.

    PubMed

    Schieberle, Peter; Molyneux, Russell J

    2012-03-14

    The proper procedures for the measurement of amounts of compounds that may occur in a food or other matrices are presented in this perspective. Factors dealt with include sampling, use of standards, advantages and limitations of chromatographic and other techniques for quantitation, and proper presentation and reporting of data. Such factors must be considered at the initial stages of an investigation and incorporated completely into the overall experimental design. These standards are to be employed in determining quantities of such components, and their careful incorporation should result in more favorable evaluation of manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

  17. Bioaccumulation of hydrophobic chemicals in an agricultural food chain

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and hexachlorobenzene were measured in an air-plant/soil-cow-human food chain in southern Germany. The data were interpreted using the fugacity modeling concept. The fugacities in air, soil and plants were found to be similar for many of the compounds, suggesting near equilibrium partitioning, while the fugacities increased somewhat from feed to cows` milk, indicating that moderate biomagnification takes place in the cow. However, a decrease in fugacity of several orders of magnitude from air to plants to cows` milk was observed for more involatile, hydrophobic compounds. This phenomenon, termed biodilution, could be attributed to two processes. Firstly, the air/plant partitioning of involatile compounds does not approach equilibrium due to the kinetically limiting air side resistance. Secondly, very hydrophobic compounds are more poorly absorbed in the digestive tract of the cow. Metabolism in cows also resulted in biodilution of certain congeners. The fugacities in human milk were 20 to 50 times higher than in cows` milk, indicating strong biomagnification.

  18. A New Health Care Prevention Agenda: Sustainable Food Procurement and Agricultural Policy.

    PubMed

    Harvie, Jamie; Mikkelsen, Leslie; Shak, Linda

    2009-07-01

    Health care leaders are broadening their awareness to include the need to address the food system as a means to individual, public, and global health, above and beyond basic nutritional factors. Key voices from the health care sector have begun to engage in market transformation and are aggregating to articulate the urgency for engagement in food and agricultural policy. Systemic transformation requires a range of policies that complement one another and address various aspects of the food system. Health care involvement in policy and advocacy is vital to solve the expanding ecological health crises facing our nation and globe and will require an urgency that may be unprecedented.

  19. A New Health Care Prevention Agenda: Sustainable Food Procurement and Agricultural Policy

    PubMed Central

    Harvie, Jamie; Mikkelsen, Leslie; Shak, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Health care leaders are broadening their awareness to include the need to address the food system as a means to individual, public, and global health, above and beyond basic nutritional factors. Key voices from the health care sector have begun to engage in market transformation and are aggregating to articulate the urgency for engagement in food and agricultural policy. Systemic transformation requires a range of policies that complement one another and address various aspects of the food system. Health care involvement in policy and advocacy is vital to solve the expanding ecological health crises facing our nation and globe and will require an urgency that may be unprecedented. PMID:23144678

  20. Nanotechnology Awareness of First-Year Food and Agriculture Students Following a Brief Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Dyehouse, Melissa; Bennett, Deborah; Imbrie, P. K.

    2007-01-01

    There is a great need for professionals trained to work in the field of nanotechnology, particularly in food and agriculture. However, the general public knows very little about nanotechnology; therefore, few students entering college seek out educational opportunities that will lead to careers with a focus on nanotechnology. This study was…

  1. Agroecology and the Sustainable Production of Food and Fiber: Emergy Evaluation of Agriculture in the Montado

    EPA Science Inventory

    The silvopastoral, agricultural system of the montado in Southern Portugal is an example of the self-organization of an agroecological system adapted to the climate and soil conditions of the Mediterranean basin. This system with its consistent production of food, fiber, and ecos...

  2. Infrared heating as an efficient method for drying foods and agricultural products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because agricultural and food sector demands energy efficient and environmentally friendly drying technologies, the application of infrared (IR) heating for drying has recently been extensively studied. IR drying, as an alternative to current drying technologies, has attractive merits such as unifor...

  3. 31 CFR 561.327 - Agricultural commodities, food, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., medicine, and medical devices. 561.327 Section 561.327 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.327 Agricultural commodities, food, medicine, and...-grade gelatin powder, and peptones and their derivatives. (c) The term medicine has the same...

  4. 31 CFR 561.327 - Agricultural commodities, food, medicine, and medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., medicine, and medical devices. 561.327 Section 561.327 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.327 Agricultural commodities, food, medicine, and...-grade gelatin powder, and peptones and their derivatives. (c) The term medicine has the same...

  5. Provisions of the Food Security Act of 1985. Agricultural Information Bulletin Number 498.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Lewrene K.

    This report summarizes the 18 titles of the Food Security Act of 1985 and compares it with previous legislation where applicable. It describes the act's provisions for dairy; wool and mohair; wheat; feed grains; cotton; rice; peanuts; soybeans; sugar; other general commodity provisions; trade; conservation; credit; agricultural research,…

  6. Little River Experimental Watershed, Georgia: National Institute of Food and Agriculture - Conservation Effects Assessment Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2007, USDA’s Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), now the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) jointly funded two integrated research and outreach grants to conduct a synthesis of resul...

  7. Utilization of agricultural by-products in healthful food products: Organogelators, antioxidants, and spreadable products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was found that several agricultural by-products could be utilized for healthful food products. Three major applications that our research group has been focusing on will be discussed: 1) plant waxes for trans-fat free, low saturated fat-containing margarine and spread products, 2) extracts of cor...

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural food production to supply Indian diets: Implications for climate change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Sylvia H; Sapkota, Tek B; Hillier, Jon; Stirling, Clare M; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Aleksandrowicz, Lukasz; Green, Rosemary; Joy, Edward J M; Dangour, Alan D; Smith, Pete

    2017-01-16

    Agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. The growing global population is putting pressure on agricultural production systems that aim to secure food production while minimising GHG emissions. In this study, the GHG emissions associated with the production of major food commodities in India are calculated using the Cool Farm Tool. GHG emissions, based on farm management for major crops (including cereals like wheat and rice, pulses, potatoes, fruits and vegetables) and livestock-based products (milk, eggs, chicken and mutton meat), are quantified and compared. Livestock and rice production were found to be the main sources of GHG emissions in Indian agriculture with a country average of 5.65 kg CO2eq kg(-1) rice, 45.54 kg CO2eq kg(-1) mutton meat and 2.4 kg CO2eq kg(-1) milk. Production of cereals (except rice), fruits and vegetables in India emits comparatively less GHGs with <1 kg CO2eq kg(-1) product. These findings suggest that a shift towards dietary patterns with greater consumption of animal source foods could greatly increase GHG emissions from Indian agriculture. A range of mitigation options are available that could reduce emissions from current levels and may be compatible with increased future food production and consumption demands in India.

  9. Assessing Agricultural Literacy Elements of Project Food Land and People in K-5 Using the Food and Fiber Systems Literacy Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, David V.; Agnew, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural literacy has been evolving as a discipline for over 25 years. In agriculture, as other disciplines of education, the body of knowledge can be identified and measured by a set of standards. The Food and Fiber Systems Literacy Standards, developed in the 1990s, have been widely accepted as the standards for agricultural literacy. Also…

  10. 7 CFR 210.7 - Reimbursement for school food authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 210.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM Reimbursement... acceptable point of service alternatives and instructions for proper implementation. School food...

  11. Management considerations and environmental benefit analysis for turning food garbage into agricultural resources.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2008-09-01

    The management of food garbage is of great importance because of its high energy consumption, potential environmental hazards and public health risks. In Taiwan, through the competent authorities at all levels and the citizens' participation in sorting household wastes, many recycling efforts have recently been implemented to further utilize it as available resources such as swine feeds and organic fertilizer by composting. As a result, a total of approximately 570 thousand metric tons was recycled with a recycling ratio of about 21.2% on a basis of food garbage generation in 2006, rising over 22% from a year earlier. These figures showed that compulsory garbage sorting has indeed dramatically increased the recycling of food garbage. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss some management considerations in turning food garbage into agricultural resources due to the compulsory garbage sorting directive in Taiwan. The description first aims at the current status in food garbage generation and its recycling, and at the regulatory polices which have become effective since 2000. It also centers on the environmental and agricultural measures on upgrading food garbage recycling. Based on the preliminary analysis of environmental benefit by the Revised 1996 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, it is obvious that composting food garbage is superior to that by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill) from the viewpoint of reducing greenhouse gases (i.e., CO(2) and CH(4)) emissions.

  12. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security.

    PubMed

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-04-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant's growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources.

  13. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China’s food security

    PubMed Central

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant’s growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  14. Nutrition, Agriculture and the Global Food System in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Barry M

    2014-08-01

    The entire food value chain and diet of low and middle income countries (LMICs) are rapidly shifting. Many of the issues addressed by the nutrition community ignore some of the major underlying shifts in purchases of consumer packaged foods and beverages. At the same time, the drivers of the food system at the farm level might be changing. There is a need for the agriculture and nutrition communities to understand these changes and focus on some of their implications for health. This rapid growth of the retail sector will change the diets of the food insecure as much as that of the food secure across rural and urban LMIC's. This short commentary contents that current research, programs and policies are ignoring these rapid dynamic shifts.

  15. Risk Management in Agriculture for Food Security in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, A.; National Research CouncilScientific; Technological Research (Conicet)

    2013-05-01

    The Americas are extremely important as a unique contributor to Food Security. It provides from tropical to temperate crops. Not only they are able to feed their own population, but contribute significantly to the food supply of the population in developed, emergent and underdeveloped countries. This fact has given the region a unique responsibility to develop a regional risk-management strategy to manage food insecurity at a local, national, regional and global level. Although international agencies such as UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Instituto Interamericano para la Cooperación en Agricultura (IICA) and the regional centres of the Consultative Group for International Agriculture Research (CGIAR) and the World Bank (WB), are engaged in actions for Risk Management in Agriculture for reducing Food Insecurity. However there is a need to build a framework and/or comprehensive regional strategy for the Americas. It would identify areas for promoting research projects where natural and social science work together for producing relevant scientific information and tools i.e. maps, indicators, models and scenarios, early warning systems, etc. to cooperate with both policy and decision makers in the public and private sectors. This would eventually lead to a comprehensive regional programme for reducing food insecurity. The purpose of International Council for Science-International Research and the International Research for Disaster Risk programme (ICSU-IRDR) and ICSU Regional Office for Latinamerica and the Caribbean (ICSU-ROLAC) is to promote the cooperation of the relevant scientific fields in both natural science and social science in a multi and trans-disciplinary approach on risk management to reduce food insecurity. Also both ICSU-IRDR and ICSU-ROLAC are building a case for the inclusion of the scientific community in the revision of the Hjogo Framework for Action for Disaster Reduction to be held in 2015 as risk management for reducing food

  16. Min Bei Irradiation Center Food and Agriculture Organization project experience Jianou, Fujian Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Bruce John; Dan, Xu; Jingzhang, Ren

    1993-07-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO), a Unitede Nations Organization, in an effort to increase food supplies by post harvest irradiation treatment participated in the development of the Min Bei Irradiation Center(MBIC) Located in Fujian Province, China. FAO inconjunction with Shanghai Nuclear Energy Research and Design Institute(SNERDI), MBIC staff, and the Ministry of Agriculture completed Project TCP CPR 6763/8961 culminating in the recent comissioning of one of China's nesest irradiation facilities. From the feasibility phase initiated in 1986, through the construction period and the eventual commissioning in 1991 FAO participated in the technical overview of the irradiation center. MBIC was developed both as a research and development center as well as a production irradiation facility for the primary purposes of reduction of post harvest food loss in Fujian Province. This retrospective review of the project provides a hindsight view for the development of MBIC.

  17. A Qualitative Study of Agricultural Literacy in Urban Youth: What Do Elementary Students Understand about the Agri-Food System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Alexander J.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural literacy of K-12 students is a national priority for both scientific and agricultural education professional organizations. Development of curricula to address this priority has not been informed by research on what K-12 students understand about the agri-food system. While students' knowledge of food and fiber system facts have been…

  18. The application of GMOs in agriculture and in food production for a better nutrition: two different scientific points of view.

    PubMed

    Buiatti, M; Christou, P; Pastore, G

    2013-05-01

    This commentary is a face-to-face debate between two almost opposite positions regarding the application of genetic engineering in agriculture and food production. Seven questions on the potential benefits of the application of genetic engineering in agriculture and on the potentially adverse impacts on the environment and human health were posed to two scientists: one who is sceptical about the use of GMOs in Agriculture, and one who views GMOs as an important tool for quantitatively and qualitatively improving food production.

  19. Agriculture and food systems in sub-Saharan Africa in a 4°C+ world.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Philip K; Jones, Peter G; Ericksen, Polly J; Challinor, Andrew J

    2011-01-13

    Agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa faces daunting challenges, which climate change and increasing climate variability will compound in vulnerable areas. The impacts of a changing climate on agricultural production in a world that warms by 4°C or more are likely to be severe in places. The livelihoods of many croppers and livestock keepers in Africa are associated with diversity of options. The changes in crop and livestock production that are likely to result in a 4°C+ world will diminish the options available to most smallholders. In such a world, current crop and livestock varieties and agricultural practices will often be inadequate, and food security will be more difficult to achieve because of commodity price increases and local production shortfalls. While adaptation strategies exist, considerable institutional and policy support will be needed to implement them successfully on the scale required. Even in the 2°C+ world that appears inevitable, planning for and implementing successful adaptation strategies are critical if agricultural growth in the region is to occur, food security be achieved and household livelihoods be enhanced. As part of this effort, better understanding of the critical thresholds in global and African food systems requires urgent research.

  20. Agriculture: the real nexus for enhancing bioavailable micronutrients in food crops.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ross M; Graham, Robin D

    2005-01-01

    Human existence requires that agriculture provide at least 50 nutrients (e.g., vitamins, minerals, trace elements, amino acids, essential fatty acids) in amounts needed to meet metabolic demands during all seasons. If national food systems do not meet these demands, mortality and morbidity rates increase, worker productivity declines, livelihoods are diminished and societies suffer. Today, many food systems within the developing world cannot meet the nutritional needs of the societies they support mostly due to farming systems that cannot produce enough micronutrients to meet human needs throughout the year. Nutrition transitions are also occurring in many rapidly developing countries that are causing chronic disease (e.g., cancer, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and osteoporosis) rates to increase substantially. These global developments point to the need to explicitly link agricultural technologies to human health. This paper reviews some ways in which agriculture can contribute significantly to reducing micronutrient malnutrition globally. It concludes that it is imperative that close linkages be forged between the agriculture, nutrition and health arenas in order to find sustainable solutions to micronutrient malnutrition with agriculture becoming the primary intervention tool to use in this fight.

  1. [Research progress of Terahertz wave technology in quality measurement of food and agricultural products].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhan-Ke; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Ying, Yi-Bin

    2007-11-01

    The quality concern of food and agricultural products has become more and more significant. The related technologies for nondestructive measurement or quality control of food products have been the focus of many researches. Terahertz (THz) radiation, or THz wave, the least explored region of the spectrum, is the electromagnetic wave that lies between mid-infrared and microwave radiation, which has very important research and application values. THz spectroscopy and THz imaging technique are the two main applications of THz wave. During the past decade, THz waves have been used to characterize the electronic, vibrational and compositional properties of solid, liquid and gas phase materials. Recently, THz technology has gained a lot of attention of researchers in various fields from biological spectral analysis to bio-medical imaging due to its unique features compared with microwave and optical waves. In the present paper, the properties of THz wave and its uniqueness in sensing and imaging applications were discussed. The most recent researches on THz technology used in food quality control and agricultural products inspection were summarized. The prospect of this novel technology in agriculture and food industry was also discussed.

  2. Accelerator-based trace element analysis of foods and agriculture products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagunas-Solar, Manuel C.; Piña U, Cecilia; Solís, Corina; Mireles, Alibech

    2008-05-01

    An accelerator-based analytical method for measuring trace elements in foods and agricultural products was developed, optimized, validated and compared using reference standards. The method's initial phase is a new, rapid and effective digestion process of a small mass analyte in an aqueous media containing H2O2. Digestion is initiated by radicals formed in water with pulsed UV (PUV) induced (laser) photolysis, which rapidly react with organic matter. After digestion, trace metals are pre-concentrated as carbamates and deposited as thin targets onto Teflon filters. Conventional particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence (XRF) methods are then used to analyze elements in the sample. When foods and other agricultural commodities (i.e., soils, feeds) are analyzed, the combined method named pulsed UV (PUV)/PIXE results in enhanced detection of trace elements such as Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb at ∼1 mg/kg (1 ppm) levels, without lengthy, acid-based digestions. It provides improvements in digestion kinetics and processing time enhancing analytical sensitivity and element recovery. Precision and recovery yields were confirmed with food reference standards. The analysis of edible foods from contaminated agricultural areas is also reported.

  3. Community supported agriculture membership in Arizona. An exploratory study of food and sustainability behaviours.

    PubMed

    MacMillan Uribe, Alexandra L; Winham, Donna M; Wharton, Christopher M

    2012-10-01

    Community supported agriculture (CSA) programs have become a viable source of locally produced foods and represent a new way to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among individuals. Because CSAs represent a way for consumers to acquire healthy foods while providing financial support to local farmers, CSA involvement could reflect, and be related to, greater concern with both health and environmental impact of food choice. As such, the aim of this study was to examine whether ecological attitudes of CSA members could predict food- and sustainability-related behaviours. Using an online survey, respondents answered questions about attitudes towards the environment, as well behaviours related to food purchases, family food preparation, composting, recycling and minimising food-packaging waste. A total of 115 CSA member responses were collected. Ordinary least squares (OLS) multivariate regression analysis was used to investigate the predictive validity of environmental attitudes on measures of behaviours. A large portion of participants reported the amount and variety of fruits and vegetables their households ate increased as a result of joining a CSA program. Ecological sensitivity was a significant predictor of sustainability-related behaviours as well as money spent eating out and times eaten away from home per week. However, it was not predictive of family involvement in home food preparation.

  4. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section 273.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Program...

  5. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63 Section 250.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN...

  6. 7 CFR 250.62 - Summer Food Service Program (SFSP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Summer Food Service Program (SFSP). 250.62 Section 250.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN...

  7. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63 Section 250.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN...

  8. 7 CFR 250.69 - Disaster food assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disaster food assistance. 250.69 Section 250.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED...

  9. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section 273.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.25...

  10. 7 CFR 250.69 - Disaster food assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disaster food assistance. 250.69 Section 250.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED...

  11. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section 273.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Program...

  12. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section 273.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Program...

  13. 7 CFR 250.69 - Disaster food assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disaster food assistance. 250.69 Section 250.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED...

  14. 7 CFR 250.69 - Disaster food assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disaster food assistance. 250.69 Section 250.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED...

  15. 7 CFR 250.69 - Disaster food assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disaster food assistance. 250.69 Section 250.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED...

  16. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63 Section 250.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN...

  17. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63 Section 250.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN...

  18. 7 CFR 273.25 - Simplified Food Stamp Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified Food Stamp Program. 273.25 Section 273.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS Program...

  19. 7 CFR 250.63 - Commodity Supplemental Food Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commodity Supplemental Food Program. 250.63 Section 250.63 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN...

  20. From agricultural modernisation to agri-food globalisation: the waning of national development in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Goss, J; Burch, D

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture has been central to accounts of Thailand's modernisation and the rise of the national development project between the 1940s and the 1970s. However, the role of agriculture in the waning of national development is rarely explored critically in the Thai context. This paper focuses on agriculture and the role of the state in the shift from national development to globalisation. The first part of the paper examines the beginnings of Thailand's modern agricultural sector, before turning to the state-sponsored diversification of agriculture in the 1950s. The paper locates shifting state responses to agriculture in the late 1950s and 1960s in the context of specific political and historical social forces, before exploring the emergence of agri-food exports in the 1970s and the rise of agribusiness in the 1980s and 1990s. The paper concludes by commenting on the significance of the Thai state's role in the national development project and the globalisation project.

  1. Agricultural biodiversity as a link between traditional food systems and contemporary development, social integrity and ecological health.

    PubMed

    Johns, Timothy; Powell, Bronwen; Maundu, Patrick; Eyzaguirre, Pablo B

    2013-11-01

    Traditional food systems offer a key link between the social and economic resilience of smallholder farmers and pastoralists and the sustainable food and nutrition security of global populations. This paper addresses issues related to socio-cultural diversity and the continuing complex engagement of traditional and modern communities with the plants and animals that sustain them. In light of some of the unhealthful consequences of the 'nutrition transition' to globalized modern diets, the authors define and propose a process for a more successful food system transition that balances agro-biodiversity and processed commodities to support diet diversity, health and social equity alongside sustainable economic growth. We review empirical research in support of practice and policy changes in agriculture, economic development and health domains as well as cross-sectoral and community-based innovation. High-value food crops within domestic and global value chains can be an entry point for smallholders' participation as contributors and beneficiaries of development, while sustainable small farms, as purveyors of environmental and public health services, diversify global options for long-term adaptation in the face of environmental uncertainty.

  2. Advances in Nanotechnology as They Pertain to Food and Agriculture: Benefits and Risks.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Rohollah; Rodriguez, Randol J; Yao, Yuan; Kokini, Jozef L

    2017-02-28

    Nanotechnology is an emerging and rapidly developing toolbox that has novel and unique applications to food science and agriculture. Fast and impressive developments in nanotechnology for food and agriculture have led to new experimental prototype technologies and products. Developing various types of nanodelivery systems, detection tools, nanoscale modifications of bulk or surface properties, fabrication of wide-range bionanosensors, and biodegradable nanoplatforms can potentially improve consumer health and safety, product shelf life and stability, bioavailability, environmental sustainability, efficiency of processing and packaging, and real-time monitoring. Some recently developed nanotechnology techniques and potential product applications of nanotechnology are summarized in this review. Exposure to nanomaterials may be harmful to the consumer and the environment and might increase the potential of risk. For this reason, evaluation of the potential risks resulting from the interaction of nanomaterials with biological systems, humans, and the environment is also reviewed.

  3. Evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Ajioka, Reiko

    We have been studying the useful life-support system in closed bio-ecosystem for space agriculture. We have already proposed the several species as food material, such as Nostoc sp. HK-01 and Prunnus sp., cyanobacterium and Japanese cherry tree, respectively. The cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp Hk-01, has high tolerances to several space environment. Furthermore, the woody plant materials have useful utilization elements in our habitation environment. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. We have already found that they can produce the important functional substances for human. Here, we will show the evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials under the possible conditions for space agriculture after cooking.

  4. Agricultural Diversification and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Secondary, Postsecondary, and Continuing Education Agriculture Programs in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Agriculture, Des Moines.

    These instructional materials on agricultural diversification and marketing were developed for use by Iowa's vocational and technical agricultural instructors and extension personnel. This document is one of three manuals making up a single package. (The other two are Christmas Tree Production and Marketing and Sod Production and Marketing). The…

  5. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  6. Carbon and Phosphorus in soil particulate fraction: effect of continuous agriculture, tillage and fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaard, N.; Echeverrıa, H. E.; Vidaurreta, A.; Picone, L. I.; Divito, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    In Argentinean Pampas region, the practice of intensive agriculture has diminished total organic carbon (TOC) content in soil. This degradation process can impact over phosphorus (P) organic fractions associated to it, and therefore limit soil capacity to provide P through mineralization. Along this line, P content in soil particulate fraction (PF) has been proposed as an index to estimate this capacity. The aims of this work were to evaluate (1) the effect of continuous agriculture, tillage and P fertilization over TOC and P fractions content in soil and PF, and (2) the stability of P-PF as a mineralization index. To this end, a long term experiment initiated in 2001 in Balcarce, Argentina, under continuous agriculture, was analyzed. There, two tillage systems - conventional till (CT) and no till (NT) - and two fertilization treatments - nitrogen (N) and N + P (NP) - were evaluated. Phosphorus rate was 30 kg ha-1 year-1. In each plot, the following parameters were determined in 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2011: TOC, P Bray, total P (Pt), inorganic P (Pi), and organic P (Po) content in the whole soil and in the PF. Also, C supply by residues and P soil balance during the experiment were calculated, and the P sorption capacity was determined in samples from 2011. C supply was greater in CT (7% relative to NT) and in NP (14% relative to N). However, TOC in soil was not modified neither by tillage or fertilization. Even though, C in the PF decreased (3% annually) by the use of continuous agriculture. This reduction was positively associated to the one observed in other soil properties as Pt, Pi and Po in the PF. P fertilization lessened this reduction in Pt (18,9 mg kg-1 in N and 23,1 mg kg-1 in NP in 2011) and Pi (4,2 mg kg-1 in N and 6,2 mg kg-1 in NP in 2011), but not in Po. This indicates that, Po is affected by management practices and, contrary to Pt, is stable to fertilization. Therefore Po can be studied as a potential P mineralization index. The difference among P

  7. Agricultural policy and childhood obesity: a food systems and public health commentary.

    PubMed

    Wallinga, David

    2010-01-01

    For thirty-five years, U.S. agriculture has operated under a "cheap food" policy that spurred production of a few commodity crops, not fruit or vegetables, and thus of the calories from them. A key driver of childhood obesity is the consumption of excess calories, many from inexpensive, nutrient-poor snacks, sweets, and sweetened beverages made with fats and sugars derived from these policy-supported crops. Limiting or eliminating farm subsidies to commodity farmers is wrongly perceived as a quick fix to a complex agricultural system, evolved over decades, that promotes obesity. Yet this paper does set forth a series of policy recommendations that could help, including managing commodity crop oversupply and supporting farmers who produce more fruit and vegetables to build a healthier, more balanced agricultural policy.

  8. Evaluation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) behaviour in agricultural soil through laboratory continuous studies.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Rodríguez, B; Zafra-Gómez, A; Reis, M S; Duarte, B P M; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A; Pérez-Pascual, M; Vílchez, J L

    2015-07-01

    The behaviour of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) in agricultural soil is investigated in the laboratory using continuous-flow soil column studies in order to simultaneously analyze the three main underlying phenomena (adsorption/desorption, degradation and transport). The continuous-flow soil column experiments generated the breakthrough curves for each LAS homologue, C10, C11, C12 and C13, and by adding them up, for total LAS, from which the relevant retention, degradation and transport parameters could be estimated, after proposing adequate models. Several transport equations were considered, including the degradation of the sorbate in solution and its retention by soil, under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions between the sorbent and the sorbate. In general, the results obtained for the estimates of those parameters that were common to the various models studied (such as the isotherm slope, first order degradation rate coefficient and the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient) were rather consistent, meaning that mass transfer limitations are not playing a major role in the experiments. These three parameters increase with the length of the LAS homologue chain. The study will provide the underlying conceptual framework and fundamental parameters to understand, simulate and predict the environmental behaviour of LAS compounds in agricultural soils.

  9. Agricultural productivity and greenhouse gas emissions: trade-offs or synergies between mitigation and food security?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valin, H.; Havlík, P.; Mosnier, A.; Herrero, M.; Schmid, E.; Obersteiner, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this letter, we investigate the effects of crop yield and livestock feed efficiency scenarios on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and land use change in developing countries. We analyze mitigation associated with different productivity pathways using the global partial equilibrium model GLOBIOM. Our results confirm that yield increase could mitigate some agriculture-related emissions growth over the next decades. Closing yield gaps by 50% for crops and 25% for livestock by 2050 would decrease agriculture and land use change emissions by 8% overall, and by 12% per calorie produced. However, the outcome is sensitive to the technological path and which factor benefits from productivity gains: sustainable land intensification would increase GHG savings by one-third when compared with a fertilizer intensive pathway. Reaching higher yield through total factor productivity gains would be more efficient on the food supply side but halve emissions savings due to a strong rebound effect on the demand side. Improvement in the crop or livestock sector would have different implications: crop yield increase would bring the largest food provision benefits, whereas livestock productivity gains would allow the greatest reductions in GHG emission. Combining productivity increases in the two sectors appears to be the most efficient way to exploit mitigation and food security co-benefits.

  10. agINFRA: a research data hub for agriculture, food and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Drakos, Andreas; Protonotarios, Vassilis; Manouselis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    The agINFRA project (www.aginfra.eu) was a European Commission funded project under the 7th Framework Programme that aimed to introduce agricultural scientific communities to the vision of open and participatory data-intensive science. agINFRA has now evolved into the European hub for data-powered research on agriculture, food and the environment, serving the research community through multiple roles. Working on enhancing the interoperability between heterogeneous data sources, the agINFRA project has left a set of grid- and cloud- based services that can be reused by future initiatives and adopted by existing ones, in order to facilitate the dissemination of agricultural research, educational and other types of data. On top of that, agINFRA provided a set of domain-specific recommendations for the publication of agri-food research outcomes. This paper discusses the concept of the agINFRA project and presents its major outcomes, as adopted by existing initiatives activated in the context of agricultural research and education. PMID:26339472

  11. Immobilizer-assisted management of metal-contaminated agricultural soils for safer food production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Park, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Min-Suk; Owens, Gary; Youn, Gyu-Hoon; Lee, Jin-Su

    2012-07-15

    Production of food crops on metal contaminated agricultural soils is of concern because consumers are potentially exposed to hazardous metals via dietary intake of such crops or crop derived products. Therefore, the current study was conducted to develop management protocols for crop cultivation to allow safer food production. Metal uptake, as influenced by pH change-induced immobilizing agents (dolomite, steel slag, and agricultural lime) and sorption agents (zeolite and compost), was monitored in three common plants representative of leafy (Chinese cabbage), root (spring onion) and fruit (red pepper) vegetables, in a field experiment. The efficiency of the immobilizing agents was assessed by their ability to decrease the phytoavailability of metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn). The fruit vegetable (red pepper) showed the least accumulation of Cd (0.16-0.29 mgkg(-1) DW) and Pb (0.2-0.9 mgkg(-1) DW) in edible parts regardless of treatment, indicating selection of low metal accumulating crops was a reasonable strategy for safer food production. However, safer food production was more likely to be achievable by combining crop selection with immobilizing agent amendment of soils. Among the immobilizing agents, pH change-induced immobilizers were more effective than sorption agents, showing decreases in Cd and Pb concentrations in each plant well below standard limits. The efficiency of pH change-induced immobilizers was also comparable to reductions obtained by 'clean soil cover' where the total metal concentrations of the plow layer was reduced via capping the surface with uncontaminated soil, implying that pH change-induced immobilizers can be practically applied to metal contaminated agricultural soils for safer food production.

  12. [Brazil: agricultural modernisation and food production restructuring in the international crisis].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, J P

    1985-01-01

    development in the mid-1960s which required insertion into the world economy, notably through a search for new export sectors. The agricultural sector was assigned 3 functions: producing food as cheaply as possible, increasing the proportion of exportable crops, and substituting some of the foods imported. Brazil evolved in 2 decades from a classic agroexporter to a more complex structure reflecting the semiindustrialized state of the economy. The share of processed agricultural goods increased accordingly. The foods produced for the internal market have been changing at the same time that a new hierarchy of exportable products has evolved. Agricultural policy involved recourse to market mechanisms and cheap credit focused on the south and southeastern regions, large and medium sized producers, and a few products including soy, coffee, sugar cane, and cotton. Just 3% of credits went to the traditional foodstuffs beans and manioc. The most serious consequence of the internationalization of the agricultural economy has been a dangerous increase in the vulnerability of low income groups to world food price fluctuations.

  13. Beyond climate-smart agriculture: toward safe operating spaces for global food systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gulledge, Jay; Neufeldt, Heinrich; Jahn, Margaret M; Lezaks, David P; Meinke, Jan H; Scholes, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is considered to be climate-smart when it contributes to increasing food security, adaptation and mitigation in a sustainable way. This new concept now dominates current discussions in agricultural development because of its capacity to unite the agendas of the agriculture, development and climate change communities under one brand. In this opinion piece authored by scientists from a variety of international agricultural and climate research communities, we argue that the concept needs to be evaluated critically because the relationship between the three dimensions is poorly understood, such that practically any improved agricultural practice can be considered climate-smart. This lack of clarity may have contributed to the broad appeal of the concept. From the understanding that we must hold ourselves accountable to demonstrably better meet human needs in the short and long term within foreseeable local and planetary limits, we develop a conceptualization of climate-smart agriculture as agriculture that can be shown to bring us closer to safe operating spaces for agricultural and food systems across spatial and temporal scales. Improvements in the management of agricultural systems that bring us significantly closer to safe operating spaces will require transformations in governance and use of our natural resources, underpinned by enabling political, social and economic conditions beyond incremental changes. Establishing scientifically credible indicators and metrics of long-term safe operating spaces in the context of a changing climate and growing social-ecological challenges is critical to creating the societal demand and political will required to motivate deep transformations. Answering questions on how the needed transformational change can be achieved will require actively setting and testing hypotheses to refine and characterize our concepts of safer spaces for social-ecological systems across scales. This effort will demand prioritizing key

  14. 7 CFR 250.58 - Ordering donated foods and their provision to school food authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ordering donated foods and their provision to school food authorities. 250.58 Section 250.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND...

  15. 7 CFR 250.58 - Ordering donated foods and their provision to school food authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ordering donated foods and their provision to school food authorities. 250.58 Section 250.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND...

  16. Nanotechnologies in agriculture and food - an overview of different fields of application, risk assessment and public perception.

    PubMed

    Grobe, Antje; Rissanen, Mikko E

    2012-12-01

    Nanomaterials in agriculture and food are key issues of public and regulatory interest. Over the past ten years, patents for nanotechnological applications in the field of food and agriculture have become abundant. Uncertainty prevails however regarding their current development status and presence in the consumer market. Thus, the discussion on nanotechnologies in the food sector with its specific public perception of benefits and risks and the patterns of communication are becoming similar to the debate on genetically modified organisms. The food industry's silence in communication increased mistrust of consumer organisations and policy makers. The article discusses the background of the current regulatory debates, starting with the EU recommendation for defining nanomaterials, provides an overview of possible fields of application in agriculture and food industries and discusses risk assessment and the public debate on benefits and risks. Communicative recommendations are directed at researchers, the food industry and regulators in order to increase trust both in stakeholders, risk management and regulatory processes.

  17. Evaluation of the micronutrient composition of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Duncan; Foster, Meika; McArthur, Jennifer O; Ojha, Rachel; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the micronutrient content of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods. Studies were identified from a search of electronic databases (1980-2007, inclusive) as well as manual searches. A total of 66 studies (describing 1440 micronutrient comparisons) were identified. Thirty-three studies (908 comparisons) satisfied the screening criteria which considered cultivar, harvesting, and soil conditions. In studies that satisfied the screening criteria, the absolute levels of micronutrients were higher in organic foods more often than in conventional foods (462 vs 364 comparisons, P=0.002), and the total micronutrient content, expressed as a percent difference, was higher in organic (+5.7%, P<0.001) as compared to conventionally grown produce. The micronutrient content of food groups was more frequently reported to be higher for organic vegetables and legumes compared to their conventional counterparts (vegetables, 267 vs 197, P<0.001; legumes, 79 vs 46, P=0.004). This trend was supported by a mean percent difference in micronutrient content favoring organic vegetables (+5.9%, P<0.001) and legumes (+5.7%, P<0.001). Further research is required to determine the effect of organic agricultural methods on a broader range of nutrients and their potential impact on health.

  18. Compound specific stable isotope analysis vs. bulk stable isotope analysis of agricultural food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psomiadis, David; Horváth, Balázs; Nehlich, Olaf; Bodiselitsch, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    The bulk analysis of stable isotopes (carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen and hydrogen) from food staples is a common tool for inferring origin and/or fraud of food products. Many studies have shown that bulk isotope analyses of agricultural products are able to separate large geographical areas of food origin. However, in micro-localities (regions, districts, and small ranges) these general applications fail in precision and discriminative power. The application of compound specific analysis of specific components of food products helps to increase the precision of established models. Compound groups like fatty acids (FAMEs), vitamins or amino acids can help to add further detailed information on physiological pathways and local conditions (micro-climate, soil, water availability) and therefore might add further information for the separation of micro-localities. In this study we are aiming to demonstrate the power and surplus of information of compound specific isotope analysis in comparison to bulk analysis of agricultural products (e.g. olive oil, cereal crops or similar products) and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such (labor intense) analysis methods. Here we want to identify tools for further detailed analysis of specific compounds with high powers of region separation for better prediction models.

  19. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Gregory; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

     The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993–2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall

  20. Food security in the 21st century: Global yield projections and agricultural expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. F.; Rulli, M.; D'Odorico, P.

    2013-12-01

    Global demands on agricultural lands are ever increasing as a result of population growth, changes in diet and increasing biofuel use. By mid-century, the demands for food and fiber are expected to roughly double with the population reaching 9.5 billion. However, earth's finite resource base places a ceiling on the amount of agricultural production that is possible. Several strategies have been widely discussed to meet these rapid increases and to extend the ceiling yet higher, including reducing waste, modifying diets, improving yield and productivity and expanding agriculture and aquaculture. One of the most promising of these is closing the yield gap of currently under-performing agricultural land that has the potential to be much more productive. With high inputs (e.g. irrigation, fertilizers), this strategy has real potential to increase food security, particularly in the developing world where population is expected to sharply increase and where a high potential for yield gap closure exists. Thus it is important to consider whether improvements in global yield can adequately meet global dietary demand during the 21st century. Constructing yield projections to the end of the century, we examine whether global crop production for 154 countries and 16 major food crops under selected agricultural and dietary scenarios can keep pace with estimates of population growth to 2100. By calculating the global production of calories, we are then able to examine how many people can be supported under future scenarios and how closing yield gaps can increase this potential. Our findings agree with previous studies that closing the yield gap alone cannot provide sufficient production by mid-century and that a heavy global dependence on trade will persist throughout the century. Using high-resolution global land suitability maps under a suite of climate models, we find that scenarios incorporating a combination of yield gap closure and agricultural expansion provide the most

  1. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; McNally, A.; Husak, G.; Funk, C.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993-2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall is

  2. Responsiveness of Food Security Reporting to Environmental Variability and Agricultural Production Deficits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brickley, E. B.; Brown, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    This paper uses 1342 food security update reports from the US Agency for International Development (USAID)’s Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) in an analysis that focuses on the environmental, market, and livelihood influences on the food security in 17 countries in Africa from 2000-2009. A textual analysis was conducted using the reports as a primary data source to evaluate the responsiveness of food security analysis to environmental variability and food production deficits. The research shows that FEWS NET analysts demonstrate a consistent approach across all 17 countries as to the discussion and use of rainfall information, agricultural production, food prices and food access parameters. There are significant differences in the use of remote sensing and other technical information between East, West and Southern African country analysts, with satellite remote sensing of vegetation being used 28% of the time, rainfall imagery 84% and gridded crop models only 10% of the time. Significantly more discussion of biophysical information was seen during the rainy season than during the dry season, and different satellite products were used during periods of drought than periods of adequate moisture. As the demand for early warning information grows to more countries in different ecosystems, there is likely to be an increased need for the effective utilization of remote sensing, market, and livelihood data, and it is also probable that this information will be critical for improved policy-making regarding climate extremes in the future.

  3. 7 CFR 3434.5 - Agriculture-related fields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agriculture-related fields. 3434.5 Section 3434.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HISPANIC-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION PROCESS § 3434.5...

  4. 7 CFR 3434.5 - Agriculture-related fields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agriculture-related fields. 3434.5 Section 3434.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HISPANIC-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION PROCESS § 3434.5...

  5. GEOGLAM Crop Assessment Tool: Adapting from global agricultural monitoring to food security monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humber, M. L.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nordling, J.; Barker, B.; McGaughey, K.

    2014-12-01

    The GEOGLAM Crop Monitor's Crop Assessment Tool was released in August 2013 in support of the GEOGLAM Crop Monitor's objective to develop transparent, timely crop condition assessments in primary agricultural production areas, highlighting potential hotspots of stress/bumper crops. The Crop Assessment Tool allows users to view satellite derived products, best available crop masks, and crop calendars (created in collaboration with GEOGLAM Crop Monitor partners), then in turn submit crop assessment entries detailing the crop's condition, drivers, impacts, trends, and other information. Although the Crop Assessment Tool was originally intended to collect data on major crop production at the global scale, the types of data collected are also relevant to the food security and rangelands monitoring communities. In line with the GEOGLAM Countries at Risk philosophy of "foster[ing] the coordination of product delivery and capacity building efforts for national and regional organizations, and the development of harmonized methods and tools", a modified version of the Crop Assessment Tool is being developed for the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). As a member of the Countries at Risk component of GEOGLAM, FEWS NET provides agricultural monitoring, timely food security assessments, and early warnings of potential significant food shortages focusing specifically on countries at risk of food security emergencies. While the FEWS NET adaptation of the Crop Assessment Tool focuses on crop production in the context of food security rather than large scale production, the data collected is nearly identical to the data collected by the Crop Monitor. If combined, the countries monitored by FEWS NET and GEOGLAM Crop Monitor would encompass over 90 countries representing the most important regions for crop production and food security.

  6. 7 CFR 250.60 - Use of donated foods in the school food service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... general home economics instruction for students. (b) Use of donated foods outside of the nonprofit school... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of donated foods in the school food service. 250.60 Section 250.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD...

  7. Biocatalysis for the production of industrial products and functional foods from rice and other agricultural produce.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2008-11-26

    Many industrial products and functional foods can be obtained from cheap and renewable raw agricultural materials. For example, starch can be converted to bioethanol as biofuel to reduce the current demand for petroleum or fossil fuel energy. On the other hand, starch can also be converted to useful functional ingredients, such as high fructose and high maltose syrups, wine, glucose, and trehalose. The conversion process involves fermentation by microorganisms and use of biocatalysts such as hydrolases of the amylase superfamily. Amylases catalyze the process of liquefaction and saccharification of starch. It is possible to perform complete hydrolysis of starch by using the fusion product of both linear and debranching thermostable enzymes. This will result in saving energy otherwise needed for cooling before the next enzyme can act on the substrate, if a sequential process is utilized. Recombinant enzyme technology, protein engineering, and enzyme immobilization are powerful tools available to enhance the activity of enzymes, lower the cost of enzyme through large scale production in a heterologous host, increase their thermostability, improve pH stability, enhance their productivity, and hence making it competitive with the chemical processes involved in starch hydrolysis and conversions. This review emphasizes the potential of using biocatalysis for the production of useful industrial products and functional foods from cheap agricultural produce and transgenic plants. Rice was selected as a typical example to illustrate many applications of biocatalysis in converting low-value agricultural produce to high-value commercial food and industrial products. The greatest advantages of using enzymes for food processing and for industrial production of biobased products are their environmental friendliness and consumer acceptance as being a natural process.

  8. Theme--Achieving 2020. Goal 3: All Students Are Conversationally Literate in Agriculture, Food, Fiber, and Natural Resource Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Cary, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Nine theme articles focus on the need for students to be conversationally literate about agriculture, food, fiber, and natural resources systems. Discusses the definition of conversational literacy, the human and institutional resources needed, and exemplary models for promoting literacy. (JOW)

  9. Agriculture, food, and nutrition interventions that facilitate sustainable food production and impact health: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Haby, Michelle M; Chapman, Evelina; Clark, Rachel; Galvão, Luiz A C

    2016-08-01

    Objectives To identify the agriculture, food, and nutrition security interventions that facilitate sustainable food production and have a positive impact on health. Methods Systematic review methods were used to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations through a comprehensive search of 17 databases and 10 websites. The search employed a pre-defined protocol with clear inclusion criteria. Both grey and peer-reviewed literature published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese between 1 January 1997 and November 2013 were included. To classify as "sustainable," interventions needed to aim to positively impact at least two dimensions of the integrated framework for sustainable development and include measures of health impact. Results Fifteen systematic reviews and seven economic evaluations met the inclusion criteria. All interventions had some impact on health or on risk factors for health outcomes, except those related to genetically modified foods. Impact on health inequalities was rarely measured. All interventions with economic evaluations were very cost-effective, had cost savings, or net benefits. In addition to impacting health (inclusive social development), all interventions had the potential to impact on inclusive economic development, and some, on environmental sustainability, though these effects were rarely assessed. Conclusions What is needed now is careful implementation of interventions with expected positive health impacts but with concurrent, rigorous evaluation. Possible impact on health inequalities needs to be considered and measured by future primary studies and systematic reviews, as does impact of interventions on all dimensions of sustainable development.

  10. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in China's agriculture: from farm production to food consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Qian; Cheng, Kun; Pan, Genxing

    2016-04-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture could be mitigated from both supple side and demand side. Assessing carbon footprint (CF) of agricultural production and food consumption could provide insights into the contribution of agriculture to climate change and help to identify possible GHG mitigation options. In the present study, CF of China's agricultural production was firstly assessed from site scale to national scale, and from crop production to livestock production. Data for the crop and livestock production were collected from field survey and national statistical archive, and both life cycle assessment and input-output method were employed in the estimations. In general, CF of crop production was lower than that of livestock production on average. Rice production ranked the highest CF in crop production, and the highest CFs of livestock production were observed in mutton and beef production. Methane emissions from rice paddy, emissions from fertilizer application and water irrigation exerted the largest contribution of more than 50% for CF of crop production; however, emissions from forage feeding, enteric fermentation and manure treatment made the most proportion of more than 90 % for CF of livestock production. In China, carbon efficiency was shown in a decreasing trend in recent years. According to the present study, overuse of nitrogen fertilizer caused no yield effect but significant emissions in some sites and regions of China, and aggregated farms lowered the CFs of crop production and livestock production by 3% to 25% and 6% to 60% respectively compared to household farms. Given these, improving farming management efficiency and farm intensive development is the key strategy to mitigate climate change from supply side. However, changes in food consumption may reduce GHG emissions in the production chain through a switch to the consumption of food with higher GHG emissions in the production process to food with lower GHG emissions. Thus, CFs

  11. Application of agricultural biotechnology to improve food nutrition and healthcare products.

    PubMed

    Sun, Samuel S M

    2008-01-01

    Crop plants provide essential food nutrients to humans and livestock, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, minerals and vitamins, directly or indirectly. The level and composition of food nutrients vary significantly in different food crops. As a result, plant foods are often deficient in certain nutrient components. Relying on a single food crop as source of nutrients thus will not achieve a balanced diet and results in malnutrition and deficiency diseases, especially in the developing countries, due mainly to poverty. The development and application of biotechnology offers opportunities and novel possibilities to enhance the nutritional quality of crops, particularly when the necessary genetic variability is not available. While initial emphasis of agricultural biotechnology has been placed on input traits of crops such as herbicide tolerance, insect resistance and virus resistance, increasing effort and promising proof-of-concept products have been made in output traits including enhancing the nutritional quality of crops since 1990s. Advancements in plant transformation and transgene expression also allow the use of plants as bioreactors to produce a variety of bio-products at large scale and low cost. Many proof-of-concept plant-derived healthcare products have been generated and several commercialized.

  12. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: food and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Dangour, Alan D; Garnett, Tara; Lock, Karen; Chalabi, Zaid; Roberts, Ian; Butler, Ainslie; Butler, Colin D; Waage, Jeff; McMichael, Anthony J; Haines, Andy

    2009-12-12

    Agricultural food production and agriculturally-related change in land use substantially contribute to greenhouse-gas emissions worldwide. Four-fifths of agricultural emissions arise from the livestock sector. Although livestock products are a source of some essential nutrients, they provide large amounts of saturated fat, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We considered potential strategies for the agricultural sector to meet the target recommended by the UK Committee on Climate Change to reduce UK emissions from the concentrations recorded in 1990 by 80% by 2050, which would require a 50% reduction by 2030. With use of the UK as a case study, we identified that a combination of agricultural technological improvements and a 30% reduction in livestock production would be needed to meet this target; in the absence of good emissions data from Brazil, we assumed for illustrative purposes that the required reductions would be the same for our second case study in São Paulo city. We then used these data to model the potential benefits of reduced consumption of livestock products on the burden of ischaemic heart disease: disease burden would decrease by about 15% in the UK (equivalent to 2850 disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] per million population in 1 year) and 16% in São Paulo city (equivalent to 2180 DALYs per million population in 1 year). Although likely to yield benefits to health, such a strategy will probably encounter cultural, political, and commercial resistance, and face technical challenges. Coordinated intersectoral action is needed across agricultural, nutritional, public health, and climate change communities worldwide to provide affordable, healthy, low-emission diets for all societies.

  13. The Role of Education in Agricultural Projects for Food Security and Poverty Reduction in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walingo, Mary Khakoni

    2006-05-01

    Agricultural development projects have been promoted in many places as a feature of poverty-reduction strategies. Such projects have often been implemented without a strong in-built education component, and hence have had little success. Agricultural projects seek to improve food security by diversifying a household's resource base and facilitating the social and economic empowerment of women. The present study presents a survey designed to assess the relationship between education level and ability to benefit from dairy-development projects in Kenya. Results reveal higher occupation and employment levels among beneficiary than non-beneficiary households. On the other hand, beneficiaries of poverty-reduction schemes require specialized training. Apart from project-specific training, the level of general education alone cannot predict the attainment of project objectives.

  14. The impact of food and agricultural policies on groundwater use in Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aw-Hassan, Aden; Rida, Fadel; Telleria, Roberto; Bruggeman, Adriana

    2014-05-01

    During the last three decades, the expansion of irrigation using both surface water and groundwater resources has had an important positive impact on Syria’s agricultural production. It is an example of success in achieving food policy objectives, but it has also introduced the challenge of groundwater sustainability. This paper examines the trends in groundwater abstraction for irrigation and the effect of government policies, including input subsidies - such as the diesel fuel subsidy and the crop procurement price support. The fuel subsidy is an important driving force in groundwater depletion and over-abstraction. This analysis examines the interaction between policy signals and the use and allocation of water by farmers. The rapid decline in groundwater resources shows the limitations of this agricultural development strategy and questions its sustainability unless policies change and the rate of abstraction is changed so as not exceed the recharge rate.

  15. The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons of the community, 1987-2013: From agricultural policy to social inclusion policy?

    PubMed

    Caraher, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons (MDP) of the community ran from 1987 until 2013. It was funded from Common Agricultural Policy budgets. The programme initially made use of surplus foods from the food mountains resulting from intervention stocks. This food was then distributed through aid agencies within member states, coordinated at a national government level. Reform of the CAP and global rises in food prices resulted in an increase in budget from €300 to €500 million Euros in 2010 with the added power to buy food on the open market. This led to a formal challenge to the scheme on the basis that buying goods on the open market shifted the emphasis from an agricultural/financial basis to a social one. A court ruling found that because the program was no longer used for removing surpluses the link to agriculture policy has become tenuous and therefore had no basis in community law. As a result of this legal challenge a number of policy compromises ensured the MDP would continue until the end of 2013 with a reduced budget. The scheme has been superseded by a new scheme in March 2014 called the Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD). This is seen as a social programme. The way that policy and politics developed and changed the MDP programme are set out. The article tracks its move from being an agricultural policy to a social welfare one. The key policy players and actors in this move are set out as are the changing context and policy frameworks. The replacement of the MDP by FEAD is discussed as is how intensive lobbying in 2012/13 resulted in the development of a new Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD).

  16. Modification of a household microwave oven for continuous temperature and weight measurements during drying of foods.

    PubMed

    Okmen, Z; Bayindirli, A

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to modify a conventional household microwave oven for recording temperature and weight measurements continuously during microwave drying of foods. A household microwave oven with digital control was equipped with an electronic balance and a set of standard thermocouples that were connected to a PC for continuous data collection. The efficiency of the modified thermocouples was tested against the built-in probe of the oven. It was found that this microwave oven dryer set-up could be used for drying kinetics studies of foods since both the temperature and weight of the sample could be recorded continuously during the microwave drying operation.

  17. Changes in food processing and occlusal dental wear during the early agricultural period in northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Watson, James T

    2008-01-01

    Crown dimensions and occlusal surface wear rate and wear plane were evaluated using paired first and second mandibular molars from a sample of 84 Early Agricultural period (1600 B.C.-A.D. 200) skeletons from northwest Mexico. Although this period represents a major shift in subsistence strategies in the Sonoran Desert, from food-foraging to agriculture, archaeological and dental pathology studies have identified this period as one of relative dietary stability. It was therefore predicted that very little variation in occlusal wear would have occurred between the early phase (San Pedro: 1600-800 B.C.) and late phase (Cienega: 800 B.C.-A.D. 200). Comparison of crown diameters identified some phenotypic differences between sexes but not between archaeological phases. Molar occlusal surfaces were then divided into four quadrants, and wear scores recorded for each quadrant. Principle axis analysis was performed between total wear scores of paired, adjacent first and second mandibular molars to assess rate and occlusal wear plane over time. The analysis demonstrated that both wear rate and wear plane increased from the early to the late phase of the Early Agricultural period. These results indicate that although diet may have indeed remained stable during this period in the Sonoran Desert increases in the rate of wear and wear plane may reflect changes in food-processing techniques. It is suggested that more intensive processing of agricultural products during the Cienega phase simultaneously softened the diet to create more tooth-contact wear and introduced more grit to cause faster and more angled wear on the molar occlusal surfaces.

  18. Recent progress in agricultural, food and environmental applications of thermal lens spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franko, Mladen

    1999-03-01

    A review of some recent applications of thermal lens spectrometry (TLS), which demonstrated the versatility and advantages of TLS detection in analysis of agricultural, food and environmental samples is presented. Application of TLS for detection of pesticides in combination with capillary electrophoresis or flow injection analysis (FIA) based on a biosensor and detection of carotenoids following their high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation is discussed. A novel differential TLS spectrometer and its application for IR detection of pesticides and organic acids is also described.

  19. Research needs to improve agricultural productivity and food quality, with emphasis on biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jennifer A

    2002-11-01

    Research into agricultural productivity, especially for crops in the developing world, should include resistance to plant viruses, fungi and the parasitic weed Striga. It must also include research into the development of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin-expressing crops. Drought- and heat-tolerant crops, and those that can combat the problems of soil deficiencies, are required, and vaccine production in plants should be a high priority. Research into food quality should include the equivalent of "golden rice" in maize, the enhancement of the production of phytosterols and improved qualities of vegetable oils.

  20. Food and agricultural biotechnology: a summary and analysis of ethical concerns.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul B; Hannah, William

    2008-01-01

    The range of social and ethical concerns that have been raised in connection with food and agricultural biotechnology is exceedingly broad. Many of these deal with risks and possible outcomes that are not unique to crops or animals developed using recombinant DNA. Food safety, animal welfare, socio-economic and environmental impacts, as well as shifts in power relations or access to technology raise concerns that might be generalized to many technologies. These aspects of the controversy over biotechnology are analyzed below as elements of general technological ethics, and key norms or values pertinent to each of these categories are specified in some detail. However, a number of special concerns unique to the use of rDNA in manipulating plant and animal genomes have been raised, and these are reviewed as well. The chapter concludes by reviewing two broad policy strategies for responding to the issues, one involving labels and consumer consent, the other applying the precautionary principle.

  1. Assessing future risks to agricultural productivity, water resources and food security: How can remote sensing help?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Knox, Jerry W.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Congalton, Russell G.; Wu, Zhuoting; Milesi, Cristina; Finkral, Alex; Marshall, Mike; Mariotto, Isabella; You, Songcai; Giri, Chandra; Nagler, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    of changing dietary consumption patterns, a changing climate and the growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington, 2010). The impact from these changes wi ll affect the viability of both dryland subsistence and irrigated commodity food production (Knox, et al., 2010a). Since climate is a primary determinant of agricultural productivity, any changes will influence not only crop yields, but also the hydrologic balances, and supplies of inputs to managed farming systems as well as potentially shifting the geographic location for specific crops . Unless concerted and collective action is taken, society risks worldwide food shortages, scarcity of water resources and insufficient energy. This has the potential to unleash public unrest, cross-border conflicts and migration as people flee the worst-affected regions to seck refuge in "safe havens", a situation that Beddington described as the "perfect storm" (2010).

  2. Research advances of antimicrobial peptides and applications in food industry and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shuo; Xu, Huanli; Wang, Fengshan

    2010-06-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are produced by a wide range of organisms and serve as their natural defenses against infection caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi. Because of the positively charge and amphipathic structure, AMPs kill target cells through diverse and complex mechanisms once in a target membrane and these special mechanisms are considered to be the critical factors for the less tendency of drug resistance development. Thus AMPs may become a new generation of promising antimicrobial agents in future anti-infection application. Additionally, AMPs can also be used in food industry and agriculture. On the basis of discussing the structural features, action mechanisms and sources, the applications of AMPs were reviewed in this paper, including in food industry, feedstuff, cultivation of disease-resistant transgenic plant, cultivation of transgenic animal, and aquaculture, especially the patented applications.

  3. 75 FR 9388 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; One Hundred and Fifty-Ninth Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... collaboration: USG Food Security Strategy and Program; USG Global Climate Change Strategy and Program; Education... at 529 14th St., NW., Washington, DC. ``Higher Education: A Critical Partner in Global Agricultural... strong background in global food security issues. Within this context comes the recognition that...

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions of agricultural professionals toward genetically modified (GM) foods: a case study in Southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Sedigheh; Karami, Ezatollah; Azadi, Hossein

    2013-09-01

    While there has been a number of consumers' studies looking at factors that influence individuals' attitudes and behavior toward GM foods, few studies have considered agricultural professionals' intentions in this regard. This study illuminates agricultural professionals' insights toward GM foods in Southwest Iran. A random sample of 262 respondents was studied. The results indicated that the majority of the respondents had little knowledge about GM foods. They perceived few benefits or risks of GM foods. Their perceived benefits and trust in individuals and institutions had positive impacts on the behavioral intentions of the agricultural professionals. The results also revealed that the low knowledge level of the respondents had a negative impact on the behavioral intentions toward GM foods. This state of affairs is problematic, either GM foods have serious problems or the knowledge conveyed to the Iranian agricultural experts is inappropriate. We recommend a well defined communication strategy to provide information in such a way that allows individuals to feel adequately informed about GM foods. Furthermore, the development of trust and knowledge regarding GM foods can be greater when risk analysis frameworks are transparent, risk assessment methodologies are objective, all stakeholders are engaged in the risk management process, and risk communication focuses on consumers.

  5. Using continuous monitoring of physical parameters to better estimate phosphorus fluxes in a small agricultural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaudo, Camille; Dupas, Rémi; Moatar, Florentina; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus fluxes in streams are subjected to high temporal variations, questioning the relevance of the monitoring strategies (generally monthly sampling) chosen to assist EU Directives to capture phosphorus fluxes and their variations over time. The objective of this study was to estimate the annual and seasonal P flux uncertainties depending on several monitoring strategies, with varying sampling frequencies, but also taking into account simultaneous and continuous time-series of parameters such as turbidity, conductivity, groundwater level and precipitation. Total Phosphorus (TP), Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) concentrations were surveyed at a fine temporal frequency between 2007 and 2015 at the outlet of a small agricultural catchment in Brittany (Naizin, 5 km2). Sampling occurred every 3 to 6 days between 2007 and 2012 and daily between 2013 and 2015. Additionally, 61 storms were intensively surveyed (1 sample every 30 minutes) since 2007. Besides, water discharge, turbidity, conductivity, groundwater level and precipitation were monitored on a sub-hourly basis. A strong temporal decoupling between SRP and particulate P (PP) was found (Dupas et al., 2015). The phosphorus-discharge relationships displayed two types of hysteretic patterns (clockwise and counterclockwise). For both cases, time-series of PP and SRP were estimated continuously for the whole period using an empirical model linking P concentrations with the hydrological and physic-chemical variables. The associated errors of the estimated P concentrations were also assessed. These « synthetic » PP and SRP time-series allowed us to discuss the most efficient monitoring strategies, first taking into account different sampling strategies based on Monte Carlo random simulations, and then adding the information from continuous data such as turbidity, conductivity and groundwater depth based on empirical modelling. Dupas et al., (2015, Distinct export dynamics for

  6. Potential of extensification of European agriculture for a more sustainable food system, focusing on nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Grinsven, Hans J. M.; Willem Erisman, Jan; de Vries, Wim; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-02-01

    Most global strategies for future food security focus on sustainable intensification of production of food and involve increased use of nitrogen fertilizer and manure. The external costs of current high nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in the European Union, are 0.3-1.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008. We explore the potential of sustainable extensification for agriculture in the EU and The Netherlands by analysing cases and scenario studies focusing on reducing N inputs and livestock densities. Benefits of extensification are higher local biodiversity and less environmental pollution and therefore less external costs for society. Extensification also has risks such as a reduction of yields and therewith a decrease of the GDP and farm income and a smaller contribution to the global food production, and potentially an i0ncrease of global demand for land. We demonstrate favourable examples of extensification. Reducing the N fertilization rate for winter wheat in Northwest Europe to 25-30% below current N recommendations accounts for the external N cost, but requires action to compensate for a reduction in crop yield by 10-20%. Dutch dairy and pig farmers changing to less intensive production maintain or even improve farm income by price premiums on their products, and/or by savings on external inputs. A scenario reducing the Dutch pig and poultry sector by 50%, the dairy sector by 20% and synthetic N fertilizer use by 40% lowers annual N pollution costs by 0.2-2.2 billion euro (40%). This benefit compensates for the loss of GDP in the primary sector but not in the supply and processing chain. A 2030 scenario for the EU27 reducing consumption and production of animal products by 50% (demitarean diet) reduces N pollution by 10% and benefits human health. This diet allows the EU27 to become a food exporter, while reducing land demand outside Europe in 2030 by more than 100 million hectares (2%), which more than compensates increased land demand when

  7. An introduction of internationalisation in food science doctoral program: a case study of Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hunaefi, D

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Food Science and Technology- Bogor Agricultural University (DFST-IPB), Indonesia is one of the oldest Departments of its kind in Indonesia. The Department has been founded since 1964 under the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology. The Department has a core competence in the area of food science and technology, particularly in the development of food chemistry, food microbiology, food process engineering, food analysis, food quality and safety. The Department offers educational programs: Undergraduate Program in Food Technology and Master as well as Doctorate Program in Food Science. The Master and Doctorate Program are enrolled by 35 students annually. Globalisation as a global phenomenon has been influencing DFST doctoral program as internationalization in response to globalization is a common feature in majority universities. Facing this challenge, DFST Doctorate Program's has made some efforts to provide students with international atmosphere, including having international guest lecturers, inviting prospective international students, and initiating join program with international universities. In addition, research focusing in tropical food and collaboration with international universities may need to be improved to widen the network, increase publication and place DFST doctorate program visible in the international forum. This paper is intended to reveal the perceived challenges of globalization for food science doctoral program (DFST-IPB) and to what extent and in what form internationalization has been achieved. However, it should be noted that this article is selective rather than comprehensive in reflecting on the internationalization process of food science doctoral program (DFST-IPB).

  8. Transgenic foods as a tool for malnutrition elimination and their impact on agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Monastra, Giovanni; Rossi, Laura

    2003-01-01

    GMO crops were introduced for commercial production in 1996. Since then, their use has increased rapidly. GMOs have primarily benefited large farms and multinational companies in Industrialised Countries and now is more and more debating their utilisation in Developing World. The objective of the present review is an analysis of this subject from a comprehensive point of view; in addition to that, the changes related to the nutritional content of transgenic foods will be treated. Despite the progress that has been made, the world food situation is still marked by mass hunger and chronic malnutrition. In particular micronutrient malnutrition, that means vitamin and mineral deficiencies, represents an important public health problem in several areas of the world. The "golden rice" bioengineered to contain beta-carotene, as a source of vitamin A is the most famous example of GM food used for reduction (or even to solve) of a public health problem. The expected results of this approach have presently not been achieved. Further studies are necessary to increase the general knowledge about GMOs and their long-term effects on human health. Collaborative attitude of different research sectors (private and public) and involvement of different sectors of society will be an added value for comprehension of the real impact of the application of modern biotechnology to food and agriculture systems.

  9. 7 CFR 220.12 - Competitive food services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competitive food services. 220.12 Section 220.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.12 Competitive food services. (a)...

  10. 7 CFR 220.12 - Competitive food services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competitive food services. 220.12 Section 220.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.12 Competitive food services. School...

  11. 7 CFR 220.12 - Competitive food services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competitive food services. 220.12 Section 220.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.12 Competitive food services. (a)...

  12. 7 CFR 220.12 - Competitive food services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competitive food services. 220.12 Section 220.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.12 Competitive food services. (a)...

  13. Arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops: impacts on agriculture and food safety.

    PubMed

    Heikens, Alex; Panaullah, Golam M; Meharg, Andy A

    2007-01-01

    High levels of As in groundwater commonly found in Bangladesh and other parts of Asia not only pose a risk via drinking water consumption but also a risk in agricultural sustainability and food safety. This review attempts to provide an overview of current knowledge and gaps related to the assessment and management of these risks, including the behaviour of As in the soil-plant system, uptake, phytotoxicity, As speciation in foods, dietary habits, and human health risks. Special emphasis has been given to the situation in Bangladesh, where groundwater via shallow tube wells is the most important source of irrigation water in the dry season. Within the soil-plant system, there is a distinct difference in behaviour of As under flooded conditions, where arsenite (AsIII) predominates, and under nonflooded conditions, where arsenate (AsV) predominates. The former is regarded as most toxic to humans and plants. Limited data indicate that As-contaminated irrigation water can result in a slow buildup of As in the topsoil. In some cases the buildup is reflected by the As levels in crops, in others not. It is not yet possible to predict As uptake and toxicity in plants based on soil parameters. It is unknown under what conditions and in what time frame As is building up in the soil. Representative phytotoxicity data necessary to evaluate current and future soil concentrations are not yet available. Although there are no indications that crop production is currently inhibited by As, long-term risks are clearly present. Therefore, with concurrent assessments of the risks, management options to further prevent As accumulation in the topsoil should already have been explored. With regard to human health, data on As speciation in foods in combination with food consumption data are needed to assess dietary exposure, and these data should include spatial and seasonal variability. It is important to control confounding factors in assessing the risks. In a country where malnutrition

  14. Agricultural and Food Processing Applications of Pulsed Power and Plasma Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, Koichi

    Agricultural and food processing applications of pulsed power and plasma technologies are described in this paper. Repetitively operated compact pulsed power generators with a moderate peak power are developed for the agricultural and the food processing applications. These applications are mainly based on biological effects and can be categorized as germination control of plants such as Basidiomycota and arabidopsis inactivation of bacteria in soil and liquid medium of hydroponics; extraction of juice from fruits and vegetables; decontamination of air and liquid, etc. Types of pulsed power that have biological effects are caused with gas discharges, water discharges, and electromagnetic fields. The discharges yield free radicals, UV radiation, intense electric field, and shock waves. Biologically based applications of pulsed power and plasma are performed by selecting the type that gives the target objects the adequate result from among these agents or byproducts. For instance, intense electric fields form pores on the cell membrane, which is called electroporation, or influence the nuclei. This paper mainly describes the application of the pulsed power for the germination control of Basidiomycota i.e. mushroom, inactivation of fungi in the soil and the liquid medium in hydroponics, and extraction of polyphenol from skins of grape.

  15. The use of neutron radiography in agriculture to improve the food quality.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Selma P; Crispim, Verginia R; Brandão, Luís E B

    2002-11-01

    The report presented in the 7th ONU's Conference (USA, 2001) about climatic changes that took place at the end of 2001 informs that, in less than 50 years, more than 45% of the world population will be suffering from lack of water. This fact occurs by the absence of management on water resources, mainly, in agriculture. As the excess as the lack of humidity in soil can change the harvest quality, causing physiologic anomalies in food and promoting soil diseases incidence caused by bacteria and fungus. In order to establish a larger control in the food quality, a study has been performed, through the neutron radiographic technique, that proposes the optimization of agricultural harvests in relation to the minimum quantity of water necessary for the plant to develop and, also, of the soil compactness. Thus, neutron radiographic images of the system root-soil can be produced so that each root will be evaluated for its ability to penetrate in the soil layers, having the advantage of not interfering in this system what it is not possible through the usual techniques yet. The initial tests using bean roots showed that the soil thickness, which involved the roots, resulted in low contrast images, what impeded their visualization with enough clearness so that their grow could not be observed. For this reason, it was opted to the gadolinium as a contrast agent so that we have been studying its transport through the roots.

  16. 7 CFR 273.28 - Application for Food Stamp Program recertification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application for Food Stamp Program recertification. 273.28 Section 273.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION...

  17. 7 CFR 273.28 - Application for Food Stamp Program recertification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application for Food Stamp Program recertification. 273.28 Section 273.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION...

  18. Mitigation Strategies for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture and Land-Use Change: Consequences for Food Prices.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, Miodrag; Popp, Alexander; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Humpenöder, Florian; Müller, Christoph; Weindl, Isabelle; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Kreidenweis, Ulrich; Rolinski, Susanne; Biewald, Anne; Wang, Xiaoxi

    2017-01-03

    The land use sector of agriculture, forestry, and other land use (AFOLU) plays a central role in ambitious climate change mitigation efforts. Yet, mitigation policies in agriculture may be in conflict with food security related targets. Using a global agro-economic model, we analyze the impacts on food prices under mitigation policies targeting either incentives for producers (e.g., through taxes) or consumer preferences (e.g., through education programs). Despite having a similar reduction potential of 43-44% in 2100, the two types of policy instruments result in opposite outcomes for food prices. Incentive-based mitigation, such as protecting carbon-rich forests or adopting low-emission production techniques, increase land scarcity and production costs and thereby food prices. Preference-based mitigation, such as reduced household waste or lower consumption of animal-based products, decreases land scarcity, prevents emissions leakage, and concentrates production on the most productive sites and consequently lowers food prices. Whereas agricultural emissions are further abated in the combination of these mitigation measures, the synergy of strategies fails to substantially lower food prices. Additionally, we demonstrate that the efficiency of agricultural emission abatement is stable across a range of greenhouse-gas (GHG) tax levels, while resulting food prices exhibit a disproportionally larger spread.

  19. Biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste in batch and continuous systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Yan, Yingting; Shi, Yiwen; Gu, Jingjing; Tang, Junhong; Zhao, Hongting

    2016-12-02

    In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35 g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 5850 mL was achieved with a yield of 245.7 mL hydrogen/g glucose (1.97 mol hydrogen/mol glucose) in the batch system. In the continuous system, the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on biohydrogen production from food waste hydrolysate was investigated. The optimal HRT obtained from this study was 6 h with the highest hydrogen production rate of 8.02 mmol/(h·L). Ethanol and acetate were the major soluble microbial products with low propionate production at all HRTs. Enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste could effectively accelerate hydrolysis speed, improve substrate utilization rate and increase hydrogen yield.

  20. Biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste in batch and continuous systems

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei; Yan, Yingting; Shi, Yiwen; Gu, Jingjing; Tang, Junhong; Zhao, Hongting

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of biohydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. Food waste (solid-to-liquid ratio of 10%, w/v) was first hydrolyzed by commercial glucoamylase to release glucose (24.35 g/L) in the food waste hydrolysate. Then, the obtained food waste hydrolysate was used as substrate for biohydrogen production in the batch and continuous (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) systems. It was observed that the maximum cumulative hydrogen production of 5850 mL was achieved with a yield of 245.7 mL hydrogen/g glucose (1.97 mol hydrogen/mol glucose) in the batch system. In the continuous system, the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on biohydrogen production from food waste hydrolysate was investigated. The optimal HRT obtained from this study was 6 h with the highest hydrogen production rate of 8.02 mmol/(h·L). Ethanol and acetate were the major soluble microbial products with low propionate production at all HRTs. Enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste could effectively accelerate hydrolysis speed, improve substrate utilization rate and increase hydrogen yield. PMID:27910937

  1. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; McNally, A.; Husak, G.; Funk, C.

    2014-10-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agropastoral management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socioeconomic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's (FEWS NET) science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S-8° N, 36-46° E) for the March-April-May (MAM) growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food-insecure, climatically variable, and socioeconomically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world; this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To produce an "agricultural outlook", our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios describing the upcoming season. First, we forced the VIC model with high-quality atmospheric observations to produce baseline soil moisture (SM) estimates (here after referred as SM a posteriori estimates). These compared favorably (correlation = 0.75) with the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI), an index that the FEWS NET uses to estimate crop yields. Next, we evaluated the SM forecasts generated by this system on 5 March and 5 April of each year between 1993 and 2012 by comparing them with the corresponding SM a posteriori estimates. We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (SOS) (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month and, in some cases, 3-month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with midseason (i.e., 5

  2. 7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental foods. 246.10 Section 246.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Benefits § 246.10...

  3. 7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental foods. 246.10 Section 246.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Benefits § 246.10...

  4. 7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental foods. 246.10 Section 246.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Benefits § 246.10...

  5. 7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental foods. 246.10 Section 246.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Benefits § 246.10...

  6. Implementation of Sentinel-2 Data in the M4Land System for the Generation of Continuous Information Products in Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, P.; Schlenz, F.; Hank, T.; Migdall, S.; Weiß, I.; Danner, M.; Bach, H.; Mauser, W.

    2016-08-01

    The analysis system developed in the frame of the M4Land project (Model based, Multi-temporal, Multi scale and Multi sensorial retrieval of continuous land management information) has proven its capabilities of classifying crop type and creating products on the intensity of agricultural production using optical remote sensing data from Landsat and RapidEye. In this study, Sentinel-2 data is used for the first time together with Landsat 7 ETM+ and 8 OLI data within the M4Land analysis system to derive continuously crop type and the agricultural intensity of fields in an area north of Munich, Germany and the year 2015.

  7. Impacts of Agricultural Decision Making and Adaptive Management on Food Security in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, K. K.; Evans, T. P.; Estes, L. D.; Sheffield, J.; Plale, B. A.; Attari, S.

    2014-12-01

    Despite massive investments in food aid, agricultural extension, and seed/fertilizer subsidies, nearly 1 billion people in the developing world are food insecure and vulnerable to climate variability. Sub-Saharan Africa is most vulnerable, as approximately 25% of its people are undernourished (FAO/FAOSTAT 2013) and 96% of its cropland is rainfed (FAO 2002). The ability of subsistence farmers to respond to changes in water availability involves both inter-and intra-seasonal adaptation. Adaptive capacity diminishes over the season as decisions are made, resources are used, and the set of possible futures becomes restricted. Assessing the intra-seasonal adaptive capacity of smallholders requires integrating physical models of hydrological and agricultural dynamics with farmer decision-making at fine temporal (e.g. weekly) and spatial (e.g. crop field) scales. However, there is an intrinsic challenge to modeling the dynamics of these sociohydrologic systems, because important and uncharacterized spatial and temporal scale mismatches exist between the level at which the water resource is best understood and the level at which human dynamics are more predictable. For example, the skill of current process-based land surface models is primarily confined to short-term (daily to weekly), national- to regional-scale assessments, and reliable agricultural yield estimates and forecasts for small-scale farming systems remain elusive. In contrast, process-based social science modeling has focused on agent-based approaches that generate fine-scale (individual to community) dynamics over rather coarse time scales (yearly to decadal). A major obstacle to addressing this mismatch is the fundamental fact that the highest skill domain of one framework is essentially unpredictable in the other. We present a coupled sociohydrological observation framework designed to addressing this gap, and demonstrate its utility to understand relationships between climate variability, decision making

  8. Ancient lipids reveal continuity in culinary practices across the transition to agriculture in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Oliver E.; Steele, Val J.; Fischer, Anders; Hartz, Sönke; Andersen, Søren H.; Donohoe, Paul; Glykou, Aikaterini; Saul, Hayley; Jones, D. Martin; Koch, Eva; Heron, Carl P.

    2011-01-01

    Farming transformed societies globally. Yet, despite more than a century of research, there is little consensus on the speed or completeness of this fundamental change and, consequently, on its principal drivers. For Northern Europe, the debate has often centered on the rich archaeological record of the Western Baltic, but even here it is unclear how quickly or completely people abandoned wild terrestrial and marine resources after the introduction of domesticated plants and animals at ∼4000 calibrated years B.C. Ceramic containers are found ubiquitously on these sites and contain remarkably well-preserved lipids derived from the original use of the vessel. Reconstructing culinary practices from this ceramic record can contribute to longstanding debates concerning the origins of farming. Here we present data on the molecular and isotopic characteristics of lipids extracted from 133 ceramic vessels and 100 carbonized surface residues dating to immediately before and after the first evidence of domesticated animals and plants in the Western Baltic. The presence of specific lipid biomarkers, notably ω-(o-alkylphenyl)alkanoic acids, and the isotopic composition of individual n-alkanoic acids clearly show that a significant proportion (∼20%) of ceramic vessels with lipids preserved continued to be used for processing marine and freshwater resources across the transition to agriculture in this region. Although changes in pottery use are immediately evident, our data challenge the popular notions that economies were completely transformed with the arrival of farming and that Neolithic pottery was exclusively associated with produce from domesticated animals and plants. PMID:22025697

  9. Ancient lipids reveal continuity in culinary practices across the transition to agriculture in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Craig, Oliver E; Steele, Val J; Fischer, Anders; Hartz, Sönke; Andersen, Søren H; Donohoe, Paul; Glykou, Aikaterini; Saul, Hayley; Jones, D Martin; Koch, Eva; Heron, Carl P

    2011-11-01

    Farming transformed societies globally. Yet, despite more than a century of research, there is little consensus on the speed or completeness of this fundamental change and, consequently, on its principal drivers. For Northern Europe, the debate has often centered on the rich archaeological record of the Western Baltic, but even here it is unclear how quickly or completely people abandoned wild terrestrial and marine resources after the introduction of domesticated plants and animals at ∼4000 calibrated years B.C. Ceramic containers are found ubiquitously on these sites and contain remarkably well-preserved lipids derived from the original use of the vessel. Reconstructing culinary practices from this ceramic record can contribute to longstanding debates concerning the origins of farming. Here we present data on the molecular and isotopic characteristics of lipids extracted from 133 ceramic vessels and 100 carbonized surface residues dating to immediately before and after the first evidence of domesticated animals and plants in the Western Baltic. The presence of specific lipid biomarkers, notably ω-(o-alkylphenyl)alkanoic acids, and the isotopic composition of individual n-alkanoic acids clearly show that a significant proportion (∼20%) of ceramic vessels with lipids preserved continued to be used for processing marine and freshwater resources across the transition to agriculture in this region. Although changes in pottery use are immediately evident, our data challenge the popular notions that economies were completely transformed with the arrival of farming and that Neolithic pottery was exclusively associated with produce from domesticated animals and plants.

  10. Phosphorus Cycling in Montreal’s Food and Urban Agriculture Systems

    PubMed Central

    Metson, Geneviève S.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2015-01-01

    Cities are a key system in anthropogenic phosphorus (P) cycling because they concentrate both P demand and waste production. Urban agriculture (UA) has been proposed as a means to improve P management by recycling cities’ P-rich waste back into local food production. However, we have a limited understanding of the role UA currently plays in the P cycle of cities or its potential to recycle local P waste. Using existing data combined with surveys of local UA practitioners, we quantified the role of UA in the P cycle of Montreal, Canada to explore the potential for UA to recycle local P waste. We also used existing data to complete a substance flow analysis of P flows in the overall food system of Montreal. In 2012, Montreal imported 3.5 Gg of P in food, of which 2.63 Gg ultimately accumulated in landfills, 0.36 Gg were discharged to local waters, and only 0.09 Gg were recycled through composting. We found that UA is only a small sub-system in the overall P cycle of the city, contributing just 0.44% of the P consumed as food in the city. However, within the UA system, the rate of recycling is high: 73% of inputs applied to soil were from recycled sources. While a Quebec mandate to recycle 100% of all organic waste by 2020 might increase the role of UA in P recycling, the area of land in UA is too small to accommodate all P waste produced on the island. UA may, however, be a valuable pathway to improve urban P sustainability by acting as an activity that changes residents’ relationship to, and understanding of, the food system and increases their acceptance of composting. PMID:25826256

  11. 7 CFR 210.7 - Reimbursement for school food authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reimbursement for school food authorities. 210.7 Section 210.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Process for States and School Food Authorities § 210.7 Reimbursement for school food authorities....

  12. 7 CFR 210.7 - Reimbursement for school food authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reimbursement for school food authorities. 210.7 Section 210.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Process for States and School Food Authorities § 210.7 Reimbursement for school food authorities....

  13. Modelling the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in agricultural food chains for regulatory exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Koki; Wade, Andrew J; Collins, Chris D

    2017-02-01

    New models for estimating bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in the agricultural food chain were developed using recent improvements to plant uptake and cattle transfer models. One model named AgriSim was based on K OW regressions of bioaccumulation in plants and cattle, while the other was a steady-state mechanistic model, AgriCom. The two developed models and European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances (EUSES), as a benchmark, were applied to four reported food chain (soil/air-grass-cow-milk) scenarios to evaluate the performance of each model simulation against the observed data. The four scenarios considered were as follows: (1) polluted soil and air, (2) polluted soil, (3) highly polluted soil surface and polluted subsurface and (4) polluted soil and air at different mountain elevations. AgriCom reproduced observed milk bioaccumulation well for all four scenarios, as did AgriSim for scenarios 1 and 2, but EUSES only did this for scenario 1. The main causes of the deviation for EUSES and AgriSim were the lack of the soil-air-plant pathway and the ambient air-plant pathway, respectively. Based on the results, it is recommended that soil-air-plant and ambient air-plant pathway should be calculated separately and the K OW regression of transfer factor to milk used in EUSES be avoided. AgriCom satisfied the recommendations that led to the low residual errors between the simulated and the observed bioaccumulation in agricultural food chain for the four scenarios considered. It is therefore recommended that this model should be incorporated into regulatory exposure assessment tools. The model uncertainty of the three models should be noted since the simulated concentration in milk from 5th to 95th percentile of the uncertainty analysis often varied over two orders of magnitude. Using a measured value of soil organic carbon content was effective to reduce this uncertainty by one order of magnitude.

  14. Agriculture, health, and wealth convergence: bridging traditional food systems and modern agribusiness solutions.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Webb, Patrick; Arora, Narendra K; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    The causes of many vexing challenges facing 21st-century society are at the nexus of systems involved in agriculture, health and wealth production, consumption, and distribution. Using food as a test bed, and on the basis of emerging roadmaps that set achievable objectives over a 1- to 3-year horizon, we introduce this special feature with convergence thinking and practice at its core. Specifically, we discuss academic papers structured around four themes: (1) evidence for a need for convergence and underlying mechanisms at the individual and societal levels; (2) strategy for mainstreaming convergence as a driver of business engagement and innovation; (3) convergence in policy and governance; (4) convergence in metrics and methods. Academic papers under each theme are accompanied by a roadmap paper reporting on the current status of concrete transformative convergence-building projects associated with that theme. We believe that the insights provided by these papers have the potential to enable all actors throughout society to singly and collectively work to build supply and demand for nutritious food, in both traditional and modern food systems, while placing the burdens of malnutrition and ill health on their core strategic agendas.

  15. African agricultural subsidy impacts food security, poverty, drought tolerance, and environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galford, G. L.; Palm, C.; DeFries, R. S.; Nziguheba, G.; Droppelmann, K.; Nkonya, E.; Michelson, H.; Clark, C.; Kathewera, F.; Walsh, M.

    2011-12-01

    Malawi has spearheaded an unprecedented policy change in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since 2005 when it started a widespread agricultural inputs subsidy program (AISP) targeting small farmer maize production with mineral fertilizer and improved seeds. Since then, the mean N fertilizer load has increased significantly, from ~ 0 to a modest 35 kg N/ha or 7 times greater than SSA's average 5 kg N/ha average. During the tenure of AISP, Malawi has transitioned from a food aid recipient to an exporter. Maize yields each year of AISP are double the long-term average (0.8 tons/ha/yr, 1960-2005). In 2007, subsidy inputs combined with good rains led to of an unprecedented increase in national average yields of 2.7 tons/ha. National-scale assessments covering, agriculture, poverty, and environment such as this one are required to understand the trade-offs between development, climate and the environment. Environmentally, N2O emissions from fertilizer are a concern. First order estimates put emissions from AISP fertilizers at 2,600 Mg N2O/year (0.81 Tg CO2-e). While globally insignificant, these emissions may be equivalent to 16% of Malawi's annual fossil fuel and deforestation emissions. However, our partial nutrient budgets indicate that crop removal is still higher than N applied and therefore little loss of N to the environment is expected. Mineral fertilizers are a rapid first step to increase soil N after 40 years of serious depletion. Once restored, the soils will support robust agroforestry and other forms of organic inputs produced on-farm. Fertilizer use increases carbon sequestration on agricultural soils and reduces pressure to clear forests, which may partially compensate for the N2O emissions. We find evidence that AISP significantly increases food security and mitigates the impacts of drought on maize production. This is the first work linking the distribution of fertilizer subsidies to local crop yields using government records, remotely-sensed time series of

  16. Analysis of the Continuing Decline in Use of Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Roger

    1997-01-01

    When responses from 135 of 222 New York secondary agriculture teachers were compared with a 1983 study, a 10% decrease in supervised agricultural experience (SAE) was found. Barriers were low level of summer employment, limited release time, less funding for transportation, and scheduling problems. A comprehensive overhaul of the concept and…

  17. Modelling the water-agricultural sector in Rosetta, Egypt: exploring the interaction between water and food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sušnik, Janez; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia; Savic, Dragan; Kapelan, Zoran

    2014-05-01

    An integrated System Dynamics Model for the Rosetta region, Egypt, assessing local water balance and agricultural yield to 2050, is presented. Fifty-seven simulations are analysed to better understand potential impacts on water and food security resulting from climate and social change and local/regional policy decisions related to the agricultural sector. Water limitation is a national issue: Egypt relies on the Nile for >95% of supply, and the flow of which is regulated by the Aswan High Dam. Egypt's share water of Aswan water is limited to 55 x 19 m3 yr-1. Any reduction in supply to the reservoir or increase in demand (e.g. from an expanding agricultural sector), has the potential to lead to a serious food and water supply situation. Results show current water resource over-exploitation. The remaining suite of 56 simulations, divided into seven scenarios, also mostly show resource overexploitation. Only under significant increases to Nile flow volumes was the trend reversed. Despite this, by threading together multiple local policies to reduce demand and improve/maintain supply, water resource exploitation can be mitigated while allowing for agricultural development. By changing cropping patterns, it is possible to improve yield and revenue, while using up to 21% less water in 2050 when compared with today. The results are useful in highlighting pathways to improving future water resource availability. Many policies should be considered in parallel, introducing redundancy into the policy framework. We do not suggest actual policy measures; this was beyond the scope of the work. This work highlights the utility of systems modelling of complex systems such as the water-food nexus, with the potential to extend the methodology to other studies and scales. In particular, the benefit of being able to easily modify and extend existing models in light of results from initial modelling efforts is cited. Analysis of initial results led to the hypothesis that by producing

  18. A review of wireless sensor technologies and applications in agriculture and food industry: state of the art and current trends.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Lunadei, Loredana; Barreiro, Pilar; Robla, Jose Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri-Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), presenting the different systems available, recent developments and examples of applications, including ZigBee based WSN and passive, semi-passive and active RFID. Future trends of wireless communications in agriculture and food industry are also discussed.

  19. A Review of Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications in Agriculture and Food Industry: State of the Art and Current Trends

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Lunadei, Loredana; Barreiro, Pilar; Robla, Jose Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri-Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), presenting the different systems available, recent developments and examples of applications, including ZigBee based WSN and passive, semi-passive and active RFID. Future trends of wireless communications in agriculture and food industry are also discussed. PMID:22408551

  20. Comparing Supply-Side Specifications in Models of Global Agriculture and the Food System

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sherman; van Meijl, Hans; Willenbockel, Dirk; Valin, Hugo; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko; Sands, Ronald; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Havlik, Petr; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Tabeau, Andrzej; Kavallari, Aikaterini; Schmitz, Christoph; Dietrich, Jan P.; von Lampe, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the theoretical specification of production and technical change across the partial equilibrium (PE) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models of the global agricultural and food system included in the AgMIP model comparison study. The two modeling approaches have different theoretical underpinnings concerning the scope of economic activity they capture and how they represent technology and the behavior of supply and demand in markets. This paper focuses on their different specifications of technology and supply behavior, comparing their theoretical and empirical treatments. While the models differ widely in their specifications of technology, both within and between the PE and CGE classes of models, we find that the theoretical responsiveness of supply to changes in prices can be similar, depending on parameter choices that define the behavior of supply functions over the domain of applicability defined by the common scenarios used in the AgMIP comparisons. In particular, we compare the theoretical specification of supply in CGE models with neoclassical production functions and PE models that focus on land and crop yields in agriculture. In practice, however, comparability of results given parameter choices is an empirical question, and the models differ in their sensitivity to variations in specification. To illustrate the issues, sensitivity analysis is done with one global CGE model, MAGNET, to indicate how the results vary with different specification of technical change, and how they compare with the results from PE models.

  1. Application of High-Pressure Treatment to Enhancement of Functional Components in Agricultural Products and Development of Sterilized Foods.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Eri; Kawamura, Mariko; Ogino, Miyuki; Hoshino, Eri; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Hoshino, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Nishiumi, Tadayuki

    2015-01-01

    In 1988, the late Prof. Rikimaru Hayashi had first proposed "Use of High Pressure in Food", introducing his views, i.e., "heat and pressure are independently capable of transforming the state of a substance, and such state transforming factors are only heat and pressure in nature." Sc. D. Masaru Nakahara stated in his note that he had been impressed by the unique starting point of Prof. Hayashi's idea. Prof. Hayashi had explored some good method for food processing without using heat, so he alternatively thought of high-pressure treatment (Hayashi R (1989) Use of high pressure to food processing and preservation. In: Hayashi R (ed) Use of high pressure in food. San-Ei Publishing Co, Kyoto, pp 1-30; Nakahara M (1990) Water and ions at high pressure: their fundamental properties relevant to the pressure treatment to food. In: Hayashi R (ed) Pressure-processed food--research and development. San-Ei Publishing Co, Kyoto, pp 3-21). Since the start-up of Japanese research group of high pressure in biological field (the present "Japanese Research Group of High Pressure Bioscience and Biotechnology (JHPBB)") and "International Association of High Pressure Bioscience and Biotechnology (IAHPBB)", we have continued to research into the industrial use of high-pressure treatment over a period of 25 years to realize our dream, that is, the same as Prof. Hayashi's dream. Although heat and pressure were found to be independent factors capable of transforming the state of a substance, use of heat has been overwhelmingly more frequent in food processing up to now. However, the pressure treatment has the advantages of instantaneous transmission, uniform distribution in vessels, and ability of inducing uniform change in quality. The high-pressure treatment does not cause cleavage of the covalent bond in the substance, thereby lessening the decomposition of nutrients, the generation of offensive smell, and the production of abnormal materials when compared with the heat application. In

  2. [Nutrition mode eavulation among University of Agriculture students in Szczecin in 2006. Part II. Consumption of enriched food and supplements].

    PubMed

    Szczuko, Małgorzata; Seidler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate intake of enriched food and diet supplementation by 126 Academy of Agriculture students (mostly women). The information was taken by "Face to face" interview. Enriched food was eaten by 68.8% of the persons. Mostly were used juices (31.4%), milk products and breakfast cereals, especially during breakfast. Supplementation was practiced by 49.2% students, by own decision. Predominantly they were vitamin and mineral confections (46.8% interview participants).

  3. Proceedings of the frst joint american chemical society agricultural and food chemistry division – american chemical society international chemical sciences chapter in Thailand symposium on agricultural and food chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This Proceedings is a compilation of papers from contributed oral and poster presentations presented at the first joint symposium organized by the American Chemical Society Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division and the American Chemical Society International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand ...

  4. U.S. government raises serious questions about reliability of U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food composition database.

    PubMed

    Katch, F I

    1995-03-01

    A recent government report from the General Accounting Office concludes that some Handbook 8 nutritional data have so little documentation on how the data were produced that it is possible some nutrient values are not reliable, and that HNIS does not appropriately direct the generation of food composition data under its contracted laboratory studies. The report recommends that the Secretary of Agriculture direct the HNIS administrator to develop (a) specific quality assurance criteria for HNIS staff to use in evaluating food composition data obtained from others before the data are included in Handbook 8, and (b) procedures to better direct the generation of food composition data under HNIS' contracts.

  5. Delivery Strategies to Enhance the Sustainability of Training: Lessons from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rosa, Cecilia; Nadeau, Andrew; Hernandez, Emilio; Kafeero, Fred; Zahiga, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) utilizes training as a major component of the support it provides to its member countries in Africa. In the past, stand-alone training events targeting individual actors were the norm. However, an external evaluation indicated that this type of training scores low in terms of…

  6. 5 CFR 831.202 - Continuation of coverage for food service employees of the House of Representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... employees of the House of Representatives. 831.202 Section 831.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... Continuation of coverage for food service employees of the House of Representatives. (a) Congressional employees who provide food service operations for the House of Representatives can elect to continue...

  7. Symposium introduction: the first joint American Chemical Society Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division and the American Chemical Society International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division (AGFD) and the ACS International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand (ICSCT) worked together to stage the “1st Joint ACS AGFD - ACS ICSCT Symposium on Agricultural and Food Chemistry,” which was held in Bangkok, Thailand ...

  8. Peering into the secrets of food and agricultural co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy is a valuable tool for understanding food contamination and for directing product development of food and industrial products. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to eat. At the same time, these processed foods mus...

  9. Peering into the secrets of food and agricultural co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for understanding food contamination and directing product development of food and industrial products. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to eat. At the same time, these processed foods must be s...

  10. Rapid emergence of pathogens in agro-ecosystems: global threats to agricultural sustainability and food security.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Bruce A; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2016-12-05

    Agricultural ecosystems are composed of genetically depauperate populations of crop plants grown at a high density and over large spatial scales, with the regional composition of crop species changing little from year to year. These environments are highly conducive for the emergence and dissemination of pathogens. The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. Population genetic and genomic studies have shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying speciation processes, adaptive evolution and long-distance dispersal of highly damaging pathogens in agro-ecosystems. These studies document the speed with which pathogens evolve to overcome crop resistance genes and pesticides. They also show that crop pathogens can be disseminated very quickly across and among continents through human activities. In this review, we discuss how the peculiar architecture of agro-ecosystems facilitates pathogen emergence, evolution and dispersal. We present four example pathosystems that illustrate both pathogen specialization and pathogen speciation, including different time frames for emergence and different mechanisms underlying the emergence process. Lastly, we argue for a re-design of agro-ecosystems that embraces the concept of dynamic diversity to improve their resilience to pathogens. This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  11. Bacterial-Fungal Interactions: Hyphens between Agricultural, Clinical, Environmental, and Food Microbiologists

    PubMed Central

    Frey-Klett, P.; Burlinson, P.; Deveau, A.; Barret, M.; Tarkka, M.; Sarniguet, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Bacteria and fungi can form a range of physical associations that depend on various modes of molecular communication for their development and functioning. These bacterial-fungal interactions often result in changes to the pathogenicity or the nutritional influence of one or both partners toward plants or animals (including humans). They can also result in unique contributions to biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological processes. Thus, the interactions between bacteria and fungi are of central importance to numerous biological questions in agriculture, forestry, environmental science, food production, and medicine. Here we present a structured review of bacterial-fungal interactions, illustrated by examples sourced from many diverse scientific fields. We consider the general and specific properties of these interactions, providing a global perspective across this emerging multidisciplinary research area. We show that in many cases, parallels can be drawn between different scenarios in which bacterial-fungal interactions are important. Finally, we discuss how new avenues of investigation may enhance our ability to combat, manipulate, or exploit bacterial-fungal complexes for the economic and practical benefit of humanity as well as reshape our current understanding of bacterial and fungal ecology. PMID:22126995

  12. Seawater/Saline Agriculture for Energy, Warming, Water, Rainfall, Land, Food and Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The combination of the incipient demise of cheap oil and increasing evidence of Global Warming due to anthropogenic fossil carbon release has reinvigorated the need for and efforts on Renewable energy sources, especially for transportation applications. Biomass/Bio-diesel appears to have many benefits compared to Hydrogen, the only other major renewable transportation fuel candidate. Biomass Production is currently limited by available arable land and fresh water. Halophyte Plants and seawater irrigation proffer a wholly new biomass production mantra using wastelands and very plentiful seawater. Such an approach addresses many-to-most of the major emerging Societal Problems including Land, Water, Food, Warming and Energy. For many reasons, including seawater agriculture, portions of the Sahara appear to be viable candidates for future Biomass Production. The apparent nonlinearity between vegetation cover and atmospheric conditions over North Africa necessitates serious coupled boundary layer Meteorology and Global Circulation Modeling to ensure that this form of Terra Forming is Favorable and to avoid adverse Unintended Consequences.

  13. New MOEMS based systems appropriate for spectroscopic investigations on agricultural growth and perishable food conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grueger, Heinrich; Schenk, Harald; Heberer, Andreas; Zimmer, Fabian; Scherff, Werner; Kenda, Andreas; Frank, Albert

    2005-11-01

    Further optimization of the agricultural growth process and quality control of perishable food which can be fruits and vegetables as well as every kind of meat or milk product requires new approaches for the sensitive front end. One possibility is reflectance or fluorescence spectroscopy in a wide wavelength range. By now broad usage is hindered by costs, size and performance of existing systems. MOEMS scanning gratings for spectrometers and translational mirrors for Fourier Transform spectroscopy enable small robust systems working in a range from 200nm to 5μm. Both types use digital signal processors (DSPs) capable to compute the spectra and execute complex evaluation and decision algorithms. The MOEMS chips are realized by anisotropic etching of a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate. First the backside silicon and buried oxide is removed by a wet process then the front side structure is realized by dry etching. Depending on the bearing springs a silicon plate up to 3 x 3 mm2 wide and typically 30μm thick can be driven resonantly to rotational or translational movement. Combined with additional optical components and appropriate detectors handheld Czerny-Turner or Fourier Transform spectrometers have been realized and tested. Results of first measurements of reflection spectroscopy on model substances have been performed with both system types in the NIR range. Measurements on real objects like tomatoes or apples are intended for a wider wavelength range. Future systems may contain displays and light sources as well as data storage cards or additional interfaces.

  14. Numerical study of light propagation in agricultural products for non-destructive assessment of food quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Kiyohito; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Tatekura, Yuki; Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Masao

    2015-12-01

    An accurate determination of optical properties of agricultural products is crucial for non-destructive assessment of food quality. For the determination, light intensity is measured at the surface of the product; then, inverse analysis is employed based on a light propagation model such as the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The inverse analysis requires high computational loads because the light intensity is numerically calculated using the model every time the optical properties are changed. For the calculation, we propose an efficient technique by combining a numerical solution with an analytical solution of the RTE, and investigate the validity of the technique in a two-dimensional homogeneous circular medium which is regarded as a light propagation model with optical properties of kiwifruit. The proposed technique can provide accurate results of the light intensity in change of the optical properties, and the accuracy is less dependent on the boundary conditions and source-detector angles. In addition, the technique can reduce computation time compared with that for numerical calculation of the RTE. These results indicate usefulness of the proposed technique for the inverse analysis.

  15. Concentrations and speciation of arsenic in New England seaweed species harvested for food and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Vivien F; Jackson, Brian P

    2016-11-01

    A survey of arsenic (As) concentrations and speciation was conducted on 10 species of seaweed from commercial harvesters and from collection at two sites in New England. Concentrations of As ranged from 4 to 106 mg/kg, mostly in the form of arsenosugars, with the distribution of arsenosugar analogs varying between taxa. In brown algae, As levels were correlated with phosphate concentrations, and arsenosugar speciation reflected differences in sulfur and phosphate concentrations between taxa. Several samples of the brown algae species Laminaria digitata contained significant levels of inorganic As (2.8-20 mg/kg), the most toxic form of As. A weak acid extraction with microwave heating was compared with a weaker methanol: water extraction method, and found to give slightly higher extraction efficiency with comparable relative concentrations of inorganic As, supporting the use of this faster and simpler extraction method for monitoring. Seaweed is a niche dietary item in the U.S. but its popularity is increasing; it is also used in agriculture and livestock farming which provide potential indirect routes for human exposure. The presence of occasional high concentrations of iAs, as well as the lack of toxicity studies on organic As species, suggest that monitoring of these high As foods is warranted.

  16. Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M T; Voroney, R P; Khalid, M

    2010-01-01

    Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG) emissions by saving energy to be used for the production of the same amount of industrial fertilizer N required for the growth of corn crop. Application of OFW at 10Mg solid ha(-1)y(-1) conserved 68 kg N ha(-1)y(-1) which ultimately saved 134 L diesel ha(-1)y(-1), which would otherwise be used for the production of fertilizer N as urea. Average fossil energy substitution value (FESV) of N conserved/recycled was calculated to be 93 US$ ha(-1)y(-1), which is about 13 million US$y(-1). Potential amount of GHG mitigation through the application of OFW to agricultural soils in Canada is estimated to be 57 Gg CO(2)Eq y(-1).

  17. 7 CFR 220.12 - Competitive food services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... school food service or the school or student organizations approved by the school. State agencies and... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive food services. 220.12 Section 220.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  18. 7 CFR 220.14 - Claims against school food authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims against school food authorities. 220.14 Section 220.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE... food authorities. (a) State agencies shall disallow any portion of a claim and recover any payment...

  19. 7 CFR 220.14 - Claims against school food authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims against school food authorities. 220.14 Section 220.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE... food authorities. (a) State agencies shall disallow any portion of a claim and recover any payment...

  20. Re-envisioning global agricultural trade: time for a paradigm shift to ensure food security and population health in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Pirkle, Catherine M; Poliquin, Hélène; Sia, Drissa; Kouakou, Kouassi Joseph; Sagna, Tani

    2015-03-01

    In this commentary, we use examples from West Africa to highlight how the liberalization of global agricultural trade exacerbates population health inequalities by threatening the livelihoods and food security of communities in low-income settings. We highlight the exploitative nature of trade agreements with West African countries demonstrating how these agreements disincentivize local agricultural investment and take jobs away from small-scale farmers. Further, we link agricultural trade liberalization to increased food insecurity, malnutrition, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Finally, we propose a paradigm shift that advocates for food sovereignty and the right to food.

  1. 7 CFR 1124.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1124.19 Section 1124.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.19 Commercial food...

  2. 7 CFR 1124.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1124.19 Section 1124.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.19 Commercial food...

  3. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  4. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  5. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section 1006.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  6. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  7. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section 1033.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  8. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section 1126.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  9. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section 1001.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  10. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section 1033.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  11. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section 1126.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  12. 7 CFR 1030.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1030.19 Section 1030.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.19 Commercial food...

  13. 7 CFR 1030.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1030.19 Section 1030.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.19 Commercial food...

  14. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section 1005.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  15. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section 1006.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  16. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section 1005.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  17. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section 1001.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  18. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  19. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  20. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  1. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  2. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  3. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  4. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section 1001.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  5. 7 CFR 1030.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1030.19 Section 1030.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.19 Commercial food...

  6. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  7. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section 1126.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  8. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  9. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section 1033.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  10. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section 1006.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  11. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section 1006.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  12. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section 1126.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  13. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section 1126.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  14. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  15. 7 CFR 1124.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1124.19 Section 1124.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.19 Commercial food...

  16. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section 1005.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  17. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section 1006.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  18. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section 1001.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  19. 7 CFR 1030.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1030.19 Section 1030.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.19 Commercial food...

  20. 7 CFR 1124.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1124.19 Section 1124.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.19 Commercial food...

  1. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  2. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section 1005.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  3. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section 1033.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  4. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section 1001.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  5. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section 1033.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  6. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section 1005.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  7. 7 CFR 1030.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1030.19 Section 1030.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.19 Commercial food...

  8. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  9. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  10. 7 CFR 1124.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1124.19 Section 1124.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.19 Commercial food...

  11. From jhum to broom: Agricultural land-use change and food security implications on the Meghalaya Plateau, India.

    PubMed

    Behera, Rabi Narayan; Nayak, Debendra Kumar; Andersen, Peter; Måren, Inger Elisabeth

    2016-02-01

    Human population growth in the developing world drives land-use changes, impacting food security. In India, the dramatic change in demographic dynamics over the past century has reduced traditional agricultural land-use through increasing commercialization. Here, we analyze the magnitude and implications for the farming system by the introduction of cash-cropping, replacing the traditional slash and burn rotations (jhum), of the tribal people on the Meghalaya Plateau, northeast India, by means of agricultural census data and field surveys conducted in seven villages. Land-use change has brought major alterations in hill agricultural practices, enhanced cash-cropping, promoted mono-cropping, changed food consumption patterns, underpinned the emergence of a new food system, and exposed farmers and consumers to the precariousness of the market, all of which have both long- and short-term food security implications. We found dietary diversity to be higher under jhum compared to any of the cash-crop systems, and higher under traditional cash-cropping than under modern cash-cropping.

  12. Sustainable smallholder poultry interventions to promote food security and social, agricultural, and ecological resilience in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Sarah E; Lungu, Luke; Mulambya, Nathan; Daka, Whiteson; McDonald, Erin; Steubing, Emily; Lewis, Tamika; Backel, Katherine; Jange, Jarra; Lucio-Martinez, Benjamin; Lewis, Dale; Travis, Alexander J

    2016-06-01

    In Zambia's Luangwa Valley, highly variable rainfall and lack of education, agricultural inputs, and market access constrain agricultural productivity, trapping smallholder farmers in chronic poverty and food insecurity. Human and animal disease (e.g. HIV and Newcastle Disease, respectively), further threaten the resilience of poor families. To cope with various shocks and stressors, many farmers employ short-term coping strategies that threaten ecosystem resilience. Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) utilizes an agribusiness model to alleviate poverty and food insecurity through conservation farming, market development and value-added food production. COMACO promotes household, agricultural and ecological resilience along two strategic lines: improving recovery from shocks (mitigation) and reducing the risk of shock occurrence. Here we focus on two of COMACO's poultry interventions and present data showing that addressing health and management constraints within the existing village poultry system resulted in significantly improved productivity and profitability. However, once reliable productivity was achieved, farmers preferred to sell chickens rather than eat either the birds or their eggs. Sales of live birds were largely outside the community to avoid price suppression; in contrast, the sale of eggs from community-operated, semi-intensive egg production facilities was invariably within the communities. These facilities resulted in significant increases in both producer income and community consumption of eggs. This intervention therefore has the potential to improve not only producers' economic resilience, but also resilience tied to the food security and physical health of the entire community.

  13. Enhanced acidogenic fermentation of food waste in a continuous-flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Han, Sun-Kee; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2002-04-01

    This study was performed to improve acidogenic fermentation of food waste in a continuous-flow reactor. The fermentation of food waste is affected by the fermentation constraints such as the biodegradability of substrate, the degrading capability of microorganisms and the environmental conditions. The key factors were, therefore, examined to control the fermentation constraints, such as the effect of seed inoculation and the effect of adjusting dilution rate. Acidogenic fermentation of food waste employing rumen microorganisms resulted in the enhanced efficiency (71.2%) as compared with that (59.8%) employing mesophilic acidogens. In addition, the fermentation efficiency increased from 71.2 to 82.0% by adjusting dilution rate from 3.0 to 1.0 d(-1) depending on the state of the fermentation. The main component of the acidified product was shifted from butyric to acetic acid. This meant that the increase of the fermentation efficiency was mainly caused by the enhanced degradation of vegetables and meats. The control of the fermentation constraints was, therefore, very effective in improving the fermentation efficiency of food waste.

  14. Elementary student and prospective teachers' agri-food system literacy: Understandings of agricultural and science education's goals for learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, Cary Jay

    1999-09-01

    Although rhetoric abounds in the agricultural education literature regarding the public's dearth of agri-food system literacy, problems arise when establishing educational interventions to help ameliorate illiteracy. Researchers do not fully know what individuals understand about the complex agri-food system. Hence, educational programs and curricula may focus on areas where students already possess well developed and scientifically accurate schemata, while ignoring other areas where incompatible or naive understandings persist. Democratic decisions about complex societal and environmental issues, such as trade-offs of our industrial agri-food system, require individuals to possess understandings of complex interrelationships. This exploratory qualitative study determines what two groups---elementary students and prospective elementary school teachers---understand about selected concepts foundational to agri-food system literacy. To ground the study in current national education curricular standards, a synthesis of both agricultural and science education benchmarks was developed. This helped structure interviews with the study's informants: nine elementary students and nine prospective elementary teachers. Analysis of discourse was based upon a conceptual change methodology. Findings showed that informant background and non-school experiences were linked to agri-food system literacy, while formal, in-school learning was not. For elementary students, high socio-economic status, gardening and not living in urban areas were correlates with literacy; the prospective teacher group exhibited similar trends. Informants understood that food came from farms where plants and animals were raised. For the majority, however, farms were described as large gardens. Additionally, informants lacked a clear understanding of the roles soil and fertilizers play in crop production. Further, few spoke of weeds as competitors with crops for growth requirements. Informants understood that

  15. Low-carbon agriculture in South America to mitigate global climate change and advance food security.

    PubMed

    Sá, João Carlos de Moraes; Lal, Rattan; Cerri, Carlos Clemente; Lorenz, Klaus; Hungria, Mariangela; de Faccio Carvalho, Paulo Cesar

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide historical carbon (C) losses due to Land Use and Land-Use Change between 1870 and 2014 are estimated at 148 Pg C (1 Pg=1billionton). South America is chosen for this study because its soils contain 10.3% (160 Pg C to 1-m depth) of the soil organic carbon stock of the world soils, it is home to 5.7% (0.419 billion people) of the world population, and accounts for 8.6% of the world food (491milliontons) and 21.0% of meat production (355milliontons of cattle and buffalo). The annual C emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in South America represent only 2.5% (0.25 Pg C) of the total global emissions (9.8 Pg C). However, South America contributes 31.3% (0.34 Pg C) of global annual greenhouse gas emissions (1.1 Pg C) through Land Use and Land Use Change. The potential of South America as a terrestrial C sink for mitigating climate change with adoption of Low-Carbon Agriculture (LCA) strategies based on scenario analysis method is 8.24 Pg C between 2016 and 2050. The annual C offset for 2016 to 2020, 2021 to 2035, and 2036 to 2050 is estimated at 0.08, 0.25, and 0.28 Pg C, respectively, equivalent to offsetting 7.5, 22.2 and 25.2% of the global annual greenhouse gas emissions by Land Use and Land Use Change for each period. Emission offset for LCA activities is estimated at 31.0% by restoration of degraded pasturelands, 25.6% by integrated crop-livestock-forestry-systems, 24.3% by no-till cropping systems, 12.8% by planted commercial forest and forestation, 4.2% by biological N fixation and 2.0% by recycling the industrial organic wastes. The ecosystem carbon payback time for historical C losses from South America through LCA strategies may be 56 to 188years, and the adoption of LCA can also increase food and meat production by 615Mton or 17.6Mtonyear(-1) and 56Mton or 1.6Mtonyear(-1), respectively, between 2016 and 2050.

  16. 5 CFR 831.202 - Continuation of coverage for food service employees of the House of Representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Continuation of coverage for food service employees of the House of Representatives. 831.202 Section 831.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Coverage §...

  17. 5 CFR 831.202 - Continuation of coverage for food service employees of the House of Representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuation of coverage for food service employees of the House of Representatives. 831.202 Section 831.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Coverage §...

  18. 5 CFR 831.202 - Continuation of coverage for food service employees of the House of Representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of coverage for food service employees of the House of Representatives. 831.202 Section 831.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Coverage §...

  19. Food and agriculture in the 21st century: A cotton example

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hodges, H.F.; McKinion, J.J.

    1996-03-01

    Cotton producers in the 21st century will be growing crops in different climates than today. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration [CO{sub 2}] will likely exceed 700 {micro}l/l by the latter half of the next century, and the mean global temperature has been predicted to be 1.5 to 5.9 C higher than today. A 5 C increase will quadruple the number of days per year in which the mean temperature is above-optimum for cotton growth, and many days will be so hot that flowers will abscise in the US Cottonbelt. Further, the incidence of extreme weather events within a growing season has also been predicted to increase. Agricultural productivity is extremely sensitive to changes projected in the environment and if the projected changes occur, major changes in crop production will need to take place and both food and fiber will likely be very different from those of today. Doubling the atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] results in increased photosynthesis in C{sub 3} plants and dry matter accumulation. Season-long exposure to twice ambient [CO{sub 2}] (700 {micro}l/l) caused cotton plants growing in optimum temperature to produce 66% more dry matter than plants grown in ambient [CO{sub 2}]. Crops will respond to water and nitrogen deficits to about the same extent in a high-[CO{sub 2}] as to similar stresses in today`s ambient [CO{sub 2}] environment. The projected increases in temperature will cause more important and negative effects on crop production. 49 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. On the usage of agricultural raw materials--energy or food? An assessment from an economics perspective.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Fabian; Bröring, Stefanie; Herzog, Philipp; Leker, Jens

    2007-12-01

    Bioenergies are promoted across the globe as the answer for global warming and the chance to reduce dependency from fossil energy sources. Despite the fact that renewable energy sources offer the opportunity to reduce CO2 emission and present a chance to increase agricultural incomes, they also come along with some drawbacks that have been mostly neglected in the current discussion. This paper seeks to build a basis for discussing the impacts of the growing subsidization of bioenergy and the resulting usage competition of agricultural raw materials between foods and energy. To assess the usage competition and the subsidization of bioenergy, this article employs a welfare economics perspective associated with an emphasize on the construct of externalities. This will help to foster the discussion on the further subsidization of bioenergy, where funding for R&D on new ways of using non-food raw materials ought to play a significant role.

  1. Local agriculture traditional knowledge to avoid erosion in a changing climate: Ensuring agricultural livelihoods and food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadalupe Rivera Ferré, Marta; Di Masso, Marina; Vara, Isabel; Mailhost, Mara; Bhatta, Goppal; Cuellar, Mamem; López-i-Gelats, Feliu; Gallar, Donald

    2015-04-01

    In the regions that experience substantial climatic risks, considerable traditional expertise exists that is underutilized and that could be valuable as a starting point to build more effective strategies for adapting to climate change and ensure food availability. Some of these are agronomic strategies for soil conservation targeting erosion avoidance as a form to ensure soil fertility and thus, crop production and food availability. Following an extensive literature review in the Indogangetic Plans, we have identified many different practices derived from local traditional knowledge that can be classified as i) Reshaping the landscape (terracing, bunding, efficient distribution of land uses); ii) Stream diversion to reduce flood impact (channels along the edges of the fields, embankments, dams, network of ponds, outlets, walls and fencing); and iii) Others (agroforesty, use of specific trees as indicators of soil erosion, crop-fallow rotation, preservation of patches of forests, reforestation, collective management of forests). These endogenous-based practices have a great potential for adaptation since they are more easily adopted by communities, they require of minimum or not external expertise and aid, and usually, are cheaper than other strategies. A combination of local knowledge with other scientific knowledge may be the most effective way to face climate change. This work was performed as part of the CCAFS-Program of the CGIAR in South Asia.

  2. Complex water management in modern agriculture: Trends in the water-energy-food nexus over the High Plains Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Smidt, Samuel J; Haacker, Erin M K; Kendall, Anthony D; Deines, Jillian M; Pei, Lisi; Cotterman, Kayla A; Li, Haoyang; Liu, Xiao; Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W

    2016-10-01

    In modern agriculture, the interplay between complex physical, agricultural, and socioeconomic water use drivers must be fully understood to successfully manage water supplies on extended timescales. This is particularly evident across large portions of the High Plains Aquifer where groundwater levels have declined at unsustainable rates despite improvements in both the efficiency of water use and water productivity in agricultural practices. Improved technology and land use practices have not mitigated groundwater level declines, thus water management strategies must adapt accordingly or risk further resource loss. In this study, we analyze the water-energy-food nexus over the High Plains Aquifer as a framework to isolate the major drivers that have shaped the history, and will direct the future, of water use in modern agriculture. Based on this analysis, we conclude that future water management strategies can benefit from: (1) prioritizing farmer profit to encourage decision-making that aligns with strategic objectives, (2) management of water as both an input into the water-energy-food nexus and a key incentive for farmers, (3) adaptive frameworks that allow for short-term objectives within long-term goals, (4) innovative strategies that fit within restrictive political frameworks, (5) reduced production risks to aid farmer decision-making, and (6) increasing the political desire to conserve valuable water resources. This research sets the foundation to address water management as a function of complex decision-making trends linked to the water-energy-food nexus. Water management strategy recommendations are made based on the objective of balancing farmer profit and conserving water resources to ensure future agricultural production.

  3. AgriSense-STARS: Advancing Methods of Agricultural Monitoring for Food Security in Smallholder Regions - the Case for Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempewolf, J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nakalembe, C. L.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ntikha, O.; Hansen, M.; Justice, C. J.; Adusei, B.; Kongo, V.

    2015-12-01

    In-season monitoring of crop conditions provides critical information for agricultural policy and decision making and most importantly for food security planning and management. Nationwide agricultural monitoring in countries dominated by smallholder farming systems, generally relies on extensive networks of field data collectors. In Tanzania, extension agents make up this network and report on conditions across the country, approaching a "near-census". Data is collected on paper which is resource and time intensive, as well as prone to errors. Data quality is ambiguous and there is a general lack of clear and functional feedback loops between farmers, extension agents, analysts and decision makers. Moreover, the data are not spatially explicit, limiting the usefulness for analysis and quality of policy outcomes. Despite significant advances in remote sensing and information communication technologies (ICT) for monitoring agriculture, the full potential of these new tools is yet to be realized in Tanzania. Their use is constrained by the lack of resources, skills and infrastructure to access and process these data. The use of ICT technologies for data collection, processing and analysis is equally limited. The AgriSense-STARS project is developing and testing a system for national-scale in-season monitoring of smallholder agriculture using a combination of three main tools, 1) GLAM-East Africa, an automated MODIS satellite image processing system, 2) field data collection using GeoODK and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and 3) the Tanzania Crop Monitor, a collaborative online portal for data management and reporting. These tools are developed and applied in Tanzania through the National Food Security Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives (MAFC) within a statistically representative sampling framework (area frame) that ensures data quality, representability and resource efficiency.

  4. The AgMIP Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Antle, J. M.; Elliott, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has been working since 2010 to construct a protocol-based framework enabling regional assessments (led by regional experts and modelers) that can provide consistent inputs to global economic and integrated assessment models. These global models can then relay important global-level information that drive regional decision-making and outcomes throughout an interconnected agricultural system. AgMIP's community of nearly 800 climate, crop, livestock, economics, and IT experts has improved the state-of-the-art through model intercomparisons, validation exercises, regional integrated assessments, and the launch of AgMIP programs on all six arable continents. AgMIP is now launching Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of climate change impacts on agriculture and food security to link global and regional crop and economic models using a protocol-based framework. The CGRA protocols are being developed to utilize historical observations, climate projections, and RCPs/SSPs from CMIP5 (and potentially CMIP6), and will examine stakeholder-driven agricultural development and adaptation scenarios to provide cutting-edge assessments of climate change's impact on agriculture and food security. These protocols will build on the foundation of established protocols from AgMIP's 30+ activities, and will emphasize the use of multiple models, scenarios, and scales to enable an accurate assessment of related uncertainties. The CGRA is also designed to provide the outputs necessary to feed into integrated assessment models (IAMs), nutrition and food security assessments, nitrogen and carbon cycle models, and additional impact-sector assessments (e.g., water resources, land-use, biomes, urban areas). This presentation will describe the current status of CGRA planning and initial prototype experiments to demonstrate key aspects of the protocols before wider implementation ahead of the IPCC Sixth Assessment

  5. The AgMIP Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Elliott, Joshua; Antle, John

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has been working since 2010 to construct a protocol-based framework enabling regional assessments (led by regional experts and modelers) that can provide consistent inputs to global economic and integrated assessment models. These global models can then relay important global-level information that drive regional decision-making and outcomes throughout an interconnected agricultural system. AgMIPs community of nearly 800 climate, crop, livestock, economics, and IT experts has improved the state-of-the-art through model intercomparisons, validation exercises, regional integrated assessments, and the launch of AgMIP programs on all six arable continents. AgMIP is now launching Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of climate change impacts on agriculture and food security to link global and regional crop and economic models using a protocol-based framework. The CGRA protocols are being developed to utilize historical observations, climate projections, and RCPsSSPs from CMIP5 (and potentially CMIP6), and will examine stakeholder-driven agricultural development and adaptation scenarios to provide cutting-edge assessments of climate changes impact on agriculture and food security. These protocols will build on the foundation of established protocols from AgMIPs 30+ activities, and will emphasize the use of multiple models, scenarios, and scales to enable an accurate assessment of related uncertainties. The CGRA is also designed to provide the outputs necessary to feed into integrated assessment models (IAMs), nutrition and food security assessments, nitrogen and carbon cycle models, and additional impact-sector assessments (e.g., water resources, land-use, biomes, urban areas). This presentation will describe the current status of CGRA planning and initial prototype experiments to demonstrate key aspects of the protocols before wider implementation ahead of the IPCC Sixth Assessment

  6. Conducting an HIA of the effect of accession to the European Union on national agriculture and food policy in Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, Karen; Gabrijelcic-Blenkus, Mojca; Martuzzi, Marco; Otorepec, Peter; Kuhar, Ales; Robertson, Aileen; Wallace, Paul; Dora, Carlos; Zakotnic, Jozica Maucec

    2004-02-01

    A health impact assessment (HIA) to consider the potential effects of European Union accession on agriculture and food policies in Slovenia has been undertaken as a joint project between the Slovenian Ministry of Health and the WHO European Region. The HIA project in Slovenia was conducted as a pilot project to develop the methods of HIA in this policy sector. The implications of the European Union Agricultural Policy to health are discussed. HIA methods have been used to assess some of the potential effects in Slovenia of accession to the European Union. This paper outlines some of the early findings and lessons to be learnt from the Slovenian HIA experience in order that other countries may adopt the approach to improve health considerations in agriculture and other intersectoral policymaking.

  7. New Continuous Isosorbide Production from Sorbitol: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Agriculture Project Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Carde, T.

    2001-09-12

    Isosorbide is a new polymer additive derived from corn (via sorbitol) that when copolymerized with polyethylene terephthalate (PET), increases the strength and rigidity of the plastic. This project will develop an economically-viable, continuous catalytic process to convert sorbitol to isosorbide.

  8. Water for food and nature in drought-prone tropics: vapour shift in rain-fed agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Rockström, Johan

    2003-01-01

    This paper quantifies the eco-hydrological challenge up until 2050 of producing food in balance with goods and services generated by water-dependent ecosystems in nature. Particular focus is given to the savannah zone, covering 40% of the land area in the world, where water scarcity constitutes a serious constraint to sustainable development. The analysis indicates an urgent need for a new green revolution, which focuses on upgrading rain-fed agriculture. Water requirements to produce adequate diets for humans are shown to be relatively generic irrespective of hydro-climate, amounting to a global average of 1,300 m(3) cap(-1) yr(-1). Present food production requires an estimated 6,800 km(3) yr(-1) of consumptive green water (5,000 km(3) yr(-1) in rain-fed agriculture and 1,800 km(3) yr(-1) from irrigated crops). Without considering water productivity gains, an additional 5,800 km(3) yr(-1) of water is needed to feed a growing population in 2,050 and eradicate malnutrition. It is shown that the bulk of this water will be used in rain-fed agriculture. A dynamic analysis of water productivity and management options indicates that large 'crop per drop' improvements can be achieved at the farm level. Vapour shift in favour of productive green water flow as crop transpiration could result in relative water savings of 500 km(3) yr(-1) in semi-arid rain-fed agriculture. PMID:14728794

  9. Temporal relationships between heavy-metal concentrations in water and food crops at a Zambian urban agriculture site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Jennifer A.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Chishala, Benson H.; Kapungwe, Evaristo; Volk, John; Harpp, Karen S.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, for a suite of 17 elements, we examine the temporal relationships between heavy-metal concentrations in water and food crops, and between different elements, at Chunga, Zambia, August 2004 to July 2005. In many locations in the developing world, the water source used for urban agriculture is often wastewater from industrial sources, and is potentially contaminated with heavy metals. In Zambia, the location of this study, the wastewater source for irrigation use in some urban areas has been called 'a sink for sewage, mining and industrial effluents' all of which potentially contain heavy metals. We present field research results examining relationships between heavy-metal concentrations in both the water and the foodcrops from an urban agriculture location in northwest Lusaka (Chunga), the capital of Zambia. Monthly monitoring of water and food crops irrigated by the water was carried out at the study site, August 2004 to July 2005, for n = 39 water samples and n = 17 food crop samples. Heavy-metal concentrations were examined for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, U (17 elements) using ICP-MS. We find that both water and food-crop samples have peak concentrations for many elements in the wet season (October to February). When examining temporal relationships, we find some positive and negative statistically significant correlations between elements for both [water]:[food crop] and [food crop]:[food crop]. For the concentrations of [water]:[food crop] we find particularly strong positive correlations for V:Se and (V, Cr, Co, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb, U):Tl; strong negative correlations are observed for V:Zn, Ni:Cu, Cd:Cu. For [food crop]:[food crop] particularly strong positive relationships are observed for Al:V, Al:Cr, Cr:V, and Cd:U. Theoretically, concentrations of heavy-metals in plant samples normally should reflect the heavy-metal contamination in the water used to irrigate the plants throughout the growth cycle (typically six

  10. Hormonal control of hepatic glycogen metabolism in food-deprived, continuously swimming coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vijayan, M.M.; Maule, A.G.; Schreck, C.B.; Moon, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma cortisol concentration and liver cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor activities of continuously swimming, food-deprived coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) did not differ from those of resting, fed fish. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly higher in the exercising, starved fish, but there were no significant differences in either hepatic glycogen concentration or hepatic activities of glycogen phosphorylase, glycogen synthase, pyruvate kinase, or lactate dehydrogenase between the two groups. Total glucose production by hepatocytes did not differ significantly between the two groups; glycogen breakdown accounted for all the glucose produced in the resting, fed fish whereas it explained only 59% of the glucose production in the exercised animals. Epinephrine and glucagon stimulation of glucose production by hepatocytes was decreased in the exercised fish without significantly affecting hepatocyte glycogen breakdown in either group. Insulin prevented glycogen breakdown and enhanced glycogen deposition in exercised fish. The results indicate that food-deprived, continuously swimming coho salmon conserve glycogen by decreasing the responsiveness of hepatocytes to catabolic hormones and by increasing the responsiveness to insulin (anabolic hormone).

  11. A complete and continuous pesticide screening during one growing season in five small Swiss rivers with agricultural watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Simon; Comte, Rahel; Doppler, Tobias; Wittmer, Irene; Moschet, Christoph; Stamm, Christian; Singer, Heinz; Kunz, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural pesticides are regularly found in surface waters at concentration levels that raise ecotoxicological concerns. Due to large fluctuations in concentration over time and the potentially high number of pesticides in agricultural watersheds, it is difficult to obtain a comprehensive overview of the actual pollution level. This collaborative project between research and Swiss federal and cantonal authorities aimed for a comprehensive analysis of pesticide pollution in five small agricultural streams to address this knowledge gap. The five rivers are located in catchments (1.5 to 9 km2) with intensive agriculture covering a wide range of crops, such as grains, vegetables, vineyards and orchards. Urban activities and influences are low. Twelve-hour composite samples were collected continuously from March until the end of August with automatic sampling devices, resulting in 360 samples per site. Using precipitation and water level data, we differentiated between discharge events and low-flow periods. Samples taken during dry weather were pooled for the analysis. This procedure resulted in a complete concentration profile over the entire monitoring period covered by 60 samples per site. The analysis, using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap technology), involved a target screening of 248 pesticides including fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, as well as important transformation products. Data on the total number and distribution of pesticides, their detection frequency, crop specific applications and concentration time profiles will be presented. Preliminary results indicate substantial pesticide exposure since at least 20 different compounds were detected in all samples. One sample even contained a mixture of 80 pesticides. The majority of concentrations were in the low ng/L range but concentrations of a few compounds were very high (several micrograms/L) during discharge events as well as during low flow conditions

  12. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CASH IN LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult...

  13. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CASH IN LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult...

  14. Relationship between humanity and plant natural resources – in the context of food and agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture, the domestication, culture, and management of plants and animals, has led to profound social changes in human evolution and development; it can be considered as the basis for civilization. Roughly 12,000 years ago agriculture appeared independently in several parts of the world. A natur...

  15. Analyzing the Food-Fuel-Environment Tri-Lemma Facing World Agriculture: Global Land Use in the Coming Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, T. W.; Steinbuks, J.

    2011-12-01

    The number of people which the world must feed is expected to increase by another 3 billion people by 2100. When coupled with significant nutritional improvements for the 2.1 billion people currently living on less than $2/day, this translates into a very substantial rise in the demand for agricultural production. At the same time, the growing use of biomass for energy generation has introduced an important new source of industrial demand in agricultural markets. To compound matters, water, a key input into agricultural production, is rapidly diminishing in availability in large parts of the world and many soils are degrading. In addition, agriculture and forestry are increasingly envisioned as key sectors for climate change mitigation policy. Any serious attempt to reduce land-based emissions will involve changes in the way farming is conducted, as well as placing limits on the expansion of farming - particularly in the tropics, where most of the agricultural land conversion has come at the expense of forests, either directly, or indirectly via a cascading of land use requirements with crops moving into pasture and pasture into forest. Finally, agriculture and forestry are likely to be the economic sectors whose productivity is most sharply affected by climate change. In light of these challenges facing the global farm and food system, this paper will review the main sources of supply and demand for the world's cropland, and then provide a quantitative assessment of the impact of these forces on global land use over the coming century. The model incorporates forward looking behavior and examines competition between land used for ecosystem services, forestry, food and fuel. Explicit account is taken of emissions associated with both the intensive and extensive margins of agricultural expansion, as well as carbon sequestration and energy combustion. Key findings include: (a) energy prices and environmental policies will be increasingly important drivers of land use

  16. Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development.

    PubMed

    Funk, Chris; Dettinger, Michael D; Michaelsen, Joel C; Verdin, James P; Brown, Molly E; Barlow, Mathew; Hoell, Andrew

    2008-08-12

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by approximately 15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling "millions of undernourished people" as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability.

  17. Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, C.; Dettinger, M.D.; Michaelsen, J.C.; Verdin, J.P.; Brown, M.E.; Barlow, M.; Hoell, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by ???15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling 'millions of undernourished people' as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  18. Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Chris; Dettinger, Michael D.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Verdin, James P.; Brown, Molly E.; Barlow, Mathew; Hoell, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by ≈15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling “millions of undernourished people” as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability. PMID:18685101

  19. A Health and Nutritional Evaluation of Changes in Agriculture in the Past Quarter Century in British Columbia: Implications for Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Ostry, Aleck; Morrison, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes change in local food production in British Columbia with a focus on changes in the production of foods recommended for increased consumption by nutritionists. We determine, in one of the most productive agricultural provinces in Canada, whether secular trends in agricultural land use and food production, over the past quarter century, have resulted in increased production of foods recommended by nutritionists as more healthy and nutritious. In particular we are concerned with estimating the extent to which changes in agriculture and food production are congruent with official nutrition advice to avoid less healthy foods and to consume more vegetables, fruit, and whole grains. We demonstrate, using regularly collected agricultural census data, in spite of nutritionists’ advocacy for improved access to locally produced fruits, vegetables, and grains, since 1986, that BC agriculture is moving firmly in the opposite direction with greater production of animal fats, and hay and grain for animal feed and much reduced production of traditional fruits, vegetables, and grains designed mainly for human consumption. While nutritionists advise us to increase consumption especially of whole grains, vegetables and fruit, local production capacity of these foods in BC has decreased markedly between 1986 and 2006. In conclusion, there is a structural disconnect between the kinds of foods produced in BC and the nutritional needs of the population. PMID:20644694

  20. A health and nutritional evaluation of changes in agriculture in the past quarter century in British Columbia: implications for food security.

    PubMed

    Ostry, Aleck; Morrison, Kathryn

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes change in local food production in British Columbia with a focus on changes in the production of foods recommended for increased consumption by nutritionists. We determine, in one of the most productive agricultural provinces in Canada, whether secular trends in agricultural land use and food production, over the past quarter century, have resulted in increased production of foods recommended by nutritionists as more healthy and nutritious. In particular we are concerned with estimating the extent to which changes in agriculture and food production are congruent with official nutrition advice to avoid less healthy foods and to consume more vegetables, fruit, and whole grains. We demonstrate, using regularly collected agricultural census data, in spite of nutritionists' advocacy for improved access to locally produced fruits, vegetables, and grains, since 1986, that BC agriculture is moving firmly in the opposite direction with greater production of animal fats, and hay and grain for animal feed and much reduced production of traditional fruits, vegetables, and grains designed mainly for human consumption. While nutritionists advise us to increase consumption especially of whole grains, vegetables and fruit, local production capacity of these foods in BC has decreased markedly between 1986 and 2006. In conclusion, there is a structural disconnect between the kinds of foods produced in BC and the nutritional needs of the population.

  1. Assessing Impacts of Drought on Agriculture Production and Food Security in Karamoja of Northeastern Uganda with Meteorological and NDVI-Based Indices - Some findings and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakalembe, C. L.; Zhang, J.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Drought monitoring and planning requires spatially and temporally continuous information and its impacts on production and on society can easily be quantified when long-term (both crop production and climate) information is available. Such historical information is scanty and at best qualitative for Karamoja in Northeastern Uganda, a region considered to be most vulnerable to drought. To demonstrate the capabilities of currently available satellite data in filling this data gap in smallholder agricultural regions; this study first characterized agricultural drought at multiple temporal and spatial scales using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data (1999-2011) and monthly rainfall data (1960-2011). Correlation analyses of the NDVI based drought indicators, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and a global product of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Spatial information is derived for the 1999-2000 period using MODIS 250m resolution data. The 12 month SPI (SPI-12) had the highest correlation with the MODIS NDVI record from (1999-2011) derived indices reaffirming the cumulative effect of rainfall on vegetation during the growing season and the utility of NDVI as an indicator of drought. Time-series plots were generated, the droughts were ranked and spatial maps derived for the most severe droughts between 2000- 2011. Temporal drought information is correlated with proxy indicators such as food aid supplies, available historical production data, market prices from within and in neighbouring regions and with to primary data collected through interviews with farmers in Moroto district. This study demonstrates that operationalizing drought monitoring can be realized with remote sensing and further affirms the importance of drought and agriculture monitoring for food security.

  2. Observed and Modeled Tritium Concentrations in the Terrestrial Food Chain near a Continuous Atmospheric Source

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.A.; Kim, S.B.; Chouhan, S.L.; Workman, W.J.G.

    2005-07-15

    Tritium concentrations were measured in a large number of environmental and biological samples collected during 2002 at two dairy farms and a hobby farm near Pickering Nuclear Generating Station in Ontario, Canada. The data cover most compartments of the terrestrial food chain in an agricultural setting and include detailed information on the diets of the local farm animals. Ratios of plant OBT concentration to air moisture HTO varied between 0.12 and 0.56, and were generally higher for the forage crops collected at the dairy farms than for the garden vegetables sampled at the hobby farm. Animal OBT to air HTO ratios were more uniform, ranging from 0.18 to 0.45, and were generally higher for the milk and beef samples from the dairy farms than for the chicken products from the hobby farm. The observed OBT concentrations in plants and animals were compared with predictions of IMPACT, the model used by the Canadian nuclear industry to calculate annual average doses due to routine releases. The model performed well on average for the animal endpoints but overestimated concentrations in plants by a factor of 2.

  3. From Agricultural Education to Education for Rural Development and Food Security: All for Education and Food for All. SD Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasperini, Lavinia

    Reducing the number of undernourished people in all countries to half its present level no later than 2015 is the commitment undertaken by the international community during the World Food Summit of 1996. In order to accomplish this goal, a common vision to work for sustainable growth that favors the poor and provides more resources for health,…

  4. Use of Continuous Specific Conductance to Differentiate the Sources of Water to an Agricultural Stream With Subsurface Drainage Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. A.; Thornburg, J.; Capel, P. D.

    2008-12-01

    The sources of water to natural streams include direct precipitation, overland flow, and ground-water inflow. In glaciated areas, the presence of artificial surface and subsurface drainage networks, a common practice for removing excess water from agricultural fields, provides additional pathways of water movement to the stream. The artificial drainage of agricultural fields allows rainfall to move quickly through the catchment to the stream transporting nutrients, pesticides and other agricultural-related constituents. A largely agricultural (about 90%), 31 km2 subcatchment of the South Fork of the Iowa River in north-central Iowa was studied for two years. Discharge and specific conductance (SC) were measured continuously and discreet water samples were obtained for analyses of nutrients and other constituents. SC is an electrical measurement of the total ion content in the water. The SC of the rain and ground-water is about 10 microS/cm and 800-1,200 microS/cm, respectively. The typical, base-flow SC of the stream is 700-800 microS/cm. Within minutes after a substantial rain event, the stream discharge increases and the SC decreases (often times below 200"nmicroS/cm). The rain water is processed through the catchment before it reaches the stream via direct overland flow, preferential flow to subsurface drains, vertical drains attached to subsurface drains in ponded areas, and/or soil infiltration to ground-water. Water moving through each of these pathways has different characteristic time scales and different degrees of interactions with the soil yielding different ionic content, thus different SC. Both the discharge and SC concurrently return to the typical base-flow values over the following days and weeks. This strong relation between rainfall, discharge and SC is used to calculate the relative importance and time scale of the various hydrologic pathways. In addition to the two-year stream record, complementary discharge and SC data were collected in two

  5. [Health Polish foods as the chance for Polish agriculture in the united Europe].

    PubMed

    Szponar, Lucjan; Grabowski, Marek Ludwik

    2003-12-01

    This paper discuss the matter of food quality and safety which is available for whole population in Poland in 2001. The results of the nation wide control survey of food safety in 2001 conducted by the State Sanitary Inspection, where used as the source of data. Those results concerned 233.249 samples of foodstuffs taken from the market to assess. Based on the results of laboratory analysis of microbiological, chemical and physical contaminations in food and regarding organoleptic quality and labelling, the samples of foodstuffs were assessed. There were 24 of foodstuffs assortment in the survey distinguished. The result of this survey were discussed in the background of the changes in food industry in Poland during the last decade of XX century. The results show that over 88% of whole examined samples of food available for consumers in 2001 came from the health safety food. Generally the reason of the call in question of food safety were microbiological contaminations. It concerned 11% of examined samples. Chemical contaminants were detected in 3.48% of food samples and biological contaminants--in 1.77%. More over 1.13% samples because of inappropriate organoleptic food features where the reason of withdrawal them from the trade. Incorrect labelling was the reason of disqualification in 1.5% samples. Appearance of extraneous elements detected in 0.5% of samples. As result from gathering dates many of contaminated food samples were disqualified from a few reasons. From among 24 of foodstuffs assortment the samples of meat processing products were most often disqualified. The smallest percentage of disqualified food samples was observed in the group of foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses for infants. Strengthening of internal control system in production and processing establishment, rapid implement of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) in establishment and improve official control of foodstuffs system are the most important directions of

  6. Continuous Flow Metathesis for Direct Valorization of Food Waste: An Example of Cocoa Butter Triglyceride.

    PubMed

    Schotten, Christiane; Plaza, Dorota; Manzini, Simone; Nolan, Steven P; Ley, Steven V; Browne, Duncan L; Lapkin, Alexei

    2015-07-06

    The direct chemical conversion of cocoa butter triglycerides, a material available as a postmanufacture waste stream from the food industry, to 1-decene by way of ethenolysis is reported. The conversion of the raw waste material was made possible by use of 1 mol % of the [RuCl2(iBu-phoban)2(3-phenylindenyl)] catalyst. The process has been investigated in both batch and flow conditions, where the latter approach employs a Teflon AF-2400 tube-in-tube gas-liquid membrane contactor to deliver ethylene to the reaction system. These preliminary studies culminate in a continuous processing system, which maintained a constant output over a 150 min period tested.

  7. Continuous Flow Metathesis for Direct Valorization of Food Waste: An Example of Cocoa Butter Triglyceride

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The direct chemical conversion of cocoa butter triglycerides, a material available as a postmanufacture waste stream from the food industry, to 1-decene by way of ethenolysis is reported. The conversion of the raw waste material was made possible by use of 1 mol % of the [RuCl2(iBu-phoban)2(3-phenylindenyl)] catalyst. The process has been investigated in both batch and flow conditions, where the latter approach employs a Teflon AF-2400 tube-in-tube gas–liquid membrane contactor to deliver ethylene to the reaction system. These preliminary studies culminate in a continuous processing system, which maintained a constant output over a 150 min period tested. PMID:26322250

  8. Biohydrogen production from food waste hydrolysate using continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactors.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Liu, Da Na; Shi, Yi Wen; Tang, Jun Hong; Li, Yong Feng; Ren, Nan Qi

    2015-03-01

    A continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor (CMISR) using activated carbon as support carrier for dark fermentative hydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolyzed food waste was developed. The effects of immobilized sludge packing ratio (10-20%, v/v) and substrate loading rate (OLR) (8-40kg/m(3)/d) on biohydrogen production were examined, respectively. The hydrogen production rates (HPRs) with packing ratio of 15% were significantly higher than the results obtained from packing ratio of 10% and 20%. The best HPR of 353.9ml/h/L was obtained at the condition of packing ratio=15% and OLR=40kg/m(3)/d. The Minitab was used to elicit the effects of OLR and packing ratio on HPR (Y) which could be expressed as Y=5.31 OLR+296 packing ratio+40.3 (p=0.003). However, the highest hydrogen yield (85.6ml/g food waste) was happened at OLR of 16kg/m(3)/d because of H2 partial pressure and oxidization/reduction of NADH.

  9. Continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste and design of digester with lipid removal.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming; Guo, Yanfeng; Yuan, Zhenhong; Wang, Yao; Zhen, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Separation of municipal solid waste has been implemented in many cities in China. As a major component of municipal solid waste, food waste can be treated by anaerobic digestion (AD) for energy production. To provide reference data for disposing of food waste through engineering applications, continuous AD was carried out under various organic loading rates (OLRs) at 27 +/- 2 degrees C in the laboratory. The anaerobic reactor was stable with pH 7.0-7.1, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations of 206-746 mg/L, and NH4+ -N concentrations of 525-1293 mg/L when the OLR was 1.118-5.588 kg volatile solids (VS)/m(3) x d. The maximum volumetric biogas production rate was 4.41 L/L x d when the OLR was increased to 5.588 kg VS/m(3) x d with a hydraulic retention time of 30 d. When the OLR was increased to 6.706 and 8.382 kg VS/m(3) x d, biogas production was seriously inhibited by VFAs, with maximum total VFA and propionate concentrations of 8738 mg/L and 2864 mg/L, respectively. Due to the incomplete degradation of lipids, the specific methane production rate of 353-488 L/kg VS accounted for 55.2-76.3% of the theoretical methane potential calculated based on the component composition. A retrofitted anaerobic digester with lipid removal was designed to improve the efficiency.

  10. 77 FR 4984 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ...) Renewable energy, natural resources, and environment; (E) Agriculture systems and technology; and (F... solicitations for this program. Done at Washington, DC, this 25th day of January 2012. Chavonda...

  11. 76 FR 33700 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... University and William DeLauder, President Emeritus of Delaware State University. After opening remarks by Dr.... Deanna Behring, Director of International Agriculture Programs at Penn State University will serve...

  12. When Vacant Lots Become Urban Gardens: Characterizing the Perceived and Actual Food Safety Concerns of Urban Agriculture in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Michelle L; Williams, Michele L; Basta, Nicholas; Hand, Michelle; Huber, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This study was intended to characterize the perceived risks of urban agriculture by residents of four low-income neighborhoods in which the potential exists for further urban agriculture development and to provide data to support whether any chemical hazards and foodborne pathogens as potential food safety hazards were present. Sixty-seven residents participated in focus groups related to environmental health, food security, and urban gardening. In addition, soils from six locations were tested. Residents expressed interest in the development of urban gardens to improve access to healthy, fresh produce, but they had concerns about soil quality. Soils were contaminated with lead (Pb), zinc, cadmium (Cd), and copper, but not arsenic or chromium. Results from our study suggest paint was the main source of soil contamination. Detectable polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in urban soils were well below levels of concern. These urban soils will require further management to reduce Pb and possibly Cd bioavailability to decrease the potential for uptake into food crops. Although the number of locations in this study is limited, results suggest lower levels of soil contaminants at well-established gardens. Soil tillage associated with long-term gardening could have diluted the soil metal contaminants by mixing the contaminants with clean soil. Also, lower PAH levels in long-term gardening could be due to enhanced microbial activity and PAH degradation, dilution, or both due to mixing, similar to metals. No foodborne pathogen targets were detected by PCR from any of the soils. Residents expressed the need for clearness regarding soil quality and gardening practices in their neighborhoods to consume food grown in these urban areas. Results from this study suggest long-term gardening has the potential to reduce soil contaminants and their potential threat to food quality and human health and to improve access to fresh produce in low-income urban communities.

  13. Peaceful atoms in agriculture and food: how the politics of the Cold War shaped agricultural research using isotopes and radiation in post war divided Germany.

    PubMed

    Zachmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    During the Cold War, the super powers advanced nuclear literacy and access to nuclear resources and technology to a first-class power factor. Both national governments and international organizations developed nuclear programs in a variety of areas and promoted the development of nuclear applications in new environments. Research into the use of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, food production, and storage gained major importance as governments tried to promote the possibility of a peaceful use of atomic energy. This study is situated in divided Germany as the intersection of the competing socio-political systems and focuses on the period of the late 1940s and 1950s. It is argued that political interests and international power relations decisively shaped the development of "nuclear agriculture". The aim is to explore whether and how politicians in both parts of the divided country fostered the new field and exerted authority over the scientists. Finally, it examines the ways in which researchers adapted to the altered political conditions and expectations within the two political structures, by now fundamentally different.

  14. Rethinking Food: How United States Agriculture Production Affects Security Policy and Global Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    2010 U.S. global export shares for some key products: corn (53 percent), soybean (44 percent), cotton (42 percent), and wheat (28 percent) (United... soybean (44 percent), cotton (42 percent), and wheat (28 percent) (Department of Agriculture 2014c). In this regard, two authors, Le Cuyer and Paarlberg...certain cash crops that were important to many countries’ agriculture sectors such as West African cotton and Latin American soybeans . Changes in

  15. Estimated daily average per capita water ingestion by child and adult age categories based on USDA's 1994-1996 and 1998 continuing survey of food intakes by individuals.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Henry D; Stralka, Kathleen

    2009-05-01

    Water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for a number of age range groups. The age ranges, based on guidance from the US EPA's Risk Assessment Forum, are narrow for younger ages when development is rapid and wider for older ages when the rate of development decreases. Estimates are based on data from the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) 1994-1996 and 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). Water ingestion estimates include water ingested directly as a beverage and water added to foods and beverages during preparation at home or in local establishments. Water occurring naturally in foods or added by manufacturers to commercial products (beverage or food) is not included. Estimates are reported in milliliters (ml/person/day) and milliliters per kilogram of body weight (ml/kg/day). As a by-product of constructing estimates in terms of body weight of respondents, distributions of self-reported body weights based on the CSFII were estimated and are also reported here.

  16. Beyond land application: Emerging technologies for the treatment and reuse of anaerobically digested agricultural and food waste.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Johnathon P; Yang, Liangcheng; Ge, Xumeng; Wang, Zhiwu; Li, Yebo

    2015-10-01

    Effective treatment and reuse of the massive quantities of agricultural and food wastes generated daily has the potential to improve the sustainability of food production systems. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is used throughout the world as a waste treatment process to convert organic waste into two main products: biogas and nutrient-rich digestate, called AD effluent. Biogas can be used as a source of renewable energy or transportation fuels, while AD effluent is traditionally applied to land as a soil amendment. However, there are economic and environmental concerns that limit widespread land application, which may lead to underutilization of AD for the treatment of agricultural and food wastes. To combat these constraints, existing and novel methods have emerged to treat or reuse AD effluent. The objective of this review is to analyze several emerging methods used for efficient treatment and reuse of AD effluent. Overall, the application of emerging technologies is limited by AD effluent composition, especially the total solid content. Some technologies, such as composting, use the solid fraction of AD effluent, while most other technologies, such as algae culture and struvite crystallization, use the liquid fraction. Therefore, dewatering of AD effluent, reuse of the liquid and solid fractions, and land application could all be combined to sustainably manage the large quantities of AD effluent produced. Issues such as pathogen regrowth and prevalence of emerging organic micro-pollutants are also discussed.

  17. Food and agricultural research in changing times: Highlights of a national round table. Held in Washington, DC on June 16, 1995. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgway, R.L.; Reeder, R.

    1995-11-01

    A National Round Table on Food and Agricultural Research in Changing Times was held to (1) present an overview of Federal research programs, (2) review information gained from four regional focus groups conducted to obtain grassroots inputs into Federal agricultural research and extension programs, (3) integrate regional inputs with those from national organizations representing diverse constituents, and (4) enhance communication and collaboration among constituents of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), other Federal research agencies, Congress, and the Administration.

  18. Risk characterisation and management of sewage sludge on agricultural land--implications for the environment and the food-chain.

    PubMed

    Ross, A D; Lawrie, R A; Keneally, J P; Whatmuff, M S

    1992-08-01

    The disposal of sewage wastes may cause severe environmental problems as was graphically demonstrated with pollution on Sydney's ocean beaches in recent years. Sewage sludges contain valuable plant nutrients and organic matter which can improve the fertility and structure of the soil. However, human parasites, pathogenic micro-organisms and chemicals capable of causing soil contamination, phytotoxicity and residues in animal products may also be present. Although sewage sludge is frequently spread on agricultural land overseas, it is not common in Australia and most states do not have specific regulations to minimise risk and promote good practice. A sludge-to-land program began in the Sydney region in 1990. It follows guidelines written by NSW Agriculture to encourage beneficial agricultural use of sludge by adoption of environmentally sustainable practices. This article describes the major risks to the food-chain and the environment, which may be associated with applying sewage sludge to agricultural land. It summarises how the risks are managed, and where further research data are required.

  19. Graduate Education in Risk Analysis for Food, Agriculture, and Veterinary Medicine: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, Ana-Paula; Wolt, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    The notion of risk in relation to food and food production has heightened the need to educate students to effectively deal with risk in relation to decision making from a science-based perspective. Curricula and related materials were developed and adopted to support graduate learning opportunities in risk analysis and decision making as applied…

  20. Some cases in applications of nanotechnology to food and agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food nanotechnology is an emerging technology. Many scientists and engineers have recognized well the potential of nanotechnology to lead all the industries in the 21st century. Even though successful applications of nanotechnology to foods are still limited, some basic concepts based on nano-scale ...

  1. 78 FR 46963 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the Food and Agriculture Organization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... United Nations to support global strategies that address food safety and public health. The goal of this... enhance and broaden FDA's ability to address global food safety and public health issues associated with..., supporting planning, drafting effective legislation, and creating national strategies to achieve...

  2. Developing an Integrated Information System for the Food Sector. Agricultural Economic Report No. 575.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchester, Alden

    This document proposes an information system for the food sector that integrates measures of prices, quantities, and values. It suggests that such an integrated information system provides more information about many developments in the food sector than a system that separately measures prices, quantities, or values. Concepts and approaches…

  3. An Analysis of Occupational Titles and Competencies Needed in Agricultural Food Products Processing Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeltz, LeRoy C.

    To identify, rate, and cluster groups of competencies and occupational titles at entry and advance levels for occupations in five food products commodity areas, data were collected by interviews with personnel managers in 25 Pennsylvania food processing plants. Some findings were: (1) There were meaningful competency factor and occupational title…

  4. ELICITED EXPERT PERCEPTIONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE RISKS AND ADAPTATION IN AGRICULTURE AND FOOD PRODUCTION THROUGH MENTAL MODELS APPROACH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Eiko; Kubota, Hiromi; Baba, Kenshi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hanasaki, Naota

    Impacts of climate change have become obvious in agriculture and food production in Japan these days, and researches to adapt to their risks have been conducted as a key effort to cope with the climate change. Numerous scientific findings on climate change impacts have been presented so far; however, prospective risks to be adapted to and their management in the context of individual on-site situations have not been investigated in detail. The structure of climate change risks and their management vary depending on geographical and social features in the regions where the adaptation options should be applied; therefore, a practical adaptation strategy should consider actual on-site situations. This study intended to clarify climate change risks to be adapted to in the Japanese agricultural sector, and factors to be considered in adaptation options, for encouragement of decision-making on adaptation implementation in the field. Semi-structured individual interviews have been conducted with 9 multidisciplinary experts engaging in climate change impacts research in agricultural production, economics, engineering, policy, and so on. Based on the results of the interviews, and the latest literatures available for risk assessment and adaptation, an expert mental model including their perceptions which cover the process from climate change impacts assessment to adaptation has been developed. The prospective risks, adaptation options, and issues to be examined to progress the development of practical and effective adaptation options and to support individual or social decision-making, have been shown on the developed expert mental model. It is the basic information for developing social communication and stakeholders cooperations in climate change adaptation strategies in agriculture and food production in Japan.

  5. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    PubMed Central

    Alsalah, Dhafer; Al-Jassim, Nada; Timraz, Kenda; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10−4. However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10−4, slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  6. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce.

    PubMed

    Alsalah, Dhafer; Al-Jassim, Nada; Timraz, Kenda; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-10-05

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10(-4). However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10(-4), slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  7. Infrared Spectroscopy as a Versatile Analytical Tool for the Quantitative Determination of Antioxidants in Agricultural Products, Foods and Plants

    PubMed Central

    Cozzolino, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods provide with very useful qualitative and quantitative information about the biochemistry and chemistry of antioxidants. Near infrared (NIR) and mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy are considered as powerful, fast, accurate and non-destructive analytical tools that can be considered as a replacement of traditional chemical analysis. In recent years, several reports can be found in the literature demonstrating the usefulness of these methods in the analysis of antioxidants in different organic matrices. This article reviews recent applications of infrared (NIR and MIR) spectroscopy in the analysis of antioxidant compounds in a wide range of samples such as agricultural products, foods and plants. PMID:26783838

  8. Demographic, agricultural products, and food consumption data for a collective farm in Oranoe District, Ivankov District, Kiev Region, Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabov, I N; Davidenko, G M; Templeton, W L; ,

    1992-07-01

    This report provides some demographic, agricultural and food consumption data for the collective farms ( Kybisheva,'' composed of three villages) in the Oranoe Department, District of Ivankov, Kiev Region. This area is situated approximately 15 km south of the Chernobyl 30-km Exclusion Zone. The levels of {sup 137}Cs are approximately 5--10 curies/km{sup 2}. This data was collected by the Integrated Radioecological Expedition to Chernobyl of the Russian Academy of Sciences as part of the co-operative studies on environmental radiation dose assessment conducted under the US/USSR Joint Co-operative Committee on Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS) established in 1989.

  9. 7 CFR 250.13 - Distribution and control of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Distribution and control of donated foods. 250.13 Section 250.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Operating Provisions § 250.13 Distribution and control of donated foods. (a) Availability and use of...

  10. 7 CFR 250.13 - Distribution and control of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Distribution and control of donated foods. 250.13 Section 250.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Operating Provisions § 250.13 Distribution and control of donated foods. (a) Availability and use of...

  11. 7 CFR Appendix B to Part 220 - Categories of Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categories of Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value B Appendix B to Part 220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND.... B Appendix B to Part 220—Categories of Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value (1) Soda Water—A class...

  12. 7 CFR 250.56 - Provision of donated foods in NSLP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... posted on the FNS Web site, for access by distributing agencies and school food authorities. In addition... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Provision of donated foods in NSLP. 250.56 Section 250.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION...

  13. 7 CFR 250.56 - Provision of donated foods in NSLP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... posted on the FNS Web site, for access by distributing agencies and school food authorities. In addition... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Provision of donated foods in NSLP. 250.56 Section 250.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION...

  14. 7 CFR 250.56 - Provision of donated foods in NSLP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... posted on the FNS Web site, for access by distributing agencies and school food authorities. In addition... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provision of donated foods in NSLP. 250.56 Section 250.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION...

  15. 7 CFR 250.56 - Provision of donated foods in NSLP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... posted on the FNS Web site, for access by distributing agencies and school food authorities. In addition... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provision of donated foods in NSLP. 250.56 Section 250.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION...

  16. 7 CFR 248.8 - Level of benefits and eligible foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Level of benefits and eligible foods. 248.8 Section 248.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP)...

  17. 7 CFR 248.8 - Level of benefits and eligible foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Level of benefits and eligible foods. 248.8 Section 248.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP)...

  18. 7 CFR 248.8 - Level of benefits and eligible foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Level of benefits and eligible foods. 248.8 Section 248.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP)...

  19. 7 CFR 248.8 - Level of benefits and eligible foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Level of benefits and eligible foods. 248.8 Section 248.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP)...

  20. 7 CFR 248.8 - Level of benefits and eligible foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Level of benefits and eligible foods. 248.8 Section 248.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP)...

  1. 7 CFR 210.4 - Cash and donated food assistance to States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cash and donated food assistance to States. 210.4 Section 210.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM...

  2. Weaving Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge with Formal Education to Enhance Community Food Security: School Competition as a Pedagogical Space in Rural Anchetty, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, Shailesh; Barkman, Janna; Patel, Kirit

    2017-01-01

    Like many socially and economically disadvantaged farming communities around the world, the Anchetty region of Tamil Nadu, India, has been experiencing serious food security challenges mainly due to the loss of traditional foods such as small millets and associated crops (SMAC) and associated indigenous agricultural knowledge (IAK). Drawing on…

  3. 76 FR 58767 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ..., Des Moines, Iowa. ``The Next Generation: Global Food Security through Human and Institutional Capacity... Feed the Future Research Strategy. The Board members next will provide updates on the activities...

  4. Landscape context mediates influence of local food abundance on wetland use by wintering shorebirds in an agricultural valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taft, Oriane W.; Haig, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    While it is widely understood that local abundance of benthic invertebrates can greatly influence the distribution and abundance of wetland birds, no studies have examined if wetland landscape context can mediate this relationship. We studied the influence of wetland food abundance and landscape context on use of agricultural wetlands by wintering dunlin (Calidris alpina) and killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, USA, over two winters (1999a??2000, 2000a??2001) of differing rainfall and subsequent habitat distribution. We monitored bird use (frequency of occurrence and abundance) at a sample of wetlands differing in local food abundance (density and biomass) and landscape context [adjacent shorebird habitat (defined as ha of wet habitat with less than 50% vegetative cover and within a 2-km radius) and nearest neighbor distance]. We evaluated predictive models for bird use using linear regression and the Cp criterion to select the most parsimonious model. During the dry winter (2000a??2001), dunlin exhibited greater use of sites with higher invertebrate density and biomass but also with more adjacent shorebird habitat and closest to a wetland neighbor. However, neither landscape context nor food abundance were important predictors of dunlin use during the wet winter (1999a??2000). Use of sites by killdeer was unrelated to either local food abundance or landscape context measures during both winters. Our findings contribute to a growing recognition of the importance of landscape structure to wetland birds and highlight a number of implications for the spatial planning and enhancement of wetlands using a landscape approach.

  5. 7 CFR 2900.3 - Essential agricultural uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES.... 514Groceries and Related Products. 5153Farm Product Raw Materials—Grain. 54Food Stores. Energy Production (1... production of alcohol; and (3) Distillation of fuel-grade alcohol from food grains and other biomass...

  6. 7 CFR 2900.3 - Essential agricultural uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES.... 514Groceries and Related Products. 5153Farm Product Raw Materials—Grain. 54Food Stores. Energy Production (1... production of alcohol; and (3) Distillation of fuel-grade alcohol from food grains and other biomass...

  7. 7 CFR 2900.3 - Essential agricultural uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES.... 514Groceries and Related Products. 5153Farm Product Raw Materials—Grain. 54Food Stores. Energy Production (1... production of alcohol; and (3) Distillation of fuel-grade alcohol from food grains and other biomass...

  8. 7 CFR 2900.3 - Essential agricultural uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES.... 514Groceries and Related Products. 5153Farm Product Raw Materials—Grain. 54Food Stores. Energy Production (1... production of alcohol; and (3) Distillation of fuel-grade alcohol from food grains and other biomass...

  9. Nectar production in oilseeds: Food for pollinators in an agricultural landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollinating insects are in decline throughout the world, driven by a combination of factors including the loss of forage resources. The corn- and soybean-dominated agriculture of the Central and Midwestern US produces a landscape relatively devoid of nectar and pollen resources. Introducing specialt...

  10. Ending Agricultural Threats: Safeguarding America's Food for Everyone (EAT SAFE) Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Casey, Robert P., Jr. [D-PA

    2009-02-12

    02/12/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2240-2242) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. 75 FR 61695 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; One Hundred and Sixtieth Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... will be expansion of research and development to increase agricultural productivity globally. As part.... Concurrently, USAID is undertaking a Science and Technology Initiative to improve dramatically its scientific... Understanding that outlines strategic areas of cooperation on science and technology in development over...

  12. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jenna; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O'Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management.

  13. Food habits and nutritional status of agricultural migrant workers in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Desai, I D; Garcia Tavares, M L; Dutra de Oliveira, B S; Douglas, A; Duarte, F A; Dutra de Oliveira, J E

    1980-03-01

    A new class of migrant workers, commonly known as "Boia-Frias", is rapidly growing in the periurban slumbs (favelas) of Brazil. In 1978 a collaborative study was undertaken to assess the food habits and nutritional status of 100 migrant worker families of Vila Recreio, a typical Boia-Fria settlement near Ribeirao Preto in the state of Sao Paulo. The findings of this survey revealed that the traditional diet of Boia-Frias is nutritionally inadequate both in quality and quantity. Their rice and bean-based diet lacks sufficient variety because of the infrequent use of fresh fruits and vegetables, which are available locally, and of supplemental amounts of protein-rich foods of animal origin. Empty-calorie foods such as carbonated drinks and alcoholic beverages are consumed freely; and starchy foods, traditionally used in the North and Northeast of Brazil, are used commonly as weaning foods. Although dietary practices of pregnant and lactating women are poor, breast-feeding is still practiced by most mothers. The biochemical analysis of blood samples did not indicate major subclinical deficiencies except low hematological values and low plasma vitamin A concentrations in about 25% of the population examined. Plasma cholesterol and plasma vitamin E values were found to be normal. However, anthropometric examinations revealed clear signs of malnutrition and/or undernourishment, which likely impairs their capacity for physical work and adversely affects their overall health.

  14. Effect of matrix elasticity on the continuous foaming of food models.

    PubMed

    Narchi, I; Vial, Ch; Djelveh, G

    2008-12-01

    The aim is to understand the effect of matrix elasticity on continuous foaming using food models based on glucose syrup. This was modified by adding polyacrylamide (PAA) with 2% whey protein isolate (WPI) or Tween 80 as foaming agents. Foaming was conducted in a stirred column. Rotation speed N and gas-to-liquid flow ratio (G/L) were varied. Overrun, average bubble size d (32), texture and stability were measured using densimetry, image analysis, and rheometry, respectively. Experimental results showed that 0.01% PAA did not modify the viscosity of 2% WPI models, but conferred low elastic behavior. PAA (0.05%) doubled matrix viscosity and drastically increased elasticity. The increase of elasticity became slower for further PAA addition. Foaming experiments demonstrated that theoretical overrun could not be achieved for inelastic WPI models in two cases: for high viscosity and low N, as dispersion effectiveness was reduced; for high G/L and N because of enhanced coalescence. Matrix elasticity was shown to increase overrun at constant viscosity for high G/L by enhancing interface stabilization. However, in elastic models, gas dispersion was more difficult and d (32) was higher than in inelastic fluids of similar viscosity. Finally, when the limiting step was dispersion, foaming was shown to be negatively affected by matrix elasticity.

  15. Closed and continuous algae cultivation system for food production and gas exchange in CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Shigeo; Koyano, Takashi; Miki, Keizaburo

    In CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System), utilization of photosynthetic algae is an effective means for obtaining food and oxygen at the same time. We have chosen Spirulina, a blue-green alga, and have studied possibilities of algae utilization. We have developed an advanced algae cultivation system, which is able to produce algae continuously in a closed condition. Major features of the new system are as follows. o (1)In order to maintain homogeneous culture conditions, the cultivator was designed so as to cause a swirl on medium circulation. (2)Oxygen gas separation and carbon dioxide supply are conducted by a newly designed membrane module. (3)Algae mass and medium are separated by a specially designed harvester. (4)Cultivation conditions, such as pH, temperature, algae growth rate, light intensity and quanlity of generated oxygen gas are controlled by a computer system and the data are automatically recorded. This equipment is a primary model for ground experiments in order to obtain some design data for space use. A feasibility of algae cultivation in a closed condition is discussed on the basis of data obtained by use of this new system.

  16. Discrete and continuous water-quality data and hydrologic parameters from seven agricultural watersheds in the United States, 2002-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Lampe, David C.; Capel, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Field and analytical methods; discrete organic and non-organic water-quality data and associated quality-control data; and continuous hydrologic and water-quality parameters are reported for sites in California, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Mississippi, Nebraska, and Washington. The sites were sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program?s Agricultural Chemicals Team study to better understand how environmental processes and agricultural practices interact to determine the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in the environment.

  17. Phosphorus use-efficiency of agriculture and food system in the US.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sangwon; Yee, Scott

    2011-08-01

    The rapid increase in human mobilization of phosphorus has raised concerns on both its supply security and its impact on the environment. Increasing the efficiency of phosphorus use is an approach to mitigate the adverse impacts associated with phosphorus consumption. This study estimates the life-cycle phosphorus use-efficiency of the US food system. A framework for accounting phosphorus stocks and flows is developed, and the account was populated with data. A map of phosphorus stocks and flows around the US food system is drawn and phosphorus use-efficiency was calculated. The results show that only 15% of the total phosphorus extracted from nature for the provision of food is eventually ingested by humans and the rest is lost to the environment. Major losses occur during the livestock, meat and dairy production and crop cultivation stage, where about 66% of the total phosphorus extracted is lost to the environment. The results also show that other losses of phosphorus including household food waste, mining waste, and fertilizer manufacturing waste are not negligible, which constitute about 19% of the total phosphorus extracted for food purpose. A data quality assessment and sensitivity analysis was performed to identify data quality hotspots and to envisage effective measures to improving phosphorus use-efficiency. Improving yields of livestock and crop cultivation without additional phosphorus input and reducing household food waste are shown to be effective measures to improve life-cycle phosphorus use-efficiency. The results highlight the need of a concerted effort by all entities along the life-cycle for efficient use of phosphorus.

  18. Growing Food for Space and Earth: NASA's Contributions to Vertical Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in the 1980s with NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program and later the 1990s and early 2000s with the Advanced Life Support Project, NASA conducted extensive testing with crops in controlled environment conditions. One series of tests conducted at Kennedy Space Center used a large chamber with vertically stacked shelves to support hydroponic growing trays, with a bank of electric lamps above each shelf. This is essentially the same approach that has become popular for use in so-called vertical agriculture systems, which attempts to optimize plant production in a fixed volume. Some of the findings and commonalities of NASA's work during this period and how it overlaps with current interests in vertical agriculture will be presented in the talk.

  19. Global health issues of aflatoxins in food and agriculture: challenges and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special research topic eBOOK contains six review articles, three mini reviews and four original research articles. It opens up exciting perspectives on global health issues related to aflatoxins in the food chain and on the development of suitable strategies for preventing toxigenic fungal grow...

  20. How to Buy Food: Lesson Aids for Teachers. Agriculture Handbook No. 443. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Agricultural Marketing Services.

    This teachers guide presents lesson aids on how to buy food for home economics or consumer education in high school or adult education courses. An introductory section explains how to get the supplementary materials (publications, films, and slides/filmstrips), what the contents and objectives of these materials are, suggestions for lesson…

  1. DDT and Derivatives in Indicator Species of the Aquatic Food Web of Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Rohitrattana, J.; Thongkongowm, P.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of DDT and derivatives in the food web of freshwater ecosystems of Rangsit agricultural area, Pathum Thani Province, Thailand were investigated from June 2004 to May 2007. By using gas chromatography (GC) with micro electron capture detector (μ ECD), DDT and derivatives in water, sediment, and fifteen indicator species i.e., 2 producers; Eichhornia crassipes and plankton (phyto- and zoo- plankton), an herbivore; Trichogaster microlepis (3) 3 omnivores; Trichogaster trichopterus, Oreochromis niloticus, and Puntius gonionotus, 6 carnivores; Channa striatus, Oxyeleotris marmoratus, Macrognathus siamensis, Parambassis siamensis, Anabas testudineus, and Pristolepis fasciatus, and 3 detritivores; Macrobrachium lanchesteri, Pomacea sp., and Filopaludina mertensi were measured. Results show low concentration levels (part per billion) of DDT & derivatives in each food web compartment i.e. water, sediment, aquatic plant, plankton, fish, and invertebrates. Magnification patterns, i.e. bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification, based on habitat and foraging behavior of selected freshwater species indicates that DDT & derivatives can accumulate and be magnified through the food chain from the lowest up to the highest trophic level. Therefore, the presence of residues and the evidence of magnification patterns can be observed as ecological indicators for evaluating ecological health risk. PMID:20161116

  2. (Ultra) High Pressure Homogenization for Continuous High Pressure Sterilization of Pumpable Foods – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Georget, Erika; Miller, Brittany; Callanan, Michael; Heinz, Volker; Mathys, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial spores have a strong resistance to both chemical and physical hurdles and create a risk for the food industry, which has been tackled by applying high thermal intensity treatments to sterilize food. These strong thermal treatments lead to a reduction of the organoleptic and nutritional properties of food and alternatives are actively searched for. Innovative hurdles offer an alternative to inactivate bacterial spores. In particular, recent technological developments have enabled a new generation of high pressure homogenizer working at pressures up to 400 MPa and thus, opening new opportunities for high pressure sterilization of foods. In this short review, we summarize the work conducted on (ultra) high pressure homogenization (U)HPH to inactivate endospores in model and food systems. Specific attention is given to process parameters (pressure, inlet, and valve temperatures). This review gathers the current state of the art and underlines the potential of UHPH sterilization of pumpable foods while highlighting the needs for future work. PMID:25988118

  3. (Ultra) high pressure homogenization for continuous high pressure sterilization of pumpable foods - a review.

    PubMed

    Georget, Erika; Miller, Brittany; Callanan, Michael; Heinz, Volker; Mathys, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial spores have a strong resistance to both chemical and physical hurdles and create a risk for the food industry, which has been tackled by applying high thermal intensity treatments to sterilize food. These strong thermal treatments lead to a reduction of the organoleptic and nutritional properties of food and alternatives are actively searched for. Innovative hurdles offer an alternative to inactivate bacterial spores. In particular, recent technological developments have enabled a new generation of high pressure homogenizer working at pressures up to 400 MPa and thus, opening new opportunities for high pressure sterilization of foods. In this short review, we summarize the work conducted on (ultra) high pressure homogenization (U)HPH to inactivate endospores in model and food systems. Specific attention is given to process parameters (pressure, inlet, and valve temperatures). This review gathers the current state of the art and underlines the potential of UHPH sterilization of pumpable foods while highlighting the needs for future work.

  4. [Animal health in organic agriculture: new guidelines and perspectives for food animal practitioners].

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, H; Walkenhorst, M; Klocke, P

    2003-11-01

    In the last decade, the organic agriculture in Switzerland has been substantially increased due to the interest of consumer and financial incentives of the federation. Ruminants take directly or indirectly the largest part from grassland used within the organic managed surfaces. As the contacts between veterinary practice and organic agriculture has increased, the potential for veterinary activity in this area has developed considerably. The organic agriculture guidelines stipulate that all the preventive measures should be taken in feeding, keeping and breeding to insure animal health safety. This requires veterinary services for herd management. The organic status of a farm affects veterinary practice also in the form of alternative therapy/drugs administration and measures like dehorning and tail-docking. An important point in organic managed herds requests that treatment of animals should depend on alternative medical preparations or procedures based on veterinarian's experience and also on the therapeutic effect on the animal species concerned as well as on the disease. However, there are no restrictions on the veterinarian to use registered drugs as long as no alternative therapy, according to experience and possible success, is available to treat the animals. The prophylactic administration of allopathic veterinary drugs is not permissible. Further features in organic farms regarding the use of drugs are the keeping of withholding/withdrawal time, the documentation and the treatment frequency tolerated by organic marketing. Despite the above measures, the animal health has a priority regardless of its organic status. Although management of organic farms represent a unique responsibility, there are still obvious deficits in the education of veterinary practitioners for this new situation. However, in the future the extension of veterinary activity to include the alternative medical therapy should be regarded for the practitioner as a challenge and an

  5. Assessment of Food and Nutrition Related Descriptors in Agricultural and Biomedical Thesauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartol, Tomaz

    Food- and human nutrition-related subject headings or descriptors of the following thesauri-databases are assessed: NAL Thesaurus/Agricola, Agrovoc/Agris, CAB Thesaurus, FSTA Thesaurus, MeSH/Medline. Food concepts can be represented by thousands of different terms but subject scope of a particular term is sometimes vague. There exist important differences among thesauri regarding same or similar concept. A term that represents narrower or broader concept in one thesaurus can in another stand for a related concept or be non-existent. Sometimes there is no clear implication of differences between scientific (Latin) and common (English) names. Too many related terms can confuse end-users. Thesauri were initially employed mostly by information professionals but can now be used directly by users who may be unaware of differences. Thesauri are assuming new roles in classification of information as metadata. Further development towards ontologies must pay constant attention to taxonomic problems of representation of knowledge.

  6. Product, not process! Explaining a basic concept in agricultural biotechnologies and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tagliabue, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    Most life scientists have relentlessly recommended any evaluative approach of agri-food products to be based on examination of the phenotype, i.e. the actual characteristics of the food, feed and fiber varieties: the effects of any new cultivar (or micro-organism, animal) on our health are not dependent on the process(es), the techniques used to obtain it.The so-called "genetically modified organisms" ("GMOs"), on the other hand, are commonly framed as a group with special properties - most frequently seen as dubious, or even harmful.Some social scientists still believe that considering the process is a correct background for science-based understanding and regulation. To show that such an approach is utterly wrong, and to invite scientists, teachers and science communicators to explain this mistake to students, policy-makers and the public at large, we imagined a dialogue between a social scientist, who has a positive opinion about a certain weight that a process-based orientation should have in the risk assessment, and a few experts who offer plenty of arguments against that view. The discussion focuses on new food safety.

  7. Glycolipid biosurfactants: main properties and potential applications in agriculture and food industry.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-10-01

    Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by high structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface, respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. They have received much practical attention as biopesticides for controlling plant diseases and protecting stored products. As a result of their antifungal activity towards phytopathogenic fungi and larvicidal and mosquitocidal potencies, glycolipid biosurfactants permit the preservation of plants and plant crops from pest invasion. Also, as a result of their emulsifying and antibacterial activities, glycolipids have great potential as food additives and food preservatives. Furthermore, the valorization of food byproducts via the production of glycolipid biosurfactant has received much attention because it permits the bioconversion of byproducts on valuable compounds and decreases the cost of production. Generally, the use of glycolipids in many fields requires their retention from fermentation media. Accordingly, different strategies have been developed to extract and purify glycolipids. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Improving food and agriculture productivity and the environment: Canadian initiatives in methyl bromide alternatives and emission control technologies. Revised edition

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, M.; Tibelius, C.

    1998-12-31

    Methyl bromide, a fumigant used in the agricultural sector, was listed as an ozone-depleting substance under the Montreal Protocol and is scheduled for phasing out in Canada. This report begins with a review of the joint industry/government approach being taken to plan and manage this phase-out. It then reviews alternative solutions that have been formulated and tested as replacements for the use of methyl bromide in greenhouse cultivation, soil fumigation, strawberry transplant production, tobacco production, grain production, and food processing facilities. Contact names and addresses are provided for those seeking further information. The final sections describe activities in methyl bromide recovery and recycling and list industry and government organizations that have expertise in methyl bromide alternatives.

  9. Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security in 2050 under a Range of Plausible Socioeconomic and Emissions Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, K.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Bodirsky, B.; Kavallari, A.; Mason-d'Croz, D.; van der Mensbrugghe, D.; Robinson, S.; Sands, R.; Tabeau, A.; Willenbockel, D.; Islam, S.; van Meijl, H.; Mueller, C.; Robertson, R.

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have combined climate, crop and economic models to examine the impact of climate change on agricultural production and food security, but results have varied widely due to differences in models, scenarios and data. Recent work has examined (and narrowed) these differences through systematic model intercomparison using a high-emissions pathway to highlight the differences. New work extends that analysis to cover a range of plausible socioeconomic scenarios and emission pathways. Results from three general circulation models are combined with one crop model and five global economic models to examine the global and regional impacts of climate change on yields, area, production, prices and trade for coarse grains, rice, wheat, oilseeds and sugar to 2050. Results show that yield impacts vary with changes in population, income and technology as well as emissions, but are reduced in all cases by endogenous changes in prices and other variables.

  10. Evaluation of detailed water quality and quantity monitoring system in a small agricultural catchment - discrete vs. continuous approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fučík, Petr; Kaplická, Markéta; Kvítek, Tomáå.¡

    2010-05-01

    To achieve the obligatory limits set up by the WFD (Water Frame Directive) in water bodies, there is an urgent need of attainments conc. water quality and quantity dynamics which can be gained only by a detailed monitoring. Continuous monitoring system of surface, subsurface and ground waters is one of the essential tools, enabling to thoroughly understand the processes of water quality dynamics in a catchment as well as to trace the sources and pathways of pollutants during various rainfall - runoff events. In this paper, there are described results of concentrations and loads of N-NO3, N-NH4 and Ptot, realized by assessment and comparison of two different approaches - regular and intensive monitoring concepts. The analysis was carried out in five measuring points - in the catchment closing profile and in four subcatchments (three of them tile drained) of a small agricultural catchment during the year 2009. Monitored catchment is located on the Kopaninský stream, which is situated in the south - eastern part of the Švihov drinking water reservoir basin on the Želivka river, in the Bohemo-Moravian Highland in the Czech Republic. The experimental catchment occupies 7.1 km2, dominating land use type is ploughland (50%), followed by forests (37%) and grasslands (12%). The catchment contains several measuring sites - profiles, equipped with V - notch type weirs and ultrasound probes connected to dataloggers for water level recording. The regular (discrete) monitoring lied in a fortnightly accomplished manual withdrawal of a 0.5 l sample from the upper third share of actual water column in the case of surface water courses, or directly from the tile drainage outlet, and measuring the actual water level (discharge). Average monthly load L (kg*month-1) was then calculated according to the following relationship: L = [ci*Qi+ci+1*Qi+1* 0.0864] n, where ci is concentration of a substance at the time of sampling (mg*l-1), Qiis discharge (l*s-1) at the sampling time, n is

  11. Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

  12. Food safety assessment of an antifungal protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in an agricultural biotechnology perspective.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Clidia E M; Farias, Davi F; Carvalho, Ana F U; Oliveira, José T A; Pereira, Mirella L; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, José E C; Viana, Daniel A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2015-09-01

    Mo-CBP3 is an antifungal protein produced by Moringa oleifera which has been investigated as potential candidate for developing transgenic crops. Before the use of novel proteins, food safety tests must be conducted. This work represents an early food safety assessment of Mo-CBP3, using the two-tiered approach proposed by ILSI. The history of safe use, mode of action and results for amino acid sequence homology using the full-length and short contiguous amino acids sequences indicate low risk associated to this protein. Mo-CBP3 isoforms presented a reasonable number of alignments (>35% identity) with allergens in a window of 80 amino acids. This protein was resistant to pepsin degradation up to 2 h, but it was susceptible to digestion using pancreatin. Many positive attributes were presented for Mo-CBP3. However, this protein showed high sequence homology with allergens and resistance to pepsin digestion that indicates that further hypothesis-based testing on its potential allergenicity must be done. Additionally, animal toxicity evaluations (e.g. acute and repeated dose oral exposure assays) must be performed to meet the mandatory requirements of several regulatory agencies. Finally, the approach adopted here exemplified the importance of performing an early risk assessment of candidate proteins for use in plant transformation programs.

  13. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... or food group(s))” must be made accessible by certified organic production or handling operations for... agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.” (a) All agricultural products that are to be...

  14. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... or food group(s))” must be made accessible by certified organic production or handling operations for... agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.” (a) All agricultural products that are to be...

  15. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... or food group(s))” must be made accessible by certified organic production or handling operations for... agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.” (a) All agricultural products that are to be...

  16. Chronic dietary risk characterization for pesticide residues: a ranking and scoring method integrating agricultural uses and food contamination data.

    PubMed

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Reninger, Jean-Cédric; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2011-07-01

    A method has been developed to identify pesticide residues and foodstuffs for inclusion in national monitoring programs with different priority levels. It combines two chronic dietary intake indicators: ATMDI based on maximum residue levels and agricultural uses, and EDI on food contamination data. The mean and 95th percentile of exposure were calculated for 490 substances using individual and national consumption data. The results show that mean ATMDI exceeds the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for 10% of the pesticides, and the mean upper-bound EDI is above the ADI for 1.8% of substances. A seven-level risk scale is presented for substances already analyzed in food in France and substances not currently sought. Of 336 substances analyzed, 70 pesticides of concern (levels 2-5) should be particularly monitored, 22 of which are priority pesticides (levels 4 and 5). Of 154 substances not sought, 36 pesticides of concern (levels 2-4) should be included in monitoring programs, including 8 priority pesticides (level 4). In order to refine exposure assessment, analytical improvements and developments are needed to lower the analytical limits for priority pesticide/commodity combinations. Developed nationally, this method could be applied at different geographic scales.

  17. Comparison of cold enrichment and U.S. Department of Agriculture methods for isolating Listeria monocytogenes from naturally contaminated foods. The Listeria Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, P S; Graves, L M; Ajello, G W; Swaminathan, B; Weaver, R E; Wenger, J D; Schuchat, A; Broome, C V

    1991-01-01

    We compared the cold enrichment (CE) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) methods for isolating Listeria monocytogenes by examining 402 food samples. The food samples were collected from refrigerators of listeriosis patients as part of a multistate active surveillance project to determine the role of foods in sporadic listeriosis in the United States. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 51 food samples (13%). The USDA method was significantly better (P less than 0.001) than the CE method. The isolation efficiencies of the USDA and CE methods were 96 and 59%, respectively. Quantitation of L. monocytogenes in the food samples revealed that many food samples containing less than 0.3 CFU/g were negative as determined by the CE method but positive as determined by the USDA method. PMID:1768082

  18. Effects of continuous nicotine treatment and subsequent termination on cocaine versus food choice in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L; Negus, S Stevens; Poklis, Justin L; Banks, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    One complicating factor in cocaine addiction may be concurrent exposure and potential dependence on nicotine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of continuous nicotine treatment and subsequent termination on cocaine versus food choice in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). For comparison, we also determined effects of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on cocaine versus food choice during continuous saline and nicotine treatment. Rhesus monkeys (N = 3) responded under a concurrent schedule of food pellet (1 g) and intravenous cocaine (0-0.1 mg/kg/injection) availability. Saline and ascending nicotine doses (0.1-1.0 mg/kg/hr, intravenous) were continuously infused for 7-day treatment periods and separated by 24-hr saline treatment periods. Acute effects of mecamylamine (0.32-1.8 mg/kg, intramuscular, 15 min pretreatment) were determined during continuous saline and 0.32-mg/kg/hr nicotine treatments. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine choice. Nicotine treatment did not alter cocaine versus food choice. In contrast, preference of 0.032 mg/kg/injection cocaine was attenuated 24 hr following termination of 0.32-mg/kg/hr nicotine treatment, despite no somatic abstinence signs being observed. Acute mecamylamine enhanced cocaine choice during saline treatment and mainly suppressed rates of behavior during nicotine treatment. Overall, continuous nicotine exposure, up to 1 mg/kg/hr, does not enhance cocaine choice and does not produce nicotine dependence, as demonstrated by the lack of abstinence signs.

  19. Bioethics Symposium: The ethical food movement: What does it mean for the role of science and scientists in current debates about animal agriculture?

    PubMed

    Croney, C C; Apley, M; Capper, J L; Mench, J A; Priest, S

    2012-05-01

    Contemporary animal agriculture is increasingly criticized on ethical grounds. Consequently, current policy and legislative discussions have become highly controversial as decision makers attempt to reconcile concerns about the impacts of animal production on animal welfare, the environment, and on the efficacy of antibiotics required to ensure human health with demands for abundant, affordable, safe food. Clearly, the broad implications for US animal agriculture of what appears to be a burgeoning movement relative to ethical food production must be understood by animal agriculture stakeholders. The potential effects of such developments on animal agricultural practices, corporate marketing strategies, and public perceptions of the ethics of animal production must also be clarified. To that end, it is essential to acknowledge that people's beliefs about which food production practices are appropriate are tied to diverse, latent value systems. Thus, relying solely on scientific information as a means to resolve current debates about animal agriculture is unlikely to be effective. The problem is compounded when scientific information is used inappropriately or strategically to advance a political agenda. Examples of the interface between science and ethics in regards to addressing currently contentious aspects of food animal production (animal welfare, antimicrobial use, and impacts of animal production practices on the environment) are reviewed. The roles of scientists and science in public debates about animal agricultural practices are also examined. It is suggested that scientists have a duty to contribute to the development of sound policy by providing clear and objectively presented information, by clarifying misinterpretations of science, and by recognizing the differences between presenting data vs. promoting their own value judgments in regard to how and which data should be used to establish policy. Finally, the role of the media in shaping public opinions

  20. Analysis and utilization of plasma treated water for food and agricultural interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sanghoo; Lim, Youbong; Park, Joo Young; Choe, Wonho; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yong, Hae In; Jo, Cheorun; Jung, Samooel

    2015-09-01

    Attention on aqueous chemical species produced in plasma-treated solutions through plasma-liquid interactions has been increased because of its strong relation to bio/medical and food applications. The long-lived and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as hydrogen peroxide, ozone, superoxide anion, and oxyacids play a crucial role in those applications. The plasma treatment brings about absorption of these species into the target liquid and also induces changes in liquid characteristics and composition via photolysis by plasma UV emission and post-discharge reactions. In this presentation, we discuss the result of our investigation of the chemical properties related to the two main oxyacids, HNO2 and HNO3, in plasma treated water (PTW). Water was treated in close proximity by our SDBD system developed specifically to meet the application requirements. The chemical properties of the solution varied gradually over the treatment time and storage time. Here we report the result of our experiment, theoretical analysis, and their consistency. Furthermore, the dependence of the nitrite ion production yield on the dissipated power, treatment time, and dielectric material will be discussed. Based on the revealed fundamental characteristics, the utilization of PTW in the meat curing process as one of the nitrite sources will be briefly demonstrated. In terms of sausage quality, there were no noticeable effects of PTW on the total aerobic bacteria counts, color, and peroxide values of sausages compared with those using celery powder and sodium nitrite.

  1. Hydrogen economy via harnessing chemical rain and the earth's gravitational potential: agriculture, biomass, food and jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, E.

    1980-12-01

    A hydrogen economy system is described which utilizes effectively the by-product of hydrogen combustion even more important than the energy produced, water. This system is open port, multimodal in application (dependent upon local needs and strategies), retrofittable with new technology in time, versatile in its application and rich in profittable by-products. It is environmentally and ecologically sound, being essentially based upon the four elements of Greek mythology: earth, air, fire and water. It is a rare blending of old principles of physics with new technology. The final products are; enormous new agribusiness in previously barren geographical areas, producing large increases in biomass production for fuel or food, large increases in jobs in areas in underemployment, and large increases in federal and local government tax base in previously unproductive revenue areas, in addition to electrical energy production. When powered by solar electrolysis or solar photolysis its cost should be minimal when prorated over the effective lifetime of solar energy with minimal maintainance costs.

  2. Emerging aspects of nanotoxicology in health and disease: From agriculture and food sector to cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Piperigkou, Zoi; Karamanou, Konstantina; Engin, Ayse Basak; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Docea, Anca Oana; Vynios, Demitrios H; Pavão, Mauro S G; Golokhvast, Kirill S; Shtilman, Mikhail I; Argiris, Athanassios; Shishatskaya, Ekaterina; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an evolving scientific field that has allowed the manufacturing of materials with novel physicochemical and biological properties, offering a wide spectrum of potential applications. Properties of nanoparticles that contribute to their usefulness include their markedly increased surface area in relation to mass, surface reactivity and insolubility, ability to agglomerate or change size in different media and enhanced endurance over conventional-scale substance. Here, we review nanoparticle classification and their emerging applications in several fields; from active food packaging to drug delivery and cancer research. Nanotechnology has exciting therapeutic applications, including novel drug delivery for the treatment of cancer. Additionally, we discuss that exposure to nanostructures incorporated to polymer composites, may result in potential human health risks. Therefore, the knowledge of processes, including absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, as well as careful toxicological assessment is critical in order to determine the effects of nanomaterials in humans and other biological systems. Expanding the knowledge of nanoparticle toxicity will facilitate designing of safer nanocomposites and their application in a beneficial manner.

  3. Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Economou, Vangelis; Gousia, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    One of the major breakthroughs in the history of medicine is undoubtedly the discovery of antibiotics. Their use in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine has resulted in healthier and more productive farm animals, ensuring the welfare and health of both animals and humans. Unfortunately, from the first use of penicillin, the resistance countdown started to tick. Nowadays, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing, and resistance to antibiotics is probably the major public health problem. Antibiotic use in farm animals has been criticized for contributing to the emergence of resistance. The use and misuse of antibiotics in farm animal settings as growth promoters or as nonspecific means of infection prevention and treatment has boosted antibiotic consumption and resistance among bacteria in the animal habitat. This reservoir of resistance can be transmitted directly or indirectly to humans through food consumption and direct or indirect contact. Resistant bacteria can cause serious health effects directly or via the transmission of the antibiotic resistance traits to pathogens, causing illnesses that are difficult to treat and that therefore have higher morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, the selection and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains can be disseminated to the environment via animal waste, enhancing the resistance reservoir that exists in the environmental microbiome. In this review, an effort is made to highlight the various factors that contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in farm animals and to provide some insights into possible solutions to this major health issue.

  4. Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Vangelis; Gousia, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    One of the major breakthroughs in the history of medicine is undoubtedly the discovery of antibiotics. Their use in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine has resulted in healthier and more productive farm animals, ensuring the welfare and health of both animals and humans. Unfortunately, from the first use of penicillin, the resistance countdown started to tick. Nowadays, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing, and resistance to antibiotics is probably the major public health problem. Antibiotic use in farm animals has been criticized for contributing to the emergence of resistance. The use and misuse of antibiotics in farm animal settings as growth promoters or as nonspecific means of infection prevention and treatment has boosted antibiotic consumption and resistance among bacteria in the animal habitat. This reservoir of resistance can be transmitted directly or indirectly to humans through food consumption and direct or indirect contact. Resistant bacteria can cause serious health effects directly or via the transmission of the antibiotic resistance traits to pathogens, causing illnesses that are difficult to treat and that therefore have higher morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, the selection and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains can be disseminated to the environment via animal waste, enhancing the resistance reservoir that exists in the environmental microbiome. In this review, an effort is made to highlight the various factors that contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in farm animals and to provide some insights into possible solutions to this major health issue. PMID:25878509

  5. Agricultural land management options following large-scale environmental contamination - evaluation for Fukushima affected agricultural land

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2013-07-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils, the transfer in the food chain and the possibility of continued restricted future land use. This paper summarizes what is generally understood about the application of agricultural countermeasures as a land management option to reduce the radionuclides transfer in the food chain and to facilitate the return of potentially affected soils to agricultural practices in areas impacted by a nuclear accident. (authors)

  6. How Do You Keep 'Em down on the Farm after They've Seen Technology? The Stone Barns Center for Food and Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, Jim

    2004-01-01

    In an age dominated by technology, teachers are challenged as never before to help students understand the deep connections they share with people from earlier times and nowhere is this more dramatically revealed than in basic farm life. This article discusses the Stone Barns Center for Food and Agriculture and describes technology use that…

  7. Educational Plant Survey. The University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences on Campus--Alachua County. April 4-5, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This report presents the results of a systematic study and evaluation of the existing educational plants of the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), along with a determination of future plant needs. Section 1 contains an introduction to the educational plant survey, including statutory foundations, procedural…

  8. Farmers' Use of Publications. Report of a Survey of Ontario Farmers' Receipt and Use of Three Technical Publications of the Ontario Department of Agriculture and Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Donald J.

    A survey was conducted to determine the extent of Ontario farmers' receipt, use and perception of three publications of the Ontario Department of Agriculture and Food--"Field Crop Recommendations for Ontario,""Guide to Chemical Weed Control" and "Dairy Husbandry in Ontario." A questionnaire was mailed in May 1969 to a…

  9. [Hospital system for Continuous Education in Food And Nutrition: its place within a nutritional, food and metabolic intervention program].

    PubMed

    Santana Porbén, S; Barreto Penié, J

    2009-01-01

    A design proposal for a HCEFN Hospital Continuous Education in Feeding and Nutrition, along with the educational intervention model developed and conducted at the "Hermanos Ameijieras" Hospital (Havana City, Cuba), and some of the results obtained after its implementation between 1997-2004, are presented in this article. The System design should include three levels of different and increasing complexity, depending on the level of knowledge, capabilities and aptitudes exhibited by hospital actors. The described system should also accommodate inter- and intra-disciplinary forms of education, learning and training aimed not only to increase the proficiency of actors in the recognition and treatment of hospital malnutrition, but also to foster group performance. The operation of a HCEFN at the hospital of the authors's affiliation has showed the feasibility of conducting such educational interventions oriented to foster Good Practices for Feeding and Nutrition of the hospitalized patients.

  10. Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models

    SciTech Connect

    Shor, R.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska.

  11. Modern methods and systems for precise control of the quality of agricultural and food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarjevsky, Sergey S.; Veryasov, Yuri V.; Akinina, Evgeniya V.; Smirnov, Gennady I.

    1999-01-01

    The results on the modeling of non-linear dynamics of strong continuous and impulse radiation in the laser nephelometry of polydisperse biological systems, important from the viewpoint of applications in biotechnologies, are presented. The processes of nonlinear self-action of the laser radiation by the multiple scattering in the disperse biological agro-media are considered. The simplified algorithms of the calculation of the parameters of the biological media under investigation are indicated and the estimates of the errors of the laser-nephelometric measurements are given. The universal high-informative optical analyzers and the standard etalon specimens of agro- objects make the technological foundation of the considered methods and systems.

  12. Development of a new series of agricultural/food reference materials for analytical quality control of elemental determinations.

    PubMed

    Ihnat, M

    1994-01-01

    Ten new Agricultural/Food Reference Materials--Bovine Muscle Powder (National Institute of Standards and Technology [NIST], code NIST RM 8414), Whole Egg Powder (NIST RM 8415), Microcrystalline Cellulose (NIST RM 8416), Wheat Gluten (NIST RM 8418), Corn Starch (NIST RM 8432), Corn Bran (NIST RM 8433), Whole Milk Powder (NIST RM 8435), Durum Wheat Flour (NIST RM 8436), Hard Red Spring Wheat Flour (NIST RM 8437) and Soft Winter Wheat Flour (NIST RM 8438)--were prepared by application of milling, irradiation, sieving, blending, and packaging procedures. Excellent material homogeneity was found for virtually all major, minor, and trace elements of interest. The reference materials were characterized with respect to elemental composition via an extensive international, interlaboratory characterization (certification) campaign. Chemical analyses conducted in 73 cooperating laboratories applying 13 major classes of independently different analytical methods led to 278 concentration values for 34 nutritionally, toxicologically, and environmentally pertinent elements. A total of 213 best-estimate and 65 informational concentration values are available for Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, F, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, N, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V, W, and Zn. These products make a substantial contribution to the existing world repertoire of biological reference materials with respect to natural matrix and elemental composition. They are expected to be useful to analysts for quality control of analytical data. Applications include evaluations of analytical methods and instruments used in nutritional, toxicological, monitory, regulatory, environmental, agricultural, and other investigations. These products are available to the analytical community from the Standard Reference Materials Program, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD.

  13. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment. 246.16a Section 246.16a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND... FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN State Agency Provisions § 246.16a Infant formula and authorized...

  14. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Infant formula and authorized foods cost containment. 246.16a Section 246.16a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND... FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN State Agency Provisions § 246.16a Infant formula and authorized...

  15. Continuous and simultaneous cultivation of benthic food diatom Nitzschia sp. and abalone Haliotis sieboldii by using deep seawater.

    PubMed

    Fukami; Kawai; Asada; Okabe; Hotta; Moriyama; Doi; Nishijima; Yamaguchi; Taniguchi

    1998-12-01

    By using low-temperature, clean, and nutrient-rich properties of deep seawater (DSW; seawater below the euphotic layer), a continuous and simultaneous cultivation system for a benthic food diatom, Nitzschia sp., and juvenile abalone was established. Cell suspension of Nitzschia sp. was added to a bioreactor made of acrylic pipe (7 cm diameter x 50 cm long) containing short vinyl tubes (2 cm diameter x 2 cm long) as substrata. DSW collected from 320 m depth at Muroto City, in Kochi Prefecture, Japan, was supplied to the reactor and incubated under natural light (ca. 6000 lux) with a continuous DSW flow rate of 40 turnovers per hour. After growing enough benthic diatoms in the reactor, juveniles of abalone, Haliotis sieboldii (shell length ca. 10-20 mm) were put into a reactor, and cultivated simultaneously with food diatoms in the continuous flow system. During the four-month incubation, 7-month-old abalone juveniles with a shell length of 12.4 (average) +/-0.2 (SD) mm were grown to 19.4 (+/-1.7) mm in the reactor. Daily growth rates of abalones were 50-110 µm/day. These results indicate that the continuous cultivation system with DSW supports the growth of juvenile abalone without any supply of seaweed until it grows to release size.

  16. [Transforming the hunger problem into food and nutritional approach: a continuous social inequality].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Anelise Rizzolo de Oliveira; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Cruz Correia

    2010-01-01

    The origin of the social (public) politics related to food and nutrition in Brazil has a discontinuous and neglected course by the Brazilian State throughout its history. The objective of this article is to rescue this process and to identify elements that interfere in the insertion of the food and nutrition question in the Brazilian politics agenda. Thus, it reviews the politics and social programs formulated since the decade of 40s aimed to solve the problem of hunger in Brazil, identifying the changes of an epidemiological and nutritional transition of the local population. It is necessary to progress in the agreement of the biological manifestations of the hunger: malnutrition or obesity (bad nutrition) is reflected on a social development model that privileges the capital in detriment of the welfare state. Also it reflects the alimentary and nutritional context, therefore the submission of the society to the capital reflecting in the ways of eating, living, falling ill and dying.

  17. Analysis of Maize versus Ethanol Production in Nebraska, United States and International Agricultural Droughts: Lessons for Global Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.

  18. Global forest cover mapping for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization forest resources assessment 2000 program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Z.; Waller, E.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries periodically produce national reports on the status and changes of forest resources, using statistical surveys and spatial mapping of remotely sensed data. At the global level, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has conducted a Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) program every 10 yr since 1980, producing statistics and analysis that give a global synopsis of forest resources in the world. For the year 2000 of the FRA program (FRA2000), a global forest cover map was produced to provide spatial context to the extensive survey. The forest cover map, produced at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC), has five classes: closed forest, open or fragmented forest, other wooded land, other land cover, and water. The first two forested classes at the global scale were delineated using combinations of temporal compositing, modified mixture analysis, geographic stratification, and other classification techniques. The remaining three FAO classes were derived primarily from the USGS global land cover characteristics database (Loveland et al. 1999). Validated on the basis of existing reference data sets, the map is estimated to be 77% accurate for the first four classes (no reference data were available for water), and 86% accurate for the forest and nonforest classification. The final map will be published as an insert to the FAO FRA2000 report.

  19. Towards multifunctional agricultural landscapes in Europe: Assessing and governing synergies between food production, biodiversity, and ecosystem services - TALE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Martin; Cord, Anna; Demiguel, Ángel; Holzkämper, Annelie; Kaim, Andrea; Kirchner, Mathias; Lienhoop, Nele; Nieto Romero, Marta; Nitsch, Heike; Rutz, Cordula; Saa, Antonio; Schmid, Erwin; Schönhart, Martin; Schramek, Jörg; Strauch, Michael; Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria; van der Zanden, Emma H.; Verburg, Peter; Willaarts, Bárbara; Zarrineh, Nina; Rivas, David; Hagemann, Nina

    2016-04-01

    There is a need to improve our understanding of the synergies between biodiversity, food and energy production and other regulating or cultural ecosystem services (ESS) and the development of technical and policy measures to support these synergies. Procedures to quantify synergies and trade-offs between ESS and biodiversity are considered as promising solutions to close this gap. The BiodivERsA project TALE aims at developing such methodologies in a set of representative European agricultural landscapes in Germany, Switzerland, Austria, The Netherlands and Spain. This will be done by using i) a framework that links process-based, integrated, and statistical models with optimization algorithms, and ii) a set of land use scenarios and land use policies, iii) a systematic stakeholder integration process that allows the incorporation of expert knowledge in all phases of the research project to safeguard that research results are of practical relevance. Moreover, the project not only addresses experts but provides an innovative online learning environment that is accessible also for students and the general public.

  20. Spatial Optimization of Cropping Pattern in an Agricultural Watershed for Food and Biofuel Production with Minimum Downstream Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pv, F.; Sudheer, K.; Chaubey, I.; RAJ, C.; Her, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Biofuel is considered to be a viable alternative to meet the increasing fuel demand, and therefore many countries are promoting agricultural activities that help increase production of raw material for biofuel production. Mostly, the biofuel is produced from grain based crops such as Corn, and it apparently create a shortage in food grains. Consequently, there have been regulations to limit the ethanol production from grains, and to use cellulosic crops as raw material for biofuel production. However, cultivation of such cellulosic crops may have different effects on water quality in the watershed. Corn stover, one of the potential cellulosic materials, when removed from the agricultural field for biofuel production, causes a decrease in the organic nutrients in the field. This results in increased use of pesticides and fertilizers which in turn affect the downstream water quality due to leaching of the chemicals. On the contrary, planting less fertilizer-intensive cellulosic crops, like Switch Grass and Miscanthus, is expected to reduce the pollutant loadings from the watershed. Therefore, an ecologically viable land use scenario would be a mixed cropping of grain crops and cellulosic crops, that meet the demand for food and biofuel without compromising on the downstream water quality. Such cropping pattern can be arrived through a simulation-optimization framework. Mathematical models can be employed to evaluate various management scenarios related to crop production and to assess its impact on water quality. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is one of the most widely used models in this context. SWAT can simulate the water and nutrient cycles, and also quantify the long-term impacts of land management practices, in a watershed. This model can therefore help take decisions regarding the type of cropping and management practices to be adopted in the watershed such that the water quality in the rivers is maintained at acceptable level. In this study, it

  1. Batch and semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cunsheng; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei

    2013-10-01

    To avoid the inhibition from both of waste oil and high concentrations of cationic elements, anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid (ADSL) system was examined in this present paper. Results from batch test indicated that a higher methane yield could be obtained in the ADSL system. The methane yield of food solid waste (FSW), food liquid waste (FLW) and raw food waste (RFW) were 643, 659 and 581 mL/g-VS, respectively. In semi-continuous anaerobic digestion, the optimum organic loading rates (OLR) for FSW, FLW and RFW were 9, 4 and 7 g-VS/L/d, respectively. The total methane production of RFW and ADSL systems, based on 1 kg-VS(RFW), were 405 and 460 L, respectively, indicating that the methane production increased by 13.6% in the ADSL system. The optimum C/N ratio, redistribution of metal element and lower content of waste oil in FSW explain the higher methane production.

  2. 7 CFR 250.64 - Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fair hearing to households whose claims for food assistance under the plan are denied or are not acted... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND...

  3. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-05-22

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  4. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-05-01

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler's intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  5. Climate change vulnerability in the food, energy, and water nexus: concerns for agricultural production in Arizona and its urban export supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardy, Andrew; Chester, Mikhail V.

    2017-03-01

    Interdependent systems providing water and energy services are necessary for agriculture. Climate change and increased resource demands are expected to cause frequent and severe strains on these systems. Arizona is especially vulnerable to such strains due to its hot and arid climate. However, its climate enables year-round agricultural production, allowing Arizona to supply most of the country’s winter lettuce and vegetables. In addition to Phoenix and Tucson, cities including El Paso, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, and San Diego rely on Arizona for several types of agricultural products such as animal feed and livestock, meaning that disruptions to Arizona’s agriculture also disrupt food supply chains to at least six major cities. Arizona’s predominately irrigated agriculture relies on water imported through an energy intensive process from water-stressed regions. Most irrigation in Arizona is electricity powered, so failures in energy or water systems can cascade to the food system, creating a food-energy-water (FEW) nexus of vulnerability. We construct a dynamic simulation model of the FEW nexus in Arizona to assess the potential impacts of increasing temperatures and disruptions to energy and water supplies on crop irrigation requirements, on-farm energy use, and yield. We use this model to identify critical points of intersection between energy, water, and agricultural systems and quantify expected increases in resource use and yield loss. Our model is based on threshold temperatures of crops, USDA and US Geological Survey data, Arizona crop budgets, and region-specific literature. We predict that temperature increase above the baseline could decrease yields by up to 12.2% per 1 °C for major Arizona crops and require increased irrigation of about 2.6% per 1 °C. Response to drought varies widely based on crop and phenophase, so we estimate irrigation interruption effects through scenario analysis. We provide an overview of potential adaptation measures

  6. Agriculture and water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, G. William

    The attempt by certain jurisdictions to preserve a rural lifestyle by means of farmland preservation may produce some unwanted side effects, such as polluted water supplies. While there are many excellent and important reasons to preserve high-quality agricultural land for food production, efforts to retain or encourage agricultural activities in areas experiencing rapid population growth may produce some serious environmental problems.For the entire post-WW II period the United States has experienced almost continuous suburban sprawl. Many incorporated areas, experiencing rapid development, have attempted to preserve open-space and less-developed land uses by actively attempting to preserve agricultural activities. Often the most recent migrants to a growing municipality exemplify the ‘last in’ syndrome by being among the most vociferous in attempting to halt further development.

  7. A Qualitative Study of Agricultural Literacy in Urban Youth: Understanding for Democratic Participation in Renewing the Agri-Food System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Alexander J.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Modern agriculture poses ecological problems and opportunities, which defy simple democratic reform without an educated citizenry. Developing an educated citizenry can be accomplished by further developing agricultural literacy in elementary education. While benchmarks for agricultural literacy have been produced, relatively little attention has…

  8. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2L batch reactors and 5L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L(-1) of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology's effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  9. The 5th World Congress of chemical engineering: Technologies critical to a changing World. Volume II: Agriculture, food biotechnology biomedical electric power process safety

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Volume 2 of the proceedings from the 5th World Congress of Chemical Engineering covers four major topic areas from which papers were selected for the database: Agriculture, Food; Biotechnology; Electric Power, and Process Safety. Pertinent subtopics include: Renewable Resource Engineering; Special Processes in the Food Industry; Advances in Metabolite Production; Advances in Fermentation and Cell Culture Engineering; Coal and Nuclear Central Station Power Plants; Large Natural Gas Fired Power Stations; Distributed Generation; Potential Impact of Biomass Energy; and Chemical Hazards in Plant Design. 29 papers were selected from Volume 1 for the database.

  10. Development of hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) procedures to control organic chemical hazards in the agricultural production of raw food commodities.

    PubMed

    Ropkins, Karl; Ferguson, Andrew; Beck, Angus J

    2003-01-01

    Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards in the food chain. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all chemical microbiological, and physical hazards. However, current procedures focus primarily on microbiological and physical hazards, while chemical aspects of HACCP have received relatively little attention. In this article we discuss the application of HACCP to organic chemical contaminants and the problems that are likely to be encountered in agriculture. We also present generic templates for the development of organic chemical contaminant HACCP procedures for selected raw food commodities, that is, cereal crops,raw meats, and milk.

  11. Main achievements of the World Organisation for Animal Health/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization network on animal influenza.

    PubMed

    Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hamilton, Keith; Kim, L Mia; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Capua, Ilaria; Edwards, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) joint network of expertise on animal influenza (OFFLU) includes all ten OIE/FAO reference laboratories and collaborating centers for avian influenza, other diagnostic laboratories, research and academic institutions, and experts in the fields of virology, epidemiology, vaccinology, and molecular biology. OFFLU has made significant progress in improving its infrastructure, in identifying and addressing technical gaps, and in establishing associations among leading veterinary institutions. Interaction with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Program is also critical, and mechanisms for permanent interaction are being developed. OFFLU played a key role in the WHO/OIE/FAO Joint Technical Consultation held in Verona (October 7-9, 2008), which provided an opportunity to highlight and share knowledge and identify potential gaps regarding issues at the human-animal interface for avian influenza. OFFLU experts also contributed to the working group for the Unified Nomenclature System for H5N1 influenza viruses based on hemagglutinin gene phylogeny (WHO/OIE/FAO, H5N1 Evolution Working Group, Towards a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:el, 2008). OFFLU technical activities, led by expert scientists from OIE/FAO reference institutions and coordinated by OIE and FAO focal points, have been prioritized to include commercial diagnostic kit evaluation, applied epidemiology, biosafety, vaccination, proficiency testing, development of standardized reference materials for sera and RNA, and issues at the human-animal interface. The progress to date and future plans for these groups will be presented. OFFLU is also involved in two national projects implemented by FAO in Indonesia and Egypt that seek to establish sustainable mechanisms for monitoring virus circulation, including viral

  12. Evaluating the trade-off between food and timber resulting from the conversion of Miombo forests to agricultural land in Angola using multi-temporal Landsat data.

    PubMed

    Schneibel, Anne; Stellmes, Marion; Röder, Achim; Finckh, Manfred; Revermann, Rasmus; Frantz, David; Hill, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The repopulation of abandoned areas in Angola after 27years of civil war led to a fast and extensive expansion of agricultural fields to meet the rising food demand. Yet, the increase in crop production at the expense of natural resources carries an inherent potential for conflicts since the demand for timber and wood extraction are also supposed to rise. We use the concept of ecosystem services to evaluate the trade-off between food and woody biomass. Our study area is located in central Angola, in the highlands of the upper Okavango catchment. We used Landsat data (spatial resolution: 30×30m) with a bi-temporal and multi-seasonal change detection approach for five time steps between 1989 and 2013 to estimate the conversion area from woodland to agriculture. Overall accuracy is 95%, user's accuracy varies from 89-95% and producer's accuracy ranges between 92-99%. To quantify the trade-off between woody biomass and the amount of food, this information was combined with indicator values and we furthermore assessed biomass regrowth on fallows. Our results reveal a constant rise in agricultural expansion from 1989-2013 with the mean annual deforestation rate increasing from roughly 5300ha up to about 12,000ha. Overall, 5.6% of the forested areas were converted to agriculture, whereas the FAO states a national deforestation rate for Angola of 5% from 1990-2010 (FAO, 2010). In the last time step 961,000t per year of woodland were cleared to potentially produce 1240t per year of maize. Current global agro-economical projections forecast increasing pressure on tropical dry forests from large-scale agriculture schemes (Gasparri et al., 2015; Searchinger and Heimlich, 2015). Our study underlines the importance of considering subsistence-related change processes, which may contribute significantly to negative effects associated with deforestation and degradation of these forest ecosystems.

  13. Residence time distribution (RTD) of particulate foods in a continuous flow pilot-scale ohmic heater.

    PubMed

    Sarang, Sanjay; Heskitt, Brian; Tulsiyan, Priyank; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2009-08-01

    The residence time distribution (RTD) of a model particulate-fluid mixture (potato in starch solution) in the ohmic heater in a continuous sterilization process was measured using a radio frequency identification (RFID) methodology. The effect of solid concentration and the rotational speed of the agitators on the RTD were studied. The velocity of the fastest particle was 1.62 times the mean product velocity. In general, particle velocity was found to be greater than the product bulk average velocity. Mean particle residence time (MPRT) increased with an increase in the rotational speed of the agitators (P < 0.05), and no particular trend was observed between the MPRT and the solid concentration. The distribution curves E (theta) were skewed to the right suggesting slow moving zones in the system.

  14. Theme: Agricultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeds, Jacquelyn P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six theme articles attempt to define and advocate agricultural literacy, review the status of K-8 agricultural literacy programs in states, discuss an Oklahoma study of agricultural literacy, clarify the meaning of sustainable agriculture, and describe the Future Farmers of America's Food for America program for elementary students. (SK)

  15. Agriculture and Food: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    toxins . Fluid food products (milk, juice, and water) are typi- cally produced and consumed with limited thermal...botulinum toxin within (or on the surface of) food products . A number of proteases will be measured for their detoxification capability. In addition...Date 0225 Effect of Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B on Primary Yogurt Production Foods Defense+ Office of Applied Research and Safety

  16. Strategies for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

  17. Effects of early postnatal gonadal steroids on extinction of a continuously food-rewarded running response.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, P; Calés, J M; Sánchez-Santed, F; Guillamón, A

    1991-01-01

    In the present work the existence of sex differences (Experiment 1) on the acquisition and extinction of a continuously reinforced response in a short and narrow runway (100 x 9 x 10 cm) were investigated. In addition to the investigation of the basic sex differences in Experiment 1, the effect of postpuberal gonadectomy of male and female rats and the role of the early postnatal gonadal steroids on these situations were also examined in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. In all experiments, no sex differences were found in acquisition. However, males extinguished faster than female rats. Gonadectomy of both sexes in adulthood, although it increases their latencies in acquisition, did not affect the differences between sexes during extinction. In contrast, in Experiment 3 female androgenization and male orchidectomy on day one after birth reversed the direction of sex differences found between control rats in the extinction period. Our findings suggests that the observed sex differences in extinction may be due to an underlying sexual dimorphism in the response inhibition process.

  18. Public Perceptions of Agriculture: The Role of Government, Support for the Family Farm and Support of Domestic Food Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu'min, Ridgely A.; And Others

    There are few racial or urban/rural differences in public attitudes toward agriculture and government agricultural policies. The Farming in American Life Study, a collaborative effort by 14 land grant institutions in the South and Midwest, gathered 3,239 completed questionnaires from a national stratified random sample for a completion rate of 46…

  19. Development of real-time line-scan hyperspectral imaging system for online agricultural and food product inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seung Chul; Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports a recent development of a line-scan hyperspectral imaging system for real-time multispectral imaging applications in agricultural and food industries. The hyperspectral imaging system consisted of a spectrograph, an EMCCD camera, and application software. The real-time multispectral imaging with the developed system was possible due to (1) data binning, especially a unique feature of the EMCCD sensor allowing the access to non-contiguous multispectral bands, (2) an image processing algorithm designed for real-time multispectral imaging, and (3) the design and implementation of the real-time application software. The imaging system was developed as a poultry inspection instrument determining the presence of surface feces on poultry carcasses moving at commercial poultry processing line speeds up to 180 birds per minute. The imaging system can be easily modifiable to solve other real-time inspection/sorting problems. Three wavelengths at 517 nm, 565 nm and 802 nm were selected for real-time fecal detection imaging. The fecal detection algorithm was based on dual band ratios of 565nm/517nm and 802nm/517nm followed by thresholding. The software architecture was based on a ping pong memory and a circular buffer for the multitasking of image grabbing and processing. The software was written in Microsoft Visual C++. An image-based internal triggering (i.e. polling) algorithm was developed to determine the start and end positions of birds. Twelve chickens were used for testing the imaging system at two different speeds (140 birds per minute and 180 bird per minute) in a pilot-scale processing line. Four types of fecal materials (duodenum, ceca, colon and ingesta) were used for the evaluation of the detection algorithm. The software grabbed and processed multispectral images of the dimension 118 (line scans) x 512 (height) x 3 (bands) pixels obtained from chicken carcasses moving at the speed up to 180 birds per minute (a frame rate 286 Hz). Intensity

  20. Nutrient composition and nutritional importance of green leaves and wild food resources in an agricultural district, Koutiala, in southern Mali.

    PubMed

    Nordeide, M B; Hatløy, A; Følling, M; Lied, E; Oshaug, A

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the nutrient composition and the nutritional importance of green leaves and wild gathered foods in an area with surplus food production in Mali. In this West African country, there is little information about the nutrient composition and the nutritional quality of foods in general, and of wild gathered foods in particular. Food frequency was collected in two cross-sectional surveys. Focus group discussions with women in the area were used to collect information about seasonality, availability and preparation of various foods. Selected food samples were collected for chemical analysis of nutrient composition. The food samples of green leaves (Adansonia digitata, Amaranthus viridis, Tamarindus indica, Allium cepa), seeds and flour (Parkia biglobosa) and fruits (Tamarindus indica) were analysed for water, energy, fat, protein, minerals, amino acids and carotenoids. Availability and use of the foods varied with seasons. In the rainy season, wild gathered foods (e.g. A. digitata) were used as much as fresh cultivated foods (e.g., A. viridis and A. cepa). The wild food resources were more frequently used in rural than in urban areas, with A. digitata as the dominating green leaves. Green leaves were rich in energy, protein and minerals (calcium, iron). Leaves of A. viridis were, in particular, rich in beta-carotene (3290 micrograms/100 g). Chemical score in dried green leaves varied from 47 (A. cepa) to 81 (A. digitata), with lysine as the first limiting amino acid. P. biglobosa fermented seeds, with 35% fat and 37% protein were a complementary source of lysine in the diet. Based on the seasonality, the frequency of use and the nutrient contents of selected green leaves and wild gathered foods in Koutiala district, it is concluded that these traditional and locally produced foods are valuable and important nutrient contributors in the diet both in rural and urban areas, but most important in rural areas.