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Sample records for agriculture continued local

  1. Agriculture and Locality Interrelationships: Perspectives of Local Officials and Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Robert L.; Liles, James

    The focus of this study is the impact of urban activities (such as industry) and local governments on agriculture and the impact of agriculture on localities. This report is based on a qualitative study of an agricultural county, and interviews with community and county officials and farmers. The perceptions and opinions of officials are compared…

  2. Physically realizable entanglement by local continuous measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenhas, Eduardo; Santos, Marcelo Franca; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Vedral, Vlatko

    2011-02-15

    Quantum systems prepared in pure states evolve into mixtures under environmental action. Continuously realizable ensembles (or physically realizable) are the pure state decompositions of those mixtures that can be generated in time through continuous measurements of the environment. Here, we define continuously realizable entanglement as the average entanglement over realizable ensembles. We search for the measurement strategy to maximize and minimize this quantity through observations on the independent environments that cause two qubits to disentangle in time. We then compare it with the entanglement bounds (entanglement of formation and entanglement of assistance) for the unmonitored system. For some relevant noise sources the maximum realizable entanglement coincides with the upper bound, establishing the scheme as an alternative to protect entanglement. However, for local strategies, the lower bound of the unmonitored system is not reached.

  3. Dissipative Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model

    PubMed Central

    Smirne, Andrea; Bassi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Collapse models explain the absence of quantum superpositions at the macroscopic scale, while giving practically the same predictions as quantum mechanics for microscopic systems. The Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model is the most refined and studied among collapse models. A well-known problem of this model, and of similar ones, is the steady and unlimited increase of the energy induced by the collapse noise. Here we present the dissipative version of the CSL model, which guarantees a finite energy during the entire system’s evolution, thus making a crucial step toward a realistic energy-conserving collapse model. This is achieved by introducing a non-linear stochastic modification of the Schrödinger equation, which represents the action of a dissipative finite-temperature collapse noise. The possibility to introduce dissipation within collapse models in a consistent way will have relevant impact on the experimental investigations of the CSL model, and therefore also on the testability of the quantum superposition principle. PMID:26243034

  4. Continuous quantum error correction through local operations

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenhas, Eduardo; Franca Santos, Marcelo; Marques, Breno; Terra Cunha, Marcelo

    2010-09-15

    We propose local strategies to protect global quantum information. The protocols, which are quantum error-correcting codes for dissipative systems, are based on environment measurements, direct feedback control, and simple encoding of the logical qubits into physical qutrits whose decaying transitions are indistinguishable and equally probable. The simple addition of one extra level in the description of the subsystems allows for local actions to fully and deterministically protect global resources such as entanglement. We present codes for both quantum jump and quantum state diffusion measurement strategies and test them against several sources of inefficiency. The use of qutrits in information protocols suggests further characterization of qutrit-qutrit disentanglement dynamics, which we also give together with simple local environment measurement schemes able to prevent distillability sudden death and even enhance entanglement in situations in which our feedback error correction is not possible.

  5. Continuous Passive Sampling of Solutes from Agricultural Subsurface Drainage Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindblad Vendelboe, Anders; de Jonge, Hubert; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Wollesen de Jonge, Lis

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural subsurface tube drain systems play an important role in water and solute transport. One study, focusing on lowland agricultural catchments, showed that subsurface tube drainage contributed up to 80% of the annual discharge and 90% of the annual NO3 load from agricultural fields to the receiving water bodies. Knowledge of e.g. nutrient loads and drainage volumes, based on measurements and modelling, are important for adequate water quality management. Despite the importance of tube drain transport of solutes, monitoring data are scarce. This scarcity is a result of the existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant load from tube drains being expensive and labor-extensive. The study presented here aimed at developing a cheap, simple, and robust method to monitor solute loads from tube drains. The method is based on the newly developed Flowcap, which can be attached to existing tube drain outlets and can measure total flow, contaminant load and flow-averaged concentrations of solutes in the drainage. The Flowcap builds on the existing Sorbicell principle, a passive sampling system that measures average concentrations over longer periods of time (days to months) for various compounds. The Sorbicell consists of two compartments permeable to water. One compartment contains an adsorbent and one contains a tracer. When water passes through the Sorbicell the compound of interest is absorbed while a tracer is released. Using the tracer loss to calculate the volume of water that has passed the Sorbicell it is possible to calculate the average concentration of the compound. When mounting Sorbicells in the Flowcap, a flow-proportional part of the drainage is sampled from the main stream. To accommodate the wide range of drainage flow rates two Flowcaps with different capacities were tested in the laboratory: one with a capacity of 25 L min-1 (Q25) and one with a capacity of 256 L min-1 (Q256). In addition, Sorbicells with two different hydraulic

  6. Local and Global Comparison of Continuous Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Edelsbrunner, H; Harer, J; Natarajan, V; Pascucci, V

    2004-12-16

    We introduce local and global comparison measures for a collection of k {<=} d real-valued smooth functions on a common d-dimensional Riemannian manifold. For k = d = 2 we relate the measures to the set of critical points of one function restricted to the level sets of the other. The definition of the measures extends to piecewise linear functions for which they are easy to compute. The computation of the measures forms the centerpiece of a software tool which we use to study scientific datasets.

  7. Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J.; Usher, J.

    2010-09-01

    Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a

  8. Continuing education in physical rehabilitation and health issues of agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Wilhite, Carla S; Jaco, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Limited attention has been devoted to the cultural and practice competencies needed by occupational therapy and physical therapy professionals who provide services to farming families impacted by chronic health or disability issues. Agricultural occupational safety and health should represent a continuum of services responsive to individuals, families, and agricultural communities across a life span and range of health status changes. Physical rehabilitation professionals have a key role in impacting an agricultural producer's sense of self-efficacy and capacities for returning to agricultural living and work. However, demonstration of competency is essential in providing person-centered rehabilitation services of assessment, evaluation, treatment planning, interventions, referrals, and discharge issues. The paper highlights methods utilized by a state AgrAbility program and a former National AgrAbility Project to develop a model of continuing education programming for occupational and physical therapists that evaluate and treat agricultural workers after acute injury or exacerbation of chronic health conditions.

  9. Buckling mode localization in randomly disordered multispan continuous beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wei-Chau

    1995-06-01

    Buckling mode localization in large randomly disordered multispan continuous beams is studied. When the cross-sections of each span are uniform, an exact formulation is employed to establish the equations of equilibrium in terms of the angles of rotations at the supports. When the cross-sections of each span are not uniform, a finite element method is applied to set up the governing equations. Two approaches are applied to determine the localization factors, which characterize the average exponential rates of growth or decay of amplitudes of deformation. The first method applies a transfer matrix formulation and Furstenberg's theorem on the asymptotic behavior of products of random matrices. The second method uses a Green's function formulation for a linear eigenvalue problem of a block tridiagonal form.

  10. Improving teleportation of continuous variables by local operations

    SciTech Connect

    Mista, Ladislav Jr.; Filip, Radim

    2005-03-01

    We study a continuous-variable (CV) teleportation protocol based on a shared entangled state produced by the quantum-nondemolition (QND) interaction of two vacuum states. The scheme utilizes the QND interaction or an unbalanced beam splitter in the Bell measurement. It is shown that in the nonunity gain regime the signal transfer coefficient can be enhanced while the conditional variance product remains preserved by applying appropriate local squeezing operation on sender's part of the shared entangled state. In the unity gain regime, it is demonstrated that the fidelity of teleportation can be increased with the help of the local squeezing operations on parts of the shared entangled state that effectively convert our scheme to the standard CV teleportation scheme. Further, it is proved analytically that such a choice of the local symplectic operations minimizes the noise by which the mean number of photons in the input state is increased during the teleportation. Finally, our analysis reveals that the local symplectic operation on sender's side can be integrated into the Bell measurement if the interaction constant of the interaction in the Bell measurement can be adjusted properly.

  11. Continuous and Localized Mn Implantation of ZnO

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We present results derived from continuous and localized 35 keV55Mn+ion implantations into ZnO. Localized implantations were carried out by using self-ordered alumina membranes as masks leading to ordered arrays of implanted volumes on the substrate surfaces. Defects and vacancies in the small implantation volumes of ZnO were generated due to the implantation processes besides the creation of new phases. Rapid thermal annealing was applied in the case of continuous implantation. The samples were characterized by HRSEM, GIXRD, Raman spectroscopy and RBS/C. Magnetic characterization of the samples pointed out appreciable differences among the samples obtained by the different implantation methods. This fact was mainly attributed to the different volume/surface ratios present in the implanted zones as well as to the increase of Mn atom concentrations along the grain frontiers in the nanostructured surfaces. The samples also showed a ferromagnetic transition phase at temperature value higher than room temperature. PMID:20596285

  12. Trends in atmospheric ammonium concentrations in relation to atmospheric sulfate and local agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Victoria R; Lovett, Gary M; Weathers, Kathleen C; Likens, Gene E

    2005-06-01

    Ammonium (NH(4)(+)) concentrations in air and precipitation at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies (IES) in southeastern New York, USA declined over an 11-year period from 1988 to 1999, but increased from 1999 to 2001. These trends in particulate NH(4)(+) correlated well with trends in particulate SO(4)(2-) over the 1988-2001 period. The NH(4)(+) trends were not as well correlated with local cattle and milk production, which declined continuously throughout the period. This suggests that regional transport of SO(4)(2-) may have a greater impact on concentrations of NH(4)(+) and subsequent deposition than local agricultural emissions of NH(3). Ammonium concentrations in precipitation correlated significantly with precipitation SO(4)(2-) concentrations for the 1984-2001 period although NH(4)(+) in precipitation increased after 1999 and SO(4)(2-) in precipitation continued to decline after 1999. The correlation between NH(4)(+) and SO(4)(2-) was stronger for particulates than for precipitation. Particulate NH(4)(+) concentrations were also correlated with particulate SO(4)(2-) concentrations at 31 of 35 eastern U.S. CASTNet sites that had at least 10 years of data. Air concentrations of NH(4)(+) and SO(4)(2-) were more strongly correlated at the sites that were located within an agricultural landscape than in forested sites. At most of the sites there was either no trend or a decrease in NH(4)(+) dry deposition during the 1988-2001 period. The sites that showed an increasing trend in NH(4)(+) dry deposition were generally located in the southeastern U.S. The results of this study suggest that, in the northeastern U.S., air concentrations of NH(4)(+) and subsequent deposition may be more closely linked to SO(4)(2-) and thus SO(2) emissions than with NH(3) emissions. These results also suggest that reductions in S emissions have reduced NH(4)(+) transport to and NH(4)(+)-N deposition in the Northeast.

  13. Locally Generated Printed Materials in Agriculture: Experience from Uganda and Ghana. Education Research Paper. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Isabel

    The needs of grassroots farmers in Uganda and Ghana for locally developed print materials were examined through a postal survey of nearly 200 organizations and examinations of 75 autonomous farmer groups and 95 organizations sharing agricultural information in both countries. Both printed agricultural information relevant to grassroots farmers and…

  14. Efficient use of continuous, real-time prostate localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Kathleen T.; Noel, Camille; Roy, Meghana; Willoughby, Twyla; Djemi, Toufik; Jani, Shirish; Solberg, Timothy; Liu, David; Levine, Lisa; Parikh, Parag J.

    2008-09-01

    Recent technological advances make it possible to monitor prostate movement during radiation delivery. Using previously published data from 35 patients who underwent continuous localization during prostate cancer treatment, we simulated various interventions to identify the radiation-gating and patient-repositioning strategies that least prolonged the time to complete the daily treatment. Acceptable response protocols were those that resulted in at least 95% of patients' prostates remaining within the planning margins at least 95% of the time. Gating and repositioning were not necessary for margins of 7 or 10 mm because of the rarity of excursions at these margins. However, intervention was routinely necessary for margins of 3 and 5 mm. In simulated interventions for which the therapist could reposition the treatment couch without entering the room, the most time-efficient response protocol was to reposition the couch immediately after the prostate position was outside the treatment margins. In simulations in which the therapist had to enter the room to reposition the couch, overall treatment time could be reduced and accuracy could be increased by manually gating treatment for 11 and 21 s for 3- and 5-mm margins, respectively, before interrupting treatment to reposition the treatment couch.

  15. 42 CFR 422.54 - Continuation of enrollment for MA local plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continuation of enrollment for MA local plans. 422... Enrollment § 422.54 Continuation of enrollment for MA local plans. (a) Definition. Continuation area means an additional area (outside the service area) within which the MA organization offering a local plan...

  16. 42 CFR 422.54 - Continuation of enrollment for MA local plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Continuation of enrollment for MA local plans. 422... Enrollment § 422.54 Continuation of enrollment for MA local plans. (a) Definition. Continuation area means an additional area (outside the service area) within which the MA organization offering a local plan...

  17. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadhira, Vebi; Kurniadi, Deddy; Juliastuti, E.; Sutiswan, Adeline

    2014-03-01

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects.

  18. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    SciTech Connect

    Nadhira, Vebi Kurniadi, Deddy Juliastuti, E. Sutiswan, Adeline

    2014-03-24

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects.

  19. Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van

    2011-12-15

    Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

  20. Agricultural Diversification and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Secondary, Postsecondary, and Continuing Education Agriculture Programs in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Agriculture, Des Moines.

    These instructional materials on agricultural diversification and marketing were developed for use by Iowa's vocational and technical agricultural instructors and extension personnel. This document is one of three manuals making up a single package. (The other two are Christmas Tree Production and Marketing and Sod Production and Marketing). The…

  1. Carbon and Phosphorus in soil particulate fraction: effect of continuous agriculture, tillage and fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaard, N.; Echeverrıa, H. E.; Vidaurreta, A.; Picone, L. I.; Divito, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    In Argentinean Pampas region, the practice of intensive agriculture has diminished total organic carbon (TOC) content in soil. This degradation process can impact over phosphorus (P) organic fractions associated to it, and therefore limit soil capacity to provide P through mineralization. Along this line, P content in soil particulate fraction (PF) has been proposed as an index to estimate this capacity. The aims of this work were to evaluate (1) the effect of continuous agriculture, tillage and P fertilization over TOC and P fractions content in soil and PF, and (2) the stability of P-PF as a mineralization index. To this end, a long term experiment initiated in 2001 in Balcarce, Argentina, under continuous agriculture, was analyzed. There, two tillage systems - conventional till (CT) and no till (NT) - and two fertilization treatments - nitrogen (N) and N + P (NP) - were evaluated. Phosphorus rate was 30 kg ha-1 year-1. In each plot, the following parameters were determined in 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2011: TOC, P Bray, total P (Pt), inorganic P (Pi), and organic P (Po) content in the whole soil and in the PF. Also, C supply by residues and P soil balance during the experiment were calculated, and the P sorption capacity was determined in samples from 2011. C supply was greater in CT (7% relative to NT) and in NP (14% relative to N). However, TOC in soil was not modified neither by tillage or fertilization. Even though, C in the PF decreased (3% annually) by the use of continuous agriculture. This reduction was positively associated to the one observed in other soil properties as Pt, Pi and Po in the PF. P fertilization lessened this reduction in Pt (18,9 mg kg-1 in N and 23,1 mg kg-1 in NP in 2011) and Pi (4,2 mg kg-1 in N and 6,2 mg kg-1 in NP in 2011), but not in Po. This indicates that, Po is affected by management practices and, contrary to Pt, is stable to fertilization. Therefore Po can be studied as a potential P mineralization index. The difference among P

  2. Evaluation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) behaviour in agricultural soil through laboratory continuous studies.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Rodríguez, B; Zafra-Gómez, A; Reis, M S; Duarte, B P M; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A; Pérez-Pascual, M; Vílchez, J L

    2015-07-01

    The behaviour of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) in agricultural soil is investigated in the laboratory using continuous-flow soil column studies in order to simultaneously analyze the three main underlying phenomena (adsorption/desorption, degradation and transport). The continuous-flow soil column experiments generated the breakthrough curves for each LAS homologue, C10, C11, C12 and C13, and by adding them up, for total LAS, from which the relevant retention, degradation and transport parameters could be estimated, after proposing adequate models. Several transport equations were considered, including the degradation of the sorbate in solution and its retention by soil, under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions between the sorbent and the sorbate. In general, the results obtained for the estimates of those parameters that were common to the various models studied (such as the isotherm slope, first order degradation rate coefficient and the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient) were rather consistent, meaning that mass transfer limitations are not playing a major role in the experiments. These three parameters increase with the length of the LAS homologue chain. The study will provide the underlying conceptual framework and fundamental parameters to understand, simulate and predict the environmental behaviour of LAS compounds in agricultural soils. PMID:25765258

  3. Evaluation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) behaviour in agricultural soil through laboratory continuous studies.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Rodríguez, B; Zafra-Gómez, A; Reis, M S; Duarte, B P M; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A; Pérez-Pascual, M; Vílchez, J L

    2015-07-01

    The behaviour of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) in agricultural soil is investigated in the laboratory using continuous-flow soil column studies in order to simultaneously analyze the three main underlying phenomena (adsorption/desorption, degradation and transport). The continuous-flow soil column experiments generated the breakthrough curves for each LAS homologue, C10, C11, C12 and C13, and by adding them up, for total LAS, from which the relevant retention, degradation and transport parameters could be estimated, after proposing adequate models. Several transport equations were considered, including the degradation of the sorbate in solution and its retention by soil, under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions between the sorbent and the sorbate. In general, the results obtained for the estimates of those parameters that were common to the various models studied (such as the isotherm slope, first order degradation rate coefficient and the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient) were rather consistent, meaning that mass transfer limitations are not playing a major role in the experiments. These three parameters increase with the length of the LAS homologue chain. The study will provide the underlying conceptual framework and fundamental parameters to understand, simulate and predict the environmental behaviour of LAS compounds in agricultural soils.

  4. Sponsors of Agricultural Literacies: Intersections of Institutional and Local Knowledge in a Farming Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbreath, Marcy L.

    2015-01-01

    Many of the agricultural literacies engendering twentieth-century farming practices and shaping contemporary concepts of food and nutrition in the United States arose through scientific research at land-grant colleges. This article examines how those literacies reached and interacted with local communities through institutional entities such as…

  5. Using continuous monitoring of physical parameters to better estimate phosphorus fluxes in a small agricultural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaudo, Camille; Dupas, Rémi; Moatar, Florentina; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus fluxes in streams are subjected to high temporal variations, questioning the relevance of the monitoring strategies (generally monthly sampling) chosen to assist EU Directives to capture phosphorus fluxes and their variations over time. The objective of this study was to estimate the annual and seasonal P flux uncertainties depending on several monitoring strategies, with varying sampling frequencies, but also taking into account simultaneous and continuous time-series of parameters such as turbidity, conductivity, groundwater level and precipitation. Total Phosphorus (TP), Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) concentrations were surveyed at a fine temporal frequency between 2007 and 2015 at the outlet of a small agricultural catchment in Brittany (Naizin, 5 km2). Sampling occurred every 3 to 6 days between 2007 and 2012 and daily between 2013 and 2015. Additionally, 61 storms were intensively surveyed (1 sample every 30 minutes) since 2007. Besides, water discharge, turbidity, conductivity, groundwater level and precipitation were monitored on a sub-hourly basis. A strong temporal decoupling between SRP and particulate P (PP) was found (Dupas et al., 2015). The phosphorus-discharge relationships displayed two types of hysteretic patterns (clockwise and counterclockwise). For both cases, time-series of PP and SRP were estimated continuously for the whole period using an empirical model linking P concentrations with the hydrological and physic-chemical variables. The associated errors of the estimated P concentrations were also assessed. These « synthetic » PP and SRP time-series allowed us to discuss the most efficient monitoring strategies, first taking into account different sampling strategies based on Monte Carlo random simulations, and then adding the information from continuous data such as turbidity, conductivity and groundwater depth based on empirical modelling. Dupas et al., (2015, Distinct export dynamics for

  6. Ancient lipids reveal continuity in culinary practices across the transition to agriculture in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Oliver E.; Steele, Val J.; Fischer, Anders; Hartz, Sönke; Andersen, Søren H.; Donohoe, Paul; Glykou, Aikaterini; Saul, Hayley; Jones, D. Martin; Koch, Eva; Heron, Carl P.

    2011-01-01

    Farming transformed societies globally. Yet, despite more than a century of research, there is little consensus on the speed or completeness of this fundamental change and, consequently, on its principal drivers. For Northern Europe, the debate has often centered on the rich archaeological record of the Western Baltic, but even here it is unclear how quickly or completely people abandoned wild terrestrial and marine resources after the introduction of domesticated plants and animals at ∼4000 calibrated years B.C. Ceramic containers are found ubiquitously on these sites and contain remarkably well-preserved lipids derived from the original use of the vessel. Reconstructing culinary practices from this ceramic record can contribute to longstanding debates concerning the origins of farming. Here we present data on the molecular and isotopic characteristics of lipids extracted from 133 ceramic vessels and 100 carbonized surface residues dating to immediately before and after the first evidence of domesticated animals and plants in the Western Baltic. The presence of specific lipid biomarkers, notably ω-(o-alkylphenyl)alkanoic acids, and the isotopic composition of individual n-alkanoic acids clearly show that a significant proportion (∼20%) of ceramic vessels with lipids preserved continued to be used for processing marine and freshwater resources across the transition to agriculture in this region. Although changes in pottery use are immediately evident, our data challenge the popular notions that economies were completely transformed with the arrival of farming and that Neolithic pottery was exclusively associated with produce from domesticated animals and plants. PMID:22025697

  7. System for analysis of LANDSAT agricultural data: Automatic computer-assisted proportion estimation of local areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Kauth, R. J.; Thomas, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A conceptual man machine system framework was created for a large scale agricultural remote sensing system. The system is based on and can grow out of the local recognition mode of LACIE, through a gradual transition wherein computer support functions supplement and replace AI functions. Local proportion estimation functions are broken into two broad classes: (1) organization of the data within the sample segment; and (2) identification of the fields or groups of fields in the sample segment.

  8. Analysis of the Continuing Decline in Use of Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Roger

    1997-01-01

    When responses from 135 of 222 New York secondary agriculture teachers were compared with a 1983 study, a 10% decrease in supervised agricultural experience (SAE) was found. Barriers were low level of summer employment, limited release time, less funding for transportation, and scheduling problems. A comprehensive overhaul of the concept and…

  9. From local development policies to strategic planning-Assessing continuity in institutional coalitions.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo Rinaldi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades, EU policies have had a fundamental role in orienting regional/local development. The objective of this work is set in this context as it intends to analyze the local development programs activated in Sicily in the last three programming periods. The main aim is to explore whether the EU partnership principle influenced cooperation among local actors, assessing the continuity of local institutional coalition in managing different local development programs within the regional development policy system. We focus, in particular, on Strategic Plans (SP) promoted in Sicily in the transition phase between the 2000-2006 and the 2007-2013 periods.

  10. From local development policies to strategic planning-Assessing continuity in institutional coalitions.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo Rinaldi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades, EU policies have had a fundamental role in orienting regional/local development. The objective of this work is set in this context as it intends to analyze the local development programs activated in Sicily in the last three programming periods. The main aim is to explore whether the EU partnership principle influenced cooperation among local actors, assessing the continuity of local institutional coalition in managing different local development programs within the regional development policy system. We focus, in particular, on Strategic Plans (SP) promoted in Sicily in the transition phase between the 2000-2006 and the 2007-2013 periods. PMID:27065045

  11. Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuji; Furutani, Takashi; Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M; Yokohari, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    Using the solid waste management programmes of three barangays (the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, as a case study, this research aimed to further the development of efficient organic waste recycling systems through the promotion of urban agricultural activities on green and vacant spaces. First, the quantity of organic waste and compost produced through ongoing barangay projects was measured. The amount of compost that could potentially be utilized on farmland and vacant land within the barangays was then identified to determine the possibility of a local recycling system. The results indicate that, at present, securing buyers for compost is difficult and, therefore, most compost is distributed to large neighbouring farm villages. However, the present analysis of potential compost use within the barangay demonstrates that a more local compost recycling system is indeed feasible.

  12. Sustainability of Italian Agriculture: A Methodological Approach for Assessing Crop Water Footprint at Local Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altobelli, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Cimino, O.; Orlandini, S.; Natali, F.

    2014-12-01

    In a world where population is rapidly growing and where several planetary boundaries (i.e. climate change, biodiversity loss and nitrogen cycle) have already been crossed, agriculture is called to respond to the needs of food security through a sustainable use of natural resources. In particular, water is one of the main elements of fertility so the agricultural activity, and the whole agro-food chain, is one of the productive sectors more dependent on water resource and it is able to affect, at regional level, its availability for all the other sectors. In this study, we proposed a methodology for assessing the green and blue water footprint of the main Italian crops typical of the different geographical areas (northwest, northeast, center, and south) based on data extracted from Italian Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). FADN is an instrument for evaluating the income of agricultural holdings and the impacts of the Common Agricultural Policy. Crops were selected based on incidence of cultivated area on the total arable land of FADN farms net. Among others, the database contains data on irrigation management (irrigated surface, length of irrigation season, volumes of water, etc.), and crop production. Meteorological data series were obtained by a combination of local weather stations and ECAD E-obs spatialized database. Crop water footprints were evaluated against water availability and risk of desertification maps of Italy. Further, we compared the crop water footprints obtained with our methodology with already existing data from similar studies in order to highlight the effects of spatial scale and level of detail of available data.

  13. Local soil fertility management on small-scale farming systems for sustainable agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namriah, Kilowasid, Laode Muhammad Harjoni

    2015-09-01

    The sustainability of small-scale farming systems on marginal lands is still being a topic of debate in scientific and institutional communities. To address this, a study was conducted to find a method of sustaining the productivity of marginal lands for food crop production. Agricultural practices (fallow and traditional cultivation) used by the local small-scale farmers in managing soil fertility to meet the natural biological processes above and below the ground were studied in Muna Island Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Participatory approach was used to gather data and information on soil and land as well as to collect soil macrofauna. The results showed that the practices of local small-scale farmers are based on local soil and land suitability. Organic materials are the source of nutrient inputs to sustain the productivity of their lands by fallowing, burning natural vegetation, putting back the crop residues, doing minimum tillage and mix- and inter-crops. In conclusion, the sustainability of local small-scale farming systems will be established by knowing and understanding local soil and land classification systems and preferred crops being planted. Following the nature of fallow and monitoring soil macrofauna diversity and abundance, all preferred crops should be planted during rainy season with different time of harvest until the next rainy season. Therefore, soils are still covered with crops during dry season. It was suggested that planting time should be done in the rainy season. Doing more researches in other locations with different socio-cultural, economical, and ecological conditions is suggested to validate and refine the method.

  14. The local view on the role of plant protection in sustainable agriculture in India.

    PubMed

    Jayaraj, S; Rabindra, R J

    1993-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides has affected humans and their environment and contributed significantly to reduced productivity of crops. With the increasing realization of the importance of sustainable agriculture, the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) for sustainable agriculture has emerged. In the recent past entomologists and the farmers have identified methods of pest management that are ecologically non-disruptive and stable. Concurrently indigenous crop varieties with resistance to pests and diseases have been developed and cultivated. According to the principle of 'organic farming', several non-chemical methods have become popular among the local farmers. Simple cultural practices like increasing the seed rate to compensate for pest damage, adjusting the time of sowing to avoid pest damage, mulching, intercropping, trap cropping and crop rotation have been found to provide adequate protection from pest damage with no additional cost and without harmful effects on the environment. The age-old method of catch and kill is still being practised by farmers, particularly for cotton. Mechanical methods like the bow trap for control of rats and provision of tin sheets around coconut tree trunks to prevent rats damaging the nuts are still being adopted. The use of botanical materials such as the neem products for pest management has been well received almost all over the world. Biological control using the natural enemies of insect pests has become very popular among the farmers in the 1980s. The farmers who clamoured for chemical pesticides in the 1960s and 1970s are now disillusioned with these poisonous eco-destabilizing substances; they want sensible, biologically rational methods of IPM. Pest surveillance and monitoring play an important role in IPM for sustainable agriculture.

  15. Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Livestock Agriculture in 16 Local Administrative Districts of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Eun Sook; Park, Kyu-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from livestock agriculture in 16 local administrative districts of Korea from 1990 to 2030. National Inventory Report used 3 yr averaged livestock population but this study used 1 yr livestock population to find yearly emission fluctuations. Extrapolation of the livestock population from 1990 to 2009 was used to forecast future livestock population from 2010 to 2030. Past (yr 1990 to 2009) and forecasted (yr 2010 to 2030) averaged enteric CH4 emissions and CH4 and N2O emissions from manure treatment were estimated. In the section of enteric fermentation, forecasted average CH4 emissions from 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 4%–114% compared to that of the past except for Daejeon (−63%), Seoul (−36%) and Gyeonggi (−7%). As for manure treatment, forecasted average CH4 emissions from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 3%–124% compared to past average except for Daejeon (−77%), Busan (−60%), Gwangju (−48%) and Seoul (−8%). For manure treatment, forecasted average N2O emissions from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 10%–153% compared to past average CH4 emissions except for Daejeon (−60%), Seoul (−4.0%), and Gwangju (−0.2%). With the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2-Eq), forecasted average CO2-Eq from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 31%–120% compared to past average CH4 emissions except Daejeon (−65%), Seoul (−24%), Busan (−18%), Gwangju (−8%) and Gyeonggi (−1%). The decreased CO2-Eq from 5 local administrative districts was only 34 kt, which was insignificantly small compared to increase of 2,809 kt from other 11 local administrative districts. Annual growth rates of enteric CH4 emissions, CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management in Korea from 1990 to 2009 were 1.7%, 2.6%, and 3.2%, respectively. The

  16. Production and characterization of violacein by locally isolated Chromobacterium violaceum grown in agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Wan Azlina; Yusof, Nur Zulaikha; Nordin, Nordiana; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar; Rezali, Mohd Fazlin

    2012-07-01

    The present work highlighted the production of violacein by the locally isolated Chromobacterium violaceum (GenBank accession no. HM132057) in various agricultural waste materials (sugarcane bagasse, solid pineapple waste, molasses, brown sugar), as an alternative to the conventional rich medium. The highest yield for pigment production (0.82 g L⁻¹) was obtained using free cells when grown in 3 g of sugarcane bagasse supplemented with 10% (v/v) of L-tryptophan. A much lower yield (0.15 g L⁻¹) was obtained when the cells were grown either in rich medium (nutrient broth) or immobilized onto sugarcane bagasse. Violacein showed similar chemical properties as other natural pigments based on the UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry analysis. The pigment is highly soluble in acetone and methanol, insoluble in water or non-polar organic solvents, and showed good stability between pH 5-9, 25-100 °C, in the presence of light metal ions and oxidant such as H₂O₂. However, violacein would be slowly degraded upon exposure to light. This is the first report on the use of cheap and easily available agricultural wastes as growth medium for violacein-producing C. violaceum.

  17. Strong Discrepancies between Local Temperature Mapping and Interpolated Climatic Grids in Tropical Mountainous Agricultural Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario; Bellomo, Lucio; Silvain, Jean-François; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Bridging the gap between the predictions of coarse-scale climate models and the fine-scale climatic reality of species is a key issue of climate change biology research. While it is now well known that most organisms do not experience the climatic conditions recorded at weather stations, there is little information on the discrepancies between microclimates and global interpolated temperatures used in species distribution models, and their consequences for organisms’ performance. To address this issue, we examined the fine-scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity in air, crop canopy and soil temperatures of agricultural landscapes in the Ecuadorian Andes and compared them to predictions of global interpolated climatic grids. Temperature time-series were measured in air, canopy and soil for 108 localities at three altitudes and analysed using Fourier transform. Discrepancies between local temperatures vs. global interpolated grids and their implications for pest performance were then mapped and analysed using GIS statistical toolbox. Our results showed that global interpolated predictions over-estimate by 77.5±10% and under-estimate by 82.1±12% local minimum and maximum air temperatures recorded in the studied grid. Additional modifications of local air temperatures were due to the thermal buffering of plant canopies (from −2.7°K during daytime to 1.3°K during night-time) and soils (from −4.9°K during daytime to 6.7°K during night-time) with a significant effect of crop phenology on the buffer effect. This discrepancies between interpolated and local temperatures strongly affected predictions of the performance of an ectothermic crop pest as interpolated temperatures predicted pest growth rates 2.3–4.3 times lower than those predicted by local temperatures. This study provides quantitative information on the limitation of coarse-scale climate data to capture the reality of the climatic environment experienced by living organisms. In highly heterogeneous

  18. Local-global analysis of crack growth in continuously reinfoced ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Ahmed, Shamim

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a mathematical model for predicting the strength and micromechanical failure characteristics of continuously reinforced ceramic matrix composites. The local-global analysis models the vicinity of a propagating crack tip as a local heterogeneous region (LHR) consisting of spring-like representation of the matrix, fibers and interfaces. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects of LHR size, component properties, and interface conditions on the strength and sequence of the failure processes in the unidirectional composite system.

  19. A complete and continuous pesticide screening during one growing season in five small Swiss rivers with agricultural watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Simon; Comte, Rahel; Doppler, Tobias; Wittmer, Irene; Moschet, Christoph; Stamm, Christian; Singer, Heinz; Kunz, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural pesticides are regularly found in surface waters at concentration levels that raise ecotoxicological concerns. Due to large fluctuations in concentration over time and the potentially high number of pesticides in agricultural watersheds, it is difficult to obtain a comprehensive overview of the actual pollution level. This collaborative project between research and Swiss federal and cantonal authorities aimed for a comprehensive analysis of pesticide pollution in five small agricultural streams to address this knowledge gap. The five rivers are located in catchments (1.5 to 9 km2) with intensive agriculture covering a wide range of crops, such as grains, vegetables, vineyards and orchards. Urban activities and influences are low. Twelve-hour composite samples were collected continuously from March until the end of August with automatic sampling devices, resulting in 360 samples per site. Using precipitation and water level data, we differentiated between discharge events and low-flow periods. Samples taken during dry weather were pooled for the analysis. This procedure resulted in a complete concentration profile over the entire monitoring period covered by 60 samples per site. The analysis, using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap technology), involved a target screening of 248 pesticides including fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, as well as important transformation products. Data on the total number and distribution of pesticides, their detection frequency, crop specific applications and concentration time profiles will be presented. Preliminary results indicate substantial pesticide exposure since at least 20 different compounds were detected in all samples. One sample even contained a mixture of 80 pesticides. The majority of concentrations were in the low ng/L range but concentrations of a few compounds were very high (several micrograms/L) during discharge events as well as during low flow conditions

  20. COLD MAGICS - Continuous Local Deformation Monitoring of an Arctic Geodetic Fundamental Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Ruediger; Bergstrand, Sten

    2010-01-01

    We describe the experience gained in a project to continuously monitor the local tie at the Geodetic Observatory Ny-Alesund. A PC-controlled robotic total station was used to monitor survey prisms that were attached to survey pillars of the local network and the monuments used for geodetic VLBI and GNSS measurements. The monitoring lasted for seven days and had a temporal resolution of six minutes. The raw angle and distance measurements show clear sinusoidal signatures with a daily period, most strongly for a four-day period with 24 hours of sunshine. The derived topocentric coordinates of the survey prisms attached to the GNSS monument and the VLBI radio telescope act as approximation for the local tie. We detect clear signatures at the mm-level. With the current approach we cannot distinguish between real motion of the prisms and potential thermal influences on the instrument used for the observations. However, the project shows that continuous local tie monitoring is feasible today and in the future can and should be used for all geodetic co-location stations.

  1. Detecting and estimating continuous-variable entanglement by local orthogonal observables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengjie; Yu, Sixia; Chen, Qing; Oh, C H

    2013-11-01

    Entanglement detection and estimation are fundamental problems in quantum information science. Compared with discrete-variable states, for which lots of efficient entanglement detection criteria and lower bounds of entanglement measures have been proposed, the continuous-variable entanglement is much less understood. Here we shall present a family of entanglement witnesses based on continuous-variable local orthogonal observables (CVLOOs) to detect and estimate entanglement of Gaussian and non-Gaussian states, especially for bound entangled states. By choosing an optimal set of CVLOOs, our entanglement witness is equivalent to the realignment criterion and can be used to detect bound entanglement of a class of 2+2 mode Gaussian states. Via our entanglement witness, lower bounds of two typical entanglement measures for arbitrary two-mode continuous-variable states are provided.

  2. Organic farming benefits local plant diversity in vineyard farms located in intensive agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Maurizio G

    2012-05-01

    The majority of research on organic farming has considered arable and grassland farming systems in Central and Northern Europe, whilst only a few studies have been carried out in Mediterranean agro-systems, such as vineyards, despite their economic importance. The main aim of the study was to test whether organic farming enhances local plant species richness in both crop and non-crop areas of vineyard farms located in intensive conventional landscapes. Nine conventional and nine organic farms were selected in an intensively cultivated region (i.e. no gradient in landscape composition) in northern Italy. In each farm, vascular plants were sampled in one vineyard and in two non-crop linear habitats, grass strips and hedgerows, adjacent to vineyards and therefore potentially influenced by farming. We used linear mixed models to test the effect of farming, and species longevity (annual vs. perennial) separately for the three habitat types. In our intensive agricultural landscapes organic farming promoted local plant species richness in vineyard fields, and grassland strips while we found no effect for linear hedgerows. Differences in species richness were not associated to differences in species composition, indicating that similar plant communities were hosted in vineyard farms independently of the management type. This negative effect of conventional farming was probably due to the use of herbicides, while mechanical operations and mowing regime did not differ between organic and conventional farms. In grassland strips, and only marginally in vineyards, we found that the positive effect of organic farming was more pronounced for perennial than annual species.

  3. Organic Farming Benefits Local Plant Diversity in Vineyard Farms Located in Intensive Agricultural Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Maurizio G.

    2012-05-01

    The majority of research on organic farming has considered arable and grassland farming systems in Central and Northern Europe, whilst only a few studies have been carried out in Mediterranean agro-systems, such as vineyards, despite their economic importance. The main aim of the study was to test whether organic farming enhances local plant species richness in both crop and non-crop areas of vineyard farms located in intensive conventional landscapes. Nine conventional and nine organic farms were selected in an intensively cultivated region (i.e. no gradient in landscape composition) in northern Italy. In each farm, vascular plants were sampled in one vineyard and in two non-crop linear habitats, grass strips and hedgerows, adjacent to vineyards and therefore potentially influenced by farming. We used linear mixed models to test the effect of farming, and species longevity (annual vs. perennial) separately for the three habitat types. In our intensive agricultural landscapes organic farming promoted local plant species richness in vineyard fields, and grassland strips while we found no effect for linear hedgerows. Differences in species richness were not associated to differences in species composition, indicating that similar plant communities were hosted in vineyard farms independently of the management type. This negative effect of conventional farming was probably due to the use of herbicides, while mechanical operations and mowing regime did not differ between organic and conventional farms. In grassland strips, and only marginally in vineyards, we found that the positive effect of organic farming was more pronounced for perennial than annual species.

  4. Home Influences on the Academic Performance of Agricultural Science Students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndirika, Maryann C.; Njoku, U. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the home influences on the academic performance of agricultural science secondary school students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The instrument used in data collection was a validated questionnaire structured on a two point rating scale. Simple random sampling technique was used to select…

  5. Use of continuous and grab sample data for calculating total maximum daily load (TMDL) in agricultural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Shelly; Stubblefield, Ashley A; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Spier, Chelsea L; Stringfellow, William T

    2014-03-01

    Measuring the discharge of diffuse pollution from agricultural watersheds presents unique challenges. Flows in agricultural watersheds, particularly in Mediterranean climates, can be predominately irrigation runoff and exhibit large diurnal fluctuation in both volume and concentration. Flow and pollutant concentrations in these smaller watersheds dominated by human activity do not conform to a normal distribution and it is not clear if parametric methods are appropriate or accurate for load calculations. The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of five load estimation methods to calculate pollutant loads from agricultural watersheds. Calculation of loads using results from discrete (grab) samples was compared with the true-load computed using in situ continuous monitoring measurements. A new method is introduced that uses a non-parametric measure of central tendency (the median) to calculate loads (median-load). The median-load method was compared to more commonly used parametric estimation methods which rely on using the mean as a measure of central tendency (mean-load and daily-load), a method that utilizes the total flow volume (volume-load), and a method that uses measure of flow at the time of sampling (instantaneous-load). Using measurements from ten watersheds in the San Joaquin Valley of California, the average percent error compared to the true-load for total dissolved solids (TDS) was 7.3% for the median-load, 6.9% for the mean-load, 6.9% for the volume-load, 16.9% for the instantaneous-load, and 18.7% for the daily-load methods of calculation. The results of this study show that parametric methods are surprisingly accurate, even for data that have starkly non-normal distributions and are highly skewed.

  6. Local Magnetic Characterization of Continuous (Ga,Mn)As Film using Mechanical Force Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I. H.; Obukhov, Yu.; Kim, J.; Li, X.; Samarth, N.; Pelekhov, D. V.; Hammel, P. C.

    2009-03-01

    We report on low temperature (T = 4.2 K) studies of the local spin dynamics in ferromagnetic samples using Ferromagnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (FMRFM) and probe-induced Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM). Both techniques are based on sensitive mechanical detection of the dipolar magnetic interaction between a micromagnetic probe mounted on a flexible micro-cantilever and magnetic moments in the sample. The probe magnet not only detects the magnetic force, but also perturbs sample spin magnetization by adding the strongly inhomogeneous magnetic field. We demonstrate that the combination of FMRFM and probe-induced MFM can be used to extract and map local magnetic properties of a continuous (Ga,Mn)As film such as saturation magnetization and anisotropy field. These new approaches to scanned magnetic force imaging open the door to powerful new tools for spatially resolved studies of nanoscale magnetism and spin-based devices.

  7. Spatially continuous dataset at local scale of Taita Hills in Kenya and Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwalusepo, Sizah; Massawe, Estomih S; Johansson, Tino

    2016-09-01

    Climate change is a global concern, requiring local scale spatially continuous dataset and modeling of meteorological variables. This dataset article provided the interpolated temperature, rainfall and relative humidity dataset at local scale along Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro altitudinal gradients in Kenya and Tanzania, respectively. The temperature and relative humidity were recorded hourly using automatic onset (TH)HOBO data loggers and rainfall was recorded daily using GENERAL(R) wireless rain gauges. Thin plate spline (TPS) was used to interpolate, with the degree of data smoothing determined by minimizing the generalized cross validation. The dataset provide information on the status of the current climatic conditions along the two mountainous altitudinal gradients in Kenya and Tanzania. The dataset will, thus, enhance future research. PMID:27536713

  8. Spatially continuous dataset at local scale of Taita Hills in Kenya and Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwalusepo, Sizah; Massawe, Estomih S; Johansson, Tino

    2016-09-01

    Climate change is a global concern, requiring local scale spatially continuous dataset and modeling of meteorological variables. This dataset article provided the interpolated temperature, rainfall and relative humidity dataset at local scale along Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro altitudinal gradients in Kenya and Tanzania, respectively. The temperature and relative humidity were recorded hourly using automatic onset (TH)HOBO data loggers and rainfall was recorded daily using GENERAL(R) wireless rain gauges. Thin plate spline (TPS) was used to interpolate, with the degree of data smoothing determined by minimizing the generalized cross validation. The dataset provide information on the status of the current climatic conditions along the two mountainous altitudinal gradients in Kenya and Tanzania. The dataset will, thus, enhance future research.

  9. Local agriculture traditional knowledge to avoid erosion in a changing climate: Ensuring agricultural livelihoods and food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadalupe Rivera Ferré, Marta; Di Masso, Marina; Vara, Isabel; Mailhost, Mara; Bhatta, Goppal; Cuellar, Mamem; López-i-Gelats, Feliu; Gallar, Donald

    2015-04-01

    In the regions that experience substantial climatic risks, considerable traditional expertise exists that is underutilized and that could be valuable as a starting point to build more effective strategies for adapting to climate change and ensure food availability. Some of these are agronomic strategies for soil conservation targeting erosion avoidance as a form to ensure soil fertility and thus, crop production and food availability. Following an extensive literature review in the Indogangetic Plans, we have identified many different practices derived from local traditional knowledge that can be classified as i) Reshaping the landscape (terracing, bunding, efficient distribution of land uses); ii) Stream diversion to reduce flood impact (channels along the edges of the fields, embankments, dams, network of ponds, outlets, walls and fencing); and iii) Others (agroforesty, use of specific trees as indicators of soil erosion, crop-fallow rotation, preservation of patches of forests, reforestation, collective management of forests). These endogenous-based practices have a great potential for adaptation since they are more easily adopted by communities, they require of minimum or not external expertise and aid, and usually, are cheaper than other strategies. A combination of local knowledge with other scientific knowledge may be the most effective way to face climate change. This work was performed as part of the CCAFS-Program of the CGIAR in South Asia.

  10. Continuity of Monolayer-Bilayer Junctions for Localization of Lipid Raft Microdomains in Model Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Lee, Sang-Wook; Sohn, Youngjoo; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2016-01-01

    We show that the selective localization of cholesterol-rich domains and associated ganglioside receptors prefer to occur in the monolayer across continuous monolayer-bilayer junctions (MBJs) in supported lipid membranes. For the MBJs, glass substrates were patterned with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oligomers by thermally-assisted contact printing, leaving behind 3 nm-thick PDMS patterns. The hydrophobicity of the transferred PDMS patterns was precisely tuned by the stamping temperature. Lipid monolayers were formed on the PDMS patterned surface while lipid bilayers were on the bare glass surface. Due to the continuity of the lipid membranes over the MBJs, essentially free diffusion of lipids was allowed between the monolayer on the PDMS surface and the upper leaflet of the bilayer on the glass substrate. The preferential localization of sphingomyelin, ganglioside GM1 and cholesterol in the monolayer region enabled to develop raft microdomains through coarsening of nanorafts. Our methodology provides a simple and effective scheme of non-disruptive manipulation of the chemical landscape associated with lipid phase separations, which leads to more sophisticated applications in biosensors and as cell culture substrates. PMID:27230411

  11. Continuity of monolayer-bilayer junctions for localization of lipid raft microdomains in model membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Ryu, Yong -Sang; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Suh, Jeng -Hun; Lee, Sang -Wook; Sohn, Youngjoo; Oh, Sang -Hyun; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin -Doo

    2016-05-27

    We show that the selective localization of cholesterol-rich domains and associated ganglioside receptors prefer to occur in the monolayer across continuous monolayer-bilayer junctions (MBJs) in supported lipid membranes. For the MBJs, glass substrates were patterned with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oligomers by thermally-assisted contact printing, leaving behind 3 nm-thick PDMS patterns. The hydrophobicity of the transferred PDMS patterns was precisely tuned by the stamping temperature. Lipid monolayers were formed on the PDMS patterned surface while lipid bilayers were on the bare glass surface. Due to the continuity of the lipid membranes over the MBJs, essentially free diffusion of lipids was allowed betweenmore » the monolayer on the PDMS surface and the upper leaflet of the bilayer on the glass substrate. The preferential localization of sphingomyelin, ganglioside GM1 and cholesterol in the monolayer region enabled to develop raft microdomains through coarsening of nanorafts. Furthermore, our methodology provides a simple and effective scheme of non-disruptive manipulation of the chemical landscape associated with lipid phase separations, which leads to more sophisticated applications in biosensors and as cell culture substrates.« less

  12. Continuity of Monolayer-Bilayer Junctions for Localization of Lipid Raft Microdomains in Model Membranes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Wittenberg, Nathan J; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Lee, Sang-Wook; Sohn, Youngjoo; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Parikh, Atul N; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2016-01-01

    We show that the selective localization of cholesterol-rich domains and associated ganglioside receptors prefer to occur in the monolayer across continuous monolayer-bilayer junctions (MBJs) in supported lipid membranes. For the MBJs, glass substrates were patterned with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oligomers by thermally-assisted contact printing, leaving behind 3 nm-thick PDMS patterns. The hydrophobicity of the transferred PDMS patterns was precisely tuned by the stamping temperature. Lipid monolayers were formed on the PDMS patterned surface while lipid bilayers were on the bare glass surface. Due to the continuity of the lipid membranes over the MBJs, essentially free diffusion of lipids was allowed between the monolayer on the PDMS surface and the upper leaflet of the bilayer on the glass substrate. The preferential localization of sphingomyelin, ganglioside GM1 and cholesterol in the monolayer region enabled to develop raft microdomains through coarsening of nanorafts. Our methodology provides a simple and effective scheme of non-disruptive manipulation of the chemical landscape associated with lipid phase separations, which leads to more sophisticated applications in biosensors and as cell culture substrates. PMID:27230411

  13. Continuity of Monolayer-Bilayer Junctions for Localization of Lipid Raft Microdomains in Model Membranes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Wittenberg, Nathan J; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Lee, Sang-Wook; Sohn, Youngjoo; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Parikh, Atul N; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2016-05-27

    We show that the selective localization of cholesterol-rich domains and associated ganglioside receptors prefer to occur in the monolayer across continuous monolayer-bilayer junctions (MBJs) in supported lipid membranes. For the MBJs, glass substrates were patterned with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oligomers by thermally-assisted contact printing, leaving behind 3 nm-thick PDMS patterns. The hydrophobicity of the transferred PDMS patterns was precisely tuned by the stamping temperature. Lipid monolayers were formed on the PDMS patterned surface while lipid bilayers were on the bare glass surface. Due to the continuity of the lipid membranes over the MBJs, essentially free diffusion of lipids was allowed between the monolayer on the PDMS surface and the upper leaflet of the bilayer on the glass substrate. The preferential localization of sphingomyelin, ganglioside GM1 and cholesterol in the monolayer region enabled to develop raft microdomains through coarsening of nanorafts. Our methodology provides a simple and effective scheme of non-disruptive manipulation of the chemical landscape associated with lipid phase separations, which leads to more sophisticated applications in biosensors and as cell culture substrates.

  14. Continuous Force Decoding from Local Field Potentials of the Primary Motor Cortex in Freely Moving Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani, Abed; Heydari Beni, Nargess; Shalchyan, Vahid; Daliri, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Local field potential (LFP) signals recorded by intracortical microelectrodes implanted in primary motor cortex can be used as a high informative input for decoding of motor functions. Recent studies show that different kinematic parameters such as position and velocity can be inferred from multiple LFP signals as precisely as spiking activities, however, continuous decoding of the force magnitude from the LFP signals in freely moving animals has remained an open problem. Here, we trained three rats to press a force sensor for getting a drop of water as a reward. A 16-channel micro-wire array was implanted in the primary motor cortex of each trained rat, and obtained LFP signals were used for decoding of the continuous values recorded by the force sensor. Average coefficient of correlation and the coefficient of determination between decoded and actual force signals were r = 0.66 and R2 = 0.42, respectively. We found that LFP signal on gamma frequency bands (30–120 Hz) had the most contribution in the trained decoding model. This study suggests the feasibility of using low number of LFP channels for the continuous force decoding in freely moving animals resembling BMI systems in real life applications. PMID:27767063

  15. The "Lung": a software-controlled air accumulator for quasi-continuous multi-point measurement of agricultural greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. J.; Bromley, A. M.; Harvey, M. J.; Moss, R. C.; Pattey, E.; Dow, D.

    2011-10-01

    We describe the design and testing of a flexible bag ("Lung") accumulator attached to a gas chromatographic (GC) analyzer capable of measuring surface-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange fluxes in a wide range of environmental/agricultural settings. In the design presented here, the Lung can collect up to three gas samples concurrently, each accumulated into a Tedlar bag over a period of 20 min or longer. Toggling collection between 2 sets of 3 bags enables quasi-continuous collection with sequential analysis and discarding of sample residues. The Lung thus provides a flexible "front end" collection system for interfacing to a GC or alternative analyzer and has been used in 2 main types of application. Firstly, it has been applied to micrometeorological assessment of paddock-scale N2O fluxes, discussed here. Secondly, it has been used for the automation of concurrent emission assessment from three sheep housed in metabolic crates with gas tracer addition and sampling multiplexed to a single GC. The Lung allows the same GC equipment used in laboratory discrete sample analysis to be deployed for continuous field measurement. Continuity of measurement enables spatially-averaged N2O fluxes in particular to be determined with greater accuracy, given the highly heterogeneous and episodic nature of N2O emissions. We present a detailed evaluation of the micrometeorological flux estimation alongside an independent tuneable diode laser system, reporting excellent agreement between flux estimates based on downwind vertical concentration differences. Whilst the current design is based around triplet bag sets, the basic design could be scaled up to a larger number of inlets or bags and less frequent analysis (longer accumulation times) where a greater number of sampling points are required.

  16. Continuous time random walks for non-local radial solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentz, Marco; Kang, Peter K.; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2015-08-01

    This study formulates and analyzes continuous time random walk (CTRW) models in radial flow geometries for the quantification of non-local solute transport induced by heterogeneous flow distributions and by mobile-immobile mass transfer processes. To this end we derive a general CTRW framework in radial coordinates starting from the random walk equations for radial particle positions and times. The particle density, or solute concentration is governed by a non-local radial advection-dispersion equation (ADE). Unlike in CTRWs for uniform flow scenarios, particle transition times here depend on the radial particle position, which renders the CTRW non-stationary. As a consequence, the memory kernel characterizing the non-local ADE, is radially dependent. Based on this general formulation, we derive radial CTRW implementations that (i) emulate non-local radial transport due to heterogeneous advection, (ii) model multirate mass transfer (MRMT) between mobile and immobile continua, and (iii) quantify both heterogeneous advection in a mobile region and mass transfer between mobile and immobile regions. The expected solute breakthrough behavior is studied using numerical random walk particle tracking simulations. This behavior is analyzed by explicit analytical expressions for the asymptotic solute breakthrough curves. We observe clear power-law tails of the solute breakthrough for broad (power-law) distributions of particle transit times (heterogeneous advection) and particle trapping times (MRMT model). The combined model displays two distinct time regimes. An intermediate regime, in which the solute breakthrough is dominated by the particle transit times in the mobile zones, and a late time regime that is governed by the distribution of particle trapping times in immobile zones. These radial CTRW formulations allow for the identification of heterogeneous advection and mobile-immobile processes as drivers of anomalous transport, under conditions relevant for field tracer

  17. Dynamical Localization for Discrete and Continuous Random Schrödinger Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germinet, F.; De Bièvre, S.

    We show for a large class of random Schrödinger operators Ho on and on that dynamical localization holds, i.e. that, with probability one, for a suitable energy interval I and for q a positive real, Here ψ is a function of sufficiently rapid decrease, and PI(Ho) is the spectral projector of Ho corresponding to the interval I. The result is obtained through the control of the decay of the eigenfunctions of Ho and covers, in the discrete case, the Anderson tight-binding model with Bernoulli potential (dimension ν = 1) or singular potential (ν > 1), and in the continuous case Anderson as well as random Landau Hamiltonians.

  18. Intermittent hormone therapy versus continuous hormone therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, ZhiLong; Wang, Hanzhang; Xu, MengMeng; Li, Yang; Hou, MingLi; Wei, YanLing; Liu, Xingchen; Wang, ZhiPing; Xie, XiaoDong

    2015-01-01

    Few randomized studies have compared intermittent hormone therapy (IHT) with continuous hormone therapy (CHT) for the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we report the results of a meta-analysis of a randomized controlled trial, evaluating the effectiveness of IHT versus CHT for patients with locally advanced PCa. Types of intervention were IHT versus CHT. The primary endpoint of this study is overall mortality and the secondary endpoints are any progression of disease, quality of life (QOL) and adverse effects between two groups. Six randomized controlled trials totaling 2996 patients were included. Results are as follows: after hormone therapy, patients undergoing IHT demonstrated no significant difference from those undergoing CHT in terms of the overall mortality (OR = 1.0, 95% CI [0.86, 1.17]) and disease progression (OR = 1.16, 95% CI [0.86, 1.57]). Men treated with IHT also reported better QOL, fewer adverse effects and considerable economic benefit for the individual and the community. With no difference in overall mortality and incidence of progression, current clinical studies confirm that both therapeutic methods were safe and effective. However, our study also takes into account QOL. When these secondary measures are considered, IHT may be a better option over CHT as patients report a more affordable treatment with improved QOL and fewer adverse effects.

  19. Detection and localization of continuous gravitational waves with pulsar timing arrays: the role of pulsar terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.-J.; Wen, L.; Xiong, J.; Xu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Mohanty, S. D.; Hobbs, G.; Manchester, R. N.

    2016-09-01

    A pulsar timing array is a Galactic-scale detector of nanohertz gravitational waves (GWs). Its target signals contain two components: the `Earth term' and the `pulsar term' corresponding to GWs incident on the Earth and pulsar, respectively. In this work we present a Frequentist method for the detection and localization of continuous waves that takes into account the pulsar term and is significantly faster than existing methods. We investigate the role of pulsar terms by comparing a full-signal search with an Earth-term-only search for non-evolving black hole binaries. By applying the method to synthetic data sets, we find that (i) a full-signal search can slightly improve the detection probability (by about five per cent); (ii) sky localization is biased if only Earth terms are searched for and the inclusion of pulsar terms is critical to remove such a bias; (iii) in the case of strong detections (with signal-to-noise ratio ≳30), it may be possible to improve pulsar distance estimation through GW measurements.

  20. Antagonism between local dispersal and self-incompatibility systems in a continuous plant population.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Reed A

    2009-06-01

    Many self-incompatible plant species exist in continuous populations in which individuals disperse locally. Local dispersal of pollen and seeds facilitates inbreeding because pollen pools are likely to contain relatives. Self-incompatibility promotes outbreeding because relatives are likely to carry incompatible alleles. Therefore, populations can experience an antagonism between these forces. In this study, a novel computational model is used to explore the effects of this antagonism on gene flow, allelic diversity, neighbourhood sizes, and identity by descent. I confirm that this antagonism is sensitive to dispersal levels and linkage. However, the results suggest that there is little to no difference between the effects of gametophytic and sporophytic self-incompatibility systems (GSI and SSI) on unlinked loci. More importantly, both GSI and SSI affect unlinked loci in a manner similar to obligate outcrossing without mating types. This suggests that the primary evolutionary impact of self-incompatibility systems may be to prevent selfing, and prevention of biparental inbreeding might be a beneficial side-effect.

  1. Efficacy of postoperative continuous wound infiltration with local anesthetic after major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Abadir, Adel R; Nicolas, Fred; Gharabawy, Ramiz; Shah, Trusha; Michael, Rafik

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy, safety, opioid sparing effects and improvement of respiratory function when using 0.2% ropivacaine continuous wound infiltration after major intra-abdominal surgery. Forty patients undergoing major intra-abdominal surgery requiring a midline incision of > or = 20 cm were enrolled into this IRB-approved, randomized, prospective controlled study. Group 1: 20 patients, parenteral analgesia (control group). Group II: 20 patients, with local anesthetic wound infiltration (pain pump group). At the end of the procedure, in the pain pump group of patients, a multi hole, 20-gauge catheter was inserted percutaneously, above the fascia. An initial dose of 10 ml of 0.2% ropivacaine was injected in the wound through the catheter. A device provided continuous delivery of 0.2% ropivacaine; the infusion was initiated at 6 ml/h for the following two days. The total "rescue" morphine and oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets administered were significantly lower in the pain pump group. At all time intervals, resting pain scores were significantly lower in the pain pump group when compared with the control group. However, at the 4-48 and 12-48 hours pain scores generated after leg raise and coughing, respectively, were significantly lower in group II. The patient vital capacities were insignificantly higher in group II. We conclude that after major abdominal surgery, infiltration and continuous wound instillation with 0.2% ropivacaine decreases postoperative pain, opioid requirements and oral analgesia. Early patient rehabilitation, hastening convalescence, and preventing respiratory complications are expected outcomes of this approach.

  2. Continuous head-localization and data correction in a whole-cortex MEG sensor.

    PubMed

    Wilson, H S

    2004-11-30

    Continuous monitoring of the position of a subject's head is an essential part of improving localization accuracy and resolution in MEG. We describe a procedure that has been developed for whole-cortex MEG sensors. The system uses three (or more) small head coils driven continuously by low-amplitude sinusoidal currents with frequencies chosen so they do not interfere with MEG measurements and with each other and are easily separated from power-line signals and harmonics. Analysis of the response of the MEG sensors to the head coils allows continuous monitoring of the position (update times as short as T=2/fpower) using a 3-parameter minimization. The best-fit positions of the head coils are then combined to determine the head translation and rotation. Analysis of phantom data recorded with a 275-channel CTF MEG system in a shielded room shows that coil positions can be determined with an accuracy of approximately 2 mm with an update period T=1/15 s even when the head coils are moving approximately 25 mm at speeds up to 40 mm/s. Data are corrected by expressing the scalar potential for the magnetic field as a spherical-harmonic series, and then determining the effect of rotations and translations on the terms of the series. Since the MEG helmet covers only approximately 60% of the full sphere, care must be taken in determining the coefficients of the spherical-harmonic series to ensure that the modeled magnetic field does not become unrealistically large in the region where there are no MEG sensors (i.e. in the lower 40% of the sphere). Our approach has been to use a minimum-field-energy criterion that minimizes the squared gradient averaged over 4pi sr and radii from 96 to 145 mm while matching the MEG measurements.

  3. Efficacy of Postoperative Continuous Wound Infiltration With Local Anesthesia After Open Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yu; Yong, Li Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Local anesthetic wound infiltration is widely used as an effective adjunct during multimodal postoperative pain management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous wound infusion of ropivacaine in postoperative pain relief, opioid sparing, incidence of nausea and vomiting, and bowel and liver function improvement in patients undergoing open hepatectomy. Methods: Forty patients undergoing open hepatectomy were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the 0.9% saline continuous infusion group (the control group; n=20) and the ropivacaine continuous infusion group (the Ropi group; n=20). Outcomes measured postoperatively were pain score at rest and on movement, sufentanil consumption, incidence of nausea and vomiting, and sedation score across 48 postoperative hours. Time to bowel recovery, liver function change, mean length of hospitalization, patient satisfaction, and other data after 48 postoperative hours were collected until hospital discharge. Results: Pain scores at rest were lower for the ropivacaine group and reached significance after 8 and 16 hours (P<0.01). Sufentanil consumption (41.50±21.80 vs. 89.70±35.22 μg; P<0.01) after 48 hours, time to bowel recovery (1.80±0.70 vs. 3.15±1.04 d; P<0.01), incidence of nausea and vomiting (1.75±0.72 vs. 2.40±0.68; P<0.05), and mean length of hospitalization (5.6±2.44 vs. 7.35±2.85 d; P<0.01) were significantly reduced, and the sedation score and liver function change were also comparable between the 2 groups. There was no difference with respect to pain scores on movement, nor with respect to patient satisfaction. Conclusions: Surgical wound infusion with ropivacaine after hepatectomy can improve pain relief at rest and accelerate recovery and discharge. PMID:24281275

  4. LUMINATE: Linking agricultural land use, local water quality and Gulf of Mexico hypoxia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we discuss the importance of developing integrated assessment models to support the design and implementation of policies to address water quality problems associated with agricultural pollution. We describe a new modelling system, LUMINATE, which links land use decisions made at the...

  5. Ammonia emissions, transport, and deposition downwind of agricultural areas at local to regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zondlo, Mark; Pan, Da; Golston, Levi; Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from agricultural areas show extreme spatiotemporal variations, yet agricultural emissions dominate the global NH3 budget and ammoniated aerosols are a dominant component of unhealthy fine particulate matter. The emissions of NH3 and their deposition near and downwind of agricultural areas is complex. As part of a multi-year field intensive along the Colorado Front Range (including the NASA DISCOVER-AQ and NSF FRAPPE field experiments), we have examined temporal emissions of NH3 from feedlots, regional transport of ammonia and ammoniated aerosols from the plains to relatively pristine regions in Rocky Mountain National Park, and dry deposition and re-emission of grassland NH3 in the park. Eddy covariance measurements at feedlots and natural grasslands in the mountains were conducted with newly-developed open-path, eddy covariance laser-based sensors for NH3 (0.7 ng NH3/m2/s detection limit at 10 Hz). These measurements were coupled with other NH3/NHx measurements from mobile laboratories, aircraft, and satellite to examine the transport of NH3 from agricultural areas to cleaner regions downwind. At the farm level, eddy covariance NH3 fluxes showed a strong diurnal component correlated with temperature regardless of the season but with higher absolute emissions in summer than winter. While farm-to-farm variability (N=62 feedlots) was high, similar diurnal trends were observed at all sites regardless of individual farm type (dairy, beef, sheep, poultry, pig). Deposition at scales of several km showed relatively small deposition (10% loss) based upon NH3/CH4 tracer correlations, though the NH3 concentrations were so elevated (up to ppmv) that these losses should not be neglected when considering near-farm deposition. Ammonia was efficiently transported at least 150 km during upslope events to the Colorado Front Range (ele. 3000-4000 m) based upon aircraft, mobile laboratory, and model measurements. The gas phase lifetime of NH3 was estimated to

  6. 7 CFR 1980.319 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 1980.319 Section 1980.319 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans §...

  7. 7 CFR 1980.319 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 1980.319 Section 1980.319 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans §...

  8. 7 CFR 1980.319 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 1980.319 Section 1980.319 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans §...

  9. Exploring Agricultural Livelihood Transitions with an Agent-Based Virtual Laboratory: Global Forces to Local Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Ellis, Erle C.

    2013-01-01

    Rural populations are undergoing rapid changes in both their livelihoods and land uses, with associated impacts on ecosystems, global biogeochemistry, and climate change. A primary challenge is, thus, to explain these shifts in terms of the actors and processes operating within a variety of land systems in order to understand how land users might respond locally to future changes in broader-scale environmental and economic conditions. Using ‘induced intensification’ theory as a benchmark, we develop a generalized agent-based model to investigate mechanistic explanations of relationships between agricultural intensity and population density, environmental suitability, and market influence. Land-use and livelihood decisions modeled from basic micro-economic theories generated spatial and temporal patterns of agricultural intensification consistent with predictions of induced intensification theory. Further, agent actions in response to conditions beyond those described by induced intensification theory were explored, revealing that interactions among environmental constraints, population pressure, and market influence may produce transitions to multiple livelihood regimes of varying market integration. The result is new hypotheses that could modify and enrich understanding of the classic relationship between agricultural intensity and population density. The strength of this agent-based model and the experimental results is the generalized form of the decision-making processes underlying land-use and livelihood transitions, creating the prospect of a virtual laboratory for systematically generating hypotheses of how agent decisions and interactions relate to observed land-use and livelihood patterns across diverse land systems. PMID:24039892

  10. Exploring agricultural livelihood transitions with an agent-based virtual laboratory: global forces to local decision-making.

    PubMed

    Magliocca, Nicholas R; Brown, Daniel G; Ellis, Erle C

    2013-01-01

    Rural populations are undergoing rapid changes in both their livelihoods and land uses, with associated impacts on ecosystems, global biogeochemistry, and climate change. A primary challenge is, thus, to explain these shifts in terms of the actors and processes operating within a variety of land systems in order to understand how land users might respond locally to future changes in broader-scale environmental and economic conditions. Using 'induced intensification' theory as a benchmark, we develop a generalized agent-based model to investigate mechanistic explanations of relationships between agricultural intensity and population density, environmental suitability, and market influence. Land-use and livelihood decisions modeled from basic micro-economic theories generated spatial and temporal patterns of agricultural intensification consistent with predictions of induced intensification theory. Further, agent actions in response to conditions beyond those described by induced intensification theory were explored, revealing that interactions among environmental constraints, population pressure, and market influence may produce transitions to multiple livelihood regimes of varying market integration. The result is new hypotheses that could modify and enrich understanding of the classic relationship between agricultural intensity and population density. The strength of this agent-based model and the experimental results is the generalized form of the decision-making processes underlying land-use and livelihood transitions, creating the prospect of a virtual laboratory for systematically generating hypotheses of how agent decisions and interactions relate to observed land-use and livelihood patterns across diverse land systems.

  11. Asymmetric Continuous-Time Neural Networks without Local Traps for Solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, Botond; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária

    2013-01-01

    There has been a long history of using neural networks for combinatorial optimization and constraint satisfaction problems. Symmetric Hopfield networks and similar approaches use steepest descent dynamics, and they always converge to the closest local minimum of the energy landscape. For finding global minima additional parameter-sensitive techniques are used, such as classical simulated annealing or the so-called chaotic simulated annealing, which induces chaotic dynamics by addition of extra terms to the energy landscape. Here we show that asymmetric continuous-time neural networks can solve constraint satisfaction problems without getting trapped in non-solution attractors. We concentrate on a model solving Boolean satisfiability (k-SAT), which is a quintessential NP-complete problem. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the stable fixed points of the neural network and the k-SAT solutions and we present numerical evidence that limit cycles may also be avoided by appropriately choosing the parameters of the model. This optimal parameter region is fairly independent of the size and hardness of instances, this way parameters can be chosen independently of the properties of problems and no tuning is required during the dynamical process. The model is similar to cellular neural networks already used in CNN computers. On an analog device solving a SAT problem would take a single operation: the connection weights are determined by the k-SAT instance and starting from any initial condition the system searches until finding a solution. In this new approach transient chaotic behavior appears as a natural consequence of optimization hardness and not as an externally induced effect. PMID:24066045

  12. Asymmetric continuous-time neural networks without local traps for solving constraint satisfaction problems.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Botond; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária

    2013-01-01

    There has been a long history of using neural networks for combinatorial optimization and constraint satisfaction problems. Symmetric Hopfield networks and similar approaches use steepest descent dynamics, and they always converge to the closest local minimum of the energy landscape. For finding global minima additional parameter-sensitive techniques are used, such as classical simulated annealing or the so-called chaotic simulated annealing, which induces chaotic dynamics by addition of extra terms to the energy landscape. Here we show that asymmetric continuous-time neural networks can solve constraint satisfaction problems without getting trapped in non-solution attractors. We concentrate on a model solving Boolean satisfiability (k-SAT), which is a quintessential NP-complete problem. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the stable fixed points of the neural network and the k-SAT solutions and we present numerical evidence that limit cycles may also be avoided by appropriately choosing the parameters of the model. This optimal parameter region is fairly independent of the size and hardness of instances, this way parameters can be chosen independently of the properties of problems and no tuning is required during the dynamical process. The model is similar to cellular neural networks already used in CNN computers. On an analog device solving a SAT problem would take a single operation: the connection weights are determined by the k-SAT instance and starting from any initial condition the system searches until finding a solution. In this new approach transient chaotic behavior appears as a natural consequence of optimization hardness and not as an externally induced effect. PMID:24066045

  13. Continuing Vocational Training in Local Government in Portugal, 2000-05--What Has Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrito, Belmiro Gil; Simao, Ana Margarida Veiga; Alves, Mariana Gaio; Almeida, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Local government in Portugal had a good opportunity to modernise through the Programa de Formacao para as Autarquias Locais (Foral) [Training programme for local authorities], implemented between 2000 and 2005. Substantial financial resources were made available through the programme to retrain local government human resources in order to improve…

  14. Continuous Local Infiltration Analgesia for Pain Control After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Hu; Ma, Jian-Xiong; Li, Feng-Bo; Li, Yan-Jun; Meng, Xin-Min; Ma, Xin-Long

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has always been associated with moderate to severe pain. As more research is conducted on the use of continuous local infiltration analgesia (CLIA) to manage pain after a TKA, it is necessary to reassess the efficacy and safety of the TKA method. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pain control of CLIA versus placebo after a TKA. In January 2015, a systematic computer-based search was conducted in the Medline, Embase, PubMed, CENTRAL (Cochrane Controlled Trials Register), Web of Science, Google database, and Chinese Wanfang databases. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement criteria. The primary endpoint was the visual analog scale score after a TKA with rest or mobilization at 24, 48, and 72 hours, which represents the effect of pain control after TKA. The complications of infection, nausea, and whether it prolonged wound drainage were also compiled to assess the safety of CLIA. RevMan 5.30 software was used for the meta-analysis. After testing for publication bias and heterogeneity across studies, data were aggregated for random-effects modeling when necessary. Ten studies involving 735 patients met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis revealed that continuous infusion analgesia provided better pain control with rest at 24 hours (mean difference [MD] −12.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] −16.63 to 8.45), and with mobilization at 24 hours (MD −18.27, 95% CI −27.52 to 9.02) and 48 hours (MD −14.19, 95% CI −21.46 to 6.93). There was no significant difference with respect to the visual analog scale score at 48 hours (MD −6.15, 95% CI −13.51 to 1.22, P = 0.10) and 72 hours (MD −3.63, 95% CI −10.43 to 3.16, P = 0.29) with rest and at 72 hours with mobilization (MD −4.25, 95% CI

  15. Community perspectives on barriers and strategies for promoting locally grown produce from an urban agriculture farm.

    PubMed

    Hu, Alice; Acosta, Angela; McDaniel, Abigail; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Although much is understood about barriers to healthy food consumption in low-income, urban communities, knowledge regarding the crucial next step of building feasible, community-supported approaches to address those barriers remains limited. This qualitative study used in-depth interviews (n = 20), focus groups (n = 2), and participant observations (n = 3) to identify strategies to promote locally grown produce from an urban food security project, Produce From the Park (PFP), an urban farm. Informants included community organization representatives and residents from low-income neighborhoods in a mid-Atlantic city. Informants identified structural and cultural barriers to purchasing healthy food, including price, location, food culture, and lack of interest. Participants proposed a number of strategies, such as distribution through mobile food carts and farm stands, marketing new foods through taste tests and cooking demonstrations, and youth mentorship. Informants also described their perceptions of the local urban farm and suggested ways to increase community buy-in. Strategies mentioned were inexpensive and incorporated cultural norms and local assets. These community perspectives can provide insights for those promoting healthy eating in urban African American communities through urban food security projects.

  16. Radar monitoring of agricultural land use - Some problems and potentials at the local level.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1971-01-01

    A study was made of some of the changing land use practices in a small area of the American Winter Wheat Belt as they might relate to remote sensing. In addition, interviews were conducted with farmers and local country agents in order to determine some of the needs regarding land use and farming practices as perceived by these people. A list of elements of land use is given which provides potential variables and parameters to be considered in interpreting radar imagery. The results of interviews provide a better concept of what potential remote sensing users at the primary level need and want.

  17. Landscape context mediates influence of local food abundance on wetland use by wintering shorebirds in an agricultural valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taft, Oriane W.; Haig, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    While it is widely understood that local abundance of benthic invertebrates can greatly influence the distribution and abundance of wetland birds, no studies have examined if wetland landscape context can mediate this relationship. We studied the influence of wetland food abundance and landscape context on use of agricultural wetlands by wintering dunlin (Calidris alpina) and killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, USA, over two winters (1999a??2000, 2000a??2001) of differing rainfall and subsequent habitat distribution. We monitored bird use (frequency of occurrence and abundance) at a sample of wetlands differing in local food abundance (density and biomass) and landscape context [adjacent shorebird habitat (defined as ha of wet habitat with less than 50% vegetative cover and within a 2-km radius) and nearest neighbor distance]. We evaluated predictive models for bird use using linear regression and the Cp criterion to select the most parsimonious model. During the dry winter (2000a??2001), dunlin exhibited greater use of sites with higher invertebrate density and biomass but also with more adjacent shorebird habitat and closest to a wetland neighbor. However, neither landscape context nor food abundance were important predictors of dunlin use during the wet winter (1999a??2000). Use of sites by killdeer was unrelated to either local food abundance or landscape context measures during both winters. Our findings contribute to a growing recognition of the importance of landscape structure to wetland birds and highlight a number of implications for the spatial planning and enhancement of wetlands using a landscape approach.

  18. Control synthesis of continuous-time T-S fuzzy systems with local nonlinear models.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiuxiang; Wang, Youyi; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2009-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of designing fuzzy controllers for a class of nonlinear dynamic systems. The considered nonlinear systems are described by T-S fuzzy models with nonlinear local models, and the fuzzy models have fewer fuzzy rules than conventional T-S fuzzy models with local linear models. A new fuzzy control scheme with local nonlinear feedbacks is proposed, and the corresponding control synthesis conditions are given in terms of solutions to a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). In contrast to the existing methods for fuzzy control synthesis, the new proposed control design method is based on fewer fuzzy rules and less computational burden. Moreover, the local nonlinear feedback laws in the new fuzzy controllers are also helpful in achieving good control effects. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Building a strategy for soil protection at local and regional scale--the case of agricultural wastes landspreading.

    PubMed

    Doula, M K; Sarris, A; Hliaoutakis, A; Kydonakis, A; Papadopoulos, N S; Argyriou, L

    2016-03-01

    Agricultural wastes (AW) are produced in huge quantities worldwide and may cause detrimental effects on environmental quality, affecting soil, water, and air quality. Given the growing soil degradation worldwide, the need for more food of good quality and therefore the intensified agriculture, it is important to develop recycling plans even for those types of treated AW (e.g., composts) that are not considered hazardous. Two strategic approaches for safe and sustainable landspreading of organic wastes are proposed, depending on wastes properties and hazard potential, i.e., an approach appropriate for traditionally used wastes (manures and composts) and another approach for wastes that are potentially hazardous or hazardous and should only be reused under specific restrictions. Both approaches foresee concrete steps, require close cooperation between farmers and local/regional authorities, and are appropriate to ensure environmental sustainability at AW recycling or disposal areas. Desktop and web application tools are also presented that are anticipated to assist authorities in implementing their monitoring strategies. PMID:26846291

  20. Building a strategy for soil protection at local and regional scale--the case of agricultural wastes landspreading.

    PubMed

    Doula, M K; Sarris, A; Hliaoutakis, A; Kydonakis, A; Papadopoulos, N S; Argyriou, L

    2016-03-01

    Agricultural wastes (AW) are produced in huge quantities worldwide and may cause detrimental effects on environmental quality, affecting soil, water, and air quality. Given the growing soil degradation worldwide, the need for more food of good quality and therefore the intensified agriculture, it is important to develop recycling plans even for those types of treated AW (e.g., composts) that are not considered hazardous. Two strategic approaches for safe and sustainable landspreading of organic wastes are proposed, depending on wastes properties and hazard potential, i.e., an approach appropriate for traditionally used wastes (manures and composts) and another approach for wastes that are potentially hazardous or hazardous and should only be reused under specific restrictions. Both approaches foresee concrete steps, require close cooperation between farmers and local/regional authorities, and are appropriate to ensure environmental sustainability at AW recycling or disposal areas. Desktop and web application tools are also presented that are anticipated to assist authorities in implementing their monitoring strategies.

  1. Research on Continuous Operation of the Railway by Considering the Value of the Local Railway in Nagano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, Tatsuo; Wakui, Katsuaki; Koyama, Ken

    After revision of the Railway Business Act in 2000, the abolition of the local railway has increased in Japan. However, continuing activities by people living along local line has been focussed in recent years. Moreover, a lot of local railway's business are obtaining the subsidy from the municipality where railway route is located. When the government puts out the grant to the company, it is necessary to have the accountability for the peoples. This research is focused on the value of the local railways for residents are measured, and an economical value of that is estimate by using the Contingent Valuation Method. As for the route for analysis in Nagano, Bessho-line(Ueda), Yashiro-line(Nagano) and Kamikohchi-line(Matsumoto) were chosen. Moreover, policies of each municipality to these routes are evaluated by using these values.

  2. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2L batch reactors and 5L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L(-1) of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology's effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  3. Chronic Cancer-Related Pain: Continuous Perineural Infusion of Local Anesthetics as Alternative to Systemic Analgesic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fuzier, Regis; Izard, Philippe; Cabos, Claire; Chaminade, Brigitte; Pouymayou, Jacques

    2016-09-01

    Pain is a major concern for patients suffering from cancer. Although opioid drugs remain the gold standard for treatment of pain, little is known about the interest of continuous analgesia techniques as alternative. The aim of the present article is to detail the feasibility and to present the diversity of continuous perineural infusion of local anesthetic. A series of five patients suffering from different cancer-related pain is presented. A continuous perineural block was proposed to patients presenting with unbearable pain in an area innervated by a plexus or a nerve despite parenteral analgesic pharmacotherapy. All blocks were performed in a surgical theatre under sterile conditions. An initial bolus dose with 3.75 mg/mL ropivacaine was injected followed by a continuous infusion of 2 mg/mL of ropivacaine. Patient-controlled perineural analgesia was started at home by a nursing network. The technique, the efficacy, and the side effects were reported. Complete pain relief was noted 15 minutes after local anesthetic injection in the five cases, and efficacy was maintained during the following days at home, with no other analgesic treatment required. One patient restarted working a few weeks after catheter insertion. The catheter duration lasted for 12 to 110 days. One catheter was removed because of local anesthetic leak at the puncture point. Some paresthesia was noted in one patient. No other side effect was noted. No infection was reported. In selected patients, continuous perineural infusion of local anesthetics appears to be an attractive alternative to parenteral opioids for cancer-related pain. Further investigation is warranted to better define the place of these techniques in the armamentarium of cancer-related pain treatment. PMID:27322898

  4. Use of continuous local anesthetic infusion in the management of postoperative split-thickness skin graft donor site pain.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Jorge L Reguero; Savetamal, Alisa; Crombie, Roselle E; Cholewczynski, Walter; Atweh, Nabil; Possenti, Paul; Schulz, John T

    2013-01-01

    Donor sites from split-thickness skin grafts (STSG) impose significant pain on patients in the early postoperative period. We report the use of continuous local anesthetic infusion as a method for the management of postoperative STSG donor site pain. Patients undergoing single or dual, adjacent STSG harvest from the thigh (eight patients) or back (one patient) were included in this study. Immediately after STSG harvest, subcutaneous catheters were placed for continuous infusion of local anesthetic. Daily donor site-specific pain severity scores were prospectively recorded in nine patients receiving local anesthetic infusion. Patient characteristics, technical aspects, and postoperative complications were identified in the study. The thigh was the anatomic location chosen for most donor sites. A single catheter was placed for donor sites limited to 4 inches in width or less. A dual catheter system was used for those wider than 4 inches. An elastomeric pump delivered continuously a total of 4 ml/hr of a solution of 0.5% bupivacaine. The average anesthetic infusion duration was 3.1 days. A substantial decrease in worst, least, and average donor site pain scores was found from the first 24 hours to the second postoperative day in our patients, a treatment trend that continued through postoperative day 3. One patient developed minor anesthetic leakage from the catheter insertion site; and in three cases, accidental dislodgement of the catheters occurred. There were no cases of donor site secondary infection. All donor sites were completely epithelialized at 1-month follow-up. Continuous local anesthetic infusion is technically feasible and may represent an option for postoperative donor site pain control after STSG harvesting. Relative cost-benefit of the technique remains to be determined. PMID:23271060

  5. Local-scale spatial modelling for interpolating climatic temperature variables to predict agricultural plant suitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Mathew A.; Hall, Andrew; Kidd, Darren; Minansy, Budiman

    2016-05-01

    Assessment of local spatial climatic variability is important in the planning of planting locations for horticultural crops. This study investigated three regression-based calibration methods (i.e. traditional versus two optimized methods) to relate short-term 12-month data series from 170 temperature loggers and 4 weather station sites with data series from nearby long-term Australian Bureau of Meteorology climate stations. The techniques trialled to interpolate climatic temperature variables, such as frost risk, growing degree days (GDDs) and chill hours, were regression kriging (RK), regression trees (RTs) and random forests (RFs). All three calibration methods produced accurate results, with the RK-based calibration method delivering the most accurate validation measures: coefficients of determination ( R 2) of 0.92, 0.97 and 0.95 and root-mean-square errors of 1.30, 0.80 and 1.31 °C, for daily minimum, daily maximum and hourly temperatures, respectively. Compared with the traditional method of calibration using direct linear regression between short-term and long-term stations, the RK-based calibration method improved R 2 and reduced root-mean-square error (RMSE) by at least 5 % and 0.47 °C for daily minimum temperature, 1 % and 0.23 °C for daily maximum temperature and 3 % and 0.33 °C for hourly temperature. Spatial modelling indicated insignificant differences between the interpolation methods, with the RK technique tending to be the slightly better method due to the high degree of spatial autocorrelation between logger sites.

  6. Script Concordance Testing in Continuing Professional Development: Local or International Reference Panels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleguezuelos, E. M.; Hornos, E.; Dory, V.; Gagnon, R.; Malagrino, P.; Brailovsky, C. A.; Charlin, B.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The PRACTICUM Institute has developed large-scale international programs of on-line continuing professional development (CPD) based on self-testing and feedback using the Practicum Script Concordance Test© (PSCT). Aims: To examine the psychometric consequences of pooling the responses of panelists from different countries (composite…

  7. 7 CFR 1779.43 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 1779.43 Section 1779.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §...

  8. 7 CFR 1779.43 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 1779.43 Section 1779.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §...

  9. 7 CFR 1779.43 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 1779.43 Section 1779.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS §...

  10. 7 CFR 610.25 - Subcommittees and Local Working Groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subcommittees and Local Working Groups. 610.25 Section 610.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE State...

  11. Tracking Control of Mobile Robots Localized via Chained Fusion of Discrete and Continuous Epipolar Geometry, IMU and Odometry.

    PubMed

    Tick, David; Satici, Aykut C; Shen, Jinglin; Gans, Nicholas

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a novel navigation and control system for autonomous mobile robots that includes path planning, localization, and control. A unique vision-based pose and velocity estimation scheme utilizing both the continuous and discrete forms of the Euclidean homography matrix is fused with inertial and optical encoder measurements to estimate the pose, orientation, and velocity of the robot and ensure accurate localization and control signals. A depth estimation system is integrated in order to overcome the loss of scale inherent in vision-based estimation. A path following control system is introduced that is capable of guiding the robot along a designated curve. Stability analysis is provided for the control system and experimental results are presented that prove the combined localization and control system performs with high accuracy. PMID:26502433

  12. 7 CFR 246.5 - Selection of local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cost efficiency and cost effectiveness of the local agency in terms of both food and nutrition services... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection of local agencies. 246.5 Section 246.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  13. 7 CFR 246.5 - Selection of local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cost efficiency and cost effectiveness of the local agency in terms of both food and nutrition services... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of local agencies. 246.5 Section 246.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  14. 7 CFR 246.5 - Selection of local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cost efficiency and cost effectiveness of the local agency in terms of both food and nutrition services... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of local agencies. 246.5 Section 246.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  15. 7 CFR 246.5 - Selection of local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cost efficiency and cost effectiveness of the local agency in terms of both food and nutrition services... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection of local agencies. 246.5 Section 246.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  16. 7 CFR 246.5 - Selection of local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cost efficiency and cost effectiveness of the local agency in terms of both food and nutrition services... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection of local agencies. 246.5 Section 246.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  17. A hybrid approach for the modal analysis of continuous systems with localized nonlinear constraints.

    SciTech Connect

    Brake, Matthew Robert

    2010-10-01

    The analysis of continuous systems with nonlinearities in their domain have previously been limited to either numerical approaches, or analytical methods that are constrained in the parameter space, boundary conditions, or order of the system. The present analysis develops a robust method for studying continuous systems with arbitrary boundary conditions and nonlinearities using the assumption that the nonlinear constraint can be modeled with a piecewise-linear force-deflection constitutive relationship. Under this assumption, a superposition method is used to generate homogeneous boundary conditions, and modal analysis is used to find the displacement of the system in each state of the piecewise-linear nonlinearity. In order to map across each nonlinearity in the piecewise-linear force-deflection profile, a variational calculus approach is taken that minimizes the L2 energy norm between the previous and current states. To illustrate this method, a leaf spring coupled with a connector pin immersed in a viscous fluid is modeled as a beam with a piecewise-linear constraint. From the results of the convergence and parameter studies, a high correlation between the finite-time Lyapunov exponents and the contact time per period of the excitation is observed. The parameter studies also indicate that when the system's parameters are changed in order to reduce the magnitude of the velocity impact between the leaf spring and connector pin, the extent of the regions over which a chaotic response is observed increases.

  18. Use of real-time and continuous water quality monitoring in Iowa streams to inform conservation strategy in an agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. S.; Kim, S. W.; Davis, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern U.S. are major contributors of nutrients to the Mississippi River Basin and the Gulf of Mexico. Many states within the Upper Mississippi River Basin, including Iowa, are developing nutrient reduction strategies to reduce non-point and point source loads of nitrogen and phosphorous in an effort to reverse degradation of streams and lakes. Quantifying nutrient loads in Iowa and assessing loads transported within Iowa rivers are important components of Iowa's strategy. Nutrient loads estimated with data collected using traditional methods of grab sampling are expensive and have met with limited usefulness to the agricultural community when assessing the effectiveness of implemented conservation practices. New sensor technology is allowing for real-time measurement of nutrient loads in many Iowa rivers. IIHR Hydroscience and Engineering has deployed 22 nitrate-nitrogen sensors in several Iowa rivers to provide accurate measure of nutrient loads. Combined with 17 sensors operated by the USGS, the sensor network captures nutrient transport and loading patterns in rivers across the state. A new Iowa Water Quality Information System (IWQIS) is being developed to display and share the continuous, real-time data. The data reported here will compare and contrast load calculations obtained using continuous monitors with those from a more traditional grab samples. We also will demonstrate how continuous nitrate monitoring informs watershed hydrology and the assessment of conservation practices designed to reduce nutrient loss from farmed fields. Finally, we will establish that the costs of real time continuous monitoring are modest when compared to grab sampling strategies and the costs of implementing conservation on productive lands in the Western Corn Belt of Iowa.

  19. An Examination of Important Competencies Necessary for Vocational Agriculture in Selected Senior Secondary Students in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onanuga, Peter Abayomi

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses the relationship existing between some specified competencies important to vocational agriculture and preparation for occupation between male and female students in senior secondary schools in Ijebu-North Local Government Area, Nigeria. It adopted the classical design for change experiment (i.e. before and after measures) with…

  20. Local adaptation along a continuous coastline: prey recruitment drives differentiation in a predatory snail.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Eric; Worth, David J

    2010-03-01

    Recent work demonstrates that nearshore oceanography can generate strong variation in the delivery of resources (nutrients and larvae) to benthic marine communities over spatial scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers. Moreover, variation in the strength of these bottom-up inputs is often spatially consistent, linked to regional centers of upwelling, coastal topography, and other stable features of the coastline. Whereas the ecological effects of these oceanographic links are increasingly clear, the possibility that these same bottom-up forces might impose spatially varying selection on consumers has not been addressed. Here, we test the hypothesis that a carnivorous snail (Nucella canaliculata) with direct development is locally adapted to persistent differences in prey recruitment within two adjacent oceanographic regions (northern California and Oregon, USA). Previous laboratory studies demonstrated that snails from Oregon rarely drilled the thick-shelled mussel Mytilus californianus, whereas snails from California readily drilled this prey. To test whether these differences reflect local adaptation, snails from two populations in each region were raised through two laboratory generations to minimize the potential influence of nongenetic effects. We then reciprocally outplanted these F2 generation snails to field enclosures at each of the four sites and monitored their growth for 11 months. Recruitment and availability of preferred prey (the acorn barnacle Balanus glandula and blue mussel Mytilus trossulus) at the experimental sites were 1-3 orders of magnitude lower in California than in Oregon. At the California sites, snails that originated from Oregon sources failed to drill larger M. californianus, encountered few alternative prey, and showed almost no growth. In contrast, snails from California drilled M. californianus and showed substantial growth. These results strongly suggest that the capacity of California snails to drill M. californianus allows

  1. The mechanism of thermal runaway due to continuous local disturbances in the YBCO-coated conductor coil winding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Y.; Okuyama, E.; Nakagome, H.; Takematsu, T.; Takao, T.; Hamada, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Kiyoshi, T.; Takizawa, A.; Takahashi, M.; Maeda, H.

    2012-07-01

    Though YBCO coils are stable against transient disturbances such as conductor motion, they suffer from thermal runaway at a current below the coil critical current due to continuous local disturbances attributed to partial degradation of the conductor in the coil winding. Continuous heat generation in the degraded layer induces thermal runaway in adjacent layers; thermal runaway does not occur in the degraded layer spontaneously due to the small n index of the degraded YBCO-coated conductor. The thermal runaway current depends on the cooling conditions of the winding. For a paraffin-impregnated YBCO coil under quasi-adiabatic conditions, the thermal runaway current is far below the coil critical current, while it is close to the coil critical current in the case of a dry-wound coil. The permissible temperature rise following a thermal runaway for YBCO conductors in the degraded layer is demonstrated to be 340 K. If the YBCO coils are operated at a temperature below 20 K, the current density, typically 600-800 A mm-2, is much higher than that at 77 K. Therefore, the time interval between thermal runaway initiation and the melting temperature becomes less than 0.5 s, posing a difficult problem for protection; i.e., thermal runaway due to continuous local disturbances is hazardous to the safe operation of high current density YBCO coils.

  2. Human Collaborative Localization and Mapping in Indoor Environments with Non-Continuous Stereo

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Edmundo; Munguia, Rodrigo; Bolea, Yolanda; Grau, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to the monocular simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem is presented in this work. Data obtained from additional bearing-only sensors deployed as wearable devices is fully fused into an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The wearable device is introduced in the context of a collaborative task within a human-robot interaction (HRI) paradigm, including the SLAM problem. Thus, based on the delayed inverse-depth feature initialization (DI-D) SLAM, data from the camera deployed on the human, capturing his/her field of view, is used to enhance the depth estimation of the robotic monocular sensor which maps and locates the device. The occurrence of overlapping between the views of both cameras is predicted through geometrical modelling, activating a pseudo-stereo methodology which allows to instantly measure the depth by stochastic triangulation of matched points found through SIFT/SURF. Experimental validation is provided through results from experiments, where real data is captured as synchronized sequences of video and other data (relative pose of secondary camera) and processed off-line. The sequences capture indoor trajectories representing the main challenges for a monocular SLAM approach, namely, singular trajectories and close turns with high angular velocities with respect to linear velocities. PMID:26927100

  3. Human Collaborative Localization and Mapping in Indoor Environments with Non-Continuous Stereo.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Edmundo; Munguia, Rodrigo; Bolea, Yolanda; Grau, Antoni

    2016-02-24

    A new approach to the monocular simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem is presented in this work. Data obtained from additional bearing-only sensors deployed as wearable devices is fully fused into an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The wearable device is introduced in the context of a collaborative task within a human-robot interaction (HRI) paradigm, including the SLAM problem. Thus, based on the delayed inverse-depth feature initialization (DI-D) SLAM, data from the camera deployed on the human, capturing his/her field of view, is used to enhance the depth estimation of the robotic monocular sensor which maps and locates the device. The occurrence of overlapping between the views of both cameras is predicted through geometrical modelling, activating a pseudo-stereo methodology which allows to instantly measure the depth by stochastic triangulation of matched points found through SIFT/SURF. Experimental validation is provided through results from experiments, where real data is captured as synchronized sequences of video and other data (relative pose of secondary camera) and processed off-line. The sequences capture indoor trajectories representing the main challenges for a monocular SLAM approach, namely, singular trajectories and close turns with high angular velocities with respect to linear velocities.

  4. Human Collaborative Localization and Mapping in Indoor Environments with Non-Continuous Stereo.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Edmundo; Munguia, Rodrigo; Bolea, Yolanda; Grau, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to the monocular simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem is presented in this work. Data obtained from additional bearing-only sensors deployed as wearable devices is fully fused into an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The wearable device is introduced in the context of a collaborative task within a human-robot interaction (HRI) paradigm, including the SLAM problem. Thus, based on the delayed inverse-depth feature initialization (DI-D) SLAM, data from the camera deployed on the human, capturing his/her field of view, is used to enhance the depth estimation of the robotic monocular sensor which maps and locates the device. The occurrence of overlapping between the views of both cameras is predicted through geometrical modelling, activating a pseudo-stereo methodology which allows to instantly measure the depth by stochastic triangulation of matched points found through SIFT/SURF. Experimental validation is provided through results from experiments, where real data is captured as synchronized sequences of video and other data (relative pose of secondary camera) and processed off-line. The sequences capture indoor trajectories representing the main challenges for a monocular SLAM approach, namely, singular trajectories and close turns with high angular velocities with respect to linear velocities. PMID:26927100

  5. Continuous inertial microparticle and blood cell separation in straight channels with local microstructures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenlong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Moran; Chung, Aram J

    2016-02-01

    Fluid inertia which has conventionally been neglected in microfluidics has been gaining much attention for particle and cell manipulation because inertia-based methods inherently provide simple, passive, precise and high-throughput characteristics. Particularly, the inertial approach has been applied to blood separation for various biomedical research studies mainly using spiral microchannels. For higher throughput, parallelization is essential; however, it is difficult to realize using spiral channels because of their large two dimensional layouts. In this work, we present a novel inertial platform for continuous sheathless particle and blood cell separation in straight microchannels containing microstructures. Microstructures within straight channels exert secondary flows to manipulate particle positions similar to Dean flow in curved channels but with higher controllability. Through a balance between inertial lift force and microstructure-induced secondary flow, we deterministically position microspheres and cells based on their sizes to be separated downstream. Using our inertial platform, we successfully sorted microparticles and fractionized blood cells with high separation efficiencies, high purities and high throughputs. The inertial separation platform developed here can be operated to process diluted blood with a throughput of 10.8 mL min(-1)via radially arrayed single channels with one inlet and two rings of outlets.

  6. Local stability analysis of discrete-time, continuous-state, complex-valued recurrent neural networks with inner state feedback.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Mohamad; Teich, Werner G; Lindner, Jürgen

    2014-04-01

    Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are well known for their capability to minimize suitable cost functions without the need for a training phase. This is possible because they can be Lyapunov stable. Although the global stability analysis has attracted a lot of interest, local stability is desirable for specific applications. In this brief, we investigate the local asymptotical stability of two classes of discrete-time, continuous-state, complex-valued RNNs with parallel update and inner state feedback. We show that many already known results are special cases of the results obtained here. We also generalize some known results from the real-valued case to the complex-valued one. Finally, we investigate the stability in the presence of time-variant activation functions. Complex-valued activation functions in this brief are separable with respect to the real and imaginary parts.

  7. A New Local Failure Model with Application to the Longitudinal Tensile Behavior of Continuously Reinforced Titanium Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    A new model for local fiber failures in composite materials loaded longitudinally is presented. In developing the model, the goal was to account for the effects of fiber breakage on the global response of a composite in a relatively simple and efficient manner. Towards this end, the model includes the important feature of local stress unloading, even as global loading of the composite continues. The model has been incorporated into NASA Glenn's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) and was employed to simulate the longitudinal tensile deformation and failure behavior of several silicon carbide fiber/titanium matrix (SiC/Ti) composites. The model is shown to be quite realistic and capable of accurate predictions for various temperatures, fiber volume fractions, and fiber diameters. Further- more, the new model compares favorably to Curtin's (1993) effective fiber breakage model, which has also been incorporated into MAC/GMC.

  8. 7 CFR 58.315 - Continuous churns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND...

  9. Production of carbonaceous adsorbents from agricultural by-products and novolac resin under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Z; Simitzis, J

    2013-02-01

    Carbonaceous adsorbents based on novolac resin (N) and olive stone biomass (B) in a proportion of 20/80 and 40/60 w./w. N/O were produced. The specimens were cured (c) and pyrolyzed/carbonized (C) up to 1000 °C under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation (N20B-cC, N40B-cC). Commercial activated carbon (AC) was used for comparison reasons. Methylene blue adsorption from its aqueous solutions onto the adsorbents and kinetic analysis were investigated. The specific surface area of adsorbents and the gross calorific values (GCV) of cured materials were determined. The results show that N40B-cC presents lower weight loss and shrinkage but higher methylene blue adsorption than N20B-cC. Pseudo-second order mechanism describes better methylene blue adsorption onto all adsorbents. The specific surface area of carbonaceous and the gross calorific values of cured materials follow the order: AC>N20B-cC>N40B-cC and N100-c>N40B-c>N20B-c>B respectively. Olive stone biomass may constitute a suitable precursor for the production of carbonaceous materials.

  10. Production of carbonaceous adsorbents from agricultural by-products and novolac resin under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Z; Simitzis, J

    2013-02-01

    Carbonaceous adsorbents based on novolac resin (N) and olive stone biomass (B) in a proportion of 20/80 and 40/60 w./w. N/O were produced. The specimens were cured (c) and pyrolyzed/carbonized (C) up to 1000 °C under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation (N20B-cC, N40B-cC). Commercial activated carbon (AC) was used for comparison reasons. Methylene blue adsorption from its aqueous solutions onto the adsorbents and kinetic analysis were investigated. The specific surface area of adsorbents and the gross calorific values (GCV) of cured materials were determined. The results show that N40B-cC presents lower weight loss and shrinkage but higher methylene blue adsorption than N20B-cC. Pseudo-second order mechanism describes better methylene blue adsorption onto all adsorbents. The specific surface area of carbonaceous and the gross calorific values of cured materials follow the order: AC>N20B-cC>N40B-cC and N100-c>N40B-c>N20B-c>B respectively. Olive stone biomass may constitute a suitable precursor for the production of carbonaceous materials. PMID:23246760

  11. Lightweight Vertical Take-Off & Landing Unmanned Aerial Systems For Local-Scale Forestry and Agriculture Remote Sensing Data Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, E.; Sheridan, R.; Popescu, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of lightweight Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) rotary Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and remote sensor technologies have provided researchers with the ability to integrate compact remote sensing systems with UAVs to create Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) capable of collecting high-resolution airborne remote sensing data. UASs offer a myriad of benefits. Some of the most notable include: (1) reduced operational cost; (2) reduced lead-time for mission planning; (3) high-resolution and high-density data collection; and (4) customization of data collection intervals to fit the needs of a specific project (i.e. acquiring data at hourly, daily, or weekly intervals). Such benefits allow researchers and natural resource managers to acquire airborne remote sensing data on local-scale phenomenon in ways that were previously cost-prohibitive. VTOL UASs also offer a stable platform capable of low speed low altitude flight over small spatial scales that do not require a dedicated runway. Such flight characteristics allow VTOL UASs to collect high-resolution data at very high densities, enabling the use of structure from motion (SFM) techniques to generate three-dimensional datasets from photographs. When combined, these characteristics make VTOL UASs ideal for collecting data over agricultural or forested research areas. The goal of this study is to provide an overview of several lightweight eight-rotor VTOL UASs designed for small-scale forest remote sensing data collection. Specific objectives include: (1) the independent integration of a lightweight multispectral camera, a lightweight scanning lidar sensor, with required components (i.e. IMU, GPS, data logger) and the UAV; (2) comparison of UAS-collected data to terrestrial lidar data and airborne multispectral and lidar data; (3) comparison of UAS SFM techniques to terrestrial lidar data; and (4) multi-temporal assessment of tree decay using terrestrial lidar and UAS SfM techniques.

  12. BreathSens: A Continuous On-Bed Respiratory Monitoring System With Torso Localization Using an Unobtrusive Pressure Sensing Array.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jason J; Huang, Ming-Chun; Xu, Wenyao; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Stevens, Luke; Alshurafa, Nabil; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-09-01

    The ability to continuously monitor respiration rates of patients in homecare or in clinics is an important goal. Past research showed that monitoring patient breathing can lower the associated mortality rates for long-term bedridden patients. Nowadays, in-bed sensors consisting of pressure sensitive arrays are unobtrusive and are suitable for deployment in a wide range of settings. Such systems aim to extract respiratory signals from time-series pressure sequences. However, variance of movements, such as unpredictable extremities activities, affect the quality of the extracted respiratory signals. BreathSens, a high-density pressure sensing system made of e-Textile, profiles the underbody pressure distribution and localizes torso area based on the high-resolution pressure images. With a robust bodyparts localization algorithm, respiratory signals extracted from the localized torso area are insensitive to arbitrary extremities movements. In a study of 12 subjects, BreathSens demonstrated its respiratory monitoring capability with variations of sleep postures, locations, and commonly tilted clinical bed conditions.

  13. Anatomy of a local-scale drought: Application of assimilated remote sensing products, crop model, and statistical methods to an agricultural drought study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashok K.; Ines, Amor V. M.; Das, Narendra N.; Prakash Khedun, C.; Singh, Vijay P.; Sivakumar, Bellie; Hansen, James W.

    2015-07-01

    Drought is of global concern for society but it originates as a local problem. It has a significant impact on water quantity and quality and influences food, water, and energy security. The consequences of drought vary in space and time, from the local scale (e.g. county level) to regional scale (e.g. state or country level) to global scale. Within the regional scale, there are multiple socio-economic impacts (i.e., agriculture, drinking water supply, and stream health) occurring individually or in combination at local scales, either in clusters or scattered. Even though the application of aggregated drought information at the regional level has been useful in drought management, the latter can be further improved by evaluating the structure and evolution of a drought at the local scale. This study addresses a local-scale agricultural drought anatomy in Story County in Iowa, USA. This complex problem was evaluated using assimilated AMSR-E soil moisture and MODIS-LAI data into a crop model to generate surface and sub-surface drought indices to explore the anatomy of an agricultural drought. Quantification of moisture supply in the root zone remains a gray area in research community, this challenge can be partly overcome by incorporating assimilation of soil moisture and leaf area index into crop modeling framework for agricultural drought quantification, as it performs better in simulating crop yield. It was noted that the persistence of subsurface droughts is in general higher than surface droughts, which can potentially improve forecast accuracy. It was found that both surface and subsurface droughts have an impact on crop yields, albeit with different magnitudes, however, the total water available in the soil profile seemed to have a greater impact on the yield. Further, agricultural drought should not be treated equal for all crops, and it should be calculated based on the root zone depth rather than a fixed soil layer depth. We envisaged that the results of

  14. A New Local Debonding Model with Application to the Transverse Tensile and Creep Behavior of Continuously Reinforced Titanium Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    A new, widely applicable model for local interfacial debonding in composite materials is presented. Unlike its direct predecessors, the new model allows debonding to progress via unloading of interfacial stresses even as global loading of the composite continues. Previous debonding models employed for analysis of titanium matrix composites are surpassed by the accuracy, simplicity, and efficiency demonstrated by the new model. The new model was designed to operate seamlessly within NASA Glenn's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC), which was employed to simulate the time- and rate-dependent (viscoplastic) transverse tensile and creep behavior of SiC/Ti composites. MAC/GMC's ability to simulate the transverse behavior of titanium matrix composites has been significantly improved by the new debonding model. Further, results indicate the need for a more accurate constitutive representation of the titanium matrix behavior in order to enable predictions of the composite transverse response, without resorting to recalibration of the debonding model parameters.

  15. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  16. Continuous, high-resolution spatial mapping of water isotopes: improving tools for quantifying local evaporation and residence times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Kate J.; Carter, Jeffrey A.; Winkler, Renato; Downing, Brian; Kendall, Carol; Bergamaschi, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotopes of water (d2H, d18O) are unique tracers of many hydrological processes including evaporation, precipitation, reservoir mixing and residence time. Historically, discrete water samples have been collected and analyzed via either Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, or more recently laser-based spectroscopic methods, such as Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). However, the analysis of discrete samples precludes the ability to construct high resolution water isotope data sets through time and space. By coupling a recently developed front-end peripheral device (Continuous Water Sampler or CWS) to a CRDS analyzer (Picarro L2130-i), we continuously measured and spatially mapped water isotopes on a transect of the Sacramento River Delta following an extended period of drought. More than two-thousand five-second average d18O and d2H measurements were made aboard the R/V King (USGS) over a six-hour period. In addition to water isotopes, nitrate, chlorophyll, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluorescence, and other water quality parameters were also measured continuously. As you travel northeast up the delta, surface waters become progressively more enriched in 18O and 2H, while nitrate decreased in concentration and chlorophyll and DOM increased. We utilize the spatially-mapped isotope data within a single transect to understand local evaporation and residence time by (i) utilizing the secondary parameter, d-excess, and (ii) using a simple mass balance model of water moving through the system (inflow, outflow and evaporation). Additional transects, to be conducted during the rainy season, should highlight how the Delta system evolves seasonally. In concert with other data previously collected from the Sacramento River Delta, we suggest the lower region represents a mixture of river waters derived from the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the more marine waters from the mouth of the San Francisco Bay. Moving NE up the Delta into shallow sloughs through flooded wetlands

  17. 7 CFR 773.10 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 773.10 Section 773.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.10 Other Federal, State,...

  18. 7 CFR 773.10 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 773.10 Section 773.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.10 Other Federal, State,...

  19. 7 CFR 774.10 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 774.10 Section 774.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS EMERGENCY LOAN FOR SEED PRODUCERS PROGRAM § 774.10 Other...

  20. 7 CFR 774.10 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 774.10 Section 774.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS EMERGENCY LOAN FOR SEED PRODUCERS PROGRAM § 774.10 Other...

  1. 7 CFR 774.10 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 774.10 Section 774.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS EMERGENCY LOAN FOR SEED PRODUCERS PROGRAM § 774.10 Other...

  2. 7 CFR 771.8 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 771.8 Section 771.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.8 Other Federal,...

  3. 7 CFR 771.8 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 771.8 Section 771.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.8 Other Federal,...

  4. 7 CFR 773.10 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 773.10 Section 773.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.10 Other Federal, State,...

  5. 7 CFR 773.10 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 773.10 Section 773.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.10 Other Federal, State,...

  6. 7 CFR 773.10 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 773.10 Section 773.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.10 Other Federal, State,...

  7. 7 CFR 771.8 - Other Federal, State, and local requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other Federal, State, and local requirements. 771.8 Section 771.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.8 Other Federal,...

  8. Theme: Delivering Agricultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Warren D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Eight articles in this theme issue deal with the nationwide implementation of agricultural literacy programs--discovering how to do it. Discussed are experiences in planning and conducting agricultural literacy programs at state and local levels. (JOW)

  9. 7 CFR 610.25 - Subcommittees and Local Working Groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 610.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... conservation interests and a variety of disciplines in the soil, water, plant, wetland, and wildlife sciences who are familiar with private land agricultural and natural resource issues in the local community;...

  10. 7 CFR 610.25 - Subcommittees and Local Working Groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 610.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... conservation interests and a variety of disciplines in the soil, water, plant, wetland, and wildlife sciences who are familiar with private land agricultural and natural resource issues in the local community;...

  11. 7 CFR 610.25 - Subcommittees and Local Working Groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 610.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... conservation interests and a variety of disciplines in the soil, water, plant, wetland, and wildlife sciences who are familiar with private land agricultural and natural resource issues in the local community;...

  12. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEVENS, GLENN Z.

    FEDERAL LEGISLATION HAS PROVIDED FOR PUBLIC PROGRAMS OF OCCUPATIONAL AGRICULTURE EDUCATION IN LAND GRANT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES, LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS, AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES SHOULD BE TO DEVELOP KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS, PROVIDE OCCUPATIONAL GUIDANCE AND PLACEMENT, AND DEVELOP ABILITIES IN HUMAN RELATIONS AND…

  13. Toward integrated multi-scale pedestal simulations including edge-localized-mode dynamics, evolution of edge-localized-mode cycles, and continuous fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. Q.; Xia, T. Y.; Yan, N.; Liu, Z. X.; Kong, D. F.; Diallo, A.; Groebner, R. J.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.

    2016-05-01

    The high-fidelity BOUT++ two-fluid code suite has demonstrated significant recent progress toward integrated multi-scale simulations of tokamak pedestal, including Edge-Localized-Mode (ELM) dynamics, evolution of ELM cycles, and continuous fluctuations, as observed in experiments. Nonlinear ELM simulations show three stages of an ELM event: (1) a linear growing phase; (2) a fast crash phase; and (3) a slow inward turbulence spreading phase lasting until the core heating flux balances the ELM energy loss and the ELM is terminated. A new coupling/splitting model has been developed to perform simulations of multi-scale ELM dynamics. Simulation tracks five ELM cycles for 10 000 Alfvén times for small ELMs. The temporal evolution of the pedestal pressure is similar to that of experimental measurements for the pedestal pressure profile collapses and recovers to a steep gradient during ELM cycles. To validate BOUT++ simulations against experimental data and develop physics understanding of the fluctuation characteristics for different tokamak operation regimes, both quasi-coherent fluctuations (QCFs) in ELMy H-modes and Weakly Coherent Modes in I-modes have been simulated using three dimensional 6-field 2-fluid electromagnetic model. The H-mode simulation results show that (1) QCFs are localized in the pedestal region having a predominant frequency at f ≃300 -400 kHz and poloidal wavenumber at kθ≃0.7 cm-1 , and propagate in the electron diamagnetic direction in the laboratory frame. The overall signatures of simulation results for QCFs show good agreement with C-Mod and DIII-D measurements. (2) The pedestal profiles giving rise to QCFs are near the marginal instability threshold for ideal peeling-ballooning modes for both C-Mod and DIII-D, while the collisional electromagnetic drift-Alfvén wave appears to be dominant for DIII-D. (3) Particle diffusivity is either smaller than the heat diffusivity for DIII-D or similar to the heat diffusivity for C-Mod. Key I

  14. Periarteritis in Lung from a Continuous-Flow Right Ventricular Assist Device: Role of the Local Renin-Angiotensin System

    PubMed Central

    Ootaki, Chiyo; Yamashita, Michifumi; Ootaki, Yoshio; Saeed, Diyar; Horai, Tetsuya; Fumoto, Hideyuki; Massiello, Alex L.; Emancipator, Steven N.; Golding, Leonard A.R.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2013-01-01

    Background We previously reported renal arterial periarteritis after implantation of a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device in calves. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the same periarteritis changes occur in the intrapulmonary arteries after implantation of a continuous-flow right ventricular assist device (CFRVAD) in calves and to determine the mechanism of those histological changes. Methods Ten calves were implanted with a CFRVAD for 29 ± 7 days, and we compared pulmonary artery samples and hemodynamic data pre- and post-CFRVAD implantation prospectively. Results Post implantation, the pulsatility index (pulmonary arterial pulse pressure/pulmonary arterial mean pressure) significantly decreased (pre 0.88 ± 0.40 vs. post 0.51 ± 0.22; p < 0.05), with severe periarteritis of the intrapulmonary arteries in all cases. Periarterial pathology included hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration. The number of inflammatory cells positive for the angiotensin II type 1 receptor was significantly higher after implantation (pre-CFRVAD 7.8 ± 6.5 vs. at autopsy 313.2 ± 145.2; p < 0.01). Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity significantly decreased after implantation (pre-CFRVAD 100%, week 1 49.7 ± 17.7%; p = 0.01). Tissue levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme also demonstrated a significant reduction (pre 0.381 ± 0.232 vs. at autopsy 0.123 ± 0.096; p = 0.043). Conclusions Periarteritis occurred in intrapulmonary arteries of calves after CFRVAD implantation. The local renin–angiotensin system (not the angiotensin-converting enzyme pathway) plays an important role in such changes. PMID:23731607

  15. The declaration of Istanbul in the Philippines: success with foreigners but a continuing challenge for local transplant tourism.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Leonardo D

    2013-11-01

    The Philippine government officially responded to the Declaration of Istanbul on Organ Trafficking and the related WHO Guidelines on organ transplantation by prohibiting all transplants to foreigners using Filipino organs. However, local tourists have escaped the regulatory radar, leaving a very wide gap in efforts against human trafficking and transplant tourism. Authorities need to deal with the situation seriously, at a minimum, by issuing clear procedures for verifying declarations of kinship or emotional bonds between donors and recipients. Foreigners who come to the country for transplants with same-nationality donors constitute a problem that is replicated in many transplant centers around the world. Also, emotionally related living donors continue to pose challenges for ethics committees, especially because of the realities associated with the existence of extended families. Those who find themselves facing these issues need to be armed with clear protocols for going through the process of verifying documents and individual declarations assiduously. There is also a need for international referral mechanisms at least to ensure that governments are aware when their citizens travel for transplant so they can take steps they consider suitable to address the vulnerabilities of exploited persons. PMID:23423444

  16. The declaration of Istanbul in the Philippines: success with foreigners but a continuing challenge for local transplant tourism.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Leonardo D

    2013-11-01

    The Philippine government officially responded to the Declaration of Istanbul on Organ Trafficking and the related WHO Guidelines on organ transplantation by prohibiting all transplants to foreigners using Filipino organs. However, local tourists have escaped the regulatory radar, leaving a very wide gap in efforts against human trafficking and transplant tourism. Authorities need to deal with the situation seriously, at a minimum, by issuing clear procedures for verifying declarations of kinship or emotional bonds between donors and recipients. Foreigners who come to the country for transplants with same-nationality donors constitute a problem that is replicated in many transplant centers around the world. Also, emotionally related living donors continue to pose challenges for ethics committees, especially because of the realities associated with the existence of extended families. Those who find themselves facing these issues need to be armed with clear protocols for going through the process of verifying documents and individual declarations assiduously. There is also a need for international referral mechanisms at least to ensure that governments are aware when their citizens travel for transplant so they can take steps they consider suitable to address the vulnerabilities of exploited persons.

  17. Relative capacities of time-gated versus continuous-wave imaging to localize tissue embedded vessels with increasing depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Nimit L.; Lin, Zi-Jing; Rathore, Yajuvendra; Livingston, Edward H.; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-01-01

    Surgeons often cannot see major vessels embedded in adipose tissue and inadvertently injure them. One such example occurs during surgical removal of the gallbladder, where injury of the nearby common bile duct leads to life-threatening complications. Near-infrared imaging of the intraoperative field may help surgeons localize such critical tissue-embedded vessels. We have investigated how continuous-wave (CW) imaging performs relative to time-gated wide-field imaging, presently a rather costly technology, under broad Gaussian beam-illumination conditions. We have studied the simplified case of an isolated cylinder having bile-duct optical properties, embedded at different depths within a 2-cm slab of adipose tissue. Monte Carlo simulations were preformed for both reflectance and transillumination geometries. The relative performance of CW versus time-gated imaging was compared in terms of spatial resolution and contrast-to-background ratio in the resulting simulated images. It was found that time-gated imaging offers superior spatial resolution and vessel-detection sensitivity in most cases, though CW transillumination measurements may also offer satisfactory performance for this tissue geometry at lower cost. Experiments were performed in reflectance geometry to validate simulation results, and potential challenges in the translation of this technology to the clinic are discussed.

  18. Entanglement transfer from two-mode anti-correlated continuous-variable systems to a pair of localized discrete systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Du; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2016-04-01

    We address the entanglement transfer from a bipartite continuous-variable(CV) system to a pair of localized discrete systems. The dynamics behavior can be implemented by two two-level atoms flying through spatially separated identical cavities where two quantized modes are injected. We assume each CV mode couples to one atom via the resonant Jaynes-Cummings interaction. The CV systems are initially prepared in a two-mode anti-correlated SU(2) coherent state, while with the initial atomic states of the cases: |g⟩1|g⟩2, |e⟩1|e⟩2 and |g⟩1|e⟩2, respectively. We find that the entanglement transfer for single-photon excitation case is more efficient than that for multi-photon excitation case. Under same conditions, we also note that the entanglement transfer is more efficient for SU(2) coherent state than for twin-bean (TWB) and pair-coherent (TMC) state. Besides, we show that, for a given total photon number of the initial SU(2) coherent state, the efficiency of entanglement transfer depends upon the distribution of photons in the two CV modes. We also consider the influences of the dissipation and the white noise on the entanglement transfer.

  19. Local Lorentz force flowmeter at a continuous caster model using a new generation multicomponent force and torque sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Daniel; Schleichert, Jan; Karcher, Christian; Fröhlich, Thomas; Wondrak, Thomas; Timmel, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Lorentz force velocimetry is a non-invasive velocity measurement technique for electrical conductive liquids like molten steel. In this technique, the metal flow interacts with a static magnetic field generating eddy currents which, in turn, produce flow-braking Lorentz forces within the fluid. These forces are proportional to the electrical conductivity and to the velocity of the melt. Due to Newton’s third law, a counter force of the same magnitude acts on the source of the applied static magnetic field which is in our case a permanent magnet. In this paper we will present a new multicomponent sensor for the local Lorentz force flowmeter (L2F2) which is able to measure simultaneously all three components of the force as well as all three components of the torque. Therefore, this new sensor is capable of accessing all three velocity components at the same time in the region near the wall. In order to demonstrate the potential of this new sensor, it is used to identify the 3-dimensional velocity field near the wide face of the mold of a continuous caster model available at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. As model melt, the eutectic alloy GaInSn is used.

  20. 7 CFR 2201.9 - Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television Broadcast Signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Local Television Broadcast Signals. 2201.9 Section 2201.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 2201.9 Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television...

  1. 7 CFR 2201.9 - Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television Broadcast Signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Local Television Broadcast Signals. 2201.9 Section 2201.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 2201.9 Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television...

  2. 7 CFR 2201.9 - Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television Broadcast Signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Local Television Broadcast Signals. 2201.9 Section 2201.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 2201.9 Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television...

  3. 7 CFR 2201.9 - Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television Broadcast Signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Local Television Broadcast Signals. 2201.9 Section 2201.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 2201.9 Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television...

  4. 7 CFR 2201.9 - Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television Broadcast Signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Local Television Broadcast Signals. 2201.9 Section 2201.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 2201.9 Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television...

  5. Regional and Local Carbon Flux Information from a Continuous Atmospheric CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, S. L.; Stephens, B.; Watt, A.

    2007-12-01

    We will present preliminary carbon flux estimates from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON). In order to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes in the Rocky Mountain West, we have developed and deployed autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analyzers (AIRCOA) at five sites throughout Colorado and Utah, and plan additional deployments on the Navajo Reservation, Arizona in September 2007 and atop Mount Kenya, Africa in November 2007. We have used a one- dimensional CO2 budget equation, following Bakwin et al. (2004), to estimate regional monthly-mean fluxes from our continuous CO2 concentrations. These comparisons between our measurements and estimates of free- tropospheric background concentrations reveal regional-scale CO2 flux signals that are generally consistent with one another across the Rocky RACCOON sites. We will compare the timing and magnitude of these estimates with expectations from local-scale eddy-correlation flux measurements and bottom-up ecosystem models. We will also interpret the differences in monthly-mean flux signals between our sites in terms of their varying upwind areas of influence and inferred regional variations in CO2 fluxes. Our measurements will be included in future CarbonTracker assimilation runs and other planned model-data fusion efforts. However, questions still exist concerning the ability of these models to accurately represent the various influences on CO2 concentrations in continental boundary layers, and at mountaintop sites in particular. We will present an analysis of the diurnal cycles in CO2 concentration and CO2 variability at our sites, and compare these to various model estimates. Several of our sites near major population centers reflect the influence of industrial CO2 sources in afternoon upslope flows, with CO2 concentration increasing and variable in the mid to late afternoon. Other more remote sites show more consistent and decreasing CO2

  6. Stage-independent, single lead EEG sleep spindle detection using the continuous wavelet transform and local weighted smoothing.

    PubMed

    Tsanas, Athanasios; Clifford, Gari D

    2015-01-01

    Sleep spindles are critical in characterizing sleep and have been associated with cognitive function and pathophysiological assessment. Typically, their detection relies on the subjective and time-consuming visual examination of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal(s) by experts, and has led to large inter-rater variability as a result of poor definition of sleep spindle characteristics. Hitherto, many algorithmic spindle detectors inherently make signal stationarity assumptions (e.g., Fourier transform-based approaches) which are inappropriate for EEG signals, and frequently rely on additional information which may not be readily available in many practical settings (e.g., more than one EEG channels, or prior hypnogram assessment). This study proposes a novel signal processing methodology relying solely on a single EEG channel, and provides objective, accurate means toward probabilistically assessing the presence of sleep spindles in EEG signals. We use the intuitively appealing continuous wavelet transform (CWT) with a Morlet basis function, identifying regions of interest where the power of the CWT coefficients corresponding to the frequencies of spindles (11-16 Hz) is large. The potential for assessing the signal segment as a spindle is refined using local weighted smoothing techniques. We evaluate our findings on two databases: the MASS database comprising 19 healthy controls and the DREAMS sleep spindle database comprising eight participants diagnosed with various sleep pathologies. We demonstrate that we can replicate the experts' sleep spindles assessment accurately in both databases (MASS database: sensitivity: 84%, specificity: 90%, false discovery rate 83%, DREAMS database: sensitivity: 76%, specificity: 92%, false discovery rate: 67%), outperforming six competing automatic sleep spindle detection algorithms in terms of correctly replicating the experts' assessment of detected spindles. PMID:25926784

  7. Stage-independent, single lead EEG sleep spindle detection using the continuous wavelet transform and local weighted smoothing

    PubMed Central

    Tsanas, Athanasios; Clifford, Gari D.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep spindles are critical in characterizing sleep and have been associated with cognitive function and pathophysiological assessment. Typically, their detection relies on the subjective and time-consuming visual examination of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal(s) by experts, and has led to large inter-rater variability as a result of poor definition of sleep spindle characteristics. Hitherto, many algorithmic spindle detectors inherently make signal stationarity assumptions (e.g., Fourier transform-based approaches) which are inappropriate for EEG signals, and frequently rely on additional information which may not be readily available in many practical settings (e.g., more than one EEG channels, or prior hypnogram assessment). This study proposes a novel signal processing methodology relying solely on a single EEG channel, and provides objective, accurate means toward probabilistically assessing the presence of sleep spindles in EEG signals. We use the intuitively appealing continuous wavelet transform (CWT) with a Morlet basis function, identifying regions of interest where the power of the CWT coefficients corresponding to the frequencies of spindles (11–16 Hz) is large. The potential for assessing the signal segment as a spindle is refined using local weighted smoothing techniques. We evaluate our findings on two databases: the MASS database comprising 19 healthy controls and the DREAMS sleep spindle database comprising eight participants diagnosed with various sleep pathologies. We demonstrate that we can replicate the experts' sleep spindles assessment accurately in both databases (MASS database: sensitivity: 84%, specificity: 90%, false discovery rate 83%, DREAMS database: sensitivity: 76%, specificity: 92%, false discovery rate: 67%), outperforming six competing automatic sleep spindle detection algorithms in terms of correctly replicating the experts' assessment of detected spindles. PMID:25926784

  8. The Effectiveness of Instructional Methods Based on Learning Style Preferences of Agricultural Students: A Research Tool for Continuous Improvement for Faculty in Career and Technical Education (CTE) Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazarro, Dominick E.; Pannkuk, Tim; Pavelock, Dwayne; Hubbard, Darcy

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to research learning style preferences of agriculture students. Specifically, the objectives which guided the study were: (1) to determine the learning style preferences of undergraduate agricultural students enrolled in a given Soil Science course and (2) to ascertain if there were differences in the students' course…

  9. Use of the Filter-Sandwich carriers in continuous effectiveness monitoring of slurry treatment methods as an element improving biosafety in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Piotr; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga; Bauza-Kaszewska, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    Slurry, due to high microbiological contamination, requires hygienization before spreading. The agricultural usage of treated slurry has to guarantee biosafety. Therefore, constant monitoring of the slurry treatment process should be conducted. The use of Filter-Sandwich carriers seems to be a prospective solution. The aim of the research was to test whether Filter-Sandwich carriers influence the survivability of microorganisms during the slurry hygienization process and hence, whether they are safe for the environment. Raw cattle and swine slurry with different dry matter content was the research material. Salmonella Senftenberg W775 rods were introduced directly into the slurry and into the carriers placed in the liquid excrements stored at 4 and 20ºC, and underwent anaerobic digestion at 35ºC. The number of tested bacteria obtained from the slurry and carriers was determined using the MPN method with proper microbiological media. The values of physicochemical parameters of the raw and treated slurry were determined, both for the carriers and for slurry only. Biosafety control was also conducted for the carriers in slurry containers. The differences in the theoretical survivability between Salmonella Senftenberg W775 re-isolated from the slurry and the carriers, and in the values of the selected physicochemical parameters obtained at the end of the process, were not statistically significant. The re-contamination of the sterile slurry caused by the bacteria in the carrier was not observed after placement of the carrier with inoculated material. The conducted research proves the usefulness of Filter-Sandwich carriers for continuous hygienization monitoring of the slurry treatment process. This refers not only to the semi-technical scale, but also to the full-scale process. PMID:23772570

  10. 7 CFR 799.7 - Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval. 799.7 Section 799.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  11. 7 CFR 799.7 - Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval. 799.7 Section 799.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  12. 7 CFR 799.7 - Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval. 799.7 Section 799.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  13. Moving from local to State water governance to resolve a local conflict between irrigated agriculture and commercial forestry in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Virginie; McKay, Jennifer; Keremane, Ganesh

    2014-11-01

    In the Lower Limestone Coast, South Australia, a unique water allocation plan has been under consideration for several years. This plan is the first in Australia to consider forestry as a water affecting activity. Indeed, forestry plantations have a twofold impact on water-rainfall or aquifer recharge interception and direct extraction of groundwater in shallow water table areas-and alter the available water for irrigation as a result of the previous water budget. This paper examines how water is allocated across the competing requirements for water but also across the competing legal, economic and administrative scales embodied by the competing water users; and thus it also details the pre-judicial mechanism used to resolve the conflict over these competing scales. Qualitative and quantitative content analysis in Nvivo was applied to: (i) 180 local newspaper articles on the planning process, (ii) 65 submission forms filled in by the community during a public consultation on the draft water plan and (iii) 20 face-to-face interviews of keys stakeholders involved in the planning process. The social sustainability perspective taken in this study establishes the legal, economic and administrative competitive scales at stake in the conflict regarding water between forestry and irrigation. It also evidences the special feature of this paper, which is that to overcome these competitions and resolve the local conflict before judicial process, the water governance moved up in the administrative scale, from local/regional to State level. Initiated and initially prepared at regional level through the local Natural Resources Management Board, the water planning process was taken up to State level through the formation of an Interdepartmental Committee and the establishment of a Taskforce in charge of developing a policy. These were supported by an amendment of a State legislation on Natural Resources Management to manage the water impacts of forestry plantations.

  14. Agricultural Education: Value Adding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This issue develops the theme of "Agricultural Education--Value Adding." The concept value adding has been a staple in the world of agricultural business for describing adding value to a commodity that would profit the producer and the local community. Agricultural education should add value to individuals and society to justify agricultural…

  15. West Nile Virus Prevalence across Landscapes Is Mediated by Local Effects of Agriculture on Vector and Host Communities

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, David W.; Dykstra, Elizabeth A.; Brauner, Jo Marie; Duffy, Anne; Reed, Caitlin; Martin, Emily; Peterson, Wade; Carrière, Yves; Dutilleul, Pierre; Owen, Jeb P.

    2013-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) threaten the health of humans, livestock, and wildlife. West Nile virus (WNV), the world’s most widespread arbovirus, invaded the United States in 1999 and rapidly spread across the county. Although the ecology of vectors and hosts are key determinants of WNV prevalence across landscapes, the factors shaping local vector and host populations remain unclear. Here, we used spatially-explicit models to evaluate how three land-use types (orchards, vegetable/forage crops, natural) and two climatic variables (temperature, precipitation) influence the prevalence of WNV infections and vector/host distributions at landscape and local spatial scales. Across landscapes, we show that orchard habitats were associated with greater prevalence of WNV infections in reservoirs (birds) and incidental hosts (horses), while increased precipitation was associated with fewer infections. At local scales, orchard habitats increased the prevalence of WNV infections in vectors (mosquitoes) and the abundance of mosquitoes and two key reservoir species, the American robin and the house sparrow. Thus, orchard habitats benefitted WNV vectors and reservoir hosts locally, creating focal points for the transmission of WNV at landscape scales in the presence of suitable climatic conditions. PMID:23383032

  16. Continuous Local Infiltration Analgesia for Pain Control After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Hu; Ma, Jian-Xiong; Li, Feng-Bo; Li, Yan-Jun; Meng, Xin-Min; Ma, Xin-Long

    2015-11-01

    A total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has always been associated with moderate to severe pain. As more research is conducted on the use of continuous local infiltration analgesia (CLIA) to manage pain after a TKA, it is necessary to reassess the efficacy and safety of the TKA method. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pain control of CLIA versus placebo after a TKA. In January 2015, a systematic computer-based search was conducted in the Medline, Embase, PubMed, CENTRAL (Cochrane Controlled Trials Register), Web of Science, Google database, and Chinese Wanfang databases. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement criteria. The primary endpoint was the visual analog scale score after a TKA with rest or mobilization at 24, 48, and 72 hours, which represents the effect of pain control after TKA. The complications of infection, nausea, and whether it prolonged wound drainage were also compiled to assess the safety of CLIA. RevMan 5.30 software was used for the meta-analysis. After testing for publication bias and heterogeneity across studies, data were aggregated for random-effects modeling when necessary. Ten studies involving 735 patients met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis revealed that continuous infusion analgesia provided better pain control with rest at 24 hours (mean difference [MD] -12.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] -16.63 to 8.45), and with mobilization at 24 hours (MD -18.27, 95% CI -27.52 to 9.02) and 48 hours (MD -14.19, 95% CI -21.46 to 6.93). There was no significant difference with respect to the visual analog scale score at 48 hours (MD -6.15, 95% CI -13.51 to 1.22, P = 0.10) and 72 hours (MD -3.63, 95% CI -10.43 to 3.16, P = 0.29) with rest and at 72 hours with mobilization (MD -4.25, 95% CI -16.27 to 7.77, P = 0

  17. Discussion about decision support systems using continuous multi-criteria methods for planning in areas with hydro-basins, agriculture and forests, from examples in Argentine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.; Sanchez, E.

    2012-04-01

    The authors were involved last years in projects considering diverse decision problems on the use of some regions in Argentine, and also related to rivers or rural services in them. They used sets of multi-criteria decision methods, first discrete when the problem included few distinct alternatives, such as e.g. forestry, traditional or intensive agriculture. For attributes they were different effects, classified then in environmental, economic and social criteria. Extending to other gentler areas, such as at South of the Province of Córdoba, Arg., they have balanced more delicately effects of continuous levels of actions, with a combination of Goal Programming linked methods, and they adopted compromises to have precise solutions. That has shown, and in part open, a line of research, as the setting of such models require various kinds of definitions and valuations, including optimizations, goals with penalties in deviations and restrictions. That can be in diverse detail level and horizon, in presence of various technical and human horizons, and that can influence politics of use of terrain and production that will require public and private agents. The research will consider consideration of use and conservation of soils, human systems and agro productions, and hence models for optimization, preferably in such Goal Programming ways. That will require considering various systems of models, first in theory to be reliable, and then in different areas to evaluate the quality of conclusions, and maybe that successively if results are found advantageous. The Bayesian ways will be considered, but they would require a prospective of sets of precise future states of nature or markets with elicited probabilities, which are neither evident nor decisive for the moment, as changes may occur in years but will be very unexpected or uncertain. The results will be lines of models to aid to establish policies of use of territories, by public agencies setting frames for private

  18. The potential for tree planting strategies to reduce local and regional ecosystem impacts of agricultural ammonia emissions.

    PubMed

    Bealey, W J; Dore, A J; Dragosits, U; Reis, S; Reay, D S; Sutton, M A

    2016-01-01

    Trees are very effective at capturing both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere. But while studies have often focussed on PM and NOx in the urban environment, little research has been carried out on the tree effect of capturing gaseous emissions of ammonia in the rural landscape. To examine the removal or scavenging of ammonia by trees a long-range atmospheric model (FRAME) was used to compare two strategies that could be used in emission reduction policies anywhere in the world where nitrogen pollution from agriculture is a problem. One strategy was to reduce the emission source strength of livestock management systems by implementing two 'tree-capture' systems scenarios - tree belts downwind of housing and managing livestock under trees. This emission reduction can be described as an 'on-farm' emission reduction policy, as ammonia is 'stopped' from dispersion outside the farm boundaries. The second strategy was to apply an afforestation policy targeting areas of high ammonia emission through two planting scenarios of increasing afforestation by 25% and 50%. Both strategies use trees with the aim of intercepting NH3 emissions to protect semi-natural areas. Scenarios for on-farm emission reductions showed national reductions in nitrogen deposition to semi-natural areas of 0.14% (0.2 kt N-NHx) to 2.2% (3.15 kt N-NHx). Scenarios mitigating emissions from cattle and pig housing gave the highest reductions. The afforestation strategy showed national reductions of 6% (8.4 kt N-NHx) to 11% (15.7 kt N-NHx) for 25% and 50% afforestation scenarios respectively. Increased capture by the planted trees also showed an added benefit of reducing long range effects including a decrease in wet deposition up to 3.7 kt N-NHx (4.6%) and a decrease in export from the UK up to 8.3 kt N-NHx (6.8%).

  19. The potential for tree planting strategies to reduce local and regional ecosystem impacts of agricultural ammonia emissions.

    PubMed

    Bealey, W J; Dore, A J; Dragosits, U; Reis, S; Reay, D S; Sutton, M A

    2016-01-01

    Trees are very effective at capturing both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere. But while studies have often focussed on PM and NOx in the urban environment, little research has been carried out on the tree effect of capturing gaseous emissions of ammonia in the rural landscape. To examine the removal or scavenging of ammonia by trees a long-range atmospheric model (FRAME) was used to compare two strategies that could be used in emission reduction policies anywhere in the world where nitrogen pollution from agriculture is a problem. One strategy was to reduce the emission source strength of livestock management systems by implementing two 'tree-capture' systems scenarios - tree belts downwind of housing and managing livestock under trees. This emission reduction can be described as an 'on-farm' emission reduction policy, as ammonia is 'stopped' from dispersion outside the farm boundaries. The second strategy was to apply an afforestation policy targeting areas of high ammonia emission through two planting scenarios of increasing afforestation by 25% and 50%. Both strategies use trees with the aim of intercepting NH3 emissions to protect semi-natural areas. Scenarios for on-farm emission reductions showed national reductions in nitrogen deposition to semi-natural areas of 0.14% (0.2 kt N-NHx) to 2.2% (3.15 kt N-NHx). Scenarios mitigating emissions from cattle and pig housing gave the highest reductions. The afforestation strategy showed national reductions of 6% (8.4 kt N-NHx) to 11% (15.7 kt N-NHx) for 25% and 50% afforestation scenarios respectively. Increased capture by the planted trees also showed an added benefit of reducing long range effects including a decrease in wet deposition up to 3.7 kt N-NHx (4.6%) and a decrease in export from the UK up to 8.3 kt N-NHx (6.8%). PMID:26413804

  20. Responses of forest cover and agricultural land changes to local and national drivers of land development in the Miombo Woodlands of western Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, M. T.; Mustard, J. F.; Melillo, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Among dry tropical forest ecosystems globally, the Miombo Woodlands of western Tanzania have experienced extensive forest cover changes in the past two decades that remain poorly understood at regional (100s km2) spatial scales. Recent studies have associated large areas of forest loss in the Miombo with agricultural activities, such as increased tobacco cultivation since the 1990s. However, the dynamics of forest regrowth and net changes in forest cover have not been well characterized. Landscape phenology is complex due to high seasonal and inter-annual variability in vegetation productivity, forest structure, smallholder land use practices, and fire dynamics. Improved characterization of forest and agricultural land cover phenology is needed to use remote sensing more effectively for studying land changes in the Miombo. This project assesses patterns of forest loss and regrowth, and analyzes their relationships to climate, landscape biophysical factors, and agricultural policies and activities in Tabora Province in western Tanzania, from 1990-2013. We develop new satellite remote sensing methods for mapping dry tropical forest and non-forest land cover, based on differences in their seasonal phenology patterns in Landsat imagery quantified using spectral mixture analysis (SMA). Using z-score metrics on SMA fraction images, we find that forest regions have significantly lower sums of substrate and non-photosynthetic vegetation pixel fractions than non-forest regions. We validate our algorithm with field data from 2012-2013 and show that it provides reasonable estimates of forest and non-forest land cover in analyses of imagery from single or multiple dates. Our main objectives are to evaluate whether patterns of forest loss and regrowth show spatial relationships with localized land use practices and environmental factors, or if land changes reflect influences of national to global-scale drivers. For local drivers, we examine if areas of forest loss and regrowth

  1. 7 CFR 1160.117 - Continuation referendum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Continuation referendum. 1160.117 Section 1160.117 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Order Definitions § 1160.117 Continuation referendum. Continuation referendum means that...

  2. 7 CFR 1160.117 - Continuation referendum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation referendum. 1160.117 Section 1160.117 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Order Definitions § 1160.117 Continuation referendum. Continuation referendum means that...

  3. Free and local continuing medical education does not guarantee surgeon participation in maintenance of certification learning activities.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Renae E; Dreesen, Elizabeth B; Charles, Anthony; Marshall, Harry; Rudisill, Michele; Estes, Eithiel

    2010-07-01

    The American Board of Surgery has adopted the Maintenance of Certification requirement for surgeons. It requires continuous professional development (CPD) using active and passive learning modalities in contrast to traditional continuing medical education (CME). The Rural Trauma Team Development Course developed by the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma is a CPD learning activity. We provided 22 free courses between May 2007 and June 2009 to trauma care providers at 11 affiliated community and critical access hospitals. The course was taught on-site by an interdisciplinary group and at least one trauma surgeon was faculty. Free Category I CME credits and continuing education units were provided. Two hundred thirty-four providers attended and the majority were RNs (60%) and emergency medical technicians (21.8%). Only 18 were physicians (7.7%) and none were surgeons. The majority felt that they would change their practice as a result of the course but cited the lack of attendance at the course by emergency physicians and surgeons as a deficit. It may be that surgeons have barriers such as time away from a practice to attending these newer types of educational opportunities. Those who develop and offer these courses may need to develop different strategies to reach this target audience.

  4. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  5. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  6. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  7. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  8. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  9. Deriving Continuous Fields of Tree Cover at 1-m over the Continental United States From the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) Imagery to Reduce Uncertainties in Forest Carbon Stock Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, S.; Basu, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Michaelis, A.; Milesi, C.; Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    An unresolved issue with coarse-to-medium resolution satellite-based forest carbon mapping over regional to continental scales is the high level of uncertainty in above ground biomass (AGB) estimates caused by the absence of forest cover information at a high enough spatial resolution (current spatial resolution is limited to 30-m). To put confidence in existing satellite-derived AGB density estimates, it is imperative to create continuous fields of tree cover at a sufficiently high resolution (e.g. 1-m) such that large uncertainties in forested area are reduced. The proposed work will provide means to reduce uncertainty in present satellite-derived AGB maps and Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) based regional estimates. Our primary objective will be to create Very High Resolution (VHR) estimates of tree cover at a spatial resolution of 1-m for the Continental United States using all available National Agriculture Imaging Program (NAIP) color-infrared imagery from 2010 till 2012. We will leverage the existing capabilities of the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) high performance computing and storage facilities. The proposed 1-m tree cover map can be further aggregated to provide percent tree cover at any medium-to-coarse resolution spatial grid, which will aid in reducing uncertainties in AGB density estimation at the respective grid and overcome current limitations imposed by medium-to-coarse resolution land cover maps. We have implemented a scalable and computationally-efficient parallelized framework for tree-cover delineation - the core components of the algorithm [that] include a feature extraction process, a Statistical Region Merging image segmentation algorithm and a classification algorithm based on Deep Belief Network and a Feedforward Backpropagation Neural Network algorithm. An initial pilot exercise has been performed over the state of California (~11,000 scenes) to create a wall-to-wall 1-m tree cover map and the classification accuracy has been assessed

  10. Different Personal Skills and Competencies Which Local Agricultural Advisers Can Use to Co-Create Change in Management Procedures: A Case-Study of Danish Dairy Farmers and Advisers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, H. J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper three different skills and competencies of the local agricultural adviser are described: "The specialist, the reflective specialist and the reflective listener". The skills and competencies are framed as potentials and theoretically rooted in the ideas of George Herbert Mead, Chris Argyris and Donald Schon. The empirical background…

  11. Gender Disparities and Socio-Economic Factors on Learning Achievements in Agricultural Science in Rural and Urban Secondary Schools of Ogbomoso North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…

  12. Regional and Local Carbon Flux Information from a Continuous Atmospheric CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, S.; Stephens, B.; Watt, A.; Schimel, D.; Aulenbach, S.

    2006-12-01

    We have established a Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON) to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes and to fill key gaps in the North American Carbon Program (NACP). There are strong scientific and societal motivations for determining CO2 exchanges on regional scales. Mountain forests in particular represent a significant potential net CO2 sink in the U.S. and are highly sensitive to land-use practices and climate change. We have developed a new autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analysis system (AIRCOA) and have deployed these systems at 4 sites: Niwot Ridge (NWR), near Ward, Colorado (August, 2005); Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) near Steamboat Springs, Colorado (September, 2005); Fraser Experimental Forest (FEF), near Fraser Colorado (August, 2005); and Hidden Peak (HDP), near Snowbird, Utah (April, 2006). We will deploy a fifth site in Northeastern Arizona in September 2006. Measurements of surveillance gas cylinders, and an ongoing intercomparison with flask measurements made by NOAA GMD at Niwot Ridge, show measurement biases of 0.2 ppm or better. Preliminary analysis of CO2 variability at our sites provides valuable information on the usefulness of mountaintop observations in data-assimilation and inverse modeling. Comparisons between our sites and to background sites can give direct regional-scale flux estimates, and analysis of the nocturnal CO2 build-ups at FEF provides unique insights into valley-scale respiration rates. We will present results of these preliminary analyses and plans for future integration with the NACP effort.

  13. Agricultural Education Teacher Leaders' Development of Ownership and Responsibility for the Profession through Participation in Continuing Professional Education Program Planning: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westfall-Rudd, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, planning and delivery of professional development for public school teachers was centralized in state departments of education and universities, with teachers having little input or control over the content. For many years the literature in adult and continuing education has reflected an emphasis on learner participation in program…

  14. Effects of local geology on ground motion in the San Francisco Bay region, California—A continued study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, James F.; Borcherdt, Roger D.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of ground motion generated by nuclear explosions in Nevada have been completed for 99 locations in the San Francisco Bay region, California. The seismograms, Fourier amplitude spectra, spectral amplification curves for the signal, and the Fourier amplitude spectra of the seismic noise are presented for 60 locations. Analog amplifications, based on the maximum signal amplitude, are computed for an additional 39 locations. The recordings of the nuclear explosions show marked amplitude variations which are consistently related to the local geologic conditions of the recording site. The average spectral amplifications observed for vertical and horizontal ground motions are, respectively: (1, 1) for granite, (1.5, 1.6) for the Franciscan Formation, (2.3, 2.3), for other pre-Tertiary and Tertiary rocks, (3.0, 2.7) for the Santa Clara Formation, (3.3, 4.4) for older bay sediments, and (3.7, 11.3) for younger bay mud. Spectral amplification curves define predominant ground frequencies for younger bay mud sites and for some older bay sediment sites. The predominant frequencies for most sites were not clearly defined by the amplitude spectra computed from the seismic background noise. The intensities ascribed to various sites in the San Francisco Bay region for the California earthquake of April 18, 1906, are strongly dependent on distance from the zone of surface faulting and the geological character of the ground. Considering only those sites (approximately one square city block in size) for which there is good evidence for the degree of ascribed intensity, the intensities for 917 sites on Franciscan rocks generally decrease with the logarithm of distance as Intensity = 2.69 - 1.90 log (Distance Km). For sites on other geologic units, intensity increments, derived from this empirical rela.tion, correlate strongly with the Average Horizontal Spectral Amplifications (MISA) according to the empirical relation Intensity Increment= 0.27 + 2.70 log(AHSA). Average

  15. A continuous ice-core 10Be record from Mongolian mid-latitudes: Influences of solar variability and local climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inceoglu, F.; Knudsen, M. F.; Olsen, J.; Karoff, C.; Herren, P.-A.; Schwikowski, M.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.

    2016-03-01

    High-resolution 10Be records used for studies of detailed changes in atmospheric 10Be production rates predominantly derive from polar ice cores. In this study, we present the first 10Be record from a mid-latitude ice core. The ice core derives from the Tsambagarav mountain range located in the Mongolian Altai region. The new 10Be concentration record spans the period from AD 1550 to 2009, while the flux record extends from AD 1816 to 2009. The 10Be concentration in the Tsambagarav ice core ranges between ∼ 1.5 ×104 and ∼ 10 ×104 atomsg-1, whereas the 10Be flux changes from ∼0.02 to ∼0.15 atoms cm-2 s-1. The average 10Be flux at Tsambagarav is four times higher than the average 10Be flux recorded in the NGRIP and Dome Fuji ice cores, which is in accordance with model predictions. In general, the long-term trends observed in the Tsambagarav 10Be concentration and flux records are reasonably similar to those observed in the NGRIP ice core. A comparison between the Tsambagarav 10Be record, group sunspot numbers (GSNs), and solar modulation potentials based on 14C in tree rings suggests that the Maunder Minimum was associated with a prolonged maximum in 10Be concentrations at Tsambagarav, whereas the Dalton Minimum was associated with a minor increase in the 10Be concentration and flux that was delayed relative to the primary minimum in GSNs. The sulphate record from Tsambagarav shows that large positive anomalies in the sulphate concentration are associated with negative anomalies in the 10Be concentration. A concurrent positive sulphate anomaly may explain why the main phase of the Dalton Minimum is subdued in the 10Be record from Tsambagarav. Spectral analysis indicates that the 11-yr solar-cycle signal may have influenced the new 10Be record, but the evidence supporting a direct link is ambiguous. Local and regional climatic changes, such as cyclonic versus anticyclonic conditions and related storm tracks, most likely played a significant role for the 10

  16. Continuous 7-Days-A-Week External Beam Irradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Final Results of the Phase I/II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Serkies, Krystyna; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Jassem, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of definitive continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation without breaks between external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1998 and December 1999, 30 patients with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Stage IIB or IIIB cervical cancer were included in a prospective Phase I/II study of continuous 7-days-a-week pelvic irradiation, to the total Manchester point B dose of 40.0-57.6 Gy. The first 13 patients (Group A) were given a daily tumor dose of 1.6 Gy, and the remaining 17 patients (Group B) were given 1.8 Gy. One or two immediate brachytherapy applications (point A dose 10-20 Gy, each) were performed in 28 cases. Results: Two patients did not complete the irradiation because of apparent early progression of disease during the irradiation. Eleven of the 28 evaluable patients (39%; 45% and 35% in Groups A and B, respectively) completed their treatment within the prescribed overall treatment time. Acute toxicity (including severe European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 and 4 effects in 40%) was experienced by 83% of patients and resulted in unplanned treatment interruptions in 40% of all patients (31% and 47% of patients in Groups A and B, respectively). Severe intestinal side effects occurred in 31% and 41% of Patients in Groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.71). The 5-year overall survival probability was 33%. Cancer recurrence occurred in 63% of patients: 20% inside and 57% outside the pelvis. Cumulative incidence of late severe bowel and urinary bladder toxicity at 24 months was 15%. Conclusion: Continuous irradiation in locally advanced cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of severe acute toxicity, resulting in unplanned treatment interruptions. Late severe effects and survival after continuous radiotherapy do not substantially differ from

  17. Faut-il continuer à infiltrer le scalp par un anesthésique local pour une craniotomie?

    PubMed Central

    Doumiri, Mouhssine; Motiaa, Youssef; Razine, Rachid; Amor, Morad; Moussaoui, Abdelmajid; Kabbaj, Saad; Maazouzi, Wajdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le maintien de la stabilité hémodynamique est un objectif primordial de l'anesthésie pour craniotomie. Peu d’études ont prouvé l'efficacité de l'infiltration du scalp par un anesthésique local pour le maintien de la stabilité hémodynamique après l'incision. L'objectif de notre travail est d’évaluer l'influence de l'infiltration de la ligne d'incision du scalp par la lidocaïne à 0,5% adrénalinée sur les paramètres hémodynamiques après incision pour craniotomie supratentorielle. Méthodes Étude prospective en double aveugle réalisée au bloc opératoire de l'hôpital des spécialités de Rabat sur une période d'une année incluant 80 malades programmés pour craniotomie supratentorielle. Les malades étaient randomisés par tirage au sort en 2 groupes: Le groupe 1 était infiltré par 40 ml du sérum salé adrénaliné (1/200 000) et le groupe 2 était infiltré par 40 ml de la lidocaïne 0,5% adrénalinée (1/200 000). Le critère de jugement principal était la pression artérielle moyenne (PAM) après l'incision. L’étude statistique a fait appel aux tests t de student et l'U- mann-whitney. Une valeur de p <0.05 était considérée significative. Résultats L’étude a inclus 80 patients (40 hommes et 40 femmes). L’âge moyen était 42,33±14,76 ans. Le poids moyen était 71,58 ±10 kg. Le 3/4 des patients était ASA 1, seulement 25% étaient ASA2. La durée moyenne de la chirurgie était de 252,06±38,62 mn. Les deux groupes étaient comparables concernant l’âge, le sexe, le poids, la durée d'intervention, le type d'abord chirurgical, la dose totale du fentanyl reçue jusqu'a l'incision, ainsi que les paramètres hémodynamiques avant l'incision. Après l'incision la FC moyenne a augmenté dans les deux groupes: 80,53±7,72 bpm dans le groupe contrôle et 76,85±8,52 bpm dans le groupe lidocaïne. La différence d'augmentation de la FC entre les deux groupes était statistiquement significative (p = 0,047). L

  18. Localization of a continuous CO2 leak from an isotropic flat-surface structure using acoustic emission detection and near-field beamforming techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong; Cui, Xiwang; Guo, Miao; Han, Xiaojuan

    2016-11-01

    Seal capacity is of great importance for the safety operation of pressurized vessels. It is crucial to locate the leak hole timely and accurately for reasons of safety and maintenance. This paper presents the principle and application of a linear acoustic emission sensor array and a near-field beamforming technique to identify the location of a continuous CO2 leak from an isotropic flat-surface structure on a pressurized vessel in the carbon capture and storage system. Acoustic signals generated by the leak hole are collected using a linear high-frequency sensor array. Time-frequency analysis and a narrow-band filtering technique are deployed to extract effective information about the leak. The impacts of various factors on the performance of the localization technique are simulated, compared and discussed, including the number of sensors, distance between the leak hole and sensor array and spacing between adjacent sensors. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale test rig to assess the effectiveness and operability of the proposed method. The results obtained suggest that the proposed method is capable of providing accurate and reliable localization of a continuous CO2 leak.

  19. Reconstruction of localized fluorescent target from multi-view continuous-wave surface images of small animal with lp sparsity regularization

    PubMed Central

    Okawa, Shinpei; Ikehara, Tatsuya; Oda, Ichiro; Yamada, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography using a multi-view continuous-wave and non-contact measurement system and an algorithm incorporating the lp (0 < p ≤ 1) sparsity regularization reconstructs a localized fluorescent target in a small animal. The measurement system provides a total of 25 fluorescence surface 2D-images of an object, which are acquired by a CCD camera from five different angles of view with excitation from five different angles. Fluorescence surface emissions from five different angles of view are simultaneously imaged on the CCD sensor, thus leading to fast acquisition of the 25 images within three minutes. The distributions of the fluorophore are reconstructed by solving the inverse problem based on the photon diffusion equations. In the reconstruction process incorporating the lp sparsity regularization, the regularization term is reformulated as a differentiable function for gradient-based non-linear optimization. Numerical simulations and phantom experiments show that the use of the lp sparsity regularization improves the localization of the target and quantitativeness of the fluorophore concentration. A mouse experiment demonstrates that a localized fluorescent target in a mouse is successfully reconstructed. PMID:24940544

  20. A global-local higher order theory including interlaminar stress continuity and C0 plate bending element for cross-ply laminated composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Wu; Wanji, Chen

    2010-04-01

    A C0-type global-local higher order theory including interlaminar stress continuity is proposed for the cross-ply laminated composite and sandwich plates in this paper, which is able to a priori satisfy the continuity conditions of transverse shear stresses at interfaces. Moreover, total number of unknowns involved in the model is independent of number of layers. Compared to other higher-order theories satisfying the continuity conditions of transverse shear stresses at interfaces, merit of the proposed model is that the first derivatives of transverse displacement w have been taken out from the in-plane displacement fields, so that the C0 interpolation functions is only required during its finite element implementation. To verify the present model, a C0 three-node triangular element is used for bending analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates. It ought to be shown that all variables involved in present model are discretized by only using linear interpolation functions within an element. Numerical results show that the C0 plate element based on the present theory may accurately calculate transverse shear stresses without any postprocessing, and the present results agree well with those obtained from the C1-type higher order theory. Compared with the C1 plate bending element, the present finite element is simple, convenient to use and accurate enough.

  1. Does a continuous local anaesthetic pain treatment after immediate tissue expander reconstruction in breast carcinoma patients more efficiently reduce acute postoperative pain - a prospective randomised study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immediate breast reconstruction with an expander is a reasonable option for properly selected patients. After reconstruction, patients have severe postoperative pain, which responds poorly to opioids. Our aim was to evaluate if continuous wound infusion of a local anaesthetic into the surgical wound reduces postoperative pain, consumption of opioids and incidence of chronic pain compared to standard intravenous piritramide after primary breast reconstruction in breast carcinoma patients. Methods Altogether, 60 patients were enrolled in our study; one half in the group with wound infusion of a local anaesthetic, and the other half in the standard (piritramide) group. Parameters measured included: pain intensity (visual analogue scale), drug requirements, alertness, hospitalisation, side-effects and late complications. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results In the recovery room, the test group reported less acute pain at rest (P = 0.03) and at activity (P = 0.01), and on the day of the surgical procedure they reported less pain at activity (P = 0.003). Consumption of piritramide and metoclopramide was lower in this group (P < 0.0001), but their alertness after the surgical procedure was higher compared to the standard group (P < 0.001). After three months, the test group reported less chronic pain (P = 0.01). Conclusions After primary tissue expander breast reconstruction, wound infusion of a local anaesthetic significantly reduces acute pain and enables reduced opioid consumption, resulting in less postoperative sedation and reduced need for antiemetic drugs. Wound infusion of a local anaesthetic reduces chronic pain. PMID:24433317

  2. Radon in homes of the Portland, Oregon Area: Radon data from local radon testing companies collected by CRM (Continuous Radon Measurement) machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, H.; Lindsey, K.; Linde, T.; Burns, S. F.

    2013-12-01

    Students from the Department of Geology at Portland State University paired up with the Oregon Health Authority to better understand radon gas values in homes of the Portland metropolitan area. This study focuses on radon values collected by continuous radon measurement (CRM) machines, taken by local radon testing companies. The local companies participating in this study include Alpha Environmental Services, Inc., Cascade Radon, Environmental Works, The House Detectives, LLC, and Soil Solutions Environmental Services, Inc. In total, 2491 radon readings spanning across 77 zip codes were collected from local companies in the Portland metropolitan area. The maximum value, average value, percentage of homes greater than 4 pCi/L and total rank sum was calculated and used to determine the overall radon potential for each zip code (Burns et al., 1998). A list and four maps were produced showing the results from each category. Out of the total records, 24 zip codes resulted in high radon potential and the average reading for the entire Portland Metropolitan area was 3.7 pCi/L. High potential zip codes are thought to be a result of sand and gravel (Missoula Flood deposits) and faults present in the subsurface. The CRM data was compared with both long-term and short-term data provided by the Oregon Health Authority to validate radon potentials in each zip code. If a home is located in a zip code with high or moderate radon potential across two types of data sets, it is recommended that those homes be tested for radon gas.

  3. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  4. 7 CFR 205.406 - Continuation of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuation of certification. 205.406 Section 205.406 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION...

  5. 7 CFR 205.406 - Continuation of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Continuation of certification. 205.406 Section 205.406 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC...

  6. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  7. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  8. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  9. Growth Management and Agriculture: An Examination of Local Efforts to Manage Growth and Preserve Farmland in Wisconsin Cities, Villages, and Towns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Daniel; Green, Gary Paul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effectiveness of growth management policies in Wisconsin cities, villages, and towns. Unlike most other studies, we consider the impact of growth management policies on agriculture, specifically the preservation of farmland, in addition to population growth. Our analysis examines these relationships separately in towns…

  10. Continuous-Course Reirradiation With Concurrent Carboplatin and Paclitaxel for Locally Recurrent, Nonmetastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head-and-Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Kharofa, Jordan; Choong, Nicholas; Wang, Dian; Firat, Selim; Schultz, Christopher; Sadasiwan, Chitra; Wong, Stuart

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To examine the efficacy and toxicity of continuous-course, conformal reirradiation with weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin for the treatment of locally recurrent, nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) in a previously irradiated field. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with continuous course-reirradiation with concurrent carboplatin and paclitaxel at the Medical College of Wisconsin and the Clement J. Zablocki VA from 2001 through 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included in the analysis had prior radiation at the site of recurrence of at least 45 Gy. The analysis included patients who received either intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT) or three-dimensional conformal RT techniques. All patients received weekly concurrent carboplatin (AUC2) and paclitaxel (30-50 mg/m{sup 2}). Results: Thirty-eight patients with nonmetastatic SCCHN met the entry criteria for analysis. The primary sites at initial diagnosis were oropharyngeal or laryngeal in most patients (66%). Median reirradiation dose was 60 Gy (range, 54-70 Gy). Acute toxicity included Grade 2 neutropenia (5%), Grade 3 neutropenia (15%), and Grade 1/2 thrombocytopenia (8%). No deaths occurred from hematologic toxicity. Chemotherapy doses held (50%) was more prevalent than radiation treatment break (8%). Sixty-eight percent of patients required a gastrostomy tube in follow-up. Significant late toxicity was experienced in 6 patients (16%): 1 tracheoesophageal fistula, 1 pharyngocutaneous fistula, 3 with osteoradionecrosis, and 1 patient with a lingual artery bleed. Patients treated with three-dimensional conformal RT had more frequent significant late toxicites than patients treated with intensity-modulated RT (44% and 7% respectively, p < 0.05). The median time to progression was 7 months and progression-free rates at 1, 2, and 5 years was 44%, 34%, and 29% respectively. The median overall survival was 16 months. Overall survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 54

  11. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  12. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  13. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  14. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  15. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  16. 7 CFR 3434.5 - Agriculture-related fields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agriculture-related fields. 3434.5 Section 3434.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HISPANIC-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION PROCESS § 3434.5...

  17. 7 CFR 3434.5 - Agriculture-related fields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agriculture-related fields. 3434.5 Section 3434.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HISPANIC-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION PROCESS § 3434.5...

  18. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  20. Agriculture-related anaemias.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A F

    1994-12-01

    Man evolved as a hunter-gatherer, and the invention and spread of agriculture was followed by changes in diet, the environment and population densities which have resulted in globally high prevalences of anaemias due to nutritional deficiencies of iron, folate and (locally) vitamin B12, to infestations by hookworm and schistosomes, to malaria, and to the natural selection for the genes for sickle-cell diseases, beta-thalassaemias, alpha-thalassaemias, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, ovalocytosis and possibly (locally) elliptocytosis. The present explosion of population is driving an expansion of agriculture, especially the cultivation of rice, and this has led often to disastrous increases of transmission of malaria, schistosomiasis and other diseases, to widespread chemical pollution, and to degradation of the environment. Anaemia, as the commonest manifestation of human disease, is a frequent consequence. The urgent need for increased food production is matched by the urgent need for assessment and control of the health impact of agricultural development.

  1. Efficacy of subpleural continuous infusion of local anesthetics after thoracoscopic pulmonary resection for primary lung cancer compared to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Joonho; Haam, Seokjin

    2016-01-01

    Background This study compared the efficacy and side effects of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) with those of a subpleural continuous infusion of local anesthetic (ON-Q system) in patients undergoing thoracoscopic pulmonary resection for primary lung cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 66 patients who underwent thoracoscopic pulmonary resection for primary lung cancer from January 2014 to August 2015 (36 in the IV-PCA group and 30 in the ON-Q group). The numeric pain intensity scale (NPIS), additional IV injections for pain control, side effects, and early discontinuation of the pain control device were compared. Results There were no differences in the general characteristics of the two groups. The NPIS scores gradually decreased with time (P<0.001), but the two groups had differences in pattern of NPIS scores (P=0.111). There were no differences in the highest NPIS score during admission (4.75±2.35 vs. 5.27±1.87, P=0.334) or the number of additional IV injections for pain control in the same period (0.72±0.94 for IV-PCA vs. 0.83±0.65 for ON-Q; P=0.575). Side effects such as nausea, dizziness, and drowsiness were significantly more frequent with IV-PCA (36.1% vs. 10.0%, P=0.014), and early discontinuation of the pain control device was more frequent in the IV-PCA group (33.3% vs. 6.7%, P=0.008). Conclusions The ON-Q system was equivalent to the IV-PCA for postoperative pain control after thoracoscopic pulmonary resection for primary lung cancer, and it also had fewer effects and early discontinuations. PMID:27499973

  2. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  3. Oregon Agriculture II Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Developed as a guide for use by vocational agricultural teachers in preparing curriculum to meet local community/regional needs, this package provides materials for a course on production agriculture and agribusiness occupations. The purpose of the course is to provide 10th grade students with fundamental concepts and skills necessary to explore…

  4. Oregon Agriculture I Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum package was developed to be used as a guide for high school vocational agriculture teachers in Oregon preparing a curriculum to meet local community/regional needs. A second goal of this curriculum is to eliminate sex-bias or sex-role stereotyping in vocational agriculture classes. The curriculum contains 20 units. Topics covered…

  5. Job Prospects for Agricultural Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the career outlook for agricultural engineers. Explains that the number of bachelor degrees awarded yearly continues to drop, and that the traditional industries that hire agricultural engineers are employing fewer each year. Suggests that future opportunities exist in the areas of information technology, biotechnology, and research. (TW)

  6. Privatising Agricultural Extension: Caveat Emptor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, A. D.; Lamers, J. P. A.; Ficarelli, P. P.; Hoffmann, V.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses forces promoting privatization of agricultural extension. Discusses experiences of privatization and commercialization of extension and related problems in various countries, particularly developing countries. Suggests that the state will continue to play an important role in agricultural extension in many countries and that…

  7. Genetic Technology and Agricultural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, William J.; Blase, Melvin G.

    1971-01-01

    Examines the nature, application, limits and potential of applied genetics in plant breeding as a factor in South Asian agricultural development. Concludes other factors were also present in recent agricultural growth, and indicates some economic implications of continued growth, including problems of employment of displaced rural workers. (AL)

  8. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  9. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  10. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and

  11. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the SFACs. (b) Local Food and Agriculture Council (LFAC). These councils are composed of... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.18 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...

  12. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the SFACs. (b) Local Food and Agriculture Council (LFAC). These councils are composed of... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.18 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...

  13. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the SFACs. (b) Local Food and Agriculture Council (LFAC). These councils are composed of... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.18 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food...

  14. A New Era in Agriculture: Reinventing Agricultural Education for the Year 2020.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Agricultural Education, Alexandria, VA.

    The Reinventing Agricultural Education for the Year 2020 initiative brought together a diverse group of people from across the nation to create a new vision for agriculture education. The group envisioned a system of agricultural education beginning in early childhood and continuing throughout life. The group examined agricultural education's…

  15. [Agricultural migration has changed face].

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, D

    1991-04-01

    Movements related to colonization of new lands for cultivation or pasturing have constituted the dominant form of migration in the Sahel countries since the colonial period. the relative importance of such movements declined with the development of labor migration, but geographic mobility continues to be an integral part of Sahel life. A principal strategy during crises of agricultural production was the vast movement of population toward new lands, but such movements had little macroeconomic or macrosocial importance given the low population density and technical development of the time; the family subsistence enterprise was merely displaced. The artificial division into separate countries in the colonial era brought some control of migratory movements, and especially those across international borders, but such migrations increased again after independence and especially during the prolonged drought. Rural migration has been encouraged by development of transportation and communication facilities and by progress in controlling endemic diseases such as river blindness and sleeping sickness. Contemporary migration differs fundamentally from agricultural migration of the past. Migration has become, in addition to a survival strategy, a strategy of economic and social advancement. The change of residence is often accompanied by a restructuring of economic activities and substantial increases in the household's resources. Migrants attempt to produce enough for their own consumption, with some left for sale. They may also take on secondary employment, especially in the dry season: sale of firewood, petty trading, artisanal production. Spontaneous population movements seem to benefit the migrants, improving family and national agricultural production and contributing to a better distribution of rural population, but they have a high social and ecological cost and should receive more attention from planners and researchers in the context of the current campaign against

  16. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops. PMID:26785813

  17. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  18. 7 CFR 205.310 - Agricultural products produced on an exempt or excluded operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agricultural products produced on an exempt or excluded operation. 205.310 Section 205.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION...

  19. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  20. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  1. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  2. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  3. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  4. 7 CFR 1470.33 - Access to agricultural operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access to agricultural operation. 1470.33 Section 1470.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP...

  5. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources: Agriculture. Part 1: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornhauser, A. L.; Wilson, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Potential economic benefits obtainable from a state-of-the-art ERS system in the resource area of intensive use of living resources, agriculture, are studied. A spectrum of equal capability (cost saving), increased capability, and new capability benefits are quantified. These benefits are estimated via ECON developed models of the agricultural marketplace and include benefits of improved production and distribution of agricultural crops. It is shown that increased capability benefits and new capability benefits result from a reduction of losses due to disease and insect infestation given ERS's capability to distinguish crop vigor and from the improvement in world trade negotiations given ERS's worldwide surveying capability.

  6. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  7. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  8. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  9. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  10. 29 CFR 780.315 - Local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  11. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  12. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  13. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND...

  14. 7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.44 Section 1540.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency...

  15. 7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.24 Section 1540.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From...

  16. 7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.44 Section 1540.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency...

  17. 7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.44 Section 1540.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency...

  18. 7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.24 Section 1540.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From...

  19. 7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.24 Section 1540.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From...

  20. 7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.44 Section 1540.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency...

  1. 7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.24 Section 1540.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From...

  2. Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2010-06-01

    Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (+/-SD) live weight of 19.8 (+/-1.06) kg, were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp (T3), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp + poultry litter (T4), hay + concentrate (T5). A 7-day digestibility experiment and a 112-day growth trial were conducted. Total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake as well as body weight gain was similar for all treatments. The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen (N) intake was in sheep fed T1 and T4 diets, while the lowest was in those fed T2 and T5 diets. Sheep fed T1 and T2 diets had greater (P < 0.05) DM and OM digestibility than those fed T4 and T5 diets. The highest (P < 0.05) digestibility of N was for the T2, T4, and T5 diets, while the lowest was for the T1 diet. The highest N retention was in T4 diet, whereas the lowest was in T3 diet. In conclusion, in urban and peri-urban areas where atella, poultry litter, or coffee pulp are available, smallholder farmers could feed the mixtures as a supplement to straw with a good performance without using concentrate feeds.

  3. Mobilizing local innovation capacity through a simulation game in a participatory research project on agricultural innovation in El Brahmi irrigation scheme (Tunisia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinska, Aleksandra; d'Aquino, Patrick; Imache, Amar; Dionnet, Mathieu; Rougier, Jean-Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the European Union and African Union cooperative research to increase Food production in irrigated farming systems in Africa (EAU4Food project) we conducted a participatory research on the possible innovative practices to increase production of dairy farms in the irrigation scheme El Brahmi in Tunisia in the face of changing economic, political and environmental conditions. Our aim was to find effective research method to stimulate farmers' participation in the innovation process. Although the capacities of farmers in producing knowledge and in innovating are recognized and the shift from the linear model of technology transfer towards more participatory approaches to innovation is postulated, in which the role of researchers changes from providing solutions towards supporting farmers in finding their own solutions, in practice, the position of farmers in shaping innovation practice and process remains weak. After a series of participatory workshops and in-depth interviews with the actors of the local innovation system we developed and tested a simple open simulation game Laitconomie for farmers. The game proved to be effective in increasing our understanding of the system as the farmers were adding new elements and rules while playing, and in mobilizing farmers' knowledge (including tacit knowledge) in the simulated innovation process. The result reported by the participants was learning how to improve farm management, soil fertility management and cow nutrition practices. Some of the participants used the game as a decision support tool. While our game and its scope were modest and mobilized only two types of players (farmers and extension agent), open simulation proved to be a useful tool to analyze a local innovation system. Designing similar type of tools that would mobilize more diverse players and hence have a larger scope can be imagined.

  4. Van Riper-Hopper House: A Case Study of the Local Historical Museum of Wayne Township, New Jersey, as a Resource for Community Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawiec, Walter E.

    This dissertation is a case study of the Van Riper-Hopper House Museum in Wayne Township, New Jersey. The study was undertaken to determine and to illustrate the kinds of educational contributions which local historical museums can make within their communities. Chapter one introduces the nature and scope of the study. A review of related…

  5. Partnership out of Conflict: The Emerging Relationship of Teacher Learning Representatives and Local Authority Continuing Professional Development Quality Improvement Officers in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrou, Alex; O'Brien, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Union learning representatives have become significant in the Scottish educational system--particularly in response to the McCrone Report, which dealt with the future of continuing professional development (CPD) of Scottish teachers and made significant recommendations in this area. The Educational Institute of Scotland, the teacher union that…

  6. Estimation of the local and long-range contributions to particulate matter levels using continuous measurements in a single urban background site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantopoulou, Marianna; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-06-01

    The Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) algorithm is used together with PMCAMx, a regional chemical transport model, to develop a simple observation-based method (OBM) for the estimation of local and regional contributions of sources of primary and secondary pollutants in urban areas. We test the hypothesis that the minimum of the diurnal average concentration profile of the pollutant is a good estimate of the average contribution of long range transport levels. We use PMCAMx to generate "pseudo-observations" for four different European cities (Paris, London, Milan, and Dusseldorf) and PSAT to estimate the corresponding "true" local and regional contributions. The predictions of the proposed OBM are compared to the "true" values for different definitions of the source area. During winter, the estimates by the OBM for the local contributions to the concentrations of total PM2.5, primary pollutants, and sulfate are within 25% of the "true" contributions of the urban area sources. For secondary organic aerosol the OBM overestimates the importance of the local sources and it actually estimates the contributions of sources within 200 km from the receptor. During summer for primary pollutants and cities with low nearby emissions (ratio of emissions in an area extending 100 km from the city over local emissions lower than 10) the OBM estimates correspond to the city emissions within 25% or so. For cities with relatively high nearby emissions the OBM estimates correspond to emissions within 100 km from the receptor. For secondary PM2.5 components like sulfate and secondary organic aerosol the OBM's estimates correspond to sources within 200 km from the receptor. Finally, for total PM2.5 the OBM provides approximately the contribution of city emissions during the winter and the contribution of sources within 100 km from the receptor during the summer.

  7. Estimation of the local and long-range contributions to particulate matter levels using continuous measurements in a single urban background site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantopoulou, Marianna; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-06-01

    The Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) algorithm is used together with PMCAMx, a regional chemical transport model, to develop a simple observation-based method (OBM) for the estimation of local and regional contributions of sources of primary and secondary pollutants in urban areas. We test the hypothesis that the minimum of the diurnal average concentration profile of the pollutant is a good estimate of the average contribution of long range transport levels. We use PMCAMx to generate "pseudo-observations" for four different European cities (Paris, London, Milan, and Dusseldorf) and PSAT to estimate the corresponding "true" local and regional contributions. The predictions of the proposed OBM are compared to the "true" values for different definitions of the source area. During winter, the estimates by the OBM for the local contributions to the concentrations of total PM2.5, primary pollutants, and sulfate are within 25% of the "true" contributions of the urban area sources. For secondary organic aerosol the OBM overestimates the importance of the local sources and it actually estimates the contributions of sources within 200 km from the receptor. During summer for primary pollutants and cities with low nearby emissions (ratio of emissions in an area extending 100 km from the city over local emissions lower than 10) the OBM estimates correspond to the city emissions within 25% or so. For cities with relatively high nearby emissions the OBM estimates correspond to emissions within 100 km from the receptor. For secondary PM2.5 components like sulfate and secondary organic aerosol the OBM's estimates correspond to sources within 200 km from the receptor. Finally, for total PM2.5 the OBM provides approximately the contribution of city emissions during the winter and the contribution of sources within 100 km from the receptor during the summer.

  8. EVALUATING THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: USING NEW DATA TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN MULTIPLE DISCRETE CLOUDS AND A CONTINUOUS MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Redfield, Seth; Linsky, Jeffrey L. E-mail: jlinsky@jila.colorado.edu

    2015-10-20

    Ultraviolet and optical spectra of interstellar gas along the lines of sight to nearby stars have been interpreted by Redfield and Linsky and previous studies as a set of discrete warm, partially ionized clouds each with a different flow vector, temperature, and metal depletion. Recently, Gry and Jenkins proposed a fundamentally different model consisting of a single cloud with nonrigid flows filling space out to 9 pc from the Sun that they propose better describes the local ISM. Here we test these fundamentally different morphological models against the spatially unbiased Malamut et al. spectroscopic data set, and find that the multiple cloud morphology model provides a better fit to both the new and old data sets. The detection of three or more velocity components along the lines of sight to many nearby stars, the presence of nearby scattering screens, the observed thin elongated structures of warm interstellar gas, and the likely presence of strong interstellar magnetic fields also support the multiple cloud model. The detection and identification of intercloud gas and the measurement of neutral hydrogen density in clouds beyond the Local Interstellar Cloud could provide future morphological tests.

  9. Agricultural Production. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in agricultural production: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with agricultural production. SMAT materials…

  10. Book review: Darwinian agriculture: How understanding evolution can improve agriculture by R. Ford Dennison

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural research continually seeks to increase productivity while protecting soil, water and genetic resources. The book Darwinian Agriculture: How Understanding Evolution Can Improve Agriculture, by R. Ford Dennison, delivers a thought-provoking view of how principles of ecology and evolution ...

  11. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled âorganic.â 205.670 Section 205.670 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC...

  12. Episodic vs. Continuous Accretion in the Franciscan Accretionary Prism and Direct Plate Motion Controls vs. More Local Tectonic Controls on Prism Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, T. A.; Ernst, W. G.; Wakabayashi, J.

    2011-12-01

    Subduction at the Franciscan trench began ≈170-165 Ma and continues today off Oregon-Washington. Plate motion reconstructions, high-P metamorphic rocks, and the arc magmatic record suggest that convergence and thus subduction were continuous throughout this period, although data for 170 to 120 Ma are less definitive. About 25% of modern subduction zones are actively building an accretionary prism, whereas 75% are nonaccretionary, in which subduction erosion is gradually removing the prism and/or forearc basement. These contrasting behaviors in modern subduction zones suggest that the Franciscan probably fluctuated between accretionary and nonaccretionary modes at various times and places during its 170 million year lifespan. Accumulating geochronologic data are beginning to clarify certain accretionary vs. nonaccretionary intervals. (1) The oldest Franciscan rocks are high-P mafic blocks probably metamorphosed in a subophiolitic sole during initiation of subduction. They yield garnet Lu-Hf and hornblende Ar/Ar ages from ≈169 to 147 Ma. Their combined volume is extremely small and much of the Franciscan was probably in an essentially nonaccretionary mode during this period. (2) The South Fork Mountain Schist forms the structural top of the preserved wedge in northern California and thus was apparently the first genuinely large sedimentary body to accrete. This occurred at ≈123 Ma (Ar/Ar ages), suggesting major accretion was delayed a full ≈45 million years after the initiation of subduction. The underlying Valentine Spring Fm. accreted soon thereafter. This shift into an accretionary mode was nearly synchronous with the end of the Early Cretaceous magmatic lull and the beginning of the prolonged Cretaceous intensification of magmatism in the Sierra Nevada arc. (3) The Yolla Bolly terrane has generally been assigned a latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous age. Detrital zircon data confirm that some latest Jurassic sandstones are present, but they may be

  13. Induction Chemotherapy and Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy (CHART) for Patients With Locally Advanced Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The MRC INCH Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, Matthew; Nankivell, Matthew; Lyn, Ethan; Falk, Stephen; Pugh, Cheryl; Navani, Neal; Stephens, Richard; Parmar, Mahesh

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Recent clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown that both CHART (continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy) and induction chemotherapy offer a survival advantage over conventional radical radiotherapy for patients with inoperable non-small cell-lung cancer (NSCLC). This multicenter randomized controlled trial (INCH) was set up to assess the value of giving induction chemotherapy before CHART. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically confirmed, inoperable, Stage I-III NSCLC were randomized to induction chemotherapy (ICT) (three cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by CHART) or CHART alone. Results: Forty-six patients were randomized (23 in each treatment arm) from 9 UK centers. As a result of poor accrual, the trial was closed in December 2007. Twenty-eight patients were male, 28 had squamous cell histology, 34 were Stage IIIA or IIIB, and all baseline characteristics were well balanced between the two treatment arms. Seventeen (74%) of the 23 ICT patients completed the three cycles of chemotherapy. All 42 (22 CHART + 20 ICT) patients who received CHART completed the prescribed treatment. Median survival was 17 months in the CHART arm and 25 months in the ICT arm (hazard ratio of 0.60 [95% CI 0.31-1.16], p = 0.127). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events (mainly fatigue, dysphagia, breathlessness, and anorexia) were reported for 13 (57%) CHART and 13 (65%) ICT patients. Conclusions: This small randomized trial indicates that ICT followed by CHART is feasible and well tolerated. Despite closing early because of poor accrual, and so failing to show clear evidence of a survival benefit for the additional chemotherapy, the results suggest that CHART, and ICT before CHART, remain important options for the treatment of inoperable NSCLC and deserve further study.

  14. Agricultural biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Waage, J K; Mumford, J D

    2008-02-27

    The prevention and control of new pest and disease introductions is an agricultural challenge which is attracting growing public interest. This interest is in part driven by an impression that the threat is increasing, but there has been little analysis of the changing rates of biosecurity threat, and existing evidence is equivocal. Traditional biosecurity systems for animals and plants differ substantially but are beginning to converge. Bio-economic modelling of risk will be a valuable tool in guiding the allocation of limited resources for biosecurity. The future of prevention and management systems will be strongly influenced by new technology and the growing role of the private sector. Overall, today's biosecurity systems are challenged by changing national priorities regarding trade, by new concerns about environmental effects of biological invasions and by the question 'who pays?'. Tomorrow's systems may need to be quite different to be effective. We suggest three changes: an integration of plant and animal biosecurity around a common, proactive, risk-based approach; a greater focus on international cooperation to deal with threats at source; and a commitment to refocus biosecurity on building resilience to invasion into agroecosystems rather than building walls around them.

  15. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  16. [Agriculture, ecology and development].

    PubMed

    Dufumier, M

    1993-01-01

    damage. Environmental protection projects have frequently fallen short of their goals because the local populations were not consulted or involved. Some used materials such as tree species that were not adapted to local conditions or that did not meet the needs of the people. The sponsors of development projects may not be sufficiently aware of the difficulty of assuring day-to-day survival for some groups, who find the constraints imposed by the projects to be extremely burdensome. The author argues that peasants are always interested in reconciling their production objectives with protection of resources, and they are quite well informed of how to do so. Governments should ease their access to credit or the inputs that would enable them to practice a more productive agriculture with less environmental damage. A more equitable world economic order will be required before environmental protection can be assured in the poorest countries.

  17. Oregon Agriculture III Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum package is designed to be used as a guide for vocational agricultural teachers to use in preparing a third-year curriculum to meet local community or regional needs. The introductory section of the guide is a teacher orientation that covers such topics as the use of these curriculum materials with disadvantaged and handicapped…

  18. Oregon Agriculture IV Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum package is designed to assist teachers in preparing fourth-year vocational agricultural curricula to meet local community or regional needs. Provided in the introductory section are instructions for using the guide, suggestions for designing curricula that are sex fair and that are suitable for use with disadvantaged and disabled…

  19. Housing for Migrant Agricultural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J. W.; And Others

    Intended to assist the producer in meeting the housing regulations of Federal, state, and local governments for migratory workers and thereby to attract better labor through adequate housing, this agricultural handbook contains discussions of the migrant-labor situation; regulations and standards; general housing considerations (i.e., length of…

  20. Agriculture and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, P.H.

    1992-07-03

    How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

  1. Climate-smart agriculture for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipper, Leslie; Thornton, Philip; Campbell, Bruce M.; Baedeker, Tobias; Braimoh, Ademola; Bwalya, Martin; Caron, Patrick; Cattaneo, Andrea; Garrity, Dennis; Henry, Kevin; Hottle, Ryan; Jackson, Louise; Jarvis, Andrew; Kossam, Fred; Mann, Wendy; McCarthy, Nancy; Meybeck, Alexandre; Neufeldt, Henry; Remington, Tom; Sen, Pham Thi; Sessa, Reuben; Shula, Reynolds; Tibu, Austin; Torquebiau, Emmanuel F.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an approach for transforming and reorienting agricultural systems to support food security under the new realities of climate change. Widespread changes in rainfall and temperature patterns threaten agricultural production and increase the vulnerability of people dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods, which includes most of the world's poor. Climate change disrupts food markets, posing population-wide risks to food supply. Threats can be reduced by increasing the adaptive capacity of farmers as well as increasing resilience and resource use efficiency in agricultural production systems. CSA promotes coordinated actions by farmers, researchers, private sector, civil society and policymakers towards climate-resilient pathways through four main action areas: (1) building evidence; (2) increasing local institutional effectiveness; (3) fostering coherence between climate and agricultural policies; and (4) linking climate and agricultural financing. CSA differs from 'business-as-usual' approaches by emphasizing the capacity to implement flexible, context-specific solutions, supported by innovative policy and financing actions.

  2. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  3. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  4. Colorado Agriculture Education Tech Prep Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This guide is intended to provide local agricultural education tech prep programs throughout Colorado with a framework for updating their own curriculum and developing articulation with postsecondary institutions. First, a primer to standards-based education explains the role of the following items in standards-based education in agriculture: (1)…

  5. OCCUPATIONAL GUIDANCE FOR OFF-FARM AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEVENS, GLENN Z.

    THIS PUBLICATION WAS DESIGNED TO HELP STATE AND LOCAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION LEADERS DEVELOP PROGRAMS TO PREPARE YOUTHS AND ADULTS FOR EMPLOYMENT ENTRY OR ADVANCEMENT IN THE OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS. EIGHT INSTRUCTIONAL AREAS ARE IDENTIFIED AND DEFINED, AND EXAMPLES OF JOB TITLES ARE GIVEN FOR EACH--AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION, AGRICULTURAL…

  6. Agricultural Drainage Management Systems Task Force (ADMSTF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Drainage Management Systems (ADMS) Task Force was initiated during a Charter meeting in the fall of 2002 by dedicated professional employees of Federal, State, and Local Government Agencies and Universities. The Agricultural Drainage Management (ADM) Coalition was established in 200...

  7. The Land Grant Colleges of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the following alternatives for the colleges of agriculture: (1) continue the status quo; (2) specialize to serve the needs of a group not currently served by traditional colleges of agriculture; or (3) reduce the dependence on traditional clientele groups through more funding with grants from industries or governmental sources. Provides…

  8. Agricultural Education at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Donald E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses educational reform in the context of agricultural education. Covers a recent report on agricultural education reform by the National Academy of Sciences, state legislative initiatives, and several recommendations for the future of agricultural education. (CH)

  9. 7 CFR 319.8-20 - Importations by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-20 Section 319.8-20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND... Programs, which conditions may include clearance through the New Crops Research Branch of the Plant Science Research Division, Agricultural Research Services....

  10. 29 CFR 780.310 - Exemption for local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for local hand harvest laborers. 780.310 Section 780.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 29 CFR 780.310 - Exemption for local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for local hand harvest laborers. 780.310 Section 780.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 29 CFR 780.310 - Exemption for local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for local hand harvest laborers. 780.310 Section 780.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 29 CFR 780.310 - Exemption for local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for local hand harvest laborers. 780.310 Section 780.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 29 CFR 780.310 - Exemption for local hand harvest laborers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for local hand harvest laborers. 780.310 Section 780.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. [Towards a renewable and sustainable agriculture. Biological agriculture: from marginal vanguard to spearhead of the agriculture of the future].

    PubMed

    Diek Van Mansvelt, J

    1992-01-01

    This work seeks to demonstrate how different types of organic agriculture can meet the need for renewable and sustainable agriculture, rural development, and management of the land and water resources. An obstacle to the spread of organic agriculture is the widespread perception that without intensive factors of production, demographic growth will necessarily outstrip the available food resources. Calculation of economic costs and benefits at present carries greater weight in planning than do soil erosion, deforestation, extinction of species, disappearance of habitats, and similar environmental damage. The different types of organic agriculture do not follow rigid rules and are not defined solely by the nonuse of nitrogenous fertilizers and pesticides. One of the main principles or organic agriculture is to respect local soil and climatic conditions. Self-sufficiency regarding external factors of production and an emphasis on recycling and optimal use of natural resources were concept ahead of their time when they initially were introduced in the 1920s. The specialization which restructured agriculture over the past century has seriously damaged the system of mixed agriculture and the chain of food production. The solution will be to seek for each region an appropriate balance linking animals and agricultural production in an organic process. The objective of organic agriculture, also known as autonomous ecosystem management, is to preserve as far as possible the balance between needs for food and fiber on the 1 hand and the potential of local ecosystems on the other. General principles of organic agriculture include mixed exploitation in which both plants and animals have specific functions in the context of their local soil and climatic characteristics. Different types of crop rotation are practiced to optimize mutual interactions between crops, and the varied organic cycles are also optimized within the framework of anorganic management in accord with nature

  16. An online agricultural genetics course

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    In this age of rapidly developing online learning, the advent of a series of talks and supplementary material devoted to genetics in agriculture from Henry Stewart Talks (http://hstalks.com/main/browse_talks.php?r=776&c=252) is welcome indeed. The series is designed for researchers and graduate students in the fields of genetics, plant science, animal science, agricultural science, food science, human nutrition and environmental science, advanced undergraduate students, policy makers and managers in public and private sectors, and continuing professional education/development. PMID:25437233

  17. An online agricultural genetics course.

    PubMed

    Moses, Vivian

    2014-07-01

    In this age of rapidly developing online learning, the advent of a series of talks and supplementary material devoted to genetics in agriculture from Henry Stewart Talks ( http://hstalks.com/main/browse_talks.php?r=776&c=252 ) is welcome indeed. The series is designed for researchers and graduate students in the fields of genetics, plant science, animal science, agricultural science, food science, human nutrition and environmental science, advanced undergraduate students, policy makers and managers in public and private sectors, and continuing professional education/development.

  18. A Viable Program of Education in Vocational Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherton, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    The author advocates assessment of local vocational agriculture programs to determine their viability and growth by examining the systematization, development, and assimilation aspects of the program. (EA)

  19. SOLERAS: Rural/agricultural project technical overview

    SciTech Connect

    Huraib, F.S.; Adcock, J.P.; Knect, R.D.

    1987-04-01

    The objective of the Rural and Agricultural Solar Applications Projects is to enhance the quality of rural life in hot, arid climates by providing systems that use renewable or regenerable energy sources for domestic or communal, agricultural, and local industrial applications. These systems must provide domestic services such as hot water, heat for cooking, and electric power for lighting, communications, and refrigeration. In addition, agricultural applications such as water desalination, irrigation pumping, and heat and electricity for crop or food processing and local industrial functions, can become the basis for improving the villagers' standard of living. 29 refs., 82 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. Agricultural use of water.

    PubMed

    Collett, J R

    1980-07-28

    Irrigation for agricultural purposes is one of the essential claims on available water resources. Those resources have not been adequately utilized in many countries for a variety of reasons. Where finance has been allocated to irrigation schemes, the schemes have tended to be large-scale, and the performance often disappointing. Alternatively, small-scale irrigation schemes, while receiving less support and encouragement, can often be more effective. For both large-scale and small-scale irrigation schemes, the responses of individual farmers and village communities are critical factors. More technologies need to be developed that are adapted to local needs, resources and aspirations within the context of current socio-economic practices. Obviously, the wider the range of technologies available, the more likely it will be that the technology most appropriate to existing conditions will be identified and used.

  1. 7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE...

  2. 7 CFR 319.8-20 - Importations by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importations by the Department of Agriculture. 319.8-20 Section 319.8-20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton...

  3. 7 CFR 318.13-12 - Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 318.13-12 Section 318.13-12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES...

  4. 7 CFR 318.13-12 - Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 318.13-12 Section 318.13-12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and...

  5. 7 CFR 319.8-20 - Importations by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importations by the Department of Agriculture. 319.8-20 Section 319.8-20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions §...

  6. 7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Territorial Cotton, Cottonseed,...

  7. 7 CFR 3017.635 - May the Department of Agriculture settle a debarment or suspension action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May the Department of Agriculture settle a debarment or suspension action? 3017.635 Section 3017.635 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT)...

  8. 7 CFR 318.13-12 - Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 318.13-12 Section 318.13-12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES...

  9. 7 CFR 319.8-20 - Importations by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importations by the Department of Agriculture. 319.8-20 Section 319.8-20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton...

  10. 7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE...

  11. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  12. 7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE...

  13. 7 CFR 318.13-12 - Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 318.13-12 Section 318.13-12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES...

  14. 7 CFR 318.13-12 - Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 318.13-12 Section 318.13-12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES...

  15. 7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE...

  16. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  17. 7 CFR 3100.46 - Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Management of the Cultural Environment § 3100.46 Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. (a... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. 3100.46 Section 3100.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE...

  18. 7 CFR 3100.46 - Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Management of the Cultural Environment § 3100.46 Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. (a... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. 3100.46 Section 3100.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE...

  19. 7 CFR 3100.46 - Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Management of the Cultural Environment § 3100.46 Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. (a... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. 3100.46 Section 3100.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE...

  20. 7 CFR 3100.46 - Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Management of the Cultural Environment § 3100.46 Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. (a... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. 3100.46 Section 3100.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE...

  1. 7 CFR 3100.46 - Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Management of the Cultural Environment § 3100.46 Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. (a... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibilities of the Department of Agriculture. 3100.46 Section 3100.46 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE...

  2. 7 CFR 205.310 - Agricultural products produced on an exempt or excluded operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and... excluded operation as a certified organic operation, or (2) Be represented as a certified organic...

  3. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL...

  4. 76 FR 12016 - Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural... and Regional Food Aid Procurement Pilot Project (USDA LRP Project). All available funding for field...: Jamie Fisher, Chief, Local and Regional Procurement, Food Assistance Division, Foreign...

  5. Identifying Technical Content Training Needs of Georgia Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peake, Jason B.; Duncan, Dennis W.; Ricketts, John C.

    2007-01-01

    The continuing trend toward increasing diversity of curriculum offered within secondary agricultural education programs is driving a change in pre-service and in-service technical training for agriculture teachers. This study looks at agriculture teachers' perceived importance of, and competence in, traditional technical competencies such as…

  6. Teacher Perceptions of Factors Associated with Expanding Vocational Agriculture Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenholz, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of 201 Missouri vocational agriculture teachers assessed their perceptions on selected local curricular adjustments. Results indicated that teachers supported incorporation of agribusiness instruction. Local program expansion in other areas may be worthy of investigation. (CH)

  7. THE AGRICULTURAL ADVISORY BOARD, A HANDBOOK FOR BOARDS OF EDUCATION, SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS ADVISORY BOARD MEMBERS AND TEACHERS OF AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CUSHMAN, HAROLD R.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS HANDBOOK IS TO ASSIST EDUCATIONAL PERSONNEL IN MAKING THE MOST EFFECTIVE USE OF AGRICULTURAL ADVISORY BOARDS IN THE ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE PROGRAMS. IT CONTAINS INFORMATION ON (1) PROCEDURES FOR FORMING NEW AGRICULTURAL ADVISORY BOARDS OR REORGANIZING OLD ONES INCLUDING WHERE TO START, WHO…

  8. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.55 Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. Section 25(a)(1) of FIFRA instructs...

  9. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.55 Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. Section 25(a)(1) of FIFRA instructs...

  10. Agricultural Production. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in agricultural production: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed to deal with…

  11. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.55 Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. Section 25(a)(1) of FIFRA instructs...

  12. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.55 Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. Section 25(a)(1) of FIFRA instructs...

  13. Policy and Ethics In Agricultural and Ecological Water Uses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelgren, Bo

    Agricultural water use accounts for about 70 percent of abstracted waters reaching 92 percent of the collective uses of all water resources when rain water is included. Agriculture is the traditional first sector and linked to a wide range of social, economic and cultural issues at local and global level that reach beyond the production of cheap food and industrial fibres. With the dominance in agricultural water uses and linkages with land use and soil conservation the sector is critical to the protection of global and local environmental values especially in sensitive dryland systems. Ethical principles related to development and nature conservation have traditionally been focused on sustainability imperatives building on precaution and preventive action or on indisputable natural systems values, but are by necessity turning more and more towards solidarity-based risk management approaches. Policy and management have in general failed to consider social dimensions with solidarity, consistency and realism for societal acceptance and practical application. As a consequence agriculture and water related land degradation is resulting in accelerated losses in land productivity and biodiversity in dryland and in humid eco- systems. Increasingly faced with the deer social consequences in the form of large man-made hydrological disasters and with pragmatic requirements driven by drastic increases in the related social cost the preferences are moving to short-term risk management approaches with civil protection objectives. Water scarcity assessment combined with crisis diagnoses and overriding statements on demographic growth, poverty and natural resources scarcity and deteriorating food security in developing countries have become common in the last decades. Such studies are increasingly questioned for purpose, ethical integrity and methodology and lack of consideration of interdependencies between society, economy and environment and of society's capacity to adapt to

  14. 1986 Agricultural Chartbook. Agriculture Handbook No. 663.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 310 charts, tables, and graphs containing statistical information about agriculture-related commodities and services, primarily in the United States, in 1986. The book is organized in seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) the farm (farm income, farm population, farm workers, food and fiber system, agriculture and…

  15. Agricultural Aircraft for Site-Specific Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a convenient platform to aid in precision agriculture, in which pesticide, fertilizer or other field inputs are applied only where they are needed. This saves on chemical and farm resources, and reduces environmental loading. Remote sensing is used to spot areas of the ...

  16. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  17. Transforming river basins: Post-livelihood transition agricultural landscapes and implications for natural resource governance.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, K G; Madhusoodhanan, C G; Eldho, T I

    2015-08-15

    The agricultural and livelihood transitions post globalization are redefining resource relations and redrawing landscapes in the Global South and have major implications for nascent natural resource governance regimes such as Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). A mosaic of divergent reciprocations in resource relations were noticed due to livelihood transitions in the rural areas where previous resource uses and relations had been primarily within agriculture. The reconstitution of rural spaces and the attendant changes in the resource equations are observed to be creating new sites of conformity, contestation and conflicts that often move beyond local spaces. This paper critically reviews studies across the Global South to explore the nature and extent of changes in resource relations and agricultural landscapes post livelihood diversification and the implication and challenges of these changes for natural resource governance. Though there is drastic reduction in agricultural livelihoods throughout the Global South, changes in agricultural area are found to be inconsistent and heterogeneous in the region. Agriculture continues in the countrysides but in widely differentiated capacities and redefined value systems. The transformed agrarian spaces are characterized by a mosaic of scenarios from persistence and sustainable subsistence to differentiation and exploitative commercial practices to abandonment and speculation. The reconfigured resource relations, emergent multiple and multi-scalar interest groups, institutional and policy changes and altered power differentials in these diversified landscapes are yet to be incorporated into natural resource governance frameworks such as IRBM. PMID:26026234

  18. Transforming river basins: Post-livelihood transition agricultural landscapes and implications for natural resource governance.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, K G; Madhusoodhanan, C G; Eldho, T I

    2015-08-15

    The agricultural and livelihood transitions post globalization are redefining resource relations and redrawing landscapes in the Global South and have major implications for nascent natural resource governance regimes such as Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). A mosaic of divergent reciprocations in resource relations were noticed due to livelihood transitions in the rural areas where previous resource uses and relations had been primarily within agriculture. The reconstitution of rural spaces and the attendant changes in the resource equations are observed to be creating new sites of conformity, contestation and conflicts that often move beyond local spaces. This paper critically reviews studies across the Global South to explore the nature and extent of changes in resource relations and agricultural landscapes post livelihood diversification and the implication and challenges of these changes for natural resource governance. Though there is drastic reduction in agricultural livelihoods throughout the Global South, changes in agricultural area are found to be inconsistent and heterogeneous in the region. Agriculture continues in the countrysides but in widely differentiated capacities and redefined value systems. The transformed agrarian spaces are characterized by a mosaic of scenarios from persistence and sustainable subsistence to differentiation and exploitative commercial practices to abandonment and speculation. The reconfigured resource relations, emergent multiple and multi-scalar interest groups, institutional and policy changes and altered power differentials in these diversified landscapes are yet to be incorporated into natural resource governance frameworks such as IRBM.

  19. Agricultural modifications of hydrological flows create ecological surprises.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Line J; Peterson, Garry D; Bennett, Elena M

    2008-04-01

    Agricultural expansion and intensification have altered the quantity and quality of global water flows. Research suggests that these changes have increased the risk of catastrophic ecosystem regime shifts. We identify and review evidence for agriculture-related regime shifts in three parts of the hydrological cycle: interactions between agriculture and aquatic systems, agriculture and soil, and agriculture and the atmosphere. We describe the processes that shape these regime shifts and the scales at which they operate. As global demands for agriculture and water continue to grow, it is increasingly urgent for ecologists to develop new ways of anticipating, analyzing and managing nonlinear changes across scales in human-dominated landscapes.

  20. 7 CFR 205.406 - Continuation of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT..., changes to, modifications to, or other amendments made to the previous year's organic system plan...

  1. 7 CFR 205.406 - Continuation of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT..., changes to, modifications to, or other amendments made to the previous year's organic system plan...

  2. Agricultural Libraries and Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  3. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  4. Vocational Agriculture in Ponape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayrit, Ruben S.

    1975-01-01

    The general objectives of agriculture education in both the elementary and secondary schools in Ponape District are to develop interest in agriculture among students and to provide practical and technical skills in growing crops and raising domestic animals. (Author)

  5. Urban Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbellini, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    John Bourne High School in Queens, New York, offers an agricultural program enrolling more than 400 students. The curriculum includes agricultural career exploration, plant and animal science, summer land laboratories, and a special education component. (SK)

  6. Strategies for Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the change of agricultural methods with human population growth. Describes the trends of world food production, changes in farmland, use of fertilizer, and 13 agricultural research institutions. Lists 5 references for further reading. (YP)

  7. Is rangeland agriculture sustainable?

    PubMed

    Heitschmidt, R K; Vermeire, L T; Grings, E E

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the sustainability of rangeland agriculture (i.e., managed grazing) on a world-wide basis, with a focus on North America. Sustainability is addressed on three fronts: 1) ecological, 2) economic, and 3) social acceptance. Based on previous and on-going research, we suggest that employment of science-based rangeland grazing management strategies and tactics can ensure ecological sustainability. The formidable challenge in employing such technology centers around the need to balance efficiency of solar energy capture and subsequent harvest efficiencies across an array of highly spatially and temporally variable vegetation growing conditions using animals that graze selectively. Failure to meet this fundamental challenge often accelerates rangeland desertification processes, and in some instances, enhances rate and extent of the invasion of noxious weeds. We also suggest that the fundamental reason that ecologically sound grazing management technologies are often not employed in the management of grazed ecological systems is because social values drive management decisions more so than ecological science issues. This is true in both well-developed societies with substantial economic resources and in less-developed societies with few economic resources. However, the social issues driving management are often entirely different, ranging from multiple-use issues in developed countries to human day-to-day survival issues in poorly developed countries. We conclude that the long-term sustainability of rangeland agriculture in 1) developed societies depends on the ability of rangeland agriculturalists to continually respond in a dynamic, positive, proactive manner to ever-changing social values and 2) less-developed societies on their ability to address the ecological and social consequences arising from unsustainable human populations before the adoption of science-based sustainable rangeland management technologies. PMID:15471792

  8. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  9. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  10. Information for Agricultural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaungamno, E. E.

    This paper describes the major international agricultural information services, sources, and systems; outlines the existing information situation in Tanzania as it relates to problems of agricultural development; and reviews the improvements in information provision resources required to support the process of agricultural development in Tanzania.…

  11. Chapter 3: Cropland Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, cropland agriculture resulted in total emissions of approximately 209 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases (GHG). Cropland agriculture is responsible for almost half (46%) of all emissions from the agricultural sector. Nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) emissions from c...

  12. Dutch Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, The Hauge.

    Agricultural Education in the Netherlands is categorized as Scientific, Higher Secondary, Middle Secondary, and Lower Secondary. Scientific education is given at the agricultural university which has a 6- or 7-year curriculum. Higher secondary education is given at agricultural and horticultural colleges with a 3- to 4-year curriculum. Middle…

  13. Agricultural Structures, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Burhoe, Steve

    This guide to a curriculum unit in agricultural structures is designed to expand the curriculum materials available in vocational agriculture in Missouri. It and Agricultural Structures I (see note) provide reference materials to systematize the curriculum. The six units cover working with concrete (19 lessons, 2 laboratory exercises), drawing and…

  14. Agriculture, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This agriculture guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. Environmental problems are present in every community where agriculture education is offered, and therefore many agriculture teachers have included some…

  15. Career Preparation Programs for Potential Agribusinessmen, Agricultural Agency Employees, and Agricultural Instructors. Final Report. July 1, 1976-June 30, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    The purpose of the project was to develop innovative agricultural education programs within the comprehensive high school setting in selected school districts in the state of Mississippi, with the project's second year (described here) focusing on continuing existing specialized career preparation program in agriculture and continuing to orient…

  16. Adapting Agriculture Platforms for Nutrition: A Case Study of a Participatory, Video-Based Agricultural Extension Platform in India

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyala, Suneetha; Morgan, Emily H.; Cyriac, Shruthi; Margolies, Amy; Roopnaraine, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Successful integration of nutrition interventions into large-scale development programmes from nutrition-relevant sectors, such as agriculture, can address critical underlying determinants of undernutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of on-going nutrition-specific activities. However, evidence on how this can be done is limited. This study examines the feasibility of delivering maternal, infant, and young child nutrition behaviour change communication through an innovative agricultural extension programme serving nutritionally vulnerable groups in rural India. The existing agriculture programme involves participatory production of low-cost videos promoting best practices and broad dissemination through village-level women’s self-help groups. For the nutrition intervention, 10 videos promoting specific maternal, infant, and young child nutrition practices were produced and disseminated in 30 villages. A range of methods was used to collect data, including in-depth interviews with project staff, frontline health workers, and self-help group members and their families; structured observations of mediated video dissemination sessions; nutrition knowledge tests with project staff and self-help group members; and a social network questionnaire to assess diffusion of promoted nutrition messages. We found the nutrition intervention to be well-received by rural communities and viewed as complementary to existing frontline health services. However, compared to agriculture, nutrition content required more time, creativity, and technical support to develop and deliver. Experimentation with promoted nutrition behaviours was high, but sharing of information from the videos with non-viewers was limited. Key lessons learned include the benefits of and need for collaboration with existing health services; continued technical support for implementing partners; engagement with local cultural norms and beliefs; empowerment of women’s group members to champion

  17. Invasion and Management of Agricultural Alien Insects in China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fang-Hao; Yang, Nian-Wan

    2016-01-01

    China is the world's fourth-largest country in terms of landmass. Its highly diverse biogeography presents opportunities for many invasive alien insects. However, physical and climate barriers sometimes prevent locally occurring species from spreading. China has 560 confirmed invasive alien species; 125 are insect pests, and 92 of these damage the agricultural ecosystem. The estimated annual economic loss due to alien invasive species is more than $18.9 billion. The most harmful invasive insects exhibit some common characteristics, such as high reproduction, competitive dominance, and high tolerance, and benefit from mutualist facilitation interactions. Regional cropping system structure adjustments have resulted in mono-agricultural ecosystems in cotton and other staple crops, providing opportunities for monophagous insect pests. Furthermore, human dietary shifts to fruits and vegetables and smallholder-based farming systems result in highly diverse agricultural ecosystems, which provide resource opportunities for polyphagous insects. Multiple cropping and widespread use of greenhouses provide continuous food and winter habitats for insect pests, greatly extending their geographic range. The current management system consists of early-warning, monitoring, eradication, and spread blocking technologies. This review provides valuable new synthetic information on integrated management practices based mainly on biological control for a number of invasive species. We encourage farmers and extension workers to be more involved in training and further research for novel protection methods that takes into consideration end users' needs.

  18. Continuous steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C.

    1995-02-01

    StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

  19. A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture.

    PubMed

    Adl, S; Iron, D; Kolokolnikov, T

    2011-05-01

    Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers that have the potential to pollute the surrounding land, air and water. Organic agriculture tries to avoid using these and promotes an environmentally friendly approach to agriculture. Instead of relying on herbicides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers, organic agriculture promotes a whole system approach to managing weeds, pests and nutrients, while regulating permitted amendments. In this paper, we consider the effect of increasing the total area of agricultural land under organic practices, against a background of conventional agriculture. We hypothesized that at a regional scale, organic agriculture plots benefit from existing in a background of conventional agriculture, that maintains low levels of pathogens through pesticide applications. We model pathogen dispersal with a diffusive logistic equation in which the growth/death rate is spatially heterogeneous. We find that if the ratio of the organic plots to conventional plots remains below a certain threshold l(c), the pest population is kept small. Above this threshold, the pest population in the organic plots grows rapidly. In this case, the area in organic agriculture will act as a source of pest to the surrounding region, and will always infect organic plots as they become more closely spaced. Repeated localized epidemics of pest outbreaks threaten global food security by reducing crop yields and increasing price volatility. We recommend that regional estimates of this threshold are necessary to manage the growth of organic agriculture region by region.

  20. A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture.

    PubMed

    Adl, S; Iron, D; Kolokolnikov, T

    2011-05-01

    Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers that have the potential to pollute the surrounding land, air and water. Organic agriculture tries to avoid using these and promotes an environmentally friendly approach to agriculture. Instead of relying on herbicides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers, organic agriculture promotes a whole system approach to managing weeds, pests and nutrients, while regulating permitted amendments. In this paper, we consider the effect of increasing the total area of agricultural land under organic practices, against a background of conventional agriculture. We hypothesized that at a regional scale, organic agriculture plots benefit from existing in a background of conventional agriculture, that maintains low levels of pathogens through pesticide applications. We model pathogen dispersal with a diffusive logistic equation in which the growth/death rate is spatially heterogeneous. We find that if the ratio of the organic plots to conventional plots remains below a certain threshold l(c), the pest population is kept small. Above this threshold, the pest population in the organic plots grows rapidly. In this case, the area in organic agriculture will act as a source of pest to the surrounding region, and will always infect organic plots as they become more closely spaced. Repeated localized epidemics of pest outbreaks threaten global food security by reducing crop yields and increasing price volatility. We recommend that regional estimates of this threshold are necessary to manage the growth of organic agriculture region by region. PMID:21420722

  1. Avian influenza: an agricultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Andrea

    2006-11-01

    Recent outbreaks of infection with highly pathogenic H5N1 strains of avian influenza virus in poultry in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Middle East have raised concern over the potential emergence of a pandemic strain that can easily infect humans and cause serious morbidity and mortality. To prevent and control a national outbreak, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts measures based on the ecology of avian influenza viruses. To prevent an outbreak in the United States, the USDA conducts surveillance of bird populations, restrictions on bird importation, educational outreach, and regulation of agricultural practices, in collaboration with local, state, and federal organizations. To manage an outbreak, the USDA has in place a well-established emergency management system for optimizing efforts. The USDA also collaborates with international organizations for disease prevention and control in other countries.

  2. 7 CFR 1160.501 - Continuation referenda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Continuation referenda. 1160.501 Section 1160.501... Order Miscellaneous § 1160.501 Continuation referenda. (a) The Secretary at any time may conduct a referendum among those persons who the Secretary determines were fluid milk processors during...

  3. 7 CFR 1160.501 - Continuation referenda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation referenda. 1160.501 Section 1160.501... Order Miscellaneous § 1160.501 Continuation referenda. (a) The Secretary at any time may conduct a referendum among those persons who the Secretary determines were fluid milk processors during...

  4. Agricultural Instruction in Secondary Schools: Papers Read at the Third Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Agricultural Teaching, Atlanta, Georgia November 12 1912. Bulletin, 1913, No. 14. Whole Number 522

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1913

    1913-01-01

    Interest in agricultural education continues to increase. The attempt to teach agriculture is no longer confined to the agricultural college and special agricultural school. Methods of teaching the most important facts and the elementary principles of agriculture are discussed in the meetings of most of our educational associations. There is a…

  5. 7 CFR 3021.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) Department of Agriculture awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are my responsibilities as a(n) Department of Agriculture awarding official? 3021.400 Section 3021.400 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  6. 7 CFR 3021.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) Department of Agriculture awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are my responsibilities as a(n) Department of Agriculture awarding official? 3021.400 Section 3021.400 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE...

  7. 7 CFR 3017.615 - How does the Department of Agriculture notify a person of a suspension or debarment action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does the Department of Agriculture notify a person of a suspension or debarment action? 3017.615 Section 3017.615 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  8. 7 CFR 3017.135 - May the Department of Agriculture exclude a person who is not currently participating in a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May the Department of Agriculture exclude a person who is not currently participating in a nonprocurement transaction? 3017.135 Section 3017.135 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE...

  9. 7 CFR 3017.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the Department of Agriculture agrees to a voluntary exclusion?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Do other Federal agencies know if the Department of Agriculture agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 3017.645 Section 3017.645 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  10. 7 CFR 3017.630 - May the Department of Agriculture impute conduct of one person to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May the Department of Agriculture impute conduct of one person to another? 3017.630 Section 3017.630 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT)...

  11. 7 CFR 3017.610 - What procedures does the Department of Agriculture use in suspension and debarment actions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What procedures does the Department of Agriculture use in suspension and debarment actions? 3017.610 Section 3017.610 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home... Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan,...

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home... Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan,...

  14. 7 CFR 3021.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) Department of Agriculture awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are my responsibilities as a(n) Department of Agriculture awarding official? 3021.400 Section 3021.400 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  15. Agricultural Occupations Programs Planning Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A set of program planning guides that include seven areas (1) Agricultural Production, (2) Agricultural Supplies and Services, (3) Agricultural Mechanics, (4) Agricultural Products, (5) Ornamental Horticulture, (6) Agricultural Resources, and (7) Forestry, were developed and introduced to high school applied biological and agricultural occupations…

  16. Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

    The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

  17. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. (a) Designation of new Resource Conservation and Development...

  18. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. (a) Designation of new Resource Conservation and Development...

  19. Summer Enrichment Programs: Providing Agricultural Literacy and Career Exploration to Gifted and Talented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, John G.; Broyles, Thomas W.; Seibel, G. Andrew; Anderson, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    As agriculture continues to evolve and become more complex, the demand for qualified college graduates to fill agricultural careers exceeds supply. This study focused on a summer enrichment program that strives to expose gifted and talented students to the diverse nature of agricultural careers through the integration of agriculture and science.…

  20. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  1. 7 CFR 205.310 - Agricultural products produced on an exempt or excluded operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agricultural products produced on an exempt or excluded operation. 205.310 Section 205.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...

  2. 7 CFR 205.310 - Agricultural products produced on an exempt or excluded operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agricultural products produced on an exempt or excluded operation. 205.310 Section 205.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...

  3. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  4. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  5. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  6. Agriculture and water quality. Agriculture Information Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, B.M.; Ribaudo, M.O.; Young, C.E.

    1988-08-01

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the Nation's water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural-chemical or land-use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface waterways in runoff; some leach through soil into ground water. Because surface-water systems and ground water systems are interrelated, farm-management practices need to focus on water quality in both systems. Modifying farm-management practices may raise production costs in some areas. Farmers can reduce runoff losses by reducing input use, implementing soil-conservation practices, and changing land use. Also at issue is who should pay for improving water quality.

  7. Challenges for global agricultural research.

    PubMed

    Blake, R O

    1992-03-01

    The Green Revolution of the 60s can not be expected to continue to feed the world as its population continues to grow. Innovations in plant varieties, chemical inputs, and irrigation did result in more food; however, the cost of this innovation was loss of soil and fertility, poisoning of ground water, waterlogging, and salination of fields. If the world's food production system is to be sustainable and environmentally safe as well as capable of producing 50% more food in the next 20 years, then a lot of research must still be done. Now, instead of 2 international research centers, there are 17. All these centers are operated under the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Another 12 center are currently being set up or cooperating with CGIAR. The scientists are also being asked to develop cost and labor effective ways to improve the soil and conserve water. This change of priorities has come about partly from external pressure, but mostly from: the realization that agricultural productivity must continue to grow at unprecedented rates for the next 4 decades; chemical inputs are often to expensive, unavailable, or dangerous, there is very little room for expanding irrigation; national /agricultural research and extension centers have become underfunded, overly politicized, and ineffective; developing countries can not rely solely upon their fertile land to feed their people, they must bring marginal land into production. To accomplish all this, the World Bank must take a leadership role. It is the only organization with enough money and political power to effectively bring everyone together.

  8. Challenges for global agricultural research.

    PubMed

    Blake, R O

    1992-03-01

    The Green Revolution of the 60s can not be expected to continue to feed the world as its population continues to grow. Innovations in plant varieties, chemical inputs, and irrigation did result in more food; however, the cost of this innovation was loss of soil and fertility, poisoning of ground water, waterlogging, and salination of fields. If the world's food production system is to be sustainable and environmentally safe as well as capable of producing 50% more food in the next 20 years, then a lot of research must still be done. Now, instead of 2 international research centers, there are 17. All these centers are operated under the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Another 12 center are currently being set up or cooperating with CGIAR. The scientists are also being asked to develop cost and labor effective ways to improve the soil and conserve water. This change of priorities has come about partly from external pressure, but mostly from: the realization that agricultural productivity must continue to grow at unprecedented rates for the next 4 decades; chemical inputs are often to expensive, unavailable, or dangerous, there is very little room for expanding irrigation; national /agricultural research and extension centers have become underfunded, overly politicized, and ineffective; developing countries can not rely solely upon their fertile land to feed their people, they must bring marginal land into production. To accomplish all this, the World Bank must take a leadership role. It is the only organization with enough money and political power to effectively bring everyone together. PMID:12284925

  9. Partnering Strategies for Childhood Agricultural Safety and Health

    PubMed Central

    Hard, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been the lead federal agency of the national Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention Initiative (CAIPI) since the program's inception in 1996 and in this role, collaborated with numerous partners in childhood agricultural injury prevention activities. This collaboration has likely helped achieve the current reduction in childhood agricultural injury. The paper looks at existing groups with past and current childhood agricultural injury prevention activities for partnering strategies that could contribute to reducing the morbidity and mortality of childhood agricultural injuries. Based upon the review, suggestions are made for future partnering strategies to continue progress in this area. PMID:22490034

  10. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  11. [Local lipohypertrophy in insulin treatment].

    PubMed

    Herold, D A; Albrecht, G

    1993-01-01

    Local lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy at injection sites are well known side effects of treatment with insulin. Conditions favouring these local complications are created when repeated or continuous injections are given into the same areas. We report on a 27-year-old female patient who suffered from persistent local swellings after use of an external pump which continuously injected human insulin via indwelling cannulas.

  12. Sustainability of current agriculture practices, community perception, and implications for ecosystem health: an Indian study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary

    2011-12-01

    In order to support agribusiness and to attain food security for ever-increasing populations, most countries in the world have embraced modern agricultural technologies. Ecological consequences of the technocentric approaches, and their sustainability and impacts on human health have, however, not received adequate attention particularly in developing countries. India is one country that has undergone a rapid transformation in the field of agriculture by adopting strategies of the Green Revolution. This article provides a comparative analysis of the effects of older and newer paradigms of agricultural practices on ecosystem and human health within the larger context of sustainability. The study was conducted in three closely situated areas where different agricultural practices were followed: (a) the head-end of a modern canal-irrigated area, (b) an adjacent dryland, and (c) an area (the ancient area) that has been provided with irrigation for some 800 years. Data were collected by in-depth interviews of individual farmers, focus-group discussions, participatory observations, and from secondary sources. The dryland, receiving limited rainfall, continues to practice diverse cropping centered to a large extent on traditional coarse cereals and uses only small amounts of chemical inputs. On the other hand, modern agriculture in the head-end emphasizes continuous cropping of rice supported by extensive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Market forces have, to a significant degree, influenced the ancient area to abandon much of its early practices of organic farming and to take up aspects of modern agricultural practice. Rice cultivation in the irrigated parts has changed the local landscape and vegetation and has augmented the mosquito population, which is a potential vector for malaria, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases. Nevertheless, despite these problems, perceptions of adverse environmental effects are lowest in the heavily irrigated area.

  13. Sustainability of current agriculture practices, community perception, and implications for ecosystem health: an Indian study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary

    2011-12-01

    In order to support agribusiness and to attain food security for ever-increasing populations, most countries in the world have embraced modern agricultural technologies. Ecological consequences of the technocentric approaches, and their sustainability and impacts on human health have, however, not received adequate attention particularly in developing countries. India is one country that has undergone a rapid transformation in the field of agriculture by adopting strategies of the Green Revolution. This article provides a comparative analysis of the effects of older and newer paradigms of agricultural practices on ecosystem and human health within the larger context of sustainability. The study was conducted in three closely situated areas where different agricultural practices were followed: (a) the head-end of a modern canal-irrigated area, (b) an adjacent dryland, and (c) an area (the ancient area) that has been provided with irrigation for some 800 years. Data were collected by in-depth interviews of individual farmers, focus-group discussions, participatory observations, and from secondary sources. The dryland, receiving limited rainfall, continues to practice diverse cropping centered to a large extent on traditional coarse cereals and uses only small amounts of chemical inputs. On the other hand, modern agriculture in the head-end emphasizes continuous cropping of rice supported by extensive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Market forces have, to a significant degree, influenced the ancient area to abandon much of its early practices of organic farming and to take up aspects of modern agricultural practice. Rice cultivation in the irrigated parts has changed the local landscape and vegetation and has augmented the mosquito population, which is a potential vector for malaria, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases. Nevertheless, despite these problems, perceptions of adverse environmental effects are lowest in the heavily irrigated area. PMID

  14. World food and agriculture: Outlook for the medium and longer term

    PubMed Central

    Alexandratos, Nikos

    1999-01-01

    The world has been making progress in improving food security, as measured by the per person availability of food for direct human consumption. However, progress has been very uneven, and many developing countries have failed to participate in such progress. In some countries, the food security situation is today worse than 20 years ago. The persistence of food insecurity does not reflect so much a lack of capacity of the world as a whole to increase food production to whatever level would be required for everyone to have consumption levels assuring satisfactory nutrition. The world already produces sufficient food. The undernourished and the food-insecure persons are in these conditions because they are poor in terms of income with which to purchase food or in terms of access to agricultural resources, education, technology, infrastructure, credit, etc., to produce their own food. Economic development failures account for the persistence of poverty and food insecurity. In the majority of countries with severe food-security problems, the greatest part of the poor and food-insecure population depend greatly on local agriculture for a living. In such cases, development failures are often tantamount to failures of agricultural development. Development of agriculture is seen as the first crucial step toward broader development, reduction of poverty and food insecurity, and eventually freedom from excessive economic dependence on poor agricultural resources. Projections indicate that progress would continue, but at a pace and pattern that would be insufficient for the incidence of undernutrition to be reduced significantly in the medium-term future. As in the past, world agricultural production is likely to keep up with, and perhaps tend to exceed, the growth of the effective demand for food. The problem will continue to be one of persistence of poverty, leading to growth of the effective demand for food on the part of the poor that would fall short of that required for

  15. Continuous Variable Entanglement Swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkinghorne, R. E. S.; Ralph, T. C.

    1999-09-01

    We investigate the efficacy with which polarization entanglement can be teleported using a continuous measurement scheme. We show that by using the correct gain for the classical channel the degree of violation of locality that can be demonstrated (using a CH-type inequality) is not a function of the level of entanglement squeezing used in the teleportation. This is possible because a gain condition can always be chosen such that passage through the teleporter is equivalent to pure attenuation of the input field.

  16. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

  17. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE RECORD BOOK FOR PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    FORMS ARE PROVIDED FOR RECORDING FINANCIAL INFORMATION ABOUT SUPERVISED FARM PROGRAM ENTERPRISES BY INDIVIDUAL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS. THE BOOK IS DESIGNED ON AN ENTERPRISE BASIS AND PROVIDES SPACE FOR AGREEMENTS, INVENTORIES, EXPENSES, INCOME, SUMMARIES, AND ANALYSES. ASSISTANCE FOR TEACHERS USING THIS RECORD BOOK IS AVAILABLE IN "GUIDE…

  18. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 38 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural mechanics instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

  19. Evaluation of impact of earthquake on agriculture in Nepal based on remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiyama, Ayako; Shimada, Sawahiko; Okazawa, Hiromu; Mihara, Machito; Kuo, Kuang Ting

    2016-07-01

    The big earthquake happening on April, 2015 killed over than 8000 people in Nepal. The effect of earthquake not only affected safety of local people but also agricultural field. Agricultural economy dominates income of local people. Therefore, restoration of agricultural areas are required for improving life of local people. However, lack of information about agricultural areas is main problem for local government to assess and restore damaged agricultural areas. Remote sensing was applied for accessing damaged agricultural field due to its advantages in observing responds of environment without temporal and spatial restriction. Accordingly, the objective of the study is to evaluate impact of earthquake on agriculture in Nepal based on remote sensing. The experimental procedure includes conducting the impact of earthquake on changes of total agricultural area, and analysis of response of greenness affected by earthquake in agricultural land. For conducting agricultural land changes, land use map was first created and classified into four categories: road, city, forest, and agricultural land. Changes before and after earthquake in total area of agricultural land were analyzed by GIS. Moreover, vegetation index was used as indicator for evaluating greenness responds in agricultural land and computed based on high-resolution satellite imagery such as World view-3. Finally, the conclusion of the study and suggestions will be made and provided for helping local government in Nepal restore agricultural areas.

  20. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  1. Vocational Agriculture I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Bob; Harp, Keith

    These course materials are designed to provide a foundation of basic knowledge in production agriculture as a prelude to further education in vocational agriculture. The guide contains 6 sections and 22 units of instruction. Each unit includes all or most of eight basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the teacher,…

  2. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  3. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  4. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  5. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  6. Personal Achievement Reading: Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozeboom, Deborah A.

    Exercises are provided in a set of five workbooks designed to aid students in agricultural programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from terminology of agriculture to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on the ability to determine word…

  7. Agriculture Power and Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Tom

    This guide is intended to assist vocational agriculture teachers who are teaching secondary- or postsecondary-level courses in agricultural power and machinery. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the following occupations: service manager, shop foreman, service technician, and tractor…

  8. Revisiting Supervised Agricultural Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; Clarke, Ariane; Fallon, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    A Delphi panel of 40 agricultural educators unanimously agreed that supervised agricultural experience should remain an integral component of the curriculum; a name change is not currently warranted. Categories recommended were agribusiness entrepreneurship, placement, production, research, directed school lab, communications, exploration, and…

  9. Financial competitiveness of organic agriculture on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Reganold, John P

    2015-06-16

    To promote global food and ecosystem security, several innovative farming systems have been identified that better balance multiple sustainability goals. The most rapidly growing and contentious of these systems is organic agriculture. Whether organic agriculture can continue to expand will likely be determined by whether it is economically competitive with conventional agriculture. Here, we examined the financial performance of organic and conventional agriculture by conducting a meta-analysis of a global dataset spanning 55 crops grown on five continents. When organic premiums were not applied, benefit/cost ratios (-8 to -7%) and net present values (-27 to -23%) of organic agriculture were significantly lower than conventional agriculture. However, when actual premiums were applied, organic agriculture was significantly more profitable (22-35%) and had higher benefit/cost ratios (20-24%) than conventional agriculture. Although premiums were 29-32%, breakeven premiums necessary for organic profits to match conventional profits were only 5-7%, even with organic yields being 10-18% lower. Total costs were not significantly different, but labor costs were significantly higher (7-13%) with organic farming practices. Studies in our meta-analysis accounted for neither environmental costs (negative externalities) nor ecosystem services from good farming practices, which likely favor organic agriculture. With only 1% of the global agricultural land in organic production, our findings suggest that organic agriculture can continue to expand even if premiums decline. Furthermore, with their multiple sustainability benefits, organic farming systems can contribute a larger share in feeding the world. PMID:26034271

  10. Financial competitiveness of organic agriculture on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Reganold, John P

    2015-06-16

    To promote global food and ecosystem security, several innovative farming systems have been identified that better balance multiple sustainability goals. The most rapidly growing and contentious of these systems is organic agriculture. Whether organic agriculture can continue to expand will likely be determined by whether it is economically competitive with conventional agriculture. Here, we examined the financial performance of organic and conventional agriculture by conducting a meta-analysis of a global dataset spanning 55 crops grown on five continents. When organic premiums were not applied, benefit/cost ratios (-8 to -7%) and net present values (-27 to -23%) of organic agriculture were significantly lower than conventional agriculture. However, when actual premiums were applied, organic agriculture was significantly more profitable (22-35%) and had higher benefit/cost ratios (20-24%) than conventional agriculture. Although premiums were 29-32%, breakeven premiums necessary for organic profits to match conventional profits were only 5-7%, even with organic yields being 10-18% lower. Total costs were not significantly different, but labor costs were significantly higher (7-13%) with organic farming practices. Studies in our meta-analysis accounted for neither environmental costs (negative externalities) nor ecosystem services from good farming practices, which likely favor organic agriculture. With only 1% of the global agricultural land in organic production, our findings suggest that organic agriculture can continue to expand even if premiums decline. Furthermore, with their multiple sustainability benefits, organic farming systems can contribute a larger share in feeding the world.

  11. Communications in Agriculture: The American Farm Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, James F.; Salcedo, Rodolfo N.

    This book studies communications in agriculture, focusing on the American farm press. As defined here, a commercial farm periodical is directed to farmers and supports itself through the sale of subscriptions or advertising. It includes local as well as regional and national periodicals. A 90-year analysis, from 1880 to 1970, was chosen because…

  12. Estrogenicity of agricultural by-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some Minnesota farms were found to have reduced conception rates in cattle receiving embryo transfers by a local veterinarian, and dietary components were called into question. Affected farms were feeding agricultural by-products, available in either a “shredded” form or a pelletized form. These by-...

  13. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Video Episodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    The transcripts of dialogues from videotape recordings were developed, along with accompanying language laboratory material, as part of a one-semester course in Spanish for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America. Included are 48 episodes covering such topics as: working with a local Spanish-speaking counterpart,…

  14. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section 13(c) of the Act provides an exemption from the child labor provisions for “any employee employed in... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD......

  15. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section 13(c) of the Act provides an exemption from the child labor provisions for “any employee employed in... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD......

  16. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section 13(c) of the Act provides an exemption from the child labor provisions for “any employee employed in... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD......

  17. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section 13(c) of the Act provides an exemption from the child labor provisions for “any employee employed in... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD......

  18. Noise Levels In Missouri Vocational Agriculture Shops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Curtis R.; Stewart, Bob R.

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide data about noise levels as a potential health hazard for students and instructors involved in vocational agriculture shop operations in Missouri. The grinder and radial arm saw were determined to be potential noise problems if operated continuously for 15 minutes or longer. (LRA)

  19. Assessing the Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climate Change in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Sa'eb; Shraidaeh, Fadi; Maddat, Amer

    2015-04-01

    vulnerability. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6°C by 2050. These upward temperature trends are projected to continue beyond 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. It is concluded that the Overall vulnerability of agriculture to climate change in Jordan is high, where impacts such as drought and increased temperatures and decreased precipitation will be more pronounced. Major implications on rain fed agriculture are possible shorter growing season, increasing moisture and heat stress to field and horticultural crops and eventually low income and food insecurity. There were different impacts among studied communities, which is related to the: economic capability, local knowledge, physical infrastructure, institutional capacity, modern technology used, age group of farmers and diversification of their income.

  20. Innovative Programs in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Developmental programs resulting from the increased emphasis on off-farm agricultural occupations and considered innovative by state wupervisors of agricultural education are described: (1) 17 high school vocational agriculture programs in horticulture, agricultural mechanics, forestry and conservation, agriculture and distribution, cooperative…

  1. Work-related pilot fatalities in agriculture--United States, 1992-2001.

    PubMed

    2004-04-23

    Aircraft often are used in agriculture to apply pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers. During 1992-2001, a total of 141 persons died in agriculture-related plane crashes. To characterize aviation fatalities in agriculture, CDC analyzed data on fatal injuries to pilots working in U.S. agriculture during 1992-2001. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that agricultural pilots are at increased risk for fatal injury compared with pilots in all other industries. The agriculture aviation profession continues to work to reduce fatalities by recommending continual skill development and by offering training to aerial application pilots. PMID:15103295

  2. Integrating and Institutionalizing Lessons Learned: Reorganizing Agricultural Research and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goletti, Francesco; Pinners, Elise; Purcell, Timothy; Smith, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    The majority of the population of Vietnam lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Consistent growth of the agriculture sector over the past two decades has contributed to a remarkable reduction in the poverty rate and the virtual elimination of hunger in the rural areas of Vietnam. In order to continue the growth…

  3. Agriflection: A Learning Model for Agricultural Extension in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, S. H.

    2006-01-01

    Prosperity--continuous and sustainable wealth creation--is an elusive goal in South African smallholder agriculture. This paper suggests that agricultural extension can facilitate realising this objective if an appropriate approach to extension can be developed. To develop such an approach requires that the definition of extension and the…

  4. 43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of § 3400.3-1, the...

  5. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780.611 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(k)-1 Section 31.3306(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT... Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(k)-1 Agricultural...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(k)-1 Section 31.3306(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT... Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(k)-1 Agricultural...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(k)-1 Section 31.3306(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT... Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(k)-1 Agricultural...

  9. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(k)-1 Section 31.3306(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT... Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(k)-1 Agricultural...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3306(k)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(k)-1 Section 31.3306(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT... Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(k)-1 Agricultural...

  11. 43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of § 3400.3-1, the...

  12. 43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of § 3400.3-1, the...

  13. 43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of § 3400.3-1, the...

  14. The Agricultural Teacher's Struggle for Balance between Career and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Kathryn; Flowers, Jim; Croom, Barry; Wilson, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that agricultural education graduates are hesitant to enter the profession and seemingly quick to leave, often citing long work hours as a main contributing factor. As the shortage of agricultural teachers continues, there is concern over the balance of career and family and its effect on the profession. The purpose of this…

  15. Arsenic pollution of agricultural soils by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueping; Zhang, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanan; Hu, Erdan; Xie, Xiande; Wang, Lingling; Cheng, Hefa

    2015-01-01

    Animal wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can cause soil arsenic pollution due to the widespread use of organoarsenic feed additives. This study investigated the arsenic pollution of surface soils in a typical CAFO zone, in comparison with that of agricultural soils in the Pearl River Delta, China. The mean soil arsenic contents in the CAFO zone were elevated compared to those in the local background and agricultural soils of the Pearl River Delta region. Chemical speciation analysis showed that the soils in the CAFO zone were clearly contaminated by the organoarsenic feed additive, p-arsanilic acid (ASA). Transformation of ASA to inorganic arsenic (arsenite and arsenate) in the surface soils was also observed. Although the potential ecological risk posed by the arsenic in the surface soils was relatively low in the CAFO zone, continuous discharge of organoarsenic feed additives could cause accumulation of arsenic and thus deserves significant attention. PMID:25036941

  16. Agricultural Research Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protection Crop Production and Protection Natural Resources and Sustainable Agricultural Systems Nutrition, Food Safety, and Quality Overseas ... LA, MS, NC, PR, SC) Footer Content ARS Home | USDA.gov | Site Map | Statements and Disclaimers | Plain ...

  17. Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schake, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

  18. Toward a Sustainable Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Future trends in population growth, energy use, climate change, and globalization will challenge agriculturists to develop innovative production systems that are highly productive and environmentally sound. Furthermore, future agricultural production systems must possess an inherent capacity to adap...

  19. Collaboration in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Theme articles discuss environment, food, agriculture, and renewal resources as they relate to science education, learning partnerships, collaboration in Kyrghyzstan, leadership development, opportunities for collaboration, networking, and the creation of a shared course between agribusiness and biology. (JOW)

  20. Agricultural Education Fantasies, Facts, and Futures: A Re-Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The "third wave" described by Alvin Toffler necessitates the restructuring of institutions. Agricultural educators must stay flexible, open, and responsive in order to continue being needed by the nation's most vital industry. (SK)

  1. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality. PMID:27561384

  2. Lunar agriculture in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniszewski, S.

    Through the moon' s role in choosing the proper time for planting, harvesting and woodcutting is widely attested in ethnographic reports, the cultural logic and structure of actions by which this celestial body is perceived and used has not been satisfactorily explained. The aim of this paper is to offer such an explanatory framework within which the role of the moon in the agricultural cycle may be explained. My examples of the beliefs about lunar agriculture derive from the Mesoamerican cultural tradition.

  3. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  4. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    . 4. Current data infrastructure and systems supporting GHG quantification in the agricultural sector To understand the challenges facing GHG quantification it is helpful to understand the existing supporting infrastructure and systems for quantification. The existing and developing structures for national and local data acquisition and management are the foundation for the empirical and process-based models used by most countries and projects currently quantifying agricultural greenhouse gases. Direct measurement can be used to complement and supplement such models, but this is not yet sufficient by itself given costs, complexities, and uncertainties. One of the primary purposes of data acquisition and quantification is for national-level inventories and planning. For such efforts countries are conducting national-level collection of activity data (who is doing which agricultural practices where) and some are also developing national or regional-level emissions factors. Infrastructure that supports these efforts includes intergovernmental panels, global alliances, and data-sharing networks. Multilateral data sharing for applications, such as the FAO Statistical Database (FAOSTAT) (FAO 2012), the IPCC Emission Factor Database (IPCC 2012), and UNFCCC national inventories (UNFCCC 2012), are building greater consistency and standardization by using global standards such as the IPCC's Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (e.g., IPCC 1996, 2003, 2006). There is also work on common quantification methods and accounting, for example agreed on global warming potentials for different contributing gases and GHG quantification methodologies for projects (e.g., the Verified Carbon Standard Sustainable Agricultural Land Management [SALM] protocol, VCS 2011). Other examples include the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (2012) and GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) (USDA

  5. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.

    1975-01-01

    The remote sensing studies of (a) cultivated peanut areas in Southeastern Virginia; (b) studies at the Virginia Truck and Ornamentals Research Station near Painter, Virginia, the Eastern Virginia Research Station near Warsaw, Virginia, the Tidewater Research and Continuing Education Center near Suffolk, Virginia, and the Southern Piedmont Research and Continuing Education Center Blackstone, Virginia; and (c) land use classification studies at Virginia Beach, Virginia are presented. The practical feasibility of using false color infrared imagery to detect and determine the areal extent of peanut disease infestation of Cylindrocladium black rot and Sclerotinia blight is demonstrated. These diseases pose a severe hazard to this major agricultural food commodity. The value of remote sensing technology in terrain analyses and land use classification of diverse land areas is also investigated. Continued refinement of spectral signatures of major agronomic crops and documentation of pertinent environmental variables have provided a data base for the generation of an agricultural-environmental prediction model.

  6. Population, agriculture and food.

    PubMed

    1982-06-01

    Data published by the UN Statistical Office and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) indicates that food production in the world grew at an average annual rate of 2.5% during the period 1961-65 to 1980 whereas during the same period the population growth rate was 1.9% per annum, declining further to 1.8 toward the late 1970s. Yet, the food production growth trend has been most uneven. The situation in Asia has been more or less similar to the global trend. During 1962-72 the rate of population growth increased to 2.5% whereas the annual increase in food production dropped from 3.1 to 2.7%. Throughout the remainder of the 1970s, food production barely managed to keep pace with population growth. Closer analysis reveals that in about the mid 1960s food production fell behind population growth, and near famine situations developed in certain drought affected areas of India, Indonesia, and Pakistan. These countries had to import food to meet the situation at the cost of their economic development programs. According to the UN projections, the region's population will continue to grow at an average of 1.7% per annum up to 2000 despite the declining fertility trend. To cope with the population growth rate and the changing pattern of food consumption even at the present level of nutrition, Asian nations will have to increase food production annually at a 3% compound rate. An increase in food production basically means increasing the inputs of different factors of production such as land and water, labor, materials, and various types of capital and technological know how. The application of these factors in the developing countries largely depends on the infrastructure and services provided by the governments. 2 approaches are generally made in an effort to achieve the objective of increasing food production: horizontal expansion approach, used to bring new land under cultivation so as to produce more food; and the vertical expansion approach, used to increase the

  7. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics.

  8. An insight into space and remote sensing technologies concerning agriculture and landscape analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuca, Branka; Barazzetti, Luigi; Brumana, Raffaella; Previtali, Mattia

    2015-06-01

    Remote sensing and space technologies are increasingly called to offer innovative solutions for current challenges induced by climatic and global change. One of the main priorities of the European Space Policy regards the economic independence of the old continent in this sector. In terms of research and innovation this inevitably leads to numerous attempts in having independent market of services that would tackle specific needs of the citizens. Agriculture, for example, is one of the sectors majorly subsidized by European funds on national, regional and local level, with the aim to foster a more productive and sustainable development. Due to a large territorial scale at which agricultural phenomena are observed, and thus the spatial resolution required, it is also one of the main sectors that has been monitored from space over the past 30 years. In fact, one of the main missions of USA Landsat satellites was to provide a continuous and systematic overview of the globe for the purposes of an effective monitoring of the environment. This paper represents an overview of the ongoing initiatives in Space research done for the field of agriculture and landscape monitoring. In particular, the paper looks into the future possibilities that will be offered by full, open and free-of-charge data arriving from ongoing Copernicus missions and the contribution of Sentinel satellites to the agricultural sector.

  9. Eco-efficiency analysis of an agricultural research complex.

    PubMed

    Reith, Charles C; Guidry, Michael J

    2003-07-01

    The Model Sustainable Agricultural Complex (MSAC) is a 600-acre experimental farm in south-central Louisiana, in the very southern reaches of the United States, approximately 40 km north of the Gulf of Mexico. The MSAC consists of many land uses and facilities, including a dairy, crawfish center, beef herd, sugarcane crop, and equestrian center, as well as numerous features and programs for research, education, and residence. The mission of the MSAC, which is operated by the Department of Renewable Resources at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, has been to accommodate research and education in production agriculture, while generating revenues through the delivery of food products into the local economy. In recent years, environmental conservation has been increasingly important at the MSAC. Best management practices (BMPs) were implemented to reduce soil loss and mitigate nonpoint source pollution. Research was initiated to quantify the effectiveness of these BMPs, and workshops were conducted to explain preliminary results to local farmers. However, environmental improvements at the MSAC had until 2000 been piecemeal, which may be said as well for agriculture overall. What is needed is a comprehensive integrated approach to analyzing and improving environmental performance, as is possible when implementing an environmental management system (EMS). This manuscript describes our efforts to integrate piecemeal environmental improvements into a farm-wide program of systematic improvement. This process began with a qualitative ranking of the MSAC's inputs and outputs, followed by a quantification of certain key parameters related to the consumption of resources and provision of services at the Complex. Certain measures related to the Complex's eco-efficiency were combined into a ratio that provides a useful target for management and continuous improvement. Eco-efficiency, which is defined as 'the efficiency with which receivables are converted into deliverables

  10. Eco-efficiency analysis of an agricultural research complex.

    PubMed

    Reith, Charles C; Guidry, Michael J

    2003-07-01

    The Model Sustainable Agricultural Complex (MSAC) is a 600-acre experimental farm in south-central Louisiana, in the very southern reaches of the United States, approximately 40 km north of the Gulf of Mexico. The MSAC consists of many land uses and facilities, including a dairy, crawfish center, beef herd, sugarcane crop, and equestrian center, as well as numerous features and programs for research, education, and residence. The mission of the MSAC, which is operated by the Department of Renewable Resources at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, has been to accommodate research and education in production agriculture, while generating revenues through the delivery of food products into the local economy. In recent years, environmental conservation has been increasingly important at the MSAC. Best management practices (BMPs) were implemented to reduce soil loss and mitigate nonpoint source pollution. Research was initiated to quantify the effectiveness of these BMPs, and workshops were conducted to explain preliminary results to local farmers. However, environmental improvements at the MSAC had until 2000 been piecemeal, which may be said as well for agriculture overall. What is needed is a comprehensive integrated approach to analyzing and improving environmental performance, as is possible when implementing an environmental management system (EMS). This manuscript describes our efforts to integrate piecemeal environmental improvements into a farm-wide program of systematic improvement. This process began with a qualitative ranking of the MSAC's inputs and outputs, followed by a quantification of certain key parameters related to the consumption of resources and provision of services at the Complex. Certain measures related to the Complex's eco-efficiency were combined into a ratio that provides a useful target for management and continuous improvement. Eco-efficiency, which is defined as 'the efficiency with which receivables are converted into deliverables

  11. A Landscape Perspective on Sustainability of Agricultural Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Kaffka, Stephen R; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Landscape sustainability of agricultural systems considers effects of farm activities on social, economic, and ecosystem services at local and regional scales. Sustainable agriculture entails: defining sustainability, developing easily measured indicators of sustainability, moving toward integrated agricultural systems, and offering incentives or imposing regulations to affect farmer behavior. A landscape perspective is useful because landscape ecology provides theory and methods for dealing with spatial heterogeneity, scaling, integration, and complexity. To implement agricultural sustainability, we propose adopting a systems perspective, recognizing spatial heterogeneity, addressing the influences of context, and integrating landscape-design principles. Topics that need further attention at local and regional scales include (1) protocols for quantifying material and energy flows; (2) effects of management practices; (3) incentives for enhancing social, economic, and ecosystem services; (4) integrated landscape planning and management; (5) monitoring and assessment; (6) effects of societal demand; and (7) consistent and holistic policies for promoting agricultural sustainability.

  12. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts.

  13. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts. PMID:25757330

  14. Vegetable oil as an agricultural fuel for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.L.; Auld, D.L.; Thomas, V.M.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.; Bettis, B.L.

    1981-02-01

    Five million barrels of liquid fuel are needed annually for the continued production of agricultural commoditiese on the 12.7 million cultivated acres in the Pacific Northwest Region. Because most energy intensive operations in the agricultural industry are done by diesel engines, the technology to produce a substitute for diesel must be developed and vegetable oil appears to hold great promise as an alternative fuel. The vegetable oils potential as an alternative liquid fuel in the region is described. Rapidly rising fuel costs could make this new fuel not only economically feasible but necessary to ensure the region's continued agriculture production.

  15. The changing face of agricultural health and safety--alternative agriculture.

    PubMed

    Donham, Kelley J; Larabee, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Alternative agriculture (defined as any production that is not commodity production) is an important growing area of agriculture. The produce ranges widely, from organic products, locally grown products, and exotic crops and animals. This conference included an overview of the evolving field of alternative agriculture plus descriptions of three different alternative agricultural operations, by the actual producers. These producers described the health and safety concerns encountered in their operations. Affordable and accessible health care was a common and very important concern of all these producers. Further, the extensive manual work load is extremely challenging, risking mental and physical stress and burnout. The major occupational health issues were musculoskeletal pain and dysfunction related to the extensive manual labor. Producers presented several suggestions for managing their occupational health issues. It was clear that research is warranted in investigating ergonomic solutions. Further, research and solutions to affordable and accessible health care is a priority issue.

  16. 7 CFR 205.406 - Continuation of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Certification § 205.406 Continuation of certification. (a) To continue... information, as applicable, to the certifying agent: (1) An updated organic production or handling system...

  17. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.309 Section 205.309 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  18. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.309 Section 205.309 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  19. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.309 Section 205.309 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  20. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.309 Section 205.309 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  1. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.309 Section 205.309 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration or Its Sucessor Agency Under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home... Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan,...

  3. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  4. Theme: Changes in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Changes in Agricultural Education in Tennessee" (Byerley, Todd); "Evolving Focus for Agricultural Education Graduates?" (Schlink); "Researching Adult Organizations in Agricultural Education" (Seevers, Dormody); "Past 25 Years" (Klein, Luft); "Agricultural Education" (Sibiga, Mannebach); "Don't Look Back" (Butcher); "Changes in…

  5. 76 FR 49291 - Agricultural Swaps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Commission recently promulgated a final rule defining the term ``agricultural commodity.'' See 76 FR 41048... Agricultural Swaps, 76 FR 6095, February 3, 2011. \\8\\ See Agricultural Swaps, 75 FR 59666, Sept. 28, 2010. C... specifically addressing the costs and benefits of the proposed agricultural swaps rules. \\10\\ See NPRM, 76...

  6. SUPERVISED TRAINING FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT FOR STUDENTS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IN ARKANSAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WAY, DARREL

    INFORMATION TO ASSIST LOCAL ADMINISTRATORS, TEACHERS, COUNSELORS, ADVISORY COMMITTEEMEN, AND TRAINING CENTER REPRESENTATIVES IN OPERATING A PROGRAM OF SUPERVISED TRAINING FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IS PROVIDED. THE MAJOR SECTIONS ARE--(1) THE NEED FOR THE PROGRAM, (2) ADVANTAGES OF THE PROGRAM, (3) ORGANIZATIONAL PROCEDURES, (4) PROGRAM POLICIES,…

  7. Proceedings: Agricultural Technology Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report is a compilation of field trip overviews, presentations and committee reports from the EPRI-ATA meeting held in Boise, Idaho, May 28-30, 1997. The field trips consisted of an Agriculture and Aquaculture Tour, a tour of Idaho as America's Seed Supplier, and a Production of Milk, Cheese and Electricity tour. Presentations and committee reports include the following: (1) Idaho Seed Industry; (2) Controlled Environment Agriculture; (3) Irrigation in the North West: An Overview; (4) Drip Irrigation; (5) Sprinkler Irrigation; (6) Current Status of the ATA; (7) ATA Office Report; (8) Committee Reports; (9) Steering Committee Minutes.

  8. Restoration of degraded agricultural terraces: rebuilding landscape structure and process.

    PubMed

    LaFevor, M C

    2014-06-01

    The restoration of severely degraded cropland to productive agricultural capacity increases food supply, improves soil and water conservation, and enhances environmental and ecological services. This article examines the key roles that long-term maintenance plays in the processes of repairing degraded agricultural land. Field measurements from Tlaxcala, Mexico stress that restoring agricultural structures (the arrangements of landforms and vegetation) is alone insufficient. Instead, an effective monitoring and maintenance regime of agricultural structures is also crucial if the efforts are to be successful. Consequently, methods of wildland restoration and agricultural restoration may differ in the degree to which the latter must plan for and facilitate a sustained human involvement. An improved understanding of these distinctions is critical for environmental management as restoration programs that employ the technologies of intensive agriculture continue to grow in number and scope. PMID:24355068

  9. Restoration of degraded agricultural terraces: rebuilding landscape structure and process.

    PubMed

    LaFevor, M C

    2014-06-01

    The restoration of severely degraded cropland to productive agricultural capacity increases food supply, improves soil and water conservation, and enhances environmental and ecological services. This article examines the key roles that long-term maintenance plays in the processes of repairing degraded agricultural land. Field measurements from Tlaxcala, Mexico stress that restoring agricultural structures (the arrangements of landforms and vegetation) is alone insufficient. Instead, an effective monitoring and maintenance regime of agricultural structures is also crucial if the efforts are to be successful. Consequently, methods of wildland restoration and agricultural restoration may differ in the degree to which the latter must plan for and facilitate a sustained human involvement. An improved understanding of these distinctions is critical for environmental management as restoration programs that employ the technologies of intensive agriculture continue to grow in number and scope.

  10. Mandatory Production Controls. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 520.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Mandatory restrictions on agricultural production continue to be suggested as an alternative policy for reducing price-depressing surplus production, increasing farm income, and cutting farm program costs. A mandatory production control program (MPCP) can be implemented through two methods: (1) acreage allotments, which restrict individual farmers…

  11. Seasonal water demand in Benin's agriculture.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Ina; Kloos, Julia; Schopp, Marion

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes agricultural water demands for Benin, West Africa. Official statistical data regarding water quantities as well as knowledge on factors influencing the demand for water are extremely rare and often reveal national trends without considering regional or local differences. Thus policy makers usually work with this estimated and aggregated data, which make it very difficult to adequately address regional and local development goals. In the framework of an interdisciplinary analysis the following paper provides insight into water quantification and detects water problems under seasonal aspects for agriculture according to regional differences. Following the definition of the Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO, 1995. Water Report 7. Irrigation in Africa in Figures. Rome] agriculture is divided into irrigation and livestock watering, which were analyzed using different field methods. The study reveals that although water supply in absolute terms seems to be sufficient in Benin, seasonal water problems occur both in irrigation and in livestock management. Thus arising seasonal water problems are not the consequence of general water scarcity but more linked to three major problems. These problems emerge from difficulties in technical equipment and financial means of farmers, from the specific local conditions influencing the access to water sources and the extraction of groundwater, and third from the overall low organizational structure of water management. Therefore regional differences as well as a general improvement of knowledge on better management structures, technical know how, and access to credits for farmers need to be considered in national strategies in order to improve the agricultural water usage in Benin.

  12. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor...

  13. 78 FR 77367 - Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 981 Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible growers of almonds in California to determine whether they...

  14. Using the Illinois Core Curriculum for Developing Courses of Study in Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Ed; Hemp, Paul

    This booklet is designed to serve as a practical guide to assist teachers in using the Illinois Core Curriculum in Agriculture to develop courses of study for local vocational agriculture courses. Provided first is an overview of vocational agriculture programs on the secondary-school level in the state of Illinois. The next section is a guide for…

  15. On the description of conical intersections—A continuous representation of the local topography of seams of conical intersection of three or more electronic states: A generalization of the two state result

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaolei Yarkony, David R.

    2014-11-07

    For conical intersections of two states (I,J = I + 1) the vectors defining the branching or g-h plane, the energy difference gradient vector g{sup I,J}, and the interstate coupling vector h{sup I,J}, can be made orthogonal by a one parameter rotation of the degenerate electronic eigenstates. The representation obtained from this rotation is used to construct the parameters that describe the vicinity of the conical intersection seam, the conical parameters, s{sup I,J}{sub x} (R), s{sup I,J}{sub y} (R), g{sup I,J}(R), and h{sup I,J}(R). As a result of the orthogonalization these parameters can be made continuous functions of R, the internuclear coordinates. In this work we generalize this notion to construct continuous parametrizations of conical intersection seams of three or more states. The generalization derives from a recently introduced procedure for using non-degenerate electronic states to construct coupled diabatic states that represent adiabatic states coupled by conical intersections. The procedure is illustrated using the seam of conical intersections of three states in parazolyl as an example.

  16. Climate change and agriculture in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Antle, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    Most analysts agree that the poorest countries` agricultures are likely to be the most vulnerable to-and least capable of adapting to-climate change or other environmental disruptions. Research has only recently begun to assess what the likely impacts of climate change on developing countries` agricultures may be, how these agricultures might adapt to climate change, and how policies might be designed to facilitate adaptation. This paper begins with a discussion of what researchers currently believe the impacts of climate change could be on developing country agriculture, principally tropical agriculture. Climate changes are expected to occur from thirty to more than one hundred years in the future. These time horizons mean that predictions of the key factors determining impacts and adaptation-population, income, institutions, and technology-are probably as uncertain as predictions of climate change itself. Rates of productivity growth and technological adaptation will be critical to future food supplies, with or without climate change. Continuation of the trend of the past forty years could make so abundant that climate change effects would be inconsequential, but lower rates of growth could result in population growth outstripping food supplies. The second section of this paper addresses the critical issue of predicting the long-term trend in productivity by building on the substantial knowledge we have about the economic factors determining agricultural innovation and adaptation. Considering the time horizons and uncertainties involved in climate change, the wise policy strategy is to pursue investments that are economically justified, whether or not climate change occurs. A better understanding of managed ecosystems would improve our understanding of agricultural sustainability as well as climate change impacts and adaptation. The third section of this paper outlines an economic approach to modeling managed ecosystems. 21 refs.

  17. Vocational Agriculture II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harp, Keith; Steward, Jim

    This curriculum guide was developed for second-year courses in vocational agriculture in Oklahoma. The curriculum contains 5 sections organized in 16 instructional units. The units follow a standard format established in 1970 for development of instructional materials for all Oklahoma vocational teachers. This format includes eight basic…

  18. Agriculture: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 3-year program in agriculture. The guide consists of a course description; general course objectives;…

  19. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  20. Urban conservation agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables are important sources of vitamins and nutrients for human nutrition. United States Department of Agriculture recommends filling half of the food plates with vegetables in every meal. While it is important in promoting good health, access to fresh vegetables is limited especially in urban ...

  1. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  2. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  3. Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

  4. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789

  5. Agricultural Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, R. N.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a comprehensive survey of education and training for agriculture in Australia. The present facilities are described, and then set against estimates of present and future needs. Constructive proposals are made as to how these needs can best be met by agricultural…

  6. Teaching Traditional Tropical Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that the teaching of traditional tropical agriculture through the presentation of large numbers of categories or types tends to overemphasize superficial differences at the expense of comprehending the inner essence of life as it exists for the majority of the world's farmers. Offers an alternative approach which claims to foster greater…

  7. Microcomputer Applications in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenberg, Gene; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist persons teaching a course in microcomputer applications in agriculture. (These applications are designed to be used on Apple IIe or TRS-80 microcomputers.) Addressed in the individual units of instruction are the following topics: microcomputer operating procedures; procedures for evaluating and…

  8. Agriculture Sales and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlile, Robert

    Designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in agriculture and related areas, this curriculum guide is written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives, and is a suggested method of group instruction for students who are employed in an agribusiness program. The material is intended to cover those items which every…

  9. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  10. Agriculture. Swine Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for swine, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  11. Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  12. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  13. Goryachkin's agricultural mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinenova, Vera

    2016-03-01

    The paper contributes to the development of applied mechanics by establishing a new discipline, namely, agricultural mechanics by academician Vasilii Prohorovich Goryachkin (1868-1935) who was an apprentice of Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky and a graduate of the Moscow University (current known as Moscow State University) and the Imperial Higher Technical School.

  14. The South African Education Agenda: Identifying Markers for Rewriting Agricultural Extension Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in education and agriculture in South Africa indicate that agricultural extension practitioners should facilitate continuous learning among farmers. This requires that extension practitioners acquire new skills. To provide these skills requires a critical examination of agricultural extension curricula in the light of South Africa's…

  15. Perceptions of Florida Secondary School Principals toward Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Adrienne Gentry; Myers, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    In American public schools, the bulk of financial decisions have been left up to local boards of education, local school superintendents, and individual school principals. Traditionally, principals have been considered the utmost leader in their schools. Agricultural education has been linked to student achievement in a variety of ways. The…

  16. 25 CFR 166.908 - Who can participate in continuing education and training?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... personnel employed by approved organizations. This program will emphasize continuing education and training... culture and its effect on natural resources management and agriculture practices and on federal laws...

  17. Local perturbations perturb—exponentially-locally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Roeck, W.; Schütz, M.

    2015-06-01

    We elaborate on the principle that for gapped quantum spin systems with local interaction, "local perturbations [in the Hamiltonian] perturb locally [the groundstate]." This principle was established by Bachmann et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 309, 835-871 (2012)], relying on the "spectral flow technique" or "quasi-adiabatic continuation" [M. B. Hastings, Phys. Rev. B 69, 104431 (2004)] to obtain locality estimates with sub-exponential decay in the distance to the spatial support of the perturbation. We use ideas of Hamza et al. [J. Math. Phys. 50, 095213 (2009)] to obtain similarly a transformation between gapped eigenvectors and their perturbations that is local with exponential decay. This allows to improve locality bounds on the effect of perturbations on the low lying states in certain gapped models with a unique "bulk ground state" or "topological quantum order." We also give some estimate on the exponential decay of correlations in models with impurities where some relevant correlations decay faster than one would naively infer from the global gap of the system, as one also expects in disordered systems with a localized groundstate.

  18. Financial competitiveness of organic agriculture on a global scale

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, David W.; Reganold, John P.

    2015-01-01

    To promote global food and ecosystem security, several innovative farming systems have been identified that better balance multiple sustainability goals. The most rapidly growing and contentious of these systems is organic agriculture. Whether organic agriculture can continue to expand will likely be determined by whether it is economically competitive with conventional agriculture. Here, we examined the financial performance of organic and conventional agriculture by conducting a meta-analysis of a global dataset spanning 55 crops grown on five continents. When organic premiums were not applied, benefit/cost ratios (−8 to −7%) and net present values (−27 to −23%) of organic agriculture were significantly lower than conventional agriculture. However, when actual premiums were applied, organic agriculture was significantly more profitable (22–35%) and had higher benefit/cost ratios (20–24%) than conventional agriculture. Although premiums were 29–32%, breakeven premiums necessary for organic profits to match conventional profits were only 5–7%, even with organic yields being 10–18% lower. Total costs were not significantly different, but labor costs were significantly higher (7–13%) with organic farming practices. Studies in our meta-analysis accounted for neither environmental costs (negative externalities) nor ecosystem services from good farming practices, which likely favor organic agriculture. With only 1% of the global agricultural land in organic production, our findings suggest that organic agriculture can continue to expand even if premiums decline. Furthermore, with their multiple sustainability benefits, organic farming systems can contribute a larger share in feeding the world. PMID:26034271

  19. Where the Grass Grows Again: Knowledge Exchange in the Sustainable Agriculture Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassanein, Neva; Kloppenburg, Jack R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Intensive rotational grazing by Wisconsin dairy farmers represents a local expression of the sustainable agriculture movement. Contrary to interpretations that view local knowledge in agriculture as idiosyncratic, these graziers use horizontal forms of organizing and information exchange to overcome the limits of personal experience and share…

  20. 7 CFR 246.6 - Agreements with local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN... part, 7 CFR part 3016, the debarment and suspension requirements of 7 CFR part 3017, if applicable,...

  1. 7 CFR 247.5 - State and local agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 247.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.5 State and... commodities for distribution; (3) Storing and distributing commodities; (4) Establishing procedures...

  2. 7 CFR 247.5 - State and local agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 247.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.5 State and... commodities for distribution; (3) Storing and distributing commodities; (4) Establishing procedures...

  3. 7 CFR 247.5 - State and local agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 247.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.5 State and... commodities for distribution; (3) Storing and distributing commodities; (4) Establishing procedures...

  4. 7 CFR 247.5 - State and local agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 247.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.5 State and... commodities for distribution; (3) Storing and distributing commodities; (4) Establishing procedures...

  5. Agricultural chemistry and bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Orts, William J; Holtman, Kevin M; Seiber, James N

    2008-06-11

    Renewed interest in converting biomass to biofuels such as ethanol, other forms of bioenergy, and bioenergy byproducts or coproducts of commercial value opens opportunities for chemists, including agricultural chemists and related disciplines. Applications include feedstock characterization and quantification of structural changes resulting from genetic modification and of the intermediates formed during enzymatic and chemical processing; development of improved processes for utilizing chemical coproducts such as lactic acid and glycerol; development of alternative biofuels such as methanol, butanol, and hydrogen; and ways to reduce greenhouse gas emission and/or use carbon dioxide beneficially. Chemists will also be heavily involved in detailing the phytochemical composition of alternative energy crops and genetically improved crops. A resurgence of demand for agricultural chemistry and related disciplines argues for increasing output through targeted programs and on-the-job training. PMID:18473470

  6. Teachers' Use of Agricultural Laboratories in Secondary Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulders, Catherine W.; Myers, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    Trends in the agriculture industry require students to have the ability to solve problems associated with scientific content. Agricultural laboratories are considered a main component of secondary agricultural education, and are well suited to provide students with opportunities to develop problem-solving skills through experiential learning. This…

  7. Agricultural Machinery - Equipment. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agricluture. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, David, Comp.; And Others

    Designed for students enrolled in the Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 12 units on agricultural machinery mechanics. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (agricultural mechanics as an occupation; safety--shop and equipment; use of holding devices, jacks, lifts, and…

  8. Agricultural Awareness Days: Integrating Agricultural Partnerships and STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian T.; Wilkinson, Carol A.; Shepherd, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States there is a need to educate young children in science, technology, and agriculture. Through collaboration with many agricultural groups, the Southern Piedmont Agricultural Research and Education Center has set up a program that works with 3rd grade students and teachers to reinforce the science that has been taught in the…

  9. Agricultural and urban pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brehmer, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The degradation produced by the introduction of agricultural and urban wastes into estuarine systems, with emphasis on the Chesapeake Bay area, is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) effects of sediment loading and (2) organic and nutrient loading problems. The impact of high turbidity on the biological life of the bay is analyzed. The sources of nutrients which produce over-enrichment of the waters and the subsequent production of phytoplankton are examined.

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans. PMID:27094336

  11. Agricultural application of SWECS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, V.

    Principal applications of wind energy for agriculture are (1) farmstead power, mainly electrical, (2) building heating, (3) irrigation pumping, (4) product storage and processing, (5) hot water for residences and dairies, and (6) associated industries of agribusiness such as feedlots, fertilizer elevators, greenhouses, etc. Field experiments show that wind energy is a viable alternative, however, reliability and maintenance are still major problems. Test results of the various experiments are described.

  12. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

  13. GCM Hindcasts for SST Forced Climate Variability over Agriculturally Intensive Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Shah, Kathryn P.; Chandler, Mark A.; Rind, David

    1998-01-01

    The ability to forecast seasonal climate is of great practical interest. One of the most obvious benefits would be agriculture, for which various preparations (planting, machinery, irrigation, manpower) would be enabled. The expectation of being able to make such forecasts far enough in advance (on the order of 9 months) hinges on components of the system with the longest persistence or predictability. The mixed results of El Nino forecasts has raised the hope that tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST) fall into this category. For agriculturally-relevant forecasts to be made, and utilized, requires several conditions. The SST in the regions that affect agricultural areas must be forecast successfully, many months in advance. The climate response to such sea surface temperatures must then be ascertained, either through the use of historical empirical studies or models (e.g., GCMS). For practical applications, the agricultural production must be strongly influenced by climate, and farmers on either the local level or through commercial concerns must be able to adjust to using such forecasts. In a continuing series of papers, we will explore each of these components. This article concerns the question of utilizing SST to forecast the climate in several regions of agricultural production. We optimize the possibility of doing so successfully by using observed SST in a hindcast mode (i.e., a perfect forecast), and we also use the globally observed values (rather than just those from the tropical Pacific, for which predictability has been shown). This then is the ideal situation; in subsequent papers we will explore degrading the results by using only tropical Pacific SSTs, and then using only

  14. Local Solid Shape

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches—essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures—of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is categorical. Although local solid shape has naturally been explored in haptics, results in vision are not forthcoming. We describe a simple experiment in which observers judge shape quality and magnitude of cinematographic presentations. Without prior training, observers readily use continuous shape index and Casorati curvature scales with reasonable resolution. PMID:27648217

  15. Local Solid Shape

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches—essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures—of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is categorical. Although local solid shape has naturally been explored in haptics, results in vision are not forthcoming. We describe a simple experiment in which observers judge shape quality and magnitude of cinematographic presentations. Without prior training, observers readily use continuous shape index and Casorati curvature scales with reasonable resolution.

  16. Local Solid Shape.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Wagemans, Johan

    2015-10-01

    Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches-essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures-of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is categorical. Although local solid shape has naturally been explored in haptics, results in vision are not forthcoming. We describe a simple experiment in which observers judge shape quality and magnitude of cinematographic presentations. Without prior training, observers readily use continuous shape index and Casorati curvature scales with reasonable resolution. PMID:27648217

  17. Theme: In-Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Jack, Ed.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Seven theme articles review the history and philosophy of vocational agriculture, its relationship to the national goals for education, the place of sustainable agriculture and supervised experience in the curriculum, diversifying the curriculum, and fisheries education programs in Alaska. (SK)

  18. Estimation of the bio-accessible fraction of Cr, As, Cd and Pb in locally available bread using on-line continuous leaching method coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lamsal, Ram P; Beauchemin, Diane

    2015-03-31

    A previously developed, efficient and simple on-line leaching method was used to assess the maximum bio-accessible fraction (assuming no synergistic effect from other food and beverage) of potentially toxic elements (Cr, As, Cd and Pb) in whole wheat brown and white bread samples. Artificial saliva, gastric juice and intestinal juice were successively pumped into a mini-column, packed with bread (maintained at 37 °C) connected on-line to the nebulizer of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) instrument equipped with a collision-reaction interface (CRI) using hydrogen as reaction gas to minimize carbon- and chlorine-based polyatomic interferences. In contrast to the conventional batch method to which it was compared, this approach provides real-time monitoring of potentially toxic elements that are continuously released during leaching. Mass balance for both methods was verified at the 95% confidence level. Results obtained from the whole wheat brown and white bread showed that the majority of Cr, Cd and Pb was leached by gastric juice but, in contrast, the majority of As was leached by saliva. While there was higher total content for elements in whole wheat bread than in white bread, a higher percentage of elements were bio-accessible in white bread than in whole wheat bread. Both the on-line and batch methods indicate that 40-98% of toxic elements in bread samples are bio-accessible. While comparison of total analyte concentrations with provisional tolerable daily intake values may indicate some serious health concern for children, when accounting for the bio-accessibility of these elements, bread consumption is found to be safe for all ages.

  19. Continuous-Reading Cryogen Level Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barone, F. E.; Fox, E.; Macumber, S.

    1984-01-01

    Two pressure transducers used in system for measuring amount of cryogenic liquid in tank. System provides continuous measurements accurate within 0.03 percent. Sensors determine pressure in liquid and vapor in tank. Microprocessor uses pressure difference to compute mass of cryogenic liquid in tank. New system allows continuous sensing; unaffected by localized variations in composition and density as are capacitance-sensing schemes.

  20. Institutional Discrimination in Agricultural Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, William C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examines history of discrimination within U.S. agricultural programs, specifically in U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Compares USDA employment and grant allocations for Blacks and Whites since Civil Rights Act of 1964. Cites other examples of institutional discrimination in federal agriculture programs. Calls for development of policy…