Science.gov

Sample records for agriculture domestic quarantine

  1. 7 CFR 301.74-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 301.74-3 Section 301.74-3... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-3 Quarantined areas. (a... quarantined area in paragraph (c) of this section each State, or each portion of a State, in which plum...

  2. 7 CFR 301.32-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 301.32-3 Section 301.32-3... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-3 Quarantined areas. (a) Designation of quarantined areas. In accordance with the criteria listed in paragraph (c) of...

  3. 7 CFR 301.74-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 301.74-3 Section 301.74-3... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-3 Quarantined areas. (a... quarantined area in paragraph (c) of this section each State, or each portion of a State, in which plum...

  4. 7 CFR 301.74-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 301.74-3 Section 301.74-3... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-3 Quarantined areas. (a... quarantined area in paragraph (c) of this section each State, or each portion of a State, in which plum...

  5. 7 CFR 301.32-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 301.32-3 Section 301.32-3... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-3 Quarantined areas. (a) Designation of quarantined areas. In accordance with the criteria listed in paragraph (c) of...

  6. 76 FR 40872 - Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Domestic Quarantine Notices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... product, biological control organism, noxious weed, means of conveyance, or other article to prevent a... regulations to prevent the spread of plant pests and diseases within the United States. DATES: We will...: For information on the domestic quarantine regulations to prevent the spread of plant pests...

  7. 7 CFR 301.92-3 - Quarantined and regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantined and regulated areas. 301.92-3 Section 301.92-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Phytophthora Ramorum §...

  8. 7 CFR 301.92-3 - Quarantined and regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantined and regulated areas. 301.92-3 Section 301.92-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Phytophthora Ramorum §...

  9. 7 CFR 301.75-10 - Interstate movement of regulated articles through a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-10 Interstate movement of regulated...

  10. 7 CFR 301.86-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pale Cyst Nematode § 301.86-3 Quarantined... be infested with pale cyst nematode, each field that has been found to be associated with an infested... State as a quarantined area will prevent the interstate spread of the pale cyst nematode. (c)...

  11. 7 CFR 301.74-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-3 Quarantined areas. (a... quarantined area in paragraph (c) of this section each State, or each portion of a State, in which plum pox... to believe that plum pox is present, or that the Administrator considers necessary to...

  12. 7 CFR 301.74-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-3 Quarantined areas. (a... quarantined area in paragraph (c) of this section each State, or each portion of a State, in which plum pox... to believe that plum pox is present, or that the Administrator considers necessary to...

  13. 7 CFR 301.86-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pale Cyst Nematode § 301.86-3 Quarantined... be infested with pale cyst nematode, each field that has been found to be associated with an infested... State as a quarantined area will prevent the interstate spread of the pale cyst nematode. (c)...

  14. 7 CFR 301.86-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pale Cyst Nematode § 301.86-3 Quarantined... be infested with pale cyst nematode, each field that has been found to be associated with an infested... State as a quarantined area will prevent the interstate spread of the pale cyst nematode. (c)...

  15. 7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...

  16. 7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...

  17. 7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...

  18. 7 CFR 301.76-3 - Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus psyllid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-3 Quarantined areas; citrus greening and Asian citrus...

  19. 7 CFR 301.75-9 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from a quarantined area for experimental or scientific...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-9... citrus canker, i.e., conditions of treatment, processing, growing, shipment, disposal; and (d) Moved...

  20. 7 CFR 301.75-9 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from a quarantined area for experimental or scientific...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-9... citrus canker, i.e., conditions of treatment, processing, growing, shipment, disposal; and (d) Moved...

  1. 7 CFR 301.75-9 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from a quarantined area for experimental or scientific...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-9... citrus canker, i.e., conditions of treatment, processing, growing, shipment, disposal; and (d) Moved...

  2. 7 CFR 301.75-9 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from a quarantined area for experimental or scientific...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-9... citrus canker, i.e., conditions of treatment, processing, growing, shipment, disposal; and (d) Moved...

  3. 7 CFR 301.75-9 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from a quarantined area for experimental or scientific...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-9... citrus canker, i.e., conditions of treatment, processing, growing, shipment, disposal; and (d) Moved...

  4. 7 CFR 301.76-4 - Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... produced within an area quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76-4 Section 301.76-4 Agriculture Regulations... OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-4 Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

  5. 7 CFR 301.76-4 - Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... produced within an area quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76-4 Section 301.76-4 Agriculture Regulations... OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-4 Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

  6. 7 CFR 301.76-4 - Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... produced within an area quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76-4 Section 301.76-4 Agriculture Regulations... OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-4 Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

  7. 7 CFR 301.76-4 - Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... produced within an area quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76-4 Section 301.76-4 Agriculture Regulations... OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-4 Labeling requirements for regulated nursery stock produced within an area quarantined for citrus...

  8. Use of irradiation as quarantine treatment for agricultural products infested by mites and insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Brzostek, G.

    The criterion for efficacy of irradiation of agricultural products as a quarantine treatment should be based on the inability to perpetuate the pest at a new location rather than in causing immediate mortality. Sterility in insects and mites is achieved following irradiation of adults and immatures at much lower doses than needed to kill these pests. Irradiation of beans infested by the bean weevil, Acanthoscelidesobtectus Say, and grains infested by the grain weevil, Sitophilusgranarius (L.), and/or the rice weevil, S. oryzae (L.), at 60 Gy could be the treatment required to produce an acceptable level of quarantine security. For the acarid mites ( Acaridae), a dose of 250 Gy is suggested. At these dosages, adult survivors of the pest will be present in the treated commodities, but they will not give rise to offspring, and thus this pest would not be able to perpetuate in a new area.

  9. 7 CFR 301.32-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-3 Quarantined areas... which a fruit fly population subject to the regulations in this subpart has been found by an inspector, or in which the Administrator has reason to believe that a fruit fly population is present, or...

  10. 7 CFR 301.32-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-3 Quarantined areas... which a fruit fly population subject to the regulations in this subpart has been found by an inspector, or in which the Administrator has reason to believe that a fruit fly population is present, or...

  11. 7 CFR 301.32-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-3 Quarantined areas... which a fruit fly population subject to the regulations in this subpart has been found by an inspector, or in which the Administrator has reason to believe that a fruit fly population is present, or...

  12. 7 CFR 301.53-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Emerald Ash Borer § 301.53-3 Quarantined... the emerald ash borer has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the emerald ash borer is present, or that the Administrator considers necessary to...

  13. 7 CFR 301.53-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Emerald Ash Borer § 301.53-3 Quarantined... the emerald ash borer has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the emerald ash borer is present, or that the Administrator considers necessary to...

  14. 7 CFR 301.75-4 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... affecting § 301.75-4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and... used to handle any fruit eligible for interstate movement to commercial citrus-producing areas, and...

  15. 7 CFR 301.75-4 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... affecting § 301.75-4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and... used to handle any fruit eligible for interstate movement to commercial citrus-producing areas, and...

  16. 7 CFR 301.75-4 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... affecting § 301.75-4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and... used to handle any fruit eligible for interstate movement to commercial citrus-producing areas, and...

  17. 7 CFR 301.75-4 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 301.75-4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and... being used to handle any fruit eligible for interstate movement to commercial citrus-producing...

  18. 7 CFR 301.51-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulated articles from quarantined areas. 301.51-4 Section 301.51-4 Agriculture Regulations of the... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Asian Longhorned Beetle § 301.51-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas. (a) Any regulated article may be moved interstate...

  19. 7 CFR 301.80 - Quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES... Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7711, 7712, 7714, and 7754), the Secretary of Agriculture quarantines the... parasitic plant that causes a dangerous disease of corn, sorghum, and other crops of the grass family and...

  20. 7 CFR 301.80 - Quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES... Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7711, 7712, 7714, and 7754), the Secretary of Agriculture quarantines the... parasitic plant that causes a dangerous disease of corn, sorghum, and other crops of the grass family and...

  1. 7 CFR 301.80 - Quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES... Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7711, 7712, 7714, and 7754), the Secretary of Agriculture quarantines the... parasitic plant that causes a dangerous disease of corn, sorghum, and other crops of the grass family and...

  2. 7 CFR 301.80 - Quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES... Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7711, 7712, 7714, and 7754), the Secretary of Agriculture quarantines the... parasitic plant that causes a dangerous disease of corn, sorghum, and other crops of the grass family and...

  3. 7 CFR 301.80 - Quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES... Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7711, 7712, 7714, and 7754), the Secretary of Agriculture quarantines the... parasitic plant that causes a dangerous disease of corn, sorghum, and other crops of the grass family and...

  4. 7 CFR 301.92-3 - Quarantined and regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Phytophthora Ramorum § 301.92-3... section each State, or each portion of a State, in which Phytophthora ramorum has been confirmed by an... that Phytophthora ramorum is present in the natural environment, or that the Administrator...

  5. 7 CFR 301.92-3 - Quarantined and regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Phytophthora Ramorum § 301.92-3... section each State, or each portion of a State, in which Phytophthora ramorum has been confirmed by an... that Phytophthora ramorum is present in the natural environment, or that the Administrator...

  6. 7 CFR 301.92-3 - Quarantined and regulated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Phytophthora Ramorum § 301.92-3... section each State, or each portion of a State, in which Phytophthora ramorum has been confirmed by an... that Phytophthora ramorum is present in the natural environment, or that the Administrator...

  7. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3... which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the Administrator...

  8. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3... which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the Administrator...

  9. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3... which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the Administrator...

  10. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3... which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the Administrator...

  11. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3... which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the Administrator...

  12. Wheat domestication: Key to agricultural revolutions past and future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domestication of wheat was instrumental in the transition of human behavior from hunter-gatherers to farmers. It was a key event in the agricultural revolution that occurred about 10,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East. Transitions of forms with natural seed dispersal mechan...

  13. The lunar quarantine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. S.; Mason, J. A.; Wooley, B. C.; Mccollum, G. W.; Mieszkuc, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    The lunar quarantine program was designed to ensure that return of lunar material represented no threat to the public health, to agriculture, or to other living resources. It established definitely that no life exists on the moon. The crews of the three lunar quarantine missions, Apollo 11, 12, and 14, experienced no health problems as a result of their exposure to lunar samples. Plants and animals also showed no adverse effects. Stringent quarantine was terminated after Apollo 14, but lunar samples continued to be protected to guarantee that scientists would receive uncontaminated materials for study.

  14. Stopping the spread of agricultural pests with radiation: Quarantine commodity treatments and eradication

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, K.W.

    1997-12-01

    Almost 60 yr ago, E. F. Knipling, a young U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) entomologist, proposed that it might be economically feasible to eradicate the newly introduced screwworm from Florida if a way could be found to sterilize the males. He believed that the male screwworm fly`s strong mating instinct would cause released sterile males to seek out and mate with native screwworm females, interrupting the normal reproductive cycle. Knipling thought this was possible because another USDA scientist, R. C. Bushland, had recently found a way to rear this animal parasite cheaply and in large numbers in the laboratory, making possible the rearing and release of large numbers of sterile male flies into the native population. Some 13 yr would pass before research showed that radiation-induced dominant lethal mutations offered an efficient, practical way to render screwworm flies sterile.

  15. Life cycle assessment of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Santosh R; Johnston, John M; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Hawkins, Troy R

    2014-04-01

    To further understanding of the environmental implications of rainwater harvesting and its water savings potential relative to conventional U.S. water delivery infrastructure, we present a method to perform life cycle assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) and agricultural rainwater harvesting (ARWH) systems. We also summarize the design aspects of DRWH and ARWH systems adapted to the Back Creek watershed, Virginia. The baseline design reveals that the pump and pumping electricity are the main components of DRWH and ARWH impacts. For nonpotable uses, the minimal design of DRWH (with shortened distribution distance and no pump) outperforms municipal drinking water in all environmental impact categories except ecotoxicity. The minimal design of ARWH outperforms well water in all impact categories. In terms of watershed sustainability, the two minimal designs reduced environmental impacts, from 58% to 78% energy use and 67% to 88% human health criteria pollutants, as well as avoiding up to 20% blue water (surface/groundwater) losses, compared to municipal drinking water and well water. We address potential environmental and human health impacts of urban and rural RWH systems in the region. The Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES) model-based life cycle inventory data were used for this study.

  16. 7 CFR 319.15 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane § 319.15 Notice of quarantine. (a) The importation into the United States of sugarcane and its related products, including...

  17. 7 CFR 319.15 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane § 319.15 Notice of quarantine. (a) The importation into the United States of sugarcane and its related products, including...

  18. 7 CFR 319.15 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane § 319.15 Notice of quarantine. (a) The importation into the United States of sugarcane and its related products, including...

  19. 7 CFR 319.15 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane § 319.15 Notice of quarantine. (a) The importation into the United States of sugarcane and its related products, including...

  20. 7 CFR 319.15 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane § 319.15 Notice of quarantine. (a) The importation into the United States of sugarcane and its related products, including...

  1. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The overall objective is to identify those areas of future missions which will be impacted by planetary quarantine (PQ) constraints. The objective of the phase being described was to develop an approach for using decision theory in performing a PQ analysis for a Mariner Jupiter Uranus Mission and to compare it with the traditional approach used for other missions.

  2. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Those areas of future missions which will be impacted by planetary quarantine (PQ) constraints were identified. The specific objectives for this reporting period were (1) to perform an analysis of the effects of PQ on an outer planet atmospheric probe, and (2) to prepare a quantitative illustration of spacecraft microbial reduction resulting from exposure to space environments. The Jupiter Orbiter Probe mission was used as a model for both of these efforts.

  3. Commentary on domestic animals in agricultural and biomedical research: An endangered enterprise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the long and successful history of research on agriculturally relevant domestic animals, basic and translational research using domestic species is becoming increasingly threatened due to budgetary erosion. This funding decline is well documented in a recent article by Ireland et al., publis...

  4. Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin: Origins, diffusion, and impact.

    PubMed

    Zeder, Melinda A

    2008-08-19

    The past decade has witnessed a quantum leap in our understanding of the origins, diffusion, and impact of early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin. In large measure these advances are attributable to new methods for documenting domestication in plants and animals. The initial steps toward plant and animal domestication in the Eastern Mediterranean can now be pushed back to the 12th millennium cal B.P. Evidence for herd management and crop cultivation appears at least 1,000 years earlier than the morphological changes traditionally used to document domestication. Different species seem to have been domesticated in different parts of the Fertile Crescent, with genetic analyses detecting multiple domestic lineages for each species. Recent evidence suggests that the expansion of domesticates and agricultural economies across the Mediterranean was accomplished by several waves of seafaring colonists who established coastal farming enclaves around the Mediterranean Basin. This process also involved the adoption of domesticates and domestic technologies by indigenous populations and the local domestication of some endemic species. Human environmental impacts are seen in the complete replacement of endemic island faunas by imported mainland fauna and in today's anthropogenic, but threatened, Mediterranean landscapes where sustainable agricultural practices have helped maintain high biodiversity since the Neolithic. PMID:18697943

  5. Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin: Origins, diffusion, and impact.

    PubMed

    Zeder, Melinda A

    2008-08-19

    The past decade has witnessed a quantum leap in our understanding of the origins, diffusion, and impact of early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin. In large measure these advances are attributable to new methods for documenting domestication in plants and animals. The initial steps toward plant and animal domestication in the Eastern Mediterranean can now be pushed back to the 12th millennium cal B.P. Evidence for herd management and crop cultivation appears at least 1,000 years earlier than the morphological changes traditionally used to document domestication. Different species seem to have been domesticated in different parts of the Fertile Crescent, with genetic analyses detecting multiple domestic lineages for each species. Recent evidence suggests that the expansion of domesticates and agricultural economies across the Mediterranean was accomplished by several waves of seafaring colonists who established coastal farming enclaves around the Mediterranean Basin. This process also involved the adoption of domesticates and domestic technologies by indigenous populations and the local domestication of some endemic species. Human environmental impacts are seen in the complete replacement of endemic island faunas by imported mainland fauna and in today's anthropogenic, but threatened, Mediterranean landscapes where sustainable agricultural practices have helped maintain high biodiversity since the Neolithic.

  6. Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin: Origins, diffusion, and impact

    PubMed Central

    Zeder, Melinda A.

    2008-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a quantum leap in our understanding of the origins, diffusion, and impact of early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin. In large measure these advances are attributable to new methods for documenting domestication in plants and animals. The initial steps toward plant and animal domestication in the Eastern Mediterranean can now be pushed back to the 12th millennium cal B.P. Evidence for herd management and crop cultivation appears at least 1,000 years earlier than the morphological changes traditionally used to document domestication. Different species seem to have been domesticated in different parts of the Fertile Crescent, with genetic analyses detecting multiple domestic lineages for each species. Recent evidence suggests that the expansion of domesticates and agricultural economies across the Mediterranean was accomplished by several waves of seafaring colonists who established coastal farming enclaves around the Mediterranean Basin. This process also involved the adoption of domesticates and domestic technologies by indigenous populations and the local domestication of some endemic species. Human environmental impacts are seen in the complete replacement of endemic island faunas by imported mainland fauna and in today's anthropogenic, but threatened, Mediterranean landscapes where sustainable agricultural practices have helped maintain high biodiversity since the Neolithic. PMID:18697943

  7. 7 CFR 318.13-1 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of quarantine. 318.13-1 Section 318.13-1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated...

  8. 7 CFR 318.13-1 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of quarantine. 318.13-1 Section 318.13-1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated...

  9. 9 CFR 78.42 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 78.42 Section 78.42 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Brucellosis Areas § 78.42 Quarantined areas. None....

  10. 9 CFR 78.42 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 78.42 Section 78.42 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Brucellosis Areas § 78.42 Quarantined areas. None....

  11. 9 CFR 78.42 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 78.42 Section 78.42 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Brucellosis Areas § 78.42 Quarantined areas. None....

  12. 9 CFR 78.42 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 78.42 Section 78.42 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Brucellosis Areas § 78.42 Quarantined areas. None....

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Domestic and Agricultural Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    To further understanding of the environmental implications of rainwater harvesting and its water savings potential relative to conventional U.S. water delivery infrastructure, we present a method to perform life cycle assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) and agricul...

  14. 7 CFR 301.86-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 301.86-3 Section 301.86-3... areas. (a) Designation of quarantined areas. In accordance with the criteria listed in paragraph (c) of this section, the Administrator will designate as a quarantined area each field that has been found...

  15. 7 CFR 301.86-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 301.86-3 Section 301.86-3... areas. (a) Designation of quarantined areas. In accordance with the criteria listed in paragraph (c) of this section, the Administrator will designate as a quarantined area each field that has been found...

  16. Current trends in quarantine entomology.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Neven, Lisa G

    2006-01-01

    With world trade in agricultural commodities increasing, the introduction of exotic insects into new areas where they become pests will increase. The development and application of quarantine treatments or other mitigation approaches to prevent pest introduction in traded commodities raise many research and regulatory issues. The probit 9 standard for quarantine treatment efficacy has given way to risk-based alternatives. Varietal testing may have merit for some treatments or commodities but not for others. Development of generic treatments to control broad groups of insects or insects in all commodities can expedite new trade in agricultural products. Area-wide pest management programs lower pest levels before harvest and improve the quarantine security provided by any postharvest treatments. Systems approaches capitalize on cumulative pest mortality from multiple control components to achieve quarantine security in an exported commodity. Certain quarantine treatment technologies such as irradiation are not universally accepted, which is slowing their adoption. Standardized phytosanitary measures and research protocols are needed to improve the flow of information when countries propose to trade in a regulated commodity.

  17. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  18. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  19. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  20. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  1. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  2. 7 CFR 319.19 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker and Other Citrus Diseases... citrus canker disease (Xanthomonas citri (Hasse) Dowson) and other citrus diseases, the importation...

  3. 7 CFR 319.19 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker and Other Citrus Diseases... citrus canker disease (Xanthomonas citri (Hasse) Dowson) and other citrus diseases, the importation...

  4. 7 CFR 319.19 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker and Other Citrus Diseases... citrus canker disease (Xanthomonas citri (Hasse) Dowson) and other citrus diseases, the importation...

  5. 7 CFR 319.19 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker and Other Citrus Diseases... citrus canker disease (Xanthomonas citri (Hasse) Dowson) and other citrus diseases, the importation...

  6. 7 CFR 319.19 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Canker and Other Citrus Diseases... citrus canker disease (Xanthomonas citri (Hasse) Dowson) and other citrus diseases, the importation...

  7. Quarantine Regulations and the Impact of Modern Detection Methods.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert R; Constable, Fiona; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2016-08-01

    Producers worldwide need access to the best plant varieties and cultivars available to be competitive in global markets. This often means moving plants across international borders as soon as they are available. At the same time, quarantine agencies are tasked with minimizing the risk of introducing exotic pests and pathogens along with imported plant material, with the goal to protect domestic agriculture and native fauna and flora. These two drivers, the movement of more plant material and reduced risk of pathogen introduction, are at odds. Improvements in large-scale or next-generation sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics for data analysis have resulted in improved speed and accuracy of pathogen detection that could facilitate plant trade with reduced risk of pathogen movement. There are concerns to be addressed before NGS can replace existing tools used for pathogen detection in plant quarantine and certification programs. Here, we discuss the advantages and possible pitfalls of this technology for meeting the needs of plant quarantine and certification. PMID:27491434

  8. Avian influenza, domestic ducks and rice agriculture in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Marius; Xiao, Xiangming; Chaitaweesub, Prasit; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Premashthira, Sith; Boles, Stephen; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 viruses has become a global scale problem which first emerged in southern China and from there spread to other countries in Southeast and East Asia, where it was first confirmed in end 2003. In previous work, geospatial analyses demonstrated that free grazing ducks played critical role in the epidemiology of the disease in Thailand in the winter 2004/2005, both in terms of HPAI emergence and spread. This study explored the geographic association between free grazing duck census counts and current statistics on the spatial distribution of rice crops in Thailand, in particular the crop calendar of rice production. The analysis was carried out using both district level rice statistics and rice distribution data predicted with the aid of remote sensing, using a rice-detection algorithm. The results indicated a strong association between the number of free grazing ducks and the number of months during which second-crop rice harvest takes place, as well as with the rice crop intensity as predicted by remote sensing. These results confirmed that free grazing duck husbandry was strongly driven by agricultural land use and rice crop intensity, and that this later variable can be readily predicted using remote sensing. Analysis of rice cropping patterns may provide an indication of the location of populations of free grazing ducks in other countries with similar mixed duck and rice production systems and less detailed duck census data. Apart from free ranging ducks and rice cropping, the role of hydrology and seasonality of wetlands and water bodies in the HPAI risk analysis is also discussed in relation to the presumed dry season aggregation of wild waterfowl and aquatic poultry offering much scope for virus transmission. PMID:18418464

  9. Agricultural origins from the ground up: archaeological approaches to plant domestication.

    PubMed

    Langlie, BrieAnna S; Mueller, Natalie G; Spengler, Robert N; Fritz, Gayle J

    2014-10-01

    The timing, geographical locations, causes, and consequences of crop domestication have long been major concerns of archaeologists, and agricultural origins and dispersals are currently more relevant than ever to scientists seeking solutions to elusive problems involving food insecurity and global health disparities. Perennial research issues that archaeologists continue to tackle include (1) thinking outside centers of origin that were based on limited and insufficient past knowledge; (2) distinguishing between single and multiple domestications of specific crops; (3) measuring the pace of domestication; and (4) decoupling domestication from agricultural economies. Paleoethnobotanists have expanded their toolkits to include analysis of ancient and modern DNA and have added increasingly sophisticated techniques in the field and the laboratory to derive precise chronological sequences to assess morphological changes in ancient and often fragmentary archaeobotanical remains and to correctly interpret taphonomy and context. Multiple lines of archaeological evidence are ideally brought together, and whenever possible, these are integrated with information from complementary sources. We discuss current perspectives and anthropological approaches to research that have as their goals the fuller and broader understanding of ancient farming societies, the plants that were domesticated, the landscapes that were created, and the culinary legacies that were passed on.

  10. A commentary on domestic animals as dual-purpose models that benefit agricultural and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Ireland, J J; Roberts, R M; Palmer, G H; Bauman, D E; Bazer, F W

    2008-10-01

    Research on domestic animals (cattle, swine, sheep, goats, poultry, horses, and aquatic species) at land grant institutions is integral to improving the global competitiveness of US animal agriculture and to resolving complex animal and human diseases. However, dwindling federal and state budgets, years of stagnant funding from USDA for the Competitive State Research, Education, and Extension Service National Research Initiative (CSREES-NRI) Competitive Grants Program, significant reductions in farm animal species and in numbers at land grant institutions, and declining enrollment for graduate studies in animal science are diminishing the resources necessary to conduct research on domestic species. Consequently, recruitment of scientists who use such models to conduct research relevant to animal agriculture and biomedicine at land grant institutions is in jeopardy. Concerned stakeholders have addressed this critical problem by conducting workshops, holding a series of meetings with USDA and National Institutes of Health (NIH) officials, and developing a white paper to propose solutions to obstacles impeding the use of domestic species as dual-purpose animal models for high-priority problems common to agriculture and biomedicine. In addition to shortfalls in research support and human resources, overwhelming use of mouse models in biomedicine, lack of advocacy from university administrators, long-standing cultural barriers between agriculture and human medicine, inadequate grantsmanship by animal scientists, and a scarcity of key reagents and resources are major roadblocks to progress. Solutions will require a large financial enhancement of USDA's Competitive Grants Program, educational programs geared toward explaining how research using agricultural animals benefits both animal agriculture and human health, and the development of a new mind-set in land grant institutions that fosters greater cooperation among basic and applied researchers. Recruitment of

  11. The decision to exclude agricultural and domestic workers from the 1935 Social Security Act.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The Social Security Act of 1935 excluded from coverage about half the workers in the American economy. Among the excluded groups were agricultural and domestic workers-a large percentage of whom were African Americans. This has led some scholars to conclude that policymakers in 1935 deliberately excluded African Americans from the Social Security system because of prevailing racial biases during that period. This article examines both the logic of this thesis and the available empirical evidence on the origins of the coverage exclusions. The author concludes that the racial-bias thesis is both conceptually flawed and unsupported by the existing empirical evidence. The exclusion of agricultural and domestic workers from the early program was due to considerations of administrative feasibility involving tax-collection procedures. The author finds no evidence of any other policy motive involving racial bias.

  12. Nonhuman primate quarantine: its evolution and practice.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jeffrey A; Andrews, Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are imported to the United States for use in research, domestic breeding, and propagation of endangered populations in zoological gardens. During the past 60 years, individuals responsible for NHP importation programs have observed morbidity and mortality typically associated with infectious disease outbreaks. These outbreaks have included infectious agents such as tuberculosis, Herpesvirus sp., simian hemorrhagic fever, and filovirus infections such as the Ebola and Marburg viruses. Some outbreaks have affected both animal and human populations. These epizootics are attributable to a variety of factors, including increased population density, exposure of naïve populations to new infectious agents, and stress. The practice of quarantining animals arriving in the United States was first applied by individual research programs to improve animal health and ensure the quality of animals entering research programs. The development of government regulations for nonhuman primate quarantine accompanied the recognition that imported NHPs could pose a risk to public health. This article briefly reviews the history of US NHP importation and the factors behind the development of NHP quarantine regulations. The focus is on regulations concerned with infectious disease, public health, and the health of domestic primate colonies. These regulations have had the dual benefit of protecting public health as well as reducing animal morbidity and mortality during importation and quarantine. We review current practices and facilities for nonhuman primate quarantine and identify challenges for the future. PMID:18323577

  13. 7 CFR 301.53-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 301.53-3 Section 301.53-3... areas. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the Administrator will list as a quarantined area in paragraph (c) of this section each State or each portion of a State in...

  14. 7 CFR 301.53-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 301.53-3 Section 301.53-3... areas. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the Administrator will list as a quarantined area in paragraph (c) of this section each State or each portion of a State in...

  15. 7 CFR 301.53-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 301.53-3 Section 301.53-3... areas. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the Administrator will list as a quarantined area in paragraph (c) of this section each State or each portion of a State in...

  16. 7 CFR 301.75-7 - Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-7 Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area. (a) Regulated fruit produced in a quarantined area or moved into a...

  17. 7 CFR 301.75-7 - Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-7 Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area. (a) Regulated fruit produced in a quarantined area or moved into a...

  18. 7 CFR 301.75-7 - Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-7 Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area. (a) Regulated fruit produced in a quarantined area or moved into a...

  19. 7 CFR 301.75-7 - Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-7 Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area. (a) Regulated fruit produced in a quarantined area or moved into a...

  20. 7 CFR 301.75-7 - Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-7 Interstate movement of regulated fruit from a quarantined area. (a) Regulated fruit produced in a quarantined area or moved into a...

  1. Quarantine stressing voluntary compliance.

    PubMed

    DiGiovanni, Cleto; Bowen, Nancy; Ginsberg, Michele; Giles, Gregory

    2005-11-01

    A 1-day table-top exercise in San Diego, California, in December 2004 emphasized voluntary compliance with home quarantine to control an emerging infectious disease outbreak. The exercise heightened local civilian-military collaboration in public health emergency management. Addressing concerns about lost income by residents in quarantine was particularly challenging. PMID:16318738

  2. 9 CFR 93.510 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantine requirements. 93.510 Section 93.510 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  3. 9 CFR 93.209 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantine requirements. 93.209 Section 93.209 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  4. 9 CFR 93.510 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantine requirements. 93.510 Section 93.510 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  5. Agricultural origins and the isotopic identity of domestication in northern China.

    PubMed

    Barton, Loukas; Newsome, Seth D; Chen, Fa-Hu; Wang, Hui; Guilderson, Thomas P; Bettinger, Robert L

    2009-04-01

    Stable isotope biochemistry (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) and radiocarbon dating of ancient human and animal bone document 2 distinct phases of plant and animal domestication at the Dadiwan site in northwest China. The first was brief and nonintensive: at various times between 7900 and 7200 calendar years before present (calBP) people harvested and stored enough broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum) to provision themselves and their hunting dogs (Canis sp.) throughout the year. The second, much more intensive phase was in place by 5900 calBP: during this time both broomcorn and foxtail (Setaria viridis spp. italica) millets were cultivated and made significant contributions to the diets of people, dogs, and pigs (Sus sp.). The systems represented in both phases developed elsewhere: the earlier, low-intensity domestic relationship emerged with hunter-gatherers in the arid north, while the more intensive, later one evolved further east and arrived at Dadiwan with the Yangshao Neolithic. The stable isotope methodology used here is probably the best means of detecting the symbiotic human-plant-animal linkages that develop during the very earliest phases of domestication and is thus applicable to the areas where these connections first emerged and are critical to explaining how and why agriculture began in East Asia.

  6. The origin of human pathogens: evaluating the role of agriculture and domestic animals in the evolution of human disease.

    PubMed

    Pearce-Duvet, Jessica M C

    2006-08-01

    Many significant diseases of human civilization are thought to have arisen concurrently with the advent of agriculture in human society. It has been hypothesised that the food produced by farming increased population sizes to allow the maintenance of virulent pathogens, i.e. civilization pathogens, while domestic animals provided sources of disease to humans. To determine the relationship between pathogens in humans and domestic animals, I examined phylogenetic data for several human pathogens that are commonly evolutionarily linked to domestic animals: measles, pertussis, smallpox, tuberculosis, taenid worms, and falciparal malaria. The majority are civilization pathogens, although I have included others whose evolutionary origins have traditionally been ascribed to domestic animals. The strongest evidence for a domestic-animal origin exists for measles and pertussis, although the data do not exclude a non-domestic origin. As for the other pathogens, the evidence currently available makes it difficult to determine if the domestic-origin hypothesis is supported or refuted; in fact, intriguing data for tuberculosis and taenid worms suggests that transmission may occur as easily from humans to domestic animals. These findings do not abrogate the importance of agriculture in disease transmission; rather, if anything, they suggest an alternative, more complex series of effects than previously elucidated. Rather than domestication, the broader force for human pathogen evolution could be ecological change, namely anthropogenic modification of the environment. This is supported by evidence that many current emerging infectious diseases are associated with human modification of the environment. Agriculture may have changed the transmission ecology of pre-existing human pathogens, increased the success of pre-existing pathogen vectors, resulted in novel interactions between humans and wildlife, and, through the domestication of animals, provided a stable conduit for human

  7. Analysis of a Japan government intervention on the domestic agriculture market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanov, Nikolay K.; Sakai, Kenshi; Jordanov, Ivan P.; Managi, Shunsuke; Demura, Katsuhiko

    2007-08-01

    We investigate an economic system in which one large agent-the Japan government changes the environment of numerous smaller agents-the Japan agriculture producers by indirect regulation of prices of agriculture goods. The reason for this intervention was that before the oil crisis in 1974 Japan agriculture production prices exhibited irregular and large amplitude changes. By means of analysis of correlations and a combination of singular spectrum analysis (SSA), principal component analysis (PCA), and time delay phase space construction (TDPSC) we study the influence of the government measures on the domestic piglet prices and production in Japan. We show that the government regulation politics was successful and lead: (i) to a decrease of the nonstationarities and to increase of predictability of the piglet price; (ii) to a coupling of the price and production cycles; and (iii) to increase of determinism of the dynamics of the fluctuations of piglet price around the year average price. The investigated case is an example confirming the thesis that a large agent can change in a significant way the environment of the small agents in complex (economic or financial) systems which can be crucial for their survival or extinction.

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-1 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-1 Notice of... is necessary to prohibit the importation into the United States of fruits and vegetables...

  9. Biodegradable chelating agents for industrial, domestic, and agricultural applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Isabel S S; Neto, Isabel F F; Soares, Helena M V M

    2014-10-01

    Aminopolycarboxylates, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), are chelating agents widely used in several industrial, agricultural, and domestic applications. However, the fact that they are not biodegradable leads to the presence of considerable amounts in aquatic systems, with serious environmental consequences. The replacement of these compounds by biodegradable alternatives has been the object of study in the last three decades. This paper reviews the most relevant studies towards the use of environmentally friendly chelating agents in a large number of applications: oxidative bleaching, detergents and cleaning compositions, scale prevention and reduction, remediation of soils, agriculture, electroplating, waste treatment, and biocides. Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), and iminodisuccinic acid (IDS) are the most commonly suggested to replace the nonbiodegradable chelating agents. Depending on the application, the requirements for metal complexation might differ. Metal chelation ability of the most promising compounds [NTA, EDDS, IDS, methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), L-glutamic acid N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA), ethylenediamine-N,N'-diglutaric acid (EDDG), ethylenediamine-N,N'-dimalonic acid (EDDM), 3-hydroxy-2,2-iminodisuccinic acid (HIDS), 2-hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid (HEIDA), pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDA)] with Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ca, and Mg was simulated by computer calculations. The advantages or disadvantages of each compound for the most important applications were discussed.

  10. 1961 ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA DIRECTED TOWARD THE IMPROVEMENT OF HEALTH AMONG DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS AND THEIR FAMILIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1961

    A PROGRAM INSTITUTED IN 1961 TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH OF DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN CALIFORNIA AND THEIR FAMILIES WAS GIVEN. IT SOUGHT TO HELP LOCAL HEALTH AGENCIES BY PROVIDING--TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO COUNTIES TRYING TO DEVELOP FACILITIES AND SERVICES, EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR USE OF STATE FUNDS BY LOCAL…

  11. Foundations of planetary quarantine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L. B.; Lyle, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of some of the problems in microbiology and engineering involved in the implementation of planetary quarantine. It is shown that the solutions require new knowledge in both disciplines for success at low cost in terms of both monetary outlay and man's further exploration of the planets. A related problem exists in that engineers are not accustomed to the wide variation of biological data and microbiologists must learn to work and think in more exact terms. Those responsible for formulating or influencing national and international policies must walk a tightrope with delicate balance between unnecessarily stringent requirements for planetary quarantine on the one hand and prevention of contamination on the other. The success of planetary quarantine measures can be assured only by rigorous measures, each checked, rechecked, and triple-checked to make sure that no errors have been made and that no factor has been overlooked.

  12. Groundwater quality and its suitability for domestic and agricultural use in Tondiar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, K; Elango, L

    2012-06-01

    Assessment of suitability of groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes was carried out in Tondiar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. The study area covers an area of 315 km(2) and lies in a semiarid region. Groundwater is the major source for domestic and agricultural activity in this area. Groundwater samples were collected from 45 wells during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period in the year 2006. The water samples were analysed for physical and chemical characteristics. Suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated based on salinity hazard, sodium percent, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, US salinity diagram, Wilcox's diagram, Kelly's ratio and permeability index. Ca-HCO(3), mixed Ca-Mg-Cl and Na-Cl were the dominant groundwater types. High hardness and electrical conductivity in this area makes the groundwater unsuitable for drinking and agricultural purposes. Concentration of trace elements (Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni) did not exceed the permissible limit for drinking and agricultural purposes. Majority of the groundwater samples were unsuitable for domestic and agricultural purposes except for 31% and 36%, which were suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes, respectively.

  13. Narrowing the harvest: Increasing sickle investment and the rise of domesticated cereal agriculture in the Fertile Crescent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Osamu; Lucas, Leilani; Silva, Fabio; Tanno, Ken-Ichi; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2016-08-01

    For the first time we integrate quantitative data on lithic sickles and archaeobotanical evidence for domestication and the evolution of plant economies from sites dated to the terminal Pleistocene and Early Holocene (ca. 12000-5000 cal. BCE) from throughout the Fertile Crescent region of Southwest Asia. We find a strong correlation in some regions, throughout the Levant, for increasing investment in sickles that tracks the evidence for increasing reliance on cereal crops, while evidence for morphological domestication in wheats (Triticum monococcum and Triticum dicoccum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) was delayed in comparison to sickle use. These data indicate that while the co-increase of sickle blades and cereal crops support the protracted development of agricultural practice, sickles did not drive the initial stages of the domestication process but rather were a cultural adaptation to increasing reliance on cereals that were still undergoing selection for morphological change. For other regions, such as the Eastern Fertile Crescent and Cyprus such correlations are weaker or non-existent suggesting diverse cultural trajectories to cereal domestication. We conclude that sickles were an exaptation transferred to cereal harvesting and important in signalling a new cultural identity of "farmers". Furthermore, the protracted process of technological and agricultural evolution calls into question hypotheses that the transition to agriculture was caused by any particular climatic event.

  14. Planetary quarantine computer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafenstein, M.

    1973-01-01

    The computer programs are identified pertaining to planetary quarantine activities within the Project Engineering Division, both at the Air Force Eastern Test Range and on site at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief description of each program and program inputs are given and typical program outputs are shown.

  15. Introduction and domestication of woody plants for sustainable agriculture in desert areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelef, Oren; Soloway, Elaine; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2014-05-01

    High radiation in hot deserts results in high salinity, especially in irrigated fields. Whenever not treated properly, this salinization may harm crops and eventually bring to soil destruction, field abandonment, or literally desertification. Furthermore, the range of crops that can be grown commercially in hot deserts is limited (Nerd et al. 1990). With the globalization of the last century, Introduction of exotic species for commercial use became more accessible. However, these attempts may involve extreme land changes including establishment of potential invasive species. Therefore domestication of native species should be preferred rather than introduction of exotics. In the last six years we did first steps of domesticating several native species, searching for commercial potential (pharmaceutics, food, biomass for energy and desalination of constructed wetlands). We studied aspects of desert plant physiology in drought and saline conditions. We wish to share the knowledge we gained regarding the physiology and commercial potential of the following desert plant species: 1) Bassia indica is an annual halophyte. We proposed to use it for salt phytoremediation in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment and as feed for livestock; 2) Commiphora gileadensis is considered as the balm tree of Judea, praised for its use as holy oil and in perfumes but also considered as a cure for many diseases. C. gileadensis today grows naturally in southwest Arabia and Somaliland. We found anti-proliferative and apoptotic effect of C. gileadensis extracts on several human cancer cells. Ben Gurion University of the Negev has patented these findings. 3) Artemisia sieberi and A. judaica are both known for various therapeutic traits. While studying effects of irrigation intensity on these traits, some allopathic characters were discovered. 4) Fichus palmate disappeared from Israel, but remind in neighbouring Jordan and Egypt. This tree may serve as a robust stand for fig

  16. U.S. Biofuel Policies and Domestic Shifts in Agricultural Land Use and Water Balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Policies promoting domestic biofuels production could lead to significant changes in cropping patterns. Types of direct and indirect land use change include: switching among crops (displacement), expanding cropped area (extensification), and altering water/soil management practices (e.g. irrigation, tillage) (intensification). Most studies of biofuels water use impacts calculate the water intensity of biofuels in liters of irrigated/total evapotranspired water per unit energy of biofuels. But estimates based on this approach are sensitive to assumptions (e.g. co-product allocation, system boundaries), and do not convey policy-relevant information, as highlighted by the issue of land use change. We address these shortcomings by adopting a scenario-based approach that combines economic modeling with crop-water modeling of major crops and biofuel feedstocks. This allows us to holistically compare differences in water balances across policy scenarios in an integrated economic/agricultural system. We compare high spatial resolution water balance estimates under three hypothetical policy scenarios: 1) a counterfactual no-policy scenario, 2) modified Renewable Fuels Standard mandates (M-RFS2), & 3) a national Low Carbon Fuel Standard plus a modified RFS2 scenario (LCFS+RFS2). Differences between scenarios in crop water balances (i.e. transpiration, evaporation, runoff, groundwater infiltration, & irrigation) are regional and are a function of changes in land use patterns (i.e. displacement, intensification, & extensification), plus variation in crop water-use characteristics. Cropped land area increases 6.2% and 1.6% under M-RFS2 and LCFS+RFS2 scenarios, respectively, by 2030. Both policy scenarios lead to reductions in net irrigation volumes nationally compared to the no-policy scenario, though more irrigation occurs in regions of the Midwest and West. The LCFS+RFS2 reduces net irrigation water use by 3.5 times more than M-RFS2. However, both policies drive

  17. 7 CFR 301.48 - Notice of quarantine; quarantine restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48 Notice of quarantine; quarantine... of Columbia in order to prevent the spread of the Japanese beetle, a dangerous insect injurious...

  18. 7 CFR 301.48 - Notice of quarantine; quarantine restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48 Notice of quarantine; quarantine... of Columbia in order to prevent the spread of the Japanese beetle, a dangerous insect injurious...

  19. 7 CFR 301.48 - Notice of quarantine; quarantine restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48 Notice of quarantine; quarantine... of Columbia in order to prevent the spread of the Japanese beetle, a dangerous insect injurious...

  20. 7 CFR 301.48 - Notice of quarantine; quarantine restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48 Notice of quarantine; quarantine... of Columbia in order to prevent the spread of the Japanese beetle, a dangerous insect injurious...

  1. 7 CFR 301.48 - Notice of quarantine; quarantine restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48 Notice of quarantine; quarantine... of Columbia in order to prevent the spread of the Japanese beetle, a dangerous insect injurious...

  2. A universal method for measuring functional activity of complement in humans, laboratory, domestic, and agricultural animals, amphibians, and birds.

    PubMed

    Kuleshina, O N; Kozlov, L V; Cheremnykh, E G

    2014-06-01

    A new universal method for measuring activity of the serum complement system in humans, laboratory, domestic, agricultural animals, birds and amphibians is based on automated evaluation of the mortality of ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis under the effect of the complement system. In contrast to the hemolytic method, measured activity of the complement shows no erroneously high results caused by reactive lysis in febrile patients. The method can be used for studies of the complement system in humans and animals without species-specific adaptation.

  3. 7 CFR 301.85-3 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined States. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-3 Conditions governing the... of the golden nematode and the person in possession thereof has been so notified; or (v) Through or... golden nematode exists; or (v) Through or reshipped from any regulated area if the articles...

  4. 7 CFR 301.74-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated... Departmental permit and found by the Administrator to be adequate to prevent the spread of plum pox; and (4... plum pox while in the quarantined area; (2) The regulated article's point of origin is indicated on...

  5. 7 CFR 301.74-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated... Departmental permit and found by the Administrator to be adequate to prevent the spread of plum pox; and (4... plum pox while in the quarantined area; (2) The regulated article's point of origin is indicated on...

  6. 7 CFR 301.74-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated... Departmental permit and found by the Administrator to be adequate to prevent the spread of plum pox; and (4... plum pox while in the quarantined area; (2) The regulated article's point of origin is indicated on...

  7. 7 CFR 301.74-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated... Departmental permit and found by the Administrator to be adequate to prevent the spread of plum pox; and (4... plum pox while in the quarantined area; (2) The regulated article's point of origin is indicated on...

  8. 7 CFR 301.74-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated... Departmental permit and found by the Administrator to be adequate to prevent the spread of plum pox; and (4... plum pox while in the quarantined area; (2) The regulated article's point of origin is indicated on...

  9. 7 CFR 301.48-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-4 Conditions governing the... threat to spread the Japanese beetle because adult beetle populations are not present; or (b) The... be free of and safeguarded against Japanese beetle; or (c) The aircraft is loaded during the hours...

  10. 7 CFR 301.48-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-4 Conditions governing the... threat to spread the Japanese beetle because adult beetle populations are not present; or (b) The... be free of and safeguarded against Japanese beetle; or (c) The aircraft is loaded during the hours...

  11. 7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-4 Conditions governing the interstate... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving through the... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while within the quarantined...

  12. 7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-4 Conditions governing the interstate... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving through the... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while within the quarantined...

  13. 7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-4 Conditions governing the interstate... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving through the... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while within the quarantined...

  14. 7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-4 Conditions governing the interstate... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving through the... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while within the quarantined...

  15. 7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-4 Conditions governing the interstate... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving through the... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while within the quarantined...

  16. 7 CFR 301.48-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-4 Conditions governing the... threat to spread the Japanese beetle because adult beetle populations are not present; or (b) The... be free of and safeguarded against Japanese beetle; or (c) The aircraft is loaded during the hours...

  17. 7 CFR 301.48-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-4 Conditions governing the... threat to spread the Japanese beetle because adult beetle populations are not present; or (b) The... be free of and safeguarded against Japanese beetle; or (c) The aircraft is loaded during the hours...

  18. 7 CFR 301.48-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-4 Conditions governing the... threat to spread the Japanese beetle because adult beetle populations are not present; or (b) The... be free of and safeguarded against Japanese beetle; or (c) The aircraft is loaded during the hours...

  19. 7 CFR 301.52-3 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined States. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-3 Conditions governing the... present a hazard of the spread of the pink bollworm and the person in possession thereof has been so... articles has been notified by an inspector that a hazard of spread of the pink bollworm exists; or...

  20. 7 CFR 301.52-3 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined States. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-3 Conditions governing the... present a hazard of the spread of the pink bollworm and the person in possession thereof has been so... articles has been notified by an inspector that a hazard of spread of the pink bollworm exists; or...

  1. 7 CFR 301.52-3 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined States. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-3 Conditions governing the... present a hazard of the spread of the pink bollworm and the person in possession thereof has been so... articles has been notified by an inspector that a hazard of spread of the pink bollworm exists; or...

  2. 7 CFR 301.52-3 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined States. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-3 Conditions governing the... present a hazard of the spread of the pink bollworm and the person in possession thereof has been so... articles has been notified by an inspector that a hazard of spread of the pink bollworm exists; or...

  3. 7 CFR 301.52-3 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined States. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-3 Conditions governing the... present a hazard of the spread of the pink bollworm and the person in possession thereof has been so... articles has been notified by an inspector that a hazard of spread of the pink bollworm exists; or...

  4. 7 CFR 301.50-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 301.50-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 301.50-3 Section 301.50-3... areas. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the Administrator will list...

  5. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  6. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  7. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  8. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  9. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  10. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  11. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  12. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  13. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  14. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  15. 7 CFR 319.8 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... quarantine. Pursuant to sections 411-414 and 434 of the Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7711-7714 and 7754), the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has determined that...

  16. 7 CFR 318.60 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Sand, Soil, or Earth... United States, by means of sand, soil, or earth about the roots of plants, of immature stages of certain... prevent the spread of the aforementioned dangerous insects. (c) Sand (other than clean ocean sand),...

  17. 7 CFR 318.60 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Sand, Soil, or Earth... United States, by means of sand, soil, or earth about the roots of plants, of immature stages of certain... prevent the spread of the aforementioned dangerous insects. (c) Sand (other than clean ocean sand),...

  18. 7 CFR 318.60 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Sand, Soil, or Earth... United States, by means of sand, soil, or earth about the roots of plants, of immature stages of certain... prevent the spread of the aforementioned dangerous insects. (c) Sand (other than clean ocean sand),...

  19. 7 CFR 318.60 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Sand, Soil, or Earth... United States, by means of sand, soil, or earth about the roots of plants, of immature stages of certain... prevent the spread of the aforementioned dangerous insects. (c) Sand (other than clean ocean sand),...

  20. 7 CFR 318.60 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Sand, Soil, or Earth... United States, by means of sand, soil, or earth about the roots of plants, of immature stages of certain... prevent the spread of the aforementioned dangerous insects. (c) Sand (other than clean ocean sand),...

  1. 9 CFR 72.5 - Area quarantined in Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area quarantined in Texas. 72.5 Section 72.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BOVINE...

  2. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not... spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this section. (b) Brucellosis...

  3. 9 CFR 82.3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 82.3 Section 82.3...) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.3 Quarantined areas. (a) Any area where birds or poultry infected with END are located will be designated as a quarantined area. A quarantined area is...

  4. 9 CFR 82.3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 82.3 Section 82.3...) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.3 Quarantined areas. (a) Any area where birds or poultry infected with END are located will be designated as a quarantined area. A quarantined area is...

  5. 9 CFR 82.3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 82.3 Section 82.3...) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.3 Quarantined areas. (a) Any area where birds or poultry infected with END are located will be designated as a quarantined area. A quarantined area is...

  6. 9 CFR 82.3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 82.3 Section 82.3...) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.3 Quarantined areas. (a) Any area where birds or poultry infected with END are located will be designated as a quarantined area. A quarantined area is...

  7. 9 CFR 93.106 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... hatching eggs of ratites, imported into the United States shall be quarantined for a minimum of 30 days... quarantine before release for entry into the commerce of the United States. The quarantine period may be... enroute to the United States or while in quarantine shall be made available at the port of entry...

  8. 7 CFR 301.51-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Asian Longhorned Beetle § 301.51-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement... beetle; and (C) The article has not been combined or commingled with other articles so as to lose...

  9. 7 CFR 301.51-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Asian Longhorned Beetle § 301.51-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement... beetle; and (C) The article has not been combined or commingled with other articles so as to lose...

  10. 7 CFR 301.51-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Asian Longhorned Beetle § 301.51-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement... beetle; and (C) The article has not been combined or commingled with other articles so as to lose...

  11. 7 CFR 301.51-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Asian Longhorned Beetle § 301.51-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement... beetle; and (C) The article has not been combined or commingled with other articles so as to lose...

  12. 7 CFR 301.53-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Emerald Ash Borer § 301.53-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... infestation by emerald ash borer; and (iv) The article has not been combined or commingled with other...

  13. 7 CFR 301.53-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Emerald Ash Borer § 301.53-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... infestation by emerald ash borer; and (iv) The article has not been combined or commingled with other...

  14. 7 CFR 301.53-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Emerald Ash Borer § 301.53-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... infestation by emerald ash borer; and (iv) The article has not been combined or commingled with other...

  15. 7 CFR 301.53-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Emerald Ash Borer § 301.53-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... infestation by emerald ash borer; and (iv) The article has not been combined or commingled with other...

  16. Quarantine document system indexing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

  17. HEALTH CONDITIONS AND SERVICES FOR DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS AND THEIR FAMILIES IN CALIFORNIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Public Health, Berkeley.

    FIELD INTERVIEWS WERE HELD WITH COMMUNITY LEADERS AND WITH SEVERAL HUNDRED WORKERS' FAMILIES. THE ACQUIRED INFORMATION SUPPLEMENTED A SURVEY OF PAST AND PRESENT CONDITIONS AND ASSISTED IN FORMULATING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION TO MEET THE ACUTE HEALTH NEEDS OF CALIFORNIA'S SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. THE HEALTH PROBLEM CAN BE MET BY LOCAL…

  18. Transition in Food and Agricultural Policy: Key Stakeholder--Domestic Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Jean

    Assurance of an adequate and safe supply of food at a reasonable price is consumers' primary stake in the outcome of 1995 farm bill deliberations and related food and agricultural policies. Farm programs have provided an economically stable environment wherein farmers produce an abundance of food. The declining portion of household budgets…

  19. Validated TLC-densitometry method for the simultaneous analysis of pyrethroid insecticides in agricultural and domestic products

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pyrethroids are widely used for the control of pests and insects, as pyrethroids are believed to pose little risk to human health and environment. However, exposure to the pyrethroids exceeding the label directions might adversely affect human health and environment. Hence a careful selection of environment friendly household product is required that must contain exactly the label claimed pyrethroids amount. Results A sensitive and robust TLC-densitometric method for simultaneous quantification of commonly used synthetic pyrethroids including esbiothrin, alpha-cypermethrin and cis/trans permethrin in agricultural and domestic products has been developed and validated. TLC aluminum sheets, precoated with 0.2 mm thick layer of silica gel 60 F-254, were used for chromatographic process. Densitometric analysis of chromatoplates was carried out in absorbance mode at corresponding λmax of each pyrethroid. Equally valid common mobile phase for all pyrethroids consisted of hexane-dichloromethane-ethylacetate-formic acid (8:1.5:0.4:0.1 v/v/v/v) which provided sharp and symmetrical peaks of esbiothrin, alpha-cypermethrin, trans-permethrin and cis-permethrin, at Rf 0.31, 0.53, 0.6 and 0.65, respectively. Linear regression data for respective calibration curves showed a good linearity for all pyrethroids with r = 0.991-0.996. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for all pyrethroids were found in the range of 1.6-2.8 and 4.9-8.5 ng/spot, respectively. Conclusions The developed method is applicable for separating the mixture of pyrethroids and at the same time, it is also valid for separating their isomers. The method is reproducible, precise and accurate for the quantitative determination of pyrethroids in agricultural and domestic products. PMID:22937871

  20. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  1. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  2. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  3. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  4. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  5. Orbiting quarantine facility. The Antaeus report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devincenzi, D. L. (Editor); Bagby, J. R. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    A mission plan for the Orbiting Quarantine Facility (OQF) is presented. Coverage includes system overview, quarantine and protocol, the laboratory, support systems, cost analysis and possible additional uses of the OQF.

  6. Modeling for optimal management of agricultural and domestic wastewater loading to streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafqat Ejaz, Muhammad; Peralta, Richard C.

    1995-04-01

    A simulation/optimization (S/O) model to aid managing multiobjective wastewater loading to streams while maintaining adequate downstream water quality is presented. The conflicting objectives are to maximize the human and dairy cattle populations from which treated wastewater can be discharged to the river system. Nonindustrial municipal (domestic) wastewater undergoes primary and secondary treatment by a sewage treatment plant (STP) before entering as a steady point source. Dairy wastewater is treated by overland flow (OLF) land treatment before entering the stream as a controlled steady diffuse source. Maximum dual-source loading strategies which do not degrade downstream water quality beyond specified limits are developed. For each computed loading strategy, an optimal OLF system design is also determined. The E constraint method is used to obtain sets of noninferior solutions. Sets of noninferior solutions are represented graphically to show the trade-off between human and bovine populations that can be maintained. Each set is computed for a different upstream flow rate to illustrate sensitivity to nondeterministic upstream flow rates. The nonlinear constraints utilized restrict downstream concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen (organic, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate), organic and dissolved phosphorus, and chlorophyll a. Concentrations are described via regression equations. The new regression expressions, surrogates for the complex advective-dispersive equation, permit rapid and feasible solutions by this unique S/O model.

  7. Impacts of domestic and and agricultural rainwater harvesting system on watershed hydrology: A case study of Albemarle-Pamlico Watershed basins (NC, VA, USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is increasingly relevant in the context of growing population and its demands on water quantity. Here, we present a method to better understand the hydrologic impacts of urban domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting and apply the approach to thre...

  8. Quarantine in times of emergency: the scope of s 51(ix) of the Constitution.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Christopher

    2004-11-01

    This article explores the scope of s 51(ix) of the Constitution, the power of the Commonwealth to make laws with respect to "quarantine". While this power has sustained the Quarantine Act without a challenge since 1908, it may be that future national public health emergencies, such as epidemics or bioterrorism, will (as has happened in other countries) demand a level of federal preparedness that requires augmented public health powers at a national level. If so, will the scope of the quarantine power, as determined by the High Court, be wide enough allow the Commonwealth to implement these powers? While there is some advantage in a national approach, there is also some authority suggesting that the quarantine power could not extend to domestic public health controls. If there is uncertainty about the scope of the power, what are the options? Should there be another approach, with the States, Territories and the Commonwealth moving towards uniform legislation and co-operative arrangements?

  9. Fate of synthetic musks in a domestic wastewater treatment plant and in an agricultural field amended with biosolids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Jun; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2006-06-15

    Synthetic musks are widely used as fragrance ingredients in personal care products, and they enter domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through discharges into municipal sewage systems. Samples of aqueous sewage and biosolids collected from the Peterborough Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), Ontario, Canada were analyzed for 11 synthetic musk compounds using GC/MS. The results showed that 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyrane (HHCB, 173.1+/-43.4 ng/L) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN, 41.6+/-15.8 ng/L) were the dominant fragrances in sewage, but other polycyclic musks and nitro musks were present at lower concentrations. The concentrations of HHCB and AHTN in the aqueous phase of the sewage were highly correlated with both BOD5 and TOC. The overall removal efficiency of synthetic musks from the aqueous sewage in the WWTP ranged from 43.3% to 56.9%, but removal occurred mainly by partitioning into the biosolids. Based on a mass balance model, the daily input and output of HHCB and AHTN in the Peterborough WWTP were 47 g and 46 g, respectively. In an agricultural field amended with biosolids from the Peterborough WWTP, HHCB and AHTN were detected in soil immediately after application at mean concentrations of 1.0 and 1.3 mug/kg, respectively, but concentrations declined relatively rapidly over the next 6 weeks, post-application.

  10. Evaluation of a hybrid constructed wetland for treating domestic sewage from individual housing units surrounding agricultural villages in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong Cheol; DeLaune, Ronald D; Park, Woo Young; Lim, Jong Sir; Seo, Jeoung Yoon; Lee, Do Jin; Cho, Ju Sik; Heo, Jong Soo

    2009-01-01

    The treatment efficiency of 2- and 3-stage constructed wetlands (CWs) was evaluated for treating domestic sewage from houses surrounding agricultural villages. The optimum depth of filter media was 90 cm. The optimum volume ratio of vertical flow (VF) and horizontal flow (HF) beds was 1:2, and the optimum filter medium was broken stone in the VF-HF 2-stage hybrid CWs. Based on the above optimum conditions, removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (T-N), and total phosphorus (T-P) were 99, 98, 99, 68, and 72%, respectively. However to utilize constructed wetlands (CWs) for treating domestic sewage for an individual house, would require downsizing of the 2-stage hybrid CWs. In addition, the low removal efficiency of T-N and T-P in 2-stage hybrid CWs would require improvements necessary to meet acceptable water quality discharge standards. Thus, to reduce the CWs' area and improve the T-N and T-P removal efficiencies, VF-HF 2-stage hybrid CW was modified into VF/HF(I)-HF(II) and VF/HF(I)-HF(III) 3-stage hybrid CW. The optimum reduced size of 3-stage hybrid CW was the VF/HF(I)-HF(II) configuration which also increased T-N removal. Using this system, removal efficiency of BOD, COD, SS, T-N, and T-P were 99, 98, 99, 83, and 75%, respectively. In VF/HF(I)-HF(II) CW, the removal velocity of BOD, COD and SS was rapid on the order of VF (1st stage) > HF(II) (3rd stage) > or = HF(I) (2nd stage), VF (1st stage) > HF(II) (3rd stage) > HF(I) (2nd stage) and VF (1st stage) > HF(I) (2nd stage) > HF(II) (3rd stage), respectively. The removal velocity of T-N and T-P in VF/HF(I)-HF(II) CWs was rapid on the order of HF(I) (2nd stage) > HF(II) (3rd stage) > or = VF (1st stage) and VF (1st stage) > HF(I) (2nd stage) > HF(II) (3rd stage), respectively.

  11. The Development and Preliminary Application Ofplant Quarantine Remote Teaching System Inchina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhigang; Li, Zhihong; Yang, Ding; Zhang, Guozhen

    With the development of modern information technology, the traditional teaching mode becomes more deficient for the requirement of modern education. Plant Quarantine has been accepted as the common course for the universities of agriculture in China after the entry of WTO. But the teaching resources of this course are not enough especially for most universities with lack base. The characteristic of e-learning is regarded as one way to solve the problem of short teaching resource. PQRTS (Plant Quarantine Remote Teaching System) was designed and developed with JSP (Java Sever Pages), MySQL and Tomcat in this study. The system included many kinds of plant quarantine teaching resources, such as international glossary, regulations and standards, multimedia information of quarantine process and pests, ppt files of teaching, and training exercise. The system prototype implemented the functions of remote learning, querying, management, examination and remote discussion. It could be a tool for teaching, teaching assistance and learning online.

  12. Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Workers, 1972: S. 3762 -- To Extend the Program for Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Migrant Workers. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Subcommittee on Migratory Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 2d Session, August 1, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    On August 1, 1972, the Subcommittee heard testimony on bill S. 3762 which would extend the program for health services for domestic agricultural migrant workers. The bill would extend the migrant health program for 5 years, with $100 million authorized for fiscal year 1973 and a $25 million increase for each of the following years. S. 3762…

  13. Mars Sample Quarantine Protocol Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Editor); Bagby, John (Editor); Race, Margaret (Editor); Rummel, John (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Sample Quarantine Protocol (QP) Workshop was convened to deal with three specific aspects of the initial handling of a returned Mars sample: 1) biocontainment, to prevent uncontrolled release of sample material into the terrestrial environment; 2) life detection, to examine the sample for evidence of live organisms; and 3) biohazard testing, to determine if the sample poses any threat to terrestrial life forms and the Earth's biosphere. During the first part of the Workshop, several tutorials were presented on topics related to the workshop in order to give all participants a common basis in the technical areas necessary to achieve the objectives of the Workshop.

  14. Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural uses in the Banana Plain (Mbanga, Njombe, Penja) of the Cameroon Volcanic Line.

    PubMed

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Hosono, Takahiro; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Nkeng, George Elambo; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Roger, Ntankouo Njila

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater quality of the Banana Plain (Mbanga, Njombe, Penja-Cameroon) was assessed for its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural uses. A total of 67 groundwater samples were collected from open wells, springs, and boreholes. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties, major ions, and dissolved silica. In 95% of groundwater samples, calcium is the dominant cation, while sodium dominates in 5% of the samples. Eighty percent of the samples have HCO(3) as major anion, and in 20%, NO(3) is the major anion. Main water types in the study area are CaHCO(3), CaMgHCO(3), CaNaHCO(3), and CaNaNO(3)ClHCO(3). CO(2)-driven weathering of silicate minerals followed by cation exchange seemingly controls largely the concentrations of major ions in the groundwaters of this area. Nitrate, sulfate, and chloride concentrations strongly express the impact of anthropogenic activities (agriculture and domestic activities) on groundwater quality. Sixty-four percent of the waters have nitrate concentrations higher than the drinking water limit. Also limiting groundwater use for potable and domestic purposes are contents of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and HCO(3) (-) and total hardness (TH) that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Irrigational suitability of groundwaters in the study area was also evaluated, and results show that all the samples are fit for irrigation. Groundwater quality in the Banana Plain is impeded by natural geology and anthropogenic activities, and proper groundwater management strategies are necessary to protect sustainably this valuable resource.

  15. 9 CFR 93.209 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from exposure to such diseases. (b) Poultry eggs for hatching imported, except from regions designated... of arrival at the port of entry until hatched and the poultry from such eggs shall remain quarantined for not less than 30 days following hatch. During their quarantine, such eggs for hatching and...

  16. 9 CFR 93.411 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.411 Quarantine requirements. (a) Except for cattle from Central America and the West Indies, and except for ruminants from Canada and Mexico, all ruminants imported into the United States shall be quarantined for not less than 30 days...

  17. 9 CFR 93.411 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.411 Quarantine requirements. (a) Except for cattle from Central America and the West Indies, and except for ruminants from Canada and Mexico, all ruminants imported into the United States shall be quarantined for not less than 30 days...

  18. 9 CFR 93.411 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.411 Quarantine requirements. (a) Except for cattle from Central America and the West Indies, and except for ruminants from Canada and Mexico, all ruminants imported into the United States shall be quarantined for not less than 30 days...

  19. 9 CFR 93.411 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.411 Quarantine requirements. (a) Except for cattle from Central America and the West Indies, and except for ruminants from Canada and Mexico, all ruminants imported into the United States shall be quarantined for not less than 30 days...

  20. 9 CFR 93.411 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.411 Quarantine requirements. (a) Except for cattle from Central America and the West Indies, and except for ruminants from Canada and Mexico, all ruminants imported into the United States shall be quarantined for not less than 30 days...

  1. Indicators of the sources and distribution of nitrate in water from shallow domestic wells in agricultural areas of the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vowinkel, Eric F.; Tapper, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Previously collected and new water-quality data from shallow wells (screened interval less than 30 meters below the land surface) in predominantly agricultural areas of the New Jersey Coastal Plain were used to determine the relation of nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water to various hydrogeologic and land-use factors in the study area. Information on land use, well construction, hydrogeology, and water quality were used to predict the conditions under which concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen in water from domestic wells in predominantly agricultural areas are most likely to be equal to or larger than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter. Results of the analyses of water-quality samples collected during 1980-89 from 230 shallow wells in the outcrop areas of the Kirkwood-Cohansey and Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer systems were used to evaluate the regional effects of land use on shallow-ground-water quality. Results of statistical analysis indicate that concentrations of nitrate in shallow ground water are significantly different (p= 0.001) in agricultural areas than in undeveloped areas in both aquifer systems. Concentrations of nitrate nitrogen exceeded the MCL in water from more than 33 percent of the 60 shallow wells in agricultural areas. Concentrations of hitrate in water from shallow wells in agricultural areas increased as the percentage of agricultural land within an 800-meter-radius buffer zone of the wellhead increased (r= 0.81). Concentrations ofhitrate in water from domestic wells in agricultural areas were similar (p= 0.23) to those concentrations in water from irrigation wells. These results indicate that most of the nitrate in water from domestic wells in agricultural areas results from agricultural practices rather than other sources, such as septic systems. Water-quality samples collected from 12 shallow domestic wells in agricultural areas screened in the outcrop areas of

  2. Public Perceptions of Agriculture: The Role of Government, Support for the Family Farm and Support of Domestic Food Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu'min, Ridgely A.; And Others

    There are few racial or urban/rural differences in public attitudes toward agriculture and government agricultural policies. The Farming in American Life Study, a collaborative effort by 14 land grant institutions in the South and Midwest, gathered 3,239 completed questionnaires from a national stratified random sample for a completion rate of 46…

  3. Lunar placement of Mars quarantine facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, James E.; Mitchell, W. F.

    Advanced mission scenarios are currently being contemplated that would call for the retrieval of surface samples from Mars, from a comet, and from other places in the solar system. An important consideration for all of these sample return missions is quarantine. Quarantine facilities on the Moon offer unique advantages over other locations. The Moon offers gravity, distance, and vacuum. It is sufficiently near the Earth to allow rapid resupply and easy communication. It is sufficiently distant to lessen the psychological impact of a quarantine facility on Earth's human inhabitants. Finally, the Moon is airless, and seems to be devoid of life. It is, therefore, more suited to contamination control efforts.

  4. 7 CFR 301.80-3 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined States. 3

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... samples for processing, testing, or analysis, may be moved interstate from any quarantined State under the... authorized by the Deputy Administrator in emergency situations, soil samples for processing, testing,...

  5. 7 CFR 301.85-3 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined States. 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... samples for processing, testing, or analysis may be moved interstate from any quarantined State under the..., testing or analysis may be moved interstate from any regulated area only to laboratories approved 3 by...

  6. Qpais: A Web-Based Expert System for Assistedidentification of Quarantine Stored Insect Pests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Han; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Shengfang

    Stored insect pests can seriously depredate stored products causing worldwide economic losses. Pests enter countries traveling with transported goods. Inspection and Quarantine activities are essential to prevent the invasion and spread of pests. Identification of quarantine stored insect pests is an important component of the China's Inspection and Quarantine procedure, and it is necessary not only to identify whether the species captured is an invasive species, but determine control procedures for stored insect pests. With the development of information technologies, many expert systems that aid in the identification of agricultural pests have been developed. Expert systems for the identification of quarantine stored insect pests are rare and are mainly developed for stand-alone PCs. This paper describes the development of a web-based expert system for identification of quarantine stored insect pests as part of the China 11th Five-Year National Scientific and Technological Support Project (115 Project). Based on user needs, textual knowledge and images were gathered from the literature and expert interviews. ASP.NET, C# and SQL language were used to program the system. Improvement of identification efficiency and flexibility was achieved using a new inference method called characteristic-select-based spatial distance method. The expert system can assist identifying 150 species of quarantine stored insect pests and provide detailed information for each species. The expert system has also been evaluated using two steps: system testing and identification testing. With a 85% rate of correct identification and high efficiency, the system evaluation shows that this expert system can be used in identification work of quarantine stored insect pests.

  7. 9 CFR 93.209 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in § 94.6(a) of this subchapter as free of exotic Newcastle disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza, shall be quarantined from time of arrival at the port of entry until hatched and the poultry...

  8. 9 CFR 93.209 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in § 94.6(a) of this subchapter as free of exotic Newcastle disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza, shall be quarantined from time of arrival at the port of entry until hatched and the poultry...

  9. Planetary quarantine, supporting research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The impact of satisfying satellite quarantine on current outer planet mission and spacecraft designs was determined and the tools required to perform trajectory and navigation analyses for determining satellite impact probabilities were developed.

  10. Planetary quarantine. Space research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Planetary quarantine strategies for advanced spacecraft consider effects of satellite encounter, Jupiter atmosphere entry, space radiation, and cleaning and decontamination techniques on microbiological growth probability. Analytical restructuring is developed for microbial burden prediction and planetary contamination.

  11. Planetary quarantine: Space research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The impact of satisfying satellite quarantine constraints on current outer planet mission and spacecraft designs is considered. Tools required to perform trajectory and navigation analyses for determining satellite impact probabilities are developed.

  12. 9 CFR 93.106 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., poultry or bird farms, pigeon lofts, or other bird quarantine facilities. Factors such as prevailing winds... Federal Register citations affecting § 93.106, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in...

  13. 7 CFR 301.32-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... enclosed vehicle or is completely enclosed by a covering adequate to prevent access by fruit flies (such as... prevent the spread of fruit flies; and (4) With a tag or label bearing the number of the permit issued...

  14. 7 CFR 301.50-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pine Shoot Beetle § 301.50-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... beetle; and (2) The point of origin of the regulated article is indicted on the waybill. (c) With a... permit, which the Administrator has found to be adequate to prevent the spread of the pine shoot...

  15. 7 CFR 301.50-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pine Shoot Beetle § 301.50-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... beetle; and (2) The point of origin of the regulated article is indicted on the waybill. (c) With a... permit, which the Administrator has found to be adequate to prevent the spread of the pine shoot...

  16. 7 CFR 301.50-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pine Shoot Beetle § 301.50-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... beetle; and (2) The point of origin of the regulated article is indicted on the waybill. (c) With a... permit, which the Administrator has found to be adequate to prevent the spread of the pine shoot...

  17. 7 CFR 301.50-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pine Shoot Beetle § 301.50-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... beetle; and (2) The point of origin of the regulated article is indicted on the waybill. (c) With a... permit, which the Administrator has found to be adequate to prevent the spread of the pine shoot...

  18. 7 CFR 301.32-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... enclosed vehicle or is completely enclosed by a covering adequate to prevent access by fruit flies (such as... prevent the spread of fruit flies; and (4) With a tag or label bearing the number of the permit issued...

  19. 7 CFR 301.32-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... enclosed vehicle or is completely enclosed by a covering adequate to prevent access by fruit flies (such as... prevent the spread of fruit flies; and (4) With a tag or label bearing the number of the permit issued...

  20. 7 CFR 301.32-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... enclosed vehicle or is completely enclosed by a covering adequate to prevent access by fruit flies (such as... prevent the spread of fruit flies; and (4) With a tag or label bearing the number of the permit issued...

  1. Quarantine testing and biocharacterization of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Mieszkuc, B. J.; Simmonds, R. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    Quarantine testing was conducted to ensure the safety of all life on earth. The plants and animals which were exposed to lunar material were carefully observed for prolonged periods to determine if any mutation or changes in growing characteristics and behavior occurred. The quarantine testing was terminated after the Apollo 14 flight when it became apparent that previously returned lunar material contained no potentially harmful agents. Further biological experimentation with the lunar material was conducted to determine its chemical, physical, and nutritional qualities.

  2. 78 FR 32460 - Comment Request for Information Collection for ETA Form 232, Domestic Agricultural In-Season Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Federal or State minimum wage, whichever is higher.'' The collection is also required by regulations for... legal federal or State minimum wage rate, whichever is highest unless special procedures apply to the... Agricultural In-Season Wage Report and ETA Form 232-A, Wage Survey Interview Record, Extension with...

  3. Quarantined Apollo 11 Crew Debriefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. The three are seen here at the MSC, still inside the MQF, undergoing their first debriefing on Sunday, August 3, 1969. Behind the glass are (L-R): Edwin Aldrin, Michael Collins, and Neil Armstrong.

  4. The value of improved (ERS) information based on domestic distribution effects of U.S. agriculture crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, D. F.; Kelejian, H. H.; Brusch, R.; Gross, J.; Fishman, H.; Feenberg, D.

    1974-01-01

    The value of improving information for forecasting future crop harvests was investigated. Emphasis was placed upon establishing practical evaluation procedures firmly based in economic theory. The analysis was applied to the case of U.S. domestic wheat consumption. Estimates for a cost of storage function and a demand function for wheat were calculated. A model of market determinations of wheat inventories was developed for inventory adjustment. The carry-over horizon is computed by the solution of a nonlinear programming problem, and related variables such as spot and future price at each stage are determined. The model is adaptable to other markets. Results are shown to depend critically on the accuracy of current and proposed measurement techniques. The quantitative results are presented parametrically, in terms of various possible values of current and future accuracies.

  5. 9 CFR 72.5 - Area quarantined in Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of 4 TAC 41... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area quarantined in Texas. 72.5...) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.5 Area quarantined in Texas. The area quarantined in Texas is the quarantined...

  6. 9 CFR 72.5 - Area quarantined in Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of 4 TAC 41... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area quarantined in Texas. 72.5...) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.5 Area quarantined in Texas. The area quarantined in Texas is the quarantined...

  7. Use of qualitative and quantitative information in neural networks for assessing agricultural chemical contamination of domestic wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mishra, A.; Ray, C.; Kolpin, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    A neural network analysis of agrichemical occurrence in groundwater was conducted using data from a pilot study of 192 small-diameter drilled and driven wells and 115 dug and bored wells in Illinois, a regional reconnaissance network of 303 wells across 12 Midwestern states, and a study of 687 domestic wells across Iowa. Potential factors contributing to well contamination (e.g., depth to aquifer material, well depth, and distance to cropland) were investigated. These contributing factors were available in either numeric (actual or categorical) or descriptive (yes or no) format. A method was devised to use the numeric and descriptive values simultaneously. Training of the network was conducted using a standard backpropagation algorithm. Approximately 15% of the data was used for testing. Analysis indicated that training error was quite low for most data. Testing results indicated that it was possible to predict the contamination potential of a well with pesticides. However, predicting the actual level of contamination was more difficult. For pesticide occurrence in drilled and driven wells, the network predictions were good. The performance of the network was poorer for predicting nitrate occurrence in dug and bored wells. Although the data set for Iowa was large, the prediction ability of the trained network was poor, due to descriptive or categorical input parameters, compared with smaller data sets such as that for Illinois, which contained more numeric information.

  8. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  9. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  10. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  11. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  12. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  13. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  14. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  15. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  16. 9 CFR 93.414 - Milk from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.414 Milk from quarantined ruminants. Milk or cream from ruminants quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by...

  17. 9 CFR 93.414 - Milk from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.414 Milk from quarantined ruminants. Milk or cream from ruminants quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by...

  18. 9 CFR 93.414 - Milk from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.414 Milk from quarantined ruminants. Milk or cream from ruminants quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by...

  19. 9 CFR 93.414 - Milk from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.414 Milk from quarantined ruminants. Milk or cream from ruminants quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by...

  20. 9 CFR 93.414 - Milk from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.414 Milk from quarantined ruminants. Milk or cream from ruminants quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by...

  1. 9 CFR 72.5 - Area quarantined in Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.5 Area quarantined in Texas. The area quarantined in Texas is the quarantined area... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of 4 TAC...

  2. 9 CFR 93.412 - Ruminant quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ruminant quarantine facilities. 93.412... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.412 Ruminant quarantine facilities. (a... ruminants from the time of unloading at the port to the time of release from the quarantine facility....

  3. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  4. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  5. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  6. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  7. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  8. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  9. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  10. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  11. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  12. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  13. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  14. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  15. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  16. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  17. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  18. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  19. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  20. Planetary quarantine: Space research and technology. [satellite quarantine constraints on outer planet mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The impact of satisfying satellite quarantine constraints on current outer planet mission and spacecraft designs is considered. Tools required to perform trajectory and navigation analyses for determining satellite impact probabilities are developed.

  1. Contamination in Ontario farmstead domestic wells and its association with agriculture:. 1. Results from drinking water wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, M. J.; Barry, D. A. J.; Rudolph, D. L.

    1998-08-01

    Groundwater provides about 30% of water requirements in Ontario, but farm families depend almost entirely on private wells. Major potential contaminants on farms are nitrate (NO 3-), pathogenic microorganisms, pesticides and petroleum derivatives. A survey of farm drinking-water wells was conducted throughout the Province of Ontario, Canada, in 1991 and 1992 and tested for these contaminants. The main objectives of the survey were to determine the quality and safety of drinking water for farm families, and determine the effect of agricultural management on groundwater quality at a provincial scale. Four farm wells were chosen in each township where >50% of the land area was used for agricultural production. Elsewhere one well per township was usually sampled. Within each township the types of farming activity and dominant soils were additional criteria for selection. The network comprised 1292 of the estimated 500,000 water-wells in Ontario, and the study conformed to a stratified random survey. A subset of 160 wells, chosen by farm type, soil, and the presence or absence of a fuel storage tank, was investigated for the presence of petroleum derivatives: benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene. About 40% of farm wells tested contained one or more of the target contaminants above the maximum acceptable concentration; 34% of wells had more than the maximum acceptable number of coliform bacteria, 14% contained NO 3--N concentrations above 10 mg l -1 limit and about 7% were contaminated with both bacteria and NO 3-. Only six wells contained pesticide residues above the interim maximum acceptable concentration (IMAC), but pesticides were detected in 7% of wells in winter and in 11% in summer. No wells contained detectable petroleum derivatives. These results for NO 3- contamination were not significantly different from those reported for a survey of Ontario wells for the period 1950-1954, but the frequency of contamination by Escherichia coli was greater in the

  2. 9 CFR 93.308 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 CFR part 71 must be used. All walls, floors, and ceilings must be constructed of solid material... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... import permit. (I) Vaccination of horses in quarantine is prohibited. However, once import...

  3. 9 CFR 93.308 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 CFR part 71 must be used. All walls, floors, and ceilings must be constructed of solid material... clothes-storage and clothes-changing area must be provided with each shower area. There must also be one... restrooms in both the quarantine and nonquarantine areas of the facility. (P) Ventilation and...

  4. Planetary quarantine. Space research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The impact of satisfying satellite quarantine constraints on outer planet missions and spacecraft design are studied by considering the effects of planetary radiation belts, solar wind radiation, and space vacuum on microorganism survival. Post launch recontamination studies evaluate the effects of mission environments on particle distributions on spacecraft surfaces and effective cleaning and decontamination techniques.

  5. Planetary quarantine: Supporting research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    Planetary quarantine strategies for advanced missions are described, along with natural space environment studies and post launch recontamination studies. Spacecraft cleaning and decontamination techniques and assay activities are reviewed. Teflon ribbon experiments and pyrolsis gas-liquid chromatography study are also considered.

  6. 9 CFR 93.106 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be slaughtered for food purposes. (4) If the ratites, including chicks hatched during quarantine, are... spoilage is kept to a minimum and control of pests is maintained. Such material shall be disposed of by... Federal Register citations affecting § 93.106, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in...

  7. 9 CFR 93.106 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be slaughtered for food purposes. (4) If the ratites, including chicks hatched during quarantine, are... spoilage is kept to a minimum and control of pests is maintained. Such material shall be disposed of by... Federal Register citations affecting § 93.106, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in...

  8. 9 CFR 93.106 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be slaughtered for food purposes. (4) If the ratites, including chicks hatched during quarantine, are... spoilage is kept to a minimum and control of pests is maintained. Such material shall be disposed of by... Federal Register citations affecting § 93.106, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in...

  9. 9 CFR 71.15 - Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted. 71.15 Section 71.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION...

  10. 9 CFR 71.15 - Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted. 71.15 Section 71.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION...

  11. 9 CFR 71.15 - Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted. 71.15 Section 71.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION...

  12. 9 CFR 71.15 - Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted. 71.15 Section 71.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION...

  13. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Areas quarantined in the...

  14. 9 CFR 71.15 - Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement from quarantined to free area and shipment therefrom; conditions under which permitted. 71.15 Section 71.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION...

  15. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. 82.8 Section 82.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF...

  16. A pragmatic approach to study the groundwater quality suitability for domestic and agricultural usage, Saq aquifer, northwest of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Nazzal, Yousef; Ahmed, Izrar; Al-Arifi, Nassir S N; Ghrefat, Habes; Zaidi, Faisal K; El-Waheidi, Mahmud M; Batayneh, Awni; Zumlot, Taisser

    2014-08-01

    The present study deals with detailed hydrochemical assessment of groundwater within the Saq aquifer. The Saq aquifer which extends through the NW part of Saudi Arabia is one of the major sources of groundwater supply. Groundwater samples were collected from about 295 groundwater wells and analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters such as electrical conductivity (EC), pH, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), CO3 (-), HCO3 (-), Cl(-), SO4 (2-), and NO3 (-). Groundwater in the area is slightly alkaline and hard in nature. Electrical conductivity (EC) varies between 284 and 9,902 μS/cm with an average value of 1,599.4 μS/cm. The groundwater is highly mineralized with approximately 30 % of the samples having major ion concentrations above the WHO permissible limits. The NO3 (-) concentration varies between 0.4 and 318.2 mg/l. The depth distribution of NO3 (-) concentration shows higher concentration at shallow depths with a gradual decrease at deeper depths. As far as drinking water quality criteria are concerned, study shows that about 33 % of samples are unfit for use. A detailed assessment of groundwater quality in relation to agriculture use reveals that 21 % samples are unsuitable for irrigation. Using Piper's classification, groundwater was classified into five different groups. Majority of the samples show Mix-Cl-SO4- and Na-Cl-types water. The abundances of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) over alkalis infer mixed type of groundwater facies and reverse exchange reactions. The groundwater has acquired unique chemical characteristics through prolonged rock-water interactions, percolation of irrigation return water, and reactions at vadose zone.

  17. Contamination in Ontario farmstead domestic wells and its association with agriculture:. 2. Results from multilevel monitoring well installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, D. L.; Barry, D. A. J.; Goss, M. J.

    1998-08-01

    Multilevel monitoring wells (MLWs) were installed at 144 farms which were part of a province-wide survey of farm drinking water wells conducted in 1991-1992 in Ontario, Canada. The multilevel sites were selected in areas characterized by coarse-textured soils, on farms typifying local agricultural enterprises. The MLWs were installed in cultivated fields adjacent to the location of the drinking water wells on each farm (within 200 m). On 16 of these farms, MLWs were also installed in a woodlot adjacent to the field site. Water samples were collected on two occasions (winter and summer) and analyses were conducted for nitrate (NO 3-), typical bacteria and a selected suite of common pesticides. At 23% of the sites, concentrations in 50% or more of the monitored intervals exceeded the provincial drinking water standard (MAC) for NO 3--N during both sampling periods. Significantly higher frequencies of total coliform contamination were encountered in the winter (66%) than in the summer (36%). Very few pesticide detections were recorded. The average concentration of NO 3- with depth in multilevel wells decreased from approximately 10 mg N l -1 near the water table to 3 mg N l -1 at a depth of about 6.5 m. Bacteria concentrations remained more uniform with depth but decreased significantly in the summer. For most analytes, contaminant frequency was similar for both the drinking water wells and multilevel wells. The occurrence of elevated levels of contamination in the water wells appeared to be associated more with activities on the cultivated fields than with on-farm point sources of contamination. Groundwater quality determined using drinking water wells was consistent with conclusions drawn from multilevel monitoring wells, indicating the utility of water well survey data for assessing groundwater quality within the rural environment. No correlations were observed between the type of cropping practice and the frequency of groundwater contamination. Farms where manure

  18. Molecular diversity at 18 loci in 321 wild and 92 domesticate lines reveal no reduction of nucleotide diversity during Triticum monococcum (Einkorn) domestication: implications for the origin of agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kilian, B; Ozkan, H; Walther, A; Kohl, J; Dagan, T; Salamini, F; Martin, W

    2007-12-01

    The diploid wheat Triticum monococcum L. (einkorn) was among the first crops domesticated by humans in the Fertile Crescent 10,000 years ago. During the last 5,000 years, it was replaced by tetraploid and hexaploid wheats and largely forgotten by modern breeders. Einkorn germplasm is thus devoid of breeding bottlenecks and has therefore preserved in unfiltered form the full spectrum of genetic variation that was present during its domestication. We investigated haplotype variation among >12 million nucleotides sequenced at 18 loci across 321 wild and 92 domesticate T. monococcum lines. In contrast to previous studies of cereal domestication, we sampled hundreds of wild lines, rather than a few dozen. Unexpectedly, our broad sample of wild lines reveals that wild einkorn underwent a process of natural genetic differentiation, most likely an incipient speciation, prior to domestication. That natural differentiation was previously overlooked within wild einkorn, but it bears heavily upon inferences concerning the domestication process because it brought forth 3 genetically, and to some extent morphologically, distinct wild einkorn races that we designate here as alpha, beta, and gamma. Only one of those natural races, beta, was exploited by humans for domestication. Nucleotide diversity and haplotype diversity in domesticate einkorn is higher than in its wild sister group, the einkorn beta race, indicating that einkorn underwent no reduction of diversity during domestication. This is in contrast to findings from previous studies of domestication history among more intensely bred crop species. Taken together with archaeological findings from the Fertile Crescent, the data indicate that a specific wild einkorn race that arose without human intervention was subjected to multiple independent domestication events.

  19. The efficacy and progress in using radiation as a quarantine treatment of tropical fruits—a case study in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, James H.; Wong, Lyle

    2002-03-01

    Most tropical fruits for export must be treated with an approved quarantine treatment. Three and a half decades of research have demonstrated the efficacy of irradiation as a quarantine treatment in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, and product quality retention. The USFDA and the USDA-APHIS approved irradiation to disinfest fresh foods/fresh papayas in 1986 and 1989, respectively. In early 1995, the Hawaii Department of Agriculture was granted a special permit from USDA-APHIS allowing untreated Hawaiian fruits to be irradiated on the US mainland. The objectives were to gain experience in commercial irradiation as a quarantine treatment and to gather data on shipping and handling procedures, and on product quality. In April 1995, the first shipment of Hawaiian fruit was irradiated at a minimum quarantine dose of 0.25 kGy in an Isomedix plant near Chicago, and then distributed to supermarkets in Illinois and Ohio. Continuous shipments, irradiation, and marketing of various tropical fruits in the US have shown commercial efficacy, quality retention, and excellent consumer acceptance. A commercial e-beam/converted X-ray facility was installed by Titan Corp. on the Island of Hawaii and was operational by late July 2000. Hawaii has become the first place in the world to use irradiation as a quarantine treatment of fruits.

  20. The planetary quarantine program: Origins and achievements, 1956 - 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    United States effort in planetary quarantine is outlined, beginning with the expressions of alarm by biologists, then discussing how a program was put together and implemented, and finally indicating the academic, governmental, institutional, and industrial agencies and people involved. It ends with a brief summary of the accomplishments and present status of the Planetary Quarantine Program and will serve as a partial explanation of how the planetary quarantine effort evolved and reached its present position.

  1. Vocational Agriculture in Ponape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayrit, Ruben S.

    1975-01-01

    The general objectives of agriculture education in both the elementary and secondary schools in Ponape District are to develop interest in agriculture among students and to provide practical and technical skills in growing crops and raising domestic animals. (Author)

  2. The Role of Penal Quarantine in Reducing Violent Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Perry M.

    1978-01-01

    An examination of the limits of quarantine's potential effect under actual and ideal circumstances leads to the conclusion that current proposals for increasing the use of quarantine would reduce serious violent crime by no more than 10 percent at a staggering cost for prison construction and operation. Two alternative proposals are presented.…

  3. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas AGENCY: Animal... are amending the South American cactus moth regulations by adding the State of Louisiana to the list of areas quarantined because of South American cactus moth. As a result of this action,...

  4. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  5. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  6. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  7. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  8. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  9. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  10. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  11. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  12. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  13. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from...

  14. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from...

  15. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from...

  16. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from...

  17. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from...

  18. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased rabbits. 354... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which...

  19. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased rabbits. 354... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which...

  20. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased rabbits. 354... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which...

  1. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased rabbits. 354... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which...

  2. Shutt up: bubonic plague and quarantine in early modern England.

    PubMed

    Newman, Kira L S

    2012-01-01

    The outbreak of bubonic plague that struck London and Westminster in 1636 provoked the usual frenzied response to epidemics, including popular flight and government-mandated quarantine. The government asserted that plague control measures were acts of public health for the benefit of all. However, contrary to this government narrative of disease prevention there was a popular account that portrayed quarantine and isolation as personal punishment rather than prudent policy. In examining the 1636 outbreak on the parish as well as the individual level, reasons for this inconsistency between official and unofficial perspectives emerge. Quarantine and its effects were not classless, and its implementation was not always strictly in the name of public health. Government application of quarantine was remarkably effective, but it could never be uncontroversial both because of circumstances and because of misuse. The flight of the wealthiest from London and Westminster left only the more socially vulnerable to be quarantined. Though plague policy was financially sensitive to the poorest, it was costly to the middling sort. Another cause of controversy was the government's use of quarantine as a punishment to control individuals found breaking other laws. Though not widely publicized, popular narratives continually included grievances about the cruelty and inequity of quarantine and the militaristic nature of its implementation. Despite these objections, quarantine remained a staple of the government response to plague outbreaks throughout the seventeenth century.

  3. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can ... available to help abused women? What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is a pattern of threatening or ...

  4. 7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE...

  5. 7 CFR 319.8-20 - Importations by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importations by the Department of Agriculture. 319.8-20 Section 319.8-20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton...

  6. 7 CFR 318.13-12 - Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 318.13-12 Section 318.13-12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and...

  7. 7 CFR 319.8-20 - Importations by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importations by the Department of Agriculture. 319.8-20 Section 319.8-20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions §...

  8. 7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Territorial Cotton, Cottonseed,...

  9. 7 CFR 319.8-20 - Importations by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importations by the Department of Agriculture. 319.8-20 Section 319.8-20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton...

  10. 7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE...

  11. 7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE...

  12. 7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE...

  13. 7 CFR 983.12 - Domestic shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic shipments. 983.12 Section 983.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  14. 7 CFR 983.12 - Domestic shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Domestic shipments. 983.12 Section 983.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  15. 7 CFR 983.12 - Domestic shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Domestic shipments. 983.12 Section 983.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 983.12 - Domestic shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Domestic shipments. 983.12 Section 983.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 983.12 - Domestic shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Domestic shipments. 983.12 Section 983.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  18. Fish quarantine: current practices in public zoos and aquaria.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Catherine A; Clayton, Leigh A

    2011-12-01

    The primary goal of quarantine is to reduce the risk of introducing infectious diseases into established collections. Fish quarantine is inherently complex because of the variety of species, environmental requirements, and facilities. To examine current practices, questionnaires were submitted to 60 public zoos and aquaria, predominantly in North America. Questions reviewed system type (closed, flow-through), quarantine length, diagnostics, treatments, and cleaning and disinfection. Forty-two of the 60 institutions responded. Most institutions had separate quarantine protocols for freshwater teleosts, marine teleosts, and elasmobranchs. Ninety-five percent of institutions had a minimum quarantine period of 30 days or more. Sixty-four percent of institutions used isolated areas for some or all of their fish quarantine. Twenty-five percent had designated fish quarantine staff. All institutions used regular visual examinations to assess animal health. Fifty-four percent of the institutions carried out routine hands-on diagnostics on some fish; this was more common for elasmobranchs than teleosts. All institutions carried out necropsies on mortalities. Fifteen percent of institutions performed histopathology on almost all fresh mortalities; 54% percent performed histopathology on less than 10% of mortalities. Prophylactic treatments were common in closed systems, in particular, formalin immersion for teleosts, freshwater dips and copper sulfate immersion for marine teleosts, and praziquantel immersion for marine teleosts and elasmobranchs. Institutions using dips generally did so at the start or end of quarantine. Fenbendazole- and praziquantel-medicated foods were used commonly in teleosts, but dosages varied greatly. Cleaning and disinfection of systems and equipment increased in response to known pathogens. These results can be used to compare and discuss fish quarantine practices at display facilities in order to improve quarantine success.

  19. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  20. Domestic violence

    MedlinePlus

    Intimate partner violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... Domestic violence can include any of these behaviors: Physical abuse, including hitting, kicking, biting, slapping, choking, or attacking with ...

  1. Quarantine, Isolation, and Health Care Workers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Although Ebola virus disease and other hemorrhagic fevers are not generally considered infectious diseases of the nervous system, neurologists may be asked to participate in the management of patients with these and other dangerous communicable illnesses, including possible bioterrorism agents. It is essential for all health professionals to understand the public health, legal, and ethical frameworks behind autonomy-limiting interventions such as quarantine and isolation. Health care professionals represent the front line of defense during public health emergencies. They are often disproportionately affected by the illnesses themselves as well as by the public health interventions intended to prevent spread. The global health crisis caused by the spread of Ebola virus disease has been instructional for examining these ethical issues. PMID:26633787

  2. Fundamental studies concerning planetary quarantine in space.

    PubMed

    Koike, J; Hori, T; Katahira, Y; Koike, K A; Tanaka, K; Kobayashi, K; Kawasaki, Y

    1996-01-01

    If there is a possibility that the organisms carried from Earth to space can live for a significant period on planets, the contamination of planets should be prevented for the purpose of future life-detection experiments. In connection with quarantine for interplanetary missions, we have examined the survivabilities of terrestrial microorganisms under simulated space conditions. In this study, examined the survivabilities of terrestrial organisms under simulated Mars conditions. The Mars conditions were simulated by ultraviolet (UV) and proton irradiation under low temperature, high vacuum, and simulated gaseous conditions. After exposure to the simulated Mars condition, the survivabilities of the organisms were examined. The spores of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger, some anaerobic bacterias and algaes, showed considerably high survivabilities even after UV and proton irradiation corresponding to 200 years on Mars. This subject is not restricted to academic curiosity but concerns problems involving the contamination of Mars with terrestrial organisms carried by space-probes.

  3. Support systems of the orbiting quarantine facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The physical support systems, the personnel management structure, and the contingency systems necessary to permit the Orbiting Quarantine Facility (OQF) to function as an integrated system are described. The interactions between the subsystems within the preassembled modules are illustrated. The Power Module generates and distributes electrical power throughout each of the four modules, stabilizes the OQF's attitude, and dissipates heat generated throughout the system. The Habitation Module is a multifunctional structure designed to monitor and control all aspects of the system's activities. The Logistics Module stores the supplies needed for 30 days of operation and provides storage for waste materials generated during the mission. The Laboratory Module contains the equipment necessary for executing the protocol, as well as an independent life support system.

  4. Fundamental studies concerning planetary quarantine in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, J.; Hori, T.; Katahira, Y.; Koike, K. A.; Tanaka, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Kawasaki, Y.

    If there is a possibility that the organisms carried from Earth to space can live for a significant period on planets, the contamination of planets should be prevented for the purpose of future life-detection experiments. In connection with quarantine for interplanetary missions, we have examined the survivabilities of terrestrial microorganisms under simulated space conditions /1-8/. In this study, examined the survivabilities of terrestrial organisms under simulated Mars conditions. The Mars conditions were simulated by ultraviolet (UV) and proton irradiation under low temperature, high vacuum, and simulated gaseous conditions. After exposure to the simulated Mars condition, the survivabilities of the organisms were examined. The spores of Bacillus subtilis andAspergillus niger , some anaerobic bacterias and algaes, showed considerably high survivabilities even after UV and proton irradiation corresponding to 200 years on Mars. This subject is not restricted to academic curiosity but concerns problems involving the contamination of Mars with terrestrial organisms carried by space-probes.

  5. Fundamental studies concerning planetary quarantine in space.

    PubMed

    Koike, J; Hori, T; Katahira, Y; Koike, K A; Tanaka, K; Kobayashi, K; Kawasaki, Y

    1996-01-01

    If there is a possibility that the organisms carried from Earth to space can live for a significant period on planets, the contamination of planets should be prevented for the purpose of future life-detection experiments. In connection with quarantine for interplanetary missions, we have examined the survivabilities of terrestrial microorganisms under simulated space conditions. In this study, examined the survivabilities of terrestrial organisms under simulated Mars conditions. The Mars conditions were simulated by ultraviolet (UV) and proton irradiation under low temperature, high vacuum, and simulated gaseous conditions. After exposure to the simulated Mars condition, the survivabilities of the organisms were examined. The spores of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger, some anaerobic bacterias and algaes, showed considerably high survivabilities even after UV and proton irradiation corresponding to 200 years on Mars. This subject is not restricted to academic curiosity but concerns problems involving the contamination of Mars with terrestrial organisms carried by space-probes. PMID:11538982

  6. Objectives and models of the planetary quarantine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werber, M.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives of the planetary quarantine program are presented and the history of early contamination prevention efforts is outlined. Contamination models which were previously established are given and include: determination of parameters; symbol nomenclature; and calculations of contamination and hazard probabilities. Planetary quarantine is discussed as an issue of national and international concern. Information on international treaty and meetings on spacecraft sterilization, quarantine standards, and policies is provided. The specific contamination probabilities of the U.S.S.R. Venus 3 flyby are included.

  7. 75 FR 81087 - Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... townships of Latimore and Huntington in Adams County, PA, from the list of quarantined areas. These actions... below. Additionally, we are removing the townships of Latimore and Huntington in Adams County, PA,...

  8. Preharvest quarantine treatments of Chlorantraniliprole,Clothianidin, & Imidacloprid-based insecticides for control of Japanese beetle Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae)& other scarab larvae in the root zone of field-grown nurserytrees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is an important quarantine pest of nurseries. Nursery plant movement from P. japonica-infested regions is regulated by the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan (DJHP), which classifies states by risk categories. Treatm...

  9. A pipeline strategy for grain crop domestication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent decades, in the interest of diversifying the global food system, improving human nutrition, or making agriculture more sustainable, there have been many proposals for domesticating or completing the domestication of wild plants or semi-domesticated “orphan” crops. However, very few new cro...

  10. "In this miserable spot called quarantine": the healthy and unhealthy in nineteenth century Australian and Pacific quarantine stations.

    PubMed

    Maglen, Krista

    2006-09-01

    By examining sources created by people who were detained or employed at the quarantine stations of Australia and the Western Pacific, this article illuminates aspects of the history of disease control that cannot be observed in other source material. Most research examining the history of maritime quarantine has tended to rely on the records of official and government agencies. As a result, discussion has largely been confined to government policy and larger issues of the political, economic, and social consequences of maritime disease control. This article contributes to the historiography by examining personal sources that show how quarantine policy and practice were experienced from the perspective of its participants. They reveal the experiences of otherwise obscured healthy detainees and illuminate agency among quarantined individuals that cannot be observed without these sources.

  11. A planetary quarantine laboratory on the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGregorio, Barry E.

    2004-11-01

    the terrestrial biosphere is not contaminated. Recent Mars Sample Return (MSR) scenarios have focused on a direct return to the surface of the Earth by means of a passive reentry capsule similar to the Stardust sample capsule but designed to use atmospheric friction and ablating to slow its decent instead of a parachute. This scenario offers less planetary protection than LEO examination by a specially trained scientific crew aboard the ISS or space shuttle. While a number of Mars Sample Return strategies have been published since the 1976 Viking mission, probably the most comprehensive concerning examination in LEO is the 1981 The Antaeus Report: Orbiting Quarantine Facility (NASA SP-454). Although the Antaeus Report demonstrated the feasibility of examining planetary samples in LEO it did not offer Earth's biosphere maximum protection against back contamination hazards due to possible catastrophic failure and reentry of the orbiting quarantine facility or space shuttle. A human tended Planetary Quarantine Laboratory as part of a scientific outpost on the Moon would offer 100% protection of Earth's biosphere against any toxic or pathogenic bioactive materials from Mars or any other solar system samples returned.

  12. Use of quarantined waste wood for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A project by Fiber Fuel International, recently funded by the Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program will address two major environmental problems--landfilling and stratospheric ozone depletion. Ever larger quantities of wooden pallets and packing materials enter US ports accompanying freight. These materials are used to contain, protect, and facilitate the handling of various freight items. Currently, wooden pallets and packing material must be quarantined upon arrival to prevent the accidental introduction of dangerous insects into the US. This waste wood is presently disposed of in two ways. The first is to put it back on the ship for removal from the US. The second method of disposal is to fumigate the waste wood with methyl bromide and dispose of it in a landfill. This project with Fiber Fuel International of Savannah, Georgia, is designed to eliminate both the fumigation and landfill disposal of ship-borne waste wood while providing a reliable feedstock for producing biomass fuel. The primary project objective will be to develop and test a Swedish prototype unit to sterilize the wood waste with steam and process it into fuel. FFI is working with two Swedish firms, Hypro and Winbergs, to develop this technology. A secondary objective will be to obtain good information on the quantities and types of wood wastes generated at ports. It is anticipated that the technology developed will be widely adopted at other ports in the US and abroad.

  13. Core questions in domestication research.

    PubMed

    Zeder, Melinda A

    2015-03-17

    The domestication of plants and animals is a key transition in human history, and its profound and continuing impacts are the focus of a broad range of transdisciplinary research spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences. Three central aspects of domestication that cut across and unify this diverse array of research perspectives are addressed here. Domestication is defined as a distinctive coevolutionary, mutualistic relationship between domesticator and domesticate and distinguished from related but ultimately different processes of resource management and agriculture. The relative utility of genetic, phenotypic, plastic, and contextual markers of evolving domesticatory relationships is discussed. Causal factors are considered, and two leading explanatory frameworks for initial domestication of plants and animals, one grounded in optimal foraging theory and the other in niche-construction theory, are compared.

  14. 7 CFR 70.14 - Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. 70.14 Section 70.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Products General § 70.14 Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. Squabs and domesticated...

  15. 7 CFR 70.14 - Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. 70.14 Section 70.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Products General § 70.14 Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. Squabs and domesticated...

  16. 7 CFR 70.14 - Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. 70.14 Section 70.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Products General § 70.14 Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. Squabs and domesticated...

  17. 7 CFR 70.14 - Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. 70.14 Section 70.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Products General § 70.14 Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. Squabs and domesticated...

  18. 7 CFR 70.14 - Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. 70.14 Section 70.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Products General § 70.14 Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. Squabs and domesticated...

  19. Bibliography of scientific publications and presentations relating to planetary quarantine: 1966 - 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, F. D.; Nadel, M. R.

    1973-01-01

    A bibliography, which is a compilation of citations relating to planetary quarantine, previously listed in similar publications since 1967, is presented to provide a reference for reviewing planetary quarantine research and development.

  20. 7 CFR 301.38 - Notice of quarantine; restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38 Notice of quarantine; restrictions on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of black stem rust. No person shall move interstate any regulated article except...

  1. 7 CFR 301.38 - Notice of quarantine; restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38 Notice of quarantine; restrictions on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of black stem rust. No person shall move interstate any regulated article except...

  2. 7 CFR 301.38 - Notice of quarantine; restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38 Notice of quarantine; restrictions on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of black stem rust. No person shall move interstate any regulated article except...

  3. 7 CFR 301.38 - Notice of quarantine; restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38 Notice of quarantine; restrictions on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of black stem rust. No person shall move interstate any regulated article except...

  4. 7 CFR 301.38 - Notice of quarantine; restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38 Notice of quarantine; restrictions on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of black stem rust. No person shall move interstate any regulated article except...

  5. Genetic analysis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Zvi; Fahima, Tzion; Korol, Abraham B; Abbo, Shahal; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2011-10-01

    Wheat is undoubtedly one of the world's major food sources since the dawn of Near Eastern agriculture and up to the present day. Morphological, physiological, and genetic modifications involved in domestication and subsequent evolution under domestication were investigated in a tetraploid recombinant inbred line population, derived from a cross between durum wheat and its immediate progenitor wild emmer wheat. Experimental data were used to test previous assumptions regarding a protracted domestication process. The brittle rachis (Br) spike, thought to be a primary characteristic of domestication, was mapped to chromosome 2A as a single gene, suggesting, in light of previously reported Br loci (homoeologous group 3), a complex genetic model involved in spike brittleness. Twenty-seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring threshability and yield components (kernel size and number of kernels per spike) were mapped. The large number of QTLs detected in this and other studies suggests that following domestication, wheat evolutionary processes involved many genomic changes. The Br gene did not show either genetic (co-localization with QTLs) or phenotypic association with threshability or yield components, suggesting independence of the respective loci. It is argued here that changes in spike threshability and agronomic traits (e.g. yield and its components) are the outcome of plant evolution under domestication, rather than the result of a protracted domestication process. Revealing the genomic basis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication, and clarifying their inter-relationships, will improve our understanding of wheat biology and contribute to further crop improvement.

  6. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... to anyone regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender. Domestic violence affects people of all ... ABOUT The Attorney General Budget & Performance Strategic Plans History AGENCIES BUSINESS Business Opportunities Small & Disadvantaged Business Grants ...

  7. 40 CFR 166.20 - Application for a specific, quarantine, or public health exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application for a specific, quarantine... EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions § 166.20 Application for a specific, quarantine, or public health exemption. (a) General information required in an application for a...

  8. 40 CFR 166.20 - Application for a specific, quarantine, or public health exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application for a specific, quarantine... EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions § 166.20 Application for a specific, quarantine, or public health exemption. (a) General information required in an application for a...

  9. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is...

  10. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is...

  11. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is...

  12. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is...

  13. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is...

  14. The influence of quarantine on reproductive cycling in wild-caught Baboons (Papio anubis).

    PubMed

    Liechty, Emma R; Wang, Diane Y; Chen, Emily; Chai, Daniel; Bell, Jason D; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2015-12-01

    Stress impacts nonhuman primate menstrual cycle length but the impact of quarantine is unknown. A retrospective analysis was performed on cycle data from 31 wild-caught baboons during and following quarantine. Cycling initiated in 94 days (19-181) and length normalized within 4-6 cycles. Quarantine significantly impacts menstrual cycle length.

  15. 77 FR 58469 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... portions of Worcester County, MA, and Clermont County, OH, to the list of quarantined areas in Sec. 301.51... in the Town of Islip, Suffolk County, NY, from the list of quarantined areas in Sec. 301.51-3(c... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in...

  16. 40 CFR 166.32 - Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions. 166.32 Section 166.32 Protection of... AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions § 166.32 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public...

  17. 40 CFR 166.32 - Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions. 166.32 Section 166.32 Protection of... AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions § 166.32 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public...

  18. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics.

  19. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay to Rapidly Detect Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus in Quarantined Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Siwon; Kim, Jin-Ho; Choi, Ji-Young; Jang, Won-Cheoul

    2015-01-01

    We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to rapidly diagnose Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) during quarantine inspections of imported wheat, corn, oats, and millet. The LAMP method was developed as a plant quarantine inspection method for the first time, and its simplicity, quickness, specificity and sensitivity were verified compared to current reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR quarantine methods. We were able to quickly screen for WSMV at quarantine sites with many test samples; thus, this method is expected to contribute to plant quarantine inspections. PMID:26674930

  20. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay to Rapidly Detect Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus in Quarantined Plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siwon; Kim, Jin-Ho; Choi, Ji-Young; Jang, Won-Cheoul

    2015-12-01

    We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to rapidly diagnose Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) during quarantine inspections of imported wheat, corn, oats, and millet. The LAMP method was developed as a plant quarantine inspection method for the first time, and its simplicity, quickness, specificity and sensitivity were verified compared to current reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR quarantine methods. We were able to quickly screen for WSMV at quarantine sites with many test samples; thus, this method is expected to contribute to plant quarantine inspections. PMID:26674930

  1. 7 CFR 319.8 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), and after the public hearing required thereunder, the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health... and Quarantine Programs shall find the existing conditions as to pest risk involved in the importation of the articles to which the regulations supplemental hereto apply, make it safe to modify, by...

  2. 9 CFR 93.412 - Ruminant quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must be free of sharp edges that could cause injury to ruminants. (D) Ventilation and climate control...-changing area must be provided at each end of each shower area. There also must be one or more receptacles... updated with any changes or additions in advance of such person having access to the quarantine...

  3. 9 CFR 93.412 - Ruminant quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must be free of sharp edges that could cause injury to ruminants. (D) Ventilation and climate control...-changing area must be provided at each end of each shower area. There also must be one or more receptacles... updated with any changes or additions in advance of such person having access to the quarantine...

  4. 9 CFR 93.412 - Ruminant quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... must be free of sharp edges that could cause injury to ruminants. (D) Ventilation and climate control...-changing area must be provided at each end of each shower area. There also must be one or more receptacles... updated with any changes or additions in advance of such person having access to the quarantine...

  5. 9 CFR 93.412 - Ruminant quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must be free of sharp edges that could cause injury to ruminants. (D) Ventilation and climate control...-changing area must be provided at each end of each shower area. There also must be one or more receptacles... updated with any changes or additions in advance of such person having access to the quarantine...

  6. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection §...

  7. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection §...

  8. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection §...

  9. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection §...

  10. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection §...

  11. 7 CFR 318.47 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders) and the cotton blister mite (Eriophyes gossypii Banks), insect pests new to... it is necessary to extend the quarantine to prevent the spread of these insects from the Virgin... aforementioned insect pests. (c) All parts and products of plants of the genus Gossypium, such as seeds...

  12. 7 CFR 318.47 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders) and the cotton blister mite (Eriophyes gossypii Banks), insect pests new to... it is necessary to extend the quarantine to prevent the spread of these insects from the Virgin... aforementioned insect pests. (c) All parts and products of plants of the genus Gossypium, such as seeds...

  13. 9 CFR 73.1b - Quarantine policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1b... various areas because of cattle scabies and has issued the regulations in this part governing the interstate movement of cattle from such areas. It is the policy of the Department to quarantine...

  14. 9 CFR 73.1b - Quarantine policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1b... various areas because of cattle scabies and has issued the regulations in this part governing the interstate movement of cattle from such areas. It is the policy of the Department to quarantine...

  15. 9 CFR 73.1b - Quarantine policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1b... various areas because of cattle scabies and has issued the regulations in this part governing the interstate movement of cattle from such areas. It is the policy of the Department to quarantine...

  16. 9 CFR 73.1b - Quarantine policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1b... various areas because of cattle scabies and has issued the regulations in this part governing the interstate movement of cattle from such areas. It is the policy of the Department to quarantine...

  17. 9 CFR 73.1b - Quarantine policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1b... various areas because of cattle scabies and has issued the regulations in this part governing the interstate movement of cattle from such areas. It is the policy of the Department to quarantine...

  18. Potential heat treatments for quarantine security of exotic tropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential heat treatments (HT) were developed to control fruit flies in selected tropical fruits (avocado, guava, longan, passion fruit, and persimmon). Hawaii has three fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), oriental fruit fly, and melon fly. Previous r...

  19. Mobile Quarantine Facility unloaded at Ellington Air Force Base, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A Mobile Quarantine Facility, with the three Apollo 11 crewmen inside, is unloaded from a U.S. Air Force C141 transport at Ellington Air Force Base early Sunday after a flight from Hawaii. A large crowd was present to welcome Astronauts Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin Aldrin Jr. back to Houston following their historic lunar landing mission.

  20. Quarantine regulations and the impact of modern detection methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To be competitive in global markets, producers need access to the best plant varieties and cultivars available and this often means moving plants across international borders as soon as they are available. At the same time, quarantine agencies are tasked with minimizing the risk of introducing exoti...

  1. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which are... further handling of the rabbits will not create a health hazard, the lot shall be subject to ante-mortem... circumstances are such that release for treatment is impracticable, a careful rabbit-by-rabbit...

  2. 9 CFR 93.324 - Detention for quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., glanders, equine piroplasmosis, equine infectious anemia, 19 and such other tests that may be required by the Administrator to determine their freedom from other communicable diseases. Such horses shall also... they shall be released from quarantine only if found to be free from any communicable disease...

  3. Development of Species-Specific Primers for Agronomical Thrips and Multiplex Assay for Quarantine Identification of Western Flower Thrips.

    PubMed

    Yeh, W B; Tseng, M J; Chang, N T; Wu, S Y; Tsai, Y S

    2014-10-01

    While morphological identification of thrips species has been difficult because of their minute size and a lack of easily recognizable characteristics, molecular identification based on the development of specific molecular markers can be easily and reliably carried out. Among the known molecular markers, the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) exhibits distinguishable variations among thrips species. In this study, sequences of ITS2 region of 10 agriculturally important thrips were established to design species-specific primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). ITS2 sequence variations within these species were far less than those among species, indicating the suitability of this marker for species-specific primers design. These primers, though with one or two sporadically variable positions, showed a good efficacy within species. The specificity of these primers, examined on thrips species belonging to 15 genera, proved satisfactory. Furthermore, a multiplex PCR was used successfully for identifying Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), an insect pest monitored for quarantine purpose, and three additional thrips also commonly found in imported agricultural products and field samples, i.e., Thrips tabaci Lindeman, Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan), and Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom). This study has demonstrated that specific primers and multiplex PCR based on ITS2 are reliable, convenient, and diagnostic tool to discriminate thrips species of quarantine and agricultural importance.

  4. Gaps in Border Controls Are Related to Quarantine Alien Insect Invasions in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Steven James; Bacher, Sven; Aebi, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Alien insects are increasingly being dispersed around the world through international trade, causing a multitude of negative environmental impacts and billions of dollars in economic losses annually. Border controls form the last line of defense against invasions, whereby inspectors aim to intercept and stop consignments that are contaminated with harmful alien insects. In Europe, member states depend on one another to prevent insect introductions by operating a first point of entry rule – controlling goods only when they initially enter the continent. However, ensuring consistency between border control points is difficult because there exists no optimal inspection strategy. For the first time, we developed a method to quantify the volume of agricultural trade that should be inspected for quarantine insects at border control points in Europe, based on global agricultural trade of over 100 million distinct origin-commodity-species-destination pathways. This metric was then used to evaluate the performance of existing border controls, as measured by border interception results in Europe between 2003 and 2007. Alarmingly, we found significant gaps between the trade pathways that should be inspected and actual number of interceptions. Moreover, many of the most likely introduction pathways yielded none or very few insect interceptions, because regular interceptions are only made on only a narrow range of pathways. European countries with gaps in border controls have been invaded by higher numbers of quarantine alien insect species, indicating the importance of proper inspections to prevent insect invasions. Equipped with an optimal inspection strategy based on the underlying risks of trade, authorities globally will be able to implement more effective and consistent border controls. PMID:23112835

  5. Bluetongue virus in Oryx antelope (Oryx leucoryx) during the quarantine period in 2010 in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bosnić, Sanja; Beck, Relja; Listeš, Eddy; Lojkić, Ivana; Savini, Giovanni; Roić, Besi

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a viral infectious non‑contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Insect species of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) serve as biological vectors that transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) to susceptible hosts. The infection is present in the Mediterranean region. Recently, it has also been reported in Central, Western, and Northern Europe where BTV‑8 was recognised as the causative serotype. In the meantime, BTV‑14 has appeared in the North‑Eastern part of Europe. In the present study, BTV serotype 16 (BTV‑16) was detected by virus neutralisation (VNT)‑assay and real‑time reverse transcription‑PCR (rRT‑PCR) in 1 antelope and BTV‑1 in 3 of 10 Oryx antelopes (Oryx leucoryx) imported in Croatia from the Sultanate of Oman. No BTV vectors were collected during the antelope quarantine on the Veliki Brijun Island. Also, no BTV antibodies were detected in sheep, cattle, and deer on the Island. Entomological studies did not reveal any new vector species that may have been introduced with the infected antelopes on their transportation. It was the first time that BTV was demonstrated in animals imported in Croatia. It involved BTV‑1, which had never been demonstrated before and BTV‑16, which had been previously recorded in domestic ruminants.

  6. Bluetongue virus in Oryx antelope (Oryx leucoryx) during the quarantine period in 2010 in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bosnić, Sanja; Beck, Relja; Listeš, Eddy; Lojkić, Ivana; Savini, Giovanni; Roić, Besi

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a viral infectious non‑contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Insect species of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) serve as biological vectors that transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) to susceptible hosts. The infection is present in the Mediterranean region. Recently, it has also been reported in Central, Western, and Northern Europe where BTV‑8 was recognised as the causative serotype. In the meantime, BTV‑14 has appeared in the North‑Eastern part of Europe. In the present study, BTV serotype 16 (BTV‑16) was detected by virus neutralisation (VNT)‑assay and real‑time reverse transcription‑PCR (rRT‑PCR) in 1 antelope and BTV‑1 in 3 of 10 Oryx antelopes (Oryx leucoryx) imported in Croatia from the Sultanate of Oman. No BTV vectors were collected during the antelope quarantine on the Veliki Brijun Island. Also, no BTV antibodies were detected in sheep, cattle, and deer on the Island. Entomological studies did not reveal any new vector species that may have been introduced with the infected antelopes on their transportation. It was the first time that BTV was demonstrated in animals imported in Croatia. It involved BTV‑1, which had never been demonstrated before and BTV‑16, which had been previously recorded in domestic ruminants. PMID:26129665

  7. From Early Domesticated Rice of the Middle Yangtze Basin to Millet, Rice and Wheat Agriculture: Archaeobotanical Macro-Remains from Baligang, Nanyang Basin, Central China (6700–500 BC)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhenhua; Qin, Ling; Gao, Yu; Weisskopf, Alison Ruth; Zhang, Chi; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2015-01-01

    Baligang is a Neolithic site on a northern tributary of the middle Yangtze and provides a long archaeobotanical sequence from the Seventh Millennium BC upto the First Millennium BC. It provides evidence for developments in rice and millet agriculture influenced by shifting cultural affiliation with the north (Yangshao and Longshan) and south (Qujialing and Shijiahe) between 4300 and 1800 BC. This paper reports on plant macro-remains (seeds), from systematic flotation of 123 samples (1700 litres), producing more than 10,000 identifiable remains. The earliest Pre-Yangshao occupation of the sites provide evidence for cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) between 6300–6700 BC. This rice appears already domesticated in on the basis of a dominance of non-shattering spikelet bases. However, in terms of grain size changes has not yet finished, as grains are still thinner than more recent domesaticated rice and are closer in grain shape to wild rices. This early rice was cultivated alongside collection of wild staple foods, especially acorns (Quercus/Lithicarpus sensu lato). In later periods the sites has evidence for mixed farming of both rice and millets (Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum). Soybean appears on the site in the Shijiahe period (ca.2500 BC) and wheat (Triticum cf. aestivum) in the Late Longshan levels (2200–1800 BC). Weed flora suggests an intensification of rice agriculture over time with increasing evidence of wetland weeds. We interpret these data as indicating early opportunistic cultivation of alluvial floodplains and some rainfed rice, developing into more systematic and probably irrigated cultivation starting in the Yangshao period, which intensified in the Qujialing and Shijiahe period, before a shift back to an emphasis on millets with the Late Longshan cultural influence from the north. PMID:26460975

  8. From Early Domesticated Rice of the Middle Yangtze Basin to Millet, Rice and Wheat Agriculture: Archaeobotanical Macro-Remains from Baligang, Nanyang Basin, Central China (6700-500 BC).

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhenhua; Qin, Ling; Gao, Yu; Weisskopf, Alison Ruth; Zhang, Chi; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2015-01-01

    Baligang is a Neolithic site on a northern tributary of the middle Yangtze and provides a long archaeobotanical sequence from the Seventh Millennium BC upto the First Millennium BC. It provides evidence for developments in rice and millet agriculture influenced by shifting cultural affiliation with the north (Yangshao and Longshan) and south (Qujialing and Shijiahe) between 4300 and 1800 BC. This paper reports on plant macro-remains (seeds), from systematic flotation of 123 samples (1700 litres), producing more than 10,000 identifiable remains. The earliest Pre-Yangshao occupation of the sites provide evidence for cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) between 6300-6700 BC. This rice appears already domesticated in on the basis of a dominance of non-shattering spikelet bases. However, in terms of grain size changes has not yet finished, as grains are still thinner than more recent domesaticated rice and are closer in grain shape to wild rices. This early rice was cultivated alongside collection of wild staple foods, especially acorns (Quercus/Lithicarpus sensu lato). In later periods the sites has evidence for mixed farming of both rice and millets (Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum). Soybean appears on the site in the Shijiahe period (ca.2500 BC) and wheat (Triticum cf. aestivum) in the Late Longshan levels (2200-1800 BC). Weed flora suggests an intensification of rice agriculture over time with increasing evidence of wetland weeds. We interpret these data as indicating early opportunistic cultivation of alluvial floodplains and some rainfed rice, developing into more systematic and probably irrigated cultivation starting in the Yangshao period, which intensified in the Qujialing and Shijiahe period, before a shift back to an emphasis on millets with the Late Longshan cultural influence from the north.

  9. From Early Domesticated Rice of the Middle Yangtze Basin to Millet, Rice and Wheat Agriculture: Archaeobotanical Macro-Remains from Baligang, Nanyang Basin, Central China (6700-500 BC).

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhenhua; Qin, Ling; Gao, Yu; Weisskopf, Alison Ruth; Zhang, Chi; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2015-01-01

    Baligang is a Neolithic site on a northern tributary of the middle Yangtze and provides a long archaeobotanical sequence from the Seventh Millennium BC upto the First Millennium BC. It provides evidence for developments in rice and millet agriculture influenced by shifting cultural affiliation with the north (Yangshao and Longshan) and south (Qujialing and Shijiahe) between 4300 and 1800 BC. This paper reports on plant macro-remains (seeds), from systematic flotation of 123 samples (1700 litres), producing more than 10,000 identifiable remains. The earliest Pre-Yangshao occupation of the sites provide evidence for cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) between 6300-6700 BC. This rice appears already domesticated in on the basis of a dominance of non-shattering spikelet bases. However, in terms of grain size changes has not yet finished, as grains are still thinner than more recent domesaticated rice and are closer in grain shape to wild rices. This early rice was cultivated alongside collection of wild staple foods, especially acorns (Quercus/Lithicarpus sensu lato). In later periods the sites has evidence for mixed farming of both rice and millets (Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum). Soybean appears on the site in the Shijiahe period (ca.2500 BC) and wheat (Triticum cf. aestivum) in the Late Longshan levels (2200-1800 BC). Weed flora suggests an intensification of rice agriculture over time with increasing evidence of wetland weeds. We interpret these data as indicating early opportunistic cultivation of alluvial floodplains and some rainfed rice, developing into more systematic and probably irrigated cultivation starting in the Yangshao period, which intensified in the Qujialing and Shijiahe period, before a shift back to an emphasis on millets with the Late Longshan cultural influence from the north. PMID:26460975

  10. 7 CFR 1260.310 - Domestic assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Domestic assessments. 1260.310 Section 1260.310... Rules and Regulations § 1260.310 Domestic assessments. (a) A $1.00 per head assessment on cattle sold... portion of the assessments which are equivalent to the producer's proportionate share of the proceeds....

  11. Possible application of EB machines for plant quarantine treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, T.; Kimura, M.; Ito, H.; Sunaga, H.; Takizawa, H.; Takatani, Y.

    2000-03-01

    For plant quarantine treatment, irradiation is an effective alternative method to methyl bromide fumigation. In Japan EB and X-rays are used for this purpose. To obtain the optimum irradiation conditions for cut flowers or fresh fruits, it is necessary to irradiate the package with a dose uniformity ratio below 1.4 or 2.0, respectively. In this study, computer tomography (CT) was applied to measure the density distribution in the package for the purpose of estimating dose uniformity. For large-scale irradiation by X-rays, a simulation study was also carried out using the DEX code. These results show two sided irradiation is suitable for the treatment of cut flowers and fruits. CT combined with the irradiation planning system DEX is useful for the estimation of dose uniformity in packages for quarantine treatment.

  12. Quarantine, exports and animal disease in Australia 1901-2010.

    PubMed

    Turner, Aj

    2011-09-01

    The Constitution forming the Australian Commonwealth Government on 1 January 1901 provided that animal and animal products imported into and exported from Australia would be under the authority of the national government. By mutual agreement, the Quarantine Act 1908 provided for the states to continue the delivery of services under contract until 1995 when the Commonwealth took back full responsibility for quarantine services. In the 1940s, 50s and 60s there were world pandemics of livestock diseases and Australia ceased the import of many species. By the 1970s, the livestock industries sought relaxation of import restrictions to gain access to diversified genetic stock. By the use of new technologies, many species can now be imported into Australia through tight importation protocols. With the advent of the World Trade Organization and implementation of the Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement, Australia has developed a risk-based framework to support the development of import conditions for animals and animal products. Australia's 'Acceptable Level of Protection' has been set to provide a low likelihood of disease entry. Being an island continent, Australia can apply strong controls over imports and exports of all commodities and relatively few outbreaks of exotic animal diseases have occurred by breach of quarantine, but the outbreaks of rinderpest in 1923 and equine influenza in 2007 were notable exceptions. PMID:21864310

  13. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  14. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  15. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.102 - Eligible domestic users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible domestic users. 1427.102 Section 1427.102... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.102 Eligible domestic users. (a) For purposes of this subpart, a...

  19. Was Mandatory Quarantine Necessary in China for Controlling the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinhai; Geng, Wenjun; Tian, Huidong; Lai, Dejian

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese government enforced mandatory quarantine for 60 days (from 10 May to 8 July 2009) as a preventative strategy to control the spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Such a prevention strategy was stricter than other non-pharmaceutical interventions that were carried out in many other countries. We evaluated the effectiveness of the mandatory quarantine and provide suggestions for interventions against possible future influenza pandemics. We selected one city, Beijing, as the analysis target. We reviewed the epidemiologic dynamics of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and the implementation of quarantine measures in Beijing. The infectious population was simulated under two scenarios (quarantined and not quarantined) using a deterministic Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model. The basic reproduction number R0 was adjusted to match the epidemic wave in Beijing. We found that mandatory quarantine served to postpone the spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Beijing by one and a half months. If mandatory quarantine was not enforced in Beijing, the infectious population could have reached 1,553 by 21 October, i.e., 5.6 times higher than the observed number. When the cost of quarantine is taken into account, mandatory quarantine was not an economically effective intervention approach against the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We suggest adopting mitigation methods for an influenza pandemic with low mortality and morbidity. PMID:24084677

  20. Factors influencing compliance with quarantine in Toronto during the 2003 SARS outbreak.

    PubMed

    DiGiovanni, Clete; Conley, Jerome; Chiu, Daniel; Zaborski, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to cull lessons from Toronto's experiences with large-scale quarantine during the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in early 2003. We focused on issues that affected the population's willingness to comply with quarantine. Information was acquired from interviews, telephone polling, and focus groups. Issues of quarantine legitimacy, criteria for quarantine, and the need to allow some quarantined healthcare workers to leave their homes to go to work were identified. Also important was the need to answer questions from people entering quarantine about the continuation of their wages, salaries, and other forms of income while they were not working, and about the means by which they would be supplied with groceries and other services necessary for daily living. The threat of enforcement had less effect on compliance than did the credibility of compliance-monitoring. Fighting boredom and other psychological stresses of quarantine, muting the forces of stigma against those in quarantine, and crafting and delivering effective and believable communications to a population of mixed cultures and languages also were critical. The need for officials to develop consistent quarantine policies, procedures, and public messages across jurisdictional boundaries was paramount. PMID:15650436

  1. Was mandatory quarantine necessary in China for controlling the 2009 H1N1 pandemic?

    PubMed

    Li, Xinhai; Geng, Wenjun; Tian, Huidong; Lai, Dejian

    2013-10-01

    The Chinese government enforced mandatory quarantine for 60 days (from 10 May to 8 July 2009) as a preventative strategy to control the spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Such a prevention strategy was stricter than other non-pharmaceutical interventions that were carried out in many other countries. We evaluated the effectiveness of the mandatory quarantine and provide suggestions for interventions against possible future influenza pandemics. We selected one city, Beijing, as the analysis target. We reviewed the epidemiologic dynamics of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and the implementation of quarantine measures in Beijing. The infectious population was simulated under two scenarios (quarantined and not quarantined) using a deterministic Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model. The basic reproduction number R0 was adjusted to match the epidemic wave in Beijing. We found that mandatory quarantine served to postpone the spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Beijing by one and a half months. If mandatory quarantine was not enforced in Beijing, the infectious population could have reached 1,553 by 21 October, i.e., 5.6 times higher than the observed number. When the cost of quarantine is taken into account, mandatory quarantine was not an economically effective intervention approach against the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We suggest adopting mitigation methods for an influenza pandemic with low mortality and morbidity. PMID:24084677

  2. 7 CFR 301.48-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-1... other State. Japanese beetle. The live insect known as the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newm.)...

  3. 7 CFR 301.81-6 - Compliance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Imported Fire Ant Quarantine and... application of chemical materials in accordance with the “Imported Fire Ant Program Manual,” as set forth...

  4. 7 CFR 301.48-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-1... other State. Japanese beetle. The live insect known as the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newm.)...

  5. 7 CFR 301.48-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-1... other State. Japanese beetle. The live insect known as the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newm.)...

  6. 7 CFR 301.48-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-1... other State. Japanese beetle. The live insect known as the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newm.)...

  7. 7 CFR 301.85-5 - Compliance agreement and cancellation thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode... in the business of growing, handling, or moving regulated articles may enter into a compliance... person conducting such operations and Plant Protection and Quarantine wherein such person agrees...

  8. 7 CFR 301.87-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from regulated areas in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane Diseases Quarantine and Regulations § 301.87... identity has been maintained, and it has not been used for the production of sugarcane while in...

  9. 7 CFR 301.87-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from regulated areas in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane Diseases Quarantine and Regulations § 301.87... identity has been maintained, and it has not been used for the production of sugarcane while in...

  10. 7 CFR 301.87-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from regulated areas in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane Diseases Quarantine and Regulations § 301.87... identity has been maintained, and it has not been used for the production of sugarcane while in...

  11. 7 CFR 301.87-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from regulated areas in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane Diseases Quarantine and Regulations § 301.87... identity has been maintained, and it has not been used for the production of sugarcane while in...

  12. 7 CFR 301.87-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from regulated areas in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane Diseases Quarantine and Regulations § 301.87... identity has been maintained, and it has not been used for the production of sugarcane while in...

  13. Wheat domestication: lessons for the future.

    PubMed

    Charmet, Gilles

    2011-03-01

    Wheat was one of the first crops to be domesticated more than 10,000 years ago in the Middle East. Molecular genetics and archaeological data have allowed the reconstruction of plausible domestication scenarios leading to modern cultivars. For diploid einkorn and tetraploid durum wheat, a single domestication event has likely occurred in the Karacadag Mountains, Turkey. Following a cross between tetraploid durum and diploid T. tauschii, the resultant hexaploid bread wheat was domesticated and disseminated around the Caucasian region. These polyploidisation events facilitated wheat domestication and created genetic bottlenecks, which excluded potentially adaptive alleles. With the urgent need to accelerate genetic progress to confront the challenges of climate change and sustainable agriculture, wild ancestors and old landraces represent a reservoir of underexploited genetic diversity that may be utilized through modern breeding methods. Understanding domestication processes may thus help identifying new strategies.

  14. DNA barcoding of Mycosphaerella species of quarantine importance to Europe.

    PubMed

    Quaedvlieg, W; Groenewald, J Z; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Crous, P W

    2012-12-01

    The EU 7th Framework Program provided funds for Quarantine Barcoding of Life (QBOL) to develop a quick, reliable and accurate DNA barcode-based diagnostic tool for selected species on the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) A1/A2 quarantine lists. Seven nuclear genomic loci were evaluated to determine those best suited for identifying species of Mycosphaerella and/or its associated anamorphs. These genes included β-tubulin (Btub), internal transcribed spacer regions of the nrDNA operon (ITS), 28S nrDNA (LSU), Actin (Act), Calmodulin (Cal), Translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2). Loci were tested on their Kimura-2-parameter-based inter- and intraspecific variation, PCR amplification success rate and ability to distinguish between quarantine species and closely related taxa. Results showed that none of these loci was solely suited as a reliable barcoding locus for the tested fungi. A combination of a primary and secondary barcoding locus was found to compensate for individual weaknesses and provide reliable identification. A combination of ITS with either EF-1α or Btub was reliable as barcoding loci for EPPO A1/A2-listed Mycosphaerella species. Furthermore, Lecanosticta acicola was shown to represent a species complex, revealing two novel species described here, namely L. brevispora sp. nov. on Pinus sp. from Mexico and L. guatemalensis sp. nov. on Pinus oocarpa from Guatemala. Epitypes were also designated for L. acicola and L. longispora to resolve the genetic application of these names. PMID:23606768

  15. 7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals... AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1230.111 Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall...

  16. 7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals... AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1230.111 Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall...

  17. 7 CFR 1230.111 - Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals... AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1230.111 Remittance of assessments on domestic porcine animals. Assessments on domestic porcine animals shall...

  18. 9 CFR 72.6 - Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from... ANIMAL PRODUCTS BOVINE BABESIOSIS § 72.6 Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks. Cattle in quarantined areas where tick eradication is not being conducted 3 may be...

  19. 9 CFR 72.6 - Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.6 Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks. Cattle in quarantined areas where tick eradication is not being conducted...

  20. 9 CFR 72.6 - Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.6 Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks. Cattle in quarantined areas where tick eradication is not being conducted...

  1. 9 CFR 72.6 - Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.6 Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks. Cattle in quarantined areas where tick eradication is not being conducted...

  2. 9 CFR 93.413 - Quarantine stations, visiting restricted; sales prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.413... enclosures during any time that ruminants are in quarantine unless the APHIS representative or inspector in... admitted to the yards and buildings containing his or her quarantined ruminants at such intervals as may...

  3. 9 CFR 93.413 - Quarantine stations, visiting restricted; sales prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.413... enclosures during any time that ruminants are in quarantine unless the APHIS representative or inspector in... admitted to the yards and buildings containing his or her quarantined ruminants at such intervals as may...

  4. 9 CFR 93.413 - Quarantine stations, visiting restricted; sales prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.413... enclosures during any time that ruminants are in quarantine unless the APHIS representative or inspector in... admitted to the yards and buildings containing his or her quarantined ruminants at such intervals as may...

  5. 9 CFR 93.413 - Quarantine stations, visiting restricted; sales prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.413... enclosures during any time that ruminants are in quarantine unless the APHIS representative or inspector in... admitted to the yards and buildings containing his or her quarantined ruminants at such intervals as may...

  6. 9 CFR 93.413 - Quarantine stations, visiting restricted; sales prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.413... enclosures during any time that ruminants are in quarantine unless the APHIS representative or inspector in... admitted to the yards and buildings containing his or her quarantined ruminants at such intervals as may...

  7. 9 CFR 93.213 - Appearance of disease among poultry in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appearance of disease among poultry in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry § 93.213 Appearance of disease among poultry in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among poultry during the quarantine...

  8. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period...

  9. 9 CFR 93.515 - Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appearance of disease among swine in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.515 Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among swine during the quarantine period...

  10. 9 CFR 93.515 - Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appearance of disease among swine in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.515 Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among swine during the quarantine period...

  11. 9 CFR 93.515 - Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among swine in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.515 Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among swine during the quarantine period...

  12. 9 CFR 93.515 - Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appearance of disease among swine in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.515 Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among swine during the quarantine period...

  13. 9 CFR 93.213 - Appearance of disease among poultry in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appearance of disease among poultry in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry § 93.213 Appearance of disease among poultry in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among poultry during the quarantine...

  14. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period...

  15. 9 CFR 93.213 - Appearance of disease among poultry in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appearance of disease among poultry in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry § 93.213 Appearance of disease among poultry in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among poultry during the quarantine...

  16. 9 CFR 93.213 - Appearance of disease among poultry in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among poultry in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry § 93.213 Appearance of disease among poultry in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among poultry during the quarantine...

  17. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period...

  18. 9 CFR 93.213 - Appearance of disease among poultry in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appearance of disease among poultry in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry § 93.213 Appearance of disease among poultry in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among poultry during the quarantine...

  19. 9 CFR 93.515 - Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appearance of disease among swine in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.515 Appearance of disease among swine in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among swine during the quarantine period...

  20. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period...

  1. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period...

  2. Use of irradiation as quarantine treatment for tropical fruit and vegetable crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The export of many of Hawaii’s fresh fruits and vegetables to the U.S. mainland is regulated due to the presence of quarantine insect pests. Hawaii has export approvals for 17 fruits and 7 vegetables using irradiation to disinfest the commodities of any quarantine insects. Hawaii Pride LLC (Keaau, H...

  3. Planning, evaluation and analytical studies in planetary quarantine and spacecraft sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The technical and analytical support used to aid in developing requirements for planetary quarantine are presented. The investigation was divided into 8 work tasks which are presented in tabular form. Data include methods of sterilization, safety margins for quarantine, revision of contamination logs for Mars and Venus, and estimates of encapsulated and 'free' microbial burden.

  4. Scientific and technical services in the development of planetary quarantine measures for automated spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Primary goals of the Planetary Quarantine Program are defined and used to provide a basis for planning and source allocation toward the development of planetary quarantine measures for the following automated spacecrafts: Viking 1975, Pioneer F and G, and Mariner Venus-Mercury 1973.

  5. 9 CFR 72.6 - Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.6 Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks. 72.6 Section 72.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...

  6. Managing quarantine-significant post harvest diseases in Pacific Northwest apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported quarantined pathogens that cause speck rot and sphaeropsis rot, respectively, in apple. Due to quarantine regulation, export of apple from Washington State to China was banned from 2012 through 2014. Previous st...

  7. 77 FR 31720 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... 17, 2011, an ALB infestation was discovered in the townships of Monroe and Tate, and in the East Fork... acreage of East Fork State Park in Clermont County, OH, to the list of quarantined areas in Sec. 301.51- 3..., APHIS established a quarantined area in Islip, Suffolk County, NY, after ALB was first detected in...

  8. 7 CFR 301.75-6 - Interstate movement of regulated nursery stock from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-6 Interstate movement of regulated nursery... from a quarantined area into any area of the United States except commercial citrus-producing areas if... paragraph (b). Cuttings may not be obtained from properties where citrus canker is present. (4) All...

  9. 7 CFR 301.75-6 - Interstate movement of regulated nursery stock from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-6 Interstate movement of regulated nursery... from a quarantined area into any area of the United States except commercial citrus-producing areas if... paragraph (b). Cuttings may not be obtained from properties where citrus canker is present. (4) All...

  10. [Major domestication traits in Asian rice].

    PubMed

    Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

    2012-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding.

  11. 7 CFR 301.32 - Restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies... other requirements for the interstate movement of any of the fruit flies regulated under this...

  12. 7 CFR 301.32 - Restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies... other requirements for the interstate movement of any of the fruit flies regulated under this...

  13. 7 CFR 301.45-6 - Compliance agreement and cancellation thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301... agreement shall specify safeguards necessary to prevent spread of the gypsy moth, such as...

  14. 7 CFR 301.45-6 - Compliance agreement and cancellation thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301... agreement shall specify safeguards necessary to prevent spread of the gypsy moth, such as...

  15. 7 CFR 301.45-6 - Compliance agreement and cancellation thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301... agreement shall specify safeguards necessary to prevent spread of the gypsy moth, such as...

  16. 7 CFR 301.45-6 - Compliance agreement and cancellation thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301... agreement shall specify safeguards necessary to prevent spread of the gypsy moth, such as...

  17. 7 CFR 301.45-6 - Compliance agreement and cancellation thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301... agreement shall specify safeguards necessary to prevent spread of the gypsy moth, such as...

  18. 7 CFR 301.32 - Restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies... other requirements for the interstate movement of any of the fruit flies regulated under this...

  19. 7 CFR 301.32 - Restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies... other requirements for the interstate movement of any of the fruit flies regulated under this...

  20. 7 CFR 301.32 - Restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies... other requirements for the interstate movement of any of the fruit flies regulated under this...

  1. 7 CFR 301.52-4 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink... inspector determines that such movement will not result in the spread of the pink bollworm and...

  2. 7 CFR 301.52-4 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink... inspector determines that such movement will not result in the spread of the pink bollworm and...

  3. 7 CFR 301.52-8 - Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink... dispose of, or require disposal of regulated articles and pink bollworms as provided sections 414,...

  4. 7 CFR 301.52-8 - Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink... dispose of, or require disposal of regulated articles and pink bollworms as provided sections 414,...

  5. 7 CFR 301.52-8 - Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink... dispose of, or require disposal of regulated articles and pink bollworms as provided sections 414,...

  6. 7 CFR 301.52-4 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink... inspector determines that such movement will not result in the spread of the pink bollworm and...

  7. 7 CFR 301.52-8 - Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink... dispose of, or require disposal of regulated articles and pink bollworms as provided sections 414,...

  8. 7 CFR 301.52-8 - Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink... dispose of, or require disposal of regulated articles and pink bollworms as provided sections 414,...

  9. The Near Eastern origin of cat domestication.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

    2007-07-27

    The world's domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors-Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)-indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance.

  10. 7 CFR 4279.279 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program. 4279.279 Section 4279.279 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... Biorefinery Assistance Loans § 4279.279 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program. The...

  11. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside. 4279.175 Section 4279.175 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment...

  12. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside. 4279.175 Section 4279.175 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment...

  13. 7 CFR 4279.279 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program. 4279.279 Section 4279.279 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... Biorefinery Assistance Loans § 4279.279 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program. The...

  14. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside. 4279.175 Section 4279.175 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment...

  15. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside. 4279.175 Section 4279.175 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment...

  16. 7 CFR 4279.279 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program. 4279.279 Section 4279.279 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... Biorefinery Assistance Loans § 4279.279 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program. The...

  17. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside. 4279.175 Section 4279.175 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment...

  18. The borderline of 'empire': Japanese maritime quarantine in Busan c.1876-1910.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Ran

    2013-04-01

    This paper seeks to balance the regional and thematic focus of cholera historiography by examining maritime quarantine in Busan, as it was devised and implemented by Japanese officials and doctors during the pre-colonial period. It also places the relationship between Korea and Japan in the context of relations with China, Russia and Britain. This paper shows that quarantine measures in Busan and other Korean ports reflected the rise of Japanese imperial power and the increasing desire on the part of the Japanese to establish an effective borderline for their regional empire. From 1879 Japan began to impose maritime quarantine in Busan, where Japanese influence was very strong even before the colonial period, though at that time Japan was unable to perform quarantine in its own ports independently due to the objections of Western powers, particularly Britain. Victories in the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese wars established Japan as a regional power on equal terms with the West, and as the dominant power in Korea and Eastern Asia. With the acquisition of the right to impose quarantine in its homeland, Japan strengthened and extended the range of quarantine from Japan to Korea, China and Russia. Now quarantine screened Japan from potentially harmful agents – pathogenic and political – and its functions diversified further as modernisation and imperial expansion gathered pace. The reliance which Japan placed upon quarantine in maintaining its empire explains why it was increasingly out of step with other powers regarding international sanitary precautions. The Japanese maritime quarantine in Busan during this period therefore shows many aspects of Japan’s ‘national empire’. PMID:24070347

  19. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    PubMed

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  20. The borderline of 'empire': Japanese maritime quarantine in Busan c.1876-1910.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Ran

    2013-04-01

    This paper seeks to balance the regional and thematic focus of cholera historiography by examining maritime quarantine in Busan, as it was devised and implemented by Japanese officials and doctors during the pre-colonial period. It also places the relationship between Korea and Japan in the context of relations with China, Russia and Britain. This paper shows that quarantine measures in Busan and other Korean ports reflected the rise of Japanese imperial power and the increasing desire on the part of the Japanese to establish an effective borderline for their regional empire. From 1879 Japan began to impose maritime quarantine in Busan, where Japanese influence was very strong even before the colonial period, though at that time Japan was unable to perform quarantine in its own ports independently due to the objections of Western powers, particularly Britain. Victories in the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese wars established Japan as a regional power on equal terms with the West, and as the dominant power in Korea and Eastern Asia. With the acquisition of the right to impose quarantine in its homeland, Japan strengthened and extended the range of quarantine from Japan to Korea, China and Russia. Now quarantine screened Japan from potentially harmful agents – pathogenic and political – and its functions diversified further as modernisation and imperial expansion gathered pace. The reliance which Japan placed upon quarantine in maintaining its empire explains why it was increasingly out of step with other powers regarding international sanitary precautions. The Japanese maritime quarantine in Busan during this period therefore shows many aspects of Japan’s ‘national empire’.

  1. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    PubMed Central

    Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  2. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    PubMed

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  3. From crop domestication to super-domestication.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, D A; Balázs, E; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2007-11-01

    Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disciplines on the topic of crop domestication. One paper focuses on current themes in the genetics of crop domestication across crops, whereas other papers have a crop or geographic focus. One feature of progress in the sciences related to crop domestication is the availability of well-characterized germplasm resources in the global network of genetic resources centres (genebanks). Germplasm in genebanks is providing research materials for understanding domestication as well as for plant breeding. In this review, we highlight current genetic themes related to crop domestication. Impressive progress in this field in recent years is transforming plant breeding into crop engineering to meet the human need for increased crop yield with the minimum environmental impact - we consider this to be 'super-domestication'. While the time scale of domestication of 10 000 years or less is a very short evolutionary time span, the details emerging of what has happened and what is happening provide a window to see where domestication might - and can - advance in the future.

  4. Lessons learned during Apollo lunar sample quarantine and sample curation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allton, J. H.; Bagby, J. R.; Stabekis, P. D.

    During fast-paced Apollo, three responsibilities often competed: 1) landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely, 2) prevention of back contamination, and 3) sample curation. Coordination of U.S. agency back contamination requirements was done by the Interagency Committee on Back Contamination (ICBC). The most severe constraint to proper implementation of flight requirements was lack of time. Preservation, examination and distribution of samples was overseen by the Lunar Sample Analysis Planning Team (LSAPT) which did not feel the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) was suitable for sample curation and moved the samples to another facility at the conclusion of Apollo 17. The Apollo experience emphasizes the need for 1) early back contamination and sample curation planning, 2) adequate time to implement requirements and 3) high level management responsibility. Building mutual respect for quarantine and sample curation is highly desirable.

  5. President Nixon visits Apollo 11 crew in quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon was in the central Pacific recovery area to welcome the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery ship for the historic Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Already confined to the Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) are (left to right) Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. Apollo 11 splashed down at 11:49 a.m. (CDT), July 24, 1969, about 812 nautical miles southwest of Hawaii and only 12 nautical miles from the U.S.S. Hornet. The three crew men will remain in the MQF until they arrive at the Manned Spacecraft Center's (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL). While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the Moon, astronaut Collins remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) 'Columbia' in lunar-orbit.

  6. Biological quarantine on international waters: an initiative for onboard protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yoshinori; Yano, Hajime; Funase, Ryu; Sekine, Yasuhito; Takai, Ken

    2012-07-01

    The research vessel Chikyu is expanding new frontiers in science, technology, and international collaboration through deep-sea expedition. The Chikyu (length: 210 m, gross tonnage: 56752 tons) has advanced and comprehensive scientific research facilities. One of the scientific purposes of the vessel is to investigate into unexplored biosphere (i.e., undescribed extremophiles) on the Earth. Therefore, "the onboard laboratory" provides us systematic microbiological protocols with a physical containment situation. In parallel, the onboard equipments provide sufficient space for fifty scientists and technical support staff. The helicopter deck also supports various logistics through transporting by a large scale helicopter (See, http://www.jamstec.go.jp/chikyu/eng/). Since the establishment of Panel on Planetary Protection (PPP) in Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), we have an international consensus about the development and promulgation of planetary protection knowledge, policy, and plans to prevent the harmful effects of biological contamination on the Earth (e.g., Rummel, 2002). However, the matter to select a candidate location of initial quarantine at BSL4 level is often problematic. To answer the key issue, we suggest that international waters can be a meaningful option with several advantages to conduct initial onboard-biological quarantine investigation. Hence, the research vessel Chikyu is promising for further PPP requirements (e.g., Enceladus sample return project: Tsou et al., 2012). Rummel, J., Seeking an international consensus in planetary protection: COSPAR's planetary protection panel. Advances in Space Research, 30, 1573-1575 (2002). Tsou, P. et al. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus - A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life. Astrobiology, in press.

  7. Taking Care of Your Behavioral Health: Tips for Social Distancing, Quarantine, and Isolation

    MedlinePlus

    ... FOR SOCIAL DISTANCING, QUARANTINE, AND ISOLATION DURING AN INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAK What Is Social Distancing? Social distancing is ... interacting closely or frequently enough to spread an infectious disease. Schools and other gathering places such as movie ...

  8. Planetary Quarantine Annual Review, Space Technology and Research, July 1971 - July 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The effects of planetary quarantine constraints are assessed for advanced missions and unmanned planetary sample return missions. Considered are natural space environment factors, post launch recontamination effects, spacecraft microbial burden estimation and prediction, and spacecraft cleaning and decontamination techniques.

  9. 7 CFR 301.81-4 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Imported Fire Ant Quarantine and Regulations § 301.81-4 Interstate movement of regulated articles from... inaccessible to the imported fire ant, or in locations that have been treated in accordance with the...

  10. 7 CFR 301.81-4 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Imported Fire Ant Quarantine and Regulations § 301.81-4 Interstate movement of regulated articles from... inaccessible to the imported fire ant, or in locations that have been treated in accordance with part 305...

  11. 7 CFR 301.81-4 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Imported Fire Ant Quarantine and Regulations § 301.81-4 Interstate movement of regulated articles from... inaccessible to the imported fire ant, or in locations that have been treated in accordance with part 305...

  12. 7 CFR 301.81-4 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Imported Fire Ant Quarantine and Regulations § 301.81-4 Interstate movement of regulated articles from... inaccessible to the imported fire ant, or in locations that have been treated in accordance with part 305...

  13. 7 CFR 301.81-4 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Imported Fire Ant Quarantine and Regulations § 301.81-4 Interstate movement of regulated articles from... inaccessible to the imported fire ant, or in locations that have been treated in accordance with part 305...

  14. 7 CFR 301.75-8 - Interstate movement of regulated seed from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-8 Interstate movement of regulated seed from... interstate movement, no plants or plant parts infected with or exposed to citrus canker were found in...

  15. 7 CFR 301.75-8 - Interstate movement of regulated seed from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-8 Interstate movement of regulated seed from... interstate movement, no plants or plant parts infected with or exposed to citrus canker were found in...

  16. 7 CFR 301.75-8 - Interstate movement of regulated seed from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-8 Interstate movement of regulated seed from... interstate movement, no plants or plant parts infected with or exposed to citrus canker were found in...

  17. 7 CFR 301.75-8 - Interstate movement of regulated seed from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-8 Interstate movement of regulated seed from... interstate movement, no plants or plant parts infected with or exposed to citrus canker were found in...

  18. 7 CFR 301.75-8 - Interstate movement of regulated seed from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Citrus Canker Notice of Quarantine and Regulations § 301.75-8 Interstate movement of regulated seed from... interstate movement, no plants or plant parts infected with or exposed to citrus canker were found in...

  19. Airport sentinel surveillance and entry quarantine for dengue infections following a fever screening program in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue has not reached an endemic status in Taiwan; nevertheless, we have implemented a fever screening program at airports for the early detection of febrile passengers with a dengue infection. This study is intended to assess the performance of the airport screening procedures for dengue infection. Methods We analyzed data from the national surveillance system of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. We included the imported dengue cases reported by sentinel airports and clinics as well as the domestic cases from 2007–2010. Results Approximately 44.9% (95%CI: 35.73-54.13%) of the confirmed imported dengue cases with an apparent symptom (febrile) in the viremic stage were detected via the airport fever screening program, with an estimated positive predictive value of 2.36% (95% CI: 0.96- 3.75%) and a negative predictive value > 99.99%. Fluctuations in the number of the symptomatic imported dengue cases identified in the airports (X) were associated with the total number of imported dengue cases (Y) based on a regression analysis of a biweekly surveillance (i.e., n = 104, R2X:Y = 0.61, P < 0.005). Additionally, the fluctuating patterns in the cumulative numbers of the imported dengue cases (X) with a 1–2 month lead time (t) was in parallel with that of the domestic dengue cases (Y) based on a consecutive 4-year surveillance (i.e., n = 48, R2X(t-1):Y = 0.22, R2X(t-2):Y = 0.31, P < 0.001) from 2007–2010. Conclusions A moderate sensitivity of detecting dengue at the airports examined in this study indicated some limitations of the fever screening program for the prevention of importation. The screening program could assist in the rapid triage for self-quarantine of some symptomatic dengue cases that were in the viremic stage at the borders and contribute to active sentinel surveillance; however, the blocking of viral transmission to susceptible populations (neighbors or family) from all of the viremic travelers

  20. A novel approach for examining future US domestic water demand

    EPA Science Inventory

    Costs of repairing and expanding aging infrastructure and competing demands for water from other sectors such as industry and agriculture are stretching policy makers’ abilities to meet essential domestic drinking water needs for future generations. Using Bayesian statistic...