Science.gov

Sample records for agriculture faces world-wide

  1. World-Wide Information Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, Kjell A. H. W.

    The future paths of research and development towards world-wide, automated information networks in full operation are examined. From international networked planning and projects under way it appears that exploratory as well as normative approaches have been taken. To some extent adequate technolgical facilities have already come into existence…

  2. World Wide Web Homepage Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Michael L.

    This paper examines hypermedia design and draws conclusions about how educational research and theory applies to various aspects of World Wide Web (WWW) homepage design. "Hypermedia" is defined as any collection of information which may be textual, graphical, visual, or auditory in nature and which may be accessed via a nonlinear route.…

  3. WorldWide Telescope Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharff, E. B.; Beyer, R. A.; Broxton, M.; Lundy, M.; Fay, J.; Turcan, P.; Fay, D.; Messeri, L.

    2011-03-01

    The NASA/Microsoft WorldWide Telescope (WWT) Mars collaboration produces large mosaics of planetary imagery that can be easily displayed and navigated, making it easier for scientists and engineers to publish and access planetary geospatial data via the Internet.

  4. [Agricultural migration has changed face].

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, D

    1991-04-01

    Movements related to colonization of new lands for cultivation or pasturing have constituted the dominant form of migration in the Sahel countries since the colonial period. the relative importance of such movements declined with the development of labor migration, but geographic mobility continues to be an integral part of Sahel life. A principal strategy during crises of agricultural production was the vast movement of population toward new lands, but such movements had little macroeconomic or macrosocial importance given the low population density and technical development of the time; the family subsistence enterprise was merely displaced. The artificial division into separate countries in the colonial era brought some control of migratory movements, and especially those across international borders, but such migrations increased again after independence and especially during the prolonged drought. Rural migration has been encouraged by development of transportation and communication facilities and by progress in controlling endemic diseases such as river blindness and sleeping sickness. Contemporary migration differs fundamentally from agricultural migration of the past. Migration has become, in addition to a survival strategy, a strategy of economic and social advancement. The change of residence is often accompanied by a restructuring of economic activities and substantial increases in the household's resources. Migrants attempt to produce enough for their own consumption, with some left for sale. They may also take on secondary employment, especially in the dry season: sale of firewood, petty trading, artisanal production. Spontaneous population movements seem to benefit the migrants, improving family and national agricultural production and contributing to a better distribution of rural population, but they have a high social and ecological cost and should receive more attention from planners and researchers in the context of the current campaign against

  5. Introduction to the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Downes, P K

    2007-05-12

    The World Wide Web used to be nicknamed the 'World Wide Wait'. Now, thanks to high speed broadband connections, browsing the web has become a much more enjoyable and productive activity. Computers need to know where web pages are stored on the Internet, in just the same way as we need to know where someone lives in order to post them a letter. This section explains how the World Wide Web works and how web pages can be viewed using a web browser.

  6. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  7. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  8. Computerized Adaptive Testing through the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Mzumara, Howard; Brown, Mike; Lillig, Clo

    An important problem facing institutions of higher education is the number of students reporting that they are not adequately prepared for the difficulty of college-level courses. To meet this problem, a computerized adaptive testing package was developed that permitted remote placement testing of high school students via the World Wide Web. The…

  9. Reference Materials on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents information about World Wide Web resources for English language teachers and students and for communication scholars and researchers. The first Web page, "Reference Materials for Students and Researchers," offers links to resources in English. Because there are many Web sites related to dictionaries, a second page,…

  10. World Wide Web Server Standards and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Keith M.

    This document defines the specific standards and general guidelines which the U.S. Department of Education (ED) will use to make information available on the World Wide Web (WWW). The purpose of providing such guidance is to ensure high quality and consistent content, organization, and presentation of information on ED WWW servers, in order to…

  11. Technical Services and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheschy, Virginia M.

    The World Wide Web and browsers such as Netscape and Mosaic have simplified access to electronic resources. Today, technical services librarians can share in the wealth of information available on the Web. One of the premier Web sites for acquisitions librarians is AcqWeb, a cousin of the AcqNet listserv. In addition to interesting news items,…

  12. Making a World-Wide Web Page.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    1995-01-01

    Describes how to make a home page for the World Wide Web using HTML (HyperText Markup Language) and a browser. Punctuation and tags are explained; an online address for useful information on Web browsers, HTML editors, graphics, and other help is given; and addresses for various Internet sites are included. (LRW)

  13. WorldWide Web: Hypertext from CERN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…

  14. Internet, World Wide Web, and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siau, Keng

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the services available on the Internet for creativity and discusses their applicability to electronic brainstorming. Services include bulletin boards, electronic mail and listservs, chat groups, file transfers, and remote login. Opportunities provided by the World Wide Web are discussed, along with tools available to…

  15. News Resources on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1996-01-01

    Describes up-to-date news sources that are presently available on the Internet and World Wide Web. Highlights include electronic newspapers; AP (Associated Press) sources and Reuters; sports news; stock market information; New York Times; multimedia capabilities, including CNN Interactive; and local and regional news. (LRW)

  16. Re-Framing the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, August

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation studies and describes how technical standards, protocols, and application programming interfaces (APIs) shape the aesthetic, functional, and affective nature of our most dominant mode of online communication, the World Wide Web (WWW). I examine the politically charged and contentious battle over browser…

  17. Pedagogical Challenges for the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetherston, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Presents some of the perceived pedagogical challenges posed by use of the World Wide Web. Proposes that the debate surrounding use of the Web in university teaching should center on learning and not technical issues. Learning issues and challenges discussed in this article include learning approaches, using the technical features of the Web to…

  18. Re-Framing the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, August

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation studies and describes how technical standards, protocols, and application programming interfaces (APIs) shape the aesthetic, functional, and affective nature of our most dominant mode of online communication, the World Wide Web (WWW). I examine the politically charged and contentious battle over browser…

  19. The World Wide Web: Alice Meets Cyberspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koos, Marybeth; Smith-Shank, Deborah L.

    1996-01-01

    Uses excerpts from "Alice In Wonderland" as introductions to a tour of the uses of the World Wide Web in art education. Discusses such issues as access, copyrights, costs, and benefits. Includes an index of terms, list of related Websites, and suggested teaching activities. (MJP)

  20. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  1. News Resources on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1996-01-01

    Describes up-to-date news sources that are presently available on the Internet and World Wide Web. Highlights include electronic newspapers; AP (Associated Press) sources and Reuters; sports news; stock market information; New York Times; multimedia capabilities, including CNN Interactive; and local and regional news. (LRW)

  2. The Amazing New World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reidelbach, Dorothy

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of the Internet and World Wide Web are chronicled briefly, and the challenges and opportunities they offer for college campus planning are discussed. Three issues are discussed: how institutions can use these resources to further their aims of instruction, research, recruitment, public information, and financial strength; assurance…

  3. Integrating WorldWide Telescope with Wordpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Mark; Luebbert, J.; Fay, J.; Gay, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    In this project we unite three major components of astronomy and new media: World Wide Telescope, Wordpress, and user supplied audio. Through an easy to use Wordpress plug-in users can create WorldWide Telescope sky tours that allow: a) astronomers and educators to spread the facts and awareness of astronomy, potentially bringing new and interested individuals into the astronomy community; b) bloggers/podcasters to create dynamic, virtual tours of the universe that are nearly boundless; and, c) readers to benefit from the alluring WorldWide Telescope tours by gaining a new and dramatic outlook on our universe. This software has the potential to augment, and in some cases replace, traditional methods of astronomy centered online lectures. With this plugin, it is possible to combine Wordpress-based website content with audio, and a sky tour that can be paused at any object. This ability to pause a sky tour allows the user to further explore the wealth of data provided within WWT. This fully customizable solution includes all of the necessary features required to reproduce a lecture in a more creative and appealing format then some of the standard, typically non-interactive, movies and podcasts currently found online. Through the creation of effective WorldWide Telescope tours, astronomers and educators can better extend astronomy content to astronomy-interested, but not yet engaged, members of the new media community. These tours will provide a better understanding and appreciation for what our universe has to offer. Through this new media approach of integrating WorldWide Telescope with blogs and podcasts, users can now extend their interest in astronomy by exploring the universe themselves, moving beyond provided content to gain a better understanding all on their own.

  4. Thematic World Wide Web Visualization System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-10

    WebTheme is a system designed to facilitate world wide web information access and retrieval through visualization. It consists of two principal pieces, a WebTheme Server which allows users to enter in a query and automatocally harvest and process information of interest, and a WebTheme browser, which allows users to work with both Galaxies and Themescape visualizations of their data within a JAVA capable world wide web browser. WebTheme is an Internet solution, meaning that access to the server and the resulting visualizations can all be performed through the use of a WWW browser. This allows users to access and interact with SPIRE (Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration) based visualizations through a web browser regardless of what computer platforms they are running on. WebTheme is specifically designed to create databases by harvesting and processing WWW home pages available on the Internet.

  5. World-wide fallout from nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This video explains what is known and what is not known by today's science about the long term consequences of world-wide fallout. In the interest of accuracy, this report is confined to the fallout on which a substantial amount of information is now available. Much has been written and said about this subject both officially and unofficially. The purpose of this film is to correct any factually unsupported statements which have been and continue to be issued from time to time.

  6. Precision Agriculture: Changing the Face of Farming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D.; Luvall, J.; Mask, P.; Shaw, J.; Kissel, D.; Sullivan, D.

    2003-01-01

    To a large extent our work has grown out of the remote sensing technology and conceptual framework developed by geologists. For example the drive to look at the physics of reflectance and atmospheric corrections is rooted in work done in the early 1980s by the United States Geological Survey and NASA. Our work on emissivity and thermal behavior of plants pulls on research done using the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner, an instrument originally conceived for geologic applications. Even our ability to geometrically map the airborne imagery onto the globe was explicitly developed because of need to map sediment flow patterns in along the coast of Louisiana. Growing from this base we have learned much in the last few years and believe our integration of geologic remote sensing with the other fields of expertise was a wise investment. Clearly none of the specialties alone could develop, let alone test, the basic approach we are now finding so powerful. This is the path that will ultimately give the information needed by the farmer. We also recognize how small a portion of the total problem has been solved. Having developed the basic logic, built proto-type tools and performed initial tests everything else remains to be done. And problems, scientific and practical, are everywhere. We have not established sensitivities. We have not robustly segregated the contributions of crop residue, soil moisture, shadows, plant and soil to the energy leaving the surface. What we do is extremely expensive and difficult. It is experimental in methodology and uses research oriented tools. We are constantly alive to the practicality of moving our results into commercial applications. We know another airborne instrument will have to be available. Atmospheric parameters will have to be measured automatically. The software will have to be re-written for speed. At times the list of problems seems endless. But the potential is also enormous. Agriculture is a huge portion of our economy

  7. Precision Agriculture: Changing the Face of Farming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D.; Luvall, J.; Mask, P.; Shaw, J.; Kissel, D.; Sullivan, D.

    2003-01-01

    To a large extent our work has grown out of the remote sensing technology and conceptual framework developed by geologists. For example the drive to look at the physics of reflectance and atmospheric corrections is rooted in work done in the early 1980s by the United States Geological Survey and NASA. Our work on emissivity and thermal behavior of plants pulls on research done using the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner, an instrument originally conceived for geologic applications. Even our ability to geometrically map the airborne imagery onto the globe was explicitly developed because of need to map sediment flow patterns in along the coast of Louisiana. Growing from this base we have learned much in the last few years and believe our integration of geologic remote sensing with the other fields of expertise was a wise investment. Clearly none of the specialties alone could develop, let alone test, the basic approach we are now finding so powerful. This is the path that will ultimately give the information needed by the farmer. We also recognize how small a portion of the total problem has been solved. Having developed the basic logic, built proto-type tools and performed initial tests everything else remains to be done. And problems, scientific and practical, are everywhere. We have not established sensitivities. We have not robustly segregated the contributions of crop residue, soil moisture, shadows, plant and soil to the energy leaving the surface. What we do is extremely expensive and difficult. It is experimental in methodology and uses research oriented tools. We are constantly alive to the practicality of moving our results into commercial applications. We know another airborne instrument will have to be available. Atmospheric parameters will have to be measured automatically. The software will have to be re-written for speed. At times the list of problems seems endless. But the potential is also enormous. Agriculture is a huge portion of our economy

  8. Grade Performance of Face-to-Face versus Online Agricultural Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenway, Gina A.; Makus, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    Online course offerings have been growing at a rapid pace in post-secondary education. An ordered probit model is estimated to analyze the effects of online vs. face-to-face course format in achieving specific letter grades. An upper-division agricultural economics course taught over 9 years using both formats is used for the analysis. For a…

  9. Cyber agent on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. C.; Dagli, Cihan H.

    1996-03-01

    The World Wide Web has brought the information from a distributed environment into a global information universe. As users keep on surfing the Web and adding their bookmarks, it is increasingly difficult for them to find their desired information even though there are many search tools available. In this paper, a smart engineering system called Cyber Agent is proposed to help users search and organize the information. It contains two major subsystems, namely, WebTracer and WebOrganizer. They adapt their behavior dynamically according to the environment and the special preferences of each individual. WebTracer is the wavefront of the Cyber Agent while WebOrganizer is the brain of the Cyber Agent.

  10. World-wide aeronautical satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Peter; Smith, Keith

    1988-01-01

    INMARSAT decided to expand the spectrum covered by its new generation of satellites, INMARSAT-2, to include 1 MHz (subsequently increased to 3 MHz) of the spectrum designed for aeronautical use. It began a design study that led to the specifications for the system that is now being implemented. Subsequently, INMARSAT awarded contracts for the design of avionics and high gain antennas to a number of manufactures, while several of the signatories that provide ground equipment for communicating with the INMARSAT satellites are modifying their earth stations to work with the avionic equipment. As a resullt of these activities, a world-wide aeronautical satellite system supporting both voice and data will become operational in 1989.

  11. World-wide projections for hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Gullberg, B; Johnell, O; Kanis, J A

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the present and future incidence of hip fracture world-wide. From a survey of available data on current incidence, population trends and the secular changes in hip fracture risk, the numbers of hip fractures expected in 2025 and 2050 were computed. The total number of hip fractures in men and women in 1990 was estimated to be 338,000 and 917,000 respectively, a total of 1.26 million. Assuming no change in the age- and sex-specific incidence, the number of hip fractures is estimated to approximately double to 2.6 million by the year 2025, and 4.5 million by the year 2050. The percentage increase will be greater in men (310%) than in women (240%). With modest assumptions concerning secular trends, the number of hip fractures could range between 7.3 and 21.3 million by 2050. The major demographic changes will occur in Asia. In 1990, 26% of all hip fractures occurred in Asia, whereas this figure could rise to 37% in 2025 and to 45% in 2050. We conclude that the socioeconomic impact of hip fractures will increase markedly throughout the world, particularly in Asia, and that there is an urgent need to develop preventive strategies, particularly in the developing countries.

  12. Geomorphology and the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, John F.; Bishop, Michael P.; Olsenholler, Jeffrey; Craiger, J. Philip

    2002-10-01

    The Internet and the World Wide Web have brought many dimensions of new technology to education and research in geomorphology. As with other disciplines on the Web, Web-based geomorphology has become an eclectic mix of whatever material an individual deems worthy of presentation, and in many cases is without quality control. Nevertheless, new electronic media can facilitate education and research in geomorphology. For example, virtual field trips can be developed and accessed to reinforce concepts in class. Techniques for evaluating Internet references helps students to write traditional term papers, but professional presentations can also involve student papers that are published on the Web. Faculty can also address plagiarism issues by using search engines. Because of the lack of peer review of much of the content on the Web, care must be exercised in using it for reference searches. Today, however, refereed journals are going online and can be accessed through subscription or payment per article viewed. Library reference desks regularly use the Web for searches of refereed articles. Research on the Web ranges from communication between investigators, data acquisition, scientific visualization, or comprehensive searches of refereed sources, to interactive analyses of remote data sets. The Nanga Parbat and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) Projects are two examples of geomorphologic research that are achieving full potential through use of the Web. Teaching and research in geomorphology are undergoing a beneficial, but sometimes problematic, transition with the new technology. The learning curve is steep for some users but the view from the top is bright. Geomorphology can only prosper from the benefits offered by computer technologies.

  13. Developing Basic Space Science World-Wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamsteker, W.; Albrecht, Rudolf; Haubold, Hans J.

    2004-03-01

    When the first United Nations/European Space Agency Workshop for Basic Space Science was planned to be held in Bangalore, India (1991) on the invitation of ISRO, few of those involved could expect that a unique forum was going to be created for scientific dialogue between scientists from developing and industrialized nations. As the format of the first workshop was on purpose left free with time for presentations, working sessions, and plenary discussions, the workshop was left to find its own dynamics. After a decade of UN/ESA Workshops, this book brings together the historical activities, the plans which have been developed over the past decade in the different nations, and the results which have materialized during this time in different developing nations. It aims to achieve for development agencies to be assisted in ways to find more effective tools for the application of development aid. The last section of the book contains a guide for teachers to introduce astrophysics into university physics courses. This will be of use to teachers in many nations. Everything described in this book is the result of a truly collective effort from all involved in all UN/ESA workshops. The mutual support from the participants has helped significantly to implement some of the accomplishments described in the book. Rather than organizing this book in a subject driven way, it is essentially organized according to the common economic regions of the world, as defined by the United Nations (Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Western Asia). This allows better recognition of the importance of a regional (and at times) global approach to basic space science for the developing nation's world wide. It highlights very specific scientific investigations which have been completed successfully in the various developing nations. The book supplements the published ten volumes of workshop proceedings containing scientific papers presented in the workshops

  14. Information Architecture for the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Louis; Morville, Peter

    This book provides effective approaches for designers, information architects, and web site managers who are faced with sites that are becoming difficult to use and maintain. The book is divided into 10 sections. Chapter 1: "What Makes a Web Site Work" considers site users needs when designing the architecture; Chapter 2:…

  15. Learning To Use the World Wide Web. Academic Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Ernest

    This book emphasizes how to use Netscape Navigator to access the World Wide Web and associated resources and services in a step-by-step, organized manner. Chapters include -- Chapter 1: Introduction to the World Wide Web and the Internet; Chapter 2: Using a Web Browser; Chapter 3: The Basics of Electronic Mail and Using Netscape Email; Chapter 4:…

  16. A Semiotic Analysis of Icons on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Yan

    The World Wide Web allows users to interact with a graphic interface to search information in a hypermedia and multimedia environment. Graphics serve as reference points on the World Wide Web for searching and retrieving information. This study analyzed the culturally constructed syntax patterns, or codes, embedded in the icons of library…

  17. Learning To Use the World Wide Web. Academic Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Ernest

    This book emphasizes how to use Netscape Navigator to access the World Wide Web and associated resources and services in a step-by-step, organized manner. Chapters include -- Chapter 1: Introduction to the World Wide Web and the Internet; Chapter 2: Using a Web Browser; Chapter 3: The Basics of Electronic Mail and Using Netscape Email; Chapter 4:…

  18. Use of World Wide Web and NCSA Mcsaic at Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael

    1994-01-01

    A brief history of the use of the World Wide Web at Langley Research Center is presented along with architecture of the Langley Web. Benefits derived from the Web and some Langley projects that have employed the World Wide Web are discussed.

  19. Using World Wide Web Software for Reference and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Michael O.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the use of the World Wide Web by academic libraries for reference and instruction. Widespread availability of software for browsing, creating, editing, and mounting World Wide Web pages necessitates discussion on the development of a library Web site; Hyper Text Markup Language; software evaluation; suggestions for writing Web pages; and…

  20. Teaching Tools: American Literature and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Mae Miller; Cooper, C. Camille

    2000-01-01

    Discusses 13 resources available to teachers of American literature on the World Wide Web including general resources, Internet sites related to electronic literature, and websites whose focus is American literature and culture. Discusses using and troubleshooting the World Wide Web in the classroom. Offers tips on how to evaluate web sources and…

  1. Wildfire contribution to world-wide desertification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, D.; Wittenberg, L.; Bautista, S.; Ffolliott, P.

    2009-04-01

    a three-year period (2003 - 2005). In 2005, 338,262 ha of forest land burned. This was a 77% increase over the 10-year burn average of 189,500 ha. Desertification is about the loss of the land's proper hydrologic function, biological productivity, and other ecosystem services as a result of human activities and climate change. It affects one third of the earth's surface and over a billion people. In the past, desertification was considered a problem of only arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas. However, humid zones can undergo desertification with the wrong combination of human impacts. The Amazon region is an example of where forest harvesting, shifting cut and burn agriculture, and large-scale grazing are producing desertification of a tropical rain forest on a large scale. Some of the environmental consequences of wildfires are vegetation destruction, plant species and type shifts, exotic plant invasions, wildlife habitat destruction, soil erosion, floods, watershed function decline, water supply disruption, and air pollution. All of these are immediate impacts. Some impacts will persist beyond the careers and lifetimes of individuals. Small, isolated areas do not produce noticeable desertification. But, the cumulative effect of multiple, large area, and adjacent fires can be landscape-level desertification. This paper examines wildfire contributions to desertification in regions of the world that are prone to wildfire and climate change.

  2. Challenges facing European agriculture and possible biotechnological solutions.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, Agnès; Harwood, Wendy; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Sági, László; Hundleby, Penelope; Badea, Elena Marcela; Rosca, Ioan; Cruz, Gabriela; Salema Fevereiro, Manuel Pedro; Marfà Riera, Victoria; Jansson, Stefan; Morandini, Piero; Bojinov, Bojin; Cetiner, Selim; Custers, René; Schrader, Uwe; Jacobsen, Hans-Joerg; Martin-Laffon, Jacqueline; Boisron, Audrey; Kuntz, Marcel

    2016-10-01

    Agriculture faces many challenges to maximize yields while it is required to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner. In the present study, we analyze the major agricultural challenges identified by European farmers (primarily related to biotic stresses) in 13 countries, namely Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, UK and Turkey, for nine major crops (barley, beet, grapevine, maize, oilseed rape, olive, potato, sunflower and wheat). Most biotic stresses (BSs) are related to fungi or insects, but viral diseases, bacterial diseases and even parasitic plants have an important impact on yield and harvest quality. We examine how these challenges have been addressed by public and private research sectors, using either conventional breeding, marker-assisted selection, transgenesis, cisgenesis, RNAi technology or mutagenesis. Both national surveys and scientific literature analysis followed by text mining were employed to evaluate genetic engineering (GE) and non-GE approaches. This is the first report of text mining of the scientific literature on plant breeding and agricultural biotechnology research. For the nine major crops in Europe, 128 BS challenges were identified with 40% of these addressed neither in the scientific literature nor in recent European public research programs. We found evidence that the private sector was addressing only a few of these "neglected" challenges. Consequently, there are considerable gaps between farmer's needs and current breeding and biotechnology research. We also provide evidence that the current political situation in certain European countries is an impediment to GE research in order to address these agricultural challenges in the future. This study should also contribute to the decision-making process on future pertinent international consortia to fill the identified research gaps.

  3. [Comparison of commercialization of transgenic crops in China and world-wide].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xujing; Jia, Shirong

    2008-04-01

    Currently, transgenic crops create huge economic, social and ecological benefits with the development of its commercial production. For China, the speed of development and commercialization of transgenic crops is a strategic issue for the sustainable agriculture development and the international competitiveness of our agricultural products. In this paper, we compared and analyzed the status of commercialization of transgenic crops in China and world-wide.

  4. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS Internet World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS Internet World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartog-raphy. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  8. Improvements in Empirical Modelling of the World-Wide Ionosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-31

    OF THE WORLD -’WIDE IONOSPHIERE.I Prof. Kurt Suchy Inst. f. Theor. Physik 11...ELEMENT NO. NO. NO ACCESSION NO 62101F 4643 08 11. TITLE (Andude Secu ty Clauiflcation) IMPROVEMENTS IN EMPIRICAL MODELLING OF THE WORLD -WIDE IONOSPHERE 1...THE FIGURES 53 - 57 𔃻 ’ " " i " I ’ Q !NMI- P ’ I IMPROVE MENTS IN EMPIRICAL MODELLING OF THE WORLD -WIDE IONOSPHERE 1. INTRODUCTION Numerical Models

  9. An Assessment of Problems Faced by High School Agricultural Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Harry N., Jr.; Boone, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Leaders in the agricultural education profession established a goal to expand the number of programs offering high school agriculture education over the next 10 years. If the agricultural education profession is going to meet this challenge, it will need to increase its supply of qualified teachers. Currently agricultural education faces a…

  10. Resources for medical mycology on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Karoll J; Groll, Andreas H; Walsh, Thomas J

    2005-02-01

    Searching the World Wide Web for information on medical mycology can be challenging. We provide the reader with an organized overview of the available resources on the Internet, including authoritative sites from academic institutions, professional societies, government agencies, and personal sites. This article reviews clinically relevant Internet resource directories, comprehensive sites of interest to clinicians, clinical trials in medical mycology, clinically relevant Web sites devoted to specific fungal pathogens and their infections, genomic resources in medical mycology, culture collections, images of fungi on the World Wide Web, medical mycology lecture and teaching materials, environmental health and safety information, and a listing of Web sites of medical mycology professional societies.

  11. Health status assessment via the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Bell, D S; Kahn, C E

    1996-01-01

    We explored the use of the World Wide Web to collect health status information for medical outcomes research. The RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0 (RAND-36), which contains the 36 multiple-choice questions of the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36 "Short Form" and differs only in its simplified scoring scheme, was made available for anonymous use on the Internet. Participation in the survey was invited through health-related Internet news groups and mailing lists. Participants entered data and received, their scores using the World Wide Web protocol. Entries were recorded from 15 June 1995 to 14 June 1996 (1 year). The survey was completed anonymously by 4876 individuals with access to the World Wide Web. Two-thirds completed the survey within 5 minutes, and 97% did so within 10 minutes. The item-completion rate was 99.28%. Values of Cronbach's alpha of 0.76 to 0.90 for the scoring scales matched the high reliability found in the Medical Outcomes Study. The World Wide Web provides a method of rapidly measuring individual health status and may play an important role in advancing health services research and outcomes-based patient care.

  12. WorldWideScience.org: the global science gateway.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2009-10-01

    WorldWideScience.org is a Web-based global gateway connecting users to both national and international scientific databases and portals. This column will provide background information on the resource as well as introduce basic searching practices for users.

  13. Transactional Distance in World Wide Web Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yau-Jane

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study conducted at four Taiwan universities that measured the impact of variables on learners' perceived transactional distance in a World Wide Web learning environment. Examines learners' skill level with the Internet, previous experience in taking distance education courses, extent of interaction, and types of learner support.…

  14. Introduction to the World Wide Web and Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, Jim

    1994-01-01

    This tutorial provides an introduction to some of the terminology related to the use of the World Wide Web and Mosaic. It is assumed that the user has some prior computer experience. References are included to other sources of additional information.

  15. Building Dialogic Relationships through the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Michael L.; Taylor, Maureen

    1998-01-01

    Provides a theory-based, strategic framework to facilitate relationship-building with publics through the World Wide Web. Contends that strategic communication on the Web can benefit from a consideration of dialogic communication. Offers dialogic communication as a theoretical framework to guide relationship-building between organizations and…

  16. The Impact on Education of the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, D. J.; Taylor, R. J.

    This paper describes a project which created a set of World Wide Web (WWW) pages documenting the state of the art in educational multimedia design; a prototype WWW-based multimedia teaching tool--a podiatry test using HTML forms, 24-bit color images and MPEG video--was also designed, developed, and evaluated. The project was conducted between…

  17. Undergraduate Data Mining on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scime, Anthony

    Currently available World Wide Web search engines determine a site's qualification as a response to a search request by matching keywords in the request to keywords representing the site. The returned sites are given a score and ranked according to the match on keywords. Many of these retrieved sites can be irrelevant to the user's true…

  18. The Virtual City: Putting Charleston on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Charleston Multimedia Project, a World Wide Web guide to the history, architecture, and culture of Charleston, South Carolina, which includes a timeline and virtual tours. Incorporates materials issued by many agencies that were previously held in vertical files. The Charleston County Library's role and future plans are also…

  19. World Wide Web Pages--Tools for Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Sarah; Kent, Jean

    Created to help educators incorporate World Wide Web pages into teaching and learning, this collection of Web pages presents resources, materials, and techniques for using the Web. The first page focuses on tools for teaching and learning via the Web, providing pointers to sites containing the following: (1) course materials for both distance and…

  20. Time Series Data Visualization in World Wide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, J.

    WorldWide Telescope provides a rich set of timer series visualization for both archival and real time data. WWT consists of both interactive desktop tools for interactive immersive visualization and HTML5 web based controls that can be utilized in customized web pages. WWT supports a range of display options including full dome, power walls, stereo and virtual reality headsets.

  1. Helping Students Weave Their Way through the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Catherine B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses six strategies to help both students and teachers learn to make wise use of information on the World Wide Web: teaching the value of key word skills; using online sources available in the media center; creating pathfinders; teaching students sound searching skills that include Boolean logic; directing students to the best search engines;…

  2. Contemporary Approaches to Critical Thinking and the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffington, Melanie L.

    2007-01-01

    Teaching critical thinking skills is often endorsed as a means to help students develop their abilities to navigate the complex world in which people live and, in addition, as a way to help students succeed in school. Over the past few years, this author explored the idea of teaching critical thinking using the World Wide Web (WWW). She began…

  3. Using the World Wide Web To Improve Medication Calculation Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillman, Gloria A.; Alison, Justine; Croker, Felicity

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development of a computer-assisted learning package at James Cook University (Australia) that uses the World Wide Web to provide accessible practice in medication calculations for undergraduate nursing students and inservice education for nurses in isolated areas. Highlights include design features, constraints, cost effectiveness,…

  4. The Virtual City: Putting Charleston on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Charleston Multimedia Project, a World Wide Web guide to the history, architecture, and culture of Charleston, South Carolina, which includes a timeline and virtual tours. Incorporates materials issued by many agencies that were previously held in vertical files. The Charleston County Library's role and future plans are also…

  5. Visual Design Principles Applied To World Wide Web Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luck, Donald D.; Hunter, J. Mark

    This paper describes basic types of World Wide Web pages and presents design criteria for page layout based on principles of visual literacy. Discussion focuses on pages that present information in the following styles: billboard; directory/index; textual; and graphics. Problems and solutions in Web page construction are explored according to…

  6. Strategies for Content Migration on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, M. P.; Phippen, A. D.; Mueller, G.; Furnell, S. M.; Sanders, P. W.; Reynolds, P. L.

    1999-01-01

    Tracks the development of the World Wide Web as a distributed platform; states three main standards that define the platform: Uniform Resource Locator (URL), HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and HyperText Markup Language (HTML). Highlights the potential to employ content migration. Argues that content on the Web should be free to migrate…

  7. Some Guidelines for Creating World Wide Web Home Page Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Brakel, Pieter A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Provides guidelines for home page design, and suggests that the physical appearance of a home page is similar to that of a good graphical user interface. In designing a complete home page file, the premise is that basic hypertext design principles could also be applied in the World Wide Web environment. (Author/JKP)

  8. Assessing the Motivational Quality of World Wide Websites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Ruth V.

    As the number of World Wide Web sites continues to grow at an explosive rate, the need for design guidelines also increases. Although there are a number of resources that provide guidance on structure and content, few address the motivational aspects of Web sites. The Website Motivational Analysis Checklist (WebMAC) was developed to help diagnose…

  9. Surfing the World Wide Web to Education Hot-Spots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Odvard Egil

    1995-01-01

    Provides a brief explanation of Web browsers and their use, as well as technical information for those considering access to the WWW (World Wide Web). Curriculum resources and addresses to useful Web sites are included. Sidebars show sample searches using Yahoo and Lycos search engines, and a list of recommended Web resources. (JKP)

  10. Market Research: The World Wide Web Meets the Online Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bing, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    The World Wide Web can provide direct market research data inexpensively or can target the appropriate professional online database and narrow the search. This article discusses the Web presence of research and investment firms, financial pages, trade associations, and electronic publications containing market research data. It lists Uniform…

  11. World-Wide Web: Adding Multimedia to Cyberspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the World-Wide Web (WWW), a network information resource based on hypertext. How to access WWW browsers through remote login (telnet) or though free browser software, such as Mosaic, is provided. Eight information sources that can be accessed through the WWW are listed. The address of a listserv reporting on Internet developments is…

  12. Radar Images of the Earth and the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A perspective of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a center of planetary exploration, and its involvement in studying the earth from space is given. Remote sensing, radar maps, land topography, snow cover properties, vegetation type, biomass content, moisture levels, and ocean data are items discussed related to earth orbiting satellite imaging radar. World Wide Web viewing of this content is discussed.

  13. Chemical Structure Search on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inlenfeldt, Wolf-D.

    Chemists have been very active in utilizing the World Wide Web as an information distribution medium and much interesting scientific chemical information is already offered on it. Various classical text-based search engines have made locating information on the Web easier. However, keyword-based searches are often insufficient for chemists…

  14. Perspectives for Electronic Books in the World Wide Web Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bry, Francois; Kraus, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of the World Wide Web and the lack of use of electronic books and suggests that specialized contents and device independence can make Web-based books compete with print. Topics include enhancing the hypertext model of XML; client-side adaptation, including browsers and navigation; and semantic modeling. (Author/LRW)

  15. Helping Students Weave Their Way through the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Catherine B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses six strategies to help both students and teachers learn to make wise use of information on the World Wide Web: teaching the value of key word skills; using online sources available in the media center; creating pathfinders; teaching students sound searching skills that include Boolean logic; directing students to the best search engines;…

  16. Radar Images of the Earth and the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A perspective of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a center of planetary exploration, and its involvement in studying the earth from space is given. Remote sensing, radar maps, land topography, snow cover properties, vegetation type, biomass content, moisture levels, and ocean data are items discussed related to earth orbiting satellite imaging radar. World Wide Web viewing of this content is discussed.

  17. The Relationship of the World Wide Web to Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Amy C.; Bishop, Jeanne L.; Gens, Linda S.; Miller, Sharla L.; Rogers, Martha A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses use of the World Wide Web in education and its possibilities for developing higher order critical thinking skills to successfully deal with the demands of the future information society. Suggests that teachers need to provide learning environments that are learner-centered, authentic, problem-based, and collaborative. (Contains 61…

  18. Perspectives for Electronic Books in the World Wide Web Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bry, Francois; Kraus, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of the World Wide Web and the lack of use of electronic books and suggests that specialized contents and device independence can make Web-based books compete with print. Topics include enhancing the hypertext model of XML; client-side adaptation, including browsers and navigation; and semantic modeling. (Author/LRW)

  19. White Supremacists, Oppositional Culture and the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Josh; Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2005-01-01

    Over the previous decade, white supremacist organizations have tapped into the ever emerging possibilities offered by the World Wide Web. Drawing from prior sociological work that has examined this medium and its uses by white supremacist organizations, this article advances the understanding of recruitment, identity and action by providing a…

  20. Service Learning and Building Community with the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longan, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    The geography education literature touts the World Wide Web (Web) as a revolutionary educational tool, yet most accounts ignore its uses for public communication and creative expression. This article argues that students can be producers of content that is of service to local audiences. Drawing inspiration from the community networking movement,…

  1. Using the World Wide Web To Teach Francophone Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Deborah Berg; Van Ells, Paula Hartwig

    2002-01-01

    Examined use of the World Wide Web to teach Francophone culture. Suggests that bolstering reading comprehension in the foreign language and increased proficiency in navigating the Web are potential secondary benefits gained from the cultural Web-based activities proposed in the study.(Author/VWL)

  2. Robot-Generated Databases on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Stacey

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of robots that retrieve World Wide Web documents and index data and then store it in a database. Nine robot-generated databases are described, including record content, services, search features, and sample search results; and sidebars discuss the controversy about Web robots and other resource discovery tools. (LRW)

  3. Baby Steps: Starting Out on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Carol; McElmeel, Sharron L.

    1997-01-01

    While the Internet is the physical medium used to transport data, the World Wide Web is the collection of protocols and standards used to access the information. This article provides a basic explanation of what the Web is and describes common browser commands. Discusses graphic Web browsers; universal resource locators (URLs); file, message,…

  4. Judicial History on the World Wide Web: An Annotated Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baich, Laura; Loving, Jessica

    1998-01-01

    Describes 21 World Wide Web sites devoted to various aspects of judicial history. Includes for each entry the site name, address (Uniform Resource Locator), and brief description of site contents. Focuses primarily on United States judicial history but also includes some resources for Anglo-Irish legal history and world legal history. (DSK)

  5. World Wide Web Page Design: A Structured Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Gwen; Brown, M. Marlo

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to develop a World Wide Web site based on structured programming concepts. Highlights include flowcharting, first page design, evaluation, page titles, documenting source code, text, graphics, and browsers. Includes a template for HTML writers, tips for using graphics, a sample homepage, guidelines for authoring structured HTML, and…

  6. Using the World Wide Web To accommodate Diverse Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jonathan L.; Schulz, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of ways to use the World Wide Web in college instruction considers first, logistical issues; second, ways the Web can meet the needs of the visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learner; third, ways to accommodate the social learner; and fourth, using the Web with four cognitive learning styles, as measured by the Gregoric Style Delineator.…

  7. Environmental Education Resources on the World Wide Web. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbourne, Linda A.; Haury, David L.

    Among the Internet's many resources is the World Wide Web, a global network of information servers provided by individuals, organizations, businesses, and federal agencies who are offering documents, data, images, and interactive sessions. For teachers, students, and parents this means access to information not in textbooks or the local library,…

  8. Mathematics Education Resources on the World Wide Web. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.; Milbourne, Linda A.

    Among the Internet's many resources is the World Wide Web, a global network of information servers provided by individuals, organizations, businesses, and federal agencies who are offering documents, data, images, and interactive sessions. For teachers, students, and parents this means access to information not in textbooks or the local library,…

  9. Webspinning: Language Learning on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, James; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan for adult, high-intermediate, or advanced students of English as a Second Language that uses World Wide Web resources to simulate buying a new car. Students work in groups and relate foreign language texts to their own lives. Lists equipment needed; objectives; materials; procedures; warm-up, core, and closing activities;…

  10. World Wide Web Homepages: An Examination of Content and Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Betty; And Others

    This paper shows how the content of a World Wide Web page is selected and how an examination of the intended audience influences content. Examples from the New Mexico Tech (NMT) Library homepage show what sources are selected and what level of detail is appropriate for the intended audience. Six fundamental functions of libraries and information…

  11. Webspinning: Language Learning on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, James; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan for adult, high-intermediate, or advanced students of English as a Second Language that uses World Wide Web resources to simulate buying a new car. Students work in groups and relate foreign language texts to their own lives. Lists equipment needed; objectives; materials; procedures; warm-up, core, and closing activities;…

  12. Problems Faced by High School Agricultural Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Harry N., Jr.; Boone, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    If the agricultural education profession is going to grow and prosper in the 21st century, it will need an adequate supply of qualified teachers. In 2001, however, the number of qualified potential agricultural education teachers actually seeking employment as teachers fell far short of the net number of replacements needed. Two contributing…

  13. The Face of the Future: Agriculture, the Office, Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This group of three articles discusses changes in the following three areas: agriculture (machinery, in-home computers, agricultural research, soil and water conservation, new crops), the office (word processing, personal computers, electronic mail, computer assisted retrieval, teleconferencing), and marketing (electronic catalogs, electronic…

  14. The Face of the Future: Agriculture, the Office, Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This group of three articles discusses changes in the following three areas: agriculture (machinery, in-home computers, agricultural research, soil and water conservation, new crops), the office (word processing, personal computers, electronic mail, computer assisted retrieval, teleconferencing), and marketing (electronic catalogs, electronic…

  15. Gopher and World Wide Web - Successors to FTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Robert E.

    The Internet Gopher client/server provides the ``glue'' by which an information provider can build an information system. Gopher can access FTP, Telnet, Gopher, WAIS, and other information sources which are distributed across multiple locations. Gopher provides local and global information discovery tools which aid the user in finding the desired information. Gopher servers are easy to set up and maintain and can serve multiple simultaneous users with only a small CPU impact. The World Wide Web can access Gopher and other information sources but presents the user with a hypertext document instead of a menu. The hypertext document can provide more descriptive information about the resource than is possible in a Gopher menu. Layering World Wide Web on top of Gopher provides additional meta-knowledge about the underlying information and aids in the information discovery process.

  16. World-wide increase in tropospheric methane, 1978-1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. R.; Rowland, F. S.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques used to assess methane concentration in the troposphere are described, and data obtained during the period from 1978 to 1983 are presented in detail. Tropospheric methane concentrations in remote locations averaged a yearly world-wide increase of 0.018 + or - 0.002 parts per million by volume (ppmv). Average world-wide tropospheric concentration of methane in dry air was 1.625 ppmv at the end of 1983 measured against an NBS standard certified as 0.97 ppmv. Contributing to this steady increase in methane concentration are increases in the source strengths from cattle and rice fields, which in turn result from CO, CH4 and HO coupling. Among the physical and chemical effects is an increase in greenhouse warming of about 0.04 C per decade.

  17. World-wide increase in tropospheric methane, 1978-1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. R.; Rowland, F. S.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques used to assess methane concentration in the troposphere are described, and data obtained during the period from 1978 to 1983 are presented in detail. Tropospheric methane concentrations in remote locations averaged a yearly world-wide increase of 0.018 + or - 0.002 parts per million by volume (ppmv). Average world-wide tropospheric concentration of methane in dry air was 1.625 ppmv at the end of 1983 measured against an NBS standard certified as 0.97 ppmv. Contributing to this steady increase in methane concentration are increases in the source strengths from cattle and rice fields, which in turn result from CO, CH4 and HO coupling. Among the physical and chemical effects is an increase in greenhouse warming of about 0.04 C per decade.

  18. Wired World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display

    SciTech Connect

    De Groot, Nicolo

    2003-05-07

    WIRED (World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display) is a framework, written in the Java{trademark} language, for building High Energy Physics event displays. An event display based on the WIRED framework enables users of a HEP collaboration to visualize and analyze events remotely using ordinary WWW browsers, on any type of machine. In addition, event displays using WIRED may provide the general public with access to the research of high energy physics. The recent introduction of the object-oriented Java{trademark} language enables the transfer of machine independent code across the Internet, to be safely executed by a Java enhanced WWW browser. We have employed this technology to create a remote event display in WWW. The combined Java-WWW technology hence assures a world wide availability of such an event display, an always up-to-date program and a platform independent implementation, which is easy to use and to install.

  19. [The search for medical information on the World Wide Web].

    PubMed

    Cappeliez, O; Ranschaert, E; Peetrons, P; Struyven, J

    1999-12-01

    The internet has experienced tremendous growth over the past few years and has currently many resources in the field of medicine. However, many physicians remain unaware of how to gain access to this powerful tool. This article briefly describes the World Wide Web and its potential applications for physicians. The basics of web search engines and medical directories, as well as the use of advanced search with boolean operators are explained.

  20. Collaborative Information Agents on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie; Wolfe, Shawn; Koga, Dennis J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present DIAMS, a system of distributed, collaborative information agents which help users access, collect, organize, and exchange information on the World Wide Web. Personal agents provide their owners dynamic displays of well organized information collections, as well as friendly information management utilities. Personal agents exchange information with one another. They also work with other types of information agents such as matchmakers and knowledge experts to facilitate collaboration and communication.

  1. International organizations to enable world-wide mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, Richard L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of systems exist or have been proposed to provide world-wide mobile satellite services (MSS). Developers of these systems have formulated institutional structures they consider most appropriate for profitable delivery of these services. MSS systems provide niche services and complement traditional telecommunications networks; they are not integrated into world-wide networks. To be successful, MSS system operators must be able to provide an integrated suite of services to support the increasing globalization, interconnectivity, and mobility of business. The critical issue to enabling 'universal roaming' is securing authority to provide MSS in all of the nations of the world. Such authority must be secured in the context of evolving trends in international telecommunications, and must specifically address issues of standardization, regulation and organization. Today, only one existing organization has such world-wide authority. The question is how proponents of new MSS systems and services can gain similar authority. Securing the appropriate authorizations requires that these new organizations reflect the objectives of the nations in which services are to be delivered.

  2. Using WorldWide Telescope in Observing, Research and Presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Douglas A.; Fay, J.

    2014-01-01

    WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is free software that enables researchers to interactively explore observational data using a user-friendly interface. Reference, all-sky datasets and pointed observations are available as layers along with the ability to easily overlay additional FITS images and catalog data. Connections to the Astrophysics Data System (ADS) are included which enable visual investigation using WWT to drive document searches in ADS. WWT can be used to capture and share visual exploration with colleagues during observational planning and analysis. Finally, researchers can use WorldWide Telescope to create videos for professional, education and outreach presentations. I will conclude with an example of how I have used WWT in a research project. Specifically, I will discuss how WorldWide Telescope helped our group to prepare for radio observations and following them, in the analysis of multi-wavelength data taken in the inner parsec of the Galaxy. A concluding video will show how WWT brought together disparate datasets in a unified interactive visualization environment.

  3. Facing the Crisis: Third World Agriculture in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ajit; Tabatabai, Hamid

    1990-01-01

    Examines how developing nations' agrarian economy fared in the 1980s in the wake of the world economic crisis. Discusses how the economic crisis affected agricultural development and whether the performance of the agrarian economy was responsible for the economic crisis. (JOW)

  4. Distribution of medical research articles on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Ninety-eight percent of 51 polled medical editors felt that published research articles should be available to the public on the World Wide Web at no charge, after a mean time from publication of 1.4 years for viewing and 1.9 years for printing. Public libraries or other government institutions could be allowed to assume the responsibility of housing and distributing the electronically stored archived material, analogous to their role with printed material, lifting the financial burden from the publishing companies.

  5. Crystallography Open Databases and Preservation: a World-wide Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chateigner, Daniel

    In 2003, an international team of crystallographers proposed the Crystallography Open Database (COD), a fully-free collection of crystal structure data, in the aim of ensuring their preservation. With nearly 250000 entries, this database represents a large open set of data for crystallographers, academics and industrials, located at five different places world-wide, and included in Thomson-Reuters’ ISI. As a large step towards data preservation, raw data can now be uploaded along with «digested» structure files, and COD can be questioned by most of the crystallography-linked industrial software. The COD initiative work deserves several other open developments.

  6. Internet: Growth dynamics of the World-Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huberman, Bernardo A.; Adamic, Lada A.

    1999-09-01

    The exponential growth of the World-Wide Web has transformed it into an ecology of knowledge in which highly diverse information is linked in an extremely complex and arbitrary manner. But even so, as we show here, there is order hidden in the web. We find that web pages are distributed among sites according to a universal power law: many sites have only a few pages, whereas very few sites have hundreds of thousands of pages. This universal distribution can be explained by using a simple stochastic dynamical growth model.

  7. Distributing flight dynamics products via the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Mark; Matusow, David

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Flight Dynamics Products Center (FDPC), which make available selected operations products via the World Wide Web, is reported on. The FDPC can be accessed from any host machine connected to the Internet. It is a multi-mission service which provides Internet users with unrestricted access to the following standard products: antenna contact predictions; ground tracks; orbit ephemerides; mean and osculating orbital elements; earth sensor sun and moon interference predictions; space flight tracking data network summaries; and Shuttle transport system predictions. Several scientific data bases are available through the service.

  8. Mapping world-wide science at the paper level.

    SciTech Connect

    Klavans, Richard; Boyack, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes recent improvements in mapping a highly representative set of the world-wide scientific literature. The process described in this article extends existing work in this area in three major ways. First, we argue that a separate structural analysis of current literature vs. reference literature is required for R&D planning. Second, visualization software is used to improve coverage of the literature while maintaining structural integrity. Third, quantitative techniques for measuring the structural integrity of a map are introduced. Maps with high structural integrity, covering far more of the available literature, are presented.

  9. Creating a nursing home page on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Shellenbarger, T; Thomas, S

    1996-01-01

    The authors provide a brief overview of the internet and home pages on the World Wide Web. Definitions of Web terminology are provided to help the reader understand home page creation. The authors also describe the steps in electronic publishing and how to create a home page. Supplemental tables provide internet addresses for nursing and non-nursing sites for reviewal of other home pages. The article continues with information about design, formatting, adding text and images, and dissemination suggestions for home pages. Examples of home pages and instruction commands (tags) are provided. The future of Web publishing is discussed, and issues and concerns are raised regarding electronic publishing.

  10. Breaking down information barriers: a guide to international research of medical resources on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Risin, J A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to facilitate international research of medical resources on the World Wide Web. International research consists of overcoming a unique set of obstacles and challenges that are not involved when undertaking research tasks using only U.S.-based information. Utilizing the World Wide Web can help us to overcome most of the restraints we would have to face when we perform research outside of our local geography. Currently, there are a number of Internet Web sites that may assist us in breaking down the barriers to undertaking international research.

  11. Remote sensing education and Internet/World Wide Web technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, J.A.; Egbert, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    Remote sensing education is increasingly in demand across academic and professional disciplines. Meanwhile, Internet technology and the World Wide Web (WWW) are being more frequently employed as teaching tools in remote sensing and other disciplines. The current wealth of information on the Internet and World Wide Web must be distilled, nonetheless, to be useful in remote sensing education. An extensive literature base is developing on the WWW as a tool in education and in teaching remote sensing. This literature reveals benefits and limitations of the WWW, and can guide its implementation. Among the most beneficial aspects of the Web are increased access to remote sensing expertise regardless of geographic location, increased access to current material, and access to extensive archives of satellite imagery and aerial photography. As with other teaching innovations, using the WWW/Internet may well mean more work, not less, for teachers, at least at the stage of early adoption. Also, information posted on Web sites is not always accurate. Development stages of this technology range from on-line posting of syllabi and lecture notes to on-line laboratory exercises and animated landscape flyovers and on-line image processing. The advantages of WWW/Internet technology may likely outweigh the costs of implementing it as a teaching tool.

  12. Stardial: an Autonomous Astronomical Camera on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, P.; Thakkar, U.

    1997-11-01

    We describe the use of an autonomous astronomical camera, called ``Stardial,'' for undergraduate instruction. Stardial delivers images of the night sky nearly in real-time to the world wide web (www.astro.uiuc.edu/~stardial/). The world wide web (WWW) interface is robust, inexpensive, and accommodates many students asynchronously with respect to the instructor(s). The guiding philosophy is to provide students with authentic astronomical data so that they may learn about science by doing it themselves. Students respond favorably to the opportunity to learn from their own experiences with authentic data, complete with its irregularities and its surprises. Stardial has been operational for one academic year (1996-97) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In this paper we describe Stardial's instrumentation, some of the curriculum based upon Stardial's unique data, and the experiences of students who have used Stardial. We conclude with possible research topics using Stardial data and with a brief look to the future of remote laboratories. (SECTION: Astronomical Instrumentation) The name ``Stardial'' derives from the fact that like a sundial, Stardial is a stationary device placed outside 24 hours a day, and that both depend on and make evident the rotation of the Earth. A sundial operates with sunlight, while Stardial operates with starlight. There the similarity ends.

  13. Developing basic space science world wide: progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Hans J.; Wamsteker, Willem

    2004-01-01

    The UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and regional and international cooperation in this field on a world wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, and Egypt 1994) addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia, respectively. One major recommendation that emanated from the first four workshops was that small astronomical facilities should be established in developing nations for research and education programmes at the university level and that such facilities should be networked. Subsequently, material for teaching and observing programmes for small optical telescopes were developed or recommended and astronomical telescope facilities have been inaugurated at UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Sri Lanka (1995), Honduras (1997), and Jordan (1999). UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Germany (1996), France (2000), Mauritius (2001), and Argentina (2002) emphasized the particular importance of astrophysical data systems and the virtual observatory concept for the development of astronomy on a world wide basis. Since 1996, the workshops are contributing to the development of the World Space Observatory (WSO/UV) concept. Achievements of the series of workshops are briefly summarized in this report.

  14. WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors, a Year 3 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Wong, C.

    2013-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors (WWTA) Program has a track record of inspiring middle school students and getting them excited about science. The WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is a stunningly beautiful and freely available data visualization environment developed by Microsoft Research in collaboration with professional astronomers. Trained volunteer Ambassadors show teachers and students how to use WWT in their classrooms to explore and learn about our Universe. Our initial study has shown that WWT increases student understanding of astrophysical concepts and interest in astronomy and science. As an example of how excited students feel about learning astronomy with WWT, one middle school boy exclaimed, “This is way cooler than Call of Duty!” Our vision is to capitalize on the demonstrated inspirational and educational potential of WWT to increase the number of students who express interest in STEM fields. In this oral presentation, we provide a status update on the WWTA program, including ongoing results from our work with over 700 middle school students to date, and preliminary results from a new NSF-funded study comparing learning and interest gains for students studying Moon phases with WWT vs with the 2-dimensional simulator activity that accompanies their textbook. More information is available at wwtambassadors.org

  15. World wide web implementation of the Langley technical report server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Gottlich, Gretchen L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    On January 14, 1993, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) made approximately 130 formal, 'unclassified, unlimited' technical reports available via the anonymous FTP Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS). LaRC was the first organization to provide a significant number of aerospace technical reports for open electronic dissemination. LTRS has been successful in its first 18 months of operation, with over 11,000 reports distributed and has helped lay the foundation for electronic document distribution for NASA. The availability of World Wide Web (WWW) technology has revolutionized the Internet-based information community. This paper describes the transition of LTRS from a centralized FTP site to a distributed data model using the WWW, and suggests how the general model for LTRS can be applied to other similar systems.

  16. Hubble's Universe and the WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Frank; Kakadelis, S.; Godfrey, C.

    2008-05-01

    Hubble's Universe is an astronomy podcast that not only explains the science behind the magnificent Hubble images, but also places the specific and cutting-edge results within the larger context of understanding the broad themes of the universe. Going further, we have partnered with Microsoft's soon to be released WorldWide Telescope (WWT) software to enable browsing, exploring, and experiencing the cosmos in a way never before seen. We can now zoom from the backyard wide-angle view down to see every last pixel in the highest resolution images, while at the same time presenting the breakthrough science and amazing visuals of Hubble within the intuitive interface of viewing the sky. We will discuss the research and production aspects, as well as the oppotunities and limitations, of both the podcast and the WWT avenues for astronomy outreach.

  17. Guide to the Internet. The world wide web.

    PubMed Central

    Pallen, M.

    1995-01-01

    The world wide web provides a uniform, user friendly interface to the Internet. Web pages can contain text and pictures and are interconnected by hypertext links. The addresses of web pages are recorded as uniform resource locators (URLs), transmitted by hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), and written in hypertext markup language (HTML). Programs that allow you to use the web are available for most operating systems. Powerful on line search engines make it relatively easy to find information on the web. Browsing through the web--"net surfing"--is both easy and enjoyable. Contributing to the web is not difficult, and the web opens up new possibilities for electronic publishing and electronic journals. Images p1554-a Fig 5 PMID:8520402

  18. Exercise information resources on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Gordon R

    2005-01-01

    Health professionals and members of the public are often interested in locating exercise information on the World Wide Web (the Web). There is a large amount of information available on the Web; however, the challenge for all people is to identify the high quality information that can be depended upon. Much of the quality exercise information on the Web is hidden within sites of reputable organizations concerned with exercise and health. This article examines several categories of commonly needed exercise related information. For each category, a few high quality sources of exercise information are listed. Combined, these Web sites provide an excellent and extensive body of knowledge for a person who is not experienced with exercise and wants to get started learning, or for a person with a moderate level of experience and knowledge who wants to learn more.

  19. Internet case management: finding information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, L H

    2001-01-01

    In conclusion, the World Wide Web offers an incredible variety of resources, many of which are available free of charge. To begin accessing these resources, one must first become comfortable with using browser software. Once this is done, master the basics of searching. Keep in mind that for a search to be efficient, you should have a clear understanding of why you are doing the search, the basis of a Purpose-Focus-Assessment analysis. With this information in hand, you can dive in, using methods that range from broad and general--such as brute force--to highly focused and specific literature searching. Remember that although the most effective searches are those that are tailored to the situation at hand, all searching on the Internet requires persistence, tenacity, and a good dose of creative thinking!

  20. Discovering biomedical relations utilizing the World-wide Web.

    PubMed

    Mukherjea, Sougata; Sahay, Saurav

    2006-01-01

    To crate a Semantic Web for Life Sciences discovering relations between biomedical entities is essential. Journals and conference proceedings represent the dominant mechanisms of reporting newly discovered biomedical interactions. The unstructured nature of such publications makes it difficult to utilize data mining or knowledge discovery techniques to automatically incorporate knowledge from these publications into the ontologies. On the other hand, since biomedical information is growing explosively, it is difficult to have human curators manually extract all the information from literature. In this paper we present techniques to automatically discover biomedical relations from the World-wide Web. For this purpose we retrieve relevant information from Web Search engines using various lexico-syntactic patterns as queries. Experiments are presented to show the usefulness of our techniques.

  1. Judging nursing information on the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Cader, Raffik

    2013-02-01

    The World Wide Web is increasingly becoming an important source of information for healthcare professionals. However, finding reliable information from unauthoritative Web sites to inform healthcare can pose a challenge to nurses. A study, using grounded theory, was undertaken in two phases to understand how qualified nurses judge the quality of Web nursing information. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and focus groups. An explanatory framework that emerged from the data showed that the judgment process involved the application of forms of knowing and modes of cognition to a range of evaluative tasks and depended on the nurses' critical skills, the time available, and the level of Web information cues. This article mainly focuses on the six evaluative tasks relating to assessing user-friendliness, outlook and authority of Web pages, and relationship to nursing practice; appraising the nature of evidence; and applying cross-checking strategies. The implications of these findings to nurse practitioners and publishers of nursing information are significant.

  2. A world wide web guide to pediatric infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Photini; Kontogiannis, Konstantinos E; Falagas, Matthew E

    2010-08-01

    Pediatric infectious disease is a subspecialty constantly evolving in terms of scientific information. A novel means of attaining medical information that has emerged in recent years is the World Wide Web (WWW). The authors sought to assess availability and content of sites offering information on pediatric infectious diseases in the WWW. Websites chosen by two authors were evaluated by a specialist in pediatrics and a specialist in infectious diseases, and a representative list was constructed. A sub-search was performed for immunization-related websites. Websites from national and international institutions focusing on pediatrics in general or pediatric infectious diseases in particular offer ample information for health professionals and parents/public. There is an over-representation of vaccination-related material in the WWW, whereas no sites related to bioterrorism and children were considered as significant for inclusion during the process. Free access to related research remains a controversial issue.

  3. Medical mentoring via the evolving world wide web.

    PubMed

    Jaffer, Usman; Vaughan-Huxley, Eyston; Standfield, Nigel; John, Nigel W

    2013-01-01

    Mentoring, for physicians and surgeons in training, is advocated as an essential adjunct in work-based learning, providing support in career and non-career related issues. The World Wide Web (WWW) has evolved, as a technology, to become more interactive and person centric, tailoring itself to the individual needs of the user. This changing technology may open new avenues to foster mentoring in medicine. DESIGN, SYSTEMATIC REVIEW, MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A search of the MEDLINE database from 1950 to 2012 using the PubMed interface, combined with manual cross-referencing was performed using the following strategy: ("mentors"[MeSH Terms] OR "mentors"[All Fields] OR "mentor"[All Fields]) AND ("internet"[MeSH Terms] OR "internet"[All Fields]) AND ("medicine"[MeSH Terms] OR "medicine"[All Fields]) AND ("humans"[MeSH Terms] AND English[lang]). Abstracts were screened for relevance (UJ) to the topic; eligibility for inclusion was simply on screening for relevance to online mentoring and web-based technologies. Forty-five papers were found, of which 16 were relevant. All studies were observational in nature. To date, all medical mentoring applications utilizing the World Wide Web have enjoyed some success limited by Web 1.0 and 2.0 technologies. With the evolution of the WWW through 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 generations, the potential for meaningful tele- and distance mentoring has greatly improved. Some engagement has been made with these technological advancements, however further work is required to fully realize the potential of these technologies. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. WorldWide Telescope in High School Astronomy Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Ana-Maria; Goodman, A. A.; Udomprasert, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    This project aims to improve astronomy education at the high school level, and to increase awareness in astronomy for pre-university students, on an international scale. In 2013, the WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program began a collaboration with the International Olympiad in Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA), which was held in the city of Volos, Greece in August 2013. Now at its VIIth edition, IOAA is the largest annual astronomy competition for high school students, and it consists of one team task and three individual ones - Theoretical, Data Analysis, and Observational. Each of the participating countries (35 in 2013, compared to 21 in 2007) is responsible for selecting up to five representative students for the International round. IOAA is meant to promote future collaborations between these students, and to encourage friendships inside a global scientific community. Ana-Maria Constantin, a current Harvard undergraduate student and a former medalist of IOAA, represented WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors in Greece by giving a talk on the advantages of using WWT as a tool for research and education. As a result, the President and the International Board of the Olympiad have expressed support for including WWT in the competition for future editions. WWTA is working with the Organizing Board for next year’s competition in Romania, to include WWT as a testing tool. This poster will summarize key points from the WWTA presentation in Greece, present ideas for WWT-based activities in future IOAA competitions, and outline plans for new collaborations from representatives of Sri Lanka, Poland, Bangladesh, and Colombia. Given the positive feedback we have received after the presentation in Greece, we are also considering future implementations of WWT in summer research camps for high school students, such as the Summer Science Program.

  5. The changing face of agricultural health and safety--alternative agriculture.

    PubMed

    Donham, Kelley J; Larabee, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Alternative agriculture (defined as any production that is not commodity production) is an important growing area of agriculture. The produce ranges widely, from organic products, locally grown products, and exotic crops and animals. This conference included an overview of the evolving field of alternative agriculture plus descriptions of three different alternative agricultural operations, by the actual producers. These producers described the health and safety concerns encountered in their operations. Affordable and accessible health care was a common and very important concern of all these producers. Further, the extensive manual work load is extremely challenging, risking mental and physical stress and burnout. The major occupational health issues were musculoskeletal pain and dysfunction related to the extensive manual labor. Producers presented several suggestions for managing their occupational health issues. It was clear that research is warranted in investigating ergonomic solutions. Further, research and solutions to affordable and accessible health care is a priority issue.

  6. Information about liver transplantation on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Hanif, F; Sivaprakasam, R; Butler, A; Huguet, E; Pettigrew, G J; Michael, E D A; Praseedom, R K; Jamieson, N V; Bradley, J A; Gibbs, P

    2006-09-01

    Orthotopic liver transplant (OLTx) has evolved to a successful surgical management for end-stage liver diseases. Awareness and information about OLTx is an important tool in assisting OLTx recipients and people supporting them, including non-transplant clinicians. The study aimed to investigate the nature and quality of liver transplant-related patient information on the World Wide Web. Four common search engines were used to explore the Internet by using the key words 'Liver transplant'. The URL (unique resource locator) of the top 50 returns was chosen as it was judged unlikely that the average user would search beyond the first 50 sites returned by a given search. Each Web site was assessed on the following categories: origin, language, accessibility and extent of the information. A weighted Information Score (IS) was created to assess the quality of clinical and educational value of each Web site and was scored independently by three transplant clinicians. The Internet search performed with the aid of the four search engines yielded a total of 2,255,244 Web sites. Of the 200 possible sites, only 58 Web sites were assessed because of repetition of the same Web sites and non-accessible links. The overall median weighted IS was 22 (IQR 1 - 42). Of the 58 Web sites analysed, 45 (77%) belonged to USA, six (10%) were European, and seven (12%) were from the rest of the world. The median weighted IS of publications originating from Europe and USA was 40 (IQR = 22 - 60) and 23 (IQR = 6 - 38), respectively. Although European Web sites produced a higher weighted IS [40 (IQR = 22 - 60)] as compared with the USA publications [23 (IQR = 6 - 38)], this was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). Web sites belonging to the academic institutions and the professional organizations scored significantly higher with a median weighted IS of 28 (IQR = 16 - 44) and 24(12 - 35), respectively, as compared with the commercial Web sites (median = 6 with IQR of 0 - 14, p = .001). There

  7. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - A world wide review

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1991-06-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high-level waste (HLW), which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. The most widely accepted method of doing this is to seal the radioactive materials in metal canisters that are enclosed by a protective sheath and placed underground in a repository that has been carefully constructed in an appropriate rock formation. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised, and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. Table 1 presents a summary of the various formations under investigation according to the reports submitted for this world wide review. It can be seen that in those countries that are searching for repository sites, granitic and metamorphic rocks are the prevalent rock type under investigation. Six countries have developed underground research facilities that are currently in use. All of these investigations are in saturated systems below the water table, except the United States project, which is in the unsaturated zone of a fractured tuff.

  8. Accessing NASA Technology with the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began using the World Wide Web (WWW) in the summer of 1993, becoming the first NASA installation to provide a Center-wide home page. This coincided with a reorganization of LaRC to provide a more concentrated focus on technology transfer to both aerospace and non-aerospace industry. Use of WWW and NCSA Mosaic not only provides automated information dissemination, but also allows for the implementation, evolution and integration of many technology transfer and technology awareness applications. This paper describes several of these innovative applications, including the on-line presentation of the entire Technology OPportunities Showcase (TOPS), an industrial partnering showcase that exists on the Web long after the actual 3-day event ended. The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) provides uniform access to many logically similar, yet physically distributed NASA report servers. WWW is also the foundation of the Langley Software Server (LSS), an experimental software distribution system which will distribute LaRC-developed software. In addition to the more formal technology distribution projects, WWW has been successful in connecting people with technologies and people with other people.

  9. Browsing the World Wide Web from behind a firewall

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, R.W.

    1995-02-01

    The World Wide Web provides a unified method of access to various information services on the Internet via a variety of protocols. Mosaic and other browsers give users a graphical interface to the Web that is easier to use and more visually pleasing than any other common Internet information service today. The availability of information via the Web and the number of users accessing it have both grown rapidly in the last year. The interest and investment of commercial firms in this technology suggest that in the near future, access to the Web may become as necessary to doing business as a telephone. This is problematical for organizations that use firewalls to protect their internal networks from the Internet. Allowing all the protocols and types of information found in the Web to pass their firewall will certainly increase the risk of attack by hackers on the Internet. But not allowing access to the Web could be even more dangerous, as frustrated users of the internal network are either unable to do their jobs, or find creative new ways to get around the firewall. The solution to this dilemma adopted at Sandia National Laboratories is described. Discussion also covers risks of accessing the Web, design alternatives considered, and trade-offs used to find the proper balance between access and protection.

  10. WEBSLIDE: A "Virtual" Slide Projector Based on World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, Maria; Ferrandino, Salvatore; Scarano, Vittorio

    1999-03-01

    We present here the design key concepts of WEBSLIDE, a software project whose objective is to provide a simple, cheap and efficient solution for showing slides during lessons in computer labs. In fact, WEBSLIDE allows the video monitors of several client machines (the "STUDENTS") to be synchronously updated by the actions of a particular client machine, called the "INSTRUCTOR." The system is based on the World Wide Web and the software components of WEBSLIDE mainly consists in a WWW server, browsers and small Cgi-Bill scripts. What makes WEBSLIDE particularly appealing for small educational institutions is that WEBSLIDE is built with "off the shelf" products: it does not involve using a specifically designed program but any Netscape browser, one of the most popular browsers available on the market, is sufficient. Another possible use is to use our system to implement "guided automatic tours" through several pages or Intranets internal news bulletins: the company Web server can broadcast to all employees relevant information on their browser.

  11. WorldWide Telescope in Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, A.; Fay, J.; Muench, A.; Pepe, A.; Udompraseret, P.; Wong, C.

    2012-09-01

    The WorldWide Telescope computer program, released to researchers and the public as a free resource in 2008 by Microsoft Research, has changed the way the ever-growing Universe of online astronomical data is viewed and understood. The WWT program can be thought of as a scriptable, interactive, richly visual browser of the multi-wavelength Sky as we see it from Earth, and of the Universe as we would travel within it. In its web API format, WWT is being used as a service to display professional research data. In its desktop format, WWT works in concert (thanks to SAMP and other IVOA standards) with more traditional research applications such as ds9, Aladin and TOPCAT. The WWT Ambassadors Program (founded in 2009) recruits and trains astrophysically-literate volunteers (including retirees) who use WWT as a teaching tool in online, classroom, and informal educational settings. Early quantitative studies of WWTA indicate that student experiences with WWT enhance science learning dramatically. Thanks to the wealth of data it can access, and the growing number of services to which it connects, WWT is now a key linking technology in the Seamless Astronomy environment we seek to offer researchers, teachers, and students alike.

  12. Systematic Assessment of World Wide Web Materials for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Elizabeth; Parker-Jones, Christine; Jones, Richard G.; Harkin, Patrick J. R.; Horsfall, Harold O.; Nicholls, Joseph A.; Cook, Nicholas J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To develop a generic methodology for the online assessment of medical education materials available on the World Wide Web and to implement it for pilot subject areas. Design: An online questionnaire was developed, based on an existing scheme for computer-based learning material. It was extended to involve five stages, covering general suitability, local suitability, the user interface, educational style, and a general review. It is available on the Web, so expert reviewers may be recruited from outside the home institution. The methodology was piloted in three subject areas—clinical chemistry, radiology, and medical physics—concentrating initially on undergraduate teaching. Measurements: The contents of completed questionnaires were stored in an offline database. Selected fields, likely to be of use to students and educators searching for material, were input into an online database. Results: The online assessment was used successfully in clinical chemistry and medical physics but less well in radiology. Fewer resources were found to fit local needs than expected. Conclusion: The methodology was found to work well for topics where teaching is highly structured and formal and is potentially applicable in other such disciplines. The approach produces more structured and applicable lists of resources than can be obtained from search engines. PMID:9670135

  13. An electronic laboratory notebook based on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Marstaller, J.E.; Zorn, M.D.

    1995-10-01

    The LBNL/UCSF Resource for Molecular Cytogenetics has been created to facilitate the application of molecular cytogenetics in clinical and biological studies. One of the primary tasks is the selection of probes optimized for use in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our group provides data management support for all the activities in the Resource. In this paper we describe an electronic laboratory notebook based on the World Wide Web. The data are located in a central database. The user interface consists of a set of HTML forms that handle data input and retrieval from a database from two locations several miles apart. A WWW client allows users to formulate retrieval and edit operations that are sent to the database. Results are filtered through Perl scripts which generate HTML documents with Hypertext links that are sent back to the client. Besides tracking laboratory information through the various stages in the biology laboratory, the system also feeds into a public web server that makes the data available to the community.

  14. Documentation of the AMIP models on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    The intercomparison of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments of a similar type has become an increasingly popular methodology for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of climate simulations. In such endeavors, attempts to attribute differences among the simulations to specific model properties require, as a minimum prerequisite, the accurate and comprehensive documentation of these features. Regrettably however, atmospheric model documentation typically is fragmentary and scattered across numerous publications. It is also often inaccurate, in the sense that the pace of model development and the proliferation of new model versions usually outstrip their recorded descriptions. More often than not, the detailed configuration of a model for a particular experiment also is undocumented. In addition, there may be much unevenness in the descriptions of different facets of models. This incompleteness usually is replicated in published results of an intercomparison experiment, in that participating models` features often are summarized only perfunctorily. Summary documentation of the numerics, dynamics, and physics of models participating in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) is now available on the Internet`s World Wide Web. This paper describes the principal attributes of the electronic model documentation and provides instructions on how to access it.

  15. World Wide Web resources on control of nosocomial infections.

    PubMed

    Siempos, Ilias I; Fragoulis, Konstantinos N; Falagas, Matthew E

    2007-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major worldwide cause of death and disability, infection control programs are effective in limiting these infections, especially those acquired in the intensive care unit. The development of the world wide web has provided health care professionals with immediate access to continuously updated information in the field of infection control. We sought to identify websites that contain information on nosocomial infection control by using popular internet search engines, such as Google, Yahoo and AltaVista, and by reviewing relevant publications identified in the PubMed and Current Contents databases. Only those sites that were English language, open access, and developed by a government, academic institution, or national or international scientific association were eligible for inclusion. From a vast number of internet sites initially identified, we selected 49 that provide information on infection control for inclusion in our list of practical and relevant internet resources. Several sites provide general information on infection control practices, whereas others focus on one or a few specific infection(s). We provide health care professionals with a timely and succinct list of open access internet resources that contain information regarding the prevention and control of nosocomial infections in order to help in the dissemination of relevant information and so contribute to the limitation of such hazards.

  16. Frequency of occurrence of numbers in the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Mendes, J. F. F.; Oliveira, J. G.

    2006-02-01

    The distribution of numbers in human documents is determined by a variety of diverse natural and human factors, whose relative significance can be evaluated by studying the numbers’ frequency of occurrence. Although it has been studied since the 1880's, this subject remains poorly understood. Here, we obtain the detailed statistics of numbers in the World Wide Web, finding that their distribution is a heavy-tailed dependence which splits in a set of power-law ones. In particular, we find that the frequency of numbers associated to western calendar years shows an uneven behavior: 2004 represents a ‘singular critical’ point, appearing with a strikingly high frequency; as we move away from it, the decreasing frequency allows us to compare the amounts of existing information on the past and on the future. Moreover, while powers of ten occur extremely often, allowing us to obtain statistics up to the huge 10127, ‘non-round’ numbers occur in a much more limited range, the variations of their frequencies being dramatically different from standard statistical fluctuations. These findings provide a view of the array of numbers used by humans as a highly non-equilibrium and inhomogeneous system, and shed a new light on an issue that, once fully investigated, could lead to a better understanding of many sociological and psychological phenomena.

  17. Information on infantile colic on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Shana D; D'Auria, Jennifer P; Haushalter, Jamie P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the type and quality of information on infantile colic that a parent might access on the World Wide Web. Two checklists were used to evaluate the quality indicators of 24 Web sites and the colic-specific content. Fifteen health information Web sites met more of the quality parameters than the nine commercial sites. Eight Web sites included information about colic and infant abuse, with six being health information sites. The colic-specific content on 24 Web sites reflected current issues and controversies; however, the completeness of the information in light of current evidence varied among the Web sites. Strategies to avoid complications of parental stress or infant abuse were not commonly found on the Web sites. Pediatric professionals must guide parents to reliable colic resources that also include emotional support and understanding of infant crying. A best evidence guideline for the United States would eliminate confusion and uncertainty about which colic therapies are safe and effective for parents and professionals. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Balgowan, Regina; Greer, Leah C; D'Auria, Jennifer P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the type and quality of health information about infant gastroesophageal reflux (GER) that a parent may find on the World Wide Web. The data collection tool included evaluation of Web site quality and infant GER-specific content on the 30 sites that met the inclusion criteria. The most commonly found content categories in order of frequency were management strategies, when to call a primary care provider, definition, and clinical features. The most frequently mentioned strategies included feeding changes, infant positioning, and medications. Thirteen of the 30 Web sites included information on both GER and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Mention of the use of medication to lessen infant symptoms was found on 15 of the 30 sites. Only 10 of the 30 sites included information about parent support and coping strategies. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) should utilize well-child visits to address the normalcy of physiologic infant GER and clarify any misperceptions parents may have about diagnosis and the role of medication from information they may have found on the Internet. It is critical for PNPs to assist in the development of Web sites with accurate content, advise parents on how to identify safe and reliable information, and provide examples of high-quality Web sites about child health topics such as infant GER. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Weighted median image sharpeners for the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marco; Paredes, José L; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2002-01-01

    A class of robust weighted median (WM) sharpening algorithms is developed in this paper. Unlike traditional linear sharpening methods, weighted median sharpeners are shown to be less sensitive to background random noise or to image artifacts introduced by JPEG and other compression algorithms. These concepts are extended to include data dependent weights under the framework of permutation weighted medians leading to tunable sharpeners that, in essence, are insensitive to noise and compression artifacts. Permutation WM sharpeners are subsequently generalized to smoother/sharpener structures that can sharpen edges and image details while simultaneously filter out background random noise. A statistical analysis of the various algorithms is presented, theoretically validating the characteristics of the proposed sharpening structures. A number of experiments are shown for the sharpening of JPEG compressed images and sharpening of images with background film-grain noise. These algorithms can prove useful in the enhancement of compressed or noisy images posted on the World Wide Web (WWW) as well as in other applications where the underlying images are unavoidably acquired with noise.

  20. Searching for biomedical information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R P

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of biomedical information available via the Internet and its most popular retrieval system, the World Wide Web, has fostered active research and development directed toward locating resources that are appropriate for answering specific queries. The goal is to create tools that optimize information retrieval (as measured by two quantities, precision and recall) while minimizing the effort required by the user. Existing Web retrieval tools can be divided into the following groups: manually maintained topical lists; automatically generated word-based indices; software agents and multi-index searching aids; network cataloging methods; and miscellaneous hybrid and newer approaches. Improvements in current methods should arise from further research into: methods of describing objects on the Web; improved ways of searching for (and within) collections of documents as opposed to single documents; the ability to search for fielded documents; and ways to describe resources that span intra- and interdisciplinary as well as cross-cultural linguistic differences. For this last problem, the U.S. National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) will be of great help. As online information retrieval improves, efforts are underway to improve the online information itself; quality control over content is being addressed as the peer-review systems of traditional printed journals migrate into the realm of electronic publication.

  1. Visualizing Moon Phases with WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia; Goodman, Alyssa; Sunbury, Susan; Zhang, Zhihui Helen; Sadler, Philip; Dussault, Mary; Block, Sarah; Lotridge, Erin; Jackson, Jonathan; Constantin, Ana-Maria

    2014-07-01

    We report preliminary results from an NSF-funded project to build, test, and research the impact of a WorldWide Telescope Visualization Lab (WWT Vizlab), meant to offer learners a deeper physical understanding of the causes of the Moon's phases. The Moon Phases VizLab is designed to promote accurate visualization of the complex, three dimensional Earth-Sun-Moon relationships required to understand the Moon's phases, while also providing opportunities for middle school students to practice critical science skills, like using models, making predictions and observations, and linking them in evidence-based explanations. In the VizLab, students use both computer-based models and lamp + ball physical models. We present findings from the first two phases of the study—one in which we compared learning gains from the WWT VizLab with a traditional two dimensional Moon phases simulator, and another in which we experimented with different ways of blending physical and virtual models in the classroom.

  2. Data warehousing, metadata, and the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Yow, T.G.; Smith, A.W.; Daugherty, P.F.

    1997-04-16

    The connection between data warehousing and the metadata. used to catalog and locate warehouse data is obvious, but what is the connection between data warehousing, metadata, and the World Wide Web (WWW)? Specifically, the WWW can be used to allow users to search metadata (data about the data) and retrieve data from a warehouse database. In addition, the Internet/Intranet can be used to manage the metadata in archive databases and to streamline the database administration functions of a large archive center. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is a data archive and distribution center for the National Air and Space Administration`s (NASA`s) Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS); the ORNL DAAC provides access to tabular and imagery datasets used in ecological and environmental research. To support this effort, we have taken advantage of the rather unique and user-friendly features of the WWW to (1) allow users to search for and download the data we archive and (2) provide DAAC developers with effective metadata and data management tools. In particular, the ORNL DAAC has developed the Biogeochemical Information Ordering Management Environment (BIOME), a WWW search-and-order system, as well as a WWW-based database administrator`s (DBA`s) tool suite designed to assist the site`s DBA in the management of archive metadata and databases and several other DBA functions that are essential to site management. This paper is a case study of how the ORNL DAAC uses the WWW to both manage data and allow access to its data warehouse.

  3. Computer and World Wide Web accessibility by visually disabled patients: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Michael F; Cole, Roy G; Gupta, Suhit; Kaiser, Gail E; Starren, Justin B

    2005-01-01

    Rapid advances in information technology have dramatically transformed the world during the past several decades. Access to computers and the World Wide Web is increasingly required for education and employment, as well as for many activities of daily living. Although these changes have improved society in many respects, they present an obstacle for visually disabled patients who may have significant difficulty processing the visual cues presented by modern graphical user interfaces. This article reviews the specific barriers to computer and Web access faced by visually disabled patients, describes clinical evaluation methods, summarizes traditional low vision methods as well as newer assistive computer technologies for universal accessibility, and discusses emerging technologies and future directions in this area.

  4. World's Biggest Astronomy Event on the World-Wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-06-01

    `Astronomy On-Line' will connect students all over Europe Astronomy On-Line is a major, all-European project that will take place in conjunction with the 4th European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture later this year. It is based on intensive use of the World-Wide-Web (WWW) and represents the first large-scale attempt in the world to bring together pupils and their teachers all over one continent to explore challenging scientific questions, using modern communication tools, both for obtaining and for communicating information. The programme will be carried out in a collaboration between the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) [1] and the European Southern Observatory, and together with the European Commission (EC). The active phase of Astronomy On-Line will start on October 1 and reach a climax on November 18 - 22, 1996 . What is `Astronomy On-Line'? In this project, a large number of students and their teachers at schools all over Europe, together with professional and amateur astronomers and others interested in astronomy, will become associated in a unique experience that makes intensive use of the vast possibilities of the World-Wide-Web (WWW). Although the exact number of participants will not be known until the beginning of October, it is expected to run into thousands, possibly many more. The unusual size and scope of Astronomy On-Line will contribute to make it an important all-European media event. The central idea is that the participants, through the WWW, will `meet' in a `marketplace' where a number of different `shops' will be available, each of which will tempt them with a number of exciting and educational `events', carefully prepared to cater for different age groups, from 12 years upwards. The events will cover a wide spectrum of activities, some of which will be timed to ensure the proper progression of this very complex project through its main phases. The benefits In fact, Astronomy On-Line will be the first

  5. Human exposure assessment resources on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Schwela, Dieter; Hakkinen, Pertti J

    2004-05-20

    Human exposure assessment is frequently noted as a weak link and bottleneck in the risk assessment process. Fortunately, the World Wide Web and Internet are providing access to numerous valuable sources of human exposure assessment-related information, along with opportunities for information exchange. Internet mailing lists are available as potential online help for exposure assessment questions, e.g. RISKANAL has several hundred members from numerous countries. Various Web sites provide opportunities for training, e.g. Web sites offering general human exposure assessment training include two from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and four from the US National Library of Medicine. Numerous other Web sites offer access to a wide range of exposure assessment information. For example, the (US) Alliance for Chemical Awareness Web site addresses direct and indirect human exposures, occupational exposures and ecological exposure assessments. The US EPA's Exposure Factors Program Web site provides a focal point for current information and data on exposure factors relevant to the United States. In addition, the International Society of Exposure Analysis Web site provides information about how this society seeks to foster and advance the science of exposure analysis. A major opportunity exists for risk assessors and others to broaden the level of exposure assessment information available via Web sites. Broadening the Web's exposure information could include human exposure factors-related information about country- or region-specific ranges in body weights, drinking water consumption, etc. along with residential factors-related information on air changeovers per hour in various types of residences. Further, country- or region-specific ranges on how various tasks are performed by various types of consumers could be collected and provided. Noteworthy are that efforts are underway in Europe to develop a multi-country collection of exposure factors and the European

  6. World-Wide Web Tools for Locating Planetary Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanefsky, Bob; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The explosive growth of the World-Wide Web (WWW) in the past year has made it feasible to provide interactive graphical tools to assist scientists in locating planetary images. The highest available resolution images of any site of interest can be quickly found on a map or plot, and, if online, displayed immediately on nearly any computer equipped with a color screen, an Internet connection, and any of the free WWW browsers. The same tools may also be of interest to educators, students, and the general public. Image finding tools have been implemented covering most of the solar system: Earth, Mars, and the moons and planets imaged by Voyager. The Mars image-finder, which plots the footprints of all the high-resolution Viking Orbiter images and can be used to display any that are available online, also contains a complete scrollable atlas and hypertext gazetteer to help locating areas. The Earth image-finder is linked to thousands of Shuttle images stored at NASA/JSC, and displays them as red dots on a globe. The Voyager image-finder plots images as dots, by longitude and apparent target size, linked to online images. The locator (URL) for the top-level page is http: //ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/projects/bayes-group/Atlas/. Through the efforts of the Planetary Data System and other organizations, hundreds of thousands of planetary images are now available on CD-ROM, and many of these have been made available on the WWW. However, locating images of a desired site is still problematic, in practice. For example, many scientists studying Mars use digital image maps, which are one third the resolution of Viking Orbiter survey images. When they douse Viking Orbiter images, they often work with photographically printed hardcopies, which lack the flexibility of digital images: magnification, contrast stretching, and other basic image-processing techniques offered by off-the-shelf software. From the perspective of someone working on an experimental image processing technique for

  7. World-Wide Web Tools for Locating Planetary Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanefsky, Bob; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The explosive growth of the World-Wide Web (WWW) in the past year has made it feasible to provide interactive graphical tools to assist scientists in locating planetary images. The highest available resolution images of any site of interest can be quickly found on a map or plot, and, if online, displayed immediately on nearly any computer equipped with a color screen, an Internet connection, and any of the free WWW browsers. The same tools may also be of interest to educators, students, and the general public. Image finding tools have been implemented covering most of the solar system: Earth, Mars, and the moons and planets imaged by Voyager. The Mars image-finder, which plots the footprints of all the high-resolution Viking Orbiter images and can be used to display any that are available online, also contains a complete scrollable atlas and hypertext gazetteer to help locating areas. The Earth image-finder is linked to thousands of Shuttle images stored at NASA/JSC, and displays them as red dots on a globe. The Voyager image-finder plots images as dots, by longitude and apparent target size, linked to online images. The locator (URL) for the top-level page is http: //ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/projects/bayes-group/Atlas/. Through the efforts of the Planetary Data System and other organizations, hundreds of thousands of planetary images are now available on CD-ROM, and many of these have been made available on the WWW. However, locating images of a desired site is still problematic, in practice. For example, many scientists studying Mars use digital image maps, which are one third the resolution of Viking Orbiter survey images. When they douse Viking Orbiter images, they often work with photographically printed hardcopies, which lack the flexibility of digital images: magnification, contrast stretching, and other basic image-processing techniques offered by off-the-shelf software. From the perspective of someone working on an experimental image processing technique for

  8. World-Wide Effort Bringing ALMA Telescope Into Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    In the thin, dry air of northern Chile's Atacama Desert, at an altitude of 16,500 feet, an amazing new telescope system is taking shape, on schedule to provide the world's astronomers with unprecedented views of the origins of stars, galaxies, and planets. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will open an entirely new "window" on the Universe, allowing scientists to unravel longstanding and important astronomical mysteries. ALMA Artist's Concept Artist's Concept of Completed ALMA CREDIT: ALMA/ESO/NRAO/NAOJ Click on image for high-resolution file (182 KB) "Most of the photons in the Universe are in the wavelength range that ALMA will receive, and ALMA will give us our first high-resolution views at these wavelengths. This will be a tremendous advancement for astronomy and open one of our science's last frontiers," Anneila Sargent, a Caltech professor and ALMA Board member, told the American Association for the Advancement of Science at its meeting in Boston, Mass. The millimeter and submillimeter wavelength range lies between what is traditionally considered radio waves and infrared waves. ALMA, a system using up to 66 high-precision dish antennas working together, will provide astronomers with dramatically greater sensitivity, the ability to detect faint objects, and resolving power, the ability to see fine detail, than has ever before been available in this range. "This ambitious project is the product of an international collaboration that spans the globe," Sargent said. "ALMA truly will enable transformational science and providing this capability has required a massive, world-wide effort," she added. The ALMA project is a partnership between Europe, Japan and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by ESO, in Japan by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences in cooperation with the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation in cooperation with the

  9. World-Wide Effort Produces Dramatic "Movie" of Cosmic Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    Astronomers using a world-wide collection of radio telescopes, including the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), have made a dramatic "movie" of a voracious, superdense neutron star repeatedly spitting out subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light into two narrow jets as it pulls material from a companion star. The movie shows these jets ejecting clouds of hot plasma that are then "zapped" by pulses of energy in the jets as they move away from the neutron star. Frame from Radio-Telescope 'Movie' of Scorpius X-1 "We have directly measured the speed of energy flow in a cosmic jet for the first time," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. Fomalont worked with Barry Geldzahler and Charles Bradshaw of George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. The astronomers used the VLBA, the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) and the Green Bank 140-foot telescope, along with radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network, Australia, Japan and South Africa to record the double-star system's eruptions continuously for 56 hours. "This study is going to be extremely valuable in helping us understand a phenomenon that we see throughout the universe," Fomalont said. Cosmic jets of superfast particles are ejected from the cores of numerous galaxies. On a smaller scale, similar jets are ejected from binary-star systems closer to home, in our own Milky Way Galaxy. While the jets from galaxy cores are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes millions of times more massive than the Sun, the closer "microquasars" are powered by much smaller black holes or by neutron stars only a few times more massive than the sun. "Studying one of the closer, smaller examples will help us understand how they all work, including the bigger ones," Geldzahler said. "The jets coming from distant galaxies are harder to study because of their much greater distance and the slowness of their

  10. Gopher Is No Longer Just a Rodent: Using Gopher and World Wide Web in Composition Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Steve

    Gopher and World Wide Web (WWW) are two useful Internet technologies for the composition and rhetoric classroom. Gopher software makes available a wide variety of text-based information in the Internet. A Gopher at Bowling Green State University offers many types of information. The World Wide Web, using a fairly simple markup language, is also…

  11. Using the World Wide Web with Adult ESL Learners. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silc, Kathleen Flannery

    This digest presents reasons for using World Wide Web activities in adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction. It addresses the issue of preparing learners to use the Web and suggests activities that focus on authentic learning experiences to enhance skills. Discussion is centered in skills developed through the World Wide Web,…

  12. Graduate Student Cognition during Information Retrieval Using the World Wide Web: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Brian

    The purpose of this study was to describe and interpret the cognition of a graduate student during information retrieval using the World Wide Web. The participant was a doctoral student in psychology with little experience using the Internet, and even less experience with the World Wide Web. The student performed an open search of her dissertation…

  13. Researching on the World Wide Web: Spend More Time Learning, Not Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James-Catalano, Cynthia N.

    This book explains how to conduct effective research on the World Wide Web. The book is divided into two sections: "Research Tools" and "Search Strategies." The first section includes chapters defining the World Wide Web; Web addresses; indexes; online libraries; search engines; and newsgroups and listservs. The second section…

  14. A Galaxy Zoo - WorldWide Telescope Mashup: Expanding User Defined Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luebbert, Jarod; Sands, M.; Fay, J.; Smith, A.; Gay, P. L.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    We present a new way of exploring your favorite Galaxy Zoo galaxies within the context of the sky using Microsoft Research's WorldWide Telescope. Galaxy Zoo has a fantastic community that is eager to learn and contribute to science through morphological classifications of galaxies. WorldWide Telescope is an interactive observatory that allows users to explore the sky. WorldWide Telescope uses images from the world's best telescopes, including the galaxies of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. WorldWide Telescope provides a fantastic sense of size and distance that is hard to experience in Galaxy Zoo. Creating tours from favorite galaxies directly from Galaxy Zoo aims to solve this dilemma.The incorporation of Galaxy Zoo and WorldWide telescope provides a great resource for users to learn more about the galaxies they are classifying. Users can now explore the areas around certain galaxies and view information about that location from within WorldWide Telescope. Not only does this encourage self-motivated research but after tours are created they can be shared with anyone. We hope this will help spread citizen science to different audiences via email, Facebook, and Twitter.Without the WorldWide Telescope team at Microsoft Research this project would not have been possible. Please go start exploring at http://wwt.galaxyzoo.org. This project was funded through the Microsoft Research Academic Program.

  15. Integrating Mathematics, Science, and Language Arts Instruction Using the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kenneth; Hosticka, Alice; Kent, Judi; Browne, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Addresses issues of access to World Wide Web sites, mathematics and science content-resources available on the Web, and methods for integrating mathematics, science, and language arts instruction. (Author/ASK)

  16. Histology on the World Wide Web: A Digest of Resources for Students and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, John R.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a list of 37 World Wide Web sites that are devoted to instruction in histology and include electronic manuals, syllabi, atlases, image galleries, and quizzes. Reviews the topics, content, and highlights of these Web sites. (DDR)

  17. GeoCENS: A Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for the World-Wide Sensor Web

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Steve H.L.; Huang, Chih-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The world-wide sensor web has become a very useful technique for monitoring the physical world at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible. Yet we believe that the full potential of sensor web has thus far not been revealed. In order to harvest the world-wide sensor web's full potential, a geospatial cyberinfrastructure is needed to store, process, and deliver large amount of sensor data collected worldwide. In this paper, we first define the issue of the sensor web long tail followed by our view of the world-wide sensor web architecture. Then, we introduce the Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Sensing (GeoCENS) architecture and explain each of its components. Finally, with demonstration of three real-world powered-by-GeoCENS sensor web applications, we believe that the GeoCENS architecture can successfully address the sensor web long tail issue and consequently realize the world-wide sensor web vision. PMID:24152921

  18. Histology on the World Wide Web: A Digest of Resources for Students and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, John R.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a list of 37 World Wide Web sites that are devoted to instruction in histology and include electronic manuals, syllabi, atlases, image galleries, and quizzes. Reviews the topics, content, and highlights of these Web sites. (DDR)

  19. GeoCENS: a geospatial cyberinfrastructure for the world-wide sensor web.

    PubMed

    Liang, Steve H L; Huang, Chih-Yuan

    2013-10-02

    The world-wide sensor web has become a very useful technique for monitoring the physical world at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible. Yet we believe that the full potential of sensor web has thus far not been revealed. In order to harvest the world-wide sensor web's full potential, a geospatial cyberinfrastructure is needed to store, process, and deliver large amount of sensor data collected worldwide. In this paper, we first define the issue of the sensor web long tail followed by our view of the world-wide sensor web architecture. Then, we introduce the Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Sensing (GeoCENS) architecture and explain each of its components. Finally, with demonstration of three real-world powered-by-GeoCENS sensor web applications, we believe that the GeoCENS architecture can successfully address the sensor web long tail issue and consequently realize the world-wide sensor web vision.

  20. Integrating Mathematics, Science, and Language Arts Instruction Using the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kenneth; Hosticka, Alice; Kent, Judi; Browne, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Addresses issues of access to World Wide Web sites, mathematics and science content-resources available on the Web, and methods for integrating mathematics, science, and language arts instruction. (Author/ASK)

  1. An Assessment of the World Wide Merged Cloud Analysis using Interactive Graphics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    and Cumulus Nimbus (CB) are recorded but the type of cloud was not compared in the study. The WWMCA also classifies clouds into one of nine types...WORLD WIDE MERGED CLOUD ANALYSIS USING INTERACTIVE GRAPHICS by Stephen J. Horsman II June 2007 Thesis Advisor: Karl D. Pfeiffer...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Assessment of the World Wide Merged Cloud Analysis using Interactive

  2. Comparing Learning Outcomes of Video-Based E-Learning with Face-to-Face Lectures of Agricultural Engineering Courses in Korean Agricultural High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sung Youl; Kim, Soo-Wook; Cha, Seung-Bong; Nam, Min-Woo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of e-learning by comparing the learning outcomes in conventional face-to-face lectures and e-learning methods. Two video-based e-learning contents were developed based on the rapid prototyping model and loaded onto the learning management system (LMS), which was available at http://www.greenehrd.com.…

  3. Comparing Learning Outcomes of Video-Based E-Learning with Face-to-Face Lectures of Agricultural Engineering Courses in Korean Agricultural High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sung Youl; Kim, Soo-Wook; Cha, Seung-Bong; Nam, Min-Woo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of e-learning by comparing the learning outcomes in conventional face-to-face lectures and e-learning methods. Two video-based e-learning contents were developed based on the rapid prototyping model and loaded onto the learning management system (LMS), which was available at http://www.greenehrd.com.…

  4. Collecting behavioural data using the world wide web: considerations for researchers

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, S; Bowie, D; Hergenrather, K

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify and describe advantages, challenges, and ethical considerations of web based behavioural data collection. Methods: This discussion is based on the authors' experiences in survey development and study design, respondent recruitment, and internet research, and on the experiences of others as found in the literature. Results: The advantages of using the world wide web to collect behavioural data include rapid access to numerous potential respondents and previously hidden populations, respondent openness and full participation, opportunities for student research, and reduced research costs. Challenges identified include issues related to sampling and sample representativeness, competition for the attention of respondents, and potential limitations resulting from the much cited "digital divide", literacy, and disability. Ethical considerations include anonymity and privacy, providing and substantiating informed consent, and potential risks of malfeasance. Conclusions: Computer mediated communications, including electronic mail, the world wide web, and interactive programs will play an ever increasing part in the future of behavioural science research. Justifiable concerns regarding the use of the world wide web in research exist, but as access to, and use of, the internet becomes more widely and representatively distributed globally, the world wide web will become more applicable. In fact, the world wide web may be the only research tool able to reach some previously hidden population subgroups. Furthermore, many of the criticisms of online data collection are common to other survey research methodologies. PMID:12490652

  5. Collecting behavioural data using the world wide web: considerations for researchers.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, S D; Bowie, D A; Hergenrather, K C

    2003-01-01

    To identify and describe advantages, challenges, and ethical considerations of web based behavioural data collection. This discussion is based on the authors' experiences in survey development and study design, respondent recruitment, and internet research, and on the experiences of others as found in the literature. The advantages of using the world wide web to collect behavioural data include rapid access to numerous potential respondents and previously hidden populations, respondent openness and full participation, opportunities for student research, and reduced research costs. Challenges identified include issues related to sampling and sample representativeness, competition for the attention of respondents, and potential limitations resulting from the much cited "digital divide", literacy, and disability. Ethical considerations include anonymity and privacy, providing and substantiating informed consent, and potential risks of malfeasance. Computer mediated communications, including electronic mail, the world wide web, and interactive programs will play an ever increasing part in the future of behavioural science research. Justifiable concerns regarding the use of the world wide web in research exist, but as access to, and use of, the internet becomes more widely and representatively distributed globally, the world wide web will become more applicable. In fact, the world wide web may be the only research tool able to reach some previously hidden population subgroups. Furthermore, many of the criticisms of online data collection are common to other survey research methodologies.

  6. Teaching Physiology and the World Wide Web: Electrochemistry and Electrophysiology on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Terry M.; Fleming, John; Randall, James E.; Coleman, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    Presents two examples of laboratory exercises using the World Wide Web for first-year medical students. The first example introduces the physical laws that apply to osmotic, chemical, and electrical gradients and a simulation of the ability of the sodium-potassium pump to establish chemical gradients and maintain cell volume. The second module…

  7. Using Search Engines on the World Wide Web and Where to Find Search Engine Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thea

    1997-01-01

    Explains search engines that are used on the World Wide Web to find information on the Internet. Highlights include eight search engines with information on how to find the help screen; four "spiders" that conduct searches of several search engines; and four online sites for learning more about using search engines. (LRW)

  8. Spiders and Worms and Crawlers, Oh My: Searching on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Ann; Bender, Laura

    Searching on the world wide web can be confusing. A myriad of search engines exist, often with little or no documentation, and many of these search engines work differently from the standard search engines people are accustomed to using. Intended for librarians, this paper defines search engines, directories, spiders, and robots, and covers basics…

  9. No Longer Conveyor but Creator: Developing an Epistemology of the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, Laura E. Skandera; Flanagan, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the World Wide Web in terms of epistemology. Topics include technological innovations, including new dimensions of virtuality; the accessibility of information; tracking Web use via cookies; how the Web transforms the process of learning and knowing; linking information sources; and the Web as an information delivery…

  10. An Apprenticeship-Based Multimedia Courseware for Computer Graphics Studies Provided on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabo, Amnon; Guzdial, Mark; Stasko, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses cognitive apprenticeship, an educational practice that focuses on students actively engaged in activities with a variety of supports, or scaffolding. Presents a model of scaffolding that was implemented in courseware for learning computer graphics on the World Wide Web. An evaluation on the use of the courseware at Georgia Institute of…

  11. Automated MeSH indexing of the World-Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, J.; Kouramajian, V.; Maram, S.; Devadhar, V.

    1995-01-01

    To facilitate networked discovery and information retrieval in the biomedical domain, we have designed a system for automatic assignment of Medical Subject Headings to documents retrieved from the World-Wide Web. Our prototype implementations show significant promise. We describe our methods and discuss the further development of a completely automated indexing tool called the "Web-MeSH Medibot." PMID:8563421

  12. Introduction: When Museum Informatics Meets the World Wide Web, It Generates Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, David; Trant, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    Addresses concerns of museum informatics as an application domain and calls for new methods in information science as a whole. Topics include the design of museum spaces; information retrieval methods; multimedia integration; social interaction and the World Wide Web; tools of virtuality; and technology and the Americans with Disabilities Act.…

  13. Teaching with the World Wide Web: Internet Resources for Educators in Illinois Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.; Hall, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    This report focuses on teaching with the World Wide Web. An introduction describes the Illinois State Board of Education's (ISBE's) efforts in urging local schools to integrate information technology into all aspects of their curriculum and in emphasizing the need for technology-focused staff development for Illinois teachers. ISBE supports…

  14. Dimensions of Transactional Distance in the World Wide Web Learning Environment: A Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yau-Jane

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the effectiveness of distance education focuses on Moore's Theory of Transactional Distance and a study of learners' experiences with the World Wide Web in a university course in Taiwan. Highlights include learner-instructor interaction; learner-content interaction; learner-learner interaction; learner-interface interaction; results…

  15. Interactive Display of High-Resolution Images on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Stephen W.; Hirschi, Gregory W.

    Viewing high-resolution images on the World Wide Web at a level of detail necessary for collaborative research is still a problem today, given the Internet's current bandwidth limitations and its ever increasing network traffic. ImageEyes is an interactive display tool being developed at Utah State University that addresses this problem by…

  16. Use of a World Wide Web Site Evaluation Tool in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of assessment of materials on the World Wide Web that may be freely accessible to both instructors and students. Evaluates web sites that cover the periodic table in terms of content and design. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  17. The World Wide Web and Emerging Internet Resource Discovery Standards for Scholarly Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weibel, Stuart L.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the influence of the World Wide Web on the dissemination of scholarly literature. Discusses display and indexing of structured text, problems with matching the needs of session-based document retrieval and the stateless architecture of the Web, and the relationship of existing bibliographic description standards to emerging standards for…

  18. Navigational Structure on the World Wide Web: Usability Concerns, User Preferences, and "Browsing Behavior."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore; Monson, John A.; Xaver, Richard F.; Kilic, Gulsen; Conley, Aaron T.; Wamey, Beatrice

    There are several approaches a World Wide Web site designer considers in developing a menu structure. One consideration is the content of the menus (what choices are available to the user). Another consideration is the physical layout of the menu structure. The physical layout of a menu may be described as being one of at least three different…

  19. Overview of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (SIGs IA, USE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of a planned session to describe the work of the World Wide Web Consortium, including technical specifications for HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), XML (Extensible Markup Language), CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), and over 20 other Web standards that address graphics, multimedia, privacy, metadata, and other technologies. (LRW)

  20. XML: A Language To Manage the World Wide Web. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Tanous, Jennifer R.

    This digest provides an overview of XML (Extensible Markup Language), a markup language used to construct World Wide Web pages. Topics addressed include: (1) definition of a markup language, including comparison of XML with SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) and HTML (HyperText Markup Language); (2) how XML works, including sample tags,…

  1. Overview of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (SIGs IA, USE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of a planned session to describe the work of the World Wide Web Consortium, including technical specifications for HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), XML (Extensible Markup Language), CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), and over 20 other Web standards that address graphics, multimedia, privacy, metadata, and other technologies. (LRW)

  2. Outreach to International Students and Scholars Using the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei

    1998-01-01

    Describes the creation of a World Wide Web site for the Science Library International Outreach Program at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Discusses design elements, content, and promotion of the site. Copies of the home page and the page containing the outreach program's statement of purpose are included. (AEF)

  3. Exploring Geology on the World-Wide Web--Volcanoes and Volcanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmrich, Steven Henry; Gore, Pamela J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on sites on the World Wide Web that offer information about volcanoes. Web sites are classified into areas of Global Volcano Information, Volcanoes in Hawaii, Volcanoes in Alaska, Volcanoes in the Cascades, European and Icelandic Volcanoes, Extraterrestrial Volcanism, Volcanic Ash and Weather, and Volcano Resource Directories. Suggestions…

  4. Documenting historical data and accessing it on the World Wide Web

    Treesearch

    Malchus B. Baker; Daniel P. Huebner; Peter F. Ffolliott

    2000-01-01

    New computer technologies facilitate the storage, retrieval, and summarization of watershed-based data sets on the World Wide Web. These data sets are used by researchers when testing and validating predictive models, managers when planning and implementing watershed management practices, educators when learning about hydrologic processes, and decisionmakers when...

  5. Increasing efficiency of information dissemination and collection through the World Wide Web

    Treesearch

    Daniel P. Huebner; Malchus B. Baker; Peter F. Ffolliott

    2000-01-01

    Researchers, managers, and educators have access to revolutionary technology for information transfer through the World Wide Web (Web). Using the Web to effectively gather and distribute information is addressed in this paper. Tools, tips, and strategies are discussed. Companion Web sites are provided to guide users in selecting the most appropriate tool for searching...

  6. Delivering an Alternative Medicine Resource to the User's Desktop via World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jie; Wu, Gang; Marks, Ellen; Fan, Weiyu

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the design and implementation of a World Wide Web-based alternative medicine virtual resource. This homepage integrates regional, national, and international resources and delivers library services to the user's desktop. Goals, structure, and organizational schemes of the system are detailed, and design issues for building such a…

  7. Research and Publication on the World Wide Web: A Fifth Grade Class' Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Nancy L.

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has become a major presence on the Internet, and teachers are just beginning to discover many valuable applications the Web can have in their classrooms. This study explored use of WWW as a research and publication tool in a fifth grade class project on the formation of the United States. Students were given instruction in…

  8. HotJava: Sun's Animated Interactive World Wide Web Browser for the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Examines HotJava and Java, World Wide Web technology for use on the Internet. HotJava, an interactive, animated Web browser, based on the object-oriented Java programming language, is different from HTML-based browsers such as Netscape. Its client/server design does not understand Internet protocols but can dynamically find what it needs to know.…

  9. Comparing Social Desirability Responding on World Wide Web and Paper-Administered Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Flowers, Claudia P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines social desirability responding (SDR) on surveys administered on the World Wide Web and on paper to graduate and undergraduate students. Discusses response bias; describes use of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; and reports findings that reveal no differences in SDR between the Web-administered and paper-administered…

  10. Social Desirability Responding on World Wide Web and Paper-Administered Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Flowers, Claudia P.

    Social desirability responding (SDR) on surveys administered on the World Wide Web and on paper was examined, with 178 graduate and undergraduate students as participants. To assess the extent to which participants would demonstrate SDR, this study used the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) (Paulhus, 1993). The BIDR consists of 40…

  11. A World Wide Web Human Dimensions Framework and Database for Wildlife and Forest Planning

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Tarrant; Alan D. Bright; H. Ken Cordell

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes a human dimensions framework(HDF) for application in wildlife and forest planning. The HDF is delivered via the world wide web and retrieves data on-line from the Social, Economic, Environmental, Leisure, and Attitudes (SEELA) database. The proposed HDF is guided by ten fundamental HD principles, and is applied to wildlife and forest planning using...

  12. Some useful hosting centers and databases for molecular biology on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Bryś, M

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the information contained within World Wide Web of potential uses for molecular biologists. The aim is to provide a basic description of the server provided services of bioinformatics, major program coordinator activities, and current contents of genome nucleic acid and protein databases.

  13. Metamorphosis: Teaching and Studying Contemporary Canadian Literature on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeler, Karin

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of use of the World Wide Web for literary studies focuses on a course on contemporary Canadian literature offered at the University of Northern British Columbia. Highlights include weekly lectures, discussion forum, assignments, evaluations, Web courses versus other distributed learning media such as videoconferencing, and future…

  14. Differences between Novice and Experienced Users in Searching Information on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazonder, Ard W.; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Wopereis, Iwan G. J. H.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study conducted in the Netherlands that examined the effect of a user's World Wide Web experience on the search process, which consists of locating an appropriate Web site and retrieving relevant information from that site. Discusses implications for training and supporting student searchers and proposes future research. (Author/LRW)

  15. How Commercial Banks Use the World Wide Web: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leovic, Lydia K.

    New telecommunications vehicles expand the possible ways that business is conducted. The hypermedia portion of the Internet, the World Wide Web, is such a telecommunications device. The Web is presently one of the most flexible and dynamic methods for electronic information dissemination. The level of technological sophistication necessary to…

  16. Use of a World Wide Web Site Evaluation Tool in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of assessment of materials on the World Wide Web that may be freely accessible to both instructors and students. Evaluates web sites that cover the periodic table in terms of content and design. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  17. Teaching Physiology and the World Wide Web: Electrochemistry and Electrophysiology on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Terry M.; Fleming, John; Randall, James E.; Coleman, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    Presents two examples of laboratory exercises using the World Wide Web for first-year medical students. The first example introduces the physical laws that apply to osmotic, chemical, and electrical gradients and a simulation of the ability of the sodium-potassium pump to establish chemical gradients and maintain cell volume. The second module…

  18. Safety Net: Student Exchange Learning and Supervision on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndiwane, Abraham

    2001-01-01

    Six U.S. nursing students studied community health in Finland and communicated with U.S. instructors via the World Wide Web. The immersion program effectively developed cultural competence; information technology played a significant role in fostering learning exchange. (SK)

  19. Exploring Geology on the World-Wide Web--Volcanoes and Volcanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmrich, Steven Henry; Gore, Pamela J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on sites on the World Wide Web that offer information about volcanoes. Web sites are classified into areas of Global Volcano Information, Volcanoes in Hawaii, Volcanoes in Alaska, Volcanoes in the Cascades, European and Icelandic Volcanoes, Extraterrestrial Volcanism, Volcanic Ash and Weather, and Volcano Resource Directories. Suggestions…

  20. Gero-Informatics and the Internet: Loading Gerontology Information on the World Wide Web (WWW).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, R. Darin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides background on the World Wide Web, reasons for its growth, its potential usefulness to gerontologists, and the results of an exhaustive search of over 300 sites. Relevant information was discovered in five general categories of gerontology-related information: academic institutions, government agencies, biomedical and health research…

  1. Adventures with the World Wide Web: Creating a Hypertext Library Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, James

    1994-01-01

    Describes World Wide Web (WWW), a client/server system for use with electronic information. Topics discussed include HyperText Markup Language; Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS); Gopher; Uniform Resource Locator; creating a hypertext version of an electronic journal; and developing a library information system. (Contains six references.) (LRW)

  2. The World-Wide Web and Mosaic: An Overview for Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Eric Lease

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Internet's World-Wide Web (Web), a hypertext system. Highlights include the client/server model; Uniform Resource Locator; examples of software; Web servers versus Gopher servers; HyperText Markup Language (HTML); converting files; Common Gateway Interface; organizing Web information; and the role of librarians in…

  3. Image Maps in the World-Wide Web: The Uses and Limitations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochenour, John J.; And Others

    A study of nine different image maps from World Wide Web home pages was conducted to evaluate their effectiveness in information display and access, relative to visual, navigational, and practical characteristics. Nine independent viewers completed 20-question surveys on the image maps, in which they evaluated the characteristics of the maps on a…

  4. Visual Links in the World-Wide Web: The Uses and Limitations of Image Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochenour, John J.; And Others

    As information delivery systems on the Internet increasingly evolve into World Wide Web browsers, understanding key graphical elements of the browser interface is critical to the design of effective information display and access tools. Image maps are one such element, and this document describes a pilot study that collected, reviewed, and…

  5. Design of a Project-Based Study Environment on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grooters, Fiona; de Vries, Sjoerd

    This paper presents the design of a project-based study environment on the World Wide Web based upon the e-study concept, i.e., studying by means of Internet technologies. The first section discusses the e-study concept, including Interactive Study Environments (ISE), Interactive Study Systems, and online Study Services. Design guidelines for a…

  6. Using Instructional Design Principles To Amplify Learning on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Donn C.; Hoffman, Bob

    Many educators have explored the World Wide Web, and some are now publishing their own materials for student access. Throughout the brief history of the Web, the overriding educational principle has been to view this resource as a storehouse of information which provides unparalleled avenues of research. The potential for the Web, however, is…

  7. The Internet as a Reference Tool: Accessing Scientific and Technical Information via the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosier, Mona L.

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's Research Library has developed a World Wide Web (WWW) page to allow laboratory staff, as well as individuals from around the world, access to information via the Internet. While many Web pages offer information solely on the organization, the Los Alamos National Laboratory page provides links to reference materials…

  8. World Wide Web Indexes and Hierarchical Lists: Finding Tools for the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Kurt I.

    1996-01-01

    In World Wide Web indexing: (1) the creation process is automated; (2) the indexes are merely descriptive, not analytical of document content; (3) results may be sorted differently depending on the search engine; and (4) indexes link directly to the resources. This article compares the indexing methods and querying options of the search engines…

  9. Search Engines: A Primer on Finding Information on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Cleborne

    1996-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of several World Wide Web search engines, including Yahoo, Infoseek, Alta Vista, Magellan, Lycos, Webcrawler, Excite, Deja News, and the LISZT Directory of discussion groups. Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) are included. Discussion assesses performance and describes rules and syntax for refining or limiting a search.…

  10. How Students Evaluate Information and Sources when Searching the World Wide Web for Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2009-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has become the biggest information source for students while solving information problems for school projects. Since anyone can post anything on the WWW, information is often unreliable or incomplete, and it is important to evaluate sources and information before using them. Earlier research has shown that students have…

  11. Marketing and Selling CD-ROM Products on the World-Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Becki

    1995-01-01

    Describes three companies' approaches to marketing and selling CD-ROM products on the World Wide Web. Benefits include low overhead for Internet-based sales, allowance for creativity, and ability to let customers preview products online. Discusses advertising, information delivery, content, information services, and security. (AEF)

  12. An Enhanced Z39.50 Gateway to the WorldWideWeb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, David; Sloan, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Describes how a university library uses the WorldWideWeb (WWW) to enable users to access resources mounted on a local Z39.50 server and to order prints from articles stored on a CD-ROM jukebox. The software used in the construction of the system, necessary modifications to the software, and software ordering information are covered. (KRN)

  13. The Nature of the Beast: Or, The Aberdeen Bestiary on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavan, Iain; Arnott, Michael; McLaren, Colin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the digitization of the Aberdeen Bestiary and describes plans by Kings College (England) to increase accessibility via the World Wide Web to its humanities collections. Factors influencing the choice of this manuscript for the Web site, the decision to use PhotoCD for digitization, and the potential for further development are discussed.…

  14. Delivering an Alternative Medicine Resource to the User's Desktop via World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jie; Wu, Gang; Marks, Ellen; Fan, Weiyu

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the design and implementation of a World Wide Web-based alternative medicine virtual resource. This homepage integrates regional, national, and international resources and delivers library services to the user's desktop. Goals, structure, and organizational schemes of the system are detailed, and design issues for building such a…

  15. First 20 Precision among World Wide Web Search Services (Search Engines).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, H. Vernon; Srivastava, Jaideep

    1999-01-01

    Compares five World Wide Web search engines for precision on the first 20 results returned for 15 queries, adding weight for ranking effectiveness. Discusses methods to lessen evaluator bias, evaluation criteria, definition of relevance, experimental design, the structure of queries, and future work. (Author/LRW)

  16. Pedagogical Reengineering: A Pedagogical Approach to Course Enrichment and Redesign with the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Defines "pedagogical reengineering." Indicates how tele-learning can bring about enrichment or reengineering in the pedagogical profile of a course. Illustrates these ideas through experiences with four cycles of a particular course. Suggests a general approach for deciding where and how to integrate World Wide Web-based functionalities into…

  17. Searching and Researching on the Internet and the World Wide Web. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackermann, Ernest; Hartman, Karen

    This book presents information specialists--researchers, librarians, and students who work with information--with an accessible approach to finding information on the World Wide Web and the Internet. Each of the chapters contains one or more step-by-step activities to demonstrate fundamental skills and concepts. The book has an accompanying Web…

  18. First 20 Precision among World Wide Web Search Services (Search Engines).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, H. Vernon; Srivastava, Jaideep

    1999-01-01

    Compares five World Wide Web search engines for precision on the first 20 results returned for 15 queries, adding weight for ranking effectiveness. Discusses methods to lessen evaluator bias, evaluation criteria, definition of relevance, experimental design, the structure of queries, and future work. (Author/LRW)

  19. Live Specimens More Effective than World Wide Web for Learning Plant Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taraban, Roman; McKenney, Cynthia; Peffley, Ellen; Applegarth, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    The World Wide Web and other computer-based media are new teaching resources for plant identification. The purpose of the experiments reported here was to test whether learning plant identification for woody and herbaceous plant material over the web was as effective, more effective, or preferred by undergraduate students when compared with…

  20. [Anesthesia and World Wide Web 2.0. Instructions for use].

    PubMed

    Klein, K U; Thal, S C

    2009-09-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) offers an increasing number of medical information sources with unprecedented actuality. However, the vast numbers of web pages make it difficult to find reliable sources of information. In respect of the web 2.0 technology this manuscript aims to present instructions for use of the WWW to anesthesiologists.

  1. Simple Exhibits, Effective Learning: Presenting the United Farm Workers' Experience on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golodner, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of an online exhibit about the history of the United Farm Workers union that was created on the World Wide Web by the Walter P. Reuther Library/Archives of Labor and Urban History. Discusses Web design, hypertext links, and ease of navigation. (Author/LRW)

  2. HotJava: Sun's Animated Interactive World Wide Web Browser for the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Examines HotJava and Java, World Wide Web technology for use on the Internet. HotJava, an interactive, animated Web browser, based on the object-oriented Java programming language, is different from HTML-based browsers such as Netscape. Its client/server design does not understand Internet protocols but can dynamically find what it needs to know.…

  3. Using Hypermedia Research To Advance the Study of Learning on the World Wide Web. Research Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eveland, William P.; Dunwoody, Sharon

    In this monograph we begin by situating the technological and historical origins of the World Wide Web in hypermedia systems that were conceptualized during the World War II era and first developed decades before the Web. We then review the cross-disciplinary theoretical and empirical literature on the uses and effects of educational hypermedia.…

  4. WWW.Cell Biology Education: Using the World Wide Web to Develop a New Teaching Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blystone, Robert V.; MacAlpine, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    "Cell Biology Education" calls attention each quarter to several Web sites of educational interest to the biology community. The Internet provides access to an enormous array of potential teaching materials. In this article, the authors describe one approach for using the World Wide Web to develop a new college biology laboratory exercise. As a…

  5. "Aztechnology Turns": A World Wide Web Soap Opera about Change in the Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossett, Allison; Keenan, Cathy; Adgate, Gene

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of the changes that human resource and training departments are undergoing. Focuses on the development of a soap opera format on the World Wide Web that reflects on performance technology, distributed technology, and shifting professional roles. Examples of episodes and suggestions for improving it as an educational tool are provided.…

  6. Brave New World or Blind Alley? American History on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Michael; Rosenzweig, Roy

    1997-01-01

    Offers a preliminary assessment of the possibilities and limitations, allures, and dangers, of the World Wide Web for those interested in presenting, teaching, and learning United States history. Reviews Internet search tools, online libraries and archives, and museums and commercial sites. Discusses how to create an online archive. (DSK)

  7. Finding and Evaluating Adult ESL Resources on the World Wide Web. ERIC Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham

    One of the challenges often mentioned by users of the World Wide Web is creating and implementing successful searches on topics of interest. This article provides background information about adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) resources available on the Web. It describes various search tools, explains how to create search strategies and how…

  8. Evaluation and Criteria of the World Wide Web: Reference Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csir, Floyd J.

    This paper applies an evaluation method for World Wide Web sites that provide access to online reference materials at academic and public libraries. The evaluation of Web sites was performed with a questionnaire form focusing on Web site currency, accuracy and relevancy; Web site organization/structure; Web site presentation; URL maintenance; and…

  9. Teaching Intrapersonal Communication with the World-Wide Web: Cognitive Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shedletsky, Leonard J.; Aitken, Joan E.

    This paper offers a brief description of a course on intrapersonal communication with a home page approach using the World Wide Web. The paper notes that students use the home page for completing assignments, readings, posting responses, self-evaluation testing, research, and displaying some of their papers for the course. The paper contains…

  10. No Longer Conveyor but Creator: Developing an Epistemology of the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, Laura E. Skandera; Flanagan, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the World Wide Web in terms of epistemology. Topics include technological innovations, including new dimensions of virtuality; the accessibility of information; tracking Web use via cookies; how the Web transforms the process of learning and knowing; linking information sources; and the Web as an information delivery…

  11. Searching and Researching on the Internet and the World Wide Web. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackermann, Ernest; Hartman, Karen

    This book presents information specialists--researchers, librarians, and students who work with information--with an accessible approach to finding information on the World Wide Web and the Internet. Each of the chapters contains one or more step-by-step activities to demonstrate fundamental skills and concepts. The book has an accompanying Web…

  12. How Students Evaluate Information and Sources when Searching the World Wide Web for Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2009-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has become the biggest information source for students while solving information problems for school projects. Since anyone can post anything on the WWW, information is often unreliable or incomplete, and it is important to evaluate sources and information before using them. Earlier research has shown that students have…

  13. WWW.Cell Biology Education: Using the World Wide Web to Develop a New Teaching Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blystone, Robert V.; MacAlpine, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    "Cell Biology Education" calls attention each quarter to several Web sites of educational interest to the biology community. The Internet provides access to an enormous array of potential teaching materials. In this article, the authors describe one approach for using the World Wide Web to develop a new college biology laboratory exercise. As a…

  14. Gender Equity in Advertising on the World-Wide Web: Can it be Found?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Kevin M.; Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    Recent attention to gender equity in computer environments, as well as in print-based and televised advertising for technological products, suggests that gender bias in the computer environment continues. This study examined gender messages within World Wide Web advertisements, specifically the type and number of visual images used in Web banner…

  15. 76 FR 46854 - Hewlett Packard Company, Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide Product Data Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Company, Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide Product Data Management Operations, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower Professional, Now Known As Experis, Boise, IH; Amended Certification...

  16. Wood Utilization Research Dissemination on the World Wide Web: A Case Study

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Matthew F. Winn; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    Because many research products are informational rather than tangible, emerging information technologies, such as the multi-media format of the World Wide Web, provide an open and easily accessible mechanism for transferring research to user groups. We have found steady, increasing use of our Web site over the first 6-1/2 months of operation; almost one-third of the...

  17. "Dynamic Syllabi for Dummies": Posting Class Assignments on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornblith, Gary J.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that instructors need to recognize and adapt to students who are increasingly computer savvy. Relates the process of developing dynamic World Wide Web syllabi for undergraduate history courses. Provides an outline of suggestions and warnings for creating interesting and educational syllabi. Suggests that the best syllabi incorporate Web…

  18. The Library's Role in Academic Instructional Use of the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayne, Elaine; Vander Meer, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Technological advances drive academic libraries to offer faculty instruction on using the World Wide Web as a teaching tool. This article describes the development of a library/computing center collaborative program, discusses the benefits of collaboration, offers advice on constructing instructional Web sites, and provides an annotated…

  19. The Changing Face of Agricultural Education in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egun, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    Self sufficiency in food and raw material production for agro-based industries has been the thrust of Nigerian agricultural policy. Realizing the goals of the policy has been bedevilled with series of plethora problems. This paper took a look at agricultural reforms, examined the problems of agricultural practices and suggests education of the…

  20. The Changing Face of Agricultural Education in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egun, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    Self sufficiency in food and raw material production for agro-based industries has been the thrust of Nigerian agricultural policy. Realizing the goals of the policy has been bedevilled with series of plethora problems. This paper took a look at agricultural reforms, examined the problems of agricultural practices and suggests education of the…

  1. Enhanced photosynthetic efficiency in trees world-wide by rising atmospheric CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Ina; Wieloch, Thomas; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; van der Sleen, Peter; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Robertson, Iain; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    signals is a fundamental advantage of isotopomer ratios (Augusti et al., Chem. Geol 2008). These results demonstrate that increasing [CO2] has reduced the ratio of photorespiration to photosynthesis on a global scale. Photorespiration is a side reaction that decreases the C gain of plants; the suppression of photorespiration in all analyzed trees indicates that increasing atmospheric [CO2] is enhancing the photosynthetic efficiency of trees world-wide. The consensus response of the trees agrees with the response of annual plants in greenhouse experiments, with three important conclusions. First, the generality of the isotopomer shift confirms that the CO2 response reflects the ratio of photosynthesis to photorespiration, and that it creates a robust signal in tree rings. Second, the agreement between greenhouse-grown plants and trees indicates that there has not been an acclimation response of the trees during the past centuries. Third, the results show that the regulation of tree gas exchange has during past centuries been governed by the same rules as observed in manipulative experiments, in contradiction to recent reports (Keenan et al., Nature 2013).

  2. Implementation of a hypertext-based curriculum for emergency medicine on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Savitt, D L; Steele, D W

    1997-12-01

    This project reports the publication of a variety of existing curricular resources for emergency medicine on the global Internet in a format that allows hypertext links between related material, timely updates, and end-user feedback. Curricular elements were converted to Hypertext Markup Language with extensive links between related content. The completed document contains instructions for curriculum development, specific curricula for subspecialty areas within a residency, reading lists for subspecialty curricula, banks of images, and board-type questions with answers. Users are provided with a mechanism to provide immediate feedback to section editors with suggestions for changes, including new references. Access to all or part of the document can be controlled via passwords, but is potentially available to anyone with an Internet connection and a World Wide Web browser. The document may by viewed on the World Wide Web at: http:@www.brown.edu@Administration@emergency_Medicine@ curr.html.

  3. The World-Wide Web: an interface between research and teaching in bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Aiton, J F

    1994-10-01

    The rapid expansion occurring in World-Wide Web activity is beginning to make the concepts of 'global hypermedia' and 'universal document readership realistic objectives of the new revolution in information technology. One consequence of this increase in usage is that educators and students are becoming more aware of the diversity of the knowledge base which can be accessed via the Internet. Although computerised databases and information services have long played a key role in bioinformatics these same resources can also be used to provide core materials for teaching and learning. The large datasets and archives that have been compiled for biomedical research can be enhanced with the addition of a variety of multimedia elements (images, digital videos, animation etc.). The use of this digitally stored information in structured and self-directed learning environments is likely to increase as activity across World-Wide Web increases.

  4. CliniWeb: managing clinical information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, W R; Brown, K E; Donohoe, L C; Campbell, E M; Horacek, A E

    1996-01-01

    The World Wide Web is a powerful new way to deliver on-line clinical information, but several problems limit its value to health care professionals: content is highly distributed and difficult to find, clinical information is not separated from non-clinical information, and the current Web technology is unable to support some advanced retrieval capabilities. A system called CliniWeb has been developed to address these problems. CliniWeb is an index to clinical information on the World Wide Web, providing a browsing and searching interface to clinical content at the level of the health care student or provider. Its database contains a list of clinical information resources on the Web that are indexed by terms from the Medical Subject Headings disease tree and retrieved with the assistance of SAPHIRE. Limitations of the processes used to build the database are discussed, together with directions for future research. PMID:8816350

  5. The Internet and the World Wide Web: a general overview and applications for the biomedical community.

    PubMed

    McKalip, D M; Toselli, R M

    1995-01-01

    The Internet is a vast network of computers across the world. It has facilitated communication and collaboration among biomedical scientists and physicians. This article describes some of the basic tools of the Internet, including electronic mail, Telnet, File Transfer Protocol, and the changes brought by the World Wide Web. Examples of these tools are graphically illustrated and a list of useful Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) is provided.

  6. Chemical markup, XML, and the World Wide Web. 5. Applications of chemical metadata in RSS aggregators.

    PubMed

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Rzepa, Henry S; Williamson, Mark J; Willighagen, Egon L

    2004-01-01

    Examples of the use of the RSS 1.0 (RDF Site Summary) specification together with CML (Chemical Markup Language) to create a metadata based alerting service termed CMLRSS for molecular content are presented. CMLRSS can be viewed either using generic software or with modular opensource chemical viewers and editors enhanced with CMLRSS modules. We discuss the more automated use of CMLRSS as a component of a World Wide Molecular Matrix of semantically rich chemical information.

  7. User Interface on the World Wide Web: How to Implement a Multi-Level Program Online

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranford, Jonathan W.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) research project was to write a user interface that utilizes current World Wide Web (WWW) technologies for an existing computer program written in C, entitled LaRCRisk. The project entailed researching data presentation and script execution on the WWW and than writing input/output procedures for the database management portion of LaRCRisk.

  8. World Wide Webs: Crossing the Digital Divide through Promotion of Public Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzee, Liezl

    “As Bill Gates and Steve Case proclaim the global omnipresence of the Internet, the majority of non-Western nations and 97 per cent of the world's population remain unconnected to the net for lack of money, access, or knowledge. This exclusion of so vast a share of the global population from the Internet sharply contradicts the claims of those who posit the World Wide Web as a ‘universal' medium of egalitarian communication.” (Trend 2001:2)

  9. World wide use of psychotropic drugs in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Simeon, J G; Wiggins, D M; Williams, E

    1995-05-01

    1. Questionnaires were mailed to child psychiatrists world wide to obtain more precise information on views and approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders. 2. Results indicated important problems related to the management of child psychiatry practice both overseas and in Canada. 3. The choice of medication was frequently restricted by lack of availability, and political or social attitudes. 4. A consensus on diagnosis and treatment guidelines in child and adolescent psychiatry remains an important issue.

  10. Application of World Wide Web (W3) Technologies in Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou

    1996-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies are considered in relation to their application to space missions. It is considered that such technologies, including the hypertext transfer protocol and the Java object-oriented language, offer a powerful and relatively inexpensive framework for distributed application software development. The suitability of these technologies for payload monitoring systems development is discussed, and the experience gained from the development of an insect habitat monitoring system based on W3 technologies is reported.

  11. Directory of Astronomy Librarians and Libraries on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, Uta

    The ESO Library maintains a directory of astronomy librarians and libraries which is available on the World Wide Web. It was created in order to foster information exchange and collaboration among astronomy librarians. In the following, the main characteristics including the type of information provided and search features are explained. The maintainers invite colleagues to submit new names and addresses and, if necessary, to correct existing entries so that the information provided is complete and up-to-date.

  12. Application of World Wide Web (W3) Technologies in Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou

    1996-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies are considered in relation to their application to space missions. It is considered that such technologies, including the hypertext transfer protocol and the Java object-oriented language, offer a powerful and relatively inexpensive framework for distributed application software development. The suitability of these technologies for payload monitoring systems development is discussed, and the experience gained from the development of an insect habitat monitoring system based on W3 technologies is reported.

  13. Multi-dimensional effects of color on the world wide web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Jill

    2002-06-01

    Color is the most powerful building material of visual imagery on the World Wide Web. It must function successfully as it has done historically in traditional two-dimensional media, as well as address new challenges presented by this electronic medium. The psychological, physiological, technical and aesthetic effects of color have been redefined by the unique requirements of the electronic transmission of text and images on the Web. Color simultaneously addresses each of these dimensions in this electronic medium.

  14. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.

  15. Embedded Web Technology: Applying World Wide Web Standards to Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponyik, Joseph G.; York, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Embedded Systems have traditionally been developed in a highly customized manner. The user interface hardware and software along with the interface to the embedded system are typically unique to the system for which they are built, resulting in extra cost to the system in terms of development time and maintenance effort. World Wide Web standards have been developed in the passed ten years with the goal of allowing servers and clients to intemperate seamlessly. The client and server systems can consist of differing hardware and software platforms but the World Wide Web standards allow them to interface without knowing about the details of system at the other end of the interface. Embedded Web Technology is the merging of Embedded Systems with the World Wide Web. Embedded Web Technology decreases the cost of developing and maintaining the user interface by allowing the user to interface to the embedded system through a web browser running on a standard personal computer. Embedded Web Technology can also be used to simplify an Embedded System's internal network.

  16. Design and implementation of a World Wide Web teaching files database on diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Sparacia, G; Bartolotta, T V; Brancatelli, G; Caramella, D; Vimercati, F

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of a teaching files database on diagnostic radiology accessible via the Internet and the World Wide Web. The Italian experience in developing a national database named "RadioDB" is presented. "RadioDB" is sponsored by the Italian Society of Radiology (SIRM) and is based on a multicenter academic collaboration. It constitutes a collection of multimedia case record and teaching files. "RadioDB" is based on a Pentium workstation running a Structured Query Language (SQL) database and a World Wide Web server. Each case record contains at least one radiological image and a text file for case comment with key words and codes from the American College of Radiology (ACR). In most cases, a complete teaching file is also available. Peer reviewed teaching files available on this server are contributed via anonymous file transfer protocol (FTP) through the Internet from various Italian academic Departments of Radiology. Worldwide users can easily access and search "RadioDB" database through a World Wide Web query interface and retrieve on-the-fly case record and teaching files. Users can search the database by author name, description, key words, free text or ACR codes. "RadioDB" enlarges the base of current off-line educational materials offering and it allows radiologists to improve their medical education.

  17. [African agriculture faced with global changes: researches and innovations based on ecological sciences].

    PubMed

    Masse, Dominique; Ndour Badiane, Yacine; Hien, Edmond; Akpo, Léonard-Élie; Assigbetsé, Komi; Bilgo, Ablassé; Diédhiou, Ibrahima; Hien, Victor; Lardy, Lydie

    2013-01-01

    In the context of environmental and socio-economic changes, the agriculture of Sub-Saharan African countries will have to ensure food security of the population, while reducing its environmental footprint. The biophysical and social systems of agricultural production are complex. Innovative agricultural practices will be based on an intensification of ecological processes that determine the functioning of the soil-plant system, farmers' fields and agro-ecosystems. This ecological engineering approach is useful to take up the challenge of Sub-Saharan agricultures in the future, as shown in researches conducted by IESOL International Joint Lab "Intensification of agricultural soils in West Africa" (ISRA, UCAD, TU, OU, INERA, IRD). Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Technology-Driven and Innovative Training for Sustainable Agriculture in The Face of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishart, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Innovative training in 'Sustainable Agriculture' for an increasingly STEM-dependent agricultural sector will require a combination of approaches and technologies for global agricultural production to increase while offsetting climate change. Climate change impacts the water resources of nations as normal global weather patterns are altered during El Nino events. Agricultural curricula must incorporate awareness of 'climate change' in order to find novel ways to (1) assure global food security; (2) improve soil productivity and conservation; (3) improve crop yields and irrigation; (4) inexpensively develop site specific principles of crop management based on variable soil and associated hydrological properties; and (5) improve precision farming. In February 2015, Central State University (CSU), Ohio became an 1890 Land-Grant institution vital to the sustainability of Ohio's agricultural sector. Besides agricultural extension, the agriculture curriculum at CSU integrates multidisciplinary courses in science, technology engineering, agriculture, and mathematics (STEAM). The agriculture program could benefit from a technology-driven, interdisciplinary soil science course that promotes climate change education and climate literacy while being offered in both a blended and collaborative learning environment. The course will focus on the dynamics of microscale to mesoscale processes occurring in farming systems, those of which impact climate change or could be impacted by climate change. Elements of this course will include: climate change webinars; soil-climate interactions; carbon cycling; the balance of carbon fluxes between soil storage and atmosphere; microorganisms and soil carbon storage; paleoclimate and soil forming processes; geophysical techniques used in the characterization of soil horizons; impact of climate change on soil fertility; experiments; and demonstrations.

  19. The Land of Confusion? High School Students and Their Use of the World Wide Web for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzen, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examines high school students' use of the World Wide Web to complete assignments. Findings showed the students used a good variety of resources, including libraries and the World Wide Web, to find information for assignments. However, students were weak at determining the quality of the information found on web sites. Students did poorly at…

  20. What is WorldWide Telescope, and Why Should Researchers Care?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    As of 2015, about 20 million people have downloaded the computer program called "WorldWide Telescope," and even more have accessed it via the web, at http://worldwidetelescope.org. But, the vast majority of these millions are not professional astronomers. This talk will explain why WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is also a powerful tool for research astronomers. I will focus on how WWT can be, and is, being built-in to Journals, and into day-to-day research environments. By way of example, I will show how WWT already: allows users to display images, including those in Journals, in the context of multi-wavelength full-sky imagery; allows for the display of which parts of the Sky have been studied, when, how, and for what reason (see http://adsass.org); allows, via right-click, immediate access to ADS, SIMBAD, and other professional research tools. I will also highlight new work, currently in development, that is using WWT as a tool for observation planning, and as a display mode for advanced high-dimensional data visualization tools, like glue (see http://glueviz.org). WWT is now well-known in the education community (see http://wwtambassadors.org), so the explicit goal of this talk will be to make researchers more aware of its full power. I will explain how WWT transitioned, over 8 years, from a Microsoft Research project to its current open-source state (see https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope), and I will conclude with comments on the future of WWT, and its relationship to how research should be carried out in the future (see http://tinyurl.com/aas-potf).

  1. Curvature of co-links uncovers hidden thematic layers in the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Moses, Elisha

    2002-04-30

    Beyond the information stored in pages of the World Wide Web, novel types of "meta-information" are created when pages connect to each other. Such meta-information is a collective effect of independent agents writing and linking pages, hidden from the casual user. Accessing it and understanding the interrelation between connectivity and content in the World Wide Web is a challenging problem [Botafogo, R. A. & Shneiderman, B. (1991) in Proceedings of Hypertext (Assoc. Comput. Mach., New York), pp. 63-77 and Albert, R. & Barabási, A.-L. (2002) Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 47-97]. We demonstrate here how thematic relationships can be located precisely by looking only at the graph of hyperlinks, gleaning content and context from the Web without having to read what is in the pages. We begin by noting that reciprocal links (co-links) between pages signal a mutual recognition of authors and then focus on triangles containing such links, because triangles indicate a transitive relation. The importance of triangles is quantified by the clustering coefficient [Watts, D. J. & Strogatz, S. H. (1999) Nature (London) 393, 440-442], which we interpret as a curvature [Bridson, M. R. & Haefliger, A. (1999) Metric Spaces of Non-Positive Curvature (Springer, Berlin)]. This curvature defines a World Wide Web landscape whose connected regions of high curvature characterize a common topic. We show experimentally that reciprocity and curvature, when combined, accurately capture this meta-information for a wide variety of topics. As an example of future directions we analyze the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, using the same methods.

  2. Curvature of co-links uncovers hidden thematic layers in the World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Moses, Elisha

    2002-01-01

    Beyond the information stored in pages of the World Wide Web, novel types of “meta-information” are created when pages connect to each other. Such meta-information is a collective effect of independent agents writing and linking pages, hidden from the casual user. Accessing it and understanding the interrelation between connectivity and content in the World Wide Web is a challenging problem [Botafogo, R. A. & Shneiderman, B. (1991) in Proceedings of Hypertext (Assoc. Comput. Mach., New York), pp. 63–77 and Albert, R. & Barabási, A.-L. (2002) Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 47–97]. We demonstrate here how thematic relationships can be located precisely by looking only at the graph of hyperlinks, gleaning content and context from the Web without having to read what is in the pages. We begin by noting that reciprocal links (co-links) between pages signal a mutual recognition of authors and then focus on triangles containing such links, because triangles indicate a transitive relation. The importance of triangles is quantified by the clustering coefficient [Watts, D. J. & Strogatz, S. H. (1999) Nature (London) 393, 440–442], which we interpret as a curvature [Bridson, M. R. & Haefliger, A. (1999) Metric Spaces of Non-Positive Curvature (Springer, Berlin)]. This curvature defines a World Wide Web landscape whose connected regions of high curvature characterize a common topic. We show experimentally that reciprocity and curvature, when combined, accurately capture this meta-information for a wide variety of topics. As an example of future directions we analyze the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, using the same methods. PMID:11972019

  3. Curvature of co-links uncovers hidden thematic layers in the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Moses, Elisha

    2002-04-01

    Beyond the information stored in pages of the World Wide Web, novel types of "meta-information" are created when pages connect to each other. Such meta-information is a collective effect of independent agents writing and linking pages, hidden from the casual user. Accessing it and understanding the interrelation between connectivity and content in the World Wide Web is a challenging problem [Botafogo, R. A. & Shneiderman, B. (1991) in Proceedings of Hypertext (Assoc. Comput. Mach., New York), pp. 63-77 and Albert, R. & Barabási, A.-L. (2002) Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 47-97]. We demonstrate here how thematic relationships can be located precisely by looking only at the graph of hyperlinks, gleaning content and context from the Web without having to read what is in the pages. We begin by noting that reciprocal links (co-links) between pages signal a mutual recognition of authors and then focus on triangles containing such links, because triangles indicate a transitive relation. The importance of triangles is quantified by the clustering coefficient [Watts, D. J. & Strogatz, S. H. (1999) Nature (London) 393, 440-442], which we interpret as a curvature [Bridson, M. R. & Haefliger, A. (1999) Metric Spaces of Non-Positive Curvature (Springer, Berlin)]. This curvature defines a World Wide Web landscape whose connected regions of high curvature characterize a common topic. We show experimentally that reciprocity and curvature, when combined, accurately capture this meta-information for a wide variety of topics. As an example of future directions we analyze the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, using the same methods.

  4. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  5. The semantic architecture of the World-Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM).

    PubMed

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Adams, Sam E; Downing, Jim; Townsend, Joe A; Zhang, Yong

    2011-10-14

    The World-Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM) is a ten year project to create a peer-to-peer (P2P) system for the publication and collection of chemical objects, including over 250, 000 molecules. It has now been instantiated in a number of repositories which include data encoded in Chemical Markup Language (CML) and linked by URIs and RDF. The technical specification and implementation is now complete. We discuss the types of architecture required to implement nodes in the WWMM and consider the social issues involved in adoption.

  6. Creating a GIS data server on the World Wide Web: The GISST example

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, P.J.; Evers, T.K.

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to facilitate user access to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data, the GIS and Computer Modeling Group from the Computational Physics and Engineering Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (TN), has developed a World Wide Web server named GISST. The server incorporates a highly interactive and dynamic forms-based interface to browse and download a variety of GIS data types. This paper describes the server`s design considerations, development, resulting implementation and future enhancements.

  7. Development of continuing nursing education offerings for the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Billings, D M; Rowles, C J

    2001-01-01

    Nurses are seeking continuing professional development that is easily accessible, convenient, and available at any time and any place. As nurses have increasing access to Internets and Intranets at home and their workplace, courses for continuing nursing education must be available to meet this need. This article discusses the planning, implementation, and evaluation of continuing nursing education (CNE) on the World Wide Web. The article explains how to develop a strategic plan, develop course offerings, select technology tools to support teaching and learning, and market and evaluate the courses.

  8. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 4, No. 2. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  9. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 2, No. 1. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a key focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  10. An Image Retrieval and Processing Expert System for the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo; Rondon, Angelica; Bruno, Maria I.; Vasquez, Ramon

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a system that is being developed in the Laboratory of Applied Remote Sensing and Image Processing at the University of P.R. at Mayaguez. It describes the components that constitute its architecture. The main elements are: a Data Warehouse, an Image Processing Engine, and an Expert System. Together, they provide a complete solution to researchers from different fields that make use of images in their investigations. Also, since it is available to the World Wide Web, it provides remote access and processing of images.

  11. Using the World-Wide Web to Facilitate Communications of Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBurney, Sean

    1995-01-01

    The high reliability required for Aeronautical components is a major reason for extensive Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. Here at Langley Research Center (LaRC), there are highly trained and certified personal to conduct such testing to prevent hazards from occurring in the workplace and on the research projects for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The purpose of my studies was to develop a communication source to educate others of the services and equipment offered here. This was accomplished by creating documents that are accessible to all in the industry via the World Wide Web.

  12. The semantic architecture of the World-Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The World-Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM) is a ten year project to create a peer-to-peer (P2P) system for the publication and collection of chemical objects, including over 250, 000 molecules. It has now been instantiated in a number of repositories which include data encoded in Chemical Markup Language (CML) and linked by URIs and RDF. The technical specification and implementation is now complete. We discuss the types of architecture required to implement nodes in the WWMM and consider the social issues involved in adoption. PMID:21999475

  13. An Image Retrieval and Processing Expert System for the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo; Rondon, Angelica; Bruno, Maria I.; Vasquez, Ramon

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a system that is being developed in the Laboratory of Applied Remote Sensing and Image Processing at the University of P.R. at Mayaguez. It describes the components that constitute its architecture. The main elements are: a Data Warehouse, an Image Processing Engine, and an Expert System. Together, they provide a complete solution to researchers from different fields that make use of images in their investigations. Also, since it is available to the World Wide Web, it provides remote access and processing of images.

  14. Moving up the information food chain: Deploying softbots on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Etzioni, O.

    1996-12-31

    I view the World Wide Web as an information food chain. The maze of pages and hyperlinks that comprise the Web are at the very bottom of the chain. The WebCrawlers and Alta Vistas of the world are information herbivores; they graze on Web pages and regurgitate them as searchable indices. Today, most Web users feed near the bottom of the information food chain, but the time is ripe to move up. Since 1991, we have been building information carnivores, which intelligently hunt and feast on herbivores in Unix, on the Internet, and on the Web.

  15. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 2. Volume 5, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browen, Brent D.

    2000-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  16. Assignment of World Wide Web virtual museum projects in undergraduate geoscience courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, R. Timothy

    1997-06-01

    Internet World Wide Web virtual museum projects are viable alternatives to the traditional term paper in undergraduate geoscience courses. Hyper Text Markup Language is so easy to use that students are not distracted from researching their topic, and are thus able to gather sufficient background data. In fact, the intelligent and creative integration of text and accompanying digital artifacts require a level of understanding of the material that is not often achieved during the writing of traditional term papers. Most significantly, the students are motivated to create high-calibre documents by the knowledge that their projects will be exposed to a global audience.

  17. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 3, No. 1. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  18. Global panic reaction--a therapeutic approach to a world-wide economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Sperling, W; Biermann, T; Maler, J M

    2009-08-01

    Drastic losses on the stock markets within short periods have been the subject of numerous investigations in view of the fact that they are often irrational. In a recently published model we reported about the world-wide phenomenon of Global panic reaction (GPR) [Sperling W, Bleich S, Reulbach U. Black Monday on stock markets throughout the world - a new phenomenon of collective panic disorder? A psychiatric approach. Med Hypotheses 2008;71(6):972-4], which illustrate typical psychiatric symptoms of panic disorder. We now complete this model by a therapeutic approach for the patient. Therefore the identification of a therapeutic regime "step by step" was necessary.

  19. Criteria used by nurses to evaluate practice-related information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Cader, Raffik; Campbell, Steve; Watson, Don

    2003-01-01

    Existing criteria used to evaluate information on the World Wide Web often are not related to nursing, especially in relation to clinical and evidence-based practice. Published criteria have been found orientated to the health-consumer, medicine, or general information. In this study, the process by which nurses evaluate practice-related information and the associated evaluative nursing criteria were investigated using a grounded theory approach. In the first stage of this ongoing investigation, semistructured interviews were used to collect data from UK postregistration nursing students. The findings from this initial study provided indications of the process and the criteria for evaluating information on the World Wide Web. Participating students identified intuition as part of the evaluative process. They identified some criteria similar to existing standards, but critically, with additional criteria that are nursing practice related. Because these new criteria are significant for evaluating nursing information, further refinement of these findings is being undertaken through the next stage of the research program.

  20. Alternatives to animal testing: information resources via the Internet and World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Hakkinen, P J Bert; Green, Dianne K

    2002-04-25

    Many countries, including the United States, Canada, European Union member states, and others, require that a comprehensive search for possible alternatives be completed before beginning some or all research involving animals. Completing comprehensive alternatives searches and keeping current with information associated with alternatives to animal testing is a challenge that will be made easier as people throughout the world gain access to the Internet and World Wide Web. Numerous Internet and World Wide Web resources are available to provide guidance and other information on in vitro and other alternatives to animal testing. A comprehensive Web site is Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web (Altweb), which serves as an online clearinghouse for resources, information, and news about alternatives to animal testing. Examples of other important Web sites include the joint one for the (US) Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) and the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (The NORINA database). Internet mailing lists and online access to bulletin boards, discussion areas, newsletters, and journals are other ways to access and share information to stay current with alternatives to animal testing.

  1. The World Wide Web as a Medium of Instruction: What Works and What Doesn't

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Marianne; Grabowski, Barbara; Hernandez, Angel; Koszalka, Tiffany; Duke, Lee

    1997-01-01

    A conference was held on March 18-20, 1997 to investigate the lessons learned by the Aeronautics Cooperative Agreement Projects with regard to the most effective strategies for developing instruction for the World Wide Web. The conference was a collaboration among the NASA Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology Centers (Ames, Dryden, Langley, and Lewis), NASA Headquarters, the University of Idaho and The Pennsylvania State University. The conference consisted of presentations by the Aeronautics Cooperative Agreement Teams, the University of Idaho, and working sessions in which the participants addressed teacher training and support, technology, evaluation and pedagogy. The conference was also undertaken as part of the Dryden Learning Technologies Project which is a collaboration between the Dryden Education Office and The Pennsylvania State University. The DFRC Learning Technology Project goals relevant to the conference are as follows: conducting an analysis of current teacher needs, classroom infrastructure and exemplary instructional World Wide Web sites, and developing models for Web-enhanced learning environments that optimize teaching practices and student learning.

  2. Hidden Tree Structure is a Key to the Emergence of Scaling in the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bo-Jin; Wang, Jian-Min; Chen, Gui-Sheng; Jiang, Jian; Shen, Xian-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Preferential attachment is the most popular explanation for the emergence of scaling behavior in the World Wide Web, but this explanation has been challenged by the global information hypothesis, the existence of linear preference and the emergence of new big internet companies in the real world. We notice that most websites have an obvious feature that their pages are organized as a tree (namely hidden tree) and hence propose a new model that introduces a hidden tree structure into the Erdös—Rényi model by adding a new rule: when one node connects to another, it should also connect to all nodes in the path between these two nodes in the hidden tree. The experimental results show that the degree distribution of the generated graphs would obey power law distributions and have variable high clustering coefficients and variable small average lengths of shortest paths. The proposed model provides an alternative explanation to the emergence of scaling in the World Wide Web without the above-mentioned difficulties, and also explains the “preferential attachment" phenomenon.

  3. A review of images of nurses and smoking on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, historic images previously having limited distributions are now widely available. As tobacco use has evolved, so have images of nurses related to smoking. Using a systematic search, the purpose of this article is to describe types of images of nurses and smoking available on the World Wide Web. Approximately 10,000 images of nurses and smoking published over the past century were identified through search engines and digital archives. Seven major themes were identified: nurses smoking, cigarette advertisements, helping patients smoke, "naughty" nurse, teaching women to smoke, smoking in and outside of health care facilities, and antitobacco images. The use of nursing images to market cigarettes was known but the extent of the use of these images has not been reported previously. Digital archives can be used to explore the past, provide a perspective for understanding the present, and suggest directions for the future in confronting negative images of nursing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. World-wide association of timberline forest advance with microsite type along a precipitation gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Yeakley, A.

    2009-12-01

    Timberline forest advance associated with global climate change is occurring worldwide and is often associated with microsites. Microsites, controlled by topography, substrates, and plant cover, are localized regions dictating temperature, moisture, and solar radiation. These abiotic factors are integral to seedling survival. From a compilation of world-wide information on seedling regeneration on microsites at timberline, including our on-going research in the Pacific Northwest, we classified available literature into four microsite categories, related microsite category to annual precipitation, and used analysis of variance to detect statistical differences in microsite type and associated precipitation. We found statistical differences (p = 0.022) indicating the usefulness of understanding microsite/precipitation associations in detecting world-wide trends in timberline expansion. For example, wetter timberlines with downed wood, had regeneration associated with nurse logs, whereas on windy, drier landscapes, regeneration was typically associated with either leeward sides of tree clumps or on microsites protected from frost by overstory canopy. In our study of timberline expansion in the Pacific Northwest, we expect that such knowledge of microsite types associated with forest expansion will reveal a better understanding of mechanisms and rates of timberline forest advance during global warming.

  5. Data generation and data visualization using different platform computers in the World Wide Web environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Philip C.

    1997-04-01

    At the IST and SPIE 96 conference, the author reported a successful cooperative visualization case study that involved using an internet web-browser for data dissemination and data visualization applications between the US and Japanese offices. This cooperative visualization effort using computers and the web-browser has been evaluated, and it has pointed the way to the current research involving the use of the World Wide Web environment for real-time simulation and interactive visualization. Since the spring of 1996, the author has been using Fujitsu's new multi-processor supercomputer VPP300 for fast numerical model simulations and data generations. Meanwhile, the web technology has been advancing very quickly, and it now provides many tools and methods for the scientific visualization. In the summer of 1996, the author began to work on a prototype for a real-time supercomputing interactive visualization system based on the available World Wide Web browser tools and a Fujitsu visualization software known as VisLink. The intranet version of this system was completed in December of 1997. Design issues and a case study of the prototype will be discussed in this paper.

  6. Quality of information available on the World Wide Web for patients undergoing thyroidectomy: review.

    PubMed

    Muthukumarasamy, S; Osmani, Z; Sharpe, A; England, R J A

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the quality of information available on the World Wide Web for patients undergoing thyroidectomy. The first 50 web-links generated by internet searches using the five most popular search engines and the key word 'thyroidectomy' were evaluated using the Lida website validation instrument (assessing accessibility, usability and reliability) and the Flesch Reading Ease Score. We evaluated 103 of a possible 250 websites. Mean scores (ranges) were: Lida accessibility, 48/63 (27-59); Lida usability, 36/54 (21-50); Lida reliability, 21/51 (4-38); and Flesch Reading Ease, 43.9 (2.6-77.6). The quality of internet health information regarding thyroidectomy is variable. High ranking and popularity are not good indicators of website quality. Overall, none of the websites assessed achieved high Lida scores. In order to prevent the dissemination of inaccurate or commercially motivated information, we recommend independent labelling of medical information available on the World Wide Web.

  7. World-wide architecture of osteoporosis research: density-equalizing mapping studies and gender analysis.

    PubMed

    Brüggmann, D; Mäule, L-S; Klingelhöfer, D; Schöffel, N; Gerber, A; Jaque, J M; Groneberg, D A

    2016-10-01

    While research activities on osteoporosis grow constantly, no concise description of the global research architecture exists. Hence, we aim to analyze and depict the world-wide scientific output on osteoporosis combining bibliometric tools, density-equalizing mapping projections and gender analysis. Using the NewQIS platform, we analyzed all osteoporosis-related publications authored from 1900 to 2012 and indexed by the Web of Science. Bibliometric details were analyzed related to quantitative and semi-qualitative aspects. The majority of 57 453 identified publications were original research articles. The USA and Western Europe dominated the field regarding cooperation activity, publication and citation performance. Asia, Africa and South America played a minimal role. Gender analysis revealed a dominance of male scientists in almost all countries except Brazil. Although the scientific performance on osteoporosis is increasing world-wide, a significant disparity in terms of research output was visible between developed and low-income countries. This finding is particularly concerning since epidemiologic evaluations of future osteoporosis prevalences predict enormous challenges for the health-care systems in low-resource countries. Hence, our study underscores the need to address these disparities by fostering future research endeavors in these nations with the aim to successfully prevent a growing global burden related to osteoporosis.

  8. A guide to population-related home pages on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Malsawma, Z

    1996-10-01

    The number of home pages on the World Wide Web is increasing, and the information they contain is constantly being updated. The Australian National University's Demography and Population Studies World-Wide Web Virtual Library (http://coombs.anu.edu.au/ResFacilities DemographyPage.html) has links to 155 pertinent sites. Some of the outstanding home pages containing population information pertaining to the US or generated by US agencies include that of 1) the US Census Bureau, 2) the US state census data centers, 3) the National Center for Health Statistics, 4) the National Institute on Aging, 5) American Demographics, Inc., 6) the UN Population Information Network, 7) the Demographic and Health Surveys, 8) the Population Reference Bureau, 9) the Population Index, 10) the US Census Bureau's International Programs Center, and 11) POPLINE. International development information can be found by visiting the web sites of 1) the International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2) USAID, 3) the UN Development Programme, and 4) the World Bank. Population Associations which have web sites include 1) the Population Association of America, 2) the Association of Population Libraries and Information Centers-International, and 3) the Association of Population Centers. Collections of population web sites can be found at Internet Resources for Demographers and Population and Reproductive Health. Finally, a directory of population organizations is also available.

  9. Analyzing the Food-Fuel-Environment Tri-Lemma Facing World Agriculture: Global Land Use in the Coming Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, T. W.; Steinbuks, J.

    2011-12-01

    The number of people which the world must feed is expected to increase by another 3 billion people by 2100. When coupled with significant nutritional improvements for the 2.1 billion people currently living on less than $2/day, this translates into a very substantial rise in the demand for agricultural production. At the same time, the growing use of biomass for energy generation has introduced an important new source of industrial demand in agricultural markets. To compound matters, water, a key input into agricultural production, is rapidly diminishing in availability in large parts of the world and many soils are degrading. In addition, agriculture and forestry are increasingly envisioned as key sectors for climate change mitigation policy. Any serious attempt to reduce land-based emissions will involve changes in the way farming is conducted, as well as placing limits on the expansion of farming - particularly in the tropics, where most of the agricultural land conversion has come at the expense of forests, either directly, or indirectly via a cascading of land use requirements with crops moving into pasture and pasture into forest. Finally, agriculture and forestry are likely to be the economic sectors whose productivity is most sharply affected by climate change. In light of these challenges facing the global farm and food system, this paper will review the main sources of supply and demand for the world's cropland, and then provide a quantitative assessment of the impact of these forces on global land use over the coming century. The model incorporates forward looking behavior and examines competition between land used for ecosystem services, forestry, food and fuel. Explicit account is taken of emissions associated with both the intensive and extensive margins of agricultural expansion, as well as carbon sequestration and energy combustion. Key findings include: (a) energy prices and environmental policies will be increasingly important drivers of land use

  10. Quality analysis of patient information about knee arthroscopy on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Ramasamy, Vijayaraj; Priyanka, Priyanka; Ilango, Balakrishnan

    2007-05-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the quality of patient information available on the World Wide Web on the topic of knee arthroscopy. For the purpose of quality analysis, we used a pool of 232 search results obtained from 7 different search engines. We used a modified assessment questionnaire to assess the quality of these Web sites. This questionnaire was developed based on similar studies evaluating Web site quality and includes items on illustrations, accessibility, availability, accountability, and content of the Web site. We also compared results obtained with different search engines and tried to establish the best possible search strategy to attain the most relevant, authentic, and adequate information with minimum time consumption. For this purpose, we first compared 100 search results from the single most commonly used search engine (AltaVista) with the pooled sample containing 20 search results from each of the 7 different search engines. The search engines used were metasearch (Copernic and Mamma), general search (Google, AltaVista, and Yahoo), and health topic-related search engines (MedHunt and Healthfinder). The phrase "knee arthroscopy" was used as the search terminology. Excluding the repetitions, there were 117 Web sites available for quality analysis. These sites were analyzed for accessibility, relevance, authenticity, adequacy, and accountability by use of a specially designed questionnaire. Our analysis showed that most of the sites providing patient information on knee arthroscopy contained outdated information, were inadequate, and were not accountable. Only 16 sites were found to be providing reasonably good patient information and hence can be recommended to patients. Understandably, most of these sites were from nonprofit organizations and educational institutions. Furthermore, our study revealed that using multiple search engines increases patients' chances of obtaining more relevant information rather than using a single search

  11. Facilitating physician referrals on the World Wide Web: representation and appropriate utilization of clinical expertise.

    PubMed Central

    McHolm, G.; Obeid, J.; Karson, T. H.; Sato, L.; Schaffer, J. L.; Greenes, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    In highly integrated and increasingly complex health care systems, the identification and proper utilization of clinical staff expertise are key factors for efficiently delivering high quality patient care. To achieve these capabilities on an enterprise-wide scale, we have embarked on a multi-phased project to develop World Wide Web (WWW)-based physician referral capabilities for two large teaching hospitals. Currently, users may search for information concerning the education, training, board certifications, and self-designated clinical interests of staff members. Address, phone number, email address, and a photo are also presented. Our experience indicates that institutional changes are required to successfully deploy and maintain online physician referral services and that accurate and equitable representation of clinical expertise and the incorporation of referral guidelines require an incremental introduction of a carefully planned program that addresses the needs of clinicians, administrators, and health care policy-makers. PMID:8947760

  12. Internet and World Wide Web-based tools for neuropathology practice and education.

    PubMed

    Fung, Kar-Ming; Tihan, Tarik

    2009-04-01

    The Internet and the World Wide Web (www) serve as a source of information and a communication network. Together they form a so-called web or network that allows for transmission and dissemination of information in unprecedented speed, volume and detail. This article presents an overview of the current status of neuropathology content on the www. As well as considering the Internet as a resource for neuropathology practice, education and research, we also address the issue of quality assurance when evaluating Internet and www content. Four major categories of websites (archival, broker, news and blog) are discussed and resources relevant to neuropathology of each type are highlighted. We believe that our report and similar attempts can provide an opportunity to discuss appropriate and effective use of the Internet by the neuropathology community.

  13. Increasing public understanding of transgenic crops through the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Patrick F; Namuth, Deana M; Harrington, Judy; Ward, Sarah M; Lee, Donald J; Hain, Patricia

    2002-07-01

    Transgenic crops among the most controversial "science and society" issues of recent years. Because of the complex techniques involved in creating these crops and the polarized debate over their risks and beliefs, a critical need has arisen for accessible and balanced information on this technology. World Wide Web sites offer several advantages for disseminating information on a fast-changing technical topic, including their global accessibility; and their ability to update information frequently, incorporate multimedia formats, and link to networks of other sites. An alliance between two complementary web sites at Colorado State University and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln takes advantage of the web environment to help fill the need for public information on crop genetic engineering. This article describes the objectives and features of each site. Viewership data and other feedback have shown these web sites to be effective means of reaching public audiences on a complex scientific topic.

  14. Software Project Management and Measurement on the World-Wide-Web (WWW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John; Ramakrishnan, Sudhaka

    1996-01-01

    We briefly describe a system for forms-based, work-flow management that helps members of a software development team overcome geographical barriers to collaboration. Our system, called the Web Integrated Software Environment (WISE), is implemented as a World-Wide-Web service that allows for management and measurement of software development projects based on dynamic analysis of change activity in the workflow. WISE tracks issues in a software development process, provides informal communication between the users with different roles, supports to-do lists, and helps in software process improvement. WISE minimizes the time devoted to metrics collection and analysis by providing implicit delivery of messages between users based on the content of project documents. The use of a database in WISE is hidden from the users who view WISE as maintaining a personal 'to-do list' of tasks related to the many projects on which they may play different roles.

  15. World Wide Web interface to digital imaging and communication in medicine-capable image servers.

    PubMed

    Browning, G C; Liang, Y; Buckwalter, K A; Kruger, R A; Aisen, A

    1996-11-01

    As a trial project, the Indiana University Department of Radiology has develop[ed a low-cost manner of distributing radiological images throughout a medical environment using the World Wide Web (WWW). The interface requires the user to have a WWW-browser client, such as Netscape, running on UNIX, PC, or Macintosh platforms. A forms-based interface allows the user to query several DICOM-capable machines at the machine, patient, study, series, and image levels. Once an image transfer is initiated, images are prewindowed from 16- to 8-bits, compressed using public domain Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) compression routines, transferred to the WWW client program, and decompressed and displayed using a locally selected image viewing program. At the currently implemented level of compression (75% quality), the entire fetch-transform-JPEG-display process takes 2 to 5 seconds over Ethernet, depending on the platform used.

  16. Creating a virtual materials and resources index for health education using the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Weiler, R M

    1996-08-01

    The Internet represents the principal system for distributing information worldwide, offering health educators a powerful communications medium. This article describes an assignment that teaches students how to use the World Wide Web (WWW). The first part provides an overview of the Internet, its principal services. browser software, and Netscape Navigator. The second part describes the assignment, complete with instructional objectives, computer facilities used to implement the strategy, and a summary of classroom and laboratory activities. The third part describes procedures for teaching students how to use the WWW. Students learn how to explore the WWW and to develop a customized virtual directory of health materials and resources using Netscape Navigator Bookmark tools. Recommendations on how the approach can be modified are offered.

  17. A perception experiment with time-critical graphics animation on the World-Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Hecht, H; Oesker, M; Kaiser, A; Civelek, H; Stecker, T

    1999-08-01

    The World-Wide Web offers a potentially interesting tool to collect data from a large and heterogeneous audience. While questionnaires have become rather common on the Internet, its potential reaches far beyond text processing. In principle, it is possible not only to perform interactive, dynamic experiments on the Web, but also to include graphical animation and time-critical responses, such as reaction times. We implemented a visual motion extrapolation task on the Web using the programming language Java, which can be interpreted by standard Web browsers such as Netscape or Internet Explorer. The data collected with this method turned out to be reliable and differed little from data obtained in a controlled laboratory setting, with the exception of conditions with fixation instruction. Thus, the Web can, generally speaking, be used for data collection of large sample sizes. The strengths and weaknesses of dynamic visual simulation experiments on the Internet are discussed.

  18. Remote monitoring using technologies from the Internet and World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Puckett, J.M.; Burczyk, L.

    1997-11-01

    Recent developments in Internet technologies are changing and enhancing how one processes and exchanges information. These developments include software and hardware in support of multimedia applications on the World Wide Web. In this paper the authors describe these technologies as they have applied them to remote monitoring and show how they will allow the International Atomic Energy Agency to efficiently review and analyze remote monitoring data for verification of material movements. The authors have developed demonstration software that illustrates several safeguards data systems using the resources of the Internet and Web to access and review data. This Web demo allows the user to directly observe sensor data, to analyze simulated safeguards data, and to view simulated on-line inventory data. Future activities include addressing the technical and security issues associated with using the Web to interface with existing and planned monitoring systems at nuclear facilities. Some of these issues are authentication, encryption, transmission of large quantities of data, and data compression.

  19. Teaching Contemporary Physics Topics Using Real-Time Data Obtained via the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post-Zwicker, A. P.; Davis, W.; Grip, R.; McKay, M.; Pfaff, R.; Stotler, D. P.

    1999-12-01

    As a teaching tool, the World Wide Web (WWW) is unprecedented in its ability to transmit information and enhance communication between scientist and student. Just beginning to be developed are sites that actively engage the user in the learning process and provide hands-on methods of teaching contemporary topics. These topics are often not found in the classroom due to the complexity and expense of the laboratory equipment and the WWW is an ideal tool for overcoming this difficulty. This paper presents a model for using the Internet to teach high school students about plasma physics and fusion energy. Students are given access to real-time data, virtual experiments, and communication with professional scientists via email. Preliminary data indicate that student collaboration and student-led learning is encouraged when using the site in the classroom. Scientist/student mentoring is enhanced with this form of communication.

  20. Teaching Contemporary Physics Topics using Real-Time Data Obtained via the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.; Grip, R.; McKay, M.; Pfaff, R. and Stotler, D.P.; Post-Zwicker, A.P.

    1998-12-01

    As a teaching tool, the World Wide Web (WWW) is unprecedented in its ability to transmit information and enhance communication between scientist and student. Just beginning to be developed are sites that actively engage the user in the learning process and provide hands-on methods of teaching contemporary topics. These topics are often not found in the classroom due to the complexity and expense of the laboratory equipment and the WWW is an ideal tool for overcoming this difficulty. This paper presents a model for using the Internet to teach high school students about plasma physics and fusion energy. Students are given access to real-time data, virtual experiments, and communication with professional scientists via email. Preliminary data indicate that student collaboration and student-led learning is encouraged when using the site in the classroom.

  1. Evaluation of traditional classroom teaching methods versus course delivery via the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M; Carlton, K H; Ali, N S

    1999-09-01

    Higher education is moving with deliberate speed to an electronic classroom. Much has been published on faculty experiences with World Wide Web (WWW) course delivery. However, little research exists on the evaluation of these methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of two approaches to teaching: classroom and WWW modules. Classroom methods were rated significantly higher in relation to content, interaction, participation, faculty preparation, and communication. Technical skills were rated higher for WWW modules. Critical thinking and time allotted for assignments were not significantly different between classroom and WWW instruction. Open-ended comments were rich and supported both positive and negative aspects of classroom and WWW-based modules. Implications call for creativity in course development, course redesign and orientation, active communication with students, support for technical problems, faculty development, and university-wide planning through partnerships.

  2. Building national electronic medical record systems via the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Kohane, I S; Greenspun, P; Fackler, J; Cimino, C; Szolovits, P

    1996-01-01

    Electronic medical record systems (EMRSs) currently do not lend themselves easily to cross-institutional clinical care and research. Unique system designs coupled with a lack of standards have led to this difficulty. The authors have designed a preliminary EMRS architecture (W3-EMRS) that exploits the multiplatform, multiprotocol, client-server technology of the World Wide Web. The architecture abstracts the clinical information model and the visual presentation away from the underlying EMRS. As a result, computation upon data elements of the EMRS and their presentation are no longer tied to the underlying EMRS structures. The architecture is intended to enable implementation of programs that provide uniform access to multiple, heterogeneous legacy EMRSs. The authors have implemented an initial prototype of W3-EMRS that accesses the database of the Boston Children's Hospital Clinician's Workstation. PMID:8723610

  3. A real time patient monitoring system on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Wang, K; Kohane, I; Bradshaw, K L; Fackler, J

    1996-01-01

    World Wide Web (Web) technology has become increasingly popular and successful, because it uses standard communication protocols and Hyper Text Markup Language(HTML), and is supported on multiple platforms. Innovations such as server push, secure socket layer and Java make it possible to use the Web as the basis for creating monitoring systems of dynamic processes. This paper presents a project, whose goal is to develop a Web based Intelligent on-line Monitoring system for Intensive Care Units (IMI). IMI has been tested and evaluated in an intensive care unit since October 1995, and the results are promising. After presenting the motivations of using Web technology, we present the system structure and the functionality of IMI as well as the testing and evaluation results. Security issues are also addressed.

  4. Correspondence: World Wide Web access to the British Universities Human Embryo Database

    PubMed Central

    AITON, JAMES F.; MCDONOUGH, ARIANA; MCLACHLAN, JOHN C.; SMART, STEVEN D.; WHITEN, SUSAN C.

    1997-01-01

    The British Universities Human Embryo Database has been created by merging information from the Walmsley Collection of Human Embryos at the School of Biological and Medical Sciences, University of St Andrews and from the Boyd Collection of Human Embryos at the Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge. The database has been made available electronically on the Internet and World Wide Web browsers can be used to implement interactive access to the information stored in the British Universities Human Embryo Database. The database can, therefore, be accessed and searched from remote sites and specific embryos can be identified in terms of their location, age, developmental stage, plane of section, staining technique, and other parameters. It is intended to add information from other similar collections in the UK as it becomes available. PMID:9034891

  5. Information consumerism on the World Wide Web: implications for dermatologists and patients.

    PubMed

    Travers, Robin L

    2002-09-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is continuing to grow exponentially both in terms of numbers of users and numbers of web pages. There is a trend toward the increasing use of the WWW for medical educational purposes, both among physicians and patients alike. The multimedia capabilities of this evolving medium are particularly relevant to visual medical specialties such as dermatology. The origins of information consumerism on the WWW are examined, and the public health issues surrounding dermatologic information and misinformation, and how consumers navigate through the WWW are reviewed. The economic realities of medical information as a "capital good," and the impact this has on dermatologic information sources on the WWW are also discussed.Finally, strategies for guiding consumers and ourselves toward credible medical information sources on the WWW are outlined.

  6. Technical Considerations in Remote LIMS Access via the World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Schlabach, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The increased dependency on the World Wide Web by both laboratories and their customers has led LIMS developers to take advantage of thin-client web applications that provide both remote data entry and manipulation, along with remote reporting functionality. Use of an LIMS through a web browser allows a person to interact with a distant application, providing both remote administration and real-time analytical result delivery from virtually anywhere in the world. While there are many benefits of web-based LIMS applications, some concern must be given to these new methods of system architecture before justifying them as a suitable replacement for their traditional client-server systems. Developers and consumers alike must consider the security aspects of introducing a wide area network capable system into a production environment, as well as the concerns of data integrity and usability. PMID:18924736

  7. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Rangi, R.; Ancona, D.

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  8. Implementation of a World Wide Web server for the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, R.E.; Martin, F.D.; Emery, R.

    1996-10-01

    The Gas and Oil Technology Exchange and Communication Highway (GO-TECH) provides an electronic information system for the petroleum community for exchanging ideas, data, and technology. The PC-based system fosters communication and discussion by linking the oil and gas producers with resource centers, government agencies, consulting firms, service companies, national laboratories, academic research groups, and universities throughout the world. The oil and gas producers can access the GO-TECH World Wide Web (WWW) home page through modem links, as well as through the Internet. Future GO-TECH applications will include the establishment of virtual corporations consisting of consortia of small companies, consultants, and service companies linked by electronic information systems. These virtual corporations will have the resources and expertise previously found only in major corporations.

  9. A development environment for knowledge-based medical applications on the World-Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Riva, A; Bellazzi, R; Lanzola, G; Stefanelli, M

    1998-11-01

    The World-Wide Web (WWW) is increasingly being used as a platform to develop distributed applications, particularly in contexts, such as medical ones, where high usability and availability are required. In this paper we propose a methodology for the development of knowledge-based medical applications on the web, based on the use of an explicit domain ontology to automatically generate parts of the system. We describe a development environment, centred on the LISPWEB Common Lisp HTTP server, that supports this methodology, and we show how it facilitates the creation of complex web-based applications, by overcoming the limitations that normally affect the adequacy of the web for this purpose. Finally, we present an outline of a system for the management of diabetic patients built using the LISPWEB environment.

  10. Health information seeking and the World Wide Web: an uncertainty management perspective.

    PubMed

    Rains, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty management theory was applied in the present study to offer one theoretical explanation for how individuals use the World Wide Web to acquire health information and to help better understand the implications of the Web for information seeking. The diversity of information sources available on the Web and potential to exert some control over the depth and breadth of one's information-acquisition effort is argued to facilitate uncertainty management. A total of 538 respondents completed a questionnaire about their uncertainty related to cancer prevention and information-seeking behavior. Consistent with study predictions, use of the Web for information seeking interacted with respondents' desired level of uncertainty to predict their actual level of uncertainty about cancer prevention. The results offer evidence that respondents who used the Web to search for cancer information were better able than were respondents who did not seek information to achieve a level of uncertainty commensurate with the level of uncertainty they desired.

  11. A real time patient monitoring system on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K.; Kohane, I.; Bradshaw, K. L.; Fackler, J.

    1996-01-01

    World Wide Web (Web) technology has become increasingly popular and successful, because it uses standard communication protocols and Hyper Text Markup Language(HTML), and is supported on multiple platforms. Innovations such as server push, secure socket layer and Java make it possible to use the Web as the basis for creating monitoring systems of dynamic processes. This paper presents a project, whose goal is to develop a Web based Intelligent on-line Monitoring system for Intensive Care Units (IMI). IMI has been tested and evaluated in an intensive care unit since October 1995, and the results are promising. After presenting the motivations of using Web technology, we present the system structure and the functionality of IMI as well as the testing and evaluation results. Security issues are also addressed. PMID:8947761

  12. The University of Michigan Student Health Physics Society's Radiation and Health Physics World Wide Web Site.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Jonathan G; West, W Geoffrey; Wagner, Eric; Kearfott, Kimberlee J

    2005-05-01

    The University of Michigan Student Health Physics Society's (UMSHPS) Radiation and Health Physics World Wide Web Site is an informative database of radiation and health physics related topics. With over 1,000 visitors each day, the UMSHPS web site provides professionals and the general public with a valuable resource for information and research. Users of this site can either search for information by topic or submit questions directly to the qualified members the national Health Physics Society. During the past year, progress has been made in replacing the site's older, less versatile framework with new search engines and refined submittal forms, as well as a "Frequently Asked Questions" section. Within the database, references will include brief summaries of the site's available information and target audience. Although these changes have been beneficial for the site, the UMSHPS continuously seeks professional opinions and ideas to further the services that this online resource can provide to the profession and to the general public.

  13. WebReport: a World Wide Web based clinical multimedia reporting system.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J; Antipov, I; Walker, W K; Polonkey, S E; Naus, G J

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes WebReport, a World Wide Web (WWW) client for the Image Engine multimedia clinical information system under development at the University of Pittsburgh. WebReport uses advanced HTML features such as frames, forms, tables and inline JPEG image display to provide an easy to use system for retrieving and viewing diagnostic images and reports generated by clinical procedures such as gastrointestinal endoscopy, radiology and surgical pathology. WebReport implements a number of WWW client-side features, such as HTML forms data entry verification and makes extensive use of the JavaScript programming language. The WebReport system uses a number of approaches for ensuring the confidentiality and security of patient data transmitted over the InterNet.

  14. Real-Time Payload Control and Monitoring on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies such as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Java object-oriented programming environment offer a powerful, yet relatively inexpensive, framework for distributed application software development. This paper describes the design of a real-time payload control and monitoring system that was developed with W3 technologies at NASA Ames Research Center. Based on Java Development Toolkit (JDK) 1.1, the system uses an event-driven "publish and subscribe" approach to inter-process communication and graphical user-interface construction. A C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) compatible inference engine provides the back-end intelligent data processing capability, while Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) provides the data management function. Preliminary evaluation shows acceptable performance for some classes of payloads, with Java's portability and multimedia support identified as the most significant benefit.

  15. Development and validation of a World-Wide-Web-based neurocognitive assessment battery: WebNeuro.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Steven M; Berten, Sarah; Olson, Patricia; Paul, Robert; Willams, Leanne M; Cooper, Nicholas; Gordon, Evian

    2007-11-01

    Assessment of neurocognitive functioning is a critical task in many clinical, educational, service, and industrial settings. We report on descriptive and validation data of a new, World-Wide-Web-based, comprehensive battery of neurocognitive functioning, WebNeuro, that can be used in both applied and research contexts. Fifty healthy control participants completed both WebNeuro, and an established non-Internet-based computerized cognitive assessment battery, IntegNeuro, that uses a touchscreen platform. Results indicated comparability across the two batteries, in terms of critical single test scores, factor analysis derived indices,overall performance scores, and sex differences. These results support the validity of WebNeuro as a neurocognitive assessment measure. Advantages of its use in applied and research settings are discussed.

  16. A chemical status predictor. A methodology based on World-Wide sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Gredilla, A; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, S; de Diego, A; Arana, G; Stoichev, T; Amigo, J M; Wasserman, J C; Botello, A V; Sarkar, S K; Schäfer, J; Moreno, C; de la Guardia, M; Madariaga, J M

    2015-09-15

    As a consequence of the limited resources of underdeveloped countries and the limited interest of the developed ones, the assessment of the chemical quality of entire water bodies around the world is a utopia in the near future. The methodology described here may serve as a first approach for the fast identification of water bodies that do not meet the good chemical status demanded by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). It also allows estimating the natural background (or reference values of concentration) of the areas under study using a simple criterion. The starting point is the calculation the World-Wide Natural Background Levels (WWNBLs) and World-Wide Threshold Values (WWTVs), two indexes that depend on the concentration of seven elements present in sediments. These elements, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, have been selected taking into account the recommendations of the UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) and USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), that describe them as elements of concern with respect to environmental toxicity. The methodology has been exemplified in a case study that includes 134 sediment samples collected in 11 transitional water bodies from 7 different countries and 4 different continents. Six of the water bodies considered met the good chemical status demanded by the WFD. The rest of them exceeded the reference WWTVs, at least for one of the elements. The estuaries of the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal (Basque Country) and Cavado (Portugal), the sea inlet of Río San Pedro (Spain), the Sepetiba Bay (Brazil) and the Yucateco lagoon (Mexico) belong to that group.

  17. WorldWide Telescope: A Newly Open Source Astronomy Visualization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, Jonathan; Roberts, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    After eight years of development by Microsoft Research, WorldWide Telescope (WWT) was made an open source project at the end of June 2015. WWT was motivated by the desire to put new surveys of objects, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the context of the night sky. The development of WWT under Microsoft started with the creation of a Windows desktop client that is widely used in various education, outreach and research projects. Using this, users can explore the data built into WWT as well as data that is loaded in. Beyond exploration, WWT can be used to create tours that present various datasets a narrative format.In the past two years, the team developed a collection of web controls, including an HTML5 web client, which contains much of the functionality of the Windows desktop client. The project under Microsoft has deep connections with several user communities such as education through the WWT Ambassadors program, http://wwtambassadors.org/ and with planetariums and museums such as the Adler Planetarium. WWT can also support research, including using WWT to visualize the Bones of the Milky Way and rich connections between WWT and the Astrophysical Data Systems (ADS, http://labs.adsabs.harvard.edu/adsabs/). One important new research connection is the use of WWT to create dynamic and potentially interactive supplements to journal articles, which have been created in 2015.Now WWT is an open source community lead project. The source code is available in GitHub (https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope). There is significant developer documentation on the website (http://worldwidetelescope.org/Developers/) and an extensive developer workshops (http://wwtworkshops.org/?tribe_events=wwt-developer-workshop) has taken place in the fall of 2015.Now that WWT is open source anyone who has the interest in the project can be a contributor. As important as helping out with coding, the project needs people interested in documentation, testing, training and other roles.

  18. [A visual displayer for publishing radiologic images on the World Wide Web].

    PubMed

    Setti, E; Musumeci, R

    2000-05-01

    To present a software suitable for publication of medical images on the World Wide Web and compatible with both the DICOM and other popular formats like GIF and JPEG. DICOM viewer is a Java applet, written in Java 1.0. The tool offers the capability to publish medical images, to modify brightness and contrast (windowing) and to magnify the picture (magnification lens). Information related to the image is available for consultation only for DICOM images. The viewer was tested with many DICOM files, generated by our PACS or downloaded from Internet. It works well with the DICOM 3.0 file format, but correct functioning is not granted for previous releases. The software was compatible with all the most popular Web browsers (MS Internet Explorer 3.0 or newer, Netscape Navigator 4.5 or newer, Sun and HotJava) and it works well in Windows, Sun Solaris. Macintosh, Windows CE. A 512 kb image (a standard MR image) requires about 5 seconds to be shown on an Intel Pentium II PC with 32 Mbyte RAM connected on a 10 Mbit/s Ethernet network. About 3 seconds are needed to download the file and about 2 seconds to display the image. Windowing and zooming are quick enough. The applet allows to publish DICOM medical images directly on the World Wide Web, without converting them into another graphical format. Moreover, it supplies some image processing tools common in the radiological environment. The viewer characteristics make it suitable for preparing teaching radiology sites or clinical files on the Web. The viewer's performance is somewhat poor, particularly on the Internet. Better performances are achieved on local area network (intranet). To improve performance, we will introduce file compression and rewrite the software in Java 1.1. The software is available from the author free of charge.

  19. Women, pharmacy and the World Wide Web: could they be the answer to the obesity epidemic?

    PubMed

    Fakih, Souhiela; Hussainy, Safeera; Marriott, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to explore how giving women access to evidence-based information in weight management through pharmacies, and by utilising the World Wide Web, is a much needed step towards dealing with the obesity crisis. Women's needs should be considered when developing evidence-based information on weight. Excess weight places them at high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, infertility and complications following pregnancy and giving birth. Women are also an important population group because they influence decision-making around meal choices for their families and are the biggest consumers of weight-loss products, many of which can be purchased in pharmacies. Pharmacies are readily accessible primary healthcare locations and given the pharmacist's expertise in being able to recognise underlying causes of obesity (e.g. medications, certain disease states), pharmacies are an ideal location to provide women with evidence-based information on all facets of weight management. Considering the exponential rise in the use of the World Wide Web, this information could be delivered as an online educational resource supported by other flexible formats. The time has come for the development of an online, evidence-based educational resource on weight management, which is combined with other flexible formats and targeted at women in general and according to different phases of their lives (pregnancy, post-partum, menopause). By empowering women with this knowledge it will allow them and their families to take better control of their health and wellbeing, and it may just be the much needed answer to complement already existing resources to help curb the obesity epidemic. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. Hierarchical structure of mitochondrial DNA gene flow among humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae, world-wide.

    PubMed

    Baker, C S; Slade, R W; Bannister, J L; Abernethy, R B; Weinrich, M T; Lien, J; Urban, J; Corkeron, P; Calmabokidis, J; Vasquez, O

    1994-08-01

    The genetic structure of humpback whale populations and subpopulation divisions is described by restriction fragment length analysis of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA from samples of 230 whales collected by biopsy darting in 11 seasonal habitats representing six subpopulations, or 'stocks', world-wide. The hierarchical structure of mtDNA haplotype diversity among population subdivisions is described using the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) procedure, the analysis of gene identity, and the genealogical relationship of haplotypes as constructed by parsimony analysis and distance clustering. These analyses revealed: (i) significant partitioning of world-wide genetic variation among oceanic populations, among subpopulations or 'stocks' within oceanic populations and among seasonal habitats within stocks; (ii) fixed categorical segregation of haplotypes on the south-eastern Alaska and central California feeding grounds of the North Pacific; (iii) support for the division of the North Pacific population into a central stock which feeds in Alaska and winters in Hawaii, and an eastern or 'American' stock which feeds along the coast of California and winters near Mexico; (iv) evidence of genetic heterogeneity within the Gulf of Maine feeding grounds and among the sampled feeding and breeding grounds of the western North Atlantic; and (v) support for the historical division between the Group IV (Western Australia) and Group V (eastern Australia, New Zealand and Tonga) stocks in the Southern Oceans. Overall, our results demonstrate a striking degree of genetic structure both within and between oceanic populations of humpback whales, despite the nearly unlimited migratory potential of this species. We suggest that the humpback whale is a suitable demographic and genetic model for the management of less tractable species of baleen whales and for the general study of gene flow among long-lived, mobile vertebrates in the marine ecosystem.

  1. A survey of kidney disease and risk-factor information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Calderón, José Luis; Zadshir, Ashraf; Norris, Keith

    2004-11-11

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is epidemic, and informing those at risk is a national health priority. However, the discrepancy between the readability of health information and the literacy skills of those it targets is a recognized barrier to communicating health information that may promote good health outcomes. Because the World Wide Web has become one of the most important sources of health information, we sought to assess the readability of commonly available CKD information. Twelve highly cited English-language, kidney disease Web sites were identified with 4 popular search engines. Each Web site was reviewed for the availability of 6 domains of information germane to CKD and risk-factor information. We estimated readability scores with the Flesch-Kincaid and Flesch Reading Ease Index methods. The deviation of readability scores for CKD information from readability appropriate to average literacy skills and the limited literacy skills of vulnerable populations (low socioeconomic status, health disparities, and elderly) were calculated. Eleven Web sites met the inclusion criteria. Six of 11 sites provided information on all 6 domains of CKD and risk-factor information. Mean readability scores for all 6 domains of CKD information exceeded national average literacy skills and far exceeded the fifth-grade-level readability desired for informing vulnerable populations. Information about CKD and diabetes consistently had higher readability scores. Information on the World Wide Web about CKD and its risk factors may not be readable for comprehension by the general public, especially by underserved minority populations with limited literacy skills. Barriers to health communication may be important contributors to the rising CKD epidemic and disparities in CKD health status experienced by minority populations.

  2. Fast 3D Net Expeditions: Tools for Effective Scientific Collaboration on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Val; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Two new technologies, the FASTexpedition and Remote FAST, have been developed that provide remote, 3D (three dimensional), high resolution, dynamic, interactive viewing of scientific data. The FASTexpedition permits one to access scientific data from the World Wide Web, take guided expeditions through the data, and continue with self controlled expeditions through the data. Remote FAST permits collaborators at remote sites to simultaneously view an analysis of scientific data being controlled by one of the collaborators. Control can be transferred between sites. These technologies are now being used for remote collaboration in joint university, industry, and NASA projects. Also, NASA Ames Research Center has initiated a project to make scientific data and guided expeditions through the data available as FASTexpeditions on the World Wide Web for educational purposes. Previously, remote visualization of dynamic data was done using video format (transmitting pixel information) such as video conferencing or MPEG (Motion Picture Expert Group) movies on the Internet. The concept for this new technology is to send the raw data (e.g., grids, vectors, and scalars) along with viewing scripts over the Internet and have the pixels generated by a visualization tool running on the viewers local workstation. The visualization tool that is currently used is FAST (Flow Analysis Software Toolkit). The advantages of this new technology over using video format are: (1) The visual is much higher in resolution (1280x1024 pixels with 24 bits of color) than typical video format transmitted over the network. (2) The form of the visualization can be controlled interactively (because the viewer is interactively controlling the visualization tool running on his workstation). (3) A rich variety of guided expeditions through the data can be included easily. (4) A capability is provided for other sites to see a visual analysis of one site as the analysis is interactively performed. Control of

  3. Visualizing Moon Phases in the Classroom with WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Sunbury, S.; Zhang, Z.; Sadler, P. M.; Dussault, M. E.; Lotridge, E.; Jackson, J.; Constantin, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report results from an NSF-funded project to build, test, and research the impact of a WorldWide Telescope Visualization Lab (WWT Vizlab), meant to offer learners a deeper physical understanding of the causes of the Moon’s phases and eclipses. The Moon Phases VizLab is designed to promote accurate visualization of the complex, 3-dimensional Earth-Sun-Moon relationships required to understand the Moon’s phases, while also providing opportunities for middle school students to practice critical science skills, like using models, making predictions and observations, and linking them in evidence-based explanations. In the Moon Phases VizLab, students use both computer-based models and lamp + ball physical models. The VizLab emphasizes the use of different scales in models, why some models are to scale and some are not, and how choices we make in a model can sometimes inadvertently lead to misconceptions. For example, textbook images almost always depict the Earth and Moon as being vastly too close together, and this contributes to the common misconception that the Moon’s phases are caused by the Earth’s shadow. We tested the Moon Phases VizLab in two separate phases. In Phase 1 (fall 2012), we compared learning gains from the WorldWide Telescope (WWT) VizLab with a traditional 2-dimensional Moon phases simulator. Students in this study who used WWT had overall higher learning gains than students who used the traditional 2D simulator, and demonstrated greater enthusiasm for using the virtual model than students who used the 2D simulator. In Phase 2 (spring 2013), all students in the study used WWT for the virtual model, but we experimented with different sequencing of physical and virtual models in the classroom. We found that students who began the unit with higher prior knowledge of Moon phases (based on the pre-unit assessment) had overall higher learning gains when they used the virtual model first, followed by the physical model, while students who had

  4. Fast 3D Net Expeditions: Tools for Effective Scientific Collaboration on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Val; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Two new technologies, the FASTexpedition and Remote FAST, have been developed that provide remote, 3D (three dimensional), high resolution, dynamic, interactive viewing of scientific data. The FASTexpedition permits one to access scientific data from the World Wide Web, take guided expeditions through the data, and continue with self controlled expeditions through the data. Remote FAST permits collaborators at remote sites to simultaneously view an analysis of scientific data being controlled by one of the collaborators. Control can be transferred between sites. These technologies are now being used for remote collaboration in joint university, industry, and NASA projects. Also, NASA Ames Research Center has initiated a project to make scientific data and guided expeditions through the data available as FASTexpeditions on the World Wide Web for educational purposes. Previously, remote visualization of dynamic data was done using video format (transmitting pixel information) such as video conferencing or MPEG (Motion Picture Expert Group) movies on the Internet. The concept for this new technology is to send the raw data (e.g., grids, vectors, and scalars) along with viewing scripts over the Internet and have the pixels generated by a visualization tool running on the viewers local workstation. The visualization tool that is currently used is FAST (Flow Analysis Software Toolkit). The advantages of this new technology over using video format are: (1) The visual is much higher in resolution (1280x1024 pixels with 24 bits of color) than typical video format transmitted over the network. (2) The form of the visualization can be controlled interactively (because the viewer is interactively controlling the visualization tool running on his workstation). (3) A rich variety of guided expeditions through the data can be included easily. (4) A capability is provided for other sites to see a visual analysis of one site as the analysis is interactively performed. Control of

  5. Testing Quantum Models of Conjunction Fallacy on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Diederik; Arguëlles, Jonito Aerts; Beltran, Lester; Beltran, Lyneth; de Bianchi, Massimiliano Sassoli; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    The `conjunction fallacy' has been extensively debated by scholars in cognitive science and, in recent times, the discussion has been enriched by the proposal of modeling the fallacy using the quantum formalism. Two major quantum approaches have been put forward: the first assumes that respondents use a two-step sequential reasoning and that the fallacy results from the presence of `question order effects'; the second assumes that respondents evaluate the cognitive situation as a whole and that the fallacy results from the `emergence of new meanings', as an `effect of overextension' in the conceptual conjunction. Thus, the question arises as to determine whether and to what extent conjunction fallacies would result from `order effects' or, instead, from `emergence effects'. To help clarify this situation, we propose to use the World Wide Web as an `information space' that can be interrogated both in a sequential and non-sequential way, to test these two quantum approaches. We find that `emergence effects', and not `order effects', should be considered the main cognitive mechanism producing the observed conjunction fallacies.

  6. Measurement issues related to data collection on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Ora L; Moloney, Margaret F; Dietrich, Alexa S; Myerburg, Stuart; Cotsonis, George A; Johnson, Robert V

    2003-01-01

    As the World Wide Web has become more prominent as a mode of communication, it has opened up new possibilities for research data collection. This article identifies measurement issues that occur with Internet data collection that are relevant to qualitative and quantitative research approaches as they occurred in a triangulated Internet study of perimenopausal women with migraine headaches. Issues associated with quantitative data collection over the Internet include (a) selecting and designing Internet data collection protocols that adequately address study aims while also taking advantage of the Internet, (b) ensuring the reliability and validity of Internet data collected, (c) adapting quantitative paper-and-pencil data collection protocols for the Internet, (d) making Internet data collection practical for respondents and researchers, and (e) ensuring the quality of quantitative data collected. Qualitative data collection over the Internet needs to remain true to the philosophical stance of the qualitative approach selected. Researcher expertise in qualitative data collection must be combined with expertise in computer technology and information services if data are to be of ultimate quality The advantages and limitations of collecting qualitative data in real time or at a later time are explored, as well as approaches to enhance qualitative data collection over the Internet. It was concluded that like any research approach or method, Internet data collection requires considerable creativity, expertise, and planning to take advantage of the technology for the collection of reliable and valid research data.

  7. Alaskan Auroral All-Sky Images on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to a 1995 NASA SPDS announcement of support for preservation and distribution of important data sets online, the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, proposed to provide World Wide Web access to the Poker Flat Auroral All-sky Camera images in real time. The Poker auroral all-sky camera is located in the Davis Science Operation Center at Poker Flat Rocket Range about 30 miles north-east of Fairbanks, Alaska, and is connected, through a microwave link, with the Geophysical Institute where we maintain the data base linked to the Web. To protect the low light-level all-sky TV camera from damage due to excessive light, we only operate during the winter season when the moon is down. The camera and data acquisition is now fully computer controlled. Digital images are transmitted each minute to the Web linked data base where the data are available in a number of different presentations: (1) Individual JPEG compressed images (1 minute resolution); (2) Time lapse MPEG movie of the stored images; and (3) A meridional plot of the entire night activity.

  8. The Culture-Transmission Motive in Immigrants: A World-Wide Internet Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mchitarjan, Irina; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A world-wide internet survey was conducted to test central assumptions of a recent theory of cultural transmission in minorities proposed by the authors. 844 1st to 2nd generation immigrants from a wide variety of countries recruited on a microjob platform completed a questionnaire designed to test eight hypotheses derived from the theory. Support was obtained for all hypotheses. In particular, evidence was obtained for the continued presence, in the immigrants, of the culture-transmission motive postulated by the theory: the desire to maintain the culture of origin and transmit it to the next generation. Support was also obtained for the hypothesized anchoring of the culture-transmission motive in more basic motives fulfilled by cultural groups, the relative intra- and intergenerational stability of the culture-transmission motive, and its motivating effects for action tendencies and desires that support cultural transmission under the difficult conditions of migration. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the assumption that people have a culture-transmission motive belongs to the folk psychology of sociocultural groups, and that immigrants regard the fulfillment of this desire as a moral right. PMID:26529599

  9. Virtual Reality Astronomy Education Using AAS WorldWide Telescope and Oculus Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, A. David; Moraitis, Christina D.

    2017-01-01

    The Boyd E. Christenberry Planetarium at Samford University (Birmingham, AL) offers family friendly, live, and interactive planetarium presentations that educate the public on topics from astronomy basics to current cutting edge astronomical discoveries. With limited funding, it is not possible to provide state of the art planetarium hardware for these community audiences. In a society in which many people, even young children, have access to high resolution smart phones and highly realistic video games, it is important to leverage cutting-edge technology to intrigue young and old minds alike. We use an Oculus Rift virtual reality headset running AAS WorldWide Telescope software to visualize 3D data in a fully immersive environment. We create interactive experiences and videos to highlight astronomical concepts and also to communicate the beauty of our universe. The ease of portability enables us to set up at Virtual Reality (VR) experience at various events, festivals, and even in classrooms to provide a community outreach that a fixed planetarium cannot. This VR experience adds the “wow” factor that encourages children and adults to engage in our various planetarium events to learn more about astronomy and continue to explore the final frontier of space. These VR experiences encourages our college students to participate in our astronomy education resulting in increased interest in STEM fields, particularly physics and math.

  10. Discourse analysis of computer-mediated conferencing in World Wide Web-based continuing medical education.

    PubMed

    Curran, Vernon; Kirby, Fran; Parsons, Ean; Lockyer, Jocelyn

    2003-01-01

    Computer-mediated conferencing (CMC) is a computer messaging system that allows users to engage in asynchronous text-based communications that are independent of time and place. It has been suggested that CMC is an effective modality for facilitating constructivist learning environments that enable adult learners to engage in a continuous, collaborative process of building and reshaping knowledge and understanding. The goals of this exploratory study were to assess the nature of the interactions and collaborative learning characteristics exhibited in World Wide Web-based continuing medical education courseware programs that used CMC and to examine physicians' satisfaction with on-line CMC discussion as a planned learning activity of Web-based CME. The Transcript Analysis Tool (TAT) was used to analyze the nature of the discourse that took place in four different Web-based CME courseware programs. Course evaluation surveys and interviews were also conducted with participants to evaluate their satisfaction with on-line CMC discussion. The results suggest that the nature of participation in the programs consisted primarily of independent messages with a minimal amount of learner-to-learner interaction. Elements of critical reflection, interaction, and debate between participants appeared to be missing from these discussions. As such, these discussions were not characteristic of the principles of constructivist learning environments. Interactive participation will not occur just because CMC is being used. The design of Web-based CME learning activities, participant characteristics, and facilitation are key factors that influence the effective use of CMC.

  11. In-house access to PACS images and related data through World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Mascarini, C; Ratib, O; Trayser, G; Ligier, Y; Appel, R D

    1996-06-01

    The development of a hospital wide PACS is in progress at the University Hospital of Geneva and several archive modules are operational since 1992. This PACS is intended for wide distribution of images to clinical wards. As the PACS project and the number of archived images grow rapidly in the hospital, it was necessary to provide an easy, more widely accessible and convenient access to the PACS database for the clinicians in the different wards and clinical units of the hospital. An innovative solution has been developed using tools such as Netscape navigator and NCSA World Wide Web server as an alternative to conventional database query and retrieval software. These tools present the advantages of providing a user interface which is the same, independent of the platform being used (e.g. Mac, Windows, UNIX), and an easy integration of different types of documents (e.g. text, images). A strict access control has been added to this interface. It allows user identification and access rights checking, as defined by the in-house hospital information system, before allowing the navigation through patient data records.

  12. In-house access to PACS images and related data through World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascarini, Christian; Ratib, Osman M.; Trayser, Gerhard; Ligier, Yves; Appel, R. D.

    1996-05-01

    The development of a hospital wide PACS is in progress at the University Hospital of Geneva and several archive modules are operational since 1992. This PACS is intended for wide distribution of images to clinical wards. As the PACS project and the number of archived images grow rapidly in the hospital, it was necessary to provide an easy, more widely accessible and convenient access to the PACS database for the clinicians in the different wards and clinical units of the hospital. An innovative solution has been developed using tools such as Netscape navigator and NCSA World Wide Web server as an alternative to conventional database query and retrieval software. These tools present the advantages of providing an user interface which is the same independently of the platform being used (Mac, Windows, UNIX, ...), and an easy integration of different types of documents (text, images, ...). A strict access control has been added to this interface. It allows user identification and access rights checking, as defined by the in-house hospital information system, before allowing the navigation through patient data records.

  13. World-wide genetic differentiation of Eubalaena: questioning the number of right whale species.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, H C; Brownell, R L; Brown, M W; Schaeff, C; Portway, V; White, B N; Malik, S; Pastene, L A; Patenaude, N J; Baker, C S; Goto, M; Best, P B; Clapham, P J; Hamilton, P; Moore, M; Payne, R; Rowntree, V; Tynan, C T; Bannister, J L; DeSalle, R

    2000-11-01

    Few studies have examined systematic relationships of right whales (Eubalaena spp.) since the original species descriptions, even though they are one of the most endangered large whales. Little morphological evidence exists to support the current species designations for Eubalaena glacialis in the northern hemisphere and E. australis in the southern hemisphere. Differences in migratory behaviour or antitropical distribution between right whales in each hemisphere are considered a barrier to gene flow and maintain the current species distinctions and geographical populations. However, these distinctions between populations have remained controversial and no study has included an analysis of all right whales from the three major ocean basins. To address issues of genetic differentiation and relationships among right whales, we have compiled a database of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from right whales representing populations in all three ocean basins that consist of: western North Atlantic E. glacialis, multiple geographically distributed populations of E. australis and the first molecular analysis of historical and recent samples of E. glacialis from the western and eastern North Pacific Ocean. Diagnostic characters, as well as phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses, support the possibility that three distinct maternal lineages exist in right whales, with North Pacific E. glacialis being more closely related to E. australis than to North Atlantic E. glacialis. Our genetic results provide unequivocal character support for the two usually recognized species and a third distinct genetic lineage in the North Pacific under the Phylogenetic Species Concept, as well as levels of genetic diversity among right whales world-wide.

  14. A Computing Environment to Support Repeatable Scientific Big Data Experimentation of World-Wide Scientific Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Schlicher, Bob G; Kulesz, James J; Abercrombie, Robert K; Kruse, Kara L

    2015-01-01

    A principal tenant of the scientific method is that experiments must be repeatable and relies on ceteris paribus (i.e., all other things being equal). As a scientific community, involved in data sciences, we must investigate ways to establish an environment where experiments can be repeated. We can no longer allude to where the data comes from, we must add rigor to the data collection and management process from which our analysis is conducted. This paper describes a computing environment to support repeatable scientific big data experimentation of world-wide scientific literature, and recommends a system that is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to provide value to investigators from government agencies, academic institutions, and industry entities. The described computing environment also adheres to the recently instituted digital data management plan mandated by multiple US government agencies, which involves all stages of the digital data life cycle including capture, analysis, sharing, and preservation. It particularly focuses on the sharing and preservation of digital research data. The details of this computing environment are explained within the context of cloud services by the three layer classification of Software as a Service , Platform as a Service , and Infrastructure as a Service .

  15. An On Line Atmospheric Dispersion Model (OLADMO) for the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, Adam J.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of earlier and current methods of modelling atmospheric dispersion, and proposes and evaluates a screening model for operation over the World Wide Web. The On Line Atmospheric Dispersion Model (OLADMO) is a quasi boundary layer parameterised Gaussian plume model with additional algorithms to account for plume rise, building wake effects and deposition processes. The Monin-Obukhov length boundary layer parameter is utilised to define six stability classes in order to determine atmospheric turbulence and stability, whilst new equations, derived from an intercomparison study of old and next generation dispersion models, are used to calculate the horizontal and vertical dispersion coefficients σ y and σ z . Using data from two field experiments in Copenhagen, Denmark and Lillestrøm, Norway, the model results from OLADMO are found to compare favourably with the results from several old and next generation dispersion models. As a consequence of the unique nature of the meteorological and location factors of the Lillestrøm experiment, all models struggled to represent the concentrations observed during the field study adequately. However, OLADMO was the best performing model in this case, with a mean normalised crosswind integrated concentration 13% closer to the mean observed concentration than its nearest competitor. Because the evaluation of the model was conducted with a limited dataset, several limitations and improvements to both the model and experimental procedure are suggested.

  16. Design and development of an interactive medical teleconsultation system over the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Bai, J; Zhang, Y; Dai, B

    1998-06-01

    The objective of the medical teleconsultation system presented in this paper is to demonstrate the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) for telemedicine and interactive medical information exchange. The system, which is developed based on Java, could provide several basic Java tools to fulfill the requirements of medical applications, including a file manager, data tool, bulletin board, and digital audio tool. The digital audio tool uses point-to-point structure to enable two physicians to communicate directly through voice. The others use multipoint structure. The file manager manages the medical images stored in the WWW information server, which come from a hospital database. The data tool supports cooperative operations on the medical data between the participating physicians. The bulletin board enables the users to discuss special cases by writing text on the board, send their personal or group diagnostic reports on the cases, and reorganize the reports and store them in its report file for later use. The system provides a hardware-independent platform for physicians to interact with one another as well as to access medical information over the WWW.

  17. Violent ethnic wars and world-wide people movement: implications for mental health nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Procter, N G

    1998-09-01

    In recent years, the world has been subjected to violent ethnic wars for autonomy and secession. Violent conflicts over national and international territorial boundaries are marked by a murderous mistrust, hatred and a perpetual life-and-death struggle in the present. For the mental health nurse, the world-wide persistent global circumstance of international catastrophe and increasing nationalism mediated through war is inextricably linked to practice as well as the significant health and lifestyle concerns of displaced people. Central to the discussion in this paper will be the mechanisms used by the mental health nurse to maintain empathy and clinical excellence during highly sensitive practice issues; in particular, the management of feelings of frustration, anger, guilt, loneliness and sleeplessness, and repeated mental images of suffering and human butchering, because these issues intersect with national and cultural identity. In rising to the challenges these issues present, mental health nursing must co-exist with critical world events and the globalisation of national identity in cultural diversity.

  18. Teaching literature searching in the context of the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, K. A.; Lehmann, H. P.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the required curriculum for medical students, we devised a literature-searching practicum that has been used for two years. In both years, we stressed going beyond the skills needed for using a particular searching program, towards a more conceptual approach to information searching. In the first year, the practicum was taught in a traditional lecture/hands-on format. In the second year, the lecture was replaced by a World Wide Web-based tutorial (http:@www.welch.jhu.edu/Education/tutorials/pra cticum.html). To our knowledge, this is the first Web-based resource intended to teach students about appropriate use of search technology. Comparison of student evaluations showed no difference in attitude toward the two versions of the practicum, and observation of student performance suggested similar levels of proficiency. We conclude that placing these educational materials on the Web (1) makes us practice what we preach; (2) is as effective as traditional teaching methods; and (3) gives students a resource for reinforcement learning. PMID:8563420

  19. WorldWide Telescope and Google Sky: New Technologies to Engage Students and the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsberg, R. H.; Subbarao, M. U.; Dettloff, L.

    2010-08-01

    New, visually rich, astronomical software environments coupled with large web-accessible data sets hold the promise of new and exciting ways to teach, collaborate, and explore the universe. These freeware tools provide contextual views of astronomical objects, real time access to multi-wavelength sky surveys, and, most importantly, the ability to incorporate new data and to produce user created content. This interactive panel examined the capabilities of Google Sky and WorldWide Telescope, and explored case studies of how these tools have been used to create compelling and participatory educational experiences in both formal (i.e., K-12 and undergraduate non-science majors classrooms), and informal (e.g., museum) settings. The overall goal of this session was to stimulate a discussion about future uses of these technologies. Substantial time was allotted for participants to create conceptual designs of learning experiences for use at their home institutions, with feedback provided by the panel members. Activities included technical discussions (e.g., mechanisms for incorporating new data and dissemination tools), exercises in narrative preparation, and a brainstorming session to identify potential future uses of these technologies.

  20. World-wide seasonal variation of 7Be related to large-scale atmospheric circulation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzi, Lucrezia; Kalinowski, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Meteorological processes can be deciphered using 7Be as aerosol tracer. Especially ground based observation of 7Be world-wide over a long period of time can reveal information about large-scale atmospheric circulation dynamics. The CTBT through its RN network collects the activity concentration of these tracers since over 15 years and built up unique and powerful datasets that can be interpolated into global concentration maps. Maps of observed 7Be global seasonal variation as an expression of atmospheric cell migration such as Hadley, Ferrel and Polar cells. Previous studies used data from IMS stations to correlate beryllium trends to atmospheric patterns but on a local or regional scale. In this paper, we demonstrate how for the first time a worldwide beryllium concentration map is reconstructed using 15 years of data from 63 IMS radionuclide stations. Findings can be presented on correlation between 7Be global patterns with ITCZ, sun spots, tropopause height, Walker circulation, ENSO, SSW, SEP, Indian Monsoon and QBO. 7Be might possibly serve as an early warning indicator and complement other methodologies for determining global atmospheric phenomena. These relations would benefit from further studies.

  1. TOGA COARE Satellite data summaries available on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, S. S.; Houze, R. A., Jr.; Mapes, B. E.; Brodzick, S. R.; Yutler, S. E.

    1995-01-01

    Satellite data summary images and analysis plots from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE), which were initially prepared in the field at the Honiara Operations Center, are now available on the Internet via World Wide Web browsers such as Mosaic. These satellite data summaries consist of products derived from the Japanese Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite IR data: a time-size series of the distribution of contiguous cold cloudiness areas, weekly percent high cloudiness (PHC) maps, and a five-month time-longitudinal diagram illustrating the zonal motion of large areas of cold cloudiness. The weekly PHC maps are overlaid with weekly mean 850-hPa wind calculated from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global analysis field and can be viewed as an animation loop. These satellite summaries provide an overview of spatial and temporal variabilities of the cloud population and a large-scale context for studies concerning specific processes of various components of TOGA COARE.

  2. World-Wide Web-based graphical user interfaces for laboratory data.

    PubMed

    Keller, D; Schaller, W J; Wong, J S K; de Groen, P C

    2002-01-01

    Electronic medical record systems permit collection of large amounts of medical information. Usually, information is presented in a fixed format, either as text or tables. Health care providers have to navigate this fixed format in order to find information useful for a specific patient-provider interaction. The main objective of this work was to allow the provider immediate access to specific laboratory information through the development of a highly customizable, graphical user interface to the Mayo Clinic laboratory information system. Here we describe this platform-independent, World-Wide-Web-based graphical user interface that allows the provider to see all or a predetermined panel of essential laboratory data in graphical format. Advantages include availability at internet-based workstations, immediate recognition of trends over time, ability to zoom in and out of specific periods of time, and detailed analysis of patient values in relationship to normal values. Web browser-based user interface allowing graphical display of laboratory data using Java technology was described. The connection to the Mayo Clinic laboratory information system combines cross-platform support for use on virtually any networked machine, interaction through a Web browser for ease of use, and a combination of the Perl and Java languages for powerful data processing and interactivity.

  3. Influenza H1N1 and the world wide economic crisis--a model of coherence?

    PubMed

    Sperling, W; Biermann, T

    2009-11-01

    A recent published model described the phenomenon of a global panic reaction (GPR) on the stock markets based on two remarkable stock market crashes in the months of January and March [Sperling W, Bleich S, Reulbach U, Black Monday on stock markets throughout the world - a new phenomenon of collective panic disorder? A psychiatric approach. Med Hypotheses; 2008]. This model was completed by a therapeutic approach following typical elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) [Sperling W, Biermann T, Maler JM, Global panic reaction - a therapeutic approach to a world-wide economic crisis. Med Hypotheses; 2009]. The phenomenon of a global panic reaction due to economic crises seems to have even larger implications on human health as well. It is well known that acute and chronic distress is competent to suppress the immune system by various mechanisms that are discussed in detail. This global panic reaction - that has also been observed in former times - might therefore be responsible for the new variation of recent influenza pandemic coming from Mexico.

  4. Expert knowledge in palliative care on the World Wide Web: palliativedrugs.org.

    PubMed

    Gavrin, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In my last Internet-related article, I speculated that social networking would be the coming wave in the effort to share knowledge among experts in various disciplines. At the time I did not know that a palliative care site on the World Wide Web (WWW), palliativedrugs.com, already provided the infrastructure for sharing expert knowledge in the field. The Web site is an excellent traditional formulary but it is primarily devoted to "unlicensed" ("off-label") use of medications in palliative care, something we in the specialty often do with little to support our interventions except shared knowledge and experience. There is nothing fancy about this Web site. In a good way, its format is a throwback to Web sites of the 1990s. In only the loosest sense can one describe it as "multimedia." Yet, it provides the perfect forum for expert knowledge and is a "must see" resource. Its existing content is voluminous and reliable, filtered and reviewed by renowned clinicians and educators in the field. Although its origin and structure were not specifically designed for social or professional networking, the Web site's format makes it a natural way for practitioners around the world to contribute to an ever-growing body of expertise in palliative care.

  5. TOGA COARE Satellite data summaries available on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, S. S.; Houze, R. A., Jr.; Mapes, B. E.; Brodzick, S. R.; Yutler, S. E.

    1995-01-01

    Satellite data summary images and analysis plots from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE), which were initially prepared in the field at the Honiara Operations Center, are now available on the Internet via World Wide Web browsers such as Mosaic. These satellite data summaries consist of products derived from the Japanese Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite IR data: a time-size series of the distribution of contiguous cold cloudiness areas, weekly percent high cloudiness (PHC) maps, and a five-month time-longitudinal diagram illustrating the zonal motion of large areas of cold cloudiness. The weekly PHC maps are overlaid with weekly mean 850-hPa wind calculated from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global analysis field and can be viewed as an animation loop. These satellite summaries provide an overview of spatial and temporal variabilities of the cloud population and a large-scale context for studies concerning specific processes of various components of TOGA COARE.

  6. Glue ear: how good is the information on the World Wide Web?

    PubMed

    Ritchie, L; Tornari, C; Patel, P M; Lakhani, R

    2016-02-01

    This paper objectively evaluates current information available to the general public related to glue ear on the World Wide Web. The term 'glue ear' was typed into the 3 most frequently used internet search engines - Google, Bing and Yahoo - and the first 20 links were analysed. The first 400 words of each page were used to calculate the Flesch-Kincaid readability score. Each website was subsequently graded using the Discern instrument, which gauges quality and content of literature. The websites Webmd.boots.com, Bupa.co.uk and Patient.co.uk received the highest overall scores. These reflected top scores in either readability or Discern instrument assessment, but not both. Readability and Discern scores increased with the presence of a marketing or advertising incentive. The Patient.co.uk website had the highest Discern score and third highest readability score. There is huge variation in the quality of information available to patients on the internet. Some websites may be accessible to a wide range of reading ages but have poor quality content, and vice versa. Clinicians should be aware of indicators of quality, and use validated instruments to assess and recommend literature.

  7. Radiology education in 2005: world wide web practice patterns, perceptions, and preferences of radiologists.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Melissa R; Johnson, Pamela T; Fishman, Elliot K

    2007-01-01

    Internet use has increased greatly in the past decade across all demographic sectors in the United States, and the World Wide Web currently serves as a valuable informational resource for physicians. A study was conducted in 2005 to evaluate the role of the Web in radiology education. A 28-question multiple-choice survey was administered during two institutionally run continuing medical education (CME) conferences. Questions addressed perceptions and use of the Web, as well as preferred resources for radiologic information and radiology education. Surveys were submitted by 92 radiologists, 97% of whom use the Web for radiology education. The reliability of information on the Web was deemed equal to that of information from traditional sources by 69% of respondents. Forty-five percent use the Web for CME; however, an institutionally run course was selected most frequently as the preferred method of CME, as well as the most effective and efficient. The search engine used by the largest number of participants to identify radiologic information is Google. For reading journal articles, 67% of respondents prefer hard copy. Monthly review of publications made available online before the print version is performed by only 26%. The results of the survey indicate that, despite an increase in Internet use and the perception that Web-based information is reliable, most practicing radiologists still prefer traditional educational resources for radiologic information and radiology education. (c) RSNA, 2007.

  8. Validity and client use of information from the World Wide Web regarding veterinary anesthesia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Erik H; Watson, Victoria; Snyder, Lindsey B C; Love, Emma J

    2008-12-15

    To determine the validity of the information on the World Wide Web concerning veterinary anesthesia in dogs and to determine the methods dog owners use to obtain that information. Web-based search and client survey. 73 Web sites and 92 clients. Web sites were scored on a 5-point scale for completeness and accuracy of information about veterinary anesthesia by 3 board-certified anesthesiologists. A search for anesthetic information regarding 49 specific breeds of dogs was also performed. A survey was distributed to the clients who visited the University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital during a 4-month period to solicit data about sources used by clients to obtain veterinary medical information and the manner in which information obtained from Web sites was used. The general search identified 73 Web sites that included information on veterinary anesthesia; these sites received a mean score of 3.4 for accuracy and 2.5 for completeness. Of 178 Web sites identified through the breed-specific search, 57 (32%) indicated that a particular breed was sensitive to anesthesia. Of 83 usable, completed surveys, 72 (87%) indicated the client used the Web for veterinary medical information. Fifteen clients (18%) indicated they believed their animal was sensitive to anesthesia because of its breed. Information available on the internet regarding anesthesia in dogs is generally not complete and may be misleading with respect to risks to specific breeds. Consequently, veterinarians should appropriately educate clients regarding anesthetic risk to their particular dog.

  9. Time as a variable in learning on the World-Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Taraban, R; Rynearson, K; Stalcup, K A

    2001-05-01

    Research in education, psychology, and neuroscience motivates a hypothesis that learning takes time. Support for the hypothesis was found in four replications of an upper level undergraduate course in which the material and activities for 50% of the topics were delivered over the World-Wide Web. Computer records were correlated with three types of test questions: multiple-choice, short-answer, and open-ended essay questions. Positive and significant correlations with time were observed for 33% of the correlations involving multiple-choice questions, 13% of those involving short-answer questions, and 60% of those involving open-ended essay questions. An estimate of the common underlying correlation, rho, equal to .35 for the four replications was significant. The data also revealed generally low overall study times and a maladaptive pattern of "cramming" before tests instead of distributing practice. In the Discussion section, we argue that computer study times can be used as a predictor of subsequent test performance, which is a measure of student learning.

  10. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) pairs associated with World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanbro, Matthew; Briggs, Michael

    2016-04-01

    We present Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) pairs detected with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Space Telescope and associated sferics from the World Wide Lightning Network (WWLLN). Several improvements have been made to the GBM TGF detection algorithms since launch in 2008, which have increased the rate of TGFs to ~800 a year. The improved TGF detection algorithms have also uncovered more TGFs within 200 s of each other. There are ~600 unique TGFs with a wide range of time separations. One question is whether a pair originates from the same thunderstorm or from different storms in a storm system. Detecting multiple TGFs from a single storm and their separation in time provides a measure of the electric charging timescales involved in the production of TGFs within a storm. With only gamma-ray detections, this question is difficult to answer since GBM detects TGFs up to 800 km from the nadir of Fermi. If WWLLN sferics are found for both TGFs of a pair, the improved localization uncertainty (<25km) allows us to better answer this question. We present TGF pairs that match this criteria. These pairs are temporally separated by milliseconds to ~180 s.

  11. The Culture-Transmission Motive in Immigrants: A World-Wide Internet Survey.

    PubMed

    Mchitarjan, Irina; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A world-wide internet survey was conducted to test central assumptions of a recent theory of cultural transmission in minorities proposed by the authors. 844 1st to 2nd generation immigrants from a wide variety of countries recruited on a microjob platform completed a questionnaire designed to test eight hypotheses derived from the theory. Support was obtained for all hypotheses. In particular, evidence was obtained for the continued presence, in the immigrants, of the culture-transmission motive postulated by the theory: the desire to maintain the culture of origin and transmit it to the next generation. Support was also obtained for the hypothesized anchoring of the culture-transmission motive in more basic motives fulfilled by cultural groups, the relative intra- and intergenerational stability of the culture-transmission motive, and its motivating effects for action tendencies and desires that support cultural transmission under the difficult conditions of migration. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the assumption that people have a culture-transmission motive belongs to the folk psychology of sociocultural groups, and that immigrants regard the fulfillment of this desire as a moral right.

  12. THE INTERNET AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB: APPLICATIONS FOR FAMILY PHYSICIANS IN SAUDI ARABIA

    PubMed Central

    Sebiany, Abdulaziz M.

    2001-01-01

    The introduction of the World Wide Web has revolutionized the applications of the computer and the Internet in the medical field. The Web provides an easy and cost-effective way of retrieving medical information and a more flexible way of communicating with patients and colleagues. Family practice is a specialty in which care is given to persons as individuals and members of families regardless of their age, gender or specific problems. To provide quality family practice, a family physician should be a good communicator, a critical thinker, a resource and information manager, a life-long learner, a care giver and a community advocate. Providing such high quality care requires that family practice be an information-sensitive specialty. However, the expansion of the new electronic resources on the Internet and the Web poses a real challenge to the family physician. Family physician in Saudi Arabia need to have basic skills and knowledge for easily retrieving and finding reliable Internet information for his professional development and the care of his patients. This article addresses the Web applications for family physicians in Saudi Arabia, giving examples of the most important Websites. PMID:23008644

  13. Creation and utilization of a World Wide Web based space radiation effects code: SIREST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, R. C. Jr; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.; Thibeault, S. A.; Noor, A. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badavi, F. F.; Chang, C. K.; Qualls, G. D.; hide

    2001-01-01

    In order for humans and electronics to fully and safely operate in the space environment, codes like HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) must be included in any designer's toolbox for design evaluation with respect to radiation damage. Currently, spacecraft designers do not have easy access to accurate radiation codes like HZETRN to evaluate their design for radiation effects on humans and electronics. Today, the World Wide Web is sophisticated enough to support the entire HZETRN code and all of the associated pre and post processing tools. This package is called SIREST (Space Ionizing Radiation Effects and Shielding Tools). There are many advantages to SIREST. The most important advantage is the instant update capability of the web. Another major advantage is the modularity that the web imposes on the code. Right now, the major disadvantage of SIREST will be its modularity inside the designer's system. This mostly comes from the fact that a consistent interface between the designer and the computer system to evaluate the design is incomplete. This, however, is to be solved in the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) program currently being funded by NASA.

  14. TOGA COARE satellite data summaries available on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.; Houze, R.A. Jr.; Brodzik, S.R.

    1995-03-01

    Satellite data summary images and analysis plots from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE), which were initially prepared in the field at the Honiara Operations Center, are now available on the Internet via World Wide Web browsers such as Mosaic. These satellite data summaries consist of products derived from the Japanese Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite IR data: a time-size series of the distribution of contiguous cold cloudiness areas, weekly percent high cloudiness (PHC) maps, and a five-month time-longitude diagram illustrating the zonal motion of large areas of cold cloudiness. The weekly PHC maps are overlaid with weekly mean 850-hPa wind calculated from the ECMWF global analysis field and can be viewed as an animation loop. These satellite summaries provide an overview of spatial and temporal variabilities of the cloud population and a large-scale context for studies concerning specific processes of various components of TOGA COARE. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Internet as clinical information system: application development using the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, J J; Socratous, S A; Clayton, P D

    1995-01-01

    Clinical computing application development at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center has been limited by the lack of a flexible programming environment that supports multiple client user platforms. The World Wide Web offers a potential solution, with its multifunction servers, multiplatform clients, and use of standard protocols for displaying information. The authors are now using the Web, coupled with their own local clinical data server and vocabulary server, to carry out rapid prototype development of clinical information systems. They have developed one such prototype system that can be run on most popular computing platforms from anywhere on the Internet. The Web paradigm allows easy integration of clinical information with other local and Internet-based information sources. The Web also simplifies many aspects of application design; for example, it includes facilities for the use of encryption to meet the authors' security and confidentiality requirements. The prototype currently runs on only the Web server in the Department of Medical Informatics at Columbia University, but it could be run on other Web servers that access the authors' clinical data and vocabulary servers. It could also be adapted to access clinical information from other systems with similar server capabilities. This approach may be adaptable for use in developing institution-independent standards for data and application sharing. PMID:7496876

  16. Graphite Girls in a Gigabyte World: Managing the World Wide Web in 700 Square Feet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Tamra; Saurino, Penelope; Johnson, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Our action research project examined the on-task and off-task behaviors of university-level student, use of wireless laptops in face-to-face classes in order to establish rules of wireless laptop etiquette in classroom settings. Participants in the case study of three university classrooms included undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral students.…

  17. On the necessity of making geoethics a central concern in eduethics world-wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crookall, David; Promduangsri, Pimnutcha

    2017-04-01

    Our planet is in dire need of ethical behaviour by all its citizens. However, recent research has highlighted the increasingly dangerous impact of human activity on life systems of the planet. CO2 emissions continue to rise (400+ppm, end 2016), methane emissions are accelerating. The Arctic is about 28°C above the normal average. Average global temperature is reaching 1° above normal. Air, water and ground pollution levels are reaching devastating levels. Resource depletion is accelerating. Yet most governments still beat the drums of growth, while hypocritically humming the tune of sustainability. Humans are overshooting the carrying capacity of the planet; as attested by top scientists and organizations. Earth overshoot day in 2016 was 8 August; we need 5½ earths to live like Australians. Of course, efforts are being made globally and locally to combat impending disaster and to encourage more respectful behaviour towards the planet and its life. Individuals include scientists, writers, film makers, journalists. World-wide organizations include Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN), the Climate Change Education Partnership Alliance, the International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO), and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). A key organization is the International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG) because it focuses firmly and explicitly on the key issue of ethics, which few others appear to do. One might argue that the general lack of major progress in environmental care is rooted to a large degree in the world-wide lack of strong adherence to geoethical principles. Learning to behave ethically needs far more than knowledge about energy imbalance, pollution, acidity, ice melt, etc. It needs people to learn, and grow up learning, about what is right and wrong in regard to each aspect of our personal earth citizen lives. That needs nothing short of a revolution in educational practice for all schools across the globe

  18. Test and Calibration of the Digital World-Wide Standardized Seismograph

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1982-01-01

    BACKGROUND During the past decade there has been steady progress in the modernization of the global seismograph network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN) has been augmented by new stations with advanced instrumentation, including the Seismic Research Observatories (SRO) and the modified High-Gain Long-Period (ASRO) stations. One goal in the modernization effort has been to improve signal resolution in the long-period band. A second goal has been to generate a global digital data base to support contemporary computer-based analysis and research. In 1976, a Panel on Seismograph Networks was established by the Committee on Seismology of the National Academy of Sciences to review progress in network seismology and recommend actions that would lead to an improved global data base for seismology. One recommendation in the Panel report (Engdahl, 1977) called for upgrading selected WWSSN stations by the installation of digital recorders. This was viewed as an economical way of expanding the digital network, which had proven itself to be a very promising new tool for earthquake and explosion research. Funds for the development and assembly of 15 digital recorders were provided to the USGS by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and an ad hoc panel of scientists was convened by the Committee on Seismology to advise the USGS on the selection of stations to be upgraded and on data recording requirements. A total of 19 digital World-Wide Standardized Seismograph (DWWSS) systems will be operational when all are installed. The additional systems were made available through purchase by the USGS and other organizations; for example, the University of Bergen purchased and installed a DWWSS-type recorder and agreed to furnish the USGS with the data. A list of operational and planned DWWSS network stations is given in Table 1.1. As one might expect, the digital recorder turned out to be somewhat more

  19. Online Access to Weather Satellite Imagery Through the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, W.; Baldwin, D.

    1998-01-01

    Both global area coverage (GAC) and high-resolution picture transmission (HRTP) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) are made available to laternet users through an online data access system. Older GOES-7 data am also available. Created as a "testbed" data system for NASA's future Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), this testbed provides an opportunity to test both the technical requirements of an onune'd;ta system and the different ways in which the -general user, community would employ such a system. Initiated in December 1991, the basic data system experienced five major evolutionary changes In response to user requests and requirements. Features added with these changes were the addition of online browse, user subsetting, dynamic image Processing/navigation, a stand-alone data storage system, and movement,from an X-windows graphical user Interface (GUI) to a World Wide Web (WWW) interface. Over Its lifetime, the system has had as many as 2500 registered users. The system on the WWW has had over 2500 hits since October 1995. Many of these hits are by casual users that only take the GIF images directly from the interface screens and do not specifically order digital data. Still, there b a consistent stream of users ordering the navigated image data and related products (maps and so forth). We have recently added a real-time, seven- day, northwestern United States normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite that has generated considerable Interest. Index Terms-Data system, earth science, online access, satellite data.

  20. The World Wide Web and Technology Transfer at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began using the World Wide Web (WWW) in the summer of 1993, becoming the first NASA installation to provide a Center-wide home page. This coincided with a reorganization of LaRC to provide a more concentrated focus on technology transfer to both aerospace and non-aerospace industry. Use of the WWW and NCSA Mosaic not only provides automated information dissemination, but also allows for the implementation, evolution and integration of many technology transfer applications. This paper describes several of these innovative applications, including the on-line presentation of the entire Technology Opportunities Showcase (TOPS), an industrial partnering showcase that exists on the Web long after the actual 3-day event ended. During its first year on the Web, LaRC also developed several WWW-based information repositories. The Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS), a technical paper delivery system with integrated searching and retrieval, has proved to be quite popular. The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS), an outgrowth of LTRS, provides uniform access to many logically similar, yet physically distributed NASA report servers. WWW is also the foundation of the Langley Software Server (LSS), an experimental software distribution system which will distribute LaRC-developed software with the possible phase-out of NASA's COSMIC program. In addition to the more formal technology distribution projects, WWW has been successful in connecting people with technologies and people with other people. With the completion of the LaRC reorganization, the Technology Applications Group, charged with interfacing with non-aerospace companies, opened for business with a popular home page.

  1. World Wide Web Access to Radiation Datasets for Environmental and Climate Change Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Carlson, Ann B.; Mackey, Calvin; Denn, Fredrick M.; Wilber, Anne; Ritchey, Nancy

    2000-11-01

    Five years of scanner data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), eight years of surface radiation budget (SRB) data, and one year of scanner radiation budget data from the French-Russian-German experiment, ScaRaB, will be available for use by colleges and universities [and primary and secondary (K-12) schools] over a World Wide Web browser. The database for ERBE is a 5-yr monthly average time series from February 1985 through December 1989, and ScaRaB is a 1-yr dataset from February 1994 to March 1995. ERBE and ScaRaB include shortwave radiative fluxes, emitted longwave radiative fluxes, and the earth's albedo measured at the top of the atmosphere. The SRB dataset spans the period from July 1983 through June 1991 and includes surface downward shortwave fluxes, surface downward longwave fluxes, surface albedos, and cloud percent. Students will have access to the data in three ways. They can display general image format images of any month and visually observe month-to-month or interannual variations. The data files for each month also have a spreadsheet format and can be downloaded in their entirety into any spreadsheet application program for further analysis. Third, using a live access server (LAS), students can interact directly with the data to select and subset datasets in terms of month, year, latitude, and longitude. The LAS allows students to view images of subsetted regions, and to subset data values to a file for further analysis. The server for this dataset is located at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia.

  2. Identifying the causes of water crises: A configurational frequency analysis of 22 basins world wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Lambin, E.; Rozelle, S.; Thompson, B.

    2010-12-01

    Freshwater "scarcity" has been identified as being a major problem world-wide, but it is surprisingly hard to assess if water is truly scarce at a global or even regional scale. Most empirical water research remains location specific. Characterizing water problems, transferring lessons across regions, to develop a synthesized global view of water issues remains a challenge. In this study we attempt a systematic understanding of water problems across regions. We compared case studies of basins across different regions of the world using configurational frequency analysis. Because water crises are multi-symptom and multi-causal, a major challenge was to categorize water problems so as to make comparisons across cases meaningful. In this study, we focused strictly on water unsustainability, viz. the inability to sustain current levels of the anthropogenic (drinking water, food, power, livelihood) and natural (aquatic species, wetlands) into the future. For each case, the causes of three outcome variables, groundwater declines, surface water declines and aquatic ecosystem declines, were classified and coded. We conducted a meta-analysis in which clusters of peer-reviewed papers by interdisciplinary teams were considered to ensure that the results were not biased towards factors privileged by any one discipline. Based on our final sample of 22 case study river basins, some clear patterns emerged. The meta-analysis suggests that water resources managers have long overemphasized the factors governing supply of water resources and while insufficient attention has been paid to the factors driving demand. Overall, uncontrolled increase in demand was twice as frequent as declines in availability due to climate change or decreased recharge. Moreover, groundwater and surface water declines showed distinct causal pathways. Uncontrolled increases in demand due to lack of credible enforcement were a key factor driving groundwater declines; while increased upstream abstractions

  3. Global Cooling: Increasing World-Wide Urban Albedos to Offset CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2008-01-14

    Modification of urban albedos reduces summertime urban temperatures, resulting in a better urban air quality and building air-conditioning savings. Furthermore, increasing urban albedos has the added benefit of reflecting some of the incoming global solar radiation and countering to some extent the effects of global warming. In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). Using reflective materials, both roof and the pavement albedos can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% (a U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills). On a global basis, our preliminary estimate is that increasing the world-wide albedos of urban roofs and paved surfaces will induce a negative radiative forcing on the earth equivalent to removing {approx} 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. Since, 55% of the emitted CO{sub 2} remains in the atmosphere, removal of 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere is equivalent to reducing global CO{sub 2} emissions by 40-73 Gt. At {approx} $25/tonne of CO{sub 2}, a 40-73 Gt CO{sub 2} emission reduction from changing the albedo of roofs and paved surfaces is worth about $1,000B to 1800B. These estimated savings are dependent on assumptions used in this study, but nevertheless demonstrate considerable benefits that may be obtained from cooler roofs and pavements.

  4. Architecture for biomedical multimedia information delivery on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, L. Rodney; Goh, Gin-Hua; Neve, Leif; Thoma, George R.

    1997-10-01

    Research engineers at the National Library of Medicine are building a prototype system for the delivery of multimedia biomedical information on the World Wide Web. This paper discuses the architecture and design considerations for the system, which will be used initially to make images and text from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) publicly available. We categorized our analysis as follows: (1) fundamental software tools: we analyzed trade-offs among use of conventional HTML/CGI, X Window Broadway, and Java; (2) image delivery: we examined the use of unconventional TCP transmission methods; (3) database manager and database design: we discuss the capabilities and planned use of the Informix object-relational database manager and the planned schema for the HNANES database; (4) storage requirements for our Sun server; (5) user interface considerations; (6) the compatibility of the system with other standard research and analysis tools; (7) image display: we discuss considerations for consistent image display for end users. Finally, we discuss the scalability of the system in terms of incorporating larger or more databases of similar data, and the extendibility of the system for supporting content-based retrieval of biomedical images. The system prototype is called the Web-based Medical Information Retrieval System. An early version was built as a Java applet and tested on Unix, PC, and Macintosh platforms. This prototype used the MiniSQL database manager to do text queries on a small database of records of participants in the second NHANES survey. The full records and associated x-ray images were retrievable and displayable on a standard Web browser. A second version has now been built, also a Java applet, using the MySQL database manager.

  5. Integrating video and animation with physics problem- solving exercises on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Aaron Patrick

    1998-10-01

    Problem solving is of paramount importance in teaching and learning physics. An important step in solving a problem is visualization. To help students visualize a problem, we included video clips with homework questions delivered via the World Wide Web. Although including video with physics problems has a positive effect with some problems, we found that this may not be the best way to integrate multimedia with physics problems since improving visualization is probably not as helpful as changing students' approach. To challenge how students solve problems and to help them develop a more expert-like approach, we developed a type of physics exercise called a multimedia-focused problem where students take data from an animation in order to solve a problem. Because numbers suggestive of a solution are not given in the text of the question, students have to consider the problem conceptually before analyzing it mathematically. As a result, we found that students had difficulty solving such problems compared to traditional textbook-like problems. Students' survey responses showed that students indeed had difficulty determining what was needed to solve a problem when it was not explicitly given to them in the text of the question. Analyzing think-aloud interviews where students verbalized their thoughts while solving problems, we found that multimedia-focused problems indeed required solid conceptual understanding in order for them to be solved correctly. As a result, we believe that when integrated with instruction, multimedia-focused problems can be a valuable tool in helping students develop better conceptual understanding and more expert-like problem solving skills by challenging novice beliefs and problem solving approaches. Multimedia-focused problems may also be useful for diagnosing conceptual understanding and problem skills.

  6. Online data collection with special populations over the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Marcell, M M; Falls, A L

    2001-10-01

    The quick ascendance of the World Wide Web as the dominant vehicle for internet communication has recently made experimentation in a multimedia environment feasible on the Internet. Although web sites containing online psychology demonstrations and experiments for non-handicapped individuals have appeared in recent years (especially in the areas of cognitive and social psychology), there appear to have been few attempts to conduct online experimentation with special populations. We recently completed two online pilot studies of families with Down syndrome or Williams syndrome members: a) A survey that asks (via Likert rating scales, adjective checklists, multiple-choice style questions, and text-entry boxes) about family background, computer use, and temperament of the special needs family member; and b) An experiment (completed by an individual with special needs) that includes auditory and visual digit span tasks and a memory-for-orientation task in which responses are entered via mouse clicks. Recruiting began with e-mail announcements to representative Down syndrome and Williams syndrome discussion groups, listserves, and bulletin boards, and submission of the project's URL (http://www.cofc.edu/~marcellm/testaw.htm) and key indexing terms to selected search engines. This paper reviews technical aspects of developing the online programmes as well as the strengths and weaknesses of online vs. traditional laboratory-based research in relation to issues such as experimental control, delivery of instructions, experimenter bias, participant recruitment, sample heterogeneity, generalization, attrition, privacy, financial costs, data integrity, and ethics. We conclude by offering our thoughts on two ways of implementing online experimentation with special populations: a) Using a remote parent 'helper' as a proxy to work with the target individual; and b) Collaborating with professional colleagues in Web-based projects conducted in traditional laboratory settings.

  7. [Implementation of a server World Wide Web of radiology accessible by Internet].

    PubMed

    Caramella, D; Neri, E; Del Sarto, M; Lencioni, R; Bartolozzi, C

    1996-05-01

    Internet is an international computer network that uses standard communication protocols for the exchange of information. This facilitates the retrieval of multimedia data through a "web" of servers distributed in the whole world. Among Internet users, Radiologists are a potentially important segment, due to the inherent multimedia characteristics of the discipline, which requires a continuous international update of information. The Department of Radiology of the University of Pisa has an Internet access through the metropolitan area network which was installed in the framework of the CNR Telecomunicazioni Project. The Internet access allowed the implementation of a World Wide Web server made public on Internet in March, 1994, being the first European server specifically oriented to radiology. This server can be accessed at the following address: http:@www.rad.unipi.it:7080/IRMosaicHome.html . On the server, 3 hypermedia papers are present, a list of international servers containing radiological information, a questionnaire, and statistics concerning the number of users who accessed the server. In the first 18 months of public access through Internet (April 1, 1994-September 30, 1995) 16,166 users accessed the server, retrieving 127,349 documents, corresponding to 1,279.7 MByte of information. The mean amount of information retrieved in each access to the server in the considered quarters ranges from 72 to 85.8 kByte. The geographic distribution of the users who accessed the server is the following: United States, 7,158, Italy, 2,466; other European countries, 3,813; other extra-European countries, 2,729. The increasingly diffuse knowledge of Internet services had a substantial impact on the rise in number of the servers and of the users who can access them. It is likely that in the future this technology will be used with increasing interest by Radiologists, since it provides easier "navigation" through multimedia information, consisting of text and several

  8. Adapting EcoCyc for use on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Paley, S M; Karp, P D

    1996-06-12

    The World Wide Web (WWW) offers the potential to deliver specialized information to an audience of unprecedented size. Along with this exciting new opportunity comes a challenge for software developers: instead of rewriting our software applications to operate over the WWW, how can we maximize software reuse by retrofitting existing applications? We have developed a Web server tool, written in Common Lisp, that allows existing graphical user interface applications written using the Common Lisp Interface Manager (CLIM) to hook easily into the WWW. This tool-CWEST (CLIM-WEb Server Tool, pronounced "quest")-was developed to operate with EcoCyc, an electronic encyclopedia of the genes and metabolism of the bacterium E. coli. EcoCyc consists of a database of objects relevant to E. coli biochemistry and a user interface, implemented in CLIM, that runs on the X-window system and generates graphical displays appropriate to biological objects. Each query to the EcoCyc WWW server is treated as a command to the EcoCyc program, which dynamically generates an appropriate CLIM drawing. CWEST translates that drawing, which can be a mixture of text and graphics, into the HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and/or the Graphics Interchange Format (GIF), which are returned to the client. Sensitive regions embedded in the CLIM drawing are converted to hyperlinks with Universal Resource Locators (URLs) that generate further EcoCyc queries. This tight coupling of CLIM output with Web output makes CLIM a powerful high-level programming tool for Web applications. The flexibility of Common Lisp and CLIM made implementation of the server tool surprisingly easy, requiring few changes to the existing EcoCyc program. The results can be seen at URL http: @www.ai.sri.com/ecocyc/browser.html. We have made CWEST available to the CLIM community at large, with the hope that it will spur other software developers to make their CLIM applications available over the WWW.

  9. Towards a Global Service Registry for the World-Wide LHC Computing Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Laurence; Alandes Pradillo, Maria; Di Girolamo, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    The World-Wide LHC Computing Grid encompasses a set of heterogeneous information systems; from central portals such as the Open Science Grid's Information Management System and the Grid Operations Centre Database, to the WLCG information system, where the information sources are the Grid services themselves. Providing a consistent view of the information, which involves synchronising all these informations systems, is a challenging activity that has lead the LHC virtual organisations to create their own configuration databases. This experience, whereby each virtual organisation's configuration database interfaces with multiple information systems, has resulted in the duplication of effort, especially relating to the use of manual checks for the handling of inconsistencies. The Global Service Registry aims to address this issue by providing a centralised service that aggregates information from multiple information systems. It shows both information on registered resources (i.e. what should be there) and available resources (i.e. what is there). The main purpose is to simplify the synchronisation of the virtual organisation's own configuration databases, which are used for job submission and data management, through the provision of a single interface for obtaining all the information. By centralising the information, automated consistency and validation checks can be performed to improve the overall quality of information provided. Although internally the GLUE 2.0 information model is used for the purpose of integration, the Global Service Registry in not dependent on any particular information model for ingestion or dissemination. The intention is to allow the virtual organisation's configuration databases to be decoupled from the underlying information systems in a transparent way and hence simplify any possible future migration due to the evolution of those systems. This paper presents the Global Service Registry architecture, its advantages compared to the

  10. From theater to the world wide web--a new online era for surgical education.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, D Peter; Corrigan, Mark A; McHugh, Seamus M; Hill, A D; Redmond, H Paul

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, surgical education has been confined to operating and lecture theaters. Access to the World Wide Web and services, such as YouTube and iTunes has expanded enormously. Each week throughout Ireland, nonconsultant hospital doctors work hard to create presentations for surgical teaching. Once presented, these valuable presentations are often never used again. We aimed to compile surgical presentations online and establish a new online surgical education tool. We also sought to measure the effect of this educational tool on surgical presentation quality. Surgical presentations from Cork University Hospital and Beaumont Hospital presented between January 2010 and April 2011 were uploaded to http://www.pilgrimshospital.com/presentations. A YouTube channel and iTunes application were created. Web site hits were monitored. Quality of presentations was assessed by 4 independent senior surgical judges using a validated PowerPoint assessment form. Judges were randomly given 6 presentations; 3 presentations were pre-web site setup and 3 were post-web site setup. Once uploading commenced, presenters were informed. A total of 89 presentations have been uploaded to date. This includes 55 cases, 17 journal club, and 17 short bullet presentations. This has been associated with 46,037 web site page views. Establishment of the web site was associated with a significant improvement in the quality of presentations. Mean scores for pre- and post-web site group were 6.2 vs 7.7 out of 9 respectively, p = 0.037. This novel educational tool provides a unique method to enable surgical education become more accessible to trainees, while also improving the overall quality of surgical teaching PowerPoint presentations. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Online: What Patients Find when Searching the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Modi, Minal; Laskar, Nabila; Modi, Bhavik N

    2016-06-01

    To objectively assess the quality of information available on the World Wide Web on cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Patients frequently search the internet regarding their healthcare issues. It has been shown that patients seeking information can help or hinder their healthcare outcomes depending on the quality of information consulted. On the internet, this information can be produced and published by anyone, resulting in the risk of patients accessing inaccurate and misleading information. The search term "Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy" was entered into the three most popular search engines and the first 50 pages on each were pooled and analyzed, after excluding websites inappropriate for objective review. The "LIDA" instrument (a validated tool for assessing quality of healthcare information websites) was to generate scores on Accessibility, Reliability, and Usability. Readability was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES). Of the 150 web-links, 41 sites met the eligibility criteria. The sites were assessed using the LIDA instrument and the FRES. A mean total LIDA score for all the websites assessed was 123.5 of a possible 165 (74.8%). The average Accessibility of the sites assessed was 50.1 of 60 (84.3%), on Usability 41.4 of 54 (76.6%), on Reliability 31.5 of 51 (61.7%), and 41.8 on FRES. There was a significant variability among sites and interestingly, there was no correlation between the sites' search engine ranking and their scores. This study has illustrated the variable quality of online material on the topic of CRT. Furthermore, there was also no apparent correlation between highly ranked, popular websites and their quality. Healthcare professionals should be encouraged to guide their patients toward the online material that contains reliable information. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Online Access to Weather Satellite Imagery Through the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, W.; Baldwin, D.

    1998-01-01

    Both global area coverage (GAC) and high-resolution picture transmission (HRTP) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) are made available to laternet users through an online data access system. Older GOES-7 data am also available. Created as a "testbed" data system for NASA's future Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), this testbed provides an opportunity to test both the technical requirements of an onune'd;ta system and the different ways in which the -general user, community would employ such a system. Initiated in December 1991, the basic data system experienced five major evolutionary changes In response to user requests and requirements. Features added with these changes were the addition of online browse, user subsetting, dynamic image Processing/navigation, a stand-alone data storage system, and movement,from an X-windows graphical user Interface (GUI) to a World Wide Web (WWW) interface. Over Its lifetime, the system has had as many as 2500 registered users. The system on the WWW has had over 2500 hits since October 1995. Many of these hits are by casual users that only take the GIF images directly from the interface screens and do not specifically order digital data. Still, there b a consistent stream of users ordering the navigated image data and related products (maps and so forth). We have recently added a real-time, seven- day, northwestern United States normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite that has generated considerable Interest. Index Terms-Data system, earth science, online access, satellite data.

  13. Autonomous Satellite Command and Control through the World Wide Web: Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian; Twiggs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium Program (NMP) has identified a variety of revolutionary technologies that will support orders of magnitude improvements in the capabilities of spacecraft missions. This program's Autonomy team has focused on science and engineering automation technologies. In doing so, it has established a clear development roadmap specifying the experiments and demonstrations required to mature these technologies. The primary developmental thrusts of this roadmap are in the areas of remote agents, PI/operator interface, planning/scheduling fault management, and smart execution architectures. Phases 1 and 2 of the ASSET Project (previously known as the WebSat project) have focused on establishing World Wide Web-based commanding and telemetry services as an advanced means of interfacing a spacecraft system with the PI and operators. Current automated capabilities include Web-based command submission, limited contact scheduling, command list generation and transfer to the ground station, spacecraft support for demonstrations experiments, data transfer from the ground station back to the ASSET system, data archiving, and Web-based telemetry distribution. Phase 2 was finished in December 1996. During January-December 1997 work was commenced on Phase 3 of the ASSET Project. Phase 3 is the subject of this report. This phase permitted SSDL and its project partners to expand the ASSET system in a variety of ways. These added capabilities included the advancement of ground station capabilities, the adaptation of spacecraft on-board software, and the expansion of capabilities of the ASSET management algorithms. Specific goals of Phase 3 were: (1) Extend Web-based goal-level commanding for both the payload PI and the spacecraft engineer; (2) Support prioritized handling of multiple PIs as well as associated payload experimenters; (3) Expand the number and types of experiments supported by the ASSET system and its associated spacecraft; (4) Implement more advanced resource

  14. Obtaining Streamflow Statistics for Massachusetts Streams on the World Wide Web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Kernell G.; Steeves, Peter A.; Freeman, Aleda; Singh, Raj

    2000-01-01

    A World Wide Web application has been developed to make it easy to obtain streamflow statistics for user-selected locations on Massachusetts streams. The Web application, named STREAMSTATS (available at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/massachusetts.html ), can provide peak-flow frequency, low-flow frequency, and flow-duration statistics for most streams in Massachusetts. These statistics describe the magnitude (how much), frequency (how often), and duration (how long) of flow in a stream. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published streamflow statistics, such as the 100-year peak flow, the 7-day, 10-year low flow, and flow-duration statistics, for its data-collection stations in numerous reports. Federal, State, and local agencies need these statistics to plan and manage use of water resources and to regulate activities in and around streams. Engineering and environmental consulting firms, utilities, industry, and others use the statistics to design and operate water-supply systems, hydropower facilities, industrial facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, and roads, bridges, and other structures. Until now, streamflow statistics for data-collection stations have often been difficult to obtain because they are scattered among many reports, some of which are not readily available to the public. In addition, streamflow statistics are often needed for locations where no data are available. STREAMSTATS helps solve these problems. STREAMSTATS was developed jointly by the USGS and MassGIS, the State Geographic Information Systems (GIS) agency, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Departments of Environmental Management and Environmental Protection. The application consists of three major components: (1) a user interface that displays maps and allows users to select stream locations for which they want streamflow statistics (fig. 1), (2) a data base of previously published streamflow statistics and descriptive information for 725 USGS data

  15. World-Wide and Regional Examination of Substrates Facilitating Timberline Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Yeakley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Upward advance of timberlines, associated with climate warming, is occurring in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as well as many other mountainous regions of the world. Examination of seedling establishment and survival of sensitive seedlings, rather than examination of older resilient trees, may give a clearer understanding of current climatic factors affecting potential expansion of timberline. Our investigation of seedling establishment along timberline edges in the PNW indicates that trees often germinate on small landforms known as microsites. Microsites include small convexities or concavities on the soil surface having a scale of centimeters to meters, but also include associations with slope, aspect, rocks or plants, or substrates dominated by mineral soil or wood. Growing on favorable microsites helps seedlings cope with some of the stresses that exist at high elevation sites including wind, cold temperatures, high radiation, drought, animal predation, and infestation by fungal pathogens found in snow and soil. Microsites, by providing warmer substrates, adequate moisture, and shelter, allow plants to function more affectively in mountain environments. Our summary of microsite type and associated timberline advance in a world-wide context indicates that factors such as snow accumulation, summer rainfall, and availability of microsites, will control timberline advance. In windswept timberline locations, rocks and plants provide shelter from wind and reduce the likelihood of night frost. In arid climates, concave microsites aid in snow deposition providing needed moisture to seedlings during periods of drought. In contrast, convex microsites and wood substrates, typical sites of regeneration in the PNW where precipitation typically exceeds 150 cm per year, facilitate early snow melt, thereby increasing growing season. Large trees at the edge of timberline fall into alpine meadows, decay, and provide sites for seedling establishment. These sites commonly called

  16. Educational Applications on the World Wide Web: An Example Using Amphion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Jane

    1998-01-01

    There is a great deal of excitement about using the internet and the World Wide Web in education. There are such exciting possibilities and there is a wealth and variety of material up on the web. There are however many problems, problems of access and resources, problems of quality -- for every excellent resource there are many poor ones, and there are insufficiently explored problems of teacher training and motivation. For example, Wiesenmayer and Meadows report on a study of 347 West Virginia science teachers. These teachers were enrolled in a week-long summer workshop to introduce them to the internet and its educational potential. The teachers were asked to review science sites as to overall quality and then about their usefulness in their own classrooms. The teachers were enthusiastic about the web, and gave two-thirds of the sites high ratings, and essentially all the rest average ratings. But alarmingly, over 80% of these sites were viewed as having no direct applicability in the teacher's own classroom. This summer I was assigned to work on the Amphion project in the Automated Software Engineering Group under the leadership of Michael Lowry. I wished to find educational applications of the Amphion system, which in its current implementation can be used to create fortran programs and animations using the SPICE libraries created by the NAIF group at JPL. I wished to find an application which provided real added educational value, which was in line with educational curriculum standards and which would serve a documented need of the educational community. The application selected was teaching about the causes of the seasons -- at the approximately the fourth, fifth, sixth grade level. This topic was chosen because it is in line with national curriculum standards. The fourth, fifth, sixth grade level was selected to coincide with the grade level served by the Ames Aerospace Encounter, which services 10,000 children a year on field trips. The hope is that

  17. Educational Applications on the World Wide Web: An Example Using Amphion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Jane

    1998-01-01

    There is a great deal of excitement about using the internet and the World Wide Web in education. There are such exciting possibilities and there is a wealth and variety of material up on the web. There are however many problems, problems of access and resources, problems of quality -- for every excellent resource there are many poor ones, and there are insufficiently explored problems of teacher training and motivation. For example, Wiesenmayer and Meadows report on a study of 347 West Virginia science teachers. These teachers were enrolled in a week-long summer workshop to introduce them to the internet and its educational potential. The teachers were asked to review science sites as to overall quality and then about their usefulness in their own classrooms. The teachers were enthusiastic about the web, and gave two-thirds of the sites high ratings, and essentially all the rest average ratings. But alarmingly, over 80% of these sites were viewed as having no direct applicability in the teacher's own classroom. This summer I was assigned to work on the Amphion project in the Automated Software Engineering Group under the leadership of Michael Lowry. I wished to find educational applications of the Amphion system, which in its current implementation can be used to create fortran programs and animations using the SPICE libraries created by the NAIF group at JPL. I wished to find an application which provided real added educational value, which was in line with educational curriculum standards and which would serve a documented need of the educational community. The application selected was teaching about the causes of the seasons -- at the approximately the fourth, fifth, sixth grade level. This topic was chosen because it is in line with national curriculum standards. The fourth, fifth, sixth grade level was selected to coincide with the grade level served by the Ames Aerospace Encounter, which services 10,000 children a year on field trips. The hope is that

  18. Enhancing Student Performance in First-Semester General Chemistry Using Active Feedback through the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Kent A.; Blake, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web recently launched a new interactive feedback system for the instructors, so that can better understanding about their students and their problems. The feedback, in combination with tailored lectures is expected to enhance student performance in the first semester of general chemistry.

  19. An Exploratory Survey of Digital Libraries on the World Wide Web: Art and Literature of the Early Italian Renaissance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKibben, Suzanne J.

    This study assessed the ongoing development of digital libraries (DLs) on the World Wide Web. DLs of art and literature were surveyed for selected works from the early Italian Renaissance in order to gain insight into the current trends prevalent throughout the larger population of DLs. The following artists and authors were selected for study:…

  20. Searching Smart on the World Wide Web. Tools and Techniques for Getting Quality Results. Internet Workshop Series No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Cheryl

    An adaptation of a live workshop, this guide offers pertinent information and practical techniques for users to become proficient searchers and conscious evaluators of World Wide Web resources. The book does not provide comprehensive coverage of the Internet, rather it gives the exact amount and level of information needed to perform a successful…

  1. Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)

  2. Grass-Roots Cataloging and Classification: Food for Thought from World Wide Web Subject-Oriented Hierarchical Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, David G.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the structure and principles of various hierarchical guides, or hotlists, which attempt to give subject access to World Wide Web resources on the Internet. The lists are compared to classification schemes and to Library of Congress subject headings, and browsing and search engines are compared. (Author/LRW)

  3. Searching the World Wide Web: How To Find the Material You Want on the Multimedia Pages of the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Highlights some popular search engines and presents guidelines on making queries, narrowing a search, using quotation marks and how and when to used advanced searches. Discusses special search tools for World Wide Web and CD-ROM products and homework assistance software. Lists the network locations of five popular search engines. (AEF)

  4. Pre-Service Teachers Critically Evaluate Scientific Information on the World-Wide Web: What Makes Information Believable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iding, Marie; Klemm, E. Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses the need for teachers to critically evaluate the credibility, validity, and cognitive load associated with scientific information on Web sites, in order to effectively teach students to evaluate scientific information on the World Wide Web. A line of prior research investigating high school and university students'…

  5. Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)

  6. Enhancing Student Performance in First-Semester General Chemistry Using Active Feedback through the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Kent A.; Blake, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web recently launched a new interactive feedback system for the instructors, so that can better understanding about their students and their problems. The feedback, in combination with tailored lectures is expected to enhance student performance in the first semester of general chemistry.

  7. Searching Smart on the World Wide Web. Tools and Techniques for Getting Quality Results. Internet Workshop Series No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Cheryl

    An adaptation of a live workshop, this guide offers pertinent information and practical techniques for users to become proficient searchers and conscious evaluators of World Wide Web resources. The book does not provide comprehensive coverage of the Internet, rather it gives the exact amount and level of information needed to perform a successful…

  8. Search Engines on the World Wide Web and Information Retrieval from the Internet: A Review and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Xiaoying; Su, Louise T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses search engines on the World Wide Web and information retrieval from the Internet; describes categories and special features of Web-based databases and compares them with traditional databases; and presents a review of the literature on the testing and evaluation of Web-based search engines. (Author/LRW)

  9. Effects of Learning Style and Training Method on Computer Attitude and Performance in World Wide Web Page Design Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Huey-Wen; Wang, Yu-Fang

    1999-01-01

    Compares the effects of two training methods on computer attitude and performance in a World Wide Web page design program in a field experiment with high school students in Taiwan. Discusses individual differences, Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory and Learning Style Inventory, Computer Attitude Scale, and results of statistical analyses.…

  10. Searching the World Wide Web: How To Find the Material You Want on the Multimedia Pages of the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Highlights some popular search engines and presents guidelines on making queries, narrowing a search, using quotation marks and how and when to used advanced searches. Discusses special search tools for World Wide Web and CD-ROM products and homework assistance software. Lists the network locations of five popular search engines. (AEF)

  11. Managing World Wide Web Information in a Frames Environment: A Guide to Constructing Web Pages Using Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilstrap, Donald L.

    1998-01-01

    Explains how to build World Wide Web home pages using frames-based HTML so that librarians can manage Web-based information and improve their home pages. Provides descriptions and 15 examples for writing frames-HTML code, including advanced concepts and additional techniques for home-page design. (Author/LRW)

  12. An Exploratory Survey of Digital Libraries on the World Wide Web: Art and Literature of the Early Italian Renaissance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKibben, Suzanne J.

    This study assessed the ongoing development of digital libraries (DLs) on the World Wide Web. DLs of art and literature were surveyed for selected works from the early Italian Renaissance in order to gain insight into the current trends prevalent throughout the larger population of DLs. The following artists and authors were selected for study:…

  13. ETDEWEB versus the World-Wide-Web: a specific database/web comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, Debbie

    2010-06-28

    A study was performed comparing user search results from the specialized scientific database on energy-related information, ETDEWEB, with search results from the internet search engines Google and Google Scholar. The primary objective of the study was to determine if ETDEWEB (the Energy Technology Data Exchange – World Energy Base) continues to bring the user search results that are not being found by Google and Google Scholar. As a multilateral information exchange initiative, ETDE’s member countries and partners contribute cost- and task-sharing resources to build the largest database of energy-related information in the world. As of early 2010, the ETDEWEB database has 4.3 million citations to world-wide energy literature. One of ETDEWEB’s strengths is its focused scientific content and direct access to full text for its grey literature (over 300,000 documents in PDF available for viewing from the ETDE site and over a million additional links to where the documents can be found at research organizations and major publishers globally). Google and Google Scholar are well-known for the wide breadth of the information they search, with Google bringing in news, factual and opinion-related information, and Google Scholar also emphasizing scientific content across many disciplines. The analysis compared the results of 15 energy-related queries performed on all three systems using identical words/phrases. A variety of subjects was chosen, although the topics were mostly in renewable energy areas due to broad international interest. Over 40,000 search result records from the three sources were evaluated. The study concluded that ETDEWEB is a significant resource to energy experts for discovering relevant energy information. For the 15 topics in this study, ETDEWEB was shown to bring the user unique results not shown by Google or Google Scholar 86.7% of the time. Much was learned from the study beyond just metric comparisons. Observations about the strengths of each

  14. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the

  15. Grassland agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  16. The "Athena Framework": Solving the World-wide Climate and Energy Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J S

    2005-10-10

    The energy systems we have enjoyed for the last 100 years has resulted in the advanced standard of living in the developed world and a major emerging problem with climate change. Now we face a simultaneous realization that our reliance on fossil fuels is a source of conflict and economic disruption as well as causing potentially catastrophic global climate change. It is time to give serious thought to how to collectively solve this problem. Collective action is critical since individual effort by one or only a few nations cannot adequately address the issue.

  17. Use of the World Wide Web in Lower-Division Chemistry Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Karen E.; Stevens, Richard E.

    1996-10-01

    Recent articles have identified the plethora of chemical information existing currently on the World-Wide Web (WWW) available via the Internet (1). This information medium is particularly valuable because it represents a very up-to-date source of information. Site managers can update information and it can be "instantaneously visited" by someone. As an example, several current topics of chemical significance were highlighted in a nonmajor chemistry class held in January 1996 at our college. December 31, 1995, represented the last day that leaded gasoline could be sold for use in automobiles. In early January, the FDA approved the synthetic fat olestra for use in snack foods. Both of these topics provoked great interest in students as they brought up issues of relevance and interest to their lives that were currently being discussed in the news. The WWW was utilized extensively as a source of information and current updates. Print media, such as texts and reference manuals, have a much longer "lag-time" before current information can be typeset, printed, and accessed by a researcher. Previous articles (1, 2) have focused on Internet use for upper-division classes, but we have found a useful way to bring the Internet into nonmajor and freshman level classes composed of 20-50 students. The student assignment was to find information on a chemical topic currently in the news by using the WWW and use that information to write a 2-3 page essay (3, 4). Using the Internet to find information presents one issue not previously encountered when using encyclopedias, reference books, or textbooks, but an issue raised in previous editorials in this Journal (5, 6). That difference is that virtually anyone can post information on the WWW. Thus, the WWW can have governmental organizations, environmental groups, large corporations, or just individuals posting their views. Hence, when searching a particular topic, students might find a very factual article, or they might find a very

  18. AAS Publishing: What Can WorldWide Telescope Do for You?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    During the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting last week in Kissimmee, the AAS announced the exciting news that it will become the new institutional home of Microsofts WorldWide Telescope (WWT) astronomy software.WWT is a scriptable and interactive way of browsing the multi-wavelength sky as it is seen from Earth, and the universe as we would travel within it. WWT can be run either as a desktop app or from within an internet browser. And of interest to researchers especially its an incredibly useful way to visualize and contextualize astronomical data.What does WWTs transition to the AAS as its new host mean? WWT was open-sourced by Microsoft Research last year, and hosting by the AAS will permit broad community involvement in the form of contribution of both code and guidance in WWTs further development.All of this begs the question: why might YOU want to use WWT? That depends on whether your goal is to use it for research, education, or just for fun.WWT for ResearchIfyou thought WWT was just for education and outreach, think again! Here are just a few things you can do with WWT to advance your astronomical research1:1) Put surveys into context, on top of more than 40 different all-sky images, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum.2) Perform literature searches from the sky.3) Compare images and catalogs at different wavelengths, on-the-fly in seconds.4) Show your own online data to the world, in an API that allows users to see it on the sky in their browsers.5) Communicate to colleagues and learners about the sky using interactive tours of your data and ideas.An example of WWT used to perform astronomy research is the recently highlighted work on the bones of the Milky Way, in which the authors used WWT to overlay multiple data sets and visually identify and then search for infrared dark clouds along the predicted positions of Milky Way spiral arms.An example of WWT used to communicate research is given in this paper, wherein a link in the caption of a

  19. [Assessment of the quality of information on departments/divisions of anesthesiology available on the World Wide Web].

    PubMed

    Yamakage, Michiaki; Ishiyama, Sei-Ichiro; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Iwasaki, Sohshi; Namiki, Akiyoshi

    2004-09-01

    The quality of health information available in the World Wide Web is an important issue, but no review of the quality of such information has been performed. We investigated the quality of information available on the World Wide Web regarding departments/divisions of anesthesiology in 82 specific functioned hospitals in Japan. Eighty-eight percent of the hospitals have their own web site for anesthesiology. Although only general clinical information was available on 64-71% of the web sites, detailed information on clinical results and members having diploma of the board was available on 11-26% of the sites. Regarding education, only 4% of the sites provided information on contents of lectures, whereas 75% of the sites have pages for medical students. Departments/divisions of anesthesiology, especially in specific functioned hospitals, should recognize an important role of web pages for medical consumers (= e-patient) and renew their web sites appropriately and opportunely.

  20. An Ontology of Quality Initiatives and a Model for Decentralized, Collaborative Quality Management on the (Semantic) World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    This editorial provides a model of how quality initiatives concerned with health information on the World Wide Web may in the future interact with each other. This vision fits into the evolving "Semantic Web" architecture - ie, the prospective that the World Wide Web may evolve from a mess of unstructured, human-readable information sources into a global knowledge base with an additional layer providing richer and more meaningful relationships between resources. One first prerequisite for forming such a "Semantic Web" or "web of trust" among the players active in quality management of health information is that these initiatives make statements about themselves and about each other in a machine-processable language. I present a concrete model on how this collaboration could look, and provide some recommendations on what the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other policy makers in this framework could be. PMID:11772549

  1. Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC): a world wide web resource for radiology education.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Liang; Lim, C C Tchoyoson

    2006-08-01

    Radiology education is heavily dependent on visual images, and case-based teaching files comprising medical images can be an important tool for teaching diagnostic radiology. Currently, hardcopy film is being rapidly replaced by digital radiological images in teaching hospitals, and an electronic teaching file (ETF) library would be desirable. Furthermore, a repository of ETFs deployed on the World Wide Web has the potential for e-learning applications to benefit a larger community of learners. In this paper, we describe a Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC) that can serve as a World Wide Web resource for teaching diagnostic radiology. On SN.MIRC, ETFs can be created using a variety of mechanisms including file upload and online form-filling, and users can search for cases using the Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) query schema developed by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). The system can be improved with future enhancements, including multimedia interactive teaching files and distance learning for continuing professional development. However, significant challenges exist when exploring the potential of using the World Wide Web for radiology education.

  2. Possible world-wide middle miocene iridium anomaly and its relationship to periodicity of impacts and extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asaro, F.; Alvarez, W.; Michel, H. V.; Alvarez, L. W.; Anders, Mark H.; Montanari, A.; Kennett, James P.

    1988-01-01

    In a study of one million years of Middle Miocene sediment deposition in ODP Hole 689B in the Weddell Sea near Antarctica, a single iridium (Ir) anomaly of 44 (+ or - 10) x 10 to the 12th gram Ir per gram rock (ppt) was observed in core 6H, section 3, 50 to 60 cm, after background contributions associated with manganese precipitates and clay are subtracted. The ODP Hole 689B is 10,000 km away from another site, DSDP Hole 588B in the Tasman Sea north of New Zealand, where a single Ir anomaly of 144 + or - 7 ppt over a background of 11 ppt was found in an earlier study of 3 million years of deposition. From chemical measurements the latter deposition was thought to be impact-related. Ir measurements were made, following neutron activation, with the Iridium Coincidence Spectrometer. The age vs depth calibration curves given in the DSDP and ODP preliminary reports indicate the ages of the Iranomalies are identical, 11.7 million years, but the absolute and relative uncertainties in the curves are not known. Based on the newest age data the age estimate is 10 million years. As the Ir was deposited at the two sites at about the same time and they are one quarter of the way around the world from each other it seems likely that the deposition was world-wide. The impact of a large asteroid or comet could produce the wide distribution, and this data is supportive of the impact relationship deduced for Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) 588B from the chemical evidence. If the surface densities of Ir at the two sites are representative of the world-wide average, the diameter of a Cl type asteroid containing the necessary Ir would be 3 + or - 1 km, which is large enough to cause world-wide darkness and hence extinctions although the latter point is disputed.

  3. The PEP-II/BaBar Project-Wide Database using World Wide Web and Oracle*Case

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.; Crane, G.; MacGregor, I.; Meyer, S.

    1995-12-01

    The PEP-II/BaBar Project Database is a tool for monitoring the technical and documentation aspects of the accelerator and detector construction. It holds the PEP-II/BaBar design specifications, fabrication and installation data in one integrated system. Key pieces of the database include the machine parameter list, components fabrication and calibration data, survey and alignment data, property control, CAD drawings, publications and documentation. This central Oracle database on a UNIX server is built using Oracle*Case tools. Users at the collaborating laboratories mainly access the data using World Wide Web (WWW). The Project Database is being extended to link to legacy databases required for the operations phase.

  4. ePlant and the 3D Data Display Initiative: Integrative Systems Biology on the World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Fucile, Geoffrey; Di Biase, David; Nahal, Hardeep; La, Garon; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Chen, Yani; Easley, Kante; Christendat, Dinesh; Kelley, Lawrence; Provart, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed “ePlant” (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) – a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the “3D Data Display Initiative” (http://3ddi.org). PMID:21249219

  5. ePlant and the 3D data display initiative: integrative systems biology on the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Fucile, Geoffrey; Di Biase, David; Nahal, Hardeep; La, Garon; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Chen, Yani; Easley, Kante; Christendat, Dinesh; Kelley, Lawrence; Provart, Nicholas J

    2011-01-10

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) - a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the "3D Data Display Initiative" (http://3ddi.org).

  6. A large-scale study of the world wide web: network correlation functions with scale-invariant boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludueña, Guillermo A.; Meixner, Harald; Kaczor, Gregor; Gros, Claudius

    2013-08-01

    We performed a large-scale crawl of the world wide web, covering 6.9 million domains and 57 million subdomains, including all high-traffic sites of the internet. We present a study of the correlations found between quantities measuring the structural relevance of each node in the network (the in- and out-degree, the local clustering coefficient, the first-neighbor in-degree and the Alexa rank). We find that some of these properties show strong correlation effects and that the dependencies occurring out of these correlations follow power laws not only for the averages, but also for the boundaries of the respective density distributions. In addition, these scale-free limits do not follow the same exponents as the corresponding averages. In our study we retain the directionality of the hyperlinks and develop a statistical estimate for the clustering coefficient of directed graphs. We include in our study the correlations between the in-degree and the Alexa traffic rank, a popular index for the traffic volume, finding non-trivial power-law correlations. We find that sites with more/less than about 103 links from different domains have remarkably different statistical properties, for all correlation functions studied, indicating towards an underlying hierarchical structure of the world wide web.

  7. Medical computing over the World Wide Web: use of forms and CGI scripts for constructing medical algorithm Web pages.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D J; Jarvis, B A; Ruskin, K J; Engel, T P

    1997-01-01

    The development of the World Wide Web has led to an explosion of educational and clinical resources available via the Internet with minimal effort or special training. However, most of these Web pages contain only static information; few offer dynamic information shaped around clinical or laboratory test findings. In this report we show how this goal can be achieved with the design and construction of Medical Algorithm Web Pages (MAWP). Specifically, using Internet technologies known as forms and CGI scripts we demonstrate how one can implement medical algorithms remotely over the Internet's World Wide Web. To use a MAWP, one enters the URL for the site and then enters information according to the instructions presented there, usually by entering numbers and other information into fields displayed on screen. When all the data is entered, the user clicks on the SUBMIT icon, resulting in a new Web page being constructed "on-the-fly" containing diagnostic calculations and other information pertinent to the patient's clinical management. Four sample applications are presented in detail to illustrate the concept of a Medical Algorithm Web page: Computation of the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference using the alveolar gas equation; Computation of renal creatinine clearance; drug infusion calculation (micrograms/kilogram/minute); Computation of the renal failure index.

  8. Comparison of student outcomes and preferences in a traditional vs. World Wide Web-based baccalaureate nursing research course.

    PubMed

    Leasure, A R; Davis, L; Thievon, S L

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare student outcomes in an undergraduate research course taught using both World Wide Web-based distance learning technology and traditional pedagogy. Reasons given for enrolling in the traditional classroom section included the perception of increased opportunity for interaction, decreased opportunity to procrastinate, immediate feedback, and more meaningful learning activities. Reasons for selecting the Web group section included cost, convenience, and flexibility. Overall, there was no significant difference in examination scores between the two groups on the three multiple-choice examinations or for the course grades (t = -.96, P = .343). Students who reported that they were self-directed and had the ability to maintain their own pace and avoid procrastination were most suited to Web-based courses. The Web-based classes can help provide opportunities for methods of communication that are not traditionally nurtured in traditional classroom settings. Secondary benefits of the World Wide Web-based course were to increase student confidence with the computer, and introduce them to skills and opportunities they would not have had in the classroom. Additionally, over time and with practice, student's writing skills improved.

  9. Climate change and Australian agriculture: a review of the threats facing rural communities and the health policy landscape.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Elizabeth G; Bell, Erica; King, Debra; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2011-03-01

    Population health is a function of social and environmental health determinants. Climate change is predicted to bring significant alterations to ecological systems on which human health and livelihoods depend; the air, water, plant, and animal health. Agricultural systems are intrinsically linked with environmental conditions, which are already under threat in much of southern Australian because of rising heat and protracted drying. The direct impact of increasing heat waves on human physiology and survival has recently been well studied. More diffusely, increasing drought periods may challenge the viability of agriculture in some regions, and hence those communities that depend on primary production. A worst case scenario may herald the collapse of some communities. Human health impacts arising from such transition would be profound. This article summarizes existing rural health challenges and presents the current evidence plus future predictions of climate change impacts on Australian agriculture to argue the need for significant augmentation of public health and existing health policy frameworks. The article concludes by suggesting that adaptation to climate change requires planning for worst case scenario outcomes to avert catastrophic impacts on rural communities. This will involve national policy planning as much as regional-level leadership for rapid development of adaptive strategies in agriculture and other key areas of rural communities.

  10. A model of clinical query management that supports integration of biomedical information over the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, W. M.; Shortliffe, E. H.

    1995-01-01

    A model of clinical query management is described that supports the integration of various types of biomedical information and the delivery of that information through a common interface. The model extends the architecture of the World Wide Web to include a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) mediator, which takes in user queries, performs syntactic and semantic processing to transform the input to a canonical form, selects the appropriate information sources to answer the query, translates the canonical query statement into a query of each information resource, queries the chosen information sources in parallel, and controls the analysis and display of results. We describe WebMedline, a CGI mediator that implements portions of this model, and discuss the benefits and limitations of this approach. PMID:8563422

  11. Medical knowledge packages and their integration into health-care information systems and the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Software-based medical knowledge packages (MKPs) are packages of highly structured medical knowledge that can be integrated into various health-care information systems or the World Wide Web. They have been established to provide different forms of clinical decision support such as textual interpretation of combinations of laboratory rest results, generating diagnostic hypotheses as well as confirmed and excluded diagnoses to support differential diagnosis in internal medicine, or for early identification and automatic monitoring of hospital-acquired infections. Technically, an MKP may consist of a number of inter-connected Arden Medical Logic Modules. Several MKPs have been integrated thus far into hospital, laboratory, and departmental information systems. This has resulted in useful and widely accepted software-based clinical decision support for the benefit of the patient, the physician, and the organization funding the health care system.

  12. Crystallography Open Database (COD): an open-access collection of crystal structures and platform for world-wide collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Gražulis, Saulius; Daškevič, Adriana; Merkys, Andrius; Chateigner, Daniel; Lutterotti, Luca; Quirós, Miguel; Serebryanaya, Nadezhda R.; Moeck, Peter; Downs, Robert T.; Le Bail, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Using an open-access distribution model, the Crystallography Open Database (COD, http://www.crystallography.net) collects all known ‘small molecule / small to medium sized unit cell’ crystal structures and makes them available freely on the Internet. As of today, the COD has aggregated ∼150 000 structures, offering basic search capabilities and the possibility to download the whole database, or parts thereof using a variety of standard open communication protocols. A newly developed website provides capabilities for all registered users to deposit published and so far unpublished structures as personal communications or pre-publication depositions. Such a setup enables extension of the COD database by many users simultaneously. This increases the possibilities for growth of the COD database, and is the first step towards establishing a world wide Internet-based collaborative platform dedicated to the collection and curation of structural knowledge. PMID:22070882

  13. Child safety education and the world wide web: an evaluation of the content and quality of online resources.

    PubMed

    Isaac, D; Cusimano, M D; Sherman, A; Chipman, M

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the content, quality, and type of internet resources available for safety education. Using 19 search engines with search strings targeting major forms of injury, identified resources were classified by audience group, accessibility, and authorship. Two independent reviewers rated each resource on the basis of its content and a set of quality criteria using a three point scale. Overall, 10 (18.2%) resources were of highest quality, four (7.3%) were intermediate, and 41 (74.5%) were not recommended. Eighteen months after the original search, 67.3% of all resources and 90% of the highest quality resources were still on the internet. This study provides a methodology for evaluating child safety resources on the world wide web and demonstrates that most internet resources for safety education are of dubious quality. A rating system such as the one developed for this study may be used to identify valuable internet materials.

  14. A Java viewer to publish Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) radiologic images on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Setti, E; Musumeci, R

    2001-06-01

    The world wide web is an exciting service that allows one to publish electronic documents made of text and images on the internet. Client software called a web browser can access these documents, and display and print them. The most popular browsers are currently Microsoft Internet Explorer (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) and Netscape Communicator (Netscape Communications, Mountain View, CA). These browsers can display text in hypertext markup language (HTML) format and images in Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) and Graphic Interchange Format (GIF). Currently, neither browser can display radiologic images in native Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format. With the aim to publish radiologic images on the internet, we wrote a dedicated Java applet. Our software can display radiologic and histologic images in DICOM, JPEG, and GIF formats, and provides a a number of functions like windowing and magnification lens. The applet is compatible with some web browsers, even the older versions. The software is free and available from the author.

  15. Structure and presentation of a World Wide Web database of CSF virus isolates held at the EU reference laboratory.

    PubMed

    Greiser-Wilke, I; Zimmermann, B; Fritzemeier, J; Floegel, G; Moennig, V

    2000-04-13

    A computerized database was generated with the epidemiological data of more than 600 CSF virus strains and isolates kept in the EU Reference Laboratory for Classical Swine Fever in Hanover. In addition, as sequence data from defined regions of the genome are increasingly being used for genetic typing of new isolates and are thus being published, it was decided to integrate them into the database. In order to make the epidemiological and the sequence data available to other laboratories through the World Wide Web, a searchable web interface was programmed, which can be accessed using an Internet browser like Netscape or Internet Explorer. The possibility to exchange data via the web has the potential to increase our knowledge concerning genetic and epidemiological links between outbreaks worldwide.

  16. The efficacy of using search engines in procuring information about orthopaedic foot and ankle problems from the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Nogler, M; Wimmer, C; Mayr, E; Ofner, D

    1999-05-01

    This study has attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining information specific to foot and ankle orthopaedics from the World Wide Web (WWW). Six search engines (Lycos, AltaVista, Infoseek, Excite, Webcrawler, and HotBot) were used in scanning the Web for the following key words: "cavus foot," "diabetic foot," "hallux valgus,"and "pes equinovarus." Matches were classified by language, provider, type, and relevance to medical professionals or to patients. Sixty percent (407 sites) of the visited websites contained information intended for use by physicians and other medical professionals; 30% (206 sites) were related to patient information; 10% of the sites were not easily classifiable. Forty-one percent (169 sites) of the websites were commercially oriented homepages that included advertisements.

  17. Internet Technology in Magnetic Resonance: A Common Gateway Interface Program for the World-Wide Web NMR Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buszko, Marian L.; Buszko, Dominik; Wang, Daniel C.

    1998-04-01

    A custom-written Common Gateway Interface (CGI) program for remote control of an NMR spectrometer using a World Wide Web browser has been described. The program, running on a UNIX workstation, uses multiple processes to handle concurrent tasks of interacting with the user and with the spectrometer. The program's parent process communicates with the browser and sends out commands to the spectrometer; the child process is mainly responsible for data acquisition. Communication between the processes is via the shared memory mechanism. The WWW pages that have been developed for the system make use of the frames feature of web browsers. The CGI program provides an intuitive user interface to the NMR spectrometer, making, in effect, a complex system an easy-to-use Web appliance.

  18. The World Wide Web: a review of an emerging internet-based technology for the distribution of biomedical information.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, H J; Lomax, E C; Polonkey, S E

    1996-01-01

    The Internet is rapidly evolving from a resource used primarily by the research community to a true global information network offering a wide range of databases and services. This evolution presents many opportunities for improved access to biomedical information, but Internet-based resources have often been difficult for the non-expert to develop and use. The World Wide Web (WWW) supports an inexpensive, easy-to-use, cross-platform, graphic interface to the Internet that may radically alter the way we retrieve and disseminate medical data. This paper summarizes the Internet and hypertext origins of the WWW, reviews WWW-specific technologies, and describes current and future applications of this technology in medicine and medical informatics. The paper also includes an appendix of useful biomedical WWW servers. PMID:8750386

  19. Local time variation in land/ocean lightning flash density as measured by the World Wide Lightning Location Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Erin H.; Jacobson, Abram R.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Rodger, Craig J.; Dowden, Richard L.

    2007-07-01

    We study local time variation in high peak current lightning over land versus over ocean by using lightning locations from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). Optical lightning data from the photodiode detector on the Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite are used to determine the relative detection efficiency of the WWLLN for lightning events by region, as well as over land versus over ocean. We find that the peak lightning flash density varies for the different continents by up to 5 hours in local time. Because the WWLLN measures lightning strokes with large peak currents, the variation in local time of WWLLN-detected strokes suggests a similar variation in local time of transient luminous events (e.g., elves) and their effects on the lower ionosphere.

  20. The dysmorphic human-mouse homology database (DHMHD): an interactive World-Wide Web resource for gene mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, C D; Searle, A G; Schinzel, A A; Winter, R M

    1996-01-01

    Genetic mapping and the examination of "candidate genes" for isolating loci associated with clinical syndromes can be greatly accelerated if there is information about where in the genome a particular locus might be situated. Such clues can come from homology to mouse mutants that have been mapped and knowledge of homology between mouse and human chromosomal segments. Further clues can come from chromosome aberrations giving a similar phenotype. However, these clues are often scattered widely in published reports, and even if they are collected together in catalogues or databases there is no rapid way of moving from one data type to another. The Dysmorphic Human and Mouse Homology Database (DHMHD) is designed to ease this data transition. DHMHD comprises detailed information from four separate sources and enables cross referencing through phenotypic and chromosome homology. The DHMHD system is a prototype which is now available online through the World-Wide Web. Images PMID:8730283

  1. Trauma on the Internet: early experience with a World Wide Web server dedicated to trauma and critical care.

    PubMed

    Block, E F; Mire, E J

    1996-08-01

    The Internet is the newest and one of the most powerful communications media today. This study evaluates the utility of dissemination of educational information and exchange of ideas related to trauma at a single site on the Internet. A World Wide Web server on a desktop computer provided a library of downloadable medical software, trauma prevention information, and patient case studies. Most server accesses came from connections at other educational institutions (29.6%). Connections by foreign clients accounted for 17.9% of use. Over a 6-month period, the usage increased from an average of 80 files transmitted per day to 600 per day (750% increase). A trauma and surgical critical care related data server has shown a progressive increase in use in its initial period. Further development by other trauma care providers will be of value in educating the health care community and lay public.

  2. Mapping the footsteps of the green anole: A template for publishing ecological data on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, E.T.; Truett, D.F.; Truett, L.F.

    1996-10-01

    In the handful of years since the World Wide Web (WWW or Web) came into being, Web sites have developed at an astonishing rate. With the influx of Web pages comes a disparity of site types, including personal homepages, commercial sales sites, and educational data. The variety of sites and the deluge of information contained on the Web exemplify the individual nature of the WWW. Whereas some people argue that it is this eclecticism which gives the Web its charm, we propose that sites which are repositories of technical data would benefit from standardization. This paper proffers a methodology for publishing ecological research on the Web. The template we describe uses capabilities of HTML (the HyperText Markup Language) to enhance the value of the traditional scientific paper.

  3. Free internal medicine case-based education through the World Wide Web: how, where, and with what?

    PubMed

    Pappas, Georgios; Falagas, Matthew E

    2007-02-01

    To identify and evaluate electronic internal medicine educational sources and develop a list of major Web sites for interested practitioners. From July 1 to August 20, 2006, we searched Web sites derived from academic and nonacademic institutions, medical journal Web sites, and medical Web sites based on selection criteria, including extent of information, update periods, and validity of the source. We present a list of related Web sites that have been selected as practical, valid, and freely accessed. Brief descriptions and particular characteristics of these sites are also provided. Physicians willing to augment their education on decision making and advances in the field of internal medicine can consult abundant Internet resources, many derived from leading academic and nonacademic sources. The future may see entire educational courses being conducted on the World Wide Web, unifying the medical community, provided some forms of free access are implemented.

  4. Instruments to assess the quality of health information on the World Wide Web: what can our patients actually use?

    PubMed

    Bernstam, Elmer V; Shelton, Dawn M; Walji, Muhammad; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2005-01-01

    To find and assess quality-rating instruments that can be used by health care consumers to assess websites displaying health information. Searches of PubMed, the World Wide Web (using five different search engines), reference tracing from identified articles, and a review of the of the American Medical Informatics Association's annual symposium proceedings. Sources were examined for availability, number of elements, objectivity, and readability. A total of 273 distinct instruments were found and analyzed. Of these, 80 (29%) made evaluation criteria publicly available and 24 (8.7%) had 10 or fewer elements (items that a user has to assess to evaluate a website). Seven instruments consisted of elements that could all be evaluated objectively. Of these seven, one instrument consisted entirely of criteria with acceptable interobserver reliability (kappa> or =0.6); another instrument met readability standards. There are many quality-rating instruments, but few are likely to be practically usable by the intended audience.

  5. A pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) study that suggests a major world-wide clone of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jen-Chieh; Chiu, Tsai-Hsin; Helmuth, Reiner; Schroeter, Andreas; Guerra, Beatriz; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2007-05-30

    Since human infections by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) have been increasing world-wide over the past years and epidemiological studies have implicated the consumption of meat, poultry, eggs and egg products, elucidation of the predominant subtypes for this Salmonella spp. is important. In this study, 107 poultry and food isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis obtained from Germany were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the subtypes were compared with those of the 124 human isolates obtained in Taiwan. Results showed that for these 107 poultry and food isolates, when XbaI, SpeI and NotI were used for chromosomal DNA digestion followed by PFGE analysis, a total of 19, 20 and 19 PFGE patterns, respectively, were identified. Of them, 51 (47.7%), 52 (48.6%) and 42 (39.3%) strains belong to a single pattern of X3, S3 and N3, respectively, and 34 strains belong to a pattern combination of X3S3N3, which was the major subtype. When PFGE patterns of these 107 German isolates were compared with those of the 124 human isolates obtained in Taiwan, pattern combination of X3S3N3 was found as the most common pattern shared by isolates from both areas. PT4 is a major phage type for German and Taiwan isolates. Although most of the X3S3N3 strains are of this phage type, some strains of other PFGE patterns are also of this phage type. Since strains used in this study were unrelated, i.e., they were isolated from different origins in areas geographically far apart from each other, the PFGE study suggests a major world-wide clone of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis.

  6. International use of an academic nephrology World Wide Web site: from medical information resource to business tool.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Kevin C; Oliver, David K; Boal, Thomas R; Gadiyak, Grigorii; Boocks, Carl; Yuan, Christina M; Welch, Paul G; Poropatich, Ronald K

    2002-04-01

    Studies of the use of the World Wide Web to obtain medical knowledge have largely focused on patients. In particular, neither the international use of academic nephrology World Wide Web sites (websites) as primary information sources nor the use of search engines (and search strategies) to obtain medical information have been described. Visits ("hits") to the Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) Nephrology Service website from April 30, 2000, to March 14, 2001, were analyzed for the location of originating source using Webtrends, and search engines (Google, Lycos, etc.) were analyzed manually for search strategies used. From April 30, 2000 to March 14, 2001, the WRAMC Nephrology Service website received 1,007,103 hits and 12,175 visits. These visits were from 33 different countries, and the most frequent regions were Western Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Pacific Islands, and South America. The most frequent organization using the site was the military Internet system, followed by America Online and automated search programs of online search engines, most commonly Google. The online lecture series was the most frequently visited section of the website. Search strategies used in search engines were extremely technical. The use of "robots" by standard Internet search engines to locate websites, which may be blocked by mandatory registration, has allowed users worldwide to access the WRAMC Nephrology Service website to answer very technical questions. This suggests that it is being used as an alternative to other primary sources of medical information and that the use of mandatory registration may hinder users from finding valuable sites. With current Internet technology, even a single service can become a worldwide information resource without sacrificing its primary customers.

  7. Metabolic syndrome--a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation.

    PubMed

    Alberti, K G M M; Zimmet, P; Shaw, J

    2006-05-01

    To establish a unified working diagnostic tool for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) that is convenient to use in clinical practice and that can be used world-wide so that data from different countries can be compared. An additional aim was to highlight areas where more research into the MetS is needed. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) convened a workshop held 12-14 May 2004 in London, UK. The 21 participants included experts in the fields of diabetes, public health, epidemiology, lipidology, genetics, metabolism, nutrition and cardiology. There were participants from each of the five continents as well as from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III). The workshop was sponsored by an educational grant from AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals. The consensus statement emerged following detailed discussions at the IDF workshop. After the workshop, a writing group produced a consensus statement which was reviewed and approved by all participants. The IDF has produced a new set of criteria for use both epidemiologically and in clinical practice world-wide with the aim of identifying people with the MetS to clarify the nature of the syndrome and to focus therapeutic strategies to reduce the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. Guidance is included on how to compensate for differences in waist circumference and in regional adipose tissue distribution between different populations. The IDF has also produced recommendations for additional criteria that should be included when studying the MetS for research purposes. Finally, the IDF has identified areas where more studies are currently needed; these include research into the aetiology of the syndrome.

  8. Ecosystem services in the face of invasion: the persistence of native and nonnative spiders in an agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Brian N; Daane, Kent M

    2011-03-01

    The presence of intact natural ecosystems in agricultural landscapes can mitigate losses in the diversity of natural enemies and enhance ecosystem services. However, native natural enemies may fail to persist in agroecosystems if invaders dominate species interactions. In this study, native and nonnative spiders were sampled along transects that extended from oak woodland and riparian zones into surrounding California vineyards, to assess the role of natural habitat as a source for spider biodiversity in the vineyard landscape, and to compare the dominance of exotic Cheiracanthium spiders between habitats. Many spider species were more abundant in natural habitat than in vineyards, and numbers of spiders and spider species within vineyards were higher at the vineyard edge adjacent to oak woodland. These results suggest that natural habitat is a key source for spiders in vineyards. The positive effect of oak woodland on the vineyard spider community extended only to the vineyard edge, however. Proportions of Cheiracanthium spiders increased dramatically in the vineyard, while numbers of native wandering spiders (the native ecological homologues of Cheiracanthium spiders) decreased. Dispersal limitation and strong habitat preferences may have prevented native wandering spiders from establishing far from the vineyard edge. Exotic Cheiracanthium spiders, in contrast, may possess specific adaptations to vineyards or to a wide range of habitats. Results suggest that the ecosystem services provided by intact natural habitat may be limited in agricultural landscapes that are dominated by invasive species.

  9. More surprises in the global greenhouse: Human health impacts from recent toxic marine aerosol formations, due to centennial alterations of world-wide coastal food webs.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J J; Lenes, J M; Weisberg, R H; Zheng, L; Hu, C; Fanning, K A; Snyder, R; Smith, J

    2017-03-15

    Reductions of zooplankton biomasses and grazing pressures were observed during overfishing-induced trophic cascades and concurrent oil spills at global scales. Recent phytoplankton increments followed, once Fe-, P-, and N-nutrient limitations of commensal diazotrophs and dinoflagellates were also eliminated by respective human desertification, deforestation, and eutrophication during climate changes. Si-limitation of diatoms instead ensued during these last anthropogenic perturbations of agricultural effluents and sewage loadings. Consequently, ~15% of total world-wide annual asthma trigger responses, i.e. amounting to ~45 million adjacent humans during 2004, resulted from brevetoxin and palytoxin poisons in aerosol forms of western boundary current origins. They were denoted by greater global harmful algal bloom [HAB] abundances and breathing attacks among sea-side children during prior decadal surveys of asthma prevalence, compiled here in ten paired shelf ecosystems of western and eutrophied boundary currents. Since 1965, such inferred onshore fluxes of aerosolized DOC poisons of HABs may have served as additional wind-borne organic carriers of toxic marine MeHg, phthalate, and DDT/DDE vectors, traced by radio-iodine isotopes to potentially elicit carcinomas. During these exchanges, as much as 40% of mercury poisonings may instead have been effected by inhalation of collateral HAB-carried marine neurotoxic aerosols of MeHg, not just from eating marine fish. Health impacts in some areas were additional asthma and pneumonia episodes, as well as endocrine disruptions among the same adjacent humans, with known large local rates of thyroid cancers, physician-diagnosed pulmonary problems, and ubiquitous high indices of mercury in hair, pesticides in breast milk, and phthalates in urine.

  10. The use of the World Wide Web by medical journals in 2003 and 2005: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Schriger, David L; Ouk, Sripha; Altman, Douglas G

    2007-01-01

    The 2- to 6-page print journal article has been the standard for 200 years, yet this format severely limits the amount of detailed information that can be conveyed. The World Wide Web provides a low-cost option for posting extended text and supplementary information. It also can enhance the experience of journal editors, reviewers, readers, and authors through added functionality (eg, online submission and peer review, postpublication critique, and e-mail notification of table of contents.) Our aim was to characterize ways that journals were using the World Wide Web in 2005 and note changes since 2003. We analyzed the Web sites of 138 high-impact print journals in 3 ways. First, we compared the print and Web versions of March 2003 and 2005 issues of 28 journals (20 of which were randomly selected from the 138) to determine how often articles were published Web only and how often print articles were augmented by Web-only supplements. Second, we examined what functions were offered by each journal Web site. Third, for journals that offered Web pages for reader commentary about each article, we analyzed the number of comments and characterized these comments. Fifty-six articles (7%) in 5 journals were Web only. Thirteen of the 28 journals had no supplementary online content. By 2005, several journals were including Web-only supplements in >20% of their papers. Supplementary methods, tables, and figures predominated. The use of supplementary material increased by 5% from 2% to 7% in the 20-journal random sample from 2003 to 2005. Web sites had similar functionality with an emphasis on linking each article to related material and e-mailing readers about activity related to each article. There was little evidence of journals using the Web to provide readers an interactive experience with the data or with each other. Seventeen of the 138 journals offered rapid-response pages. Only 18% of eligible articles had any comments after 5 months. Journal Web sites offer similar

  11. Driving nanocars and nanomachines at interfaces: From concept of nanoarchitectonics to actual use in world wide race and hand operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Yasuhiro; Minami, Kosuke; Nakanishi, Waka; Yonamine, Yusuke; Joachim, Christian; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2016-11-01

    Nanomachine and molecular machines are state-of-the-art objects in current physics and chemistry. The operation and manufacturing of nanosize machines are top-level technologies that we have desired to accomplish for a long time. There have been extensive attempts to design and synthesize nanomachines. In this paper, we review the these attempts using the concept of nanoarchitectonics toward the design, synthesis, and testing of molecular machinery, especially at interfacial media. In the first half of this review, various historical attempts to design and prepare nanomachines are introduced as well as their operation mechanisms from their basic principles. Furthermore, in order to emphasize the importance and possibilities of this research field, we also give examples of two new challenging topics in the second half of this review: (i) a world wide nanocar race and (ii) new modes of nanomachine operation on water. The nanocar race event involves actual use of nanomachines and will take place in the near future, and nanomachine operation of a dynamic fluidic interface will enable future advances in nanomachine science and technology.

  12. The Biosphere 2 Global Change Testbed world wide web server: closed system research and education using the Internet

    PubMed

    Tosteson, J L; Marino, B D

    1996-01-01

    At this time, a fully materially closed system of large scale and complexity has not yet been built. However, Biosphere 2--a unique "living" Earth laboratory--is an example of a large (3.15 acres) and biologically complex (several thousand terrestrial plant species) system that can be operated with minimal exchange of ambient substances (annual exchange of materials is estimated to be approximately 10%). Biosphere 2 provides a multidisciplinary platform for scientific studies related to both Earth system processes and microcosms of the Earth that may be transported into space. The scale and versatility of the facility make Biosphere 2 a unique place to support integrated research and educational activities. The Biosphere 2 Global Change Testbed world wide web server has been developed to facilitate such activities by disseminating information about the facility, as well as current research and education efforts. Currently, these efforts focus of studies on carbon and other elemental cycles, coral reef ecology and physiology, stable isotopic research, studies in biodiversity, and ecophysiological studies of plant responses to elevated CO2. The Biosphere 2 Global Change Testbed web server is briefly described, and goals for use of the server to promote research and education endeavors are outlined.

  13. [Preliminary construction of three-dimensional visual educational system for clinical dentistry based on world wide web webpage].

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Xu, Xiang-yang; Song, En-min; Tan, Hong-bao; Wang, Yi-ning

    2009-09-01

    To establish a new visual educational system of virtual reality for clinical dentistry based on world wide web (WWW) webpage in order to provide more three-dimensional multimedia resources to dental students and an online three-dimensional consulting system for patients. Based on computer graphics and three-dimensional webpage technologies, the software of 3Dsmax and Webmax were adopted in the system development. In the Windows environment, the architecture of whole system was established step by step, including three-dimensional model construction, three-dimensional scene setup, transplanting three-dimensional scene into webpage, reediting the virtual scene, realization of interactions within the webpage, initial test, and necessary adjustment. Five cases of three-dimensional interactive webpage for clinical dentistry were completed. The three-dimensional interactive webpage could be accessible through web browser on personal computer, and users could interact with the webpage through rotating, panning and zooming the virtual scene. It is technically feasible to implement the visual educational system of virtual reality for clinical dentistry based on WWW webpage. Information related to clinical dentistry can be transmitted properly, visually and interactively through three-dimensional webpage.

  14. Clinical and virological heterogeneity of hepatitis delta in different regions world-wide: The Hepatitis Delta International Network (HDIN).

    PubMed

    Wranke, Anika; Pinheiro Borzacov, Lourdes M; Parana, Raymundo; Lobato, Cirley; Hamid, Saeed; Ceausu, Emanoil; Dalekos, George N; Rizzetto, Mario; Turcanu, Adela; Niro, Grazia A; Lubna, Farheen; Abbas, Minaam; Ingiliz, Patrick; Buti, Maria; Ferenci, Peter; Vanwolleghem, Thomas; Hayden, Tonya; Dashdorj, Naranjargal; Motoc, Adriana; Cornberg, Markus; Abbas, Zaigham; Yurdaydin, Cihan; Manns, Michael P; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Hardtke, Svenja

    2017-09-29

    Chronic hepatitis D (delta) is a major global health burden. Clinical and virological characteristics of patients with hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection and treatment approaches in different regions world-wide are poorly defined. The Hepatitis Delta International Network (HDIN) registry was established in 2011 with centres in Europe, Asia, North- and South America. Here, we report on clinical/ virological characteristics of the first 1576 patients with ongoing or past HDV infection included in the database until October 2016 and performed a retrospective outcome analysis. The primary aim was to investigate if the region of origin was associated with HDV replication and clinical outcome. The majority of patients was male (n=979, 62%) and the mean age was 36.7 years (range 1-79, with 9% of patients younger than 20 years). Most patients were HBeAg-negative (77%) and HDV-RNA positive (85%). Liver cirrhosis was reported in 48.7% of cases which included 13% of patients with previous or ongoing liver decompensation. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) developed in 30 patients (2.5%) and 44 (3.6%) underwent liver transplantation. Regions of origin were independently associated with clinical endpoints and detectability of HDV RNA. Antiviral therapy was administered to 356 patients with different treatment uptakes in different regions. Of these, 264 patients were treated with interferon-a and 92 were treated with HBV-Nucs only. The HDIN registry confirms the severity of hepatitis delta but also highlights the heterogeneity of patient characteristics and clinical outcomes in different regions. There is an urgent need for novel treatment options for HDV infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Building a world-wide open source community around a software framework: progress, dos, and don'ts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibsen, Jorge; Antognini, Jonathan; Avarias, Jorge; Caproni, Alessandro; Fuessling, Matthias; Gimenez, Guillermo; Verma, Khushbu; Mora, Matias; Schwarz, Joseph; Staig, Tomás.

    2016-08-01

    As we all know too well, building up a collaborative community around a software infrastructure is not easy. Besides recruiting enthusiasts to work as part of it, mostly for free, to succeed you also need to overcome a number of technical, sociological, and, to our surprise, some political hurdles. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) was developed at ESO and partner institutions over the course of more than 10 years. While it was mainly intended for the ALMA Observatory, it was early on thought as a generic distributed control framework. ACS has been periodically released to the public through an LGPL license, which encouraged around a dozen non-ALMA institutions to make use of ACS for both industrial and educational applications. In recent years, the Cherenkov Telescope Array and the LLAMA Observatory have also decided to adopt the framework for their own control systems. The aim of the "ACS Community" is to support independent initiatives in making use of the ACS framework and to further contribute to its development. The Community provides access to a growing network of volunteers eager to develop ACS in areas that are not necessarily in ALMA's interests, and/or were not within the original system scope. Current examples are: support for additional OS platforms, extension of supported hardware interfaces, a public code repository and a build farm. The ACS Community makes use of existing collaborations with Chilean and Brazilian universities, reaching out to promising engineers in the making. At the same time, projects actively using ACS have committed valuable resources to assist the Community's work. Well established training programs like the ACS Workshops are also being continued through the Community's work. This paper aims to give a detailed account of the ongoing (second) journey towards establishing a world-wide open source collaboration around ACS. The ACS Community is growing into a horizontal partnership across a decentralized and diversified group of

  16. Structure and content of chronic kidney disease information on the World Wide Web: barriers to public understanding of a pandemic.

    PubMed

    Calderón, José Luis; Zadshir, Ashraf; Norris, Keith

    2004-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a pandemic and the need to inform those at risk has never been more important. The World Wide Web (WWW) is no w considered a key source of health information, but the quality and utility of this information has been challenged. In this article, we assess structural, content, and linguistic barriers to accessed CKD information and discuss the implications of limited Internet access to communicating health. Technical (number of hyperlinks), content (number of six core CKD and risk factor information domains included), and linguistic (readability and variation in readability) barriers were assessed for websites offered by 12 kidney disease associations. The Flesch Reading Ease Index method was used to estimate readability scores, and variation in the readability of information was assessed. Eleven websites met inclusion criteria. Six of 11 websites provided information in all 6 domains of CKD information. A mean of 4 hyperlinks (range 3-5) was clicked before CKD information was available and a mean of 6 hyperlinks (range 4-12) was clicked to access all available CKD information. Mean readability scores for all six domains of CKD information exceeded national average literacy skills and far exceeded the 5th grade level readability desired for informing vulnerable populations. Information about CKD and diabetes consistently had higher readability scores. The WWW currently has little utility for informing populations at greatest risk for CKD. Barriers to accessing CKD information on the WWW are socioeconomic, technical, and linguistic. Having lower socioeconomic status, less access to computers and the WWW, multiple website hyperlinks, incomplete information, difficult readability, and significant variation in readability of CKD information on the WWW are social, structural, and content barriers to communicating CKD information. This may contribute to the growing epidemics of diminished public understanding about CKD, and disparities in

  17. Surfing the Net--information on the World Wide Web for persons with arthritis: patient empowerment or patient deceit?

    PubMed

    Suarez-Almazor, M E; Kendall, C J; Dorgan, M

    2001-01-01

    In the past few years access to the Internet has become readily available. Patients are increasingly seeking and obtaining health information through the Internet, most often the World Wide Web (WWW). We assessed the content, authorship, and scope of the information available on WWW in relation to rheumatoid arthritis. In an attempt to replicate use by the average person, a broad search of the Internet was conducted for the phrase "rheumatoid arthritis" using WebCrawler, a commonly used search engine. All the "hits" were critically assessed after visiting and collecting information from the respective Web sites in relation to relevance, scope, authorship, type of publication, and financial objectives. The search returned 537 hits. We evaluated 531-2 did not exist, 2 could not be contacted, one was not in English, and one required a membership to access. The 531 hits originated from 388 Web sites. Only 198 (51%) were considered to be relevant and 7 (2%) were of doubtful relevance. Thirty-four (17%) were posted by an individual, 57 (28%) by a nonprofit organization, 104 (51%) by a profit industry, and 10 (5%) by universities. Ninety-one (44%) promoted alternative therapies, the most common including cetyl-myristoleate, colloidal minerals, Pycnogenol, shark cartilage, and Tahitian Noni. Of the 107 sites with financial interests, 76 (71%) promoted alternative medicine. The first 100 hits only identified about a third of the nonprofit organizations or university owned Web pages. Many sites easily accessed by consumers appear to be profit based companies advertising an alternative product claimed to be effective for many conditions. These findings emphasize the need for critical evaluation of Web site contents.

  18. "First-hit" heart attack risk calculators on the world wide web: implications for laypersons and healthcare practitioners.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Elved B; Ramnath, Rajesh; Fallows, Stephen; Sykes, Kevin

    2008-06-01

    Heart attack risk calculators are readily accessible on the world wide web, offering potentially powerful means of health education and risk awareness. Laypersons may be unaware of differences in applicability, risk calculation algorithms and output formats among such calculators. This study assesses the impact of basic web searching terms on type of calculator accessed and on the resulting risk score. Observational study. Seventy-two notional individual risk factor profiles were constructed, based on six combinations of presence or absence of smoking habit, hypercholesterolaemia, mixed hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and family history of premature coronary disease among males and females in age groups 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 years. The term heart attack risk calculator was entered into the Google, Yahoo, MSN, AltaVista and Excite search engines. The first five web pages purporting to contain heart attack risk calculators were included. Subpages of URLs leading to duplicate calculators were excluded. All search engines provided similar "hits" for the same search term. Framingham or PROCAM risk prediction models were the templates for all calculators. Different calculators often gave different absolute percentage risk scores for the same notional risk factor profiles. Differences were clinically insignificant in most cases when comparisons were made between bracketed risk scores within 5% of one another. One calculator gave disproportionately high risk estimates for women compared to men with the same risk factor profile and compared to other calculators into which identical risk profiles were entered. Simple search terms resulted in appropriate "hits". All calculators were based on reputable risk assessment models. There was broad agreement across different calculators for the range of risk factor profiles entered, but one calculator gave inconsistent risk scores.

  19. The Intact porcine bioprosthesis: early world-wide clinical experience and analysis of a single institution's experience.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, F; Bennink, G; Ernst, S; Jaarsma, W; Chevalier, P A; Lutz, D V

    1992-01-01

    The Intact porcine bioprosthesis is a new-generation valve fixed under stress-free conditions and subjected to a mineralization-inhibiting treatment. The valve is undergoing multi-centre prospective clinical evaluation sponsored by Medtronic, Inc., with 19 centres participating world wide. Since April 1986, 1465 valves have been implanted in the aortic position (AVR, n = 965), mitral position (MVR, n = 438), or both (n = 62), and followed up to 5 years. The data recorded at our participating centre, with 115 valves implanted (AVR n = 93, MVR n = 22) closely match the overall event and death rates in the prospective study. Early mortality in the overall study is 5.6% in AVR and 6.6% in MVR; 3-year actuarial survival rates are 88.5% in AVR and 85.6% in MVR; structural valve-failure-free rates at 3 years are 99.8% in AVR and 98.5% in MVR; 3-year freedom from valve-related reoperation is 97.3% in AVR and 95.8% in MVR. The preferential use of bioprosthetic valves in patients aged 70 years and older with no other indication for anticoagulant treatment entails the not infrequent occurrence of patient/prosthesis mismatch in AVR. Hence, when implanting bioprostheses in old patients, the acceptance of some mismatch has to be weighed against the freedom from anticoagulation treatment and the expected long-term freedom from structural valve failure. Further long-term follow-up will be required to demonstrate the greater durability expected from the stress-free fixation and the anti-mineralization treatment.

  20. Evolution and connectivity in the world-wide migration system of the mallard: inferences from mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Robert H S; Zeddeman, Anne; van Hooft, Pim; Sartakov, Dmitry; Soloviev, Sergei A; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Prins, Herbert H T

    2011-11-17

    Main waterfowl migration systems are well understood through ringing activities. However, in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) ringing studies suggest deviations from general migratory trends and traditions in waterfowl. Furthermore, surprisingly little is known about the population genetic structure of mallards, and studying it may yield insight into the spread of diseases such as Avian Influenza, and in management and conservation of wetlands. The study of evolution of genetic diversity and subsequent partitioning thereof during the last glaciation adds to ongoing discussions on the general evolution of waterfowl populations and flyway evolution. Hypothesised mallard flyways are tested explicitly by analysing mitochondrial mallard DNA from the whole northern hemisphere. Phylogenetic analyses confirm two mitochondrial mallard clades. Genetic differentiation within Eurasia and North-America is low, on a continental scale, but large differences occur between these two land masses (F(ST) = 0.51). Half the genetic variance lies within sampling locations, and a negligible portion between currently recognised waterfowl flyways, within Eurasia and North-America. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) at continent scale, incorporating sampling localities as smallest units, also shows the absence of population structure on the flyway level. Finally, demographic modelling by coalescence simulation proposes a split between Eurasia and North-America 43,000 to 74,000 years ago and strong population growth (~100fold) since then and little migration (not statistically different from zero). Based on this first complete assessment of the mallard's world-wide population genetic structure we confirm that no more than two mtDNA clades exist. Clade A is characteristic for Eurasia, and clade B for North-America although some representatives of clade A are also found in North-America. We explain this pattern by evaluating competing hypotheses and conclude that a complex mix of historical

  1. Empirical studies assessing the quality of health information for consumers on the world wide web: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther; Powell, John; Kuss, Oliver; Sa, Eun-Ryoung

    The quality of consumer health information on the World Wide Web is an important issue for medicine, but to date no systematic and comprehensive synthesis of the methods and evidence has been performed. To establish a methodological framework on how quality on the Web is evaluated in practice, to determine the heterogeneity of the results and conclusions, and to compare the methodological rigor of these studies, to determine to what extent the conclusions depend on the methodology used, and to suggest future directions for research. We searched MEDLINE and PREMEDLINE (1966 through September 2001), Science Citation Index (1997 through September 2001), Social Sciences Citation Index (1997 through September 2001), Arts and Humanities Citation Index (1997 through September 2001), LISA (1969 through July 2001), CINAHL (1982 through July 2001), PsychINFO (1988 through September 2001), EMBASE (1988 through June 2001), and SIGLE (1980 through June 2001). We also conducted hand searches, general Internet searches, and a personal bibliographic database search. We included published and unpublished empirical studies in any language in which investigators searched the Web systematically for specific health information, evaluated the quality of Web sites or pages, and reported quantitative results. We screened 7830 citations and retrieved 170 potentially eligible full articles. A total of 79 distinct studies met the inclusion criteria, evaluating 5941 health Web sites and 1329 Web pages, and reporting 408 evaluation results for 86 different quality criteria. Two reviewers independently extracted study characteristics, medical domains, search strategies used, methods and criteria of quality assessment, results (percentage of sites or pages rated as inadequate pertaining to a quality criterion), and quality and rigor of study methods and reporting. Most frequently used quality criteria used include accuracy, completeness, readability, design, disclosures, and references provided

  2. Breast cancer on the world wide web: cross sectional survey of quality of information and popularity of websites

    PubMed Central

    Meric, Funda; Bernstam, Elmer V; Mirza, Nadeem Q; Hunt, Kelly K; Ames, Frederick C; Ross, Merrick I; Kuerer, Henry M; Pollock, Raphael E; Musen, Mark A; Singletary, S Eva

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To determine the characteristics of popular breast cancer related websites and whether more popular sites are of higher quality. Design The search engine Google was used to generate a list of websites about breast cancer. Google ranks search results by measures of link popularity—the number of links to a site from other sites. The top 200 sites returned in response to the query “breast cancer” were divided into “more popular” and “less popular” subgroups by three different measures of link popularity: Google rank and number of links reported independently by Google and by AltaVista (another search engine). Main outcome measures Type and quality of content. Results More popular sites according to Google rank were more likely than less popular ones to contain information on ongoing clinical trials (27% v 12%, P=0.01 ), results of trials (12% v 3%, P=0.02), and opportunities for psychosocial adjustment (48% v 23%, P<0.01). These characteristics were also associated with higher number of links as reported by Google and AltaVista. More popular sites by number of linking sites were also more likely to provide updates on other breast cancer research, information on legislation and advocacy, and a message board service. Measures of quality such as display of authorship, attribution or references, currency of information, and disclosure did not differ between groups. Conclusions Popularity of websites is associated with type rather than quality of content. Sites that include content correlated with popularity may best meet the public's desire for information about breast cancer. What is already known on this topicPatients are using the world wide web to search for health informationBreast cancer is one of the most popular search topicsCharacteristics of popular websites may reflect the information needs of patientsWhat this study addsType rather than quality of content correlates with popularity of websitesMeasures of quality correlate with accuracy

  3. Evolution and connectivity in the world-wide migration system of the mallard: Inferences from mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Main waterfowl migration systems are well understood through ringing activities. However, in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) ringing studies suggest deviations from general migratory trends and traditions in waterfowl. Furthermore, surprisingly little is known about the population genetic structure of mallards, and studying it may yield insight into the spread of diseases such as Avian Influenza, and in management and conservation of wetlands. The study of evolution of genetic diversity and subsequent partitioning thereof during the last glaciation adds to ongoing discussions on the general evolution of waterfowl populations and flyway evolution. Hypothesised mallard flyways are tested explicitly by analysing mitochondrial mallard DNA from the whole northern hemisphere. Results Phylogenetic analyses confirm two mitochondrial mallard clades. Genetic differentiation within Eurasia and North-America is low, on a continental scale, but large differences occur between these two land masses (FST = 0.51). Half the genetic variance lies within sampling locations, and a negligible portion between currently recognised waterfowl flyways, within Eurasia and North-America. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) at continent scale, incorporating sampling localities as smallest units, also shows the absence of population structure on the flyway level. Finally, demographic modelling by coalescence simulation proposes a split between Eurasia and North-America 43,000 to 74,000 years ago and strong population growth (~100fold) since then and little migration (not statistically different from zero). Conclusions Based on this first complete assessment of the mallard's world-wide population genetic structure we confirm that no more than two mtDNA clades exist. Clade A is characteristic for Eurasia, and clade B for North-America although some representatives of clade A are also found in North-America. We explain this pattern by evaluating competing hypotheses and conclude that a

  4. The HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and the World-Wide Web: Raising ASCII Text to a New Level of Usability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Jeff

    1994-01-01

    Describes HyperText Markup Language (HTML), which is used to format documents for the World-Wide Web. HTML tags that enhance ASCII files, examples of their use, and guidelines for organizing hypertext documents are given. Types of documents suitable for the Web and the future of HTML are discussed. (Contains seven references.) (KRN)

  5. The HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and the World-Wide Web: Raising ASCII Text to a New Level of Usability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Jeff

    1994-01-01

    Describes HyperText Markup Language (HTML), which is used to format documents for the World-Wide Web. HTML tags that enhance ASCII files, examples of their use, and guidelines for organizing hypertext documents are given. Types of documents suitable for the Web and the future of HTML are discussed. (Contains seven references.) (KRN)

  6. How To Succeed in Promoting Your Web Site: The Impact of Search Engine Registration on Retrieval of a World Wide Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunender, Heather; Ervin, Jane

    1998-01-01

    Character strings were planted in a World Wide Web site (Project Whistlestop) to test indexing and retrieval rates of five Web search tools (Lycos, infoseek, AltaVista, Yahoo, Excite). It was found that search tools indexed few of the planted character strings, none indexed the META descriptor tag, and only Excite indexed into the 3rd-4th site…

  7. Beyond Piñatas, Fortune Cookies, and Wooden Shoes: Using the World Wide Web to Help Children Explore the Whole Wide World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Donna; Shulsky, Debra; Willis, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The advent of technology and access to the internet through the World Wide Web have stretched the traditional ways of teaching social studies beyond classroom boundaries. This article explores how teachers can create authentic and contextualized cultural studies experiences for young children by integrating social studies and technology. To…

  8. Beyond Piñatas, Fortune Cookies, and Wooden Shoes: Using the World Wide Web to Help Children Explore the Whole Wide World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Donna; Shulsky, Debra; Willis, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The advent of technology and access to the internet through the World Wide Web have stretched the traditional ways of teaching social studies beyond classroom boundaries. This article explores how teachers can create authentic and contextualized cultural studies experiences for young children by integrating social studies and technology. To…

  9. The World Wide Web as a Tool for Information Retrieval: An Exploratory Study of Users' Strategies in an Open-Ended System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Janette R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of an exploratory study that focused on three elements in information retrieval research: the ways information systems are being used, the strategies users engage as they work in these systems, and the use of the World Wide Web as an information retrieval tool. Highlights include open-ended systems and self-efficacy.…

  10. A World Wide Web-based antimicrobial stewardship program improves efficiency, communication, and user satisfaction and reduces cost in a tertiary care pediatric medical center.

    PubMed

    Agwu, Allison L; Lee, Carlton K K; Jain, Sanjay K; Murray, Kara L; Topolski, Jason; Miller, Robert E; Townsend, Timothy; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2008-09-15

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs aim to reduce inappropriate hospital antimicrobial use. At the Johns Hopkins Children's Medical and Surgical Center (Baltimore, MD), we implemented a World Wide Web-based antimicrobial restriction program to address problems with the existing restriction program. A user survey identified opportunities for improvement of an existing antimicrobial restriction program and resulted in subsequent design, implementation, and evaluation of a World Wide Web-based antimicrobial restriction program at a 175-bed, tertiary care pediatric teaching hospital. The program provided automated clinical decision support, facilitated approval, and enhanced real-time communication among prescribers, pharmacists, and pediatric infectious diseases fellows. Approval status, duration, and rationale; missing request notifications; and expiring approvals were stored in a database that is accessible via a secure Intranet site. Before and after implementation of the program, user satisfaction, reports of missed and/or delayed doses, antimicrobial dispensing times, and cost were evaluated. After implementation of the program, there was a $370,069 reduction in projected annual cost associated with restricted antimicrobial use and an 11.6% reduction in the number of dispensed doses. User satisfaction increased from 22% to 68% and from 13% to 69% among prescribers and pharmacists, respectively. There were 21% and 32% reductions in the number of prescriber reports of missed and delayed doses, respectively, and there was a 37% reduction in the number of pharmacist reports of delayed approvals; measured dispensing times were unchanged (P = .24). In addition, 40% fewer restricted antimicrobial-related phone calls were noted by the pharmacy. The World Wide Web-based antimicrobial approval program led to improved communication, more-efficient antimicrobial administration, increased user satisfaction, and significant cost savings. Integrated tools, such as this World

  11. Texas Agricultural Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ryan; Williams, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The researchers sought to find the Agricultural Science teachers' attitude toward five innovations (Computer-Aided Design, Record Books, E-Mail Career Development Event Registration, and World Wide Web) of information technology. The population for this study consisted of all 333 secondary Agricultural science teachers from Texas FFA Areas V and…

  12. Does tree harvesting in riparian areas increase stream sedimentation and turbidity - world-wide experience relative to Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, D.; Smethurst, P.; Petrone, K.

    2009-04-01

    retain 98% of the sediment entrained in runoff from agricultural sections of the catchment. This paper examines the science background from North American and European experiences relative to Australia, with particular emphasis on sediment relationships after tree harvesting using Best Management Practices.

  13. [Server World-Wide Web on the Internet for the provision of clinical cases and digital radiologic images for training and continuing education in radiology].

    PubMed

    Sparacia, G; Tartamella, M; Finazzo, M; Bartolotta, T; Brancatelli, G; Banco, A; Lo Casto, A; La Tona, G; Bentivegna, E

    1997-06-01

    The Internet, as a global computer network, provides opportunities to make available multimedia educational materials, such as teaching files and image databases, that can be accessed using "World-Wide Web" client browser to provide continuing medical education. Since August, 1995, at the Institute of Radiology-University of Palermo, we developed a World-Wide Web server on the Internet to provide a collection of interactive radiology educational resources such as teaching files and image database for continuing medical education in radiology. Our server is based on a UNIX workstation connected to the Internet via our campus Ethernet network and reachable at the uniform resource locator (URL) address: http:/(/)mbox.unipa.it/approximately radpa/ radpa.html. Digital CT and MR images for teaching files and image database are downloaded through an Ethernet local area network from a GE Advantage Windows workstation. US images will be acquired on-line through a video digitizing board. Radiographs will be digitized by means of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) scanner. To set up teaching files, image database and all other documents, we use the standard "HyperText Markup Language" (HTML) to edit the documents, and the Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) or Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) format to store the images. Nine teaching files are presently available on the server, together with 49 images in the database, a list of international radiological servers, a section devoted to the museum of radiology hosted by our Institute, the electronic version of the Journal Eido Electa. In the first 12 months of public access through the Internet, 12,280 users accessed the server worldwide: 45% of them to retrieve teaching files; 35% to retrieve images from the database; the remaining 20% to retrieve other documents. Placing teaching files and image database on a World-Wide Web server makes these cases more available to residents and radiologists to provide continuing medical

  14. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Teller, E.; Leith, C.; Canavan, G.; Marion, J.; Wood, L.

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate baseline exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will at least somewhat uncertain.

  15. Assessing the quality of infertility resources on the World Wide Web: tools to guide clients through the maze of fact and fiction.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Kyoko; Bernstein, Judith; Fidler, Anne T

    2002-01-01

    The Internet has become a major source of health information for women, but information placed on the World Wide Web does not routinely undergo a peer review process before dissemination. In this study, we present an analysis of 197 infertility-related Web sites for quality and accountability, using JAMA's minimal core standards for responsible print. Only 2% of the web sites analyzed met all four recommended standards, and 50.8% failed to report any of the four. Commercial web sites were more likely to fail to meet minimum standards (71.2%) than those with educational (46.8%) or supportive (29.8%) elements. Web sites with educational and informational components were most common (70.6%), followed by commercial sites (52.8%) and sites that offered a forum for infertility support and activism (28.9%). Internet resources available to infertile patients are at best variable. The current state of infertility-related materials on the World Wide Web offers unprecedented opportunities to improve services to a growing number of e-health users. Because of variations in quality of site content, women's health clinicians must assume responsibility for a new role as information monitor. This study provides assessment tools clinicians can apply and share with clients.

  16. Agricultural Impacts on Water Resources: Recommendations for Successful Applied Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmel, D.

    2014-12-01

    We, as water resource professionals, are faced with a truly monumental challenge - that is feeding the world's growing population and ensuring it has an adequate supply of clean water. As researchers and educators it is good for us to regularly remember that our research and outreach efforts are critical to people around the world, many of whom are desperate for solutions to water quality and supply problems and their impacts on food supply, land management, and ecosystem protection. In this presentation, recommendations for successful applied research on agricultural impacts on water resources will be provided. The benefits of building multidisciplinary teams will be illustrated with examples related to the development and world-wide application of the ALMANAC, SWAT, and EPIC/APEX models. The value of non-traditional partnerships will be shown by the Soil Health Partnership, a coalition of agricultural producers, chemical and seed companies, and environmental advocacy groups. The results of empowering decision-makers with useful data will be illustrated with examples related to bacteria source and transport data and the MANAGE database, which contains runoff nitrogen and phosphorus data for cultivated, pasture, and forest land uses. The benefits of focusing on sustainable solutions will be shown through examples of soil testing, fertilizers application, on-farm profit analysis, and soil health assessment. And the value of welcoming criticism will be illustrated by the development of a framework to estimate and publish uncertainty in measured discharge and water quality data. The good news for researchers is that the agricultural industry is faced with profitability concerns and the need to wisely utilize soil and water resources, and simultaneously state and federal agencies crave sound-science to improve decision making, policy, and regulation. Thus, the audience for and beneficiaries of agricultural research are ready and hungry for applied research results.

  17. The World Wide Web Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owston, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago the author wrote in one of the first widely-cited academic articles, Educational Researcher, about the educational role of the web. He argued that educators must be able to demonstrate that the web (1) can increase access to learning, (2) must not result in higher costs for learning, and (3) can lead to improved learning. These…

  18. Patient information on breast reconstruction in the era of the world wide web. A snapshot analysis of information available on youtube.com.

    PubMed

    Tan, M L H; Kok, K; Ganesh, V; Thomas, S S

    2014-02-01

    Breast cancer patient's expectation and choice of reconstruction is increasing and patients often satisfy their information needs outside clinic time by searching the world wide web. The aim of our study was to analyse the quality of content and extent of information regarding breast reconstruction available on YouTube videos and whether this is an appropriate additional source of information for patients. A snapshot qualitative and quantitative analysis of the first 100 videos was performed after the term 'breast reconstruction' was input into the search window of the video sharing website www.youtube.com on the 1st of September 2011. Qualitative categorical analysis included patient, oncological and reconstruction factors. It was concluded that although videos uploaded onto YouTube do not provide comprehensive information, it is a useful resource that can be utilised in patient education provided comprehensive and validated videos are made available.

  19. Mitigating greenhouse gases: the importance of land base interactions between forests, agriculture, and residential development in the face of changes in bioenergy and carbon prices

    Treesearch

    Ralph Alig; Greg Latta; Darius Adams; Bruce. McCarl

    2009-01-01

    The forest sector can contribute to atmospheric greenhouse gas reduction, while also providing other environmental, economic, and social benefits. Policy tools for climate change mitigation include carbon-related payment programs as well as laws and programs to impede the loss of agricultural and forest lands to development. Policy makers will base their expectations...

  20. Real-time, face recognition technology

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, S.

    1995-11-01

    The Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recently developed the real-time, face recognition technology KEN. KEN uses novel imaging devices such as silicon retinas developed at Caltech or off-the-shelf CCD cameras to acquire images of a face and to compare them to a database of known faces in a robust fashion. The KEN-Online project makes that recognition technology accessible through the World Wide Web (WWW), an internet service that has recently seen explosive growth. A WWW client can submit face images, add them to the database of known faces and submit other pictures that the system tries to recognize. KEN-Online serves to evaluate the recognition technology and grow a large face database. KEN-Online includes the use of public domain tools such as mSQL for its name-database and perl scripts to assist the uploading of images.

  1. Survey of the World Agricultural Documentation Services, Draft; Prepared on Behalf of the FAO Panel of Experts on "AGRIS" (International Information System for the Agricultural Sciences and Technology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buntrock, H.

    The purpose of the survey was: (1) to evaluate existing agricultural information services and (2) to propose possible frameworks for an improved world-wide agricultural information service. The principal statistical results of the survey are summarized in the following figures which are based on data collected in nearly all instances for the year…

  2. Modeling groundwater quality in an arid agricultural environment in the face of an uncertain climate: the case of Mewat District, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. C.; Ward, A. S.; Muste, M.

    2014-12-01

    The salinization of groundwater resources is a widespread problem in arid agricultural environments. In Mewat District (Haryana, India), groundwater salinity has rendered much of the accessible supply unfit for human consumption or agriculture. Historically, this closed basin retained fresh pockets of water at the foothills of the Aravalli Hills, where monsoonal precipitation runoff from the mountains was recharged through infiltration or facilitated by man-made structures. To date, an increasing number of pumps supply the region with fresh water for consumption and agriculture leading to shrinking the freshwater zone at an accelerated pace. The potential for increased human consumption corroborated with the effects of climate change bring uncertainty about the future of water security for the Mewat communities, most of them critically bound to the existence of local water. This study addresses the sustainability of the freshwater supply under a range of land interventions and climate scenarios, using a 2-D groundwater flow and transport model. Our results quantify potential futures for this arid, groundwater-dependent location, using numerical groundwater modeling to quantify interactions between human water use, infrastructure, and climate. Outcomes of this modeling study will inform an NGO active in the area on sustainable management of groundwater resources.

  3. Efforts and success world-wide in the field of clinical pharmacology. A personal review on the occasion of Folke Sjöqvist's 80th birthday.

    PubMed

    Orme, Michael

    2013-05-01

    In this personal review I describe my early expectations and experiences when I first came to work with Prof. Folke Sjöqvist as a training fellow in the early 1970s. At that time Prof. Sjöqvist and his unit had already earned an international reputation, and in the following decades this success has been magnified many times. Although a description of the research performed by Prof. Sjöqvist during his long career is not the main objective of this article, it is clear that the research carried out in his unit has been instrumental in the development of his international reputation. Over an 18-year period from 1994 onwards, some 272 papers bearing the name of Folke Sjöqvist have been cited over 13,000 times, with an average of over 50 citations per paper. In terms of training clinical pharmacologists from around the world, at the last count 112 individuals from 37 different countries have received a substantial part of their training in his unit. As another measure of his world-wide success, 33 individuals from 18 different countries who received a substantial part of their training in his unit between 1968 and 1996 have gone on to become professors of clinical pharmacology. Prof. Sjöqvist has been requested to consult on various aspects of clinical pharmacology in 15 different countries, from Russia to Spain and from Egypt to Latvia. Here I describe the long-term involvement that Prof. Sjöqvist has had with IUPHAR (now the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology) and with institutions such as the World Health Organisation (WHO). In particular, I recount his role in the long-term saga involved in updating the original WHO manifesto on clinical pharmacology published in 1970 up to the eventual success of the new manifesto published by WHO in 2012. Finally, I briefly describe the international honours that have been bestowed on Prof. Sjöqvist, including various prizes, designated lectureships and honorary Doctorates (5). Taken together, these

  4. Empowering radiologic education on the Internet: a new virtual website technology for hosting interactive educational content on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Frank, M S; Dreyer, K

    2001-06-01

    We describe a virtual web site hosting technology that enables educators in radiology to emblazon and make available for delivery on the world wide web their own interactive educational content, free from dependencies on in-house resources and policies. This suite of technologies includes a graphically oriented software application, designed for the computer novice, to facilitate the input, storage, and management of domain expertise within a database system. The database stores this expertise as choreographed and interlinked multimedia entities including text, imagery, interactive questions, and audio. Case-based presentations or thematic lectures can be authored locally, previewed locally within a web browser, then uploaded at will as packaged knowledge objects to an educator's (or department's) personal web site housed within a virtual server architecture. This architecture can host an unlimited number of unique educational web sites for individuals or departments in need of such service. Each virtual site's content is stored within that site's protected back-end database connected to Internet Information Server (Microsoft Corp, Redmond WA) using a suite of Active Server Page (ASP) modules that incorporate Microsoft's Active Data Objects (ADO) technology. Each person's or department's electronic teaching material appears as an independent web site with different levels of access--controlled by a username-password strategy--for teachers and students. There is essentially no static hypertext markup language (HTML). Rather, all pages displayed for a given site are rendered dynamically from case-based or thematic content that is fetched from that virtual site's database. The dynamically rendered HTML is displayed within a web browser in a Socratic fashion that can assess the recipient's current fund of knowledge while providing instantaneous user-specific feedback. Each site is emblazoned with the logo and identification of the participating institution. Individuals

  5. Perceptions of traditional information sources and use of the world wide web to seek health information: findings from the health information national trends survey.

    PubMed

    Rains, Stephen A

    2007-01-01

    As medical information becomes increasingly available and individuals take a more active role in managing their personal health, it is essential for scholars to better understand the general public's information-seeking behavior. The study reported here explores the use of the World Wide Web to seek health information in a contemporary information-media environment. Drawing from uses and gratifications theory and the comprehensive model of health information seeking, perceptions of traditional information sources (e.g., mass media, one's health care provider, etc.) are posited to predict use of the Web to seek health information and perceptions of information acquired from searches. Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS; N = 3982) were analyzed to test study hypotheses. Trust in information-oriented media, entertainment-oriented media, and one's health care provider all predicted Web use behavior and perceptions. The implications of the findings for research on information seeking and the role of the Web in patient empowerment are discussed.

  6. Reliability of health information for the public on the World Wide Web: systematic survey of advice on managing fever in children at home.

    PubMed Central

    Impicciatore, P.; Pandolfini, C.; Casella, N.; Bonati, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of healthcare information on the world wide web and therefore how it may help lay people cope with common health problems. METHODS: Systematic search by means of two search engines, Yahoo and Excite, of parent oriented web pages relating to home management of feverish children. Reliability of information on the web sites was checked by comparison with published guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Minimum temperature of child that should be considered as fever, optimal sites for measuring temperature, pharmacological and physical treatment of fever, conditions that may warrant a doctor's visit. RESULTS: 41 web pages were retrieved and considered. 28 web pages gave a temperature above which a child is feverish; 26 pages indicated the optimal site for taking temperature, most recommending rectal measurement; 31 of the 34 pages that mentioned drug treatment recommended paracetamol as an antipyretic; 38 pages recommended non-drug measures, most commonly tepid sponging, dressing lightly, and increasing fluid intake; and 36 pages gave some indication of when a doctor should be called. Only four web pages adhered closely to the main recommendations in the guidelines. The largest deviations were in sponging procedures and how to take a child's temperature, whereas there was a general agreement in the use of paracetamol. CONCLUSIONS: Only a few web sites provided complete and accurate information for this common and widely discussed condition. This suggests an urgent need to check public oriented healthcare information on the internet for accuracy, completeness, and consistency. PMID:9224132

  7. Searching for information on the World Wide Web with a search engine: a pilot study on cognitive flexibility in younger and older users.

    PubMed

    Dommes, Aurelie; Chevalier, Aline; Rossetti, Marilyne

    2010-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the age-related differences in searching for information on the World Wide Web with a search engine. 11 older adults (6 men, 5 women; M age=59 yr., SD=2.76, range=55-65 yr.) and 12 younger adults (2 men, 10 women; M=23.7 yr., SD=1.07, range=22-25 yr.) had to conduct six searches differing in complexity, and for which a search method was or was not induced. The results showed that the younger and older participants provided with an induced search method were less flexible than the others and produced fewer new keywords. Moreover, older participants took longer than the younger adults, especially in the complex searches. The younger participants were flexible in the first request and spontaneously produced new keywords (spontaneous flexibility), whereas the older participants only produced new keywords when confronted by impasses (reactive flexibility). Aging may influence web searches, especially the nature of keywords used.

  8. Selfie and the city: a world-wide, large, and ecologically valid database reveals a two-pronged side bias in naïve self-portraits.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Nicola; Bertamini, Marco; Protti, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Self-portraits are more likely to show the artist's right than left cheek. This phenomenon may have a psychobiological basis: Self-portraitists often copy their subject from mirrors and, if they prefer to present their left cheek (more expressive due to right-lateralization of emotions) to the mirror, this would result in a right-cheek bias in the painting. We tested this hypothesis using SelfieCity (3200 selfies posted on Instagram from December 4 through 12, 2013 from New York, Sao Paulo, Berlin, Moskow, and Bangkok), which includes two selfie-taking styles: a "standard" (photograph of selfie-taker) and a "mirror" (photograph of mirror reflection of selfie-taker) style. We show that the first style reveals a left cheek bias, whereas the second reveals a right cheek bias. Thus side biases observed in a world-wide, large, and ecologically valid database of naïve self-portraits provide strong support for a role of psychobiological factors in the artistic composition of self-portraits.

  9. Selfie and the City: A World-Wide, Large, and Ecologically Valid Database Reveals a Two-Pronged Side Bias in Naïve Self-Portraits

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Nicola; Bertamini, Marco; Protti, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Self-portraits are more likely to show the artist’s right than left cheek. This phenomenon may have a psychobiological basis: Self-portraitists often copy their subject from mirrors and, if they prefer to present their left cheek (more expressive due to right-lateralization of emotions) to the mirror, this would result in a right-cheek bias in the painting. We tested this hypothesis using SelfieCity (3200 selfies posted on Instagram from December 4 through 12, 2013 from New York, Sao Paulo, Berlin, Moskow, and Bangkok), which includes two selfie-taking styles: a “standard” (photograph of selfie-taker) and a “mirror” (photograph of mirror reflection of selfie-taker) style. We show that the first style reveals a left cheek bias, whereas the second reveals a right cheek bias. Thus side biases observed in a world-wide, large, and ecologically valid database of naïve self-portraits provide strong support for a role of psychobiological factors in the artistic composition of self-portraits. PMID:25915767

  10. Is there a species spectrum within the world-wide leaf economics spectrum? Major variations in leaf functional traits in the Mediterranean sclerophyll Quercus ilex.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, Ulo

    2015-01-01

    The leaf economics spectrum is a general concept describing coordinated variation in foliage structural, chemical and physiological traits across resource gradients. Yet, within this concept,the role of within-species variation, including ecotypic and plastic variation components, has been largely neglected. This study hypothesized that there is a within-species economics spectrum within the general spectrum in the evergreen sclerophyll Quercus ilex which dominates low resource ecosystems over an exceptionally wide range. An extensive database of foliage traits covering the full species range was constructed, and improved filtering algorithms were developed. Standardized data filtering was deemed absolutely essential as additional variation sources can result in trait variation of 10–300%,blurring the broad relationships. Strong trait variation, c. two-fold for most traits to up to almost an order of magnitude, was uncovered.Although the Q. ilex spectrum is part of the general spectrum, within-species trait and climatic relationships in this species partly differed from the overall spectrum. Contrary to world-wide trends, Q. ilex does not necessarily have a low nitrogen content per mass and can increase photosynthetic capacity with increasing foliage robustness. This study argues that the within-species economics spectrum needs to be considered in regional- to biome-level analyses.

  11. The World-Wide-Failure-Exercises-I and -II for UD Materials- Valuable Attempts to Validate Failure Theories on Basis of More or Less Applicable Test Data Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntze, Ralf

    2014-06-01

    There was a lack of really validated 2D and 3D strength failure conditions (SFC) for unidirectional (UD) laminas. In the World-Wide-Failure-Exercises WWFE-I (2D stress states) and II (3D stress states), organized by QinetiQ (UK) in the past 20 years, it was extensively attempted to fill this gap. The author participated in both these exercises with a set of 'modal' failure conditions for the brittle behaving, transversely-isotropic UD lamina material composed of endless fibre-reinforced polymers. These conditions base on his so-called Failure Mode Concept (FMC). In the paper the provided, more or less applicable or even not reliable test data sets - provided for the Test Cases (TC) - are discussed with the aim of a better exploitation. There are no further data sets available. Therefore the interested designer must get sufficient knowledge about the quality of the data sets. With a better understanding the designer will be able to perform design verification with a remaining minimum amount of costly test work. To achieve this, the author presents his personal WWFE assessments, provides lessons learnt and draws conclusions.

  12. World-wide satellite night-light data as a proxy of society-hydrology interaction and vulnerability to flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, S.; Laio, F.; Montanari, A.

    2013-12-01

    The study and the analysis of the interactions and feedbacks between hydrology and society constitute the main issue of socio-hydrology. Recent flood events, which occurred across the globe, highlighted once again that mitigation strategies are needed to reduce flood risk. In particular, quick procedures for the identification of vulnerable human settlements and flood prone areas are a necessary tool to identify priorities for flood risk management. To this aim, a 19-year long period of world-wide night light data, as a proxy of human population, and the global river network have been examined. The spatio-temporal evolution of artificial luminosity depending on the distance from the river network has been assessed in order to quantitatively identify the likelihood for a populated pixel to be reached by water. The analysis focuses both on a global and on a local scale. Hotspots, such as highly illuminated areas and developing regions, have been also examined. The analysis shows an increment of yearly-averaged artificial luminosity from 1992 to 2010 (i.e. the time period of satellite data availability), whereas light intensity tends to decrease with increasing distance from the river network. The results thus reveal an increased vulnerability of human settlements to flooding events. A nearly 70-year long period of peace and the economic development after the Second World War could reasonably explain the observed enhancement of human population proximity to water bodies.

  13. Two faces of agricultural intensification hanging over aquatic biodiversity: The case of chironomid diversity from farm ponds vs. natural wetlands in a coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoy, Encarnación; Casas, J. Jesús

    2015-05-01

    Increasing agricultural land use and intensification have given rise to the loss and eutrophication of coastal wetlands worldwide. In Mediterranean coastal regions, irrigated agriculture, in turn, has prompted the proliferation of farm ponds which might compensate for wetland loss and degradation if their management regimen results are compatible with biodiversity conservation. Here, we studied regional (γ-), local (α-) and interlocal (β-) diversities of chironomids in coastal wetlands and irrigation ponds from a Mediterranean region, to determine the contribution of each habitat type to regional diversity, and to disentangle which environmental factors, anthropogenic or natural, contributed most to explain diversity patterns. Regional diversity was slightly, but still significantly, higher in natural wetlands than in farm ponds, which can be attributed to the significantly higher β-diversity in natural wetlands, since, despite the much larger surface area of wetlands, both habitat types did not differ in local diversity (α-diversity). In both habitats, however, the contribution of β-diversity to regional diversity was higher compared to that of α-diversity, and the component 'spatial species turnover' exceeded that of the component 'nestedness' of β-diversity. This, together with an outstanding assemblage complementarity (approx. 50%) between habitat types, emphasizes the vital contribution of farm ponds, together with natural wetlands, to regional diversity. Despite the higher salinity and eutrophication of natural wetlands that tended to reduce diversity in chironomid assemblages, their more heterogeneous shore line likely compensated somewhat for such negative effects. Unlike wetlands, the homogeneous and unvegetated shore of farm ponds, in conjunction with their intensive management, probably induced adverse effects on local and interlocal diversity. Specific recommendations are given in this regards to mitigate impacts and improve the value of both

  14. Face pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... face may be caused by a nerve problem, injury, or infection. Face pain may also begin in other places in ... zoster (shingles) or herpes simplex (cold sores) infection Injury to the face Migraine Myofascial pain syndrome Sinusitis or sinus infection ( ...

  15. Sharing individual patient and parasite-level data through the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network platform: A qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Elizabeth; Botchway, Stella

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, biomedical researchers are encouraged or required by research funders and journals to share their data, but there's very little guidance on how to do that equitably and usefully, especially in resource-constrained settings. We performed an in-depth case study of one data sharing pioneer: the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN). The case study included a records review, a quantitative analysis of WAARN-related publications, in-depth interviews with 47 people familiar with WWARN, and a witness seminar involving a sub-set of 11 interviewees. WWARN originally aimed to collate clinical, in vitro, pharmacological and molecular data into linked, open-access databases intended to serve as a public resource to guide antimalarial drug treatment policies. Our study describes how WWARN navigated challenging institutional and academic incentive structures, alongside funders' reluctance to invest in capacity building in malaria-endemic countries, which impeded data sharing. The network increased data contributions by focusing on providing free, online tools to improve the quality and efficiency of data collection, and by inviting collaborative authorship on papers addressing policy-relevant questions that could only be answered through pooled analyses. By July 1, 2016, the database included standardised data from 103 molecular studies and 186 clinical trials, representing 135,000 individual patients. Developing the database took longer and cost more than anticipated, and efforts to increase equity for data contributors are on-going. However, analyses of the pooled data have generated new methods and influenced malaria treatment recommendations globally. Despite not achieving the initial goal of real-time surveillance, WWARN has developed strong data governance and curation tools, which are now being adapted relatively quickly for other diseases. To be useful, data sharing requires investment in long-term infrastructure. To be feasible, it requires new

  16. Training value of laparoscopic colorectal videos on the World Wide Web: a pilot study on the educational quality of laparoscopic right hemicolectomy videos.

    PubMed

    Celentano, V; Browning, M; Hitchins, C; Giglio, M C; Coleman, M G

    2017-04-04

    Instructive laparoscopy videos with appropriate exposition could be ideal for initial training in laparoscopic surgery, but unfortunately there are no guidelines for annotating these videos or agreed methods to measure the educational content and the safety of the procedure presented. Aim of this study is to systematically search the World Wide Web to determine the availability of laparoscopic colorectal surgery videos and to objectively establish their potential training value. A search for laparoscopic right hemicolectomy videos was performed on the three most used English language web search engines Google.com, Bing.com, and Yahoo.com; moreover, a survey among 25 local trainees was performed to identify additional websites for inclusion. All laparoscopic right hemicolectomy videos with an English language title were included. Videos of open surgery, single incision laparoscopic surgery, robotic, and hand-assisted surgery were excluded. The safety of the demonstrated procedure was assessed with a validated competency assessment tool specifically designed for laparoscopic colorectal surgery and data on the educational content of the video were extracted. Thirty-one websites were identified and 182 surgical videos were included. One hundred and seventy-three videos (95%) detailed the year of publication; this demonstrated a significant increase in the number of videos published per year from 2009. Characteristics of the patient were rarely presented, only 10 videos (5.4%) reported operating time and only 6 videos (3.2%) reported 30-day morbidity; 34 videos (18.6%) underwent a peer-review process prior to publication. Formal case presentation, the presence of audio narration, the use of diagrams, and snapshots and a step-by-step approach are all characteristics of peer-reviewed videos but no significant difference was found in the safety of the procedure. Laparoscopic videos can be a useful adjunct to operative training. There is a large and increasing amount of

  17. Theme: Agricultural Literacy about Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Martin J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes "'Sharing' the Gospel According to Agriculture!" (Frick); "Agricultural Literacy: An Integrated Content and Partnership Approach" (Parmley et al.); "Idaho Agriculture in the Classroom" (Pals, Waitley); "Middle School Agricultural Education" (Moore, Violett); "Agricultural Communication"…

  18. Remote sensing advances in agricultural inventories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragg, J. L.; Bizzell, R. M.; Trichel, M. C.; Hatch, R. E.; Phinney, D. E.; Baker, T. C.

    1984-01-01

    As the complexity of the world's agricultural industry increases, more timely and more accurate world-wide agricultural information is required to support production and marketing decisions, policy formulation, and technology development. The Inventory Technology Development Project of the AgRISTARS Program has developed new automated technology that uses data sets acquired by spaceborne remote sensors. Research has emphasized the development of multistage, multisensor sampling and estimation techniques for use in global environments where reliable ground observations are not available. This paper presents research results obtained from data sets acquired by four different sensors: Landsat MSS, Landsat TM, Shuttle-Imaging Radar and environmental satellite (AVHRR).

  19. Remote sensing advances in agricultural inventories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragg, J. L.; Bizzell, R. M.; Trichel, M. C.; Hatch, R. E.; Phinney, D. E.; Baker, T. C.

    1984-01-01

    As the complexity of the world's agricultural industry increases, more timely and more accurate world-wide agricultural information is required to support production and marketing decisions, policy formulation, and technology development. The Inventory Technology Development Project of the AgRISTARS Program has developed new automated technology that uses data sets acquired by spaceborne remote sensors. Research has emphasized the development of multistage, multisensor sampling and estimation techniques for use in global environments where reliable ground observations are not available. This paper presents research results obtained from data sets acquired by four different sensors: Landsat MSS, Landsat TM, Shuttle-Imaging Radar and environmental satellite (AVHRR).

  20. How do consumers search for and appraise health information on the world wide web? Qualitative study using focus groups, usability tests, and in-depth interviews

    PubMed Central

    Eysenbach, Gunther; Köhler, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To describe techniques for retrieval and appraisal used by consumers when they search for health information on the internet. Design Qualitative study using focus groups, naturalistic observation of consumers searching the world wide web in a usability laboratory, and in-depth interviews. Participants A total of 21 users of the internet participated in three focus group sessions. 17 participants were given a series of health questions and observed in a usability laboratory setting while retrieving health information from the web; this was followed by in-depth interviews. Setting Heidelberg, Germany. Results Although their search technique was often suboptimal, internet users successfully found health information to answer questions in an average of 5 minutes 42 seconds (median 4 minutes 18 seconds) per question. Participants in focus groups said that when assessing the credibility of a website they primarily looked for the source, a professional design, a scientific or official touch, language, and ease of use. However, in the observational study, no participants checked any “about us” sections of websites, disclaimers, or disclosure statements. In the post-search interviews, it emerged that very few participants had noticed and remembered which websites they had retrieved information from. Conclusions Further observational studies are needed to design and evaluate educational and technological innovations for guiding consumers to high quality health information on the web. What is already known on this topicLittle is known about how consumers retrieve and assess the quality of health information on the internetQualitative data are needed to design educational and technological innovations to guide consumers to high quality health informationWhat this study addsUsers of the internet explore only the first few links on general search engines when seeking health informationConsumers say that when assessing the credibility of a site they primarily look

  1. Face Lift.

    PubMed

    Wan, Dinah; Small, Kevin H; Barton, Fritz E

    2015-11-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Identify the essential anatomy of the aging face and its relationship to face-lift surgery. 2. Understand the common operative approaches to the aging face and a historical perspective. 3. Understand and describe the common complications following face lifting and treatment options. Surgical rejuvenation of the aging face remains one of the most commonly performed plastic surgery procedures. This article reviews the anatomy of the face and its impact on surgical correction. In addition, this review discusses the evolution of various face-lift techniques and the current surgical approach to the aging face. Finally, this article discusses potential postoperative complications after rhytidectomy and management solutions.

  2. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  3. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E; Leith, C; Canavan, G; Marion, J; Wood, L

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate base line exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will be at least somewhat uncertain. The contemporary technology base provides ways-and-means for commencing the development of such a meteorological measurement-intensive climate baseline, moreover with a program budget far less than the {approx}$2.5 B/year which the US. currently spends on ''global change'' studies. In particular, the recent advent of satellite-based global telephony enables real-time control of, and data-return from, instrument packages of very modest scale, and Silicon Revolution-based sensor, data-processing and -storage advances permit 'intelligent' data-gathering payloads to be created with 10 gram-scale mass budgets. A geophysical measurement system implemented in such modern technology is a populous constellation 03 long-lived, highly-miniaturized robotic weather stations deployed throughout the weather-generating portions of the Earths atmosphere, throughout its oceans and across its land surfaces. Leveraging the technological advances of the OS, the filly-developed atmospheric weather station of this system has a projected weight of the order of 1 ounce, and contains a satellite telephone, a GPS receiver, a full set of atmospheric sensing instruments and a control computer - and has an operational life of the order of 1 year and a mass-production cost of the order of $20. Such stations are effectively ''intra-atmospheric satellites'' but likely have serial

  4. Face Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of face painting as a technique for making the endangered species issue tangible for children while addressing the complexity of the issue. Children are "given" an animal of their own and are educated about the animal while having their faces painted to resemble the animal. (LZ)

  5. Paraquat and sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bromilow, Richard H

    2004-04-01

    Sustainable agriculture is essential for man's survival, especially given our rapidly increasing population. Expansion of agriculture into remaining areas of natural vegetation is undesirable, as this would reduce biodiversity on the planet. Maintaining or indeed improving crop yields on existing farmed land, whether on a smallholder scale or on larger farms, is thus necessary. One of the limiting factors is often weed control; biological control of weeds is generally of limited use and mechanical control is either often difficult with machinery or very laborious by hand. Thus the use of herbicides has become very important. Minimum cultivation can also be important, as it reduces the power required to work the soil, limits erosion and helps to maintain the organic matter content of the soil. This last aspect helps preserve both the structure of soil and its populations of organisms, and also sustains the Earth's soil as a massive sink for carbon, an important consideration in the light of global warming. The introduction of the bipyridinium herbicide paraquat in the early 1960s greatly facilitated weed control in many crops. Paraquat has the unusual property of being active only by direct spray onto plants and not by uptake from soil in which strong binding deactivates it. Together with its rapid action in light in killing green plant tissue, such properties allow paraquat to be used in many crops, including those grown by low-tillage methods. This paper reviews the ways in which agricultural systems have been and are being developed to make use of these properties, and provides a risk/benefit analysis of the world-wide use of paraquat over nearly 40 years.

  6. Agriculture Issues. Transition Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This report is one of a series by the General Accounting Office that summarizes major policy, management, and program issues facing agency heads in the Bush administration. Many concerns have been identified, some new, others long-standing. This report on the Department of Agriculture describes concerns about the following six issues: (1)…

  7. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  8. Face lift.

    PubMed

    Warren, Richard J; Aston, Sherrell J; Mendelson, Bryan C

    2011-12-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Identify and describe the anatomy of and changes to the aging face, including changes in bone mass and structure and changes to the skin, tissue, and muscles. 2. Assess each individual's unique anatomy before embarking on face-lift surgery and incorporate various surgical techniques, including fat grafting and other corrective procedures in addition to shifting existing fat to a higher position on the face, into discussions with patients. 3. Identify risk factors and potential complications in prospective patients. 4. Describe the benefits and risks of various techniques. The ability to surgically rejuvenate the aging face has progressed in parallel with plastic surgeons' understanding of facial anatomy. In turn, a more clear explanation now exists for the visible changes seen in the aging face. This article and its associated video content review the current understanding of facial anatomy as it relates to facial aging. The standard face-lift techniques are explained and their various features, both good and bad, are reviewed. The objective is for surgeons to make a better aesthetic diagnosis before embarking on face-lift surgery, and to have the ability to use the appropriate technique depending on the clinical situation.

  9. Predicting the current potential and future world wide distribution of the onion maggot, Delia antiqua using maximum entropy ecological niche modeling

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jinian

    2017-01-01

    Climate change will markedly impact biology, population ecology, and spatial distribution patterns of insect pests because of the influence of future greenhouse effects on insect development and population dynamics. Onion maggot, Delia antiqua, larvae are subterranean pests with limited mobility, that directly feed on bulbs of Allium sp. and render them completely unmarketable. Modeling the spatial distribution of such a widespread and damaging pest is crucial not only to identify current potentially suitable climactic areas but also to predict where the pest is likely to spread in the future so that appropriate monitoring and management programs can be developed. In this study, Maximum Entropy Niche Modeling was used to estimate the current potential distribution of D. antiqua and to predict the future distribution of this species in 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2080 by using emission scenario (A2) with 7 climate variables. The results of this study show that currently highly suitable habitats for D.antiqua occur throughout most of East Asia, some regions of North America, Western Europe, and Western Asian countries near the Caspian sea and Black Sea. In the future, we predict an even broader distribution of this pest spread more extensively throughout Asia, North America and Europe, particularly in most of European countries, Central regions of United States and much of East Asia. Our present day and future predictions can enhance strategic planning of agricultural organizations by identifying regions that will need to develop Integrated Pest Management programs to manage the onion maggot. The distribution forecasts will also help governments to optimize economic investments in management programs for this pest by identifying regions that are or will become less suitable for current and future infestations. PMID:28158259

  10. Predicting the current potential and future world wide distribution of the onion maggot, Delia antiqua using maximum entropy ecological niche modeling.

    PubMed

    Ning, Shuoying; Wei, Jiufeng; Feng, Jinian

    2017-01-01

    Climate change will markedly impact biology, population ecology, and spatial distribution patterns of insect pests because of the influence of future greenhouse effects on insect development and population dynamics. Onion maggot, Delia antiqua, larvae are subterranean pests with limited mobility, that directly feed on bulbs of Allium sp. and render them completely unmarketable. Modeling the spatial distribution of such a widespread and damaging pest is crucial not only to identify current potentially suitable climactic areas but also to predict where the pest is likely to spread in the future so that appropriate monitoring and management programs can be developed. In this study, Maximum Entropy Niche Modeling was used to estimate the current potential distribution of D. antiqua and to predict the future distribution of this species in 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2080 by using emission scenario (A2) with 7 climate variables. The results of this study show that currently highly suitable habitats for D.antiqua occur throughout most of East Asia, some regions of North America, Western Europe, and Western Asian countries near the Caspian sea and Black Sea. In the future, we predict an even broader distribution of this pest spread more extensively throughout Asia, North America and Europe, particularly in most of European countries, Central regions of United States and much of East Asia. Our present day and future predictions can enhance strategic planning of agricultural organizations by identifying regions that will need to develop Integrated Pest Management programs to manage the onion maggot. The distribution forecasts will also help governments to optimize economic investments in management programs for this pest by identifying regions that are or will become less suitable for current and future infestations.

  11. Recognizing Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Hadyn D.

    1975-01-01

    The proposition that the mechanisms underlying facial recognition are different from those involved in recognizing other classes of pictorial material was assessed following a general review of the literature concerned with recognizing faces. (Author/RK)

  12. Is rangeland agriculture sustainable?

    PubMed

    Heitschmidt, R K; Vermeire, L T; Grings, E E

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the sustainability of rangeland agriculture (i.e., managed grazing) on a world-wide basis, with a focus on North America. Sustainability is addressed on three fronts: 1) ecological, 2) economic, and 3) social acceptance. Based on previous and on-going research, we suggest that employment of science-based rangeland grazing management strategies and tactics can ensure ecological sustainability. The formidable challenge in employing such technology centers around the need to balance efficiency of solar energy capture and subsequent harvest efficiencies across an array of highly spatially and temporally variable vegetation growing conditions using animals that graze selectively. Failure to meet this fundamental challenge often accelerates rangeland desertification processes, and in some instances, enhances rate and extent of the invasion of noxious weeds. We also suggest that the fundamental reason that ecologically sound grazing management technologies are often not employed in the management of grazed ecological systems is because social values drive management decisions more so than ecological science issues. This is true in both well-developed societies with substantial economic resources and in less-developed societies with few economic resources. However, the social issues driving management are often entirely different, ranging from multiple-use issues in developed countries to human day-to-day survival issues in poorly developed countries. We conclude that the long-term sustainability of rangeland agriculture in 1) developed societies depends on the ability of rangeland agriculturalists to continually respond in a dynamic, positive, proactive manner to ever-changing social values and 2) less-developed societies on their ability to address the ecological and social consequences arising from unsustainable human populations before the adoption of science-based sustainable rangeland management technologies.

  13. Agriculture: Newsroom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  14. The presence of major world-wide clones for phage type 4 and 8 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and the evaluation of their virulence levels by invasiveness assays in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Jer-Sheng; Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2006-10-01

    Seventy-seven animal isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) obtained from the United States were analyzed by phage typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Thirty-nine strains were found with phage types (PT) 4, 8, and 13a. When the chromosomal DNA of these 39 isolated strains with PT4, 8, and 13a were digested with XbaI, SpeI and NotI, followed by PFGE analysis, 28 strains were found with a pattern combination of X4S4N4, which was the major subtype. When PFGE patterns of the US isolates with PT 4 and 8 were compared with those of the Taiwanese and German isolates, pattern X3S3N3 was confirmed to be the world-wide subtype shared by PT 4 isolates, as previously reported, while pattern X4S4N4 was newly found to be the most common subtype shared by PT 8 strains. The presence of such major world-wide clones, however, does not necessarily mean that these clones are highly virulent, at least not according to the results of invasiveness assays using cultured human intestinal epithelium cell line Int-407 and living BALB/mice.

  15. About Face

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, and clinicians share their experiences with PTSD and PTSD treatment. Choose a topic below to hear what they have to say. What is PTSD? → How ...

  16. Face Prints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadash, Dre Ann

    1984-01-01

    Eighth graders made prints of their own faces, using photographic papers and chemicals. Describes the supplies needed and the printing process involved. Because junior high school students are so concerned with self, this was a very meaningful activity for them. (CS)

  17. Funny Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)

  18. Funny Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)

  19. Agricultural Meteorology in China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1982-03-01

    During nearly five weeks in China (May-June 1981), the author visited scientific institutions and experiment stations engaged in agricultural meterology and climatology research and teaching. The facilities, studies, and research programs at each institution are described and the scientific work in these fields is evaluated. Agricultural meteorology and climatology are faced with some unique problems and opportunities in China and progress in these fields may be of critical importance to that nation in coming years. The author includes culinary notes and comments on protocol in China.

  20. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.