Science.gov

Sample records for agriculture forestry hydrology

  1. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  2. Agriculture/forestry hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderoord, W. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The main vegetation units of the lower Mekong basin and the land development conditions were mapped by interpretation of LANDSAT 1 data. By interpretation of various shades of gray on satellite images, it was possible to map the density of the vegetation cover. Study of seasonal variations makes it possible to distinguish between mainly deciduous forests. In the Mekong basin area, these are generally related to the vegetation cover density.

  3. Application of ERTS-1 imagery in the fields of geology, agriculture, forestry, and hydrology to selected test sites in Iran

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebtehadj, K.

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary study of the ERTS-1 imagery coverage of Iran, commenced on October 26, 1972. All of the images were carefully examined, and a photomosaic covering approximately ninety-five per cent of the country was prepared. A number of images of selected areas were studied in detail. In the field of geology, a number of large scale faults were identified, which do not figure on geological maps. Furthermore, a preliminary study was carried out on the recent sediments, their possible sources, and origin. A limited number of geological work maps were prepared as well. In the fields of agriculture and forestry, studies based on color composite prints of certain areas were undertaken, with a purpose of identifying potential arable areas. Investigations in the field of water resources resulted in the discovery of a number of small lakes, and streams. Furthermore, fluctuations of the water level in some lakes were observed.

  4. Agriculture, Forestry and Rangeland Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulton, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery for providing information on agriculture, forestry, and rangeland resources is described. The use of the ERTS-1 system for stratification and sampling estimates of relatively small areas is discussed. Examples of maps to improve resource definition for land use planning, resource allocation, and resource development are provided. Inventories of various crops, as determined by photointerpretation of ERTS imagery are submitted in tabular form.

  5. Agriculture and forestry: Identification, vigor, and disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The agricultural and forestry areas which comprise the watershed of the Chesapeake Bay are described. Major problems of watershed creation and management with emphasis on the erosion problem are discussed. Remote sensing as it relates to the identification of plant species and vigor, pollution, disease, and insect infestation are examined. The application of infrared photography, multispectral sensing, and sequential survey is recommended to identify ecological changes and improve resources management.

  6. Modules in Agricultural Education for Forestry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the seven curriculum modules in this packet for forestry instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major divisions or units, the overall objectives, objectives by unit, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. Module titles are Forest Fire…

  7. Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing. Industry Training Monograph No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's agriculture, forestry, and fishing industry represents about 5% of the nation's total employment and growth in the last 10 years has averaged only about 0.3% per year. In 1996, it was estimated that 4.7% of government-funded training was directed toward this industry. A 1997 employer satisfaction survey indicated that 11% of…

  8. Agriculture, forestry, range, and soils, chapter 2, part C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using microwave systems in agriculture, forestry, range, and soil moisture measurements was studied. Theory and preliminary results show the feasibility of measuring moisture status in the soil. For vegetational resources, crop identification for inventory and for yield and production estimates is most feasible. Apart from moisture- and water-related phenomena, microwave systems are also used to record structural and spatial data related to crops and forests.

  9. 45 CFR 1626.11 - H-2 agricultural and forestry workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false H-2 agricultural and forestry workers. 1626.11... CORPORATION RESTRICTIONS ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural and forestry workers. (a... section. (b) Nonimmigrant forestry workers admitted to, or permitted to remain in, the United States...

  10. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  11. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  12. Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry

    SciTech Connect

    Mccarl, Bruce A.; Schneider, Uwe; Murray, Brian; Williams, Jimmy; Sands, Ronald D.

    2001-05-14

    This paper examines the relative contribution of agricultural and forestry activities in an emission reduction program, focusing in part on the relative desirability of sequestration in forests and agricultural soils. The analysis considers the effects of competition for land and other resources between agricultural activities, forestry activities and traditional production. In addition, the paper examines the influence of saturation and volatility.

  13. Building Better Rural Places: Federal Programs for Sustainable Agriculture, Forestry, Conservation and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berton, Valerie; Butler, Jennifer

    This guide is written for those seeking help from federal programs to foster innovative enterprises in agriculture and forestry in the United States. The guide describes program resources in value-added and diversified agriculture and forestry, sustainable land management, and community development. Programs are included based upon whether they…

  14. GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION POTENTIAL IN U.S. FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the FASOM-GHG model (Forestry and Agriculture Sector Optimization Model with Greenhouse Gases), the GHG mitigation scenarios for U.S. forestry and agriculture run through the FASOM-GHG model, and the results and insights that are generated. GHG mitigation po...

  15. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agriculture is limited. 780.200 Section 780.200 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry...

  16. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agriculture is limited. 780.200 Section 780.200 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry...

  17. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agriculture is limited. 780.200 Section 780.200 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry...

  18. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agriculture is limited. 780.200 Section 780.200 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry...

  19. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agriculture is limited. 780.200 Section 780.200 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry...

  20. Risk of malignant lymphoma in Swedish agricultural and forestry workers.

    PubMed Central

    Wiklund, K; Lindefors, B M; Holm, L E

    1988-01-01

    The risk of malignant lymphoma after possible exposure to phenoxy acid herbicides was studied in 354,620 Swedish men who, according to a national census in 1960, were employed in agriculture or forestry. The cohort was divided into subcohorts according to assumed exposure and compared with 1,725,645 Swedish men having other economic activities. All were followed up in the Cancer-Environment Register between 1961 and 1979. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was found in 861 men in the study cohort. The relative risk was not significantly increased in any subcohort, did not differ significantly between the subcohorts, and showed no time related increase in the total cohort or any subcohort. Hodgkin's disease was found in 355 men in the study cohort. Relative risks significantly higher than unity were found among fur farming and silviculture workers where the relative risks were 4.45 and 2.26, respectively. All five cases in the former group were engaged in mink farming. A time related rising trend in relative risk was found in the silviculture subcohort. Elsewhere the relative risk did not diverge from unity and no time related trend was discernible. PMID:3342183

  1. Climate Impacts on US Agriculture and Forestry: Implications of Global Climate Stabilization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, higher temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and other climate change impacts have already begun to affect US agriculture and forestry, with impacts expected to become more substantial in the future. Although there have been n...

  2. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  3. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and..., 2007, a person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry...

  4. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  5. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  6. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  7. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  8. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  9. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  10. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  11. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  12. Supervised Occupational Experience Record Book for Agricultural Resource Conservation, Environmental Management and Forestry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickles, Tom

    The record book was designed to meet the occupational experience recordkeeping requirements of vocational agriculture students enrolled in forestry, environmental management, or agriculture resource conservation programs in Ohio. It provides guidelines and forms for recording on-the-job, in-the-school lab, and occupational experience project data.…

  13. Library Cooperation at the NOVA University--the Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllys, Heli

    The Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine--the NOVA University-was established in 1995 to increase the cooperation between the Nordic agricultural universities. The NOVA libraries of the seven institutions and facilities involved wanted to show that they are a very useful partner in launching new ideas. They have the…

  14. Agriculture--Forestry. Kit No. 31. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Lee

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on forestry are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics, distributive…

  15. Agriculture--Forestry Seedlings. Kit No. 53. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Larkin V., Jr.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on forestry seedlings are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  16. Distributed hydrological modeling with channel network flow of a forestry drained peatland site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haahti, Kersti; Warsta, Lassi; Kokkonen, Teemu; Younis, Bassam A.; Koivusalo, Harri

    2016-01-01

    Peatland drainage has been an important component of forestry management in the boreal zone and the resulting ditch networks are maintained regularly to sustain forest productivity. In Finland, this is recognized as the most detrimental forestry practice increasing diffuse loads of suspended solids. Alongside forestry management on peatlands, interest in peatland restoration has grown lately. Distributed hydrological modeling has the potential to address these matters by recognizing relevant physical mechanisms and identifying most suitable strategies for mitigating undesired outcomes. This study investigates the utility of such a modeling approach in a drained peatland forest environment. To provide a suitable tool for this purpose, we coupled channel network flow to the three-dimensional distributed hydrological model FLUSH. The resulting model was applied to a 5.2 ha drained peatland forest catchment in Eastern Finland. The model was calibrated and validated using field measurements obtained over frost-free periods of five months. The application showed that distributed modeling can disentangle the importance of spatial factors on local soil moisture conditions, which is significant as peatland drainage aims to control these conditions. In our application, we limited the spatial aspect to the topography and the drainage network, and found that the drainage configuration had a clear effect on the spatial soil moisture patterns but that the effect was less pronounced during the wetter summer. Future applications of distributed modeling in this field comprises investigating the impacts of other spatial factors, modeling channel erosion and solid transport to address strategies for their mitigation, and evaluating restoration schemes.

  17. Climate change impacts on US agriculture and forestry: benefits of global climate stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, Robert H.; Cai, Yongxia; Thomson, Allison M.; Zhang, Xuesong; Jones, Russ; McCarl, Bruce A.; Crimmins, Allison; Martinich, Jeremy; Cole, Jefferson; Ohrel, Sara; DeAngelo, B. J.; McFarland, Jim; Strzepek, K.; Boehlert, Brent

    2015-09-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, higher temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and other climate change impacts have already begun to affect US agriculture and forestry, with impacts expected to become more substantial in the future. There have been numerous studies of climate change impacts on agriculture or forestry, but relatively little research examining the long-term net impacts of a stabilization scenario relative to a case with unabated climate change. We provide an analysis of the potential benefits of global climate change mitigation for US agriculture and forestry through 2100, accounting for landowner decisions regarding land use, crop mix, and management practices. The analytic approach involves a combination of climate models, a crop process model (EPIC), a dynamic vegetation model used for forests (MC1), and an economic model of the US forestry and agricultural sector (FASOM-GHG). We find substantial impacts on productivity, commodity markets, and consumer and producer welfare for the stabilization scenario relative to unabated climate change, though the magnitude and direction of impacts vary across regions and commodities. Although there is variability in welfare impacts across climate simulations, we find positive net benefits from stabilization in all cases, with cumulative impacts ranging from $32.7 billion to $54.5 billion over the period 2015-2100. Our estimates contribute to the literature on potential benefits of GHG mitigation and can help inform policy decisions weighing alternative mitigation and adaptation actions.

  18. 77 FR 55755 - Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). NAICS 11, Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, includes 46... business status caused by a large number of varying receipts based size standards (see 69 FR 13130 (March 4, 2004) and 57 FR 62515 (December 31, 1992)). At the beginning of the current comprehensive...

  19. Climate change impacts on US agriculture and forestry: benefits of global climate stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Robert H.; Cai, Yongxia; Thomson, Allison; Zhang, Xuesong; Jones, Russell; McCarl, Bruce A.; Crimmins, Allison; Martinich, Jeremy; Cole, Jefferson; Ohrel, Sara; DeAngelo, Benjamin; McFarland, James; Strzepek, Kenneth; Boehlert, Brent

    2015-09-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, higher temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and other climate change impacts have already begun to affect US agriculture and forestry, with impacts expected to become more substantial in the future. There have been numerous studies of climate change impacts on agriculture or forestry, but relatively little research examining the long-term net impacts of a stabilization scenario relative to a case with unabated climate change. We provide an analysis of the potential benefits of global climate change mitigation for US agriculture and forestry through 2100, accounting for landowner decisions regarding land use, crop mix, and management practices. The analytic approach involves a combination of climate models, a crop process model (EPIC), a dynamic vegetation model used for forests (MC1), and an economic model of the US forestry and agricultural sector (FASOM-GHG). We find substantial impacts on productivity, commodity markets, and consumer and producer welfare for the stabilization scenario relative to unabated climate change, though the magnitude and direction of impacts vary across regions and commodities. Although there is variability in welfare impacts across climate simulations, we find positive net benefits from stabilization in all cases, with cumulative impacts ranging from 32.7 billion to 54.5 billion over the period 2015-2100. Our estimates contribute to the literature on potential benefits of GHG mitigation and can help inform policy decisions weighing alternative mitigation and adaptation actions.

  20. Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Veterinary Science. Financial Assistance for Study after Standard 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodt, J., Comp.; And Others

    This guide, the seventh in a set of nine, presents a summary of financial assistance available to students of forestry, agriculture, fishing, and veterinary medicine for obtaining a certificate, diploma, or degree after Standard 10 at a university, college, or technikon located in South Africa. The bursaries, loans, and other forms of financial…

  1. A selected bibliography: Application of Landsat digital multispectral scanner data to agriculture, forestry, and range management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohde, Wayne G.

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected publications and technical reports dealing with the application of Landsat digital data analysis techniques to agriculture, forestry, and range management problems. All of the citations were published between 1973 and 1977. The citations reference publications and reports which discuss specific analysis techniques and specific resource applications.

  2. Forestry Manual for Vocational Agriculture Instructors. 1976 Revision. Bulletin No. 7001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The ten chapters included in this forestry manual for vocational agriculture instructors are grouped into three parts. A course outline precedes part 1 and assists the teacher by providing performance objectives, major concepts to be developed, a subject matter outline, motivational ideas, suggested learning activities, and a list of resource…

  3. Agricultural and hydrological applications of radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.

    1976-01-01

    Program objectives, covering a wide range of disciplines and activities in radar remote sensing, include radar systems development and analysis, data processing and display, and data interpretation in geology, geography and oceanography. Research was focused on the evaluation of radar remote sensing applications in hydrology and agriculture based on data acquired with the Microwave Active Spectrometer (MAS) system. The title, author(s) and abstract of each of the 62 technical reports generated under this contract are appended.

  4. Diverse Applications of Electronic-Nose Technologies in Agriculture and Forestry

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic-nose (e-nose) instruments, derived from numerous types of aroma-sensor technologies, have been developed for a diversity of applications in the broad fields of agriculture and forestry. Recent advances in e-nose technologies within the plant sciences, including improvements in gas-sensor designs, innovations in data analysis and pattern-recognition algorithms, and progress in material science and systems integration methods, have led to significant benefits to both industries. Electronic noses have been used in a variety of commercial agricultural-related industries, including the agricultural sectors of agronomy, biochemical processing, botany, cell culture, plant cultivar selections, environmental monitoring, horticulture, pesticide detection, plant physiology and pathology. Applications in forestry include uses in chemotaxonomy, log tracking, wood and paper processing, forest management, forest health protection, and waste management. These aroma-detection applications have improved plant-based product attributes, quality, uniformity, and consistency in ways that have increased the efficiency and effectiveness of production and manufacturing processes. This paper provides a comprehensive review and summary of a broad range of electronic-nose technologies and applications, developed specifically for the agriculture and forestry industries over the past thirty years, which have offered solutions that have greatly improved worldwide agricultural and agroforestry production systems. PMID:23396191

  5. Water-table-dependent hydrological changes following peatland forestry drainage and restoration: Analysis of restoration success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menberu, Meseret Walle; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Marttila, Hannu; Irannezhad, Masoud; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Penttinen, Jouni; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-05-01

    A before-after-control approach was used to analyze the impact of peatland restoration on hydrology, based on high temporal resolution water-table (WT) data from 43 boreal peatlands representative of a south-boreal to north-boreal climate gradient. During the study, 24 forestry drained sites were restored and 19 pristine peatlands used as control sites. Different approaches were developed and used to analyze WT changes (mean WT position, WT fluctuation, WT hydrograph, recession, and storage characteristics). Restoration increased WT in most cases but particularly in spruce mires, followed by pine mires and fens. Before restoration, the WT fluctuation (WTF) was large, indicating peat temporary storage gain (SG). After restoration, the WT hydrograph recession limb slopes and SG coefficients (Rc) declined significantly. Drainage or restoration did not significantly affect mean diurnal WT fluctuations, used here as a proxy for evapotranspiration. Overall, the changes in WT characteristics following restoration indicated creation of favorable hydrological conditions for recovery of functional peatland ecosystems in previously degraded peatland sites. This was supported by calculation of bryophyte species abundance thresholds for WT. These results can be used to optimize restoration efforts in different peatland systems and as a qualitative conceptual basis for future restoration operations.

  6. Identification of high payoff research for more efficient applicator helicopters in agriculture and forestry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, K. T.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a study of the uses of helicopters in agriculture and forestry in the United States are discussed. Comparisons with agricultural airplanes are made in terms of costs of aerial application to the growers. An analysis of cost drivers and potential improvements to helicopters that will lower costs is presented. Future trends are discussed, and recommendations for research are outlined. Operational safety hazards and accident records are examined, and problem areas are identified. Areas where research and development are needed to provide opportunities for lowering costs while increasing productivity are analyzed.

  7. Optics in agriculture and forestry; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 16, 17, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Deshazer, J.A.; Meyer, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed include near-infrared or color methods for agricultural applications; optical and imaging methods for biological product quality; specific optical methods for agriculture and forestry; imaging methods for plant seedling inspection; detection of living plants; and engineering applications of lasers, optics, and detectors in agribusiness. Particular attention is given to near-infrared spectrophotometry for soil property sensing, determination of wheat kernel hardness by optical measurements, an ultrasonic image analysis for beef tenderness, a grain velocity measurement using a linear image sensor, line-scan inspection of conifer seedlings, a neural network classification of sweet potato embryos, and application of smart submunition technology to agribusiness.

  8. Modeling the Heterogeneous Effects of GHG Mitigation Policies on Global Agriculture and Forestry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, A.; Henderson, B.; Hertel, T. W.; Rose, S. K.; Sohngen, B.

    2010-12-01

    Agriculture and forestry are envisioned as potentially key sectors for climate change mitigation policy, yet the depth of analysis of mitigation options and their economic consequences remains remarkably shallow in comparison to that for industrial mitigation. Farming and land use change - much of it induced by agriculture -account for one-third of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Any serious attempt to curtail these emissions will involve changes in the way farming is conducted, as well as placing limits on agricultural expansion into areas currently under more carbon-intensive land cover. However, agriculture and forestry are extremely heterogeneous, both in the technology and intensity of production, as well as in the GHG emissions intensity of these activities. And these differences, in turn, give rise to significant changes in the distribution of agricultural production, trade and consumption in the wake of mitigation policies. This paper assesses such distributional impacts via a global economic analysis undertaken with a modified version of the GTAP model. The paper builds on a global general equilibrium GTAP-AEZ-GHG model (Golub et al., 2009). This is a unified modeling framework that links the agricultural, forestry, food processing and other sectors through land, and other factor markets and international trade, and incorporates different land-types, land uses and related CO2 and non-CO2 GHG emissions and sequestration. The economic data underlying this work is the global GTAP data base aggregated up to 19 regions and 29 sectors. The model incorporates mitigation cost curves for different regions and sectors based on information from the US-EPA. The forestry component of the model is calibrated to the results of the state of the art partial equilibrium global forestry model of Sohngen and Mendelson (2007). Forest carbon sequestration at both the extensive and intensive margins are modeled separately to better isolate land competition between

  9. Integrating agricultural and forestry GHG mitigation responses into general economy frameworks: Developing a family of response functions

    SciTech Connect

    Gillig, Dhazn; McCarl, Bruce A.; Sands, Ronald D.

    2004-07-01

    An econometrically estimated family of response functions is developed for characterizing potential responses to greenhouse gas mitigation policies by the agriculture and forestry sectors. The response functions are estimated based on results of an agricultural/forestry sector model. They provide estimates of sequestration and emission reductions in forestry and agriculture along with levels of sectoral production, prices, welfare, and environmental attributes given a carbon price, levels of demand for agricultural goods, and the energy price. Six alternative mitigation policies representing types of greenhouse gas offsets allowed are considered. Results indicate that the largest quantity of greenhouse gas offset consistently appears with the mitigation policy that pays for all opportunities. Restricting carbon payments (emission tax or sequestration subsidy) only to aff/deforestation or only to agricultural sequestration substantially reduces potential mitigation. Higher carbon prices lead to more sequestration, less emissions, reduced consumer and total welfare, improved environmental indicators and increased producer welfare.

  10. Policy toward individual economic holdings and private enterprises in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, November 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    On 29 November 1988, Viet Nam adopted a policy allowing individual economic holdings and private enterprises in the areas of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. The policy recognizes the positive effect of such holdings and charges the state with creating favorable conditions for them. Ownership and inheritance rights are recognized, and all citizens are entitled to apply for permission to use certain land for business purposes. The production of exports is encouraged, and such enterprises may engage in financial transactions, including borrowing money. PMID:12344312

  11. Ten Years' Chinese-Canadian Collaboration in Undergraduate Education in Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University of China: Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Songliang; Caldwell, Claude; Wei, Liqing; Su, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University-Nova Scotia Agricultural College (FAFU-NSAC) 2 + 2 undergraduate program initiated in 2003 is a model for creative collaboration between China and Canada in undergraduate education. This paper addresses the achievements of the program development and highlights the process for successful curriculum…

  12. Climate change information supporting adaptation in forestry and agriculture - results and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálos, Borbála; Czimber, Kornél; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Bidló, András; Csáki, Péter; Kalicz, Péter; Haensler, Andreas; Jacob, Daniela; Mátyás, Csaba

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent droughts of the last decades have led to severe impacts in forestry and agriculture in the sensitive and vulnerable low-elevation regions of Southeast Europe. Observed impacts are very likely to occur with increasing probability under projected climate conditions throughout the 21st century. In order to suggest options for adaptation and mitigation, a GIS-based Decision Support System is under development in the frame of the joint EU-national research project "Agroclimate". Impact assessments and adaptation support services are based on the simulation results of 12 regional climate models (www.ensembles-eu.org) using the A1B emission scenario until 2100. The development of the Decision Support System requires the balancing of available climatic information and required data for research and economically relevant projection needs of the end users. Here, concrete examples of the development process will be shown for the stepwise analysis and comparison of the followings: 1. Provided climate services: • projected tendencies of temperature and precipitation means and extremes until the end of the 21st century, spread of the simulation results. 2. Required information for climate impact research: • types and characteristics of climate input data, • methods and functions for deriving possible climate change impacts in forestry and agriculture (e.g. on species distribution, growth, production, yield, soil water retention, ground water table, runoff, erosion, evapotranspiration and other ecosystem services and soil properties). 3. Required climate information from the end users' side for developing adaption strategies in the affected sectors: • types of climate indicators, • possible range of the expected impacts (in magnitude and probability). 4. Gaps between climate services and the needs of impact researchers and end users (e.g. spatial and temporal scales, interpretation techniques). Experiences of supporting climate change adaptation in forestry

  13. {open_quotes}Industry overview: Agriculture and forestry{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.

    1995-12-31

    The Climate Change negotiators left Berlin, very tired and bleary eyed, but with a Declaration which included agreements, among other things, to take a close look at what the likely effects of commitments will be and where those commitments will be going between now and 2000. Debate would then open on a new or amended legal instrument to meet the Objective of the Climate Change Convention, in the Twenty First Century. One hundred and fifty nations also declared that a new way of transfering technology could be tried on a pilot basis, thus, Joint Implementation also will move into the Twenty First Century. These two parts of the Berlin Declaration are very important to the role to be played by agriculture and forestry. Agriculture and forestry currently are playing a significant role and will continue this role in the stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. These two sectors, whether in an industrialized nation or in developing nation represent the only economically viable technologies for carbon sequestration, at this time. These sinks are constrained, however, by the reservoir capacity of the soils and are a function of temperature, moisture, soil, and history of use. The outlook is, therefore both one of optimisim and of pessimism. The view will have some global overtones, however, the focus is primarily within the U.S.

  14. Towards efficient bioethanol production from agricultural and forestry residues: Exploration of unique natural microorganisms in combination with advanced strain engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinqing; Xiong, Liang; Zhang, Mingming; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-09-01

    Production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as agricultural and forestry residues is receiving increasing attention due to the unsustainable supply of fossil fuels. Three key challenges include high cellulase production cost, toxicity of the cellulosic hydrolysate to microbial strains, and poor ability of fermenting microorganisms to utilize certain fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate. In this article, studies on searching of natural microbial strains for production of unique cellulase for biorefinery of agricultural and forestry wastes, as well as development of strains for improved cellulase production were reviewed. In addition, progress in the construction of yeast strains with improved stress tolerance and the capability to fully utilize xylose and glucose in the cellulosic hydrolysate was also summarized. With the superior microbial strains for high titer cellulase production and efficient utilization of all fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate, economic biofuels production from agricultural residues and forestry wastes can be realized. PMID:27067672

  15. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects.

    PubMed

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37% of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90%) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation. PMID:26306792

  16. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37 % of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90 %) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  17. Global and regional potential for bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residue biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, Jay S.; Smith, Steven J.

    2010-02-11

    As co-products, agricultural and forestry residues represent a potential low cost, low carbon, source for bioenergy. A method is developed method for estimating the maximum sustainable amount of energy potentially available from agricultural and forestry residues by converting crop production statistics into associated residue, while allocating some of this resource to remain on the field to mitigate erosion and maintain soil nutrients. Currently, we estimate that the world produces residue biomass that could be sustainably harvested and converted into over 50 EJ yr-1 of energy. The top three countries where this resource is estimated to be most abundant are currently net energy importers: China, the United States (US), and India. The global potential from residue biomass is estimated to increase to approximately 80-95 EJ yr-1 by mid- to late- century, depending on physical assumptions such as of future crop yields and the amount of residue sustainably harvestable. The future market for biomass residues was simulated using the Object-Oriented Energy, Climate, and Technology Systems Mini Climate Assessment Model (ObjECTS MiniCAM). Utilization of residue biomass as an energy source is projected for the next century under different climate policy scenarios. Total global use of residue biomass is estimated to increase to 70-100 EJ yr-1 by mid- to late- century in a central case, depending on the presence of a climate policy and the economics of harvesting, aggregating, and transporting residue. Much of this potential is in developing regions of the world, including China, Latin America, Southeast Asia, and India.

  18. Nonpoint Source Pollution: Agriculture, Forestry, and Mining. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskirk, E. Drannon, Jr.

    Nonpoint sources of pollution have diffuse origins and are major contributors to water quality problems in both urban and rural areas. Addressed in this instructor's manual are the identification, assessment, and management of nonpoint source pollutants resulting from mining, agriculture, and forestry. The unit, part of the Working for Clean Water…

  19. Agriculture--Forestry, Biltmore Stick. Kit No. AG-107. Instructor's Manual and Student Learning Activity Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Barron; Johnson, Boston

    This two-volume set, consisting of an instructor's manual and a student learning activity guide, is designed for use in teaching vocational agriculture students basic forestry skills. Provided in the instructor's manual are guidelines concerning the duration of the activity; activity goals; a list of instructional objectives; a list of vocational…

  20. FEASIBILITY STUDY TO PRODUCE BIODIESEL FROM LOW COST OILS AND NEW CATALYSTS DERIVED FROM AGRICULTURAL & FORESTRY RESIDUES - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research will develop and demonstrate the feasibility of preparing reusable and recoverable solid, porous acid and base catalysts for biodiesel production using activated carbon generated from agricultural and forestry residues (i.e., a sustainable biomass).  These ne...

  1. The role of biogeochemical hotspots, landscape heterogeneity, and hydrological connectivity for minimizing forestry effects on water quality.

    PubMed

    Laudon, Hjalmar; Kuglerová, Lenka; Sponseller, Ryan A; Futter, Martyn; Nordin, Annika; Bishop, Kevin; Lundmark, Tomas; Egnell, Gustaf; Ågren, Anneli M

    2016-02-01

    Protecting water quality in forested regions is increasingly important as pressures from land-use, long-range transport of air pollutants, and climate change intensify. Maintaining forest industry without jeopardizing sustainability of surface water quality therefore requires new tools and approaches. Here, we show how forest management can be optimized by incorporating landscape sensitivity and hydrological connectivity into a framework that promotes the protection of water quality. We discuss how this approach can be operationalized into a hydromapping tool to support forestry operations that minimize water quality impacts. We specifically focus on how hydromapping can be used to support three fundamental aspects of land management planning including how to (i) locate areas where different forestry practices can be conducted with minimal water quality impact; (ii) guide the off-road driving of forestry machines to minimize soil damage; and (iii) optimize the design of riparian buffer zones. While this work has a boreal perspective, these concepts and approaches have broad-scale applicability. PMID:26744050

  2. The utility of ERTS-1 data for applications in agriculture and forestry. [Montana, Nebraska, Iowa, Georgia, California, and Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive study has been undertaken to determine the extent to which ERTS-1 data could be used to detect, identify (classify), locate and measure features of applications interest in the disciplines of Agriculture and Forestry. The study areas included: six counties in five states in which were located examples of the most important crops and practices of American agriculture; and a portion of the Sam Houston National Forest, a typical Gulf coastal plain pine forest. The investigation utilized conventional image interpretation and computer-aided (spectral pattern recognition) analysis using both image products and computer compatible tapes. The emphasis was generally upon the computer-aided techniques. It was concluded that ERTS-1 data can be used to detect, identify, locate and measure a wide array of features of interest in agriculture and forestry.

  3. Innovative aspects for teaching the Geology and Climatology course in Agricultural and Forestry Engineering degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Campillo, M. C.; Cañasveras, J. C.; Sánchez-Alcalá, I.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, A. R.; Alburquerque, J. A.; Castro, M. A.; Rey, M. A.; Barrón, V.; Torrent, J.

    2012-04-01

    Courses of the first year at Engineering are typically basic to understanding other subjects and in many cases less attractive for students. In order to innovate and incorporate some aims of the Bologna process, here we present the development of the course of Geology and Climatology given the first year of Agricultural and Forestry degrees at the University of Córdoba. Temporal distribution of activities was as follows: a) to the whole group: 35% of master class, 5% of conferences and 10% of field trip, b) to the medium group (<30 students) 20% of seminars and c) to the small group (<15 students) 25% laboratory and field practical class, and 5% final oral presentation of individual work. Students were assigned the performance of a professional work: characterization of the geology and climatology of an area that will need to know for the courses in the coming years (for example soil science, crop sciences and environmental sciences). Students have to a) complete a literature review of all work done to date, b) use and study the geological map (1:50000) published by the Geological Survey of Spain (IGME), visit the study area in which they had to pick up rocks and subsequently to characterize them, and c) obtain meteorological data from the Spanish Agency of Meteorology (AEMET) (minimum 30 years of precipitation, 15 years of temperatures and 10 years of other variables) for a complete characterization of the climate. The assessment system for students included: attend classes, participation in practicals and excursions, carry out exercices, oral presentation of the report and a final written test. Key factors that favored student participation and interest in the course were: a) the small number of students in classes dedicated to the practicals and seminars and the continuous advice from teachers, and b) the personal choice by the student of the work area, usually close to their origin and in many cases from family property. All of this has served to students, who

  4. Research Needs for Carbon Management in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negra, C.; Lovejoy, T.; Ojima, D. S.; Ashton, R.; Havemann, T.; Eaton, J.

    2009-12-01

    Improved management of terrestrial carbon in agriculture, forestry, and other land use sectors is a necessary part of climate change mitigation. It is likely that governments will agree in Copenhagen in December 2009 to incentives for improved management of some forms of terrestrial carbon, including maintaining existing terrestrial carbon (e.g., avoiding deforestation) and creating new terrestrial carbon (e.g., afforestation, soil management). To translate incentives into changes in land management and terrestrial carbon stocks, a robust technical and scientific information base is required. All terrestrial carbon pools (and other greenhouse gases from the terrestrial system) that interact with the atmosphere at timescales less than centuries, and all land uses, have documented mitigation potential, however, most activity has focused on above-ground forest biomass. Despite research advances in understanding emissions reduction and sequestration associated with different land management techniques, there has not yet been broad-scale implementation of land-based mitigation activity in croplands, peatlands, grasslands and other land uses. To maximize long-term global terrestrial carbon volumes, further development of relevant data, methodologies and technologies are needed to complement policy and financial incentives. The Terrestrial Carbon Group, in partnership with UN-REDD agencies, the World Bank and CGIAR institutions, is reviewing literature, convening leading experts and surveying key research institutions to develop a Roadmap for Terrestrial Carbon: Research Needs for Implementation of Carbon Management in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses. This work will summarize the existing knowledge base for emissions reductions and sequestration through land management as well as the current availability of tools and methods for measurement and monitoring of terrestrial carbon. Preliminary findings indicate a number of areas for future work. Enhanced information

  5. Insights from EMF Associated Agricultural and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    McCarl, Bruce A.; Murray, Brian; Kim, Man-Keun; Lee, Heng-Chi; Sands, Ronald D.; Schneider, Uwe

    2007-11-19

    Integrated assessment modeling (IAM) as employed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) generally involves a multi-sector appraisal of greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) mitigation alternatives and climate change effects typically at the global level. Such a multi-sector evaluation encompasses potential climate change effects and mitigative actions within the agricultural and forestry (AF) sectors. In comparison with many of the other sectors covered by IAM, the AF sectors may require somewhat different treatment due to their critical dependence upon spatially and temporally varying resource and climatic conditions. In particular, in large countries like the United States, forest production conditions vary dramatically across the landscape. For example, some areas in the southern US present conditions favorable to production of fast growing, heat tolerant pine species, while more northern regions often favor slower-growing hardwood and softwood species. Moreover, some lands are currently not suitable for forest production (e.g., the arid western plains). Similarly, in agriculture, the US has areas where citrus and cotton can be grown and other areas where barley and wheat are more suitable. This diversity across the landscape causes differential GHGE mitigation potential in the face of climatic changes and/or responses to policy or price incentives. It is difficult for a reasonably sized global IAM system to reflect the full range of sub-national geographic AF production possibilities alluded to above. AF response in the face of climate change altered temperature precipitation regimes or mitigation incentives will likely involve region-specific shifts in land use and agricultural/forest production. This chapter addresses AF sectoral responses in climate change mitigation analysis. Specifically, we draw upon US-based studies of AF GHGE mitigation possibilities that incorporate sub-national detail drawing largely on a body of studies done by the authors in association with

  6. [Use of an aerosol generator (Guard) to control injurious insects in forestry, agriculture, and medical disinsection].

    PubMed

    Abdraziakov, O N; Ermishev, Iu V; Levkov, P A

    2012-01-01

    The Guard aerosol generator is a universal multioperational device without a field-of-use restriction in the application of permitted chemical and biological substances, by combining the function of a controlled dispersion aerosol generator and a remote small- and large-drop sprayer in one mechanism and can use aerosol pesticides. The drop fractionation range is as follows: 3-50, 50-100, 100-300, and 200-400 microm for aerosol, dead water, small-drop, and large-drop spraying, respectively, with smooth and step control of working liquid drops. Treatment using the Guard generator has been shown to be highly effective against agricultural and forestry pests. This paper describes the advantages of the Guard sprayer over those of the conventional air and ground ones. The long-term use of the Guard generator to control mosquitoes and ticks in the Tyumen region could substantially improve the epidemiological situation of tick-borne infections and protect children's recreation centers from attacks of bloodsuckers. PMID:22774514

  7. Hydrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, John M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The past year saw a re-emphasis on the practical aspects of hydrology due to regional drought patterns, urban flooding, and agricultural and energy demands on water resources. Highlights of hydrologic symposia, publications, and events are included. (MA)

  8. Climatological to Near Real Time Global Meteorological Data for Agricultural, Range, and Forestry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, J. M.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Westberg, D. J.; Chandler, W. S.; Whitlock, C. H.; Zhang, T.

    2007-12-01

    December 31, 2004 (soon to be extended to June 30, 2005) and from July 1, 2006 through current time with a one-month delay; the temperature and dew point parameters are from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) version 4 analyses, and cover the time period from January 1, 1983 through current time with a one- month delay; and the daily averaged precipitation is based upon a merge of the GPCP and TRMM data files and cover the time period from January 1, 1997 through current time with a two-month delay. Results of validation studies for each of the parameters contained in the POWER web site will be presented that illustrate the strengths and weakness of the satellite/model meteorological and solar parameters. In particular, the POWER parameters have been compared to observations from a range of ground stations with particular emphases on results from automated weather stations that are often found in the US in agricultural, range, and forestry environments.

  9. Hydrologic Impact Of Subsurface Drainage Of Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, B. S.; Johannsen, C. J.; Bowling, L. C.

    2005-12-01

    Although subsurface drainage has benefited agricultural productions in many regions of the U.S., there are also concerns about the potential impacts of these systems on watershed hydrology and water quality. This study was focused on tile lines identification and hydrologic response of subsurface drainage systems for the Agronomy Center for Research and Education (ACRE), West Lafayette, Indiana and the Southeastern Purdue Agriculture Center (SEPAC) in southeastern, Indiana. The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate a remote sensing methodology for automatic detection of tile lines from aerial photographs and to evaluate the Distributed Hydrology Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) to analyze the hydrologic response of tile drained fields. A step-wise approach was developed to first use different image enhancement techniques to increase the visual distinction of tile lines from other details in the image. A new classification model was developed to identify locations of subsurface tiles using a decision tree classifier which compares the multiple data sets such as enhanced image data, land use class, soil drainage class, hydrologic group and surface slope. Accuracy assessment of the predicted tile map was done by comparing the locations of tile drains with existing historic maps and ground-truth data. The overall performance of decision tree classifier model coupled with other pre- and post- classification methods shows that this model can be a very effective tool in identifying tile lines from aerial photographs over large areas of land. Once the tile map was created, the DHSVM was applied to ACRE and SEPAC respectively to see the hydrological impact of the subsurface drainage network. Observed data for 3-years (1998-2000) at ACRE and for 6-years (1993-1998) at SEPAC were used to calibrate and validate the model. The model was simulated for three scenarios: 1) baseline scenario (no tiles), 2) with known tile lines and 3) with tile lines created through

  10. [Depth of edge influence on agriculture-forestry boundary in arid valley of upper reaches of Minjiang River, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Liguang; He, Xingyuan; Li, Xiuzhen; Wen, Qingchun; Zhao, Yonghua; Hu, Zhibin; Chang, Yu; Zhu, Yaping

    2004-10-01

    By using moving split-window techniques (MSWT), this study estimated how far the edge effects penetrated the forest and agricultural fields in the arid valley of upper reaches of Minjiang River, southwestern China. Its aim was to provide general information on vegetation along edge to interior gradients in order to assist in interpretation and prediction of biological phenomena associated with agriculture-forestry boundary, and to improve current management practices in such areas. Three types of boundaries (10 transects) were investigated and sampled. The results showed that when the window width reached 6-10, the change of the SED curve on the graph tended to become stable, and one or two peaks occurred. The depth of edge influence was clearly different for different types of boundaries, and could be estimated within 50 m from the edge to interior. The depth of edge influence (DEI) on vegetation diversity almost varied between 12-30 m, mainly depending on the patch type, topography and microclimate, but seldom on slope orientation. Of the 6 forest transects in the three types of boundaries, the DEI was detected only in the forest part transects M2 and M6, but almost detectable in the agricultural part of all transects. MSWT was considered to be a useful tool for characterizing edge dynamics if enough data was available, and became a simple and powerful technique for analyzing the boundary. The results will provide further knowledge for understanding the interaction between forestry and agriculture in the arid valley. PMID:15624812

  11. Emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture, land-use change, and forestry in the Gambia.

    PubMed

    Jallow, B P

    1995-01-01

    The Gambia has successfully completed a national greenhouse gas emissions inventory based on the results of a study funded by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Global Environment Facility (GEF) Country Case Study Program. The concepts of multisectoral, multidisciplinary, and interdisciplinary collaboration were most useful in the preparation of this inventory. New data were gathered during the study period, some through regional collaboration with institutions such as Environment and Development in the Third World (ENDA-TM) Energy Program and the Ecological Monitoring Center in Dakar, Senegal, and some through national surveys and the use of remote sensing techniques, as in the Bushfires Survey. Most of the data collected are used in this paper. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/International Energy Agency (IPCC/OECD/IEA) methodology is used to calculate greenhouse gas emissions. Many of the default data in the IPCC/OECD/IEA methodology have also been used. Overall results indicate that in the biomass sectors (agriculture, forestry, and land-use change) carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted most, with a total of 1.7 Tg. This is followed by methane (CH4), 22.3 Gg; carbon monoxide (CO), 18.7 Gg; nitrogen oxides (NOx), 0.3 Gg; and nitrous oxide (N2O), 0.014 Gg. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) was used as an index to describe the relative effects of the various gases reported here. Based on the emissions in The Gambia in 1993, it was found that CO2 will contribute 75%, CH4 about 24.5%, and N2O 0.2% of the warming expected in the 100-year period beginning in 1993. The results in this analysis are limited by the shortcomings of the IPCC/OECD/IEA methodology and scarce national data. Because the methodology was developed outside of the developing world, most of its emissions factors and coefficients were developed and tested in environments that are very different from The Gambia. This is likely

  12. Pesticide levels in surface waters in an agricultural-forestry basin in Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Palma, Graciela; Sánchez, Alejandra; Olave, Yohana; Encina, Francisco; Palma, Rodrigo; Barra, Ricardo

    2004-11-01

    Residues of five pesticides in surface water were surveyed during 2001 and 2003 in the Traiguen river basin in Southern Chile. Simazine, hexazinone, 2,4-D, picloram herbicides and carbendazim fungicide were selected through a pesticide risk classification index. Six sampling stations along the river were set up based on agricultural and forestry land use. The water sampling was carried out before and after the pesticide application periods and in correspondence to some rain events. Pesticides were analyzed by HPLC with DAD detection in a multiresidue analysis. During 2001, in the first sampling campaign (March), the highest concentrations of pesticides were 3.0 microg l(-1) for simazine and hexazinone and 1.8 microg l(-1) for carbendazim. In the second sampling (September), the highest concentration were 9.7 microg l(-1) for 2,4-D, 0.3 microg l(-1) for picloram and 0.4 microg l(-1) for carbendazim. In the last sampling period (December), samples indicated contamination with carbendazim fungicide at levels of up to 1.2 microg l(-1). In sampling carried out on May 2003, no pesticides were detected. In October 2003, the highest concentrations of pesticides were 4.5 microg l(-1) for carbendazim and 2.9 microg l(-1) for 2,4-D. Data are discussed in function of land use and application periods of the products, showing a clear seasonal pattern pollution in the Traiguen river. Risk assessment for these pesticides was calculated by using a risk quotient (RQ = PNEC/PEC). For picloram the calculated RQ < was 0, which indicates that no adverse effects may occur due to the exposure to this herbicide in the Traiguen river basin. For 2,4-D, simazine, hexazinone, carbendazim RQ > 1, meaning that adverse effects could occur and it is necessary to reduce pesticide exposure in surface waters. It is recommended to continue with a pesticide monitoring program and the implementation of ecotoxicological testing with local and standardized species in order to consider the probability of

  13. Career Preparation in Forestry: A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Householder, Larry; Moore, Eddie A.

    This curriculum guide in forestry is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes six occupational subgroups: forest establishment, forest protection, logging (harvesting and transporting), wood utilization Christmas tree…

  14. Factors Influencing Surface Runoff and Hydrologic Connectivity on an Agricultural Hillslope in Central Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved understanding of surface hydrologic processes is central to the targeted application of agricultural management practices for water quality protection. Factors influencing surface runoff production and hydrologic connectivity were explored at three landscape positions on a single hillslope...

  15. Hydrological Controls on Nutrient Concentrations and Fluxes in Agricultural Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petry, J.; Soulsby, C.

    2002-12-01

    This investigation into diffuse agricultural pollution and the hydrological controls that exert a strong influence on both nutrient concentrations and fluxes, was conducted in an intensively farmed lowland catchment in north-east Scotland. The study focuses on spatial and seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations and fluxes at the catchment scale, over a 15-month period. The water quality of the 14.5 km2 Newmills Burn catchment has relatively high nutrient levels with mean concentrations of NO3-N and NH3-N at 6.09 mg/l and 0.28 mg/l respectively. Average PO4-P concentrations are 0.06 mg/l. Over short timescales nutrient concentrations and fluxes are greatest during storm events when PO4-P and NH3-N are mobilised by overland flow in riparian areas, where soils have been compacted by livestock or machinery. Delivery of deeper soil water in subsurface storm flow, facilitated by agricultural under-drainage, produces a marked increase in NO3-N (6.9 mg/l) concentrations on the hydrograph recession limb. A more detailed insight into the catchment response to storm events, and in particular the response of the hydrological pathways which provide the main sources of runoff during storm events, was gained by sampling stream water at 2-hourly intervals during 5 events. End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA) was carried out using event specific end-member chemistries to differentiate three catchment-scale hydrological pathways (overland flow, subsurface storm flow, groundwater flow) on the basis of observed Si and NO3-N concentrations in sampled source waters. Results show that overland flow generally dominates the storm peak and provides the main flow path by which P is transferred to stream channels during storm events, whilst subsurface storm flows usually dominate the storm hydrograph volumetrically and route NO3-rich soil water to the stream. The study shows that altering hydrological pathways in a catchment can have implications for nutrient management. Whilst buffer

  16. Investigating the Time Lag Effect between Economic Recession and Suicide Rates in Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry Workers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Junger, Washington; Kim, Boo-Wook; Kim, Young-Joo; Koh, Sang-Baek

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies on the vast increase in suicide mortality in Southeast Asia have indicated that suicide rates increase in parallel with a rise in unemployment or during periods of economic recession. This paper examines the effects of economic recession on suicidal rates amongst agriculture, fisheries, and forestry workers in Korea. Monthly time-series gross domestic product (GDP) data were linked with suicidal rates gathered from the cause of death records between1993-2008. Data were analyzed using generalized additive models to analyze trends, while a polynomial lag model was used to assess the unconstrained time lag effects of changes in GDP on suicidal rate. We found that there were significant inverse correlations between changes in GDP and suicide for a time lag of one to four months after the occurrence of economic event. Furthermore, it was evident that the overall relative risks of suicide were high enough to bring about social concern. PMID:23251845

  17. Agricultural hydrology and water quality II: Introduction to the featured collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural hydrology and water quality is a multidisciplinary field devoted to understanding the interrelationship between modern agriculture and water resources. This paper summarizes a featured collection of 10 manuscripts emanating from the 2013 American Water Resources Association Specialty Co...

  18. The Sophia-Antipolis Conference: General presentation and basic documents. [remote sensing for agriculture, forestry, water resources, and environment management in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The procedures and techniques used in NASA's aerospace technology transfer program are reviewed for consideration in establishing priorities and bases for joint action by technicians and users of remotely sensed data in France. Particular emphasis is given to remote sensing in agriculture, forestry, water resources, environment management, and urban research.

  19. Practice and Reflection on Interactive Three-Dimensional Teaching System in Agricultural and Forestry Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the new curriculum was implemented, Sichuan Agricultural University that is characterized by agricultural science has conducted ideological and political teaching reform, explored a basic route to integrate scientific outlook on development into theoretical teaching and initially formed a human-oriented interactive three-dimensional…

  20. Probabilistic Description of the Hydrologic Risk in Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico, G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Supplemental irrigation represents one of the main strategies to mitigate the effects of climatic variability on agroecosystems productivity and profitability, at the expenses of increasing water requirements for irrigation purposes. Optimizing water allocation for crop yield preservation and sustainable development needs to account for hydro-climatic variability, which is by far the main source of uncertainty affecting crop yields and irrigation water requirements. In this contribution, a widely applicable probabilistic framework is proposed to quantitatively define the hydrologic risk of yield reduction for both rainfed and irrigated agriculture. The occurrence of rainfall events and irrigation applications are linked probabilistically to crop development during the growing season. Based on these linkages, long-term and real-time yield reduction risk indices are defined as a function of climate, soil and crop parameters, as well as irrigation strategy. The former risk index is suitable for long-term irrigation strategy assessment and investment planning, while the latter risk index provides a rigorous probabilistic quantification of the emergence of drought conditions during a single growing season. This probabilistic framework allows also assessing the impact of limited water availability on crop yield, thus guiding the optimal allocation of water resources for human and environmental needs. Our approach employs relatively few parameters and is thus easily and broadly applicable to different crops and sites, under current and future climate scenarios, thus facilitating the assessment of the impact of increasingly frequent water shortages on agricultural productivity, profitability, and sustainability.

  1. Climate Change Impacts on North Dakota: Agriculture and Hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirilenko, Andrei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lim, Yeo Howe; Teng, William L.

    2011-01-01

    North Dakota is one of the principal producers of agricultural commodities in the USA, including over half of the total spring wheat production. While the region includes some of the best agricultural lands in the world, the steep temperature and precipitation gradients also make it one of the most sensitive to climate change. Over the 20th century, both the temperature and the pattern of precipitation in the state have changed; one of the most dramatic examples of the consequences of this change is the Devils Lake flooding. In two studies, we estimated the climate change impacts on crop yields and on the hydrology of the Devils Lake basin. The projections of six GCMs, driven by three SRES scenarios were statistically downscaled for multiple locations throughout the state, for the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s climate. Averaged over all GCMs, there is a small increase in precipitation, by 0.6 - 1.1% in 2020s, 3.1 - 3.5% in 2050s, and 3.0 - 7.6% in 2080s. This change in precipitation varies with the seasons, with cold seasons becoming wetter and warm seasons not changing.

  2. Climate change impacts on North Dakota: agriculture and hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilenko, A.; Zhang, X.; Lim, Y.; Teng, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    North Dakota is one of the principal producers of agricultural commodities in the USA, including over half of the total spring wheat production. While the region includes some of the best agricultural lands in the world, the steep temperature and precipitation gradients also make it one of the most sensitive to climate change. Over the 20th century, both the temperature and the pattern of precipitation in the state have changed. One of the most dramatic examples of the consequences of this change is the Devils Lake flooding. Devils Lake is a terminal lake with a surface area of about 500 km2 in a 9,867 km2 closed watershed, located in the northeastern part of the state. The recent changes in climate interrupted the 5-7 year long wet/dry cycle, resulting in a persistently wet state. The change in the water balance has led to a substantial increase in the lake level from 427.0 m in 1940 to 434.6 m in 1993 to 443.2 m in 2011. The resulting flooding has threatened the local communities, costing $450 million in mitigation efforts thus far. If the elevation reaches 444.4 m, the saline, eutrophic lake will naturally spill into the Sheyenne River, eventually flowing into Lake Winnipeg. In two studies, we estimated the climate change impacts on crop yields and on the hydrology of the Devils Lake basin. The projections of six GCMs, driven by three SRES scenarios were statistically downscaled for eight different locations throughout the state, for the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s climate. Averaged over all GCMs, there is a small increase in precipitation, by 0.6 - 1.1% in 2020s, 3.1 - 3.5% in 2050s, and 3.0 - 7.6% in 2080s. This change in precipitation varies with the seasons, with cold seasons becoming wetter and warm seasons not changing. For projections of climate change impacts on the hydrology of the Devils Lake basin, we additionally used the information on the spatial distribution of precipitation over the basin from the NASA TRMM TMPA 3B42-V6 product, which combines

  3. Evaluation and Reauthorization of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Hearings before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate; and the Subcommittee on Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate. Ninety-Eighth Congress Second Session, March 15 and April 9, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    This document records hearings before the U.S. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry and its sub-committee on Nutrition. The hearings, dated March 15 and April 9, 1984, were conducted in order to evaluate and reauthorize the special supplemental food program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), due to expire in 1984. Testimony…

  4. MODELING THE IMPACTS OF LAND USE CHANGE ON HYDROLOGY AND WATER QUALITY OF A PACIFIC NORTHWEST WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    In many parts of the world, aquatic ecosystems are threatened by hydrological and water quality alterations due to extraction and conversion of natural resources for agriculture, urban development, forestry, mining, transportation, and water resources development. To evaluate the...

  5. Establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems in African countries for Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, T. C.; Troxler, T.

    2015-12-01

    As signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developing countries are required to produce greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories every two years. For many developing countries, including many of those in Africa, this is a significant challenge as it requires establishing a robust and sustainable GHG inventory system. In order to help support these efforts, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked in collaboration with the UNFCCC to assist African countries in establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems and generating high-quality inventories on a regular basis. The sectors we have focused on for these GHG inventory capacity building efforts in Africa are Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) as these tend to represent a significant portion of their GHG emissions profile and the data requirements and methodologies are often more complex than for other sectors. To support these efforts, the U.S. EPA has provided technical assistance in understanding the methods in the IPCC Guidelines, assembling activity data and emission factors, including developing land-use maps for representing a country's land base, and implementing the calculations. EPA has also supported development of various tools such as a Template Workbook that helps the country build the institutional arrangement and strong documentation that are necessary for generating GHG inventories on a regular basis, as well as performing other procedures as identified by IPCC Good Practice Guidance such as quality assurance/quality control, key category analysis and archiving. Another tool used in these projects and helps country's implement the methods from the IPCC Guidelines for the Agriculture and LULUCF sectors is the Agriculture and Land Use (ALU) tool. This tool helps countries assemble the activity data and emission factors, including supporting the import of GIS maps, and applying the equations from the IPPC Guidelines to

  6. Is "the perfect model" really needed? - Analysis of the quality level of climate information necessary for supporting adaptation in agriculture and forestry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálos, Borbála; Ostler, Wolf-Uwe; Csáki, Péter; Bidló, András; Panferov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    Recent results of climate science (e.g. IPCC AR5, 2013) and statements of climate policy (e.g. Paris Agreement) confirm that climate change is an ongoing issue. The consequences will be noticeable for a long time even if the 2 Degree goal is reached. Therefore, action plans are necessary for adaptation and mitigation on national and international level. Forestry and agriculture are especially threatened by the probable increase of the frequency and/or intensity of climate extremes. Severe impacts of recurrent droughts/heat waves that were observed in the last decades in the sensitive and vulnerable ecosystems and regions are very likely to occur with increasing probability throughout the 21st century. For the adequate climate impact assessments, for adaptation strategies as well as for supporting decisions in the above mentioned sectors the reliable information on the long-term climate tendencies and on ecosystem responses are required. Here are the two major problems: on the one hand the information on current climate and future climate developments are highly uncertain. On the other hand, due to limited knowledge on ecosystem responses, it is difficult to define how certain or accurate the provided climate data should be for the plausible application in agricultural/forestry research and practice. Considering agriculture and forestry, our research is focusing on the following questions: • What is the climate information demand of practice and impact research in the two sectors? • What quality level of climate information is necessary for adaptation support? • How does the accuracy of climate input affect the results of the climate impact assessments? The agriculture and forestry operate at two very different time scales and have a different reaction times and adaptation capacities. Agriculture requires short-term information on current conditions and short-/medium-term weather forecast. To assess the degree of information accuracy required by practical

  7. Academic Support Program in the Faculty of Agricultural and Forestry Engineering of the University of Cordoba (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Sergio; Navarro, Rafael M.; Camacho, Emilio; Gallardo, Rosa; García-Ferrer, Alfonso; Pérez-Marín, M. Dolores; Peña, Adolfo; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2014-05-01

    The incorporation of new students to undergraduate degrees is performed in different stages through a long, sequential enrollment process. The student integration to the new context of higher education including group work and new teaching methodologies lead to notable adaptation difficulties to this new educational environment. In fact, the highest rate of student failure in the Bachelor degree usually happens during the first courses. The Unit of Quality Evaluation/Monitoring of School of Agricultural and Forest Engineering (ETSIAM) has detected that these failure rates at first and second degree course may be reduced through the involvement of students in a support learning process, by increasing their skills and motivation as well as the contact with the University environment in the context of their future professional horizon. In order to establish a program of this type, it has been launched an Academic Support Program (ASP) at the ETSIAM. This program aims to achieve and reinforce the basic academic and personal skills/competences require by the Bologna's process (BC) and specific competences of the engineers on the area of Agriculture and Forestry in the European context. The ASP includes diferent bloks of seminars, lectures, collaborative work and discussion groups among students, professionals, professors and researchers and it has been designed based on these competences and tranversal contents in both degrees. These activities are planned in a common time for both degrees, out of teaching classes. In addition, a virtual space in Moodle has been created for discussion forums and preparation activities. Additional information about schedules, speakers and companies, presentations and other material are also provided. In the preliminary implementation of the ASP, we will present the results corresponding to the first year of this academic support program. We have conducted a survey among the students in order to have a first feedback about the impact of

  8. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crea, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    In the area of crop specie identification, it has been found that temporal data analysis, preliminary stratification, and unequal probability analysis were several of the factors that contributed to high identification accuracies. Single data set accuracies on fields of greater than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) are in the 70- to 90-percent range; however, with the use of temporal data, accuracies of 95 percent have been reported. Identification accuracy drops off significantly on areas of less than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) as does measurement accuracy. Forest stratification into coniferous and deciduous areas has been accomplished to a 90- to 95-percent accuracy level. Using multistage sampling techniques, the timber volume of a national forest district has been estimated to a confidence level and standard deviation acceptable to the Forest Service at a very favorable cost-benefit time ratio. Range specie/plant community vegetation mapping has been accomplished at various levels of success (69- to 90-percent accuracy). However, several investigators have obtained encouraging initial results in range biomass (forage production) estimation and range readiness predictions. Soil association map correction and soil association mapping in new area appear to have been proven feasible on large areas; however, testing in a complex soil area should be undertaken.

  9. Hydrology and water quality of the headwaters of the River Severn: Stream acidity recovery and interactions with plantation forestry under an improving pollution climate.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Robinson, Mark; Reynolds, Brian; Neal, Margaret; Rowland, Philip; Grant, Simon; Norris, David; Williams, Bronwen; Sleep, Darren; Lawlor, Alan

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents new information on the hydrology and water quality of the eroding peatland headwaters of the River Severn in mid-Wales and links it to the impact of plantation conifer forestry further down the catchment. The Upper Hafren is dominated by low-growing peatland vegetation, with an average annual precipitation of around 2650 mm with around 250 mm evaporation. With low catchment permeability, stream response to rainfall is "flashy" with the rising limb to peak stormflow typically under an hour. The water quality is characteristically "dilute"; stormflow is acidic and enriched in aluminium and iron from the acid organic soil inputs. Baseflow is circum-neutral and calcium and bicarbonate bearing due to the inputs of groundwater enriched from weathering of the underlying rocks. Annual cycling is observed for the nutrients reflecting uptake and decomposition processes linked to the vegetation and for arsenic implying seasonal water-logging within the peat soils and underlying glacial drift. Over the decadal scale, sulphate and nitrate concentrations have declined while Gran alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon and iron have increased, indicating a reduction in stream acidification. Within the forested areas the water quality is slightly more concentrated and acidic, transgressing the boundary for acid neutralisation capacity as a threshold for biological damage. Annual sulphate and aluminium concentrations are double those observed in the Upper Hafren, reflecting the influence of forestry and the greater ability of trees to scavenge pollutant inputs from gaseous and mist/cloud-water sources compared to short vegetation. Acidification is decreasing more rapidly in the forest compared to the eroding peatland possibly due to the progressive harvesting of the mature forest reducing the scavenging of acidifying inputs. For the Lower Hafren, long-term average annual precipitation is slightly lower, with lower average altitude, at around 2520mm and evaporation

  10. Individual and cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities on the metal and phosphorus content of fluvial fine-grained sediment; Quesnel River Basin, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler B; Owens, Philip N

    2014-10-15

    The impact of agriculture, forestry and metal mining on the quality of fine-grained sediment (<63 μm) was investigated in the Quesnel River Basin (QRB) (~11,500 km(2)) in British Columbia, Canada. Samples of fine-grained sediment were collected monthly during the snow-free season in 2008 using time-integrated samplers at replicate sites representative of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the basin (i.e. "impacted" sites). Samples were also collected from replicate reference sites and also from the main stem of the Quesnel River at the downstream confluence with the Fraser River. Generally, metal(loid) and phosphorus (P) concentrations for "impacted" sites were greater than for reference sites. Furthermore, concentrations of copper (forestry and mining sites), manganese (agriculture and forestry sites) and selenium (agriculture, forestry and mining sites) exceeded upper sediment quality guideline (SQG) thresholds. These results suggest that agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities are having an influence on the concentrations of sediment-associated metal(loid)s and P in the Quesnel basin. Metal(loid) and P concentrations of sediment collected from the downstream site were not significantly greater than values for the reference sites, and were typically lower than the values for the impacted sites. This suggests that the cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the QRB are presently not having a measureable effect at the river basin-scale. The lack of a cumulative effect at the basin-scale is thought to reflect: (i) the relatively recent occurrence of land use disturbances in this basin; (ii) the dominance of sediment contributions from natural forest and agriculture; and (iii) the potential for storage of contaminants on floodplains and other storage elements between the locations of disturbance activities and the downstream sampling site, which may be attenuating the disturbance signal. PMID:25105754

  11. A socio-hydrologic model of coupled water-agriculture dynamics with emphasis on farm size.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugger, D. R.; Maneta, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land cover dynamics in the U.S. are dominated by two trends: 1) total agricultural land is decreasing and 2) average farm size is increasing. These trends have important implications for the future of water resources because 1) growing more food on less land is due in large part to increased groundwater withdrawal and 2) larger farms can better afford both more efficient irrigation and more groundwater access. However, these large-scale trends are due to individual farm operators responding to many factors including climate, economics, and policy. It is therefore difficult to incorporate the trends into watershed-scale hydrologic models. Traditional scenario-based approaches are valuable for many applications, but there is typically no feedback between the hydrologic model and the agricultural dynamics and so limited insight is gained into the how agriculture co-evolves with water resources. We present a socio-hydrologic model that couples simplified hydrologic and agricultural economic dynamics, accounting for many factors that depend on farm size such as irrigation efficiency and returns to scale. We introduce an "economic memory" (EM) state variable that is driven by agricultural revenue and affects whether farms are sold when land market values exceed expected returns from agriculture. The model uses a Generalized Mixture Model of Gaussians to approximate the distribution of farm sizes in a study area, effectively lumping farms into "small," "medium," and "large" groups that have independent parameterizations. We apply the model in a semi-arid watershed in the upper Columbia River Basin, calibrating to data on streamflow, total agricultural land cover, and farm size distribution. The model is used to investigate the sensitivity of the coupled system to various hydrologic and economic scenarios such as increasing market value of land, reduced surface water availability, and increased irrigation efficiency in small farms.

  12. Comparing hydrological signatures of small agricultural catchments using uncertain data provided by a soft hydrological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabit, Armand; Colin, François

    2016-04-01

    Discharge estimation is one of the greatest challenge for every hydrologist as it is the most classical hydrological variable used in hydrological studies. The key lies in the rating curves and the way they were built: based on field measurements or using physical equations as the Manning-Strickler relation… However, as we all know, data and associated uncertainty deeply impact the veracity of such rating curves that could have serious consequences on data interpretation. And, of all things, this affects every catchment in the world, not only the gauged catchments but also and especially the poorly gauged ones that account for the larger part of the catchment of the world. This study investigates how to compare hydrological behaviour of 11 small (0.1 to 0.6 km2) poorly gauged catchments considering uncertainty associated to their rating curves. It shows how important the uncertainty can be using Manning equation and focus on its parameter: the roughness coefficient. Innovative work has been performed under controlled experimental conditions to estimate the Manning coefficient values for the different cover types observed in studied streams: non-aquatic vegetations. The results show that estimated flow rates using suitable roughness coefficients highly differ from those we should have obtained if we only considered the common values given in the literature. Moreover, it highlights how it could also affect all derived hydrological indicators commonly used to compare hydrological behaviour. Data of rainfall and water depth at a catchment's outlet were recorded using automatic logging equipment during 2008-2009. The hydrological regime is intermittent and the annual precipitation ranged between 569 and 727 mm. Discharge was then estimated using Manning's equation and channel cross-section measurements. Even if discharge uncertainty is high, the results show significant variability between catchment's responses that allows for catchment classification. It also

  13. Co-benefits, trade-offs, barriers and policies for greenhouse gas mitigation in the agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Mercedes; Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Harper, Richard; Mbow, Cheikh; Ravindranat, Nijavalli H; Sperling, Frank; Haberl, Helmut; Pinto, Alexandre de Siqueira; Smith, Pete

    2014-10-01

    The agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector is responsible for approximately 25% of anthropogenic GHG emissions mainly from deforestation and agricultural emissions from livestock, soil and nutrient management. Mitigation from the sector is thus extremely important in meeting emission reduction targets. The sector offers a variety of cost-competitive mitigation options with most analyses indicating a decline in emissions largely due to decreasing deforestation rates. Sustainability criteria are needed to guide development and implementation of AFOLU mitigation measures with particular focus on multifunctional systems that allow the delivery of multiple services from land. It is striking that almost all of the positive and negative impacts, opportunities and barriers are context specific, precluding generic statements about which AFOLU mitigation measures have the greatest promise at a global scale. This finding underlines the importance of considering each mitigation strategy on a case-by-case basis, systemic effects when implementing mitigation options on the national scale, and suggests that policies need to be flexible enough to allow such assessments. National and international agricultural and forest (climate) policies have the potential to alter the opportunity costs of specific land uses in ways that increase opportunities or barriers for attaining climate change mitigation goals. Policies governing practices in agriculture and in forest conservation and management need to account for both effective mitigation and adaptation and can help to orient practices in agriculture and in forestry towards global sharing of innovative technologies for the efficient use of land resources. Different policy instruments, especially economic incentives and regulatory approaches, are currently being applied however, for its successful implementation it is critical to understand how land-use decisions are made and how new social, political and economic forces

  14. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio; Lo Giudice, Rosa; Pavone, Pietro

    2013-05-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5-3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. PMID:23534998

  15. QUANTIFYING SUBSURFACE HYDROLOGY WITH GROUND PENETRATING RADAR AND AGRICULTURAL MONITORING DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrology, especially subsurface-water flow can influence crop growth patterns within a production field as well as the fate of surface-applied fertilizers and pesticides migrating thru agricultural land. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and digital elevation maps (DEM) were used to locate and quanti...

  16. Hydrologic controls on phosphorus and nitrogen biogeochemistry in agricultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, T.; McPhillips, L. E.; Archibald, J. A.; Anderson, T.; Morris, C. K.

    2012-12-01

    Nonpoint source pollution of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) is a persistent threat to water resources and aquatic ecosystems. Because they have very different transport properties and, therefore, follow different pathways from the landscape to streams, it has been difficult to develop management strategies that simultaneously control both nutrients. Using a combination of modeling and empiricism, we have evidence that targeting nonpoint source control efforts to the parts of the landscape most prone to saturated (or at least wet) soil conditions has good potential for helping mitigate N and P loads to streams in the Northeastern US. With respect to P, the wet-prone soils represent the parts of the landscape most likely to generate runoff and transport P to streams. So, we have developed a variety of schemes for helping farmers avoid contaminating these areas with P. With respect to N, these areas are denitrification hotspots, so managing these areas in ways that promote carbon accumulation, either naturally or engineered, can maximize their functionality for removing nitrate from water as it flows to streams. We will present our modeling strategies for simulating soil moisture patterns across watersheds, show how we couple hydrological modeling with nutrient transport and biogeochemistry, and summarize strategies and tools we are developing to use our insights into these ecosystem functions to protect water quality.

  17. Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems and Hydrology III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engman, Edwin T.

    1999-01-01

    The science need for remotely sensed soil moisture has been well established in the hydrologic, climate change and weather forecasting communities. In spite of this well documented science need there are currently no satellite missions flying or funded to make this very important geophysical measurement. There have been a number of experimental aircraft programs that have demonstrated the feasibility of using long wave microwave sensors for estimating soil moisture. Unfortunately, this science driver, soil moisture, imposes very difficult technical requirements for a satellite sensor system. Global soil moisture is driven by a spatial resolution on the order of 20 to 30 km and measurements need to be taken every two to three days to be useful to the science community. The principal sensor to accomplish the soil moisture measurements is an L- band passive microwave radiometer and achieving the spatial and temporal requirements requires a very large antenna. This paper describes the several alternatives to solve the very large antenna challenge and still meet the radiometer sensitivity requirement. The paper also discusses the alternatives considered to obtain the necessary ancillary data for characterizing the surface roughness, the surface temperature and the attenuation affects of vegetation needed to derive the geophysical parameter. Finally, the paper discusses proposed missions and how well they will meet the science requirements.

  18. Phosphorus dynamics in lowland streams as a response to climatic, hydrological and agricultural land use gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyenola, G.; Meerhoff, M.; Teixeira-de Mello, F.; González-Bergonzoni, I.; Graeber, D.; Fosalba, C.; Vidal, N.; Mazzeo, N.; Ovesen, N. B.; Jeppesen, E.; Kronvang, B.

    2015-03-01

    Climate and hydrology are relevant control factors for determining the timing and amount of nutrient losses from agricultural fields to freshwaters. In this study, we evaluated the effect of agricultural intensification on the concentrations, dynamics and export of phosphorus (P) in streams in two contrasting climate and hydrological regimes (temperate Denmark and subtropical Uruguay). We applied two alternative nutrient sampling programmes (high frequency composite sampling and low frequency instantaneous-grab sampling) and three alternative methods to estimate exported P from the catchments. A source apportionment model was applied to evaluate the contribution derived from point and diffuse sources in all four catchments studied. Climatic and hydrological characteristics of catchments expressed as flow responsiveness (flashiness), exerted control on catchment and stream TP dynamics, having consequences that were more significant than the outcome of different TP monitoring and export estimation strategies. The impact of intensification of agriculture differed between the two contrasting climate zones. Intensification had a significant impact on subtropical climate with much higher total (as high as 4436 μg P L-1), particulate, dissolved and reactive soluble P concentrations and higher P export (as high as 5.20 kg P ha-1 year-1). However, we did not find an increased contribution of particulate P to total P as consequence of higher stream flashiness and intensification of agriculture. The high P concentrations at low flow and predominance of dissolved P in subtropical streams actually exacerbate the environmental and sanitary risks associated with eutrophication. In the other hand, temperate intensively farmed stream had lower TP than extensively farmed stream. Our results suggest that the lack of environmental regulations of agricultural production has more severe consequences on water quality, than climatic and hydrological differences between the analysed

  19. Assimilating multi-sensor satellite observations for initializing hydrologic and agricultural forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreadis, K.; Stampoulis, D.; Das, N. N.; Granger, S. L.; Ines, A.; Han, E.

    2015-12-01

    The application of data assimilation techniques in hydrologic studies has been gaining traction in the last 10-15 years. Most of these studies have focused on a single water cycle component, while few studies have examined methods of assimilating multiple observations from different sensors and of different hydrologic variables. The latter is challenging since any potential disparities in the observations could lead to suboptimal estimates after assimilation. The optimal estimates of hydrologic states, such as soil moisture, can be used as initial conditions for hydrologic forecasting systems. A multi-sensor and multivariate data assimilation forecast system has been developed at JPL (RHEAS, Regional Hydrologic Extremes Assessment System) with an initial focus on forecasting drought characteristics. The core of RHEAS is the VIC hydrology model, which has been widely used for many water resources applications. Apart from hydrologic forecasts, RHEAS can produce agricultural forecasts by coupling VIC with the DSSAT crop growth model. The modeling system is supported by a spatial database component, which provides access to multiple in-situ and satellite observations and allows data to be delivered to users through web-GIS or mobile application interfaces. The satellite observations, which include soil moisture, water storage, evapotranspiration, and snow cover, are assimilated into the VIC model to update the initial state of seasonal hydrologic and crop growth forecasts. We demonstrate the value of ingesting satellite observations by performing a series of hindcast experiments over both the United States (California and Upper Colorado basins) and Kenya (Nzoia basin). In-situ measurements along with a simulation with the best available datasets are used as the benchmark to evaluate the hindcasts against. The impact of each observation type or sensor is quantified, allowing for evaluating their relative contribution to improving the forecast skill. Particular case

  20. Assimilating multi-sensor satellite observations for initializing hydrologic and agricultural forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreadis, Konstantinos; Das, Narendra; Granger, Stephanie; Han, Eunjin; Ines, Amor; Stampoulis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    The application of data assimilation techniques in hydrologic studies has been gaining traction in the last 10-15 years. Most of these studies have focused on a single water cycle component, while few studies have examined methods of assimilating multiple observations from different sensors and of different hydrologic variables. The latter is challenging since any potential disparities in the observations could lead to suboptimal estimates after assimilation. The optimal estimates of hydrologic states, such as soil moisture, can be used as initial conditions for hydrologic forecasting systems. A multi-sensor and multivariate data assimilation forecast system has been developed at JPL (RHEAS, Regional Hydrologic Extremes Assessment System) with an initial focus on forecasting drought characteristics. The core of RHEAS is the VIC hydrology model, which has been widely used for many water resources applications. Apart from hydrologic forecasts, RHEAS can produce agricultural forecasts by coupling VIC with the DSSAT crop growth model. The modeling system is supported by a spatial database component, which provides access to multiple in-situ and satellite observations and allows data to be delivered to users through web-GIS or mobile application interfaces. The satellite observations, which include soil moisture, water storage, evapotranspiration, and snow cover, are assimilated into the VIC model to update the initial state of seasonal hydrologic and crop growth forecasts. We demonstrate the value of ingesting satellite observations by performing a series of hindcast experiments over both the United States (California and Upper Colorado basins) and Kenya (Nzoia basin). In-situ measurements along with a simulation with the best available datasets are used as the benchmark to evaluate the hindcasts against. The impact of each observation type or sensor is quantified, allowing for evaluating their relative contribution to improving the forecast skill. Particular case

  1. Relevance of ERTS-1 to the State of Ohio. [agriculture, forestry, land use, mining, and environmental quality management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, D. C.; Pincura, P. G.; Wukelic, G. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. During the first year of project effort the ability of ERTS-1 imagery to be used for mapping and inventorying strip-mined areas in south eastern Ohio, the potential of using ERTS-1 imagery in water quality and coastal zone management in the Lake Erie region, and the extent that ERTS-1 imagery could contribute to localized (metropolitan/urban), multicounty, and overall state land use needs were experimentally demonstrated and reported as significant project results. Significant research accomplishments were achieved in the technological development of manual and computerized methods to extract multi-feature information as well as singular feature information from ERTS-1 data as is exemplified by the forestry transparency overlay. Fabrication of an image transfer device to superimpose ERTS-1 data onto existing maps and other data sources was also a significant analytical accomplishment.

  2. Child Nutrition and the School Setting. Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry, United States Senate. One Hundred Tenth Congress, First Session (March 6, 2007). Senate Hearing 110-41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Senate, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Statements were presented by: Honorable Tom Harkin, Chairman, U.S. Senator from Iowa, Chairman, Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry; Honorable Robert B. Casey, Jr., U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania; Honorable Saxby Chambliss, U.S. Senator from Georgia; Honorable Richard G. Lugar; Honorable Ken Salazar, U.S. Senator from Colorado; Kelly…

  3. School Nutrition Programs. Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (March 15, 2005). Senate Hearing 109-124

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Senate, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This is traditionally an annual hearing of the Committee with school nutrition managers who travel to Washington, DC. Their representatives testify to the Committee regarding the practical benefits of the nutrition policies under the legislative review of the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Committee. Testimony was presented by Senators…

  4. Identifying Hydrologic Processes in Agricultural Watersheds Using Precipitation-Runoff Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linard, Joshua I.; Wolock, David M.; Webb, Richard M.T.; Wieczorek, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the fate and transport of agricultural chemicals applied to agricultural fields will assist in designing the most effective strategies to prevent water-quality impairments. At a watershed scale, the processes controlling the fate and transport of agricultural chemicals are generally understood only conceptually. To examine the applicability of conceptual models to the processes actually occurring, two precipitation-runoff models - the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Model (WEBMOD) - were applied in different agricultural settings of the contiguous United States. Each model, through different physical processes, simulated the transport of water to a stream from the surface, the unsaturated zone, and the saturated zone. Models were calibrated for watersheds in Maryland, Indiana, and Nebraska. The calibrated sets of input parameters for each model at each watershed are discussed, and the criteria used to validate the models are explained. The SWAT and WEBMOD model results at each watershed conformed to each other and to the processes identified in each watershed's conceptual hydrology. In Maryland the conceptual understanding of the hydrology indicated groundwater flow was the largest annual source of streamflow; the simulation results for the validation period confirm this. The dominant source of water to the Indiana watershed was thought to be tile drains. Although tile drains were not explicitly simulated in the SWAT model, a large component of streamflow was received from lateral flow, which could be attributed to tile drains. Being able to explicitly account for tile drains, WEBMOD indicated water from tile drains constituted most of the annual streamflow in the Indiana watershed. The Nebraska models indicated annual streamflow was composed primarily of perennial groundwater flow and infiltration-excess runoff, which conformed to the conceptual hydrology developed for that watershed. The hydrologic

  5. Spatially explicit scenario analysis for hydrologic services in an urbanizing agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, J.; Booth, E.; Carpenter, S. R.; Turner, M.

    2013-12-01

    The sustainability of hydrologic services (benefits to people generated by terrestrial ecosystem effects on freshwater) is challenged by changes in climate and land use. Despite the importance of hydrologic services, few studies have investigated how the provision of ecosystem services related to freshwater quantity and quality may vary in magnitude and spatial pattern for alternative future trajectories. Such analyses may provide useful information for sustaining freshwater resources in the face of a complex and uncertain future. We analyzed the supply of multiple hydrologic services from 2010 to 2070 across a large urbanizing agricultural watershed in the Upper Midwest of the United States, and asked the following: (i) What are the potential trajectories for the supply of hydrologic services under contrasting but plausible future scenarios? (ii) Where on the landscape is the delivery of hydrologic services most vulnerable to future changes? The Nested Watershed scenario represents extreme climate change (warmer temperatures and more frequent extreme events) and a concerted response from institutions, whereas in the Investment in Innovation scenario, climate change is less severe and technological innovations play a major role. Despite more extreme climate in the Nested Watershed scenario, all hydrologic services (i.e., freshwater supply, surface water quality, flood regulation) were maintained or enhanced (~30%) compared to the 2010 baseline, by strict government interventions that prioritized freshwater resources. Despite less extreme climate in the Investment in Innovation scenario and advances in green technology, only surface water quality and flood regulation were maintained or increased (~80%); freshwater supply declined by 25%, indicating a potential future tradeoff between water quality and quantity. Spatially, the locations of greatest vulnerability (i.e., decline) differed by service and among scenarios. In the Nested Watershed scenario, although

  6. Impacts of Biofuel-Induced Agricultural Land Use Changes on Watershed Hydrology and Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.; Zheng, H.

    2015-12-01

    The US Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 has contributed to widespread changes in agricultural land uses. The impact of these land use changes on regional water resources could also be significant. Agricultural land use changes were evaluated for the Red River of the North Basin (RRNB), an international river basin shared by the US and Canada. The influence of the land use changes on spring snowmelt flooding and downstream water quality was also assessed using watershed modeling. The planting areas for corn and soybean in the basin increased by 62% and 18%, while those for spring wheat, forest, and pasture decreased by 30%, 18%, and 50%, from 2006 to 2013. Although the magnitude of spring snowmelt peak flows in the Red River did not change from pre-EISA to post-EISA, our uncertainty analysis of the normalized hydrographs revealed that the downstream streamflows had a greater variability under the post-EISA land use scenario, which may lead to greater uncertainty in predicting spring snowmelt floods in the Red River. Hydrological simulation also showed that the sediment and nutrient loads at the basin's outlet in the US and Canada border increased under the post-EISA land use scenario, on average sediment increasing by 2.6%, TP by 14.1%, nitrate nitrogen by 5.9%, and TN by 9.1%. Potential impacts of the future biofuel crop scenarios on watershed hydrology and water quality in the RRNB were also simulated through integrated economic-hydrologic modeling.

  7. Hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of river subsurface solutes under agriculturally enhanced ground water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildman, R.A., Jr.; Domagalski, J.L.; Hering, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    The relative influences of hydrologic processes and biogeochemistry on the transport and retention of minor solutes were compared in the riverbed of the lower Merced River (California, USA). The subsurface of this reach receives ground water discharge and surface water infiltration due to an altered hydraulic setting resulting from agricultural irrigation. Filtered ground water samples were collected from 30 drive point locations in March, June, and October 2004. Hydrologic processes, described previously, were verified by observations of bromine concentrations; manganese was used to indicate redox conditions. The separate responses of the minor solutes strontium, barium, uranium, and phosphorus to these influences were examined. Correlation and principal component analyses indicate that hydrologic processes dominate the distribution of trace elements in the ground water. Redox conditions appear to be independent of hydrologic processes and account for most of the remaining data variability. With some variability, major processes are consistent in two sampling transects separated by 100 m. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  8. National-Scale Hydrologic Classification & Agricultural Decision Support: A Multi-Scale Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, E. J.; Minsker, B.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Classification frameworks can help organize catchments exhibiting similarity in hydrologic and climatic terms. Focusing this assessment of "similarity" upon specific hydrologic signatures, in this case the annual regime curve, can facilitate the prediction of hydrologic responses. Agricultural decision-support over a diverse set of catchments throughout the United States depends upon successful modeling of the wetting/drying process without necessitating separate model calibration at every site where such insights are required. To this end, a holistic classification framework is developed to describe both climatic variability (humid vs. arid, winter rainfall vs. summer rainfall) and the draining, storing, and filtering behavior of any catchment, including ungauged or minimally gauged basins. At the national scale, over 400 catchments from the MOPEX database are analyzed to construct the classification system, with over 77% of these catchments ultimately falling into only six clusters. At individual locations, soil moisture models, receiving only rainfall as input, produce correlation values in excess of 0.9 with respect to observed soil moisture measurements. By deploying physical models for predicting soil moisture exclusively from precipitation that are calibrated at gauged locations, overlaying machine learning techniques to improve these estimates, then generalizing the calibration parameters for catchments in a given class, agronomic decision-support becomes available where it is needed rather than only where sensing data are located.lassifications of 428 U.S. catchments on the basis of hydrologic regime data, Coopersmith et al, 2012.

  9. 7 CFR 1410.12 - Emergency Forestry Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency Forestry Program. 1410.12 Section 1410.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.12 Emergency Forestry Program. (a) In addition...

  10. Agricultural soil moisture experiment, Colby, Kansas 1978: Measured and predicted hydrological properties of the soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, L. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Predictive procedures for developing soil hydrologic properties (i.e., relationships of soil water pressure and hydraulic conductivity to soil water content) are presented. Three models of the soil water pressure-water content relationship and one model of the hydraulic conductivity-water content relationship are discussed. Input requirements for the models are indicated, and computational procedures are outlined. Computed hydrologic properties for Keith silt loam, a soil typer near Colby, Kansas, on which the 1978 Agricultural Soil Moisture Experiment was conducted, are presented. A comparison of computed results with experimental data in the dry range shows that analytical models utilizing a few basic hydrophysical parameters can produce satisfactory data for large-scale applications.

  11. Assessing the impact of climate change upon hydrology and agriculture in the Indrawati Basin, Nepal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzoli, Irene; Bocchiola, Daniele; Nana, Ester; Maskey, Shreedhar; Uhlenbrook, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is sensitive to climate change, especially to temperature and precipitation changes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the climate change impacts upon rain-fed crops production in the Indrawati river basin, Nepal. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool SWAT model was used to model hydrology and cropping systems in the catchment, and to predict the influence of different climate change scenarios therein. Daily weather data collected from about 13 weather stations during 4 decades were used to constrain the SWAT model, and data from two hydrometric stations used to calibrate/validate it. Then management practices (crop calendar) were applied to specific Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) for the main crops of the region, rice, corn and wheat. Manual calibration of crop production was also carried, against values of crop yield in the area from literature. The calibrated and validated model was further applied to assess the impact of three future climate change scenarios (RCPs) upon the crop productivity in the region. Three climate models (GCMs) were adopted, each with three RCPs (2.5, 4.5, 8.5). Hence, impacts of climate change were assessed considering three time windows, namely a baseline period (1995-2004), the middle of century (2045-2054) and the end of century (2085-2094). For each GCM and RCP future hydrology and yield was compared to baseline scenario. The results displayed slightly modified hydrological cycle, and somewhat small variation in crop production, variable with models and RCPs, and for crop type, the largest being for wheat. Keywords: Climate Change, Nepal, hydrological cycle, crop yield.

  12. Hydrologic control of dissolved organic matter concentration and quality in a semiarid artificially drained agricultural catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellmore, Rebecca A.; Harrison, John A.; Needoba, Joseph A.; Brooks, Erin S.; Kent Keller, C.

    2015-10-01

    Agricultural practices have altered watershed-scale dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics, including in-stream concentration, biodegradability, and total catchment export. However, mechanisms responsible for these changes are not clear, and field-scale processes are rarely directly linked to the magnitude and quality of DOM that is transported to surface water. In a small (12 ha) agricultural catchment in eastern Washington State, we tested the hypothesis that hydrologic connectivity in a catchment is the dominant control over the concentration and quality of DOM exported to surface water via artificial subsurface drainage. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and humic-like components of DOM decreased while the Fluorescence Index and Freshness Index increased with depth through the soil profile. In drain discharge, these characteristics were significantly correlated with drain flow across seasons and years, with drain DOM resembling deep sources during low-flow and shallow sources during high flow, suggesting that DOM from shallow sources bypasses removal processes when hydrologic connectivity in the catchment is greatest. Assuming changes in streamflow projected for the Palouse River (which contains the study catchment) under the A1B climate scenario (rapid growth, dependence on fossil fuel, and renewable energy sources) apply to the study catchment, we project greater interannual variability in annual DOC export in the future, with significant increases in the driest years. This study highlights the variability in DOM inputs from agricultural soil to surface water on daily to interannual time scales, pointing to the need for a more nuanced understanding of agricultural impacts on DOM dynamics in surface water.

  13. Simulating the Effects of Drainage and Agriculture on Hydrology and Sediment in the Minnesota River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, C. W.; Pradhan, N. R.; Skahill, B. E.; Banitt, A. M.; Eggers, G.; Pickett, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Midwest region of the United States, slopes are relatively flat, soils tend to have low permeability, and local water tables are high. In order to make the region suitable for agriculture, farmers have installed extensive networks of ditches to drain off excess surface water and subsurface tiles to lower the water table and remove excess soil water in the root zone that can stress common row crops, such as corn and soybeans. The combination of tiles, ditches, and intensive agricultural land practices radically alters the landscape and hydrology. Within the watershed, tiles have outlets to both the ditch/stream network as well as overland locations, where the tile discharge appears to initiate gullies and exacerbate overland erosion. As part of the Minnesota River Basin Integrated Study we are explicitly simulating the tile and drainage systems in the watershed at multiple scales using the physics-based watershed model GSSHA (Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis). The tile drainage system is simulated as a network of pipes that collect water from the local water table. Within the watershed, testing of the methods on smaller basins shows the ability of the model to simulate tile flow, however, application at the larger scale is hampered by the computational burden of simulating the flow in the complex tile drain networks that drain the agricultural fields. Modeling indicates the subsurface drains account for approximately 40% of the stream flow in the Seven Mile Creek sub-basin account in the late spring and early summer when the tile is flowing. Preliminary results indicate that agricultural tile drains increase overland erosion in the Seven Mile Creek watershed.

  14. Hydrological extremes and their agricultural impacts under a changing climate in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Gao, H.; Huang, M.; Sheffield, J.

    2015-12-01

    With the changing climate, hydrologic extremes (such as floods, droughts, and heat waves) are becoming more frequent and intensified. Such changes in extreme events are expected to affect agricultural production and food supplies. This study focuses on the State of Texas, which has the largest farm area and the highest value of livestock production in the U.S. The objectives are two-fold: First, to investigate the climatic impact on the occurrence of future hydrologic extreme events; and second, to evaluate the effects of the future extremes on agricultural production. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which is calibrated and validated over Texas river basins during the historical period, is employed for this study. The VIC model is forced by the statistically downscaled climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model ensembles at a spatial resolution of 1/8°. The CMIP5 projections contain four different scenarios in terms of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) (i.e. 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5 w/m2). To carry out the analysis, VIC outputs forced by the CMIP5 model scenarios over three 30-year periods (1970-1999, 2020-2049 and 2070-2099) are first evaluated to identify how the frequency and the extent of the extreme events will be altered in the ten Texas major river basins. The results suggest that a significant increase in the number of extreme events will occur starting in the first half of the 21st century in Texas. Then, the effects of the predicted hydrologic extreme events on the irrigation water demand are investigated. It is found that future changes in water demand vary by crop type and location, with an east-to-west gradient. The results are expected to contribute to future water management and planning in Texas.

  15. 78 FR 32365 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY... Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council will meet on June 4, 5, and 6, 2013. The meeting will be... to local constituents urban forestry concerns, prepare for the 10-year action plan revisions,...

  16. 78 FR 42487 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice: 2014 call for nominations. SUMMARY: The National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory... Agriculture, Forest Service's Urban and Community Forestry Web site: www.fs.fed.us/ucf/ nucfac....

  17. 76 FR 85 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council will meet... Agriculture, develop the 2011 plan of work, hear from some of the Urban and Community Forestry...

  18. 76 FR 9740 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY... Community Forestry Advisory Council, (NUCFAC) will be filling five positions that have expired at the end of... the U.S. Forest Service's Urban and Community Forestry Web site: http://www.fs.fed.us/ucf/ ....

  19. 76 FR 16597 - Forestry Research Advisory Council Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Office of the Secretary Forestry Research Advisory Council Charter Renewal AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice of the Forestry Research Advisory Council charter renewal. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture has renewed the charter of the Forestry Research Advisory Council (FRAC),...

  20. Plot and Catchment Scale Hydrological Impacts of Agricultural Field Boundary Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Victoria; Pattison, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Natural flood management aims to reduce downstream flow levels by delaying the movement of water through a catchment and increasing the amount of soil infiltration. Field boundary features such as hedgerows and dry stone walls are common features in the rural landscape. It is hypothesised that there presence could reduce runoff connectivity and change the soil moisture levels by altering the soil structure and porosity. The use of larger agricultural machinery has resulted in the removal of field boundaries and the subsequent increase in field sizes over the 20th Century. This change in the rural landscape is likely to have changed the partitioning of rainfall into runoff and the hydrological pathways throughout the catchment. However, the link between field boundaries and catchment scale flood risk has not yet been proven. We aim to address this need for evidence to support natural flood management by focussing on these widespread features in the rural landscape. Firstly, we quantify the change in the density of field boundaries over the past 120 years for the Skell catchment, Northern England using historical OS maps. The analysis has shown that field size has approximately doubled in the Skell catchment since 1892, due to the removal of field boundaries. Secondly, we assess the effect of field boundaries on local soil characteristics and hydrological processes through plot scale continuous monitoring of the hydrological processes along a 20m transect through the linear boundary features. For the summer period results show that soil moisture levels are lower immediately next to the hedgerow compared to distances greater than 1m from the hedgerow. Finally, we use this data to parameterise and validate a catchment scale hydrological model. The model is then applied to test the impact of a network of field boundaries on river flow extremes at the catchment scale.

  1. Forestry Occupations. A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, R. J., Ed.

    Developed as a part of a larger project to revise the total agricultural education curriculum in South Carolina, this curriculum guide is designed for a 2-year course in forestry occupations. A paradigm accompanies the document and illustrates a possible time frame and sequence. The units covered by the curriculum include an orientation to…

  2. Forestry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Power Pack II provides an economical means of moving a power source into remote roadless forest areas. It was developed by Prof. Miles and his associates, working in cooperation with the University of California's Department of Forestry. The team combined its own design of an all-terrain vehicle with a suspension system based on the NASA load equalization technology. Result is an intermediate-sized unit which carries a power source and the powered tools to perform a variety of forest management tasks which cannot be done economically with current equipment. Power Pack II can traverse very rough terrain and climb a 60 degree slope; any one of the wheels can move easily over an obstacle larger than itself. Work is being done on a more advanced Power Pack III.

  3. Lightweight Vertical Take-Off & Landing Unmanned Aerial Systems For Local-Scale Forestry and Agriculture Remote Sensing Data Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, E.; Sheridan, R.; Popescu, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of lightweight Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) rotary Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and remote sensor technologies have provided researchers with the ability to integrate compact remote sensing systems with UAVs to create Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) capable of collecting high-resolution airborne remote sensing data. UASs offer a myriad of benefits. Some of the most notable include: (1) reduced operational cost; (2) reduced lead-time for mission planning; (3) high-resolution and high-density data collection; and (4) customization of data collection intervals to fit the needs of a specific project (i.e. acquiring data at hourly, daily, or weekly intervals). Such benefits allow researchers and natural resource managers to acquire airborne remote sensing data on local-scale phenomenon in ways that were previously cost-prohibitive. VTOL UASs also offer a stable platform capable of low speed low altitude flight over small spatial scales that do not require a dedicated runway. Such flight characteristics allow VTOL UASs to collect high-resolution data at very high densities, enabling the use of structure from motion (SFM) techniques to generate three-dimensional datasets from photographs. When combined, these characteristics make VTOL UASs ideal for collecting data over agricultural or forested research areas. The goal of this study is to provide an overview of several lightweight eight-rotor VTOL UASs designed for small-scale forest remote sensing data collection. Specific objectives include: (1) the independent integration of a lightweight multispectral camera, a lightweight scanning lidar sensor, with required components (i.e. IMU, GPS, data logger) and the UAV; (2) comparison of UAS-collected data to terrestrial lidar data and airborne multispectral and lidar data; (3) comparison of UAS SFM techniques to terrestrial lidar data; and (4) multi-temporal assessment of tree decay using terrestrial lidar and UAS SfM techniques.

  4. Evaluation of Prairie Hydrological Simulations and Uncertainty Analyses of an Agricultural Basin in Southern Manitoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, T. H.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.; Baulch, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    Snow processes, frozen soils and highly seasonal evapotranspiration are major hydrological processes in the Canadian Prairies. Wind redistribution of blowing snow and in-transit sublimation result in a high spatial variability of snow accumulation that can be managed by residual crop stubble on fields. Soil macropores and moisture status are strongly influenced by land management and exert a very strong control on frozen soil infiltrability. The spring melt of the seasonal snowcover over frozen soil normally results in the major runoff event of the year and exerts an important control on runoff, erosion and water quality. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of these processes in an agricultural setting that includes multiple Beneficial Management Practices using a physically-based modeling framework. In this study, we utilize a physically-based, semi-distributed cold regions hydrological model to simulate the hydrological response in the South Tobacco Creek Basin (STC). The STC (~80 km2 ), located at the fringe of the Manitoba Escarpment, is set in a gently rolling landscape with low relief (~200 m) and an average elevation of 427 m. Major land covers are riparian forests (~24%) and agricultural crops (~76%), with wheat (~25%) and canola (~20%) as the major crops. We split the basin into multiple sub-basins, each of which is divided into several hydrological response units (HRUs): riparian forest, river channel, reservoir, wheat, canola, other crops and marsh. Model parameters are estimated from land cover data, a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model (DEM), field surveys, agronomic data and channel network data, including data on small headwater dams. We evaluate the model for multiple objectives such as snow accumulation, soil moisture and streamflow using multiple performance criteria. Finally, a Monte-Carlo-based model analysis is conducted to investigate model sensitivity and uncertainty with respect to the simulation of

  5. Climate change impacts utilizing regional models for agriculture, hydrology and natural ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, M.; Asrar, G. R.; El-Askary, H. M.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Medvigy, D.; Prasad, A. K.; Smith, E.; Stack, D. H.; Tremback, C.; Walko, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change impacts the entire Earth but with crucial and often catastrophic impacts at local and regional levels. Extreme phenomena such as fires, dust storms, droughts and other natural hazards present immediate risks and challenges. Such phenomena will become more extreme as climate change and anthropogenic activities accelerate in the future. We describe a major project funded by NIFA (Grant # 2011-67004-30224), under the joint NSF-DOE-USDA Earth System Models (EaSM) program, to investigate the impacts of climate variability and change on the agricultural and natural (i.e. rangeland) ecosystems in the Southwest USA using a combination of historical and present observations together with climate, and ecosystem models, both in hind-cast and forecast modes. The applicability of the methodology to other regions is relevant (for similar geographic regions as well as other parts of the world with different agriculture and ecosystems) and should advance the state of knowledge for regional impacts of climate change. A combination of multi-model global climate projections from the decadal predictability simulations, to downscale dynamically these projections using three regional climate models, combined with remote sensing MODIS and other data, in order to obtain high-resolution climate data that can be used with hydrological and ecosystem models for impacts analysis, is described in this presentation. Such analysis is needed to assess the future risks and potential impacts of projected changes on these natural and managed ecosystems. The results from our analysis can be used by scientists to assist extended communities to determine agricultural coping strategies, and is, therefore, of interest to wide communities of stakeholders. In future work we will be including surface hydrologic modeling and water resources, extend modeling to higher resolutions and include significantly more crops and geographical regions with different weather and climate conditions

  6. Hydrological and biogeochemical investigation of an agricultural watershed, southeast New Hampshire, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. M.; McDowell, W. H.; Campbell, J. E.; Hristov, A. N.

    2010-12-01

    Developing sustainable agricultural practices and policies requires an understanding of the hydrological and biological processes that control nutrient fluxes and how those processes are manifested in nutrient loading of surface water bodies. Groundwater and surface water from the UNH Organic Research Dairy, located in southeast New Hampshire, flow into the Lamprey River and then into the Great Bay, New Hampshire; both are experiencing increasing nutrient loads. The farm hosts approximately 80 Jersey cows (40 milking) and is located on relatively thin (<10m) glacial deposits that include sandy glacial till moraines, an ice-contact delta, and marine silt and clay overlying fractured calcareous quartzite. Recharge of precipitation is the dominant mode through which nutrients are introduced into the hydrologic system. Intensive meteorological, hydrological, and biogeochemical monitoring of a 35 hectare watershed that includes the main farm operation buildings and several pastures has been underway since June 2009. A three-dimensional transient unsaturated-saturated groundwater flow model was developed using LIDAR topography and detailed field mapping. The transient model was calibrated to observed water level and streamflow observations. Model results suggest that summer recharge rates vary considerably across the site and depth to the water table is the dominant control on the recharge flux. Areas having depth to water of 1-2 m experience the greatest recharge (up to 60% of precipitation). Areas with deeper water tables experience greater evapotranspiration from the vadose zone, and shallower water tables experience greater runoff. Water budget calculations suggest that the hydrologic fluxes occur predominately in the shallow groundwater, wetlands, and small surface streams draining the watershed. High dissolved nitrogen (N) concentrations (up to an average concentration of 35 mg N/L) are observed in groundwater immediately downgradient from the main farm operation

  7. Hydrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, John M.

    1977-01-01

    Lists many recent research projects in hydrology, including flow in fractured media, improvements in remote-sensing techniques, effects of urbanization on water resources, and developments in drainage basins. (MLH)

  8. Estimating Hydrologic Fluxes, Crop Water Use, and Agricultural Land Area in China using Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Tiziana; McLaughlin, Dennis B.; Hoisungwan, Piyatida

    2016-04-01

    Crop production has significantly altered the terrestrial environment by changing land use and by altering the water cycle through both co-opted rainfall and surface water withdrawals. As the world's population continues to grow and individual diets become more resource-intensive, the demand for food - and the land and water necessary to produce it - will continue to increase. High-resolution quantitative data about water availability, water use, and agricultural land use are needed to develop sustainable water and agricultural planning and policies. However, existing data covering large areas with high resolution are susceptible to errors and can be physically inconsistent. China is an example of a large area where food demand is expected to increase and a lack of data clouds the resource management dialogue. Some assert that China will have insufficient land and water resources to feed itself, posing a threat to global food security if they seek to increase food imports. Others believe resources are plentiful. Without quantitative data, it is difficult to discern if these concerns are realistic or overly dramatized. This research presents a quantitative approach using data assimilation techniques to characterize hydrologic fluxes, crop water use (defined as crop evapotranspiration), and agricultural land use at 0.5 by 0.5 degree resolution and applies the methodology in China using data from around the year 2000. The approach uses the principles of water balance and of crop water requirements to assimilate existing data with a least-squares estimation technique, producing new estimates of water and land use variables that are physically consistent while minimizing differences from measured data. We argue that this technique for estimating water fluxes and agricultural land use can provide a useful basis for resource management modeling and policy, both in China and around the world.

  9. Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutsaert, Wilfried

    2005-08-01

    Water in its different forms has always been a source of wonder, curiosity and practical concern for humans everywhere. Hydrology - An Introduction presents a coherent introduction to the fundamental principles of hydrology, based on the course that Wilfried Brutsaert has taught at Cornell University for the last thirty years. Hydrologic phenomena are dealt with at spatial and temporal scales at which they occur in nature. The physics and mathematics necessary to describe these phenomena are introduced and developed, and readers will require a working knowledge of calculus and basic fluid mechanics. The book will be invaluable as a textbook for entry-level courses in hydrology directed at advanced seniors and graduate students in physical science and engineering. In addition, the book will be more broadly of interest to professional scientists and engineers in hydrology, environmental science, meteorology, agronomy, geology, climatology, oceanology, glaciology and other earth sciences. Emphasis on fundamentals Clarification of the underlying physical processes Applications of fluid mechanics in the natural environment

  10. The change of nature and the nature of change in agricultural landscapes: Hydrologic regime shifts modulate ecological transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Takbiri, Zeinab; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Schwenk, Jon

    2015-08-01

    Hydrology in many agricultural landscapes around the world is changing in unprecedented ways due to the development of extensive surface and subsurface drainage systems that optimize productivity. This plumbing of the landscape alters water pathways, timings, and storage, creating new regimes of hydrologic response and driving a chain of environmental changes in sediment dynamics, nutrient cycling, and river ecology. In this work, we nonparametrically quantify the nature of hydrologic change in the Minnesota River Basin, an intensively managed agricultural landscape, and study how this change might modulate ecological transitions. During the growing season when climate effects are shown to be minimal, daily streamflow hydrographs exhibit sharper rising limbs and stronger dependence on the previous-day precipitation. We also find a changed storage-discharge relationship and show that the artificial landscape connectivity has most drastically affected the rainfall-runoff relationship at intermediate quantiles. Considering the whole year, we show that the combined climate and land use change effects reduce the inherent nonlinearity in the dynamics of daily streamflow, perhaps reflecting a more linearized engineered hydrologic system. Using a simplified dynamic interaction model that couples hydrology to river ecology, we demonstrate how the observed hydrologic change and/or the discharge-driven sediment generation dynamics may have modulated a regime shift in river ecology, namely extirpation of native mussel populations. We posit that such nonparametric analyses and reduced complexity modeling can provide more insight than highly parameterized models and can guide development of vulnerability assessments and integrated watershed management frameworks.

  11. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.201 Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.” The term “forestry or lumbering operations” refers to the... and in part 788 of this chapter which considers the section 13(a)(13) exemption for forestry...

  12. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.201 Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.” The term “forestry or lumbering operations” refers to the... and in part 788 of this chapter which considers the section 13(a)(13) exemption for forestry...

  13. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.201 Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.” The term “forestry or lumbering operations” refers to the... and in part 788 of this chapter which considers the section 13(a)(13) exemption for forestry...

  14. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.201 Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.” The term “forestry or lumbering operations” refers to the... and in part 788 of this chapter which considers the section 13(a)(13) exemption for forestry...

  15. 29 CFR 780.201 - Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.201 Meaning of “forestry or lumbering operations.” The term “forestry or lumbering operations” refers to the... and in part 788 of this chapter which considers the section 13(a)(13) exemption for forestry...

  16. Hydrologic connectivity increases denitrification in the hyporheic zone and restored floodplains of an agricultural stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roley, Sarah S.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Williams, Maureen A.

    2012-09-01

    Stream ecotones, specifically the lateral floodplain and subsurface hyporheic zone, can be important sites for nitrogen (N) removal via denitrification, but their role in streams with constructed floodplains has not been examined. We studied denitrification in the hyporheic zone and floodplains of an agriculturally influenced headwater stream in Indiana, USA, that had floodplains added as part of a "two-stage ditch" restoration project. To examine the potential for N removal in the hyporheic zone, we seasonally measured denitrification rates and nitrate concentrations by depth into the stream sediments. We found that nitrate concentration and denitrification rates declined with depth into the hyporheic zone, but denitrification was still measureable to a depth of at least 20 cm. We also measured denitrification rates on the restored floodplains over the course of a flood (pre, during, and post-inundation), and also compared denitrification rates between vegetated and non-vegetated areas of the floodplain. We found that floodplain denitrification rates increased over the course of a floodplain inundation event, and that the presence of surface water increased denitrification rates when vegetation was present. Stream ecotones in midwestern, agriculturally influenced streams have substantial potential for N removal via denitrification, particularly when they are hydrologically connected with high-nitrate surface water.

  17. Hydrologic and water-quality impacts of agricultural land use changes incurred from bioenergy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhulu; Anar, Mohammad J.; Zheng, Haochi

    2015-06-01

    The US Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 has contributed to widespread changes in agricultural land uses. The impact of these land use changes on regional water resources could also be significant. Agricultural land use changes were evaluated for the Red River of the North Basin, an international river basin shared by the US and Canada. The influence of the land use change on spring snowmelt flooding and downstream water quality was also assessed using watershed modeling. The planting areas for corn and soybean in the basin increased by 62% and 18%, while those for spring wheat, forest, and pasture decreased by 30%, 18%, and 50%, from 2006 to 2013. Although the magnitude of spring snowmelt peak flows in the Red River did not change from pre-EISA to post-EISA, our uncertainty analysis of the normalized hydrographs revealed that the downstream streamflows had a greater variability under the post-EISA land use scenario, which may lead to greater uncertainty in predicting spring snowmelt floods in the Red River. Hydrological simulation also showed that the sediment and nutrient loads at the basin's outlet in the US and Canada border increased under the post-EISA land use scenario, on average sediment increasing by 2.6%, TP by 14.1%, nitrate nitrogen by 5.9%, and TN by 9.1%.

  18. Hydrological consequences of deforestation and forest degradation in the Amazon agricultural frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, M. T.; Macedo, M.; Riskin, S.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing demand for agricultural commodities has driven high rates of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon over the last two decades. The resulting changes in land cover and use fundamentally alter the energy and water balance at the land surface. This study presents results from a series of intensive field campaigns and satellite remote sensing analyses quantifying the hydrological consequences of recent land cover and land use changes (LCLUC) that have occurred on a large ranch in the Amazon's agricultural frontier in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The results show that deforestation and conversion to crops significantly decrease evapotranspiration and increase sensible heat flux. These changes occur because the crops that have replaced native forests have significantly lower leaf area index, root biomass, and growing season length, resulting in an overall decrease in water demand. This reduction in water demand leads to significantly increased soil moisture down to greater than 10m depth and a significant increase in water yield and stream discharge from all cropped watersheds measured, when compared to intact forest watersheds. This suite of changes occurred in all seasons and the differences in the water cycle between forested and non-forested areas on the ranch were particularly pronounced in the dry season. The results show that the evaporative flux from the evergreen forests remains high during the dry season due to extraction of stored soil moisture but becomes very low in the fallow fields where there are no photosynthetically active plants to evapotranspire.

  19. Hydrological impacts of land-use change and agricultural policy in the Brazilian Cerrado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, M.; Coe, M. T.; Soares-Filho, B.; Ferreira, L. G.; Panday, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change and climate variability are two of the most important forces driving changes to the surface water and energy balance in tropical ecosystems. Our analysis combines satellite-derived data on rainfall (CRU), evapotranspiration (MOD16), soil water storage (GRACE), and land cover (MOD12Q1) to understand the effect of past (2000-2012) land cover changes and climate variability on the water balance of the Brazilian Cerrado (savannah woodlands). Based on these historical relationships, we examine potential future land-use transitions from native Cerrado to pasturelands and mechanized agriculture, using the Brazilian Water Agency's (ANA) 12th order watersheds as our unit of analysis. In the Cerrado, these watersheds constitute nearly 37,500 units (mean area ~5,400 ha) and serve as a useful proxy for property-level land-use decisions. Our future scenarios evaluate the potential ramifications of recent changes in the Brazilian Forest Code, which we estimate may allow for legal deforestation of an additional 40 × 2 million hectares of native Cerrado. Our analysis indicates that historical land-cover changes have already caused a significant decrease in evapotranspiration, leading to a three-fold increase in discharge in small watersheds and a nearly 25% increase in large river basins like the Tocantins-Araguaia. As global demand for agricultural commodities continues to rise, it is likely that large-scale conversion of the Cerrado will continue or accelerate in the coming decade. Our research suggests that the cumulative impact of such large-scale land cover change may shift the water balance sufficiently to alter regional precipitation and deplete groundwater stores. Future research will focus on understanding the potential feedbacks of these large-scale hydrological changes on regional climate and agricultural productivity.

  20. The Hydrologic Response of Forestry Plantations and Secondary Succession in Comparison to Tropical Mature Forest and Pasture in the Panama Canal Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litt, G.; Briceno, J. C.; Crouch, T. D.; Ogden, F. L.

    2012-12-01

    Land use change in the Panama Canal Watershed may have far reaching effects on water quality and water quantity. Dry season water quantity is of particular interest for sustaining and expanding canal operations, therefore an increased understanding of tropical hydrological processes and their relationship to land use may improve management practices by the Panama Canal Authority. The long term Agua Salud Project in the Panama Canal Watershed monitors a number of hydrological factors across various tropical land use types. We hypothesize that the plantations and the secondary succession plot more closely resemble the mature forest's runoff characteristics. In this study we investigate the differences in runoff ratios between the following experimental plots: a teak (tectona grandis) plantation, a native-species plantation and a native secondary succession plot. Results are compared to past analyses on mature forest and pasture control plots while utilizing three years of continuously monitored hydrologic data.

  1. Effect of Agricultural Practices on Hydrology and Water Chemistry in a Small Irrigated Catchment, Yakima River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Johnson, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    The role of irrigation and artificial drainage in the hydrologic cycle and the transport of solutes in a small agricultural catchment in central Washington's Yakima Valley were explored using hydrologic, chemical, isotopic, age-dating, and mineralogical data from several environmental compartments, including stream water, ground water, overland flow, and streambed pore water. A conceptual understanding of catchment hydrology and solute transport was developed and an inverse end-member mixing analysis was used to further explore the effects of agriculture in this small catchment. The median concentrations of major solutes and nitrates were similar for the single field site and for the catchment outflow site, indicating that the net effects of transport processes for these constituents were similar at both scales. However, concentrations of nutrients were different at the two sites, suggesting that field-scale variations in agricultural practices as well as nearstream and instream biochemical processes are important components of agricultural chemical transformation and transport in this catchment. This work indicates that irrigation coupled with artificial drainage networks may exacerbate the ecological effects of agricultural runoff by increasing direct connectivity between fields and streams and minimizing potentially mitigating effects (denitrification and dilution, for example) of longer subsurface pathways.

  2. Quantifying faecal indicator organism hydrological transfer pathways and phases in agricultural catchments.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S; Jordan, P; Mellander, P-E; O' Flaherty, V

    2015-07-01

    Faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) can impact on water quality and pose a health and environmental risk. The transfer of FIOs, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), from land to water is driven by hydrological connectivity and may follow the same flowpaths as nutrients, from agricultural and human sources. This study investigated E. coli transfer in two catchment areas with high source and transport pressures. These pressures were: organic phosphorus (P) loading; human settlement; conduits and fissures in a grassland karst area; and clay rich and impermeable soils in a mixed arable area. The occurrence of E. coli and its transport pathways, along with the pathways of nutrients, were studied using a combination of targeted FIO sampling, during different hydrological phases and events, and high resolution nutrient analysis. The quick flow component in both catchments was found to be a more potent vector for E. coli, and was coincident with the total P flowpaths using a P Loadograph Recession Analysis (LRA). The karst grassland catchment was found to be a transport limited system and the mixed arable catchment a source limited system. Hence, despite the grassland catchment being a potentially higher FIO source, the E. coli loads leaving the catchment were low compared to the mixed arable catchment. E. coli load whole-event comparisons also indicated that the grassland karst transfers tended to be much lower on falling phases of runoff, while the arable catchment, over greywacke and mudstone geology, showed little change between the phases. Furthermore, the arable catchment showed asymptotic decline of sustained E. coli loads towards low flows, which may be indicative of chronic point sources. These results indicate the dominance of transport mechanisms over source mechanisms for mass E. coli loads and also chronic loads during low flow. These will be important considerations for risk assessment and mitigation. PMID:25840482

  3. Forestry administration and policies in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyman, Eric L.

    1983-11-01

    This article begins by summarizing the importance of the forestry sector in the Philippine economy It provides an overview of the multiplicity of Philippine governmental institutions involved in forestry in 1982 Then it discusses forestry laws in the country and concludes by examining fifteen critical forest policy issues: sustained yield management; area-specific logging bans; increased use of wood wastes; revision of forest charges; unprocessed log export ban; rationalization of the forest industry, acceleration of reforestation; protection of watersheds; recognition of the social dimensions of slash- and-burn agriculture; fuelwood supply; public land classification for forestry and agriculture, development of plantations for dendrothermal electricity; multiple-use management; preservation of mangrove areas, and improvements in administration and implementation.

  4. Assessing the hydrological impacts of agricultural changes upstream of the Tunisian World Heritage sea-connected Ichkeul Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouissi, J.; Chabaane, Z. L.; Benabdallah, S.; Cudennec, C.

    2015-03-01

    The impact of changes in agricultural land use and practices as a controlling driver of hydrologic response and as a source of diffuse pollution, are studied in the Joumine River basin, discharging into the Ichkeul Lake, northern Tunisia, a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1979. The lake is characterized by a very specific hydrological functioning based on a seasonal alternation of water levels and salinity through its link to the Mediterranean Sea. Three Landsat images, in situ surveys and SWAT modelling were used to simulate and assess streamflows and nitrate loads under retrospective land uses.

  5. Using Coupled Hydrologic and Agro-economic Models to Evaluate the Impact of Agricultural Activity on Streamflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugger, D. R.; Maneta, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation substantially alters the timing and magnitude of surface water flows, and continued agricultural intensification to keep up with demand means perpetual stress on surface water resources. A critical challenge is to manage irrigation in a way that balances ecosystem health with sustaining agricultural economies. Coupled hydrologic-agroeconomic models are promising tools for meeting this challenge: the models can quantify 1) how water withdrawal for irrigation impacts streamflows, 2) how these impacts propagate through a surface water system, 3) how the amount of water available for irrigation changes the allocation of resources (e.g. land, water) to available crops, and 4) the impact of water availability on agricultural economies. However, these models can be very data intensive, which limits their applicability. We present a parsimonious coupled hydrologic-agroeconomic model that uses the Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP) method, extensively used in agricultural resource economics, and calibrates to data on allotment of agricultural inputs, available from sources such as the USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service. PMP assumes that farmers allocate resources to maximize net revenues, justifying the use of optimality conditions to constrain the parameters of the agroeconomic model. We improve the standard PMP model by 1) having the calibrated model reproduce not only the observed input allotment but also the observed yield, and 2) using the ensemble Kalman filter equations to solve the mathematical programming problem recursively, which permits refinement of the model calibration as new observations become available. We demonstrate the proposed agroeconomic model by coupling it to HEC-HMS, a hydrologic model capable of simulating regional natural and man-made water distribution networks, to investigate the sensitivity of streamflows to the allocation of agricultural inputs (land and water) in response to changes in climatic and economic

  6. Moving from local to State water governance to resolve a local conflict between irrigated agriculture and commercial forestry in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Virginie; McKay, Jennifer; Keremane, Ganesh

    2014-11-01

    In the Lower Limestone Coast, South Australia, a unique water allocation plan has been under consideration for several years. This plan is the first in Australia to consider forestry as a water affecting activity. Indeed, forestry plantations have a twofold impact on water-rainfall or aquifer recharge interception and direct extraction of groundwater in shallow water table areas-and alter the available water for irrigation as a result of the previous water budget. This paper examines how water is allocated across the competing requirements for water but also across the competing legal, economic and administrative scales embodied by the competing water users; and thus it also details the pre-judicial mechanism used to resolve the conflict over these competing scales. Qualitative and quantitative content analysis in Nvivo was applied to: (i) 180 local newspaper articles on the planning process, (ii) 65 submission forms filled in by the community during a public consultation on the draft water plan and (iii) 20 face-to-face interviews of keys stakeholders involved in the planning process. The social sustainability perspective taken in this study establishes the legal, economic and administrative competitive scales at stake in the conflict regarding water between forestry and irrigation. It also evidences the special feature of this paper, which is that to overcome these competitions and resolve the local conflict before judicial process, the water governance moved up in the administrative scale, from local/regional to State level. Initiated and initially prepared at regional level through the local Natural Resources Management Board, the water planning process was taken up to State level through the formation of an Interdepartmental Committee and the establishment of a Taskforce in charge of developing a policy. These were supported by an amendment of a State legislation on Natural Resources Management to manage the water impacts of forestry plantations.

  7. Agricultural Land Use mapping by multi-sensor approach for hydrological water quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Lukas; Kodesova, Radka; Kodes, Vit

    2010-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to demonstrate potential of operational use of the high and medium resolution remote sensing data for hydrological water quality monitoring by mapping agriculture intensity and crop structures. In particular use of remote sensing mapping for optimization of pesticide monitoring. The agricultural mapping task is tackled by means of medium spatial and high temporal resolution ESA Envisat MERIS FR images together with single high spatial resolution IRS AWiFS image covering the whole area of interest (the Czech Republic). High resolution data (e.g. SPOT, ALOS, Landsat) are often used for agricultural land use classification, but usually only at regional or local level due to data availability and financial constraints. AWiFS data (nominal spatial resolution 56 m) due to the wide satellite swath seems to be more suitable for use at national level. Nevertheless, one of the critical issues for such a classification is to have sufficient image acquisitions over the whole vegetation period to describe crop development in appropriate way. ESA MERIS middle-resolution data were used in several studies for crop classification. The high temporal and also spectral resolution of MERIS data has indisputable advantage for crop classification. However, spatial resolution of 300 m results in mixture signal in a single pixel. AWiFS-MERIS data synergy brings new perspectives in agricultural Land Use mapping. Also, the developed methodology procedure is fully compatible with future use of ESA (GMES) Sentinel satellite images. The applied methodology of hybrid multi-sensor approach consists of these main stages: a/ parcel segmentation and spectral pre-classification of high resolution image (AWiFS); b/ ingestion of middle resolution (MERIS) vegetation spectro-temporal features; c/ vegetation signatures unmixing; and d/ semantic object-oriented classification of vegetation classes into final classification scheme. These crop groups were selected to be

  8. Influence of Antecedent Hydrologic Conditions on Nitrate and Phosphorus Export from a Small Agricultural Catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrae, M. L.; English, M. C.; Schiff, S. L.; Stone, M.

    2009-04-01

    The ability of the scientific community to quantify and predict discharge and nutrient transport in a range of settings is confounded by the effects of antecedent hydrologic conditions in upland areas. Previous work has empirically linked spatial variables such as land use, soil type, topography, and drainage characteristics to hydrochemical export from various landscapes (e.g. MCDOWELL et al., 2001; ARHEIMER and LIDEN, 2000; STAMM et al., 1998; JORDAN et al., 1997; WELSCH et al., 2001). However, the specific reasons why similar types of events produce different nutrient export patterns are poorly understood. Nutrient (nitrate, soluble and total phosphorus) transport from agricultural catchments is difficult to quantify and predict because of the influence of variable hydrologic flowpaths and their interaction with varying nutrient pools. This research examines the role of antecedent hydrologic conditions on stream discharge and nitrate (NO3-), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) export from a small (2.7 km2) first-order agricultural catchment in Southern Ontario, Canada. During 59 events occurring over a two-year sampling period (year-round), runoff ratios ranged from 0-0.99). Runoff ratios increased throughout successive events as conditions became wetter although key indices of antecedent wetness such as water table position, pre-event streamflow and soil moisture did not yield predictive relationships. Nitrate, SRP and TP transport from the catchment increased with antecedent wetness during some periods but decreased with antecedent wetness during other periods. This variability appears to be linked to a combination of the position of water table before and during the event, as well as timing of fertilizer application. It is hypothesized that in general, wetter antecedent hydrologic conditions increase nutrient transport from the catchment by increasing macropore connectivity between surface soil horizons and tile drains, although this

  9. Hydrological and biogeochemical controls on nitrous oxide flux across an agricultural landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anticipated increases in precipitation intensity due to climate change may affect hydrological controls on soil nitrous oxide fluxes, resulting in a feedback between climate change and soil greenhouse gas emissions. We evaluated soil hydrology controls on nitrous oxide emissions during experimental...

  10. Complex hydrologic changes in frequency-magnitude response due to shifting agricultural practices in the Midwestern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takbiri, Z.; Czuba, J. A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrologic change is occurring in many basins throughout the Midwestern U.S. not only in the mean annual streamflow but across a spectrum of magnitudes and frequencies. Disentangling the causative mechanisms responsible for these changes such as anthropogenic factors, e.g., artificial drainage to increase agricultural productivity, and climatic shifts in precipitation patterns is important for planning effective mitigation strategies. We have begun unraveling these changes in a human impacted agricultural landscape in the Midwestern U.S., specifically two subbasins of the Minnesota River Basin in Minnesota: the Redwood and Whetstone River Basins, where there has been a shift in agriculture from small grains to soybeans. This shift occurred at different times for each basin (1976 and 1991, respectively) and when soy covered about 20% of the basin area an apparent shift in the hydrologic regime also occurred as evidence by visual inspection of the hydrographs. Precisely quantifying the nature of this hydrologic regime shift however is a challenge and this work adds in this direction. Using Copulas and the joint probability distribution of daily precipitation and streamflow, we quantified a significantly higher dependence between precipitation and streamflow increments in the mid-quantiles (0.1-0.6; attributed to the artificial drainage to the stream rather than the slower infiltration and subsurface runoff) and no significant change for high quantiles (because for extreme storms the artificially fast drainage does not differ much hydrologically from the naturally fast overland flow). We further performed a multi-scale analysis of streamflow increments via wavelets to quantify the changes in the magnitude and frequency of the rising and falling limbs of hydrographs, confirming the above findings. Since precipitation changes were confirmed not to be significant, it is suggested that streamflow changes are largely driven by a change in land use and not climate in these

  11. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Columbia River Basin Agriculture through Integrated Crop Systems, Hydrologic, and Water Management Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Stockle, C.; Nelson, R.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Malek, K.; Kruger, C.; Yoder, J.; Marsh, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Columbia River Basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest covers parts of US and Canada with a total drainage area of about 670,000 square kilometers. The water resources of the CRB are managed to satisfy multiple objectives including agricultural withdrawal, which is the largest consumptive user of Columbia River water with 14,000 square kilometers of irrigated area in the CRB. Agriculture is an important component of the economy in the region, with an annual value over $5 billion in Washington State alone. The availability of surface water for irrigation in the basin is expected to be negatively impacted by climate change. Previous climate change studies in the CRB region suggest a likelihood of increasing temperatures and a shift in precipitation patterns, with precipitation higher in the winter and lower in the summer. Warming further exacerbates summer water availability in many CRB tributaries as they shift from snowmelt-dominant towards rain-dominant hydrologic regimes. The goal of this research is to study the impacts of climate change on CRB water availability and agricultural production in the expectation that curtailment will occur more frequently in an altered climate. Towards this goal it is essential that we understand the interactions between crop-growth dynamics, climate dynamics, the hydrologic cycle, water management, and agricultural economy. To study these interactions at the regional scale, we use the newly developed crop-hydrology model VIC-CropSyst, which integrates a crop growth model CropSyst with the hydrologic model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC). Simulation of future climate by VIC-CropSyst captures the socio-economic aspects of this system through economic analysis of the impacts of climate change on crop patterns. This integrated framework (submitted as a separate paper) is linked to a reservoir operations simulations model, Colsim. ColSim is modified to explicitly account for agricultural withdrawals. Washington State water

  12. Phosphorus Transport at the Field Scale by Monitoring Groundwater and Interflow Discharge in Hydrologically Sensitive Areas in Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Lopez, F.; Geohring, L.; Steenhuis, T.

    2004-05-01

    Quantification of nonpoint source of phosphorus losses through agricultural land is important because hydrologically active areas can significantly affect water quality. In this study we examined phosphorus concentration and phosphorus losses from hydrologically sensitive areas and upland areas located in valley soils in the Cannosville basin in Catskill Mountains. Phosphorus concentrations as low as 0.01 - 0.02 mg/L in water increase the algael bloom in lakes and reservoirs and the Cannosville basin is currently restricted to 0.02mg/L. We measured grab surface water samples taken along the creeks to study the phosphorus concentration in the sub-superficial runoff that drains water from the surrounding hills. Also we installed two different transects of piezometers, one line upstream and one line downstream, to study the role of the groundwater component and its effect in the hydrologically sensitive areas. We generally found low phosphorus concentration in the grab surface water samples and the groundwater samples taken in the piezometers. Sampling during the highest creek flow has resulted in the highest concentrations, generally near 0.05 mg/L of dissolved reactive phosphorus. These concentrations were slightly higher than the concentrations in most of the wells, which were around 0.03 mg/L. Sampling is ongoing to determine the effects snow melt contributions. Results will be presented to show the seasonal effects of phosphorus in the hydrologically sensitive areas.

  13. 29 CFR 788.18 - Preparing other forestry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extensive agricultural or horticultural techniques. See 29 CFR 780.205 for further discussion. Gathering and... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preparing other forestry products. 788.18 Section 788.18... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  14. 29 CFR 788.18 - Preparing other forestry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... extensive agricultural or horticultural techniques. See 29 CFR 780.205 for further discussion. Gathering and... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preparing other forestry products. 788.18 Section 788.18... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  15. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002, and contained in the 7 CFR parts 700 to 899, edition revised as of January 1, 2002, shall continue to apply to... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts....

  16. 29 CFR 788.18 - Preparing other forestry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... extensive agricultural or horticultural techniques. See 29 CFR 780.205 for further discussion. Gathering and... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparing other forestry products. 788.18 Section 788.18... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  17. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002, and contained in the 7 CFR parts 700 to 899, edition revised as of January 1, 2002, shall continue to apply to... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts....

  18. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002, and contained in the 7 CFR parts 700 to 899, edition revised as of January 1, 2002, shall continue to apply to... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts....

  19. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.45 Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002, and contained in the 7 CFR, parts 700 to... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts....

  20. 29 CFR 788.18 - Preparing other forestry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extensive agricultural or horticultural techniques. See 29 CFR 780.205 for further discussion. Gathering and... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preparing other forestry products. 788.18 Section 788.18... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  1. 75 FR 57898 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Announcement for the 2011 U.S. Forest Service Urban and Community Forestry Challenge Cost...), is charged, by law, to provide recommendations to the Secretary of Agriculture on urban...

  2. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002, and contained in the 7 CFR parts 700 to 899, edition revised as of January 1, 2002, shall continue to apply to... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts....

  3. 29 CFR 788.18 - Preparing other forestry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... extensive agricultural or horticultural techniques. See 29 CFR 780.205 for further discussion. Gathering and... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preparing other forestry products. 788.18 Section 788.18... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  4. Uncertainty and sensitivity assessments of an agricultural-hydrological model (RZWQM2) using the GLUE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mei; Zhang, Xiaolin; Huo, Zailin; Feng, Shaoyuan; Huang, Guanhua; Mao, Xiaomin

    2016-03-01

    Quantitatively ascertaining and analyzing the effects of model uncertainty on model reliability is a focal point for agricultural-hydrological models due to more uncertainties of inputs and processes. In this study, the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method with Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) was used to evaluate the uncertainty of the RZWQM-DSSAT (RZWQM2) model outputs responses and the sensitivity of 25 parameters related to soil properties, nutrient transport and crop genetics. To avoid the one-sided risk of model prediction caused by using a single calibration criterion, the combined likelihood (CL) function integrated information concerning water, nitrogen, and crop production was introduced in GLUE analysis for the predictions of the following four model output responses: the total amount of water content (T-SWC) and the nitrate nitrogen (T-NIT) within the 1-m soil profile, the seed yields of waxy maize (Y-Maize) and winter wheat (Y-Wheat). In the process of evaluating RZWQM2, measurements and meteorological data were obtained from a field experiment that involved a winter wheat and waxy maize crop rotation system conducted from 2003 to 2004 in southern Beijing. The calibration and validation results indicated that RZWQM2 model can be used to simulate the crop growth and water-nitrogen migration and transformation in wheat-maize crop rotation planting system. The results of uncertainty analysis using of GLUE method showed T-NIT was sensitive to parameters relative to nitrification coefficient, maize growth characteristics on seedling period, wheat vernalization period, and wheat photoperiod. Parameters on soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, nitrogen nitrification and denitrification, and urea hydrolysis played an important role in crop yield component. The prediction errors for RZWQM2 outputs with CL function were relatively lower and uniform compared with other likelihood functions composed of individual calibration criterion. This

  5. Summer Youth Forestry Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesch, Gabrielle E.; Neuffer, Tamara; Zobrist, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The Summer Youth Forestry Institute (SYFI) was developed to inspire youth through experiential learning opportunities and early work experience in the field of natural resources. Declining enrollments in forestry and other natural resource careers has made it necessary to actively engage youth and provide them with exposure to careers in these…

  6. What is needed to understand feedback mechanisms from agricultural and climate changes that can alter the hydrological system and the transport of sediments and agricultural chemicals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupe, Richard; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Babcsányi, Izabella; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2015-04-01

    Modern agriculture activities are constantly changing as producers try to produce a crop, keep their soils fertile, control pests, and prevent contamination of air and water resources. Because most of the world's arable land is already in production we must become more efficient if we are to feed and clothe the world's growing population as well as do this in a sustainable manner; leaving a legacy of fertile soil and clean water resources for our descendants. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of historical datasets and of developing new strategies to understand the effects of changing agricultural systems on the environment. Scientists who study agriculture and its effects on water must constantly adapt their strategies and evaluate how changing agricultural activities impact the environment. As well as understand from historical datasets on hydrology and agriculture how a changing climate or agricultural activity such as a change in tillage method might impact the processes that determine the movement of agricultural chemicals off of the target site. The 42.7 ha Hohrain (Rouffach, Alsace, France) vineyard experimental catchment offers several examples of how scientists have used historical data from this catchment to understand how the transport of agricultural chemicals may change due to a changing climate as well as how new strategies are developed for understanding the transport of agricultural chemicals. Runoff is a major process of pesticide transport from agricultural land to downstream aquatic ecosystems. The impact of rainfall characteristics on the transport of runoff-related pesticides is crucial to understanding how to prevent or minimize their movement now, but also in understanding how climate change might affect runoff. If we understand how rainfall characteristics affect the transport of pesticides, we can use climate change models to predict how those characteristics might change in the future and be better prepared for

  7. Forestry: Program Planning Guide: Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Paul L.; And Others

    The program planning guide for forestry was written to assist Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations (ABAO) teachers in enriching existing programs and/or to provide the basis for expansion of offerings to include additional materials for the cluster areas of forests, forest protection, logging, wood utilization, recreation, and special…

  8. Hydrological controls on nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions across an agricultural landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in hydrological controls on soil greenhouse gas emissions could result in important climate change feedbacks. Water table fluctuations into surface soils are “hot moments” of soil CO2 and N2O emissions. Future global change may affect the frequency and magnitude of water table fluctuations...

  9. Agricultural Drainage Ditches Mitigate N and P Loads as a Function of Hydrological Variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural activities play a substantial role in non-point pollution of receiving waters. Several efforts to remediate pollution sources include constructed wetlands, buffer strips and best management practices. However, agricultural drainage ditches are primary intercept wetlands that have not be...

  10. Remote Sensing of Wetland Hydrology: Implications for Water Quality Management in Agricultural Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the substantial effect of agriculture on the ability of wetlands to function, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) serves a key role in wetland conservation and restoration. In order for the USDA to allocate funds to best manage wetlands, a better understanding of wetland functioning is ...

  11. Estimating the effects of potential climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes of a large agriculture dominated watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Ram P.; Kumar, Sandeep

    2015-10-01

    Land use and climate are two major components that directly influence catchment hydrologic processes, and therefore better understanding of their effects is crucial for future land use planning and water resources management. We applied Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess the effects of potential land use change and climate variability on hydrologic processes of large agriculture dominated Big Sioux River (BSR) watershed located in North Central region of USA. Future climate change scenarios were simulated using average output of temperature and precipitation data derived from Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) (B1, A1B, and A2) for end-21st century. Land use change was modeled spatially based on historic long-term pattern of agricultural transformation in the basin, and included the expansion of corn (Zea mays L.) cultivation by 2, 5, and 10%. We estimated higher surface runoff in all land use scenarios with maximum increase of 4% while expanding 10% corn cultivation in the basin. Annual stream discharge was estimated higher with maximum increase of 72% in SRES-B1 attributed from higher groundwater contribution of 152% in the same scenario. We assessed increased precipitation during spring season but the summer precipitation decreased substantially in all climate change scenarios. Similar to decreased summer precipitation, discharge of the BSR also decreased potentially affecting agricultural production due to reduced future water availability during crop growing season in the basin. However, combined effects of potential land use change with climate variability enhanced for higher annual discharge of the BSR. Therefore, these estimations can be crucial for implications of future land use planning and water resources management of the basin.

  12. Hydrologic and land-energy feedbacks of agricultural water management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Ian M.; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate strong interdependence between groundwater dynamics, land surface water and energy fluxes over some regions, including significant negative correlation between latent heat flux and groundwater depth. Other studies show that irrigation increases latent heat flux and decreases the Bowen ratio (ratio of sensible to latent heat flux), with subsequent feedbacks on local and regional climate. We use an integrated hydrologic model to evaluate impacts of groundwater pumping, irrigation, and combined pumping and irrigation on groundwater storage, land surface fluxes, and stream discharge over the Little Washita River watershed in the Southern Great Plains of North America. Pumping and irrigation are shown to impact simulated water and energy fluxes at local and watershed scales, with the magnitude of impacts governed by local water table depth. When pumping and irrigation are combined, irrigation has a dominant impact on spatially distributed surface energy processes while pumping has a dominant impact on basin-integrated hydrologic conditions.

  13. Future Projections for Southern High Plains Agriculture Using Coupled Economic and Hydrologic Models and Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainwater, K.; Tewari, R.; Willis, D.; Stovall, J.; Hayhoe, K.; Hernandez, A.; Mauget, S. A.; Leiker, G.; Johnson, J.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the project was to evaluate the hypothesis that predicted climate change will affect the useful life of the Ogallala aquifer in the Southern High Plains (SHP) through its impact on the amount of irrigation withdrawals, and thus affect the yields and economic costs and net income. A ninety-year time frame has been considered, although the research team recognizes that long-term predictions of crop prices and selections are perhaps even more uncertain than long-term weather projections. Previous work by the research team recently demonstrated the development of regionally downscaled climate projections for the SHP. Quantitative projections of precipitation, potential evaporation, and temperature trends for the 90-yr duration were selected from a downscaled set of high-resolution (one-eighth degree) daily climate and hydrological simulations covering the entire Great Plains region, driven by the latest IPCC AR4 climate model outputs. These projections were used as input to the Ogallala Ag Tool software developed by the USDA-ARS to predict daily and seasonal values of those variables, which directly affect irrigation, at different locations in the study area. Results from the Ogallala Ag Tool were then used to drive future projected crop production functions for cotton, corn, wheat, and sorghum using the DSSAT crop model. These production functions were then included in an integrated economic-hydrologic modeling approach that coupled an economic optimization model with a groundwater hydrological model. The groundwater model was based on the Texas Water Development Board's Southern Ogallala Groundwater Availability Model, which has been recalibrated by the research team for previous applications. The coupling of the two models allowed better recognition of spatial heterogeneity across the SHP, such that irrigation water availability was better represented through the spatial variations in pumping demands and saturated thickness. With this hydrologic

  14. Hydrological variability and agricultural drainage ditch nutrient mitigation capacity: Inorganic nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers on agricultural landscapes has the potential to generate environmental degradation concerns at fine to coarse scales across the catchment and landscape. Inorganic nitrogen species (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia) are typically associated with subsurface f...

  15. Agricultural drainage ditches mitigate phosphorus loads as a function of hydrological variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus loading from non-point sources such as agricultural landscapes contributes to downstream aquatic ecosystem degradation. Specifically within the Mississippi watershed, enriched runoff contributions have far reaching consequences for coastal water eutrophication and Gulf of Mexico hypoxia. ...

  16. Chapter 2: Livestock and grazed land emissions. U.S. Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2005. Technical bulletin 1921

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : A total of 259 Tg CO2 eq. of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) were emitted from livestock, managed livestock waste, and grazed land in 2005. This represents about 49% of total emissions from the agricultural sector. Compared to the base line year (1990), emissions from this source were about 2% lower in...

  17. Effects of Land Management Practices on Cold Region Hydrological Processes in an Agricultural Prairie Basin (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, T. H.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.; Baulch, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    Conservation tillage including zero and reduced tillage, crop rotation and upstream reservoirs are commonly implemented as beneficial management practices (BMPs) in the Canadian Prairies. However, their effects are strongly dependent on interactions with cold region hydrological processes, such as wind redistribution of snow, snowmelt, infiltration to frozen soils and evaporation, due to strong coupling between land surface characteristics and hydrology. These interactions are poorly understood and few studies have investigated them using a physically-based modeling framework. In this study, we deploy a physically-based, semi-distributed cold regions hydrological model (CRHM) to investigate the impacts of land management practices in the South Tobacco Creek Basin (STC) which forms part of the Red River Basin in southern Manitoba, Canada. The STC (~73 km2) is set in a gently rolling landscape of low relief (~200 m). Detailed field data such as crop type, tillage practices, crop residue and planting and harvesting dates are available from 1995 and are used to parameterize the model. While the majority of parameters are specified a priori, we have manually calibrated roughness and initial soil water storage parameters to compare the simulations with runoff observations at multiple scales (upstream catchment, mid-basin gauge and outlet gauge) and snow observations during 2000-2001 water year. The calibrated model based on the 2000-2001 period is further evaluated over the 2001-2011 period, which includes high inter-annual variability. The results suggest good agreement between observations and simulations and provide insight into hydrological controls. Snowmelt runoff is a major contributor to streamflow while the contribution of summer rainfall runoff is highly variable. The evaporative fraction is high during dry years (2002-2004) indicating a vertical flux controlled mass balance while the runoff fraction dominates during wet years (2005-2011), suggesting overland

  18. Comparison of Hydrologic Dynamics in Forested and Agricultural Sub-watersheds of a Large Mixed-use Prairie Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, H.; Ali, G.

    2013-12-01

    The natural history of the Prairies includes the large-scale human modification of landscape biology and hydrology from first settlement to present. Forested land has been and continues to be lost and runoff is increasingly artificially drained in this intensively managed region. The impact of such modifications on hydrological dynamics has yet to be understood in such a way that measurable landscape alterations (i.e., area of forest loss, hydraulic capacity of artificial surface drains) can be linked to quantifiable alterations in event storm hydrographs or hydrological regimes. Here we focused on a large mixed-used watershed to compare the hydrological dynamics of forested sub-watersheds to those of neighboring deforested agricultural sub-watersheds within a similar geologic and pedologic setting. The chosen study site, the Catfish Creek watershed (CCW), drains a 600 km2 area located approximately 90 km north-east of Winnipeg (Manitoba, Canada) and has been extensively impacted by human activities including the continued clearing of forested land for cultivation. It is characterized as a low-relief, agro-forested watershed (~45% forest, ~40% crops, ~10% swamp, ~5% other). Surface runoff is managed in part by a network of artificial drains in both the forested and cultivated portions of this watershed. The lower CCW is naturally-vegetated by parkland forest and swamp. The eastern edge of the upper watershed is also forested and of greater relative relief; while to the west the landscape is dominated by intensive, large-scale agricultural operations on a near level landscape. Detailed topographic information was collected in 1 m LiDAR survey of the area. Through the spring of 2013, CCW was instrumented with thirteen water level recorders (15-minute frequency) and five weather stations (1-minute frequency) to monitor the precipitation-runoff dynamics from spring thaw to winter freeze-up. Water level gauging stations, 12 located in-stream and 1 located in swampland

  19. The Importance of Change: Contextualizing Natural and Anthropogenic Hydrologic Variability in terms of agricultural and sectorial economies in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce de Leon Barido, D.; Nelson, H.; Thatikonda, S.; Smith, R.; Roe, T.; Foufoula, E.

    2012-12-01

    Freshwater availability and human prosperity are intricately connected. In many parts of the world however, water demands exceed the renewable water supply and groundwater resources are depleted at an alarming rate. Such is the case in India, especially in its agriculturally intensive regions of Punjab and Telagana where most of the country's rice and wheat is produced. Punjab (Northwest India; deep alluvial aquifers), and Telangana (Central India; shallow bedrock aquifers), with vastly different natural resource endowments (water and hydrogeology) and economic structures, present an exemplary case study for depicting the linkages that exist between hydrological variability, climate change adaptation, and regional sectorial economies. We focus our study on precipitation variability and key parameters that can explain how the Indian monsoon has been evolving over time: total and monthly monsoon rainfall, the frequency and length of dry spells, the spatial distribution of rainfall, and the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Using a social accounting matrix (SAM) to describe the sector composition and structure of the Punjab, Telengana and the rest of India, we evaluate the economic implications of variability, adaptation, and policy changes, via a general equilibrium framework. Hydrologic variability and change is given context as "water shocks" are translated to economic consequences allowing to study scenarios and trade-offs.

  20. Assessment of hydrology, suspended sediment and particulate organic carbon transport in a large agricultural catchment using SWAT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantha, Oeurng; Sabine, Sauvage; José-Miguel, Sánchez-Pérez

    2010-05-01

    Suspended sediment transport from agricultural catchments to stream networks is responsible for aquatic habitat degradation, reservoir sedimentation and the transport of sediment-bound pollutants (pesticides, particulate nutrients, heavy metals and other toxic substances). Quantifying and understanding the dynamics of suspended sediment transfer from agricultural land to watercourses is essential in controlling soil erosion and in implementing appropriate mitigation practices to reduce stream suspended sediment and associated pollutant loads, and hence improve surface water quality downstream. Gascogne area, southwest France, has been dominated by anthropogenic activities particularly intensive agriculture causing severe erosion in recent decades. This leads to a major threat to surface water quality due to soil erosion. Therefore, the catchment water quality has been continuously monitored since January 2007 and the historical data of hydrology and suspended sediment has existed since 1998. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT 2005) was applied to assess hydrology, suspended sediment and particulate organic carbon in this catchment Agricultural management practices (crop rotation, planting date, fertilizer quantity and irrigations) were taken into the model for simulation period of 11 years (July, 1998 to March, 2009). The investigation was conducted using a 11-year streamflow and two years of suspended sediment record from January 2007 to March 2009. Modelling strategy with dominant landuse and soil type was chosen in this study. The SWAT generally performs satisfactorily and could simulate both daily and monthly runoff and sediment yield. The simulated daily and monthly runoff matched the observed values satisfactorily (ENash>0.5). For suspended sediment simulation, the simulated values were compared with the observed continuous suspended sediment derived from turbidity data. Based on the relationship between SSC and POC (R2 = 0.93), POC was

  1. THE EFFECT OF CRANBERRY AGRICULTURE ON WETLAND LANDSCAPES, STREAM HYDROLOGY, AND AQUATIC COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    New Jersey contains about 3600 acres of cranberry bogs, and 70% of this acreage occurs within the 1470-km2 Mullica River basin. Cranberry agriculture occupied about 10,000 acres in 1920. Bog construction and management results in channelized stream segments, ditches, dikes, epi...

  2. Current developments in soil water sensing for climate, environment, hydrology and agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the four dimensional spatio-temporal status and dynamics of soil water content is becoming indispensable to solutions of agricultural, environmental, climatological and engineering problems at all scales. In agronomy alone, science is severely limited by scant or inaccurate knowledge of...

  3. LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 4: Applications. [agriculture, soils land use, geology, hydrology, wetlands, water quality, biomass identification, and snow mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The excellent quality of TM data allows researchers to proceed directly with applications analyses, without spending a significant amount of time applying various corrections to the data. The early results derived of TM data are discussed for the following applications: agriculture, land cover/land use, soils, geology, hydrology, wetlands biomass, water quality, and snow.

  4. RADAR MONITORING OF WETLAND HYDROLOGY IN AN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHED: NEW INFORMATION FOR IMPROVED WATER QUALITY MANGEMENT IN THE CHOPTANK RIVER WATERSHED, MARYLAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality is influenced by the interaction of processes that occur in multiple landscape elements (e.g., agricultural fields, forests, urban areas, and wetlands). Wetlands are hydrologically dynamic ecosystems that have the potential to store, transform, and release chemicals and sediments, whic...

  5. Impacts of domestic and and agricultural rainwater harvesting system on watershed hydrology: A case study of Albemarle-Pamlico Watershed basins (NC, VA, USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is increasingly relevant in the context of growing population and its demands on water quantity. Here, we present a method to better understand the hydrologic impacts of urban domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting and apply the approach to thre...

  6. Recent trends in water quality in an agricultural catchment in Eastern Scotland: elucidating the roles of hydrology and land use.

    PubMed

    Dunn, S M; Sample, J; Potts, J; Abel, C; Cook, Y; Taylor, C; Vinten, A J A

    2014-07-01

    Across the EU, programmes of measures have been introduced as part of river basin management planning as a means of tackling problems of diffuse pollution from agriculture. Evidence is required to demonstrate the effectiveness of these measures and with this overarching objective, monitoring of an agricultural catchment in Eastern Scotland was initiated in 2007. As a precursor to evaluating the effect of new management measures it is essential to understand how other factors, including hydrology and land use changes, could have influenced water quality. This study undertook an analysis of the trends in concentrations and loads of nitrate, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), suspended solids (SS) and turbidity measured at six points in the catchment over a six year period. The results identified both differing trends between determinands and differing trends occurring over varying spatial scales. The only direct relationships between land use and water quality that could be identified based on annual data was a positive link between arable cropping and nitrate concentrations. At the sub-catchment scale some temporal changes in land use and management explained short-term trends in nitrate but not in SRP. Lags in the system were identified due to soil adsorption, in-stream/loch processing and groundwater transport making the identification of cause and effect problematic. The results have implications for the demonstration of effectiveness of measures over the shorter term and the timescales of recovery from diffuse pollution. Longer term monitoring at small scales will be important in this regard. PMID:24718675

  7. Hydrologic processes related to streambank erosion in three Minnesota agricultural watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieber, J. L.; Lenhart, C. F.; Holmberg, K.; Ulrich, J.; Peterson, H. M.

    2014-12-01

    zone hydrologic dynamics both spatially and temporally within rivers of the region. Further research into the processes discussed here is needed to better understand riparian zone hydrology and management issues in streams of the north-central U.S. that border on the semi-arid climate zone.

  8. The role of hydrologic regimes on dissolved organic carbon composition in an agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hernes, P.J.; Spencer, R.G.M.; Dyda, R.Y.; Pellerin, B.A.; Bachand, P.A.M.; Bergamaschi, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Willow Slough, a seasonally irrigated agricultural watershed in the Sacramento River valley, California, was sampled weekly in 2006 in order to investigate seasonal concentrations and compositions of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Average DOC concentrations nearly doubled from winter baseflow (2.75 mg L-1) to summer irrigation (5.14 mg L-1), while a concomitant increase in carbon-normalized vanillyl phenols (0.11 mg 100 mg OC-1 increasing to 0.31 mg 100 mg OC-1, on average) indicates that this additional carbon is likely vascular plant-derived. A strong linear relationship between lignin concentration and total suspended sediments (r2 = 0.79) demonstrates that agricultural management practices that mobilize sediments will likely have a direct and significant impact on DOC composition. The original source of vascular plant-derived DOC to Willow Slough appears to be the same throughout the year as evidenced by similar syringyl to vanillyl and cinnamyl to vanillyl ratios. However, differing diagenetic pathways during winter baseflow as compared to the rest of the year are evident in acid to aldehyde ratios of both vanillyl and syringyl phenols. The chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficient at 350 nm showed a strong correlation with lignin concentration (r2 = 0.83). Other CDOM measurements related to aromaticity and molecular weight also showed correlations with carbon-normalized yields (e.g. specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (r2 = 0.57) and spectral slope (r2 = 0.54)). Our overall findings suggest that irrigated agricultural watersheds like Willow Slough can potentially have a significant impact on mainstem DOC concentration and composition when scaled to the entire watershed of the main tributary. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Discrete and continuous water-quality data and hydrologic parameters from seven agricultural watersheds in the United States, 2002-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Lampe, David C.; Capel, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Field and analytical methods; discrete organic and non-organic water-quality data and associated quality-control data; and continuous hydrologic and water-quality parameters are reported for sites in California, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Mississippi, Nebraska, and Washington. The sites were sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program?s Agricultural Chemicals Team study to better understand how environmental processes and agricultural practices interact to determine the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in the environment.

  10. Forestry: Forum summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, R.

    1981-01-01

    A synopsis of a forum addressing the use of LANDSAT data in forestry is given. Broad inventory studies, clear-cut monitoring, and insect and disease detection were among the subject areas discussed. Concerns regarding the vailability of data, cloud cover, resolution and classification accuracy, and product format were expressed by foresters.

  11. Hydrological Consequences of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in the Amazon Agricultural Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, M. T.; Macedo, M.; Silverio, D. V.; Panday, P. K.; Brando, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation in the tropics causes important changes in the energy and water balance because pasturelands and croplands generally have a higher albedo and decreased water demand, evapotranspiration, and atmospheric turbulence compared to the forests they replace. These changes to the water and energy balance work at a variety of time and space scales and the combined influences on regional hydrology are complex. Field observations, satellite data products and a suite of numerical ecosystem models have been used to document and understand changes to the energy and water balances at micro (<1 km2), meso (100s km2) and large (10,000 km2) spatial scales in the southeastern Amazon. The results show that at regional scales deforestation has decreased net radiation and evapotranspiration and increased surface temperature, sensible heat flux, soil moisture, stream flow and stream temperature. These changes result from the increased albedo, reduced leaf area index, altered phenology, decreased root density and depth, and total water demand of the pasture and crops compared to the native vegetation. Global and meso-scale climate model applications indicate that continued deforestation may significantly reduce regional precipitation because of decreases in the net surface radiation, surface roughness, moisture convergence over the basin, and water recycling. Future changes brought about by deforestation may be of a scale to negatively impact ecosystem services such as hydropower generation and crop productivity.

  12. A taxonomic review of white grubs and leaf chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) recorded from forestry and agricultural crops in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J du G; Wingfield, M J

    2016-04-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is difficult to implement when one knows little about the pest complex or species causing the damage in an agricultural system. To implement IPM on Sub-Saharan African melolonthine pests access to taxon specific knowledge (their identity) and what is known (their biology) of potential pest species is a crucial step. What is known about Sub-Saharan African melolonthine white grubs and chafers has not yet been amalgamated, and this review thus synthesizes all available literature for the Region. The comprehensive nature of the review highlights pest taxon trends within African melolonthines. To facilitate the retrieval of this information for IPM purposes, all relevant taxonomic and biological information is provided for the taxa covered including an on-line supplementary annotated-checklist of taxon, crop, locality and reference(s). Based on the literature reviewed, recommendations are made to promote effective and efficient management of African melolonthine scarab pests. An on-line supplementary appendix provides a list of specialists, useful internet resources, keys, catalogues and sampling methods for the larvae and adults of melolonthine scarab beetles for subsequent morphological or molecular work. PMID:26373377

  13. Remote sensing in Iowa agriculture: Identification and classification of Iowa's crops, soils and forestry resources using ERTS-1 and complimentary underflight imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahlstede, J. P. (Principal Investigator); Carlson, R. E.; Fenton, T. E.; Thomson, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Springtime ERTS-1 imagery covering pre-selected test sites in Iowa showed considerable detail with respect to broad soil and land use patterns. Additional imagery has been incorporated into a state mosaic. The mosaic was used as a base for soil association lines transferred from an existing map. The regions of greatest contrast are between the Clarion-Nicollet-Webster soil association area and adjacent areas. Landscape characteristics in this area result in land use patterns with a high percentage of pasture, hay, and timber. The soil association areas of the state that have patterns interpreted to be associated with intensive row crop production are: Moody, Galva-Primghar-Sac, Clarion-Nicollet-Webter, Tama-Muscatine, Dinsdale-Tama, Cresco-Lourdes, Clyde, Kenyon-Floyd-Clyde, and the Luton-Onawa-Salix area on the Missouri River floodplain. Forestland estimates have been attained for an area in central Iowa using wintertime ERTS-1 imagery. Visual analysis of multispectral, temporal imagery indicates that temporal analysis for cropland identification and acreage analyses procedures may be a very useful tool. Combinations of wintertime, springtime, and summertime ERTS-1 imagery separate most vegetation types. Timing can be critical depending upon crop development and harvesting times because of the dynamic nature of agricultural production.

  14. Modelling crop canopy and residue rainfall interception effects on soil hydrological components for semi-arid agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, Joseph A.; Ahuja, Lajpat R.; Green, Timothy R.; Ma, Liwang

    2007-01-01

    Crop canopies and residues have been shown to intercept a significant amount of rainfall. However, rainfall or irrigation interception by crops and residues has often been overlooked in hydrologic modelling. Crop canopy interception is controlled by canopy density and rainfall intensity and duration. Crop residue interception is a function of crop residue type, residue density and cover, and rainfall intensity and duration. We account for these controlling factors and present a model for both interception components based on Merriam's approach. The modified Merriam model and the current modelling approaches were examined and compared with two field studies and one laboratory study. The Merriam model is shown to agree well with measurements and was implemented within the Agricultural Research Service's Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM). Using this enhanced version of RZWQM, three simulation studies were performed to examine the quantitative effects of rainfall interception by corn and wheat canopies and residues on soil hydrological components. Study I consisted of 10 separate hypothetical growing seasons (1991-2000) for canopy effects and 10 separate non-growing seasons (1991-2000) for residue effects for eastern Colorado conditions. For actual management practices in a no-till wheat-corn-fallow cropping sequence at Akron, Colorado (study II), a continuous 10-year RZWQM simulation was performed to examine the cumulative changes on water balance components and crop growth caused by canopy and residue rainfall interception. Finally, to examine a higher precipitation environment, a hypothetical, no-till wheat-corn-fallow rotation scenario at Corvallis, Oregon, was simulated (study III). For all studies, interception was shown to decrease infiltration, runoff, evapotranspiration from soil, deep seepage of water and chemical transport, macropore flow, leaf area index, and crop/grain yield. Because interception decreased both infiltration and soil evapotranspiration

  15. Hydrological and erosion behaviour in two experimental agricultural watersheds in the centre of Navarra (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalí, J.; Gastesi, R.; Álvarez-Mozos, J.; Del Valle de Lersundi, J.; Giménez, R.; Díez, J.; Goñi, M.; Agirre, U.; Campo, M. A.; López, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    Two experimental watersheds, La Tejería and Latxaga, located in the central area of Navarra and maintained by the regional government, were monitored for 12 years (1996-2008) with the aim of assessing their hydrological and erosion behaviour, as well as the quality of their water. In this work, an extensive and detailed analysis has been made of these aspects on different time scales, from annual to per ten minutes, or per rain event. Both watersheds have a similar surface coverage (approx. 200 ha), geology, soils, climate (a Mediterranean one with a mean annual temperature and precipitation of around 13° and 750 mm, respectively), and land use (cereal growing). However, their sediment production records are very different. For instance, the total sediment evacuated in La Tejería ranged between 390 Kg ha-1 (2000/01) and 5,609 Kg ha-1 (1996/97), whereas in Latxaga it only varied between 48 Kg ha-1 (2002/03) and 1,386 Kg ha-1 (2006/07). Simulations made with the EUROSEM model led to the assumption that this notable contrast in sediment production was mainly due to the different general shape of the watersheds, along with the unequal relief predominant in each of them. In another direction, the largest amount of sediment was recorded during the winter, as, in that season, the soil is usually bare and contains a high degree of moisture. The mean annual sediment discharge in La Tejería was of 1,342.27±2,390.39 Kg ha-1, with 84% of the total annual sediment being accumulated in wintertime. This figure was, again, much more modest in Latxaga: 444.94±436.15 Kg ha-1 and 61% of the total annual sediment. With regard to water quality, the nitrate concentration values were also disparate in both watersheds. In Latxaga, the nitrate concentration was of 31.22 ± 26.98 mg NO3 l-1, namely, below human consumption tolerance and environmental values (50 mg NO3 l-1). Conversely, in La Tejería, this concentration was notably higher, 93.89 ± 26.98 mg NO3 l-1, thus, continuously

  16. Effects of agricultural conservation practices on the hydrology of Corey Creek basin, Pennsylvania, 1954-60

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin L.

    1966-01-01

    Analyses of data collected from two small basins in northern Pennsylvania during the period May 1954 to September 1960 indicated that changes in land use and land treatment have affected suspended- sediment discharge from the basins. Extensive land use and land-treatment changes have taken place in the 12.2-square-mile Corey Creek study basin, whereas such changes in the 10.2-square-mile Elk Run basin, which is adjacent to the northeast, have been relatively slight. Elk Run basin, which is topographically and hydrologically similar to Corey Creek basin, was used as an external control for the Corey Creek basin study. Multiple-regression analysis showed that of all the variables, runoff correlated most highly with the sediment yield of each basin. Surveys at selected cross-sections of the two streams indicated that most channel changes were in the banks rather than in the bed. At points where the stream channel slope was greater than 70 feet per mile, the average annual change in cross-sectional area at the measured ranges was less than +--2.5 square feet. Filling of the stream channel occurred where the slope was 70 feet per mile or less, and such filling was greater in Corey Creek than in Elk Run. Trend analyses of data from both basins indicated no persistent changers in quantity of runoff, precipitation, or runoff intensity (peakedness), although similar analyses indicated significant changes in the rate of suspended-sediment discharge from both basins. During the period September 1957 to September 1960, sediment discharge from Corey Creek basin decreased by 11 percent relative to the sediment discharge from Elk Run. All, or most, of this decrease was the result of a decrease in sediment discharge during the May to October growing seasons. No significant trends were detected in data collected d-ring the November to April dormant season. A factor, termed the relative erosion potential, was formulated for evaluating the effects of changes in the hydrologic cover

  17. Response of current phosphorus mitigation measures across the nutrient transfer continuum in two hydrological contrasting agricultural catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Noeleen; Shore, Mairead; Mellander, Per-Erik; Shortle, Ger; Jordan, Phil

    2015-04-01

    Effective assessment of National Action Programme (NAP) measures introduced under the EU Nitrates Directive (ND), to manage nutrient use and risk of loss to waters from agriculture, is best achieved when examined across the nutrient transfer continuum at catchment scale. The Irish NAP measures are implemented on a whole-territory basis for both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), with P being the key trophic pressure. The aim of this research was to observe the efficacy of P regulation measures and P source management across the transfer continuum and resultant water quality status (i.e. source to impact), in two contrasting agricultural catchments over a four year period. The catchments are ca. 11 km2 and are located in the south-east of Ireland. One is well-drained and arable dominated, while the other is mostly poorly-drained and grassland dominated. In 2009 and 2013 soil surveys for plant-available P were carried out (<2 ha sample areas) in both catchments. Concurrently, high temporal resolution monitoring of water discharge and P concentration was conducted at each catchment outlet across four hydrological years (April to March). Ecological impact surveys were carried out at four sites within each catchment in May and September across the observed four year period (2009-2013). Importantly, the proportion of farmland with excessive soil P concentrations decreased in both the arable (20% to 11.8%) and grassland catchments (5.9 to 3.6%). However, soil P concentrations also declined critically in both catchments, as proportional areas below the national crop agronomic optimum thresholds (grassland; <5 mg P l-1, arable; <6 mg P l-1) increased from 57% to 68% in the arable catchment and 75% to 87% in the grassland catchment. This decline in plant available P strongly indicates a reduced or sustained level of P inputs in both catchments. Indications of responses to soil P change in the surface waters of these catchments appeared to be highly influenced by their

  18. Nitrogen transport within an agricultural landscape: insights on how hydrology, biogeochemistry, and the landscape intersect to control the fate and transport of nitrogen in the Mississippi Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kröger, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a ubiquitous contaminant throughout agricultural landscapes due to both the application of inorganic and organic fertilizers to agricultural fields and the general persistence of nitrate (NO3 ) in oxygenated aqueous environments (Denver et al. 2010; Domagalski et al. 2008; Green et al. 2008; Coupe 2001; Nolan and Stoner 2000). In order to understand why excess N occurs various hydrologic systems (environments), it is important to consider potential sources, the locations of these sources in the watershed, and the timing of the application of sources with respect to the movement of water. To learn how to manage N in a watershed, it is necessary to identify and quantify flow paths and biogeochemical conditions, which ultimately combine to determine transport and fate. If sources, transport mechanisms, and biogeochemical controls were uniformly distributed, it would be possible to manage N uniformly throughout a watershed. However, uniform conditions are rare to nonexistent in the natural world and in the landscape altered for agricultural production. In order to adjust management activities on the landscape to have the greatest effect, it is important to understand the fate and transport N within the intersection of hydrology and biogeochemistry, that is, to understand the extent and duration of the hydrologic and biogeochemical controls as N is routed through and among each hydrologic compartment.

  19. Linking Groundwater Nitrate-N Concentrations to Management and Hydrological Changes in two Agricultural Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Melland, Alice R.; Jordan, Philip; Murphy, Paul N. C.; Shortle, Ger

    2013-04-01

    In order to minimize Nitrogen (N) transfer from groundwater to surface water in agricultural river catchments it is useful to understand how those transfer pathways may vary over time and space, and thus in their connection to nutrient sources and potential effects of temporal changes in water recharge and land management. In this paper we investigate the links between N sources, groundwater and surface water, as well as the implication of spatiotemporal variability for mitigation measures. We present three years of N concentrations in stream water (sub-hourly) and in groundwater (monthly) of different strata in four hillslopes in two ca 10 km2 Irish agricultural catchments with permeable soils. One catchment with arable land overlying slate bedrock and the other with intensively managed grassland on sandstone. Both catchments were dominated by delayed nutrient transfer pathways via groundwater. Relatively high concentrations of N were found in the groundwater of both catchments, attributed to leaching of surplus soil nitrate-N. The Grassland/sandstone catchment had locally higher nitrate-N concentrations in the groundwater with more spatiotemporal variability than in the groundwater of the Arable/Slate catchment. The N concentrations in the stream water of the Arable/Slate catchment were more directly reflected by groundwater conditions. In one hillslope the effects of pasture reseeding were observed by locally elevated N concentrations in the groundwater with a delay of ca five months. This was not reflected in the surface water despite groundwater dominating the contribution to stream water. In another hillslope N was naturally buffered in the near-stream zone, but this zone was bypassed with high nitrate-N content water from the uplands via tile-drains. The apparent spatiotemporal variability in N concentration highlights the need for insight into these differences when interpreting groundwater quality data from a limited number of sampling points and occasions

  20. A conjunctive use hydrologic model for a semi-arid region with irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruud, N. C.; Harter, T.

    2003-04-01

    A GIS-based sub-basin scale conjunctive use (CU) model is developed for a semi-arid agricultural area in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California. The study area is 2230 square kilometers, and consists of 9114 individual landuse units and 26 water service districts. The CU model consists of three sub-models: 1) a surface water supply (SWS) model, 2) an unsaturated zone water budget (UZWB) model, and 3) a groundwater flow model. The study period is 1970-99. For each modeled surface water channel, the SWS model computes monthly surface water deliveries to each district and conveyance losses due to evaporation and seepage. The UZWB model then calculates the monthly water storage changes in the soil root zone and deep vadose zone of each landuse unit. The UZWB model is driven by surface water applications, precipitation, and crop consumptive use (evapotranspiration) demands. Its outputs are the recharge to the unconfined aquifer and the groundwater pumping demand from the unconfined and confined aquifers. The transient recharge and pumping rates become input for the groundwater flow model which calculates changes in unconfined aquifer water levels and inter-district groundwater fluxes. The groundwater flow model was calibrated against data from 1970-85 and validated with data from 1986-99. From 1970-99, a total of 18500 million cubic meters (MCM) of surface water was applied to land units in the study area. Precipitation added from 219 MCM (1990) to 1200 MCM (1998) annually. The combined total annual agricultural and urban consumptive use ranged from 1070 MCM in 1970 to 1540 MCM in 1999. Total annual channel seepage varied over almost two orders of magnitude from a low of 10 MCM in 1977 to 576 MCM in 1983. Diffuse recharge from surface applied water ranged from 79.9 MCM in 1992 to 432 MCM in 1983. The estimated total pumping ranged from 183 MCM in 1978 to 703 MCM in 1990. As expected, pumping was heaviest during the droughts of 1975-77 and 1987-92, and lightest

  1. Simulating Irrigation Requirements And Water Withdrawals: The Role Of Agricultural Irrigation In Basin Hydrology And Non-Sustainable Water Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisser, D.; Douglas, E. M.; Schumann, A. H.; Vörösmarty, C. J.

    2006-05-01

    The development of irrigation can cause drastic alterations of the water cycle both through changed evaporation patterns, water abstractions, and (in the case of paddy rice), increased percolation rates. The interactions of irrigation development and large-scale water cycles have traditionally not been accounted for in macroscale hydrological models. We use a modified version an existing water balance model (the WBM model) to explicitly consider the effects of irrigation on regional and continental water cycles. The irrigation module is based on the FAO-CROPWAT approach and uses a daily soil moisture balance to simulate crop consumptive water use. Time series of irrigated areas and the distribution of crops and cropping patterns are derived from a combination of remotely sensed data and national and sub-national statistics. An assessment is made of (1) how irrigation water is supplied and (2) how much of this water is abstracted in excess of the renewable water supply in the basin considering different time horizons. Using different scenarios of water availability and irrigation water demand, the response of irrigation water use to water supply and the potential threats to food security are investigated. Case studies in a few river basins that are heavily influenced by irrigated agriculture and that represent different regions of the world will be presented.

  2. Forestry in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Dykstra, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Forest types and plantations, and associated forest industries are described. Forests occupy 47% of the total land area, mostly open miombo woodland dominated by Julbernardia and Brachystegia, with small areas of tropical high forest, mangroves and plantations. About 97% of the total roundwood consumed is used as fuelwood or for charcoal. Early results from village forestry programmes (partially financed by SIDA), the less successful communal village plantations, and agroforestry practices are described briefly. Education, training and the importance of wildlife are discussed.

  3. Assessing irrigated agriculture's surface water and groundwater consumption by combining satellite remote sensing and hydrologic modelling.

    PubMed

    Peña-Arancibia, Jorge L; Mainuddin, Mohammed; Kirby, John M; Chiew, Francis H S; McVicar, Tim R; Vaze, Jai

    2016-01-15

    Globally, irrigation accounts for more than two thirds of freshwater demand. Recent regional and global assessments indicate that groundwater extraction (GWE) for irrigation has increased more rapidly than surface water extraction (SWE), potentially resulting in groundwater depletion. Irrigated agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions is usually from a combination of stored surface water and groundwater. This paper assesses the usefulness of remotely-sensed (RS) derived information on both irrigation dynamics and rates of actual evapotranspiration which are both input to a river-reach water balance model in order to quantify irrigation water use and water provenance (either surface water or groundwater). The assessment is implemented for the water-years 2004/05-2010/11 in five reaches of the Murray-Darling Basin (Australia); a heavily regulated basin with large irrigated areas and periodic droughts and floods. Irrigated area and water use are identified each water-year (from July to June) through a Random Forest model which uses RS vegetation phenology and actual evapotranspiration as predicting variables. Both irrigated areas and actual evapotranspiration from irrigated areas were compared against published estimates of irrigated areas and total water extraction (SWE+GWE).The river-reach model determines the irrigated area that can be serviced with stored surface water (SWE), and the remainder area (as determined by the Random Forest Model) is assumed to be supplemented by groundwater (GWE). Model results were evaluated against observed SWE and GWE. The modelled SWE generally captures the observed interannual patterns and to some extent the magnitudes, with Pearson's correlation coefficients >0.8 and normalised root-mean-square-error<30%. In terms of magnitude, the results were as accurate as or better than those of more traditional (i.e., using areas that fluctuate based on water resource availability and prescribed crop factors) irrigation modelling. The RS

  4. Soil hydrological and soil property changes resulting from termite activity on agricultural fields in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettrop, I.; Cammeraat, L. H.; Verbeeten, E.

    2009-04-01

    Termites are important ecosystem-engineers in subtropical and tropical regions. The effect of termite activity affecting soil infiltration is well documented in the Sahelian region. Most studies find increased infiltration rates on surfaces that are affected by termite activity in comparison to crusted areas showing non-termite presence. Crusted agricultural fields in the Sanmatenga region in Burkina Faso with clear termite activity were compared to control fields without visual ground dwelling termite activity. Fine scale rainfall simulations were carried out on crusted termite affected and control sites. Furthermore soil moisture change, bulk density, soil organic matter as well as general soil characteristics were studied. The top soils in the study area were strongly crusted (structural crust) after the summer rainfall and harvest of millet. They have a loamy sand texture underlain by a shallow sandy loam Bt horizon. The initial soil moisture conditions were significantly higher on the termite plots when compared to control sites. It was found that the amount of runoff produced on the termite plots was significantly higher, and also the volumetric soil moisture content after the experiments was significantly lower if compared to the control plots. Bulk density showed no difference whereas soil organic matter was significantly higher under termite affected areas, in comparison to the control plots. Lab tests showed no significant difference in hydrophobic behavior of the topsoil and crust material. Micro and macro-structural properties of the topsoil did not differ significantly between the termite sites and the control sites. The texture of the top 5 cm of the soil was also found to be not significantly different. The infiltration results are contradictory to the general literature, which reports increased infiltration rates after prolonged termite activity although mostly under different initial conditions. The number of nest entrances was clearly higher in

  5. CLEAN FUELS FROM AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an experimental investigation of the operating parameters for a mobile waste conversion system based on the Georgia Tech Engineering Experiment Station's partial oxidation pyrolysis process. The object of the testing was to determine the combination of...

  6. Agricultural Occupations Programs Planning Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A set of program planning guides that include seven areas (1) Agricultural Production, (2) Agricultural Supplies and Services, (3) Agricultural Mechanics, (4) Agricultural Products, (5) Ornamental Horticulture, (6) Agricultural Resources, and (7) Forestry, were developed and introduced to high school applied biological and agricultural occupations…

  7. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  8. Impacts of land use and climate variability on hydrology in an agricultural catchment on the Loess Plateau of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use and climate are the two major factors directly influencing catchment hydrology; however, it is difficult to separate the effects of the two. Using the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tools) model, we assessed the impacts of land use change and climate variability on surface hydrology (runof...

  9. School Pesticide Provision to H.R. 1. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Department Operations, Oversight, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This document is comprised of statements and materials submitted to a hearing on the school pesticide provision included in a Senate amendment to House Resolution 1 (H.R. 1), the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The hearing was held July 18, 2001, before the Subcommittee on Department Operations, Oversight, Nutrition, and Forestry of the…

  10. Forestry and Wood Technology. Curriculum Guide for Agriscience 383.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This guide outlines the topics of instruction and goals/objectives of a semester-long half-unit laboratory course in forestry and wood technology (Agriscience 383) that is designed for students part of Texas' agricultural science and technology program for students in grades 10-12. Presented first are lists of the following: essential elements…

  11. Living with trees. Policies for forestry management in Zimbabwe

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.P.; McNamara, K.

    1993-09-01

    This technical paper provides a broad analysis of forestry policy in Zimbabwe. Some two dozen contributors look at forestry as a provider of livelihood, homes and workplaces, and industrial commodities. The first section of the paper concentrates on the social and macroeconomic goals of forestry in Zimbabwe and on its place in rural agriculture. Contributors examine the issues of land tenure and the culture of common property, the practice of woodland management, and control of and participation in management and policy development. The second section focuses on the status of the forest industry in Zimbabwe and on its capacity to manage and expand existing commercial plantations. The paper explores the main issues the sector faces, including growing concentration of ownership versus the government`s objective of wider participation in the industry. They discuss the effects of trade liberalization on its competitive position, both among other agricultural sectors within Zimbabwe and with competitors outside the country. Included is a color map of Zimbabwe`s woodlands. Many forestry programs worldwide face the issues discussed in this work. It will be of interest to planners, policymakers, teachers, and students of rural development and forestry.

  12. The hydrological role of 'sunken lanes'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boardman, John

    2013-04-01

    The hydrological role of 'sunken lanes' Sunken lanes are found in many parts of southern England and have also been described in Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Spain and the USA. They are associated with soft rock and long histories of vehicular and animal movements. They form important features of the cultural and physical landscape. Although most are probably Medieval in origin, some maydate back to the Iron Age. Little attention has been paid to their function as conduits for runoff, sediment and pollutants from areas of forestry and agriculture to the watercourses in valley bottoms. In the Midhurst area of West Sussex, southern England, they are important routes for eroded sediments particularly during extreme rainfall events as occurred in the autumns of 2000 and 2006. This led to the flooding of property, disruption of minor roads and the pollution of the Western Rother river, an important fish habitat.

  13. Vineyard weeds control practices impact on surface water transfers: using numerical tracer experiment coupled to a distributed hydrological model to manage agricultural practices spatial arrangements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, F.; Moussa, R.

    2009-04-01

    In rural basins, agricultural landscape management highly influences water and pollutants transfers. Landuse, agricultural practices and their spatial arrangements are at issue. Hydrological model are widely used to explore impacts of anthropogenic influences on experimental catchments. But planning all spatial arrangements leads to a possible cases count which cannot be considered. On the basis of the recent « numerical experiment » approach, we propose a « numerical tracer function » which had to be coupled to a distributed rainfall-runoff model. This function simulate the transfer of a virtual tracer successively spread on each distributed unit inside the catchment. It allows to rank hydrological spatial units according to their hydrological contribution to the surface flows, particularly at the catchment outlet. It was used with the distributed model MHYDAS in an agricultural context. The case study concerns the experimental Roujan vine-growing catchment (1km², south of France) studied since 1992. In this Mediterranean context, we focus on the soil hydraulic conductivity distributed parameter because it highly depends on weed control practices (chemical weeding induces a lot more runoff than mechanical weeding). We checked model sensitivity analysis to soil hydraulic conductivity spatial arrangement on runoff coefficient, peak discharge and catchment lag-time. Results show (i) the use of the tracer function is more efficient than a random approach to improve sensitivity to spatial arrangements from point of view of simulated discharge range, (ii) the first factor explaining hydrological simulations variability was practices area ratio, (iii) variability induced by practices spatial arrangements was significant on runoff coefficient and peak discharge for balanced practices area ratio and on lag-time for low area ratio of chemical weeding practices. From the actual situation on the experimental Roujan catchment (40% of tilled and 60% of non tilled vineyard

  14. Consulting Foresters' View of Professional Forestry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straka, Thomas J.; Childers, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    Consulting forestry is an attractive professional specialization and expanding employment opportunities have made it a popular option for forestry students. Association of Consulting Foresters members were asked to rank the importance of the traditional forestry and other courses in the standard accredited forestry curriculum, where additional…

  15. Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands: a synthesis of methylmercury production, hydrologic export, and bioaccumulation from an integrated field study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Fleck, Jacob A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heim, Wesley A.; Bachand, Philip A.M.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Gill, Gary; Stephenson, Mark; Alpers, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    With seasonal wetting and drying, and high biological productivity, agricultural wetlands (rice paddies) may enhance the conversion of inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) to methylmercury (MeHg), the more toxic, organic form that biomagnifies through food webs. Yet, the net balance of MeHg sources and sinks in seasonal wetland environments is poorly understood because it requires an annual, integrated assessment across biota, sediment, and water components. We examined a suite of wetlands managed for rice crops or wildlife during 2007–2008 in California's Central Valley, in an area affected by Hg contamination from historic mining practices. Hydrologic management of agricultural wetlands for rice, wild rice, or fallowed — drying for field preparation and harvest, and flooding for crop growth and post-harvest rice straw decay — led to pronounced seasonality in sediment and aqueous MeHg concentrations that were up to 95-fold higher than those measured concurrently in adjacent, non-agricultural permanently-flooded and seasonally-flooded wetlands. Flooding promoted microbial MeHg production in surface sediment of all wetlands, but extended water residence time appeared to preferentially enhance MeHg degradation and storage. When incoming MeHg loads were elevated, individual fields often served as a MeHg sink, rather than a source. Slow, horizontal flow of shallow water in the agricultural wetlands led to increased importance of vertical hydrologic fluxes, including evapoconcentration of surface water MeHg and transpiration-driven advection into the root zone, promoting temporary soil storage of MeHg. Although this hydrology limited MeHg export from wetlands, it also increased MeHg exposure to resident fish via greater in situ aqueous MeHg concentrations. Our results suggest that the combined traits of agricultural wetlands — slow-moving shallow water, manipulated flooding and drying, abundant labile plant matter, and management for wildlife — may enhance microbial

  16. Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands: a synthesis of methylmercury production, hydrologic export, and bioaccumulation from an integrated field study.

    PubMed

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Fleck, Jacob A; Ackerman, Joshua T; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Stricker, Craig A; Heim, Wesley A; Bachand, Philip A M; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Gill, Gary; Stephenson, Mark; Alpers, Charles N

    2014-06-15

    With seasonal wetting and drying, and high biological productivity, agricultural wetlands (rice paddies) may enhance the conversion of inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) to methylmercury (MeHg), the more toxic, organic form that biomagnifies through food webs. Yet, the net balance of MeHg sources and sinks in seasonal wetland environments is poorly understood because it requires an annual, integrated assessment across biota, sediment, and water components. We examined a suite of wetlands managed for rice crops or wildlife during 2007-2008 in California's Central Valley, in an area affected by Hg contamination from historic mining practices. Hydrologic management of agricultural wetlands for rice, wild rice, or fallowed - drying for field preparation and harvest, and flooding for crop growth and post-harvest rice straw decay - led to pronounced seasonality in sediment and aqueous MeHg concentrations that were up to 95-fold higher than those measured concurrently in adjacent, non-agricultural permanently-flooded and seasonally-flooded wetlands. Flooding promoted microbial MeHg production in surface sediment of all wetlands, but extended water residence time appeared to preferentially enhance MeHg degradation and storage. When incoming MeHg loads were elevated, individual fields often served as a MeHg sink, rather than a source. Slow, horizontal flow of shallow water in the agricultural wetlands led to increased importance of vertical hydrologic fluxes, including evapoconcentration of surface water MeHg and transpiration-driven advection into the root zone, promoting temporary soil storage of MeHg. Although this hydrology limited MeHg export from wetlands, it also increased MeHg exposure to resident fish via greater in situ aqueous MeHg concentrations. Our results suggest that the combined traits of agricultural wetlands - slow-moving shallow water, manipulated flooding and drying, abundant labile plant matter, and management for wildlife - may enhance microbial methylation

  17. Climate change impacts on forestry

    PubMed Central

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Sedjo, Roger A.

    2007-01-01

    Changing temperature and precipitation pattern and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are likely to drive significant modifications in natural and modified forests. Our review is focused on recent publications that discuss the changes in commercial forestry, excluding the ecosystem functions of forests and nontimber forest products. We concentrate on potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change on forest industry, the projections of future trends in commercial forestry, the possible role of biofuels, and changes in supply and demand. PMID:18077403

  18. Climate change impacts on forestry

    SciTech Connect

    Kirilenko, A.P.; Sedjo, R.A.

    2007-12-11

    Changing temperature and precipitation pattern and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} are likely to drive significant modifications in natural and modified forests. The authors' review is focused on recent publications that discuss the changes in commercial forestry, excluding the ecosystem functions of forests and nontimber forest products. They concentrate on potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change on forest industry, the projections of future trends in commercial forestry, the possible role of biofuels, and changes in supply and demand.

  19. Quantification of the impact of hydrology on agricultural production as a result of too dry, too wet or too saline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack-ten Broeke, Mirjam J. D.; Kroes, Joop G.; Bartholomeus, Ruud P.; van Dam, Jos C.; de Wit, Allard J. W.; Supit, Iwan; Walvoort, Dennis J. J.; van Bakel, P. Jan T.; Ruijtenberg, Rob

    2016-08-01

    For calculating the effects of hydrological measures on agricultural production in the Netherlands a new comprehensive and climate proof method is being developed: WaterVision Agriculture (in Dutch: Waterwijzer Landbouw). End users have asked for a method that considers current and future climate, that can quantify the differences between years and also the effects of extreme weather events. Furthermore they would like a method that considers current farm management and that can distinguish three different causes of crop yield reduction: drought, saline conditions or too wet conditions causing oxygen shortage in the root zone. WaterVision Agriculture is based on the hydrological simulation model SWAP and the crop growth model WOFOST. SWAP simulates water transport in the unsaturated zone using meteorological data, boundary conditions (like groundwater level or drainage) and soil parameters. WOFOST simulates crop growth as a function of meteorological conditions and crop parameters. Using the combination of these process-based models we have derived a meta-model, i.e. a set of easily applicable simplified relations for assessing crop growth as a function of soil type and groundwater level. These relations are based on multiple model runs for at least 72 soil units and the possible groundwater regimes in the Netherlands. So far, we parameterized the model for the crops silage maize and grassland. For the assessment, the soil characteristics (soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity) are very important input parameters for all soil layers of these 72 soil units. These 72 soil units cover all soils in the Netherlands. This paper describes (i) the setup and examples of application of the process-based model SWAP-WOFOST, (ii) the development of the simplified relations based on this model and (iii) how WaterVision Agriculture can be used by farmers, regional government, water boards and others to assess crop yield reduction as a function of groundwater

  20. Climate Change Impact on the Hydrology and Water Quality of a Small Partially-Irrigated Agricultural Lowland Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, A.; Kroes, J.; van Vliet, M. T.; Blenkinsop, S.; Broers, H.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential effects of climate change on the hydrology of the small partially-irrigated agricultural lowland catchment of the Keersop, in south of the Netherlands, as well as the transport of a pre-existing spatially extensive trace metal contamination. The area surrounding the Keersop has been contaminated with heavy metals by the atmospheric emissions of four zinc ore smelters. This heavy metal contamination, with Cd and Zn for example, has accumulated in the topsoil and leaches towards the surface water system, especially during periods with high groundwater levels and high discharge rates. Daily time-series of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration were derived from the results of eight regional climate model experiments under the SRES A2 emissions scenario. They each span 100 years and are representative for the periods 1961-1990 (“baseline climate”) and 2071-2100 (“future climate”). The time-series of future climate were characterized by lower precipitation (-1% to -12%) and higher air temperatures (between 2°C and 5°C), and as a result higher potential evapotranspiration, especially in summer. The time-series were used to drive the quasi-2D unsaturated-saturated zone model (SWAP) of the Keersop catchment (43 km2). The model consisted of an ensemble of 686 1D models, each of which represented a 250x250 m area within the catchment. Simulation results for the future climate scenarios show a shift in the water balance of the catchment. The decrease in annual rainfall is nearly compensated by an increase in irrigation in the catchment, if present day irrigation rules are followed. On the other hand, both evaporation and transpiration fluxes increase. This increase is compensated by a decrease in the drainage flux and groundwater recharge. As a result, groundwater levels decline and the annual discharge of the Keersop stream decreases under all future climate scenarios, by 26% to 46%. Because Cd and Zn

  1. Parameterization of Natural Depressions in Distributed Hydrologic Models: Implications for Scaling up Predictions of Sediment and Nutrient Yields in Ungauged Agricultural Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, H.; Mackay, S.; Cabot, P. E.; Karthikeyan, K.

    2005-12-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are widely used in distributed hydrologic modeling. In general, interior depressions within catchments are viewed as errors in the DEM, even though they are hydrologically significant features. Natural depressions in catchments are capable of trapping surface runoff and associated sediment, but they are difficult to identify and represent, especially in ungauged basins. We examined the errors associated with the removal of such depressions on predictions from hydrologic models, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX). Automated water and sediment samplers were installed in the outlets of three natural depressions in a small catchment in the North Fork of Pheasant Branch watershed in Dane County, Wisconsin, to collect surface runoff and sediment yields for the period 2003-2004. The data showed that when daily precipitation is over 26 mm, surface runoff with suspended sediment overtops the depressions. SWAT and APEX were calibrated to this data to examine the influence of nested depressions on sediment yields. The hypothesis addressed in this study is: sediment transport parameters can be used as proxies for the functioning of surface depression and to obtain the correct sediment response. The alternative is to explicitly prescribe depressions as reservoirs with more geometric details of depressions if the hypothesis failed. Initial model results showed that the adjustment of sediment transport parameters mimics the response of the depressions and significantly reduces sediment yields. Implications of a simple proxy of sediment deposition for scaling to larger, ungauged basins will be discussed.

  2. Comparison of Hydrologic and Water-Quality Characteristics of Two Native Tallgrass Prairie Streams with Agricultural Streams in Missouri and Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimann, David C.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, to analyze and compare hydrologic and water-quality characteristics of tallgrass prairie and agricultural basins located within the historical distribution of tallgrass prairie in Missouri and Kansas. Streamflow and water-quality data from two remnant, tallgrass prairie basins (East Drywood Creek at Prairie State Park, Missouri, and Kings Creek near Manhattan, Kansas) were compared to similar data from agricultural basins in Missouri and Kansas. Prairie streams, especially Kings Creek in eastern Kansas, received a higher percentage of base flow and a lower percentage of direct runoff than similar-sized agricultural streams in the region. A larger contribution of direct runoff from the agricultural streams made them much flashier than prairie streams. During 22 years of record, the Kings Creek base-flow component averaged 66 percent of total flow, but base flow was only 16 to 26 percent of flows at agricultural sites of various record periods. The large base-flow component likely is the result of greater infiltration of precipitation in prairie soils and the resulting greater contribution of groundwater to streamflow. The 1- and 3-day annual maximum flows were significantly greater at three agricultural sites than at Kings Creek. The effects of flashier agricultural streams on native aquatic biota are unknown, but may be an important factor in the sustainability of some native aquatic species. There were no significant differences in the distribution of dissolved-oxygen concentrations at prairie and agricultural sites, and some samples from most sites fell below the 5 milligrams per liter Missouri and Kansas standard for the protection of aquatic life. More than 10 percent of samples from the East Drywood Creek prairie stream were less than this standard. These data indicate low dissolved-oxygen concentrations during summer low

  3. Using generalized additive mixed models to assess spatial, temporal, and hydrologic controls on bacteria and nitrate in a vulnerable agricultural aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, Andrea F. P.; Cey, Edwin E.

    2015-11-01

    The Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer (ASA) has a history of nitrate contamination from agricultural land use and manure application to soils, yet little is known about its microbial groundwater quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of pathogen indicators (Escherichia coli [E. coli] and total coliform [TC]) and nitrate in groundwater, and their potential relation to hydrologic drivers. Sampling of 46 wells over an 11-month period confirmed elevated nitrate concentrations, with more than 50% of samples exceeding 10 mg-N/L. E. coli detections in groundwater were infrequent (4 of 385 total samples) and attributed mainly to surface water-groundwater connections along Fishtrap Creek, which tested positive for E. coli in every sampling event. TC was detected frequently in groundwater (70% of samples) across the ASA. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) yielded valuable insights into relationships between TC or nitrate and a range of spatial, temporal, and hydrologic explanatory variables. Increased TC values over the wetter fall and winter period were most strongly related to groundwater temperatures and levels, while precipitation and well location were weaker (but still significant) predictors. In contrast, the moderate temporal variability in nitrate concentrations was not significantly related to hydrologic forcings. TC was relatively widespread across the ASA and spatial patterns could not be attributed solely to surface water connectivity. Varying nitrate concentrations across the ASA were significantly related to both well location and depth, likely due to spatially variable nitrogen loading and localized geochemical attenuation (i.e., denitrification). Vulnerability of the ASA to bacteria was clearly linked to hydrologic conditions, and was distinct from nitrate, such that a groundwater management strategy specifically for bacterial contaminants is warranted.

  4. Socio-hydrologic modeling to understand and mediate the competition for water between agriculture development and environmental health: Murrumbidgee River Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Emmerik, T. H. M.; Li, Z.; Sivapalan, M.; Pande, S.; Kandasamy, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Chanan, A.; Vigneswaran, S.

    2014-03-01

    Competition for water between humans and ecosystems is set to become a flash point in the coming decades in many parts of the world. An entirely new and comprehensive quantitative framework is needed to establish a holistic understanding of that competition, thereby enabling the development of effective mediation strategies. This paper presents a modeling study centered on the Murrumbidgee River Basin (MRB). The MRB has witnessed a unique system dynamics over the last 100 years as a result of interactions between patterns of water management and climate driven hydrological variability. Data analysis has revealed a pendulum swing between agricultural development and restoration of environmental health and ecosystem services over different stages of basin scale water resource development. A parsimonious, stylized, quasi-distributed coupled socio-hydrologic system model that simulates the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems of the MRB is used to mimic dominant features of the pendulum swing. The model consists of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations that describe the interaction between five state variables that govern the co-evolution: reservoir storage, irrigated area, human population, ecosystem health, and a measure of environmental awareness. The model simulations track the propagation of the external climatic and socio-economic drivers through this coupled, complex system to the emergence of the pendulum swing. The model results point to a competition between human "productive" and environmental "restorative" forces that underpin the pendulum swing. Both the forces are endogenous, i.e., generated by the system dynamics in response to external drivers and mediated by humans through technology change and environmental awareness, respectively. We propose this as a generalizable modeling framework for coupled human hydrological systems that is potentially transferable to systems in different climatic and socio-economic settings.

  5. Using generalized additive mixed models to assess spatial, temporal, and hydrologic controls on bacteria and nitrate in a vulnerable agricultural aquifer.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Andrea F P; Cey, Edwin E

    2015-11-01

    The Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer (ASA) has a history of nitrate contamination from agricultural land use and manure application to soils, yet little is known about its microbial groundwater quality. The goal of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of pathogen indicators (Escherichia coli [E. coli] and total coliform [TC]) and nitrate in groundwater, and their potential relation to hydrologic drivers. Sampling of 46 wells over an 11-month period confirmed elevated nitrate concentrations, with more than 50% of samples exceeding 10 mg-N/L. E. coli detections in groundwater were infrequent (4 of 385 total samples) and attributed mainly to surface water-groundwater connections along Fishtrap Creek, which tested positive for E. coli in every sampling event. TC was detected frequently in groundwater (70% of samples) across the ASA. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) yielded valuable insights into relationships between TC or nitrate and a range of spatial, temporal, and hydrologic explanatory variables. Increased TC values over the wetter fall and winter period were most strongly related to groundwater temperatures and levels, while precipitation and well location were weaker (but still significant) predictors. In contrast, the moderate temporal variability in nitrate concentrations was not significantly related to hydrologic forcings. TC was relatively widespread across the ASA and spatial patterns could not be attributed solely to surface water connectivity. Varying nitrate concentrations across the ASA were significantly related to both well location and depth, likely due to spatially variable nitrogen loading and localized geochemical attenuation (i.e., denitrification). Vulnerability of the ASA to bacteria was clearly linked to hydrologic conditions, and was distinct from nitrate, such that a groundwater management strategy specifically for bacterial contaminants is warranted. PMID:26348834

  6. History of forest hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, James S. G.; Robinson, Mark

    1993-10-01

    Hydrology as a science and a technology is examined, as are some of the myths on the role of forests in hydrology and water resources. The history of catchment area research is traced, in Europe, in the USA and in East Africa, with particular reference to forest hydrology and, in the earlier years, to water quantity rather than water quality. The importance of associating physical process studies with hydrological systems' investigations, to enhance understanding of why particular catchments behave as they do, is stressed. Recent advances in hydrochemistry have been exploited to elucidate water flow paths within experimental catchments. Stimulated by requirements for research into acidification of surface waters, research catchments have proved to be valuable outdoor laboratories from which a much improved understanding of the flow processes has been achieved. Conflicting claims about the impacts of forestry are described and discussed.

  7. Dryland Soil Hydrological Processes and Their Impacts on the Nitrogen Balance in a Soil-Maize System of a Freeze-Thawing Agricultural Area

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Wei; Chen, Siyang; Cai, Guanqing; Hao, Fanghua

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the fates of soil hydrological processes and nitrogen (N) is essential for optimizing the water and N in a dryland crop system with the goal of obtaining a maximum yield. Few investigations have addressed the dynamics of dryland N and its association with the soil hydrological process in a freeze-thawing agricultural area. With the daily monitoring of soil water content and acquisition rates at 15, 30, 60 and 90 cm depths, the soil hydrological process with the influence of rainfall was identified. The temporal-vertical soil water storage analysis indicated the local albic soil texture provided a stable soil water condition for maize growth with the rainfall as the only water source. Soil storage water averages at 0–20, 20–40 and 40–60 cm were observed to be 490.2, 593.8, and 358 m3 ha−1, respectively, during the growing season. The evapo-transpiration (ET), rainfall, and water loss analysis demonstrated that these factors increased in same temporal pattern and provided necessary water conditions for maize growth in a short period. The dry weight and N concentration of maize organs (root, leaf, stem, tassel, and grain) demonstrated the N accumulation increased to a peak in the maturity period and that grain had the most N. The maximum N accumulative rate reached about 500 mg m−2d−1 in leaves and grain. Over the entire growing season, the soil nitrate N decreased by amounts ranging from 48.9 kg N ha−1 to 65.3 kg N ha−1 over the 90 cm profile and the loss of ammonia-N ranged from 9.79 to 12.69 kg N ha−1. With soil water loss and N balance calculation, the N usage efficiency (NUE) over the 0–90 cm soil profile was 43%. The soil hydrological process due to special soil texture and the temporal features of rainfall determined the maize growth in the freeze-thawing agricultural area. PMID:25000400

  8. Dryland soil hydrological processes and their impacts on the nitrogen balance in a soil-maize system of a freeze-thawing agricultural area.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Chen, Siyang; Cai, Guanqing; Hao, Fanghua

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the fates of soil hydrological processes and nitrogen (N) is essential for optimizing the water and N in a dryland crop system with the goal of obtaining a maximum yield. Few investigations have addressed the dynamics of dryland N and its association with the soil hydrological process in a freeze-thawing agricultural area. With the daily monitoring of soil water content and acquisition rates at 15, 30, 60 and 90 cm depths, the soil hydrological process with the influence of rainfall was identified. The temporal-vertical soil water storage analysis indicated the local albic soil texture provided a stable soil water condition for maize growth with the rainfall as the only water source. Soil storage water averages at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm were observed to be 490.2, 593.8, and 358 m3 ha-1, respectively, during the growing season. The evapo-transpiration (ET), rainfall, and water loss analysis demonstrated that these factors increased in same temporal pattern and provided necessary water conditions for maize growth in a short period. The dry weight and N concentration of maize organs (root, leaf, stem, tassel, and grain) demonstrated the N accumulation increased to a peak in the maturity period and that grain had the most N. The maximum N accumulative rate reached about 500 mg m-2d-1 in leaves and grain. Over the entire growing season, the soil nitrate N decreased by amounts ranging from 48.9 kg N ha-1 to 65.3 kg N ha-1 over the 90 cm profile and the loss of ammonia-N ranged from 9.79 to 12.69 kg N ha-1. With soil water loss and N balance calculation, the N usage efficiency (NUE) over the 0-90 cm soil profile was 43%. The soil hydrological process due to special soil texture and the temporal features of rainfall determined the maize growth in the freeze-thawing agricultural area. PMID:25000400

  9. Hydrology of a zero-order Southern Piedmont watershed through 45 years of changing agricultural land use. Part 1. Monthly and seasonal rainfall-runoff relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endale, Dinku M.; Fisher, Dwight S.; Steiner, Jean L.

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported runoff from small agricultural watersheds over sufficiently long period so that the effect of different cover types on runoff can be examined. We analyzed 45-yrs of monthly and annual rainfall-runoff characteristics of a small (7.8 ha) zero-order typical Southern Piedmont watershed in southeastern United States. Agricultural land use varied as follows: 1. Row cropping (5-yrs); 2. Kudzu ( Pueraria lobata; 5-yrs); 3. Grazed kudzu and rescuegrass ( Bromus catharticus; 7-yrs); and 4. Grazed bermudagrass and winter annuals ( Cynodon dactylon; 28-yrs). Land use and rainfall variability influenced runoff characteristics. Row cropping produced the largest runoff amount, percentage of the rainfall partitioned into runoff, and peak flow rates. Kudzu reduced spring runoff and almost eliminated summer runoff, as did a mixture of kudzu and rescuegrass (KR) compared to row cropping. Peak flow rates were also reduced during the kudzu and KR. Peak flow rates increased under bermudagrass but were lower than during row cropping. A simple process-based 'tanh' model modified to take the previous month's rainfall into account produced monthly rainfall and runoff correlations with coefficient of determination ( R2) of 0.74. The model was tested on independent data collected during drought. Mean monthly runoff was 1.65 times the observed runoff. Sustained hydrologic monitoring is essential to understanding long-term rainfall-runoff relationships in agricultural watersheds.

  10. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 2: Part 4, Transportation sector; Part 5, Forestry sector; Part 6, Agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This volume, the second of two such volumes, contains sector-specific guidance in support of the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. This voluntary reporting program was authorized by Congress in Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The General Guidelines, bound separately from this volume, provide the overall rationale for the program, discuss in general how to analyze emissions and emission reduction/carbon sequestration projects, and address programmatic issues such as minimum reporting requirements, time parameters, international projects, confidentiality, and certification. Together, the General Guidelines and the guidance in these supporting documents will provide concepts and approaches needed to prepare the reporting forms. This second volume of sector-specific guidance covers the transportation sector, the forestry sector, and the agricultural sector.

  11. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  12. Comparative analysis of hydrologic signatures in two agricultural watersheds in east-central Illinois: legacies of the past to inform the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Sivapalan, M.; McIsaac, G. F.; Cai, X.

    2013-11-01

    Historically, the central Midwestern US has undergone drastic anthropogenic land use change, having been transformed, in part through government policy, from a natural grassland system to an artificially drained agricultural system devoted to row cropping corn and soybeans. Current federal policies are again influencing land use in this region with increased corn acreage and new biomass crops proposed as part of an energy initiative emphasizing biofuels. To better address these present and future challenges it is helpful to understand whether and how the legacies of past changes have shaped the current response of the system. To this end, a comparative analysis of the hydrologic signatures in both spatial and time series data from two central Illinois watersheds was undertaken. The past history of these catchments is reflected in their current hydrologic responses, which are highly heterogeneous due to differences in geologic history, artificial drainage patterns, and reservoir operation, and manifest temporally, from annual to daily timescales, and spatially, both within and between the watersheds. These differences are also apparent from analysis of the summer low flows, where the more tile-drained watershed shows greater variability overall than does the more naturally drained one. In addition, precipitation in this region is also spatially heterogeneous even at small scales, and this, interacting with and filtering through the historical modifications to the system, increases the complexity of the problem of predicting the catchment response to future changes.

  13. Comparative analysis of hydrologic signatures in two agricultural watersheds in east-central Illinois: legacies of the past to inform the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Sivapalan, M.; McIsaac, G. F.; Cai, X.

    2013-05-01

    Historically, the central Midwestern US has undergone drastic anthropogenic land use change, having been transformed, in part through federal government policy, from a natural grassland system to an artificially-drained agricultural system devoted to row cropping corn and soybeans. Current federal policies are again influencing land use change in this region with increased corn acreage and new biomass crops proposed as part of an energy initiative emphasizing biofuels. To better address these present and future challenges it is helpful to understand how the legacies of past changes have shaped the current response of the system. To this end, a comparative analysis of the hydrologic signatures in both spatial and time series data from two central Illinois watersheds was undertaken. The past history of these catchments is reflected in their current hydrologic responses, which are highly heterogeneous, more so in the extensively tile-drained Sangamon watershed. The differences in geologic history, artificial drainage patterns, and to some extent, reservoir construction, manifest at all time scales, from annual to daily, and spatially within the watersheds. These differences can also be seen in the summer low flow patterns, where the more tile-drained watershed shows more variability than does the more naturally drained one. Of interest is the scaling behavior of the low flows; generally as drainage area increases, small-scale heterogeneity decreases. This is not seen in the more tile-drained watershed, thus adding complexity to the problem of predicting the catchment response to future changes.

  14. Global Analogues of Climate Change Effects on Agriculture and Groundwater Between Hydrologically Similar Regions of the World

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large regions of the world are heavily dependent upon groundwater for domestic water and irrigation. The impacts of climate change, including modified climate variability, on groundwater resources, soil water, agriculture, and human life are relatively unknown in most areas, and key sensitivities n...

  15. Processes responding to restoration in forestry-drained peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, Oili; Laine, Anna; Tolvanen, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Almost one third, nearly 100 000 km2, of the total land area is covered by peatlands in Finland, which is a higher relative cover than in any other country in the world. Over a half of the peatland area has been drained for forestry, and many invaluable wetland habitat types are severely degraded. Restoration of forestry-drained peatlands is a relatively new measure, and long term results are still relatively scarce. Reinstating the ecological function with its feedback cycles can be a slow and gradual process. Nevertheless, since forestry-drained peatlands are not destroyed habitats in terms of their ecosystem functions, they can be expected to be reinstated through the returning of the crucial element, the high water-table level and its natural variability. To evaluate the development of peatland function and structure after restoration, indicators which respond at different speed to restoration are therefore useful. Vegetation indicators are commonly assessed to indicate restoration progress, but they can be slow to respond. Changes in the mineralization and decomposition rates may indicate sooner, if processes typical for undrained peatlands are initiating after restoration. However, despite the increasing amount of information on the vegetation structure after restoring forestry-drained peatlands, there is no sufficient information on the ecological processes, which may be reasons behind the existing difference between restored and pristine peatlands. Information on the ecological processes and the speed of their recovery helps to evaluate whether the restored peatlands have turned their development towards natural situation, despite that the structure does not yet show sufficient recovery. We studied how restoration affects the hydrology, peat forming processes, and vegetation in boreal fen type of peatlands. Fens drained for forestry 30 - 40 year earlier were restored in northern Finland in 2007 by harvesting trees and by damming and filling ditches. After

  16. 78 FR 2950 - Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Forest Service Forestry Research Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forestry Research Advisory Council will meet in Washington, DC February 7-8, 2013. The... Apple, Designated Federal Officer, Forestry Research Advisory Council, USDA Forest Service Research...

  17. Real Forestry for Real Estate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Jennifer; Fisher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Virginia is poised to see an unprecedented change in forest land ownership. To provide new landowners with information on sustainable forest management, we developed a two-part program, Real Forestry for Real Estate. First, we assembled New Landowner Packets, which contain a variety of sustainable forest management resources. Second, two…

  18. Socio-hydrologic modeling to understand and mediate the competition for water between agriculture development and environmental health: Murrumbidgee River basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Emmerik, T. H. M.; Li, Z.; Sivapalan, M.; Pande, S.; Kandasamy, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Chanan, A.; Vigneswaran, S.

    2014-10-01

    Competition for water between humans and ecosystems is set to become a flash point in the coming decades in many parts of the world. An entirely new and comprehensive quantitative framework is needed to establish a holistic understanding of that competition, thereby enabling the development of effective mediation strategies. This paper presents a modeling study centered on the Murrumbidgee River basin (MRB). The MRB has witnessed a unique system dynamics over the last 100 years as a result of interactions between patterns of water management and climate driven hydrological variability. Data analysis has revealed a pendulum swing between agricultural development and restoration of environmental health and ecosystem services over different stages of basin-scale water resource development. A parsimonious, stylized, quasi-distributed coupled socio-hydrologic system model that simulates the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems of the MRB is used to mimic and explain dominant features of the pendulum swing. The model consists of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations that describe the interaction between five state variables that govern the co-evolution: reservoir storage, irrigated area, human population, ecosystem health, and environmental awareness. The model simulations track the propagation of the external climatic and socio-economic drivers through this coupled, complex system to the emergence of the pendulum swing. The model results point to a competition between human "productive" and environmental "restorative" forces that underpin the pendulum swing. Both the forces are endogenous, i.e., generated by the system dynamics in response to external drivers and mediated by humans through technology change and environmental awareness, respectively. Sensitivity analysis carried out with the model further reveals that socio-hydrologic modeling can be used as a tool to explain or gain insight into observed co-evolutionary dynamics of diverse

  19. Hydrological and erosion processes in terraced agricultural fields: observations from a wet Mediterranean region in northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Rodriguez-Blanco, María Luz; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Oliveira Alves Coelho, Celeste; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Traditional agriculture in the mountainous humid regions of the northwestern Iberian peninsula has relied on terraces for soil retention. In the last decades, a strong afforestation (in many cases with commercial species) has led to the appearance of large forest areas coexisting with traditional agricultural landscapes. Soil erosion research in this region has therefore focused on the impact of forest management practices and associated disturbances such as wildfires. However, there has been little research on the impacts of traditional terracing practices on erosion, and therefore it has been difficult to connect forest research with the wider issue of sediment connectivity in this complex agroforestry landscape. This work tried to address this research gap by monitoring an agricultural terrace in the Caramulo mountains, northern Portugal, during two years. The field site is located in a humid Mediterranean climate region, with c. 1500 mm/y rainfall, overlaying granite bedrock; agricultural practices are a traditional rotation between winter pasture and summer (irrigated) corn cultivation. During this period, the soil properties of the terrace were characterized, and there was a continuous monitoring of rainfall, soil moisture and surface runoff at the outlet, as well as 1 or 2-weekly collections of runoff to measure sediment yield. Occasional measurements of vegetation cover and erosion features (rills) within the plot were also made. Preliminary results indicate that runoff generation occurred mostly due to saturation-excess, possibly linked with the accumulation of groundwater in the lower layers of the soil. After one of the largest events, there was a clear inflow of runoff from outside the terrace, through either the irrigation network linking all terraces or by resurfacing of groundwater. Sediment yield was linked with runoff, but sediment concentration was linked with vegetation cover and was highest during the early stages of pasture growth. However

  20. Socio-hydrologic drivers of the Pendulum Swing between agriculture development and environmental health: a case study from Murrumbidgee River Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, J.; Sounthararajah, D.; Sivabalan, P.; Chanan, A.; Vigneswaran, S.; Sivapalan, M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a case study centered on the Murrumbidgee river basin in eastern Australia that illustrates the dynamics of the balance between water extraction and use for food production and efforts to mitigate and reverse consequent degradation of the riparian environment. In particular the paper traces the history of a pendulum swing between an exclusive focus on agricultural development and food production in the initial stages and its attendant socio-economic benefits, followed by the gradual realization of the adverse environmental impacts, efforts to mitigate these with the use of remedial measures, and ultimately concerted efforts and externally imposed solutions to restore environmental health and ecosystem services. The 100 yr history of development within Murrumbidgee is divided into four eras, each underpinned by the dominance of different norms/goals and turning points characterized by their changes. The various stages of development can be characterized by the dominance, in turn, of infrastructure systems, policy frameworks, economic instruments, and technological solutions. The paper argues that, to avoid these costly pendulum swings, management needs to be underpinned by long-term coupled socio-hydrologic system models that explicitly include the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems, including evolution of human values/norms relating to water and the environment. Such coupled human-water system models can provide insights into dominant controls of the trajectory of their co-evolution in a given system, and can also be used to interpret patterns of co-evolution of such coupled systems in different places across gradients of climatic, socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions, and in this way to help develop generalizable understanding.

  1. Socio-hydrologic drivers of the pendulum swing between agricultural development and environmental health: a case study from Murrumbidgee River basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, J.; Sounthararajah, D.; Sivabalan, P.; Chanan, A.; Vigneswaran, S.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a case study centred on the Murrumbidgee River basin in eastern Australia. It illustrates the dynamics of the balance between water extraction and use for food production, and efforts to mitigate and reverse consequent degradation of the riparian environment. In particular, the paper traces the history of a pendulum swing between an exclusive focus on agricultural development and food production in the initial stages and its attendant socio-economic benefits, followed by the gradual realization of the adverse environmental impacts, subsequent efforts to mitigate these with the use of remedial measures, and ultimately concerted efforts and externally imposed solutions to restore environmental health and ecosystem services. The 100-year history of development within the Murrumbidgee is divided into four eras, each underpinned by the dominance of different values and norms and turning points characterized by their changes. The various stages of development can be characterized by the dominance, in turn, of infrastructure systems, policy frameworks, economic instruments, and technological solutions. The paper argues that, to avoid these costly pendulum swings, management needs to be underpinned by long-term coupled socio-hydrologic system models that explicitly include the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems, including the slow evolution of human values and norms relating to water and the environment. Such coupled human-water system models can provide insights into dominant controls of the trajectory of their co-evolution in a given system, and can also be used to interpret patterns of co-evolution of such coupled systems in different places across gradients of climatic, socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions, and in this way to help develop generalizable understanding.

  2. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  3. A critique of field spectroscopy and the challenges and opportunities it presents for remote sensing for agriculture, ecosystems, and hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Arthur, A.; Robinson, I.

    2015-10-01

    From the early scanning spectrometers, the utility field spectroscopy has been constrained: by detector sensitivity, leading to high integration times; portability; and the measurements having very limited support (possibly an Earth surface area in the order of 0.25m2 to 2m2). However, over the last twenty years or so detector sensitivities and electronics have in improved leading to practical Earth surface sampling time increasing their utility to support Earth observation science and as optical remote sensing teaching and training tools. Now the uncertainties associated with field spectral measurements are being more widely recognised and field sampling methods and instrument continue to be developed to enable these uncertainties to be quantified and minimised. There are a number of key challenges which still need to be more widely addressed if field spectroscopy is to provide evermore reliable and replicable measurements. An understanding of the systematic biases introduced by this sampling method has begun to be recognised. In addition, the mismatch in scale between near-ground spectroscopy measurement and observations from space-borne sensor has begun to be addressed with the development of unmanned aerial vehicles as platforms and lightweight and miniaturised stateof- the-art spectrometer systems. It is now possible to non-invasively sample terrestrial and hydrological ecosystems in a statistically robust manner and do so with supports similar in scale to those of air- and space-borne sensors. These developments will revolutionise the use of field spectroscopy to support empirical science and model development and the calibration and validation of space-based observations.

  4. The current California drought through EDDI's eyes: early warning and monitoring of agricultural and hydrologic drought with the new Evaporative Demand Drought Index.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbins, M.; McEvoy, D.; Huntington, J. L.; Wood, A. W.; Morton, C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a physically based, multi-scalar drought index—the Evaporative Demand Drought Index (EDDI)—to improve treatment of evaporative dynamics in drought monitoring. Existing popular drought indices—such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index that informs much of the US Drought Monitor (USDM)—have primarily relyied on precipitation and temperature (T) to represent hydroclimatic anomalies, leaving evaporative demand (E0) most often derived from poorly performing T-based parameterizations then used to derive actual evapotranspiration (ET) from LSMs. Instead, EDDI leverages the inter-relations of E0 and ET, measuring E0's physical response to surface drying anomalies due to two distinct land surface/atmosphere interactions: (i) in sustained drought, limited moisture availability forces E0 and ET into a complementary relation, whereby ET declines as E0 increases; and (ii) in "flash" droughts, E0 increases due to increasing advection or radiation. E0's rise in response to both drought types suggests EDDI's robustness as a monitor and leading indicator of drought. To drive EDDI, we use for E0 daily reference ET from the ASCE Standardized Reference ET equation forced by North American Land Data Assimilation System drivers. EDDI is derived by aggregating E0 anomalies from its long-term mean across a period of interest and normalizing them to a Z-score. Positive EDDI indicates drier than normal conditions (and so drought). We use the current historic California drought as a test-case in which to examine EDDI's performance in monitoring agricultural and hydrologic drought. We observe drought development and decompose the behavior of drought's evaporative drivers during in-drought intensification periods and wetting events. EDDI's performance as a drought leading indicator with respect to the USDM is tested in important agricultural regions. Comparing streamflow from several USGS gauges in the Sierra Nevada to EDDI, we find that EDDI tracks most major

  5. Antecedent conditions, hydrological connectivity and anthropogenic inputs: Factors affecting nitrate and phosphorus transfers to agricultural headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Outram, Faye N; Cooper, Richard J; Sünnenberg, Gisela; Hiscock, Kevin M; Lovett, Andrew A

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines relationships between rainfall-runoff, catchment connectivity, antecedent moisture conditions and fertiliser application with nitrate-N and total phosphorus (TP) fluxes in an arable headwater catchment over three hydrological years (2012-2014). Annual precipitation totals did not vary substantially between years, yet the timing of rainfall strongly influenced runoff generation and subsequent nitrate-N and TP fluxes. The greatest nitrate-N (>250 kg N day(-1)) and TP (>10 kg TP day(-1)) fluxes only occurred when shallow groundwater was within 0.6m of the ground surface and runoff coefficients were greater than 0.1. These thresholds were reached less frequently in 2012 due to drought recovery resulting in lower annual nitrate-N (7.4 kg N ha(-1)) and TP (0.12 kg P ha(-1)) fluxes in comparison with 2013 (15.1 kg N ha(-1); 0.21 kg P ha(-1)). The wet winter of 2013 with elevated shallow groundwater levels led to more frequent activation of sub-surface pathways and tile drain flow. Throughout the period, dry antecedent conditions had a temporary effect in elevating TP loads. Evidence of TP source exhaustion after consecutive storm events can be attributed to the repeated depletion of temporarily connected critical source areas to the river network via impermeable road surfaces. Fertiliser application varied considerably across three years due to differences in crop rotation between farms, with annual N and P fertiliser inputs varying by up to 21% and 41%, respectively. Proportional reductions in annual riverine nitrate-N and TP loadings were not observed at the sub-catchment outlet as loadings were largely influenced by annual runoff. Nitrate loadings were slightly higher during fertiliser application, but there was little relationship between P fertiliser application and riverine TP load. These data indicate that this intensive arable catchment may be in a state of biogeochemical stationarity, whereby legacy stores of nutrients buffer against changes

  6. Living with trees: Policies for forestry management in Zimbabwe. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, P.N.; McNamara, K.

    1993-01-01

    Living with Trees, is an account of the results of a joint World Bank and Zimbabwe Forestry Commission study, in which the status, use and future of Zimbabwes forest, woodland and tree resources are reviewed. The first chapter is, in effect, an executive summary, capturing the major themes of the review and presenting them within a framework which targets the key policy issues affecting forestry in Zimbabwe. The second chapter is a national overview and deals with land, agriculture and economic structural adjustments, which are key policy concerns in Zimbabwe. Within the national context, chapter 2 also reflects on the form and role of the Forestry Commission. This provides a macroeconomic setting for the subsequent chapters which detail social and industrial forestry issues.

  7. School Breakfast and School Lunch Programs. Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session on the School Breakfast and Lunch Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    These hearing transcripts present testimony to the Senate Committee on Agriculture regarding the School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. Statements were made by several senators, the president of the American School Food Service Association (Connecticut); a school food service program director (Florida); the director of nutrition and education for…

  8. Nutrition Education: USDA Provides Services through Multiple Programs, but Stronger Linkages among Efforts Are Needed. Report to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, U.S. Senate. GAO-04-528

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, David D.

    2004-01-01

    To help improve nutrition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides nutrition education through five of its programs: Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP); Food Stamp Program (FSP); Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); National School Lunch Program (NLP); and Child and Adult Care…

  9. Hydrology: Jackson Receives 2003 Hydrology Section Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, Venkat; Jackson, Thomas J.

    2004-03-01

    ``Ladies and gentlemen, it gives me great pleasure to introduce Dr. Thomas J. Jackson, of the United States Department of Agriculture, for the 2003 Hydrology Award. ``Tom got his B.S. in fire protection engineering, his M.S. in civil engineering, and a Ph.D. under Bob Ragan at the University of Maryland in 1976. He has been a research hydrologist with the USDA Agricultural Research Service Hydrology and Remote Sensing Lab since 1977. His research involves the application and development of remote sensing technology in hydrology and agriculture. These studies have ranged from small-scale controlled condition field experiments utilizing truck-mounted radiometers to large-scale multitemporal aircraft mapping and most recently satellite retrievals.

  10. Hydrologic conditions and water quality in an agricultural area in Kleberg and Nueces Counties, Texas, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Petri, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    During 1996?98, rainfall and runoff were monitored on a 49,680-acre agricultural watershed in Kleberg and Nueces Counties in South Texas. Nineteen rainfall samples were analyzed for selected nutrients, and runoff samples from 29 storms were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and pesticides. Loads of nutrients in rainfall and loads of nutrients and pesticides in runoff were computed. For a 40,540-acre part of the watershed (lower study area), constituent loads entering the watershed in rainfall, in runoff from the upper study area, and from agricultural chemical applications to the lower study area were compared with runoff loads exiting the lower study area. Total rainfall for 1996?98 averaged 25.86 inches per year, which is less than the long-term annual average rainfall of 29.80 inches for the area. Rainfall and runoff during 1996?98 were typical of historical patterns, with periods of below average rainfall and runoff interspersed with extreme events. Five individual storms accounted for about 38 percent of the total rainfall and 94 percent of the total runoff. During the 3-year study, the total nitrogen runoff yield from the lower study area was 1.3 pounds per acre per year, compared with 49 pounds per acre per year applied as fertilizer and 3.1 pounds per acre per year from rainfall. While almost all of the fertilizer and rainfall nitrogen was ammonia and nitrate, most of the nitrogen in runoff was particulate organic nitrogen, associated with crop residue. Total nitrogen exiting the lower study area in surface-water runoff was about 2.5 percent of the nitrogen inputs (fertilizer and rainfall nitrogen). Annual deposition of total nitrogen entering the lower study area in rainfall exceeded net yields of total nitrogen exiting the watershed in runoff because most of the rainfall does not contribute to runoff. During the study, the total phosphorus runoff yield from the lower study area was 0.48 pound per acre per year compared with 4.2 pounds per acre per year

  11. The Use of Remote Sensing for Monitoring, Prediction, and Management of Hydrologic, Agricultural, and Ecological Processes in the Northern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farwell, Sherry O.; DeTroye, Diane (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA-EPSCoR program in South Dakota is focused on the enhancement of NASA-related research in earth system science and corresponding infrastructure development to support this theme. Hence, the program has adopted a strategy that keys on research projects that: a) establish quantitative links between geospatial information technologies and fundamental climatic and ecosystem processes in the Northern Great Plains (NGP) and b) develop and use coupled modeling tools, which can be initialized by data from combined satellite and surface measurements, to provide reliable predictions and management guidance for hydrologic, agricultural, and ecological systems of the NGP. Building a partnership network that includes both internal and external team members is recognized as an essential element of the SD NASA-EPSCoR program. Hence, promoting and tracking such linkages along with their relevant programmatic consequences are used as one metric to assess the program's progress and success. This annual report first summarizes general activities and accomplishments, and then provides progress narratives for the two separate, yet related research projects that are essential components of the SD NASA-EPSCoR program.

  12. Satellite geological and geophysical remote sensing of Iceland: Preliminary results of geologic, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural studies with ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Boeovarsson, A.; Frioriksson, S.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Saemundsson, K.; Thorarinsson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The wide variety of geological and geophysical phenomena which can be observed in Iceland, and particularly their very direct relation to the management of the country's natural resources, has provided great impetus to the use of ERTS-1 imagery to measure and map the dynamic natural phenomena in Iceland. MSS imagery is being used to study a large variety of geological and geophysical eruptive products, geologic structure, volcanic geomorphology, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural phenomena of Iceland. Some of the preliminary results from this research projects are: (1) a large number of geological and volcanic features can be studied from ERTS-1 imagery, particularly imagery acquired at low sun angle, which had not previously been recognized; (2) under optimum conditions the ERTS-1 satellite can discern geothermal areas by their snow melt pattern or warm spring discharge into frozen lakes; (3) various maps at scales of 1:1 million and 1:500,000 can be updated and made more accurate with ERTS-1 imagery; (4) the correlation of water reserves with snowcover can improve the basis for planning electrical production in the management of water resources; (5) false-color composites (MSS) permitted the mapping of four types of vegetation: forested; grasslands, reclaimed, and cultivated areas, and the seasonal change of the vegetation, all of high value to rangeland management.

  13. Effects of hydrology, watershed size, and agricultural practices on sediment yields in two river basins in Iowa and Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merten, Gustavo Henrique; Welch, Heather L.; Tomer, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    The specific sediment yield (SSY) from watersheds is the result of the balance between natural, scale-dependent erosion and deposition processes, but can be greatly altered by human activities. In general, the SSY decreases along the course of a river as sediments are trapped in alluvial plains and other sinks. However, this relation between SSY and basin area can actually be an increasing one when there is a predominance of channel erosion relative to hillslope erosion. The US Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study of suspended sediment in the Iowa River basin (IRB), Iowa, and the Yazoo River basin (YRB), Mississippi, from 2006 through 2008. Within each river basin, the SSY from four largely agricultural watersheds of various sizes (2.3 to 35,000 km2 [0.9 to 13,513 mi2]) was investigated. In the smallest watersheds, YRB sites had greater SSY compared to IRB sites due to higher rain erosivity, more erodible soils, more overland flow, and fluvial geomorphological differences. Watersheds in the YRB showed a steady decrease in SSY with increasing drainage basin area, whereas in the IRB, the maximum SSY occurred at the 30 to 500 km2 (11.6 to 193 mi2) scale. Subsurface tile drainage and limits to channel downcutting restrict the upstream migration of sediment sources in the IRB. Nevertheless, by comparing the SSY-basin size scaling relationships with estimated rates of field erosion under conservation and conventional tillage treatments reported in previous literature, we show evidence that the SSY-basin size relationship in both the IRB and YRB remain impacted by historical erosion rates that occurred prior to conservation efforts.

  14. 78 FR 30847 - Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Apple, Designated Federal Officer, Forestry Research Advisory Council, USDA Forest Service Research and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Daina Apple, Forest Service Office of the Deputy Chief for Research and Development,...

  15. 77 FR 26734 - Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Daina Apple, Designated Federal Officer, Forestry Research Advisory Council, USDA Forest Service... proposed agenda items to (202) 205- 1530. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Daina Apple, Forest...

  16. Influence of Land Management and Hydrology on Urea Fate and Transport Within a Coastal Plain Watershed Dominated by Intensive Poultry Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, S. S.; Buda, A. R.; Boyer, E. W.; Bryant, R.; May, E.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing nutrient loads delivered from the landscape to coastal ecosystems has widely been recognized as a major contributor to coastal eutrophication and as a driver of the escalation of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Urea, a form of organic nitrogen, is a common nutrient found in fertilizers, manures, and septic waste, and is gaining recognition as a preferred nutrient for the development of toxic HABs. While several studies have documented elevated urea concentrations in tributaries draining the Delmarva Peninsula and in the Chesapeake Bay, little is known about the key factors that influence urea delivery from the landscape to surface waters. Here, in attempt to address the need to better understand urea behavior, we investigated land management and hydrologic controls on urea loss, both spatially and temporally, in the Manokin River. The Manokin River is a Coastal Plain watershed (300 km2) on the Delmarva Peninsula that drains directly to the Chesapeake Bay and is characterized by extensive rural development coupled with intensive agriculture, particularly poultry production. Monthly synoptic sampling during baseflow conditions was conducted throughout the watershed in order to represent the variety of potential point and non-point sources of urea. Sampling was also conducted during stormflow conditions using time-weighted automated (SIGMA) samplers at select sites within the watershed. Temporal baseflow trends illustrate higher average urea concentrations through the summer months (0.61 μM L-1) and generally lower (0.35 μM L-1) concentrations during the winter months. Spatial trends show higher average baseflow urea concentrations in the agricultural ditches and headwaters (0.93μM L-1) with decreasing concentrations moving downstream (0.37 μM L-1). Stormflow was found to be the predominant urea delivery mechanism, as urea concentrations typically increased 3-9 times above baseflow concentrations (0.27 μM L-1) during storms, with peaks in urea

  17. Sensitivity analysis of the CATHY distributed hydrological model to soil hydrodynamic properties of a tile-drained agricultural micro-watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muma, M.; Gumiere, S. J.; Rousseau, A. N.

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a sensitivity analysis of CATHY (CATchment HYdrology), a distributed hydrological model based on the separate and sequential resolution of the three-dimensional Richards equation for subsurface flow in variably saturated soils and a diffusion wave approximation of the Saint-Venant equation for overland and channel flow (Camporese et al., 2010). The analysis is performed using two methods, those of Morris (1991) and FAST (Saltelli et al., 2000). The study site is a headwater agricultural micro-watershed located in Quebec, Canada. Tile drains underlay 25 % of the 2.4 km2 watershed. Twenty-four parameters are evaluated using the Morris method with the net total cumulative water volume at the micro-watershed outlet and the total cumulative drained volume as output variables. Those parameters include: the van Genuchten's parameter (VGN), the residual and saturated water content (VGRMC, VPSAT), the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities (KSXY, KSZ), the specific storage coefficient (SS), the porosity (Por) in different soil layers, and the initial water table (ic). For the net total cumulative water volume, among the eight sensitive parameters, the horizontal hydraulic conductivity (KSXY5) in the deepest layers is the most sensitive. This means that the flow at the micro-watershed outlet is highly influenced by base flow. For the other output variable, the total cumulative volume drained, seven parameters are deemed sensitive among which the vertical hydraulic conductivity (KSZ2) of the third layer is the most sensitive. This suggests that the flow to tile drains is mostly influenced by the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the third layer. The two groups of parameters (eight and seven parameters) were respectively tested using the FAST method. In both cases, the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the deepest layer is the most sensitive parameter in terms of first (FOI) and total (TOI) order indexes. For the second

  18. Remote sensing for oceanography, hydrology and agriculture; Proceedings of Symposia A5, A3 and A9 of the COSPAR 29th Plenary Meeting, Washington, Aug. 28-Sept. 5, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gower, J. F. R. (Editor); Salomonson, V. V. (Editor); Engman, E. T. (Editor); Ormsby, J. P. (Editor); Gupta, R. K. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    New results from satellite studies of the ocean and radar mapping of the earth are presented. Atttention is given to data from the ERS-1 satellite. Synthetic aperture radar mapping of land surface features and sea ice, radar backscatter measurements, and orbit altitude measurements are discussed. The use of remote sensing in hydrology, soil moisture determination, precipitation measurement, agricultural meteorology, and crop growth estimation is reviewed.

  19. Adaptation Forestry in Minnesota's Northwoods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, M.; White, M.; Etterson, J.; Kavajecz, L.; Mead, J.; Handler, S.; Swanston, C.; Hall, K.

    2014-12-01

    Forest restoration and management goals are shifting in northern Minnesota in light of new information on climate trends. Adaptation forestry encompasses a combination of practices designed to favor native populations and species likely to persist under warmer, drier conditions. The overarching project goal is to increase the adaptive capacity of northern forests such that they continue to sustain a variety of services, including carbon sequestration, fiber production, watershed protection, and wildlife habitat. We are currently testing the feasibility and efficacy of adaptation forestry in the northern Great Lakes region in three common forest types: Boreal-Mixed, Pine, and Hardwoods. 12 sites (2,000 acres total) recently subjected to a range of structural treatments (gap creation, shelterwood, and clear-cut with reserves) were coupled with "adaptation plantings" of species that are likely to thrive under changed climate conditions (e.g., red oak, bur oak, white pine). Seedlings, ~110,000 total, originated from two source locations, one that reflects current adaptation to the climate of northern Minnesota and another from a more southern source in central Minnesota. To date, we have assessed results from two growing seasons by tracking survival, growth and phenological characteristics of planted seedlings. This project is a first step in determining whether adaptation management can be used as a tool to help northern forests transition to an uncertain future. Cooperation with state, federal, and academic partners may ultimately influence the adaptive capacity across millions of acres in the Great Lakes region.

  20. Effects of water-control structures on hydrologic and water-quality characteristics in selected agricultural drainage canals in eastern North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Treece, M.W., Jr.; Jaynes, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    large increase of specific conductance in the tidal creek. Flashboard risers had no significant effect on concentrations of dissolved oxygen, suspended sediment, total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, or phosphorus. Maximum concentrations of ammonia nitrogen were smaller at both test sites after riser installation. In addition, concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen exceeding 1.0 milligram per liter rarely occurred at the flashboard-riser test sites following installation of the risers. Median loadings of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen decreased at one riser test site following flashboard-riser installation. Tide gates and flashboard risers were associated with reductions in concentrations and export of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen; however, these changes should be interpreted cautiously because reductions were not observed consistently at every site. The hydrology and baseline water-quality characteristics of the two study areas differ, making comparisons of the effectiveness of the two types of water-control structures difficult to interpret. The effects of water-control structures on the hydrology of the drainage canals are more meaningful than the changes in water quality. Tide gates and flashboard risers altered the hydrologic characteristics of the drainage canals and created an environment favorable for nutrient loss or transformation. Both structures retained agricultural drainage upstream, which increased potential storage for infiltration and reduced the potential for surface runoff, sediment, and nutrient transport, and higher peak outflow rates.

  1. Application of remote sensing in forestry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques in forestry studies is investigated. In particular, inventory, monitoring, detection, and management are discussed. Data show that infrared imagery appears to be the best technique for forestry studies. Data also show that color photographs are more easily interpreted than black and white ones.

  2. 29 CFR 780.217 - Forestry activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forestry activities. 780.217 Section 780.217 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.217 Forestry activities. Operations...

  3. 29 CFR 780.217 - Forestry activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Forestry activities. 780.217 Section 780.217 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.217 Forestry activities. Operations...

  4. 29 CFR 780.217 - Forestry activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Forestry activities. 780.217 Section 780.217 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.217 Forestry activities. Operations...

  5. 29 CFR 780.217 - Forestry activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forestry activities. 780.217 Section 780.217 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.217 Forestry activities. Operations...

  6. 29 CFR 780.217 - Forestry activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Forestry activities. 780.217 Section 780.217 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.217 Forestry activities. Operations...

  7. Agricultural Disaster Assistance Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Lucas, Frank D. [R-OK-3

    2012-07-31

    09/10/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Overview and forecast on forestry productions worldwide.

    PubMed

    Wenjun, Zhang

    2007-02-01

    Our world is largely dependent upon the forestry productions. Through the exploitation of forest reserves, we manufacture various industrial products, furniture, and obtain fuel and energy. Forestry productions should be conducted without large-scale deforestation and environmental degradation. In present study we perform a review and forecast analysis on forestry productions worldwide, with the objectives of providing an insight into the trend for several types of forestry productions in the future, and providing referential data for sustainable forestry productions and environmental management. Polynomial functions are used to fit trajectories of forestry productions since 1961 and forecasts during the coming 20 years are given in detail. If the past pattern continues, world fibreboard production would dramatically grow and reach 224,300,000 +/- 44,400,000 m(3) by the year 2020, an increase up to 240.7 to 408.9% as compared to the present level. Roundwood production of the world would change by -55.5 to 70.4% and reach 3,526,600,000 +/- 2,066,800,000 m(3) by 2020. In 2020 world production of sawlogs and veneer logs would change by -100 to 164.6% and reach 1,212,900,000 +/- 1,242,600,000 m(3). Global wood fuel production would change by -68.9 to 1.4% and reach 1,130,900,000 +/- 600,800,000 m(3) by 2020. Forestry productions in developed countries would largely surpass productions in developing countries in the near future. World forestry production grew since 1961 excluding wood fuel. Roundwood and wood fuel account for the critical proportions in the forestry productions. Wood fuel production has being declined and rapid growing of roundwood production has slowed in recent years. Widespread use of regenerative wood substitutes and worldwide afforestation against deforestation will be among the most effective ways to reduce deforestation and environment degradation associated with forestry productions. PMID:17219238

  9. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Basic Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    This manual, part of a one-semester course for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America, is built around specimens of agricultural writing in Spanish. The manual contains 12 lessons on general agriculture, sugar production, grain production, geography, forestry, animal husbandry, soy bean production, agricultural…

  10. 76 FR 43651 - Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... August 1, 2011 to Daina Apple, Designated Federal Officer, Forestry Research Advisory Council, USDA... their names and proposed agenda items to (202) 205-1530. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Daina...

  11. 75 FR 46903 - Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... send their names and proposals by August 31, 2010 to Daina Apple, Designated Federal Officer, Forestry... INFORMATION CONTACT: Daina Apple, Forest Service Office of the Deputy Chief for Research and Development,...

  12. Hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Fernandez, Carlos J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two primarily agricultural subwatersheds of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is about 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed tributary to Oso Creek (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is about 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during the study period October 2005-September 2008. Seventeen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Twenty-four composite runoff water-quality samples (12 at West Oso Creek, 12 at Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-six discrete suspended-sediment samples (12 West Oso Creek, 14 Oso Creek tributary) and 17 bacteria samples (10 West Oso Creek, 7 Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the two subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the two subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff from the two subwatersheds occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 13.95 inches compared with 9.45 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 3

  13. Hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek Watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two (primarily) agricultural areas (subwatersheds) of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed Oso Creek tributary (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during October 2005-September 2007. Fourteen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Nineteen composite runoff samples (10 West Oso Creek, nine Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-two discrete suspended-sediment samples (10 West Oso Creek, 12 Oso Creek tributary) and 13 bacteria samples (eight West Oso Creek, five Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the study subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff at both subwatershed outlet sites occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 10.83 inches compared with 7.28 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 2-year study period averaged 2.61 pounds

  14. USDA Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by approximately 43%, 152%, and 20% respectively since about 1750. In 2013, total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions were 6,673 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMT CO2 eq.), ris...

  15. Attribution of hydrologic trends using integrated hydrologic and economic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneta, M. P.; Brugger, D. R.; Silverman, N. L.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrologic change has been detected in many regions of the world in the form of trends in annual streamflows, varying depths to the regional water table, or other alterations of the hydrologic balance. Most models used to investigate these changes implement sophisticated descriptions of the physical system but use simplified descriptions of the socioeconomic system. These simplifications come in the form of prescribed water diversions and land use change scenarios, which provide little insight into coupled natural-human systems and have limited predictive capabilities. We present an integrated model that adds realism to the description of the hydrologic system in agricultural regions by incorporating a component that updates the allocation of land and water to crops in response to hydroclimatic (water available) and economic conditions (prices of commodities and agricultural inputs). This component assumes that farmers allocate resources to maximize their net revenues, thus justifying the use of optimality conditions to constrain the parameters of an empirical production function that captures the economic behavior of farmers. Because the model internalizes the feedback between climate, agricultural markets, and farming activity into the hydrologic system, it can be used to understand to what extent human economic activity can exacerbate or buffer the regional hydrologic impacts of climate change in agricultural regions. It can also help in the attribution of causes of hydrologic change. These are important issues because local policy and management cannot solve climate change, but they can address land use and agricultural water use. We demonstrate the model in a case study.

  16. Labor Resources in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Four Corners Agricultural and Development Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    One of five reports developed to summarize research efforts conducted as part of an Agricultural-Forestry Development Project, this report presents the results of an inventory of human resources used in the agricultural and forestry industries in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Explored are such aspects of labor as: (1) employment…

  17. The Evaluation of Federal Programs in Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Resource Conservation, Research, and Forestry of the Committee on Agriculture. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session (March 27, May 14, July 17, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    Three House of Representatives' subcommittee hearings were held in March, May, and July 1996 to evaluate the goals, priority setting, and advisory mechanisms of federal programs in agricultural research, education, and extension. To become competitive in global markets, farmers will need to rely on the research community to provide up-to-date…

  18. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES FOR AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST PRODUCT RESIDUES. VOLUME 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    A preliminary assessment was made of the environmental impacts of several types of conversion processes for producing energy or fuels from agricultural and forestry residues. Fifteen examples were selected to represent various combinations of agricultural residues and conversion ...

  19. Hydrologic similarity, comparative hydrology and hydrologic extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, T.; Laaha, G.; Koffler, D.; Singh, R.

    2012-04-01

    Recent years have brought a renewed focus on the issue of hydrologic similarity. What makes two catchments similar and what can we do with this understanding? The reason for this issue being so important lies at least partially in the need for generalization of results in a scientific field, which is limited through the large heterogeneity in our environment. The issue of hydrologic similarity is of course as old as hydrology itself, however, we believe that taking stock is needed from time to time to guide comparative hydrology efforts that have the potential to bring structure into the field of catchment hydrology. Apart from that, catchment similarity is the rational behind any attempt of predicting streamflow at ungauged basins, and a better understanding and definition of hydrologic similarity will enhance our ability to estimate water resources in absence of stream gauges. In this talk we focus on signatures of hydrologic extremes, i.e. flood and low flow characteristics of streamflow. Can similarity concepts relate catchment behavior under both high and low flow extremes? In how far do our understanding and our predictive capability regarding hydrologic extremes benefit from a holistic few of individual catchments, and from a comparative analysis between catchment? We will review different studies and present a meta analysis to highlight the proven and the potential benefit of taking a broader view.

  20. Is the water footprint an appropriate tool for forestry and forest products: the Fennoscandian case.

    PubMed

    Launiainen, Samuli; Futter, Martyn N; Ellison, David; Clarke, Nicholas; Finér, Leena; Högbom, Lars; Laurén, Ari; Ring, Eva

    2014-03-01

    The water footprint by the Water Footprint Network (WF) is an ambitious tool for measuring human appropriation and promoting sustainable use of fresh water. Using recent case studies and examples from water-abundant Fennoscandia, we consider whether it is an appropriate tool for evaluating the water use of forestry and forest-based products. We show that aggregating catchment level water consumption over a product life cycle does not consider fresh water as a renewable resource and is inconsistent with the principles of the hydrologic cycle. Currently, the WF assumes that all evapotranspiration (ET) from forests is a human appropriation of water although ET from managed forests in Fennoscandia is indistinguishable from that of unmanaged forests. We suggest that ET should not be included in the water footprint of rain-fed forestry and forest-based products. Tools for sustainable water management should always contextualize water use and water impacts with local water availability and environmental sensitivity. PMID:23420472

  1. [Forestry Law and the conservation of natural areas and wildlife].

    PubMed

    Villacrés, V; Suárez, M; Tafur, V

    1996-04-01

    The Forest Law of Ecuador consists of 107 articles, whereas its regulations contain 269 articles. They are related to forestry resources, forestry patrimony protection, forests and vegetation, forest production and benefits, the control and mobilization of the forestry resources, research and capacitation, and the forestry industry protection; to natural areas, wild flora and fauna, their patrimony, conservation, and economic support; and to the violation of the law and its judgment. PMID:9213612

  2. Social Sciences in Forestry - A Current Selected Bibliography, No. 58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Judith L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Presented is a bibliography of publications related to the application of the social sciences to various aspects of forestry. The major categories under which documents are classified involve social science as it applies to: 1) forestry in general; 2) forestry's productive agents; 3) forest production; 4) manufacturing; and 5) marketing, trade,…

  3. 76 FR 81472 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council will meet... input related to urban and community forestry. DATES: The meeting will be held on January 25 and...

  4. 25 CFR 163.36 - Tribal forestry program financial support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tribal forestry program financial support. 163.36 Section 163.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.36 Tribal forestry program financial support. (a)...

  5. 25 CFR 163.36 - Tribal forestry program financial support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tribal forestry program financial support. 163.36 Section 163.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.36 Tribal forestry program financial support. (a)...

  6. 25 CFR 163.36 - Tribal forestry program financial support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Tribal forestry program financial support. 163.36 Section 163.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.36 Tribal forestry program financial support. (a)...

  7. 77 FR 59888 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council will meet... Forestry Advisory Council, 201 14th Street SW., Yates Building (1 Central) MS-1151, Washington, DC...

  8. 25 CFR 163.36 - Tribal forestry program financial support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tribal forestry program financial support. 163.36 Section 163.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.36 Tribal forestry program financial support. (a)...

  9. 76 FR 44893 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of May Call for Nominations 2011. SUMMARY: The National Urban and Community Forestry... Service's Urban and Community Forestry Web site: http://www.fs.fed.us/ucf . DATES: Nomination(s) must...

  10. 78 FR 76277 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council (Council... Forestry Assistance Act, as amended by Title XII, Section 1219 of Public Law No. 101-624, and the...

  11. 25 CFR 163.36 - Tribal forestry program financial support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tribal forestry program financial support. 163.36 Section 163.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.36 Tribal forestry program financial support. (a)...

  12. 75 FR 27703 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council will meet... and community forestry, work on Council administrative items and hear public input related to...

  13. 77 FR 13262 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council will meet... forestry. DATES: The meeting will be held on March 20, 2012, from 12 noon to 1:30 p.m. or until...

  14. 75 FR 64985 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council will meet... Foundation's Partners in Community Forestry National Conference. The purpose of the Council's meeting is...

  15. 77 FR 24457 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: 2012 Notice call for nominations. SUMMARY: The National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory... Urban and Community Forestry Web site: www.fs.fed.us/ucf/. DATES: Nomination(s) must be...

  16. 77 FR 27179 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council will meet... be addressed to Nancy Stremple, Executive Staff to the National Urban and Community Forestry...

  17. A Hero's Journey: Young Women among Males in Forestry Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follo, Gro

    2002-01-01

    Norwegian girls' experiences in secondary school forestry courses were analyzed in terms of the "hero's journey" archetypal myth. Interviews with 12 girls and 11 boys in forestry courses indicated that girls were capable and fit for practical forestry work, gender attitudes were not a barrier, and girls did not meet opposition from male students…

  18. Development of a real-time hydrological cycle - rice growth coupled simulation system as a tool for farmers' decision making in an ungauged basin in Cambodia for the better agricultural water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Ohta, T.; Yasukawa, M.; Koike, T.; Kitsuregawa, M.; Homma, K.

    2013-12-01

    The entire country of Cambodia depends on agriculture for its economy. Rice is the staple food, making it the major agricultural product (roughly 80% of total national production). The target area of this study is western Cambodia, where rice production is the greatest in the country and most land is rainfed. Since most farmers rely only on their (non-science-based) experience, they would not adjust to changing rainfall and degraded water resources under climate change, so food security in the region would be seriously threatened (Monichoth et al., 2013). Under this condition, irrigation master plans are being considered by several ODA projects. This study aims to contribute to the design of such irrigation plans through the development of a real-time hydrological cycle - rice growth coupled simulation system. The purpose of the development of this system is to support decision making 1) for determining the necessary agricultural water resources and 2) for allocating limited water resources to various sectors. Rice growing condition as affected by water stress due to the water shortage is supposed to be shown for both of the cases with and without irrigation for several rainfall patterns. A dynamically coupled model of a distributed hydrological model (WEB-DHM., Wang et al., 2009) and a rice growth model (SIMRIW-rainfed, Homma et al., 2009) has been developed with a simple irrigation model. The target basin, a small basin in western Cambodia, is basically an ungauged basin and the model was validated by soil moisture, LAI, dry matter production of the rice crop, and rice yield, using both intensive field observation and satellite observations. Calibrating hourly satellite precipitation dataset (GSMaP/NRT) using ground rain gauges, hydrological cycle (soil moisture at three layers, river discharge, irrigatable water amount, water level of each paddy field, water demand of each paddy field, etc.) and rice growth (LAI, developmental index of the rice crop, dry matter

  19. Public Domain Microcomputer Software for Forestry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Les

    A project was conducted to develop a computer forestry/forest products bibliography applicable to high school and community college vocational/technical programs. The project director contacted curriculum clearinghouses, computer companies, and high school and community college instructors in order to obtain listings of public domain programs for…

  20. Kortright Centre for Conservation: Forestry Theme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Allan

    One of a series of four reports on specific conservation themes, this report on forestry is intended to consolidate techniques which will best communicate the legislation, role, objectives and practices of the Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority in retaining forest cover and extending it over additional areas. Facilities and…

  1. Remote sensing and today's forestry issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayn-Wittgenstein, L.

    1977-01-01

    The actual and the desirable roles of remote sensing in dealing with current forestry issues, such as national forest policy, supply and demand for forest products and competing demands for forest land are discussed. Topics covered include wood shortage, regional timber inventories, forests in tropical and temperate zones, Skylab photography, forest management and protection, available biomass studies, and monitoring.

  2. Application of the MIKE SHE hydrological model in exploring sustainable development of water resources for agricultural activities in the White Volta Basin, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oteng, F. M.; Alo, C. A.; Bitew, M. M.; Yidana, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable abstraction of groundwater resources for commercial irrigation in the White Volta Basin (WVB) holds promise for a fledging agricultural industry in the basin. This is because erratic rainfall patterns attending climate change/variability has imposed mixed fortunes in terms of rain-fed agricultural activities currently practiced in the WVB. Addressing the sustainability of groundwater for commercial abstraction will require the integration of surface and subsurface flows and analysis of the impacts of climate change scenarios on the resource, employing a surface-subsurface flow model. Here, we present early results from surface flow simulation over the basin using the physically-based surface-subsurface flow model MIKE SHE.

  3. Hydrologic controls on the sources and dynamics of dissolved organic matter in an agricultural catchment in the Central Valley, California (U.S.A.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyda, R. Y.; Hernes, P. J.; Spencer, R. G.; Pellerin, B. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.

    2008-12-01

    The influence of agricultural practices on the dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) cycling in river systems is poorly understood. We investigated molecular compositions of DOM at 14 sites in an agriculturally-impacted catchment (Willow Slough; 415 km2) under several different flow regimes over the course of two years in order to investigate the influence of sub-catchments on the biogeochemistry at the mouth of the catchment. The Willow Slough catchment area includes eastern foothills of the inner Coast Range to the alluvial plains and encompasses diverse land uses, including natural grasslands, orchards, viticulture and pasture, all draining toward the Sacramento River. Knowledge of the composition of DOM composition is crucial, as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can form EPA-regulated carcinogenic compounds during the drinking water disinfection process and is therefore considered a drinking water constituent of concern. Willow Slough offers the opportunity to examine carbon source, cycling and transportation through multiple flowpaths and land uses that are common in Californian agricultural watersheds. As a constituent of DOM, lignin phenols provide information on the source, composition, quality and degradation state of DOM. Uniquely derived from vascular plants, lignin phenols can be used to distinguish between angiosperm and gymnosperm tissues and carbon-normalized yields can offer insight on the proportion of vascular plant-derived carbon versus in-situ production. Throughout the Willow Slough watershed, ratios of syringyl to vanillyl and cinnamyl to vanillyl lignin phenols show that the vascular plant component of DOM can be primarily attributed to non-woody angiosperm tissues. Lower lignin phenol concentrations and carbon-normalized yields were observed in the headwaters (0.1-0.6 mg/100mg OC and 2.6-33 μg/L) versus the mouth (0.7-2.0 mg/100mg OC and 25-72 μg/L), indicating that mid-catchment tributaries play important roles in determining the

  4. Marginal value of complementary data in reducing parameter non-identifiability: uncertainty analysis of an agro-hydrological (SWAP) model at agricultural field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiei, M.; Pande, S.; Ghahraman, B.; Saghafian, B.

    2013-12-01

    This study examines the contribution of model parameter non-identifiability to uncertainty in model selection and parameter estimation and how it reduces with complimentary data. For this we use an agro-hydrological model structure, SWAP (Soil, Water, Atmosphere and Plant) and analyze uncertainty in estimating its parameters using a Bayesian inference method. We evaluate model uncertainty by selecting models based on (i) actual evapotranspiration, (ii) soil moisture time series and (iii) both actual evapotranspiration and soil moisture synthetically generated using the SWAP model with its parameters adapted for a field study of irrigated maize in Iran. Finally, based on an index of relative contribution of parameter non-uniqueness to overall uncertainty, we decompose the marginal value of complimentary data (in terms of reduction in uncertainty if any) into marginal value in terms of reduction in parameter non-uniqueness and marginal value in terms of the remaining uncertainty.

  5. The role of historical agricultural terraces in geo-hydrological risk reduction: a case study from the Bisagno Stream Catchment (Genoa, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccini, Francesco; Giostrella, Paola; Paliaga, Guido; Piana, Pietro; Sacchini, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Terraces, traditionally sustained by dry stonewalls, occupy about thirty percent of the territory of Liguria. If constantly maintained, they effectively contribute to slow down the natural slope erosion. When no longer managed, terraces are recognized as one of the reasons for increased geomorphological risk along the slopes and, consequently, at the bottom of the valley. This study concerns the terraced landscapes of the Bisagno Stream catchment, internationally known for the recent and recurring floods which affected the city of Genoa. The Bisagno Stream catchment is an example of historical evolution of the territory both in terms of land use change and geo-hydrological risk. The catchment, whose highest point is Mount Candelozzo (1034 m), has a total area of 95 km2. In its terminal stretch the stream flows across the eastern part of Genoa city centre. It is a typical valley of the Genoa metropolitan area, with steep slopes and short times of concentration. Here the signs of the tragic floods which have affected the area since 1970 are still visible. The most recent and tragic geo-hydrological event in Liguria took place in the Bisagno Valley in October 2014. The study was carried out with a multi-temporal comparison of the terraced areas using aerial photographs and regional cartographic information. A further step will involve the analysis and classification of the terraces based on their maintenance condition and hydrogeological effectiveness, using some representative areas of the valley as cases study. The comparison between the distribution of terraces in the Bisagno valley and applied geomorphological cartography suggests the need of measures to reduce the risk according to a suitable set of priorities, including the recovery of the terraced areas and connected structures aimed to limit the accumulation of solid material along the main waterway.

  6. From management to mediation: local forestry management and the forestry crisis in post-socialist Russia.

    PubMed

    Eikeland, Sveinung; Eythorsson, Einar; Ivanova, Lyudmila

    2004-03-01

    The local branches of the Russian Forestry Service, the leskhozy, were known for their efficiency and management skills in the Soviet era and were one of the very few community-based "Soviet-type" institutions to survive the transition. This article examines the role of the leskhozy in the new market economy. Our analysis is based on data from interviews with informants attached to the forestry sector in the Murmansk area. In some cases their knowledge of the leskhozy stretches back to the emergence of the system in 1947. Our principal finding is that the struggle to survive as a federal body in the current legal and economic climate is forcing the leskhozy to relegate sustainable forestry management, presumably their primary raison d'être, to the lower portions of their list of priorities. Several consequences result. There is a heightened incidence of illegal logging, and corruption informs the allocation of forest areas to private interests. Stumpage prices have plummeted as timber from subsidized commercial cutting (ostensibly sanitary cutting or thinning) has flooded the markets. The root cause of these tribulations lies with the market-based harvesting permit system. Its introduction in the 1990s did little to eliminate the self-seeking practices of the old Soviet forestry management hierarchies. In the free market, local forestry managers can turn their dual responsibilities to their own advantage inasmuch as they control the allocation of harvesting permits while at the same time controlling logging practices. PMID:15085405

  7. Sustainable Urban Forestry Potential Based Quantitative And Qualitative Measurement Using Geospatial Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, A. Z.; Reba, M. N. M.; Roslan, N.; Room, M. H. M.

    2014-02-01

    In order to maintain the stability of natural ecosystems around urban areas, urban forestry will be the best initiative to maintain and control green space in our country. Integration between remote sensing (RS) and geospatial information system (GIS) serves as an effective tool for monitoring environmental changes and planning, managing and developing a sustainable urbanization. This paper aims to assess capability of the integration of RS and GIS to provide information for urban forest potential sites based on qualitative and quantitative by using priority parameter ranking in the new township of Nusajaya. SPOT image was used to provide high spatial accuracy while map of topography, landuse, soils group, hydrology, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and soil series data were applied to enhance the satellite image in detecting and locating present attributes and features on the ground. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique provides structural and pair wise quantification and comparison elements and criteria for priority ranking for urban forestry purpose. Slope, soil texture, drainage, spatial area, availability of natural resource, and vicinity of urban area are criteria considered in this study. This study highlighted the priority ranking MCDM is cost effective tool for decision-making in urban forestry planning and landscaping.

  8. Valorisation of forestry waste by pyrolysis in an auger reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Puy, Neus; Murillo, Ramon; Navarro, Maria V.; Lopez, Jose M.; Rieradevall, Joan; Fowler, G.; Aranguren, Ignacio; Garcia, Tomas; Bartroli, Jordi; Mastral, Ana M.

    2011-06-15

    Pyrolysis of forestry waste has been carried out in an auger reactor to study the influence of operational variables on the reactor performance and the properties of the related products. Pine woodchips were used for the first time as raw material and fed continuously into the reactor. Ten experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere at: (i) different reaction temperature (1073, 973, 873, 823 and 773 K); (ii) different solid residence time (5, 3, 2 and 1.5 min); and (iii) different biomass flow rate (3.9, 4.8 and 6.9 kg/h). Results show that the greatest yields for liquid production (59%) and optimum product characterisation were obtained at the lowest temperature studied (773 K) and applying solid residence times longer than 2 min. Regarding bio-oil properties, GC/MS qualitative identification show that the most abundant compounds are volatile polar compounds, phenols and benzenediols; and very few differences can be observed among the samples regardless of the pyrolysis operating conditions. On the whole, experimental results demonstrate that complete reaction of forest woodchips can be achieved in an auger reactor in most of the experimental conditions tested. Moreover, this study presents the initial steps for the future scaling up of the auger reactor with the aim of converting it into a mobile plant which will be able to remotely process biomass such as energy crops, forestry and agricultural wastes to obtain bio-oil that, in turn, can be used as energy vector to avoid high transport costs.

  9. Introducing Urban Food Forestry: A Multifunctional Strategy for Enhancing Urban Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Clark, K.

    2012-12-01

    We propose combining elements of urban agriculture and urban forestry into what we call "urban food forestry" (UFF), the practice of growing perennial woody food-producing species ("food trees") in cities. We used four approaches at different scales to gauge the potential of UFF to enhance urban sustainability, in the context of trends including increasing urbanization, resource demands, and climate change. First, we analyzed 37 current international initiatives based around urban food trees, finding that core activities included planting, mapping, and harvesting food trees, but that only about a quarter of initiatives engaged in more than one of these activities necessary to fully utilize the food potential of urban trees. Second, we analyzed 30 urban forestry master plans, finding that only 13% included human food security among their objectives. Third, we used Burlington, Vermont as a case study to quantify the potential caloric output of publicly accessible open space if planted with Malus domestica (the common apple) under 9 different scenarios. We found that the entire caloric deficit of the very low food security population could be met on as few as 29 hectares (representing 16% of total open space), and that 98% of the daily recommended minimum intake of fruit for the entire city's population could be met under the most ambitious planting scenario. Finally, we developed a decision-making tool for selecting potential food trees appropriate for temperate urban environments, the Climate-Food-Species Matrix. We identified a total of 70 species, 30 of which we deemed "highly suitable" for urban food forestry based on their cold hardiness, drought tolerance, and edibility. We conclude that urban food forestry provides multiple pathways for building urban sustainability through local food production, and that our framework can be used to increase the coordination between and effectiveness of a growing number of related initiatives.

  10. Using satellite remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to improve understanding of crop management and agricultural water use at regional to global scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Jessica Meghan

    Croplands are essential to human welfare. In the coming decades, croplands will experience substantial stress from climate change, population growth, changing diets, urban expansion, and increased demand for biofuels. Food security in many parts of the world therefore requires informed crop management and adaptation strategies. In this dissertation, I explore two key dimensions of crop management with significant potential to improve adaptation pathways: irrigation and crop calendars. Irrigation, which is widely used to boost crop yields, is a key strategy for adapting to changes in drought frequency and duration. However, irrigation competes with household, industrial, and environmental needs for freshwater resources. Accurate information regarding irrigation patterns is therefore required to develop strategies that reduce unsustainable water use. To address this need, I fused information from remote sensing, climate datasets, and crop inventories to develop a new global database of rain-fed, irrigated, and paddy croplands. This database describes global agricultural water management with good realism and at higher spatial resolution than existing maps. Crop calendar management helps farmers to limit crop damage from heat and moisture stress. However, global crop calendar information currently lacks spatial and temporal detail. In the second part of my dissertation I used remote sensing to characterize global cropping patterns annually, from 2001-2010, at 0.08 degree spatial resolution. Comparison of this new dataset with existing sources of crop calendar data indicates that remote sensing is able to correct substantial deficiencies in available data sources. More importantly, the database provides previously unavailable information related to year-to-year variability in cropping patterns. Asia, home to roughly one half of the Earth's population, is expected to experience significant food insecurity in coming decades. In the final part of my dissertation, I used a

  11. Hydrologic Conditions and Quality of Rainfall and Storm Runoff in Agricultural and Rangeland Areas in San Patricio County, Texas, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2002-01-01

    During 2000?2001, rainfall and runoff were monitored in one mixed agricultural watershed and two rangeland watersheds in San Patricio County, located in the Coastal Bend area of South Texas. During this period, five rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for selected nutrients. Ten runoff samples from nine runoff events were collected at the three watershed monitoring stations. Runoff samples were analyzed for selected nutrients, major ions, trace elements, pesticides, and bacteria. Study area rainfall during 2000 and 2001 was 33.27 and 28.20 inches, respectively, less than the long-term average annual of 36.31 inches. Total runoff from the study area watersheds during 2000?2001 was 2.46 inches; the regional average is about 2 inches per year. Rainfall and runoff during the study period was typical of historical patterns, with periods of below average rainfall interspersed with extreme events. Three individual storm events accounted for about 29 percent of the total rainfall and 86 percent of the total runoff during 2000?2001. Runoff concentrations of nutrients, major ions, and trace elements generally were larger in the mixed agricultural watershed than runoff concentrations in the rangeland watersheds. Pesticides were detected in two of eight runoff samples. Three pesticides (atrazine, deethylatrazine, and trifluralin) were detected in very small concentrations; only deethylatrazine was detected in a concentration greater than the laboratory minimum reporting level. Bacteria in agricultural and rangeland runoff is a potential water-quality concern as all fecal coliform and E. coli densities in the runoff samples exceeded Texas Surface Water Quality Standards for receiving waters. However, runoff and relatively large bacteria densities represent very brief and infrequent conditions, and the effect on downstream water is not known. Rainfall deposition is a major source of nitrogen delivered to the study area. Rainfall nitrogen (mostly ammonia and nitrate

  12. Maintenance and recovery of agricultural terraces to reduce geo-hydrological hazards: the Santa Giulia in Centaura (Liguria, Italy) and Valstagna (Veneto, Italy) case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giostrella, Paola; Ferrarese, Francesco; Faccini, Francesco; Brandolini, Pierluigi; Lazzeri, Riccardo; Melillo, Massimo; Mozzi, Paolo; Varotto, Mauro; Tarolli, Paolo; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the World, men have built terraced landscapes to gain ground suitable for cultivation in steep terrain. Beyond the historical and cultural importance of terraced slopes, terraces have played an important role for soil conservation and water management. In many areas, their abandonment has led to more frequent and/or abundant geo-hydrological hazards. We analyse two terraced areas in northern Italy, including (i) the Valstagna prealpine terraces (Veneto) where the Republic of Venice initiated the cultivation of tobacco in 1600, and (ii) the coastal terraces of Santa Giulia di Centaura (Liguria) where terraces host vineyards and olive groves since 2000 years. Using a combination of direct and indirect mapping methods and tools, including LiDAR topographic surveys, the visual interpretation of aerial photographs and the analysis of historical maps, we performed a systematic mapping of the terraces. Using the available maps, we determined statistics for the width, height and extent of stonewalls and we evaluated the historical evolution of the terraces for the past 50 years, considering changes in land use, the expansion of forest, and the changes in the precipitation regime. Finally, through a preliminary cost-benefit analysis, we propose good practices to help the recovery of the terraces in the two study areas.

  13. A Decision Support System for Climate Change Adaptation in Rainfed Sectors of Agriculture for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mátyás, Csaba; Berki, Imre; Drüszler, Áron; Eredics, Attila; Gálos, Borbála; Illés, Gábor; Móricz, Norbert; Rasztovits, Ervin; Czimber, Kornél

    2013-04-01

    • Background and aims: Rainfed sectors of agriculture such as nature-close forestry, non-irrigated agriculture and animal husbandry on nature-close pastures are threatened by projected climate change especially in low-elevation regions in Southeast Europe, where precipitation is the limiting factor of production and ecosystem stability. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimization is increasing. The aim of the Decision Support System under development is to raise awareness and initiate preparation for frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses in the mentioned sectors. • Services provided: The Decision Support System provides GIS-supported information about the most important regional and local risks and mitigation options regarding climate change impacts, projected for reference periods until 2100 (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, potential production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.). The projections are referring first of all on biological production (natural produce), but the System includes also social and economic consequences. • Methods: In the raster based system, the latest image processing technology is used. We apply fuzzy membership functions, Support Vector Machine and Maximum Likelihood classifier. The System is developed in the first step for a reference area in SW Hungary (Zala county). • Novelty: The coherent, fine-scale regional system integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions and expected production potential for three sectors of agriculture as options for land use and conservation. • Funding: The development of the Decision Support System "Agrárklíma" is supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV and 4.2.2.B-10/1-2010-0018 "Talentum" joint EU-national research projects. Keywords: climate change

  14. Assessing the Impacts of Land Use Change from Cotton to Perennial Bioenergy Grasses on Hydrological Fluxes and Water Quality in a Semi-Arid Agricultural Watershed Using the APEX Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Ale, S.; Rajan, N.

    2015-12-01

    The semi-arid Texas High Plains (THP) region, where cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is grown in vast acreage, has the potential to grow perennial bioenergy grasses. A change in land use from cotton cropping systems to perennial grasses such as Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Miscanthus giganteus (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. [Poaceae]) can significantly affect regional hydrologic cycle and water quality. Assessing the impacts of this potential land use change on hydrology and water quality enables the environmental assessment of feasibility to grow perennial grasses in this region to meet the U.S. national bioenergy target of 2022. The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was used in this study to assess the impacts of replacing cotton with switchgrass and Miscanthus on water and nitrogen balances in the upstream subwatershed of the Double Mountain Fork Brazos watershed in the THP, which contains 52% cotton land use. The APEX model was initially calibrated against observed streamflow and crop yield data. Since observed data on nitrogen loads in streamflow was not available for this subwatershed, we calibrated the APEX model against the SWAT-simulated nitrogen loads at the outlet of this subwatershed, which were obtained in a parallel study. The calibrated APEX model was used to simulate the impacts of land use change from cotton to Miscanthus and switchgrass on surface and subsurface water and nitrogen balances. Preliminary results revealed that the average (1994-2009) annual surface runoff decreased by 84% and 66% under the irrigated and dryland switchgrass scenarios compared to the baseline scenarios. Average annual percolation increased by 106% and 57% under the irrigated and dryland switchgrass scenarios relative to the baseline scenarios. Preliminary results also indicated Miscanthus and switchgrass appeared to be superior to cotton in terms of better water conservation and water quality, and minimum crop management requirements.

  15. Hydrology and water quality in the Green River and surrounding agricultural areas near Green River in Emery and Grand Counties, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, S.J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Wilberg, D.E.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Water from the Colorado River and its tributaries is used for municipal and industrial purposes by about 27 million people and irrigates nearly 4 million acres of land in the Western United States. Water users in the Upper Colorado River Basin consume water from the Colorado River and its tributaries, reducing the amount of water in the river. In addition, application of water to agricultural land within the basin in excess of crop needs can increase the transport of dissolved solids to the river. As a result, dissolved-solids concentrations in the Colorado River have increased, affecting downstream water users. During 2004-05, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Natural Resources Conservation Service, investigated the occurrence and distribution of dissolved solids in water from the agricultural areas near Green River, Utah, and in the adjacent reach of the Green River, a principle tributary of the Colorado River. The flow-weighted concentration of dissolved solids diverted from the Green River for irrigation during 2004 and 2005 was 357 milligrams per liter and the mean concentration of water collected from seeps and drains where water was returning to the river during low-flow conditions was 4,170 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from the shallow part of the ground-water system ranged from 687 to 55,900 milligrams per liter. Measurable amounts of dissolved solids discharging to the Green River are present almost exclusively along the river banks or near the mouths of dry washes that bisect the agricultural areas. The median dissolved-solids load in discharge from the 17 drains and seeps visited during the study was 0.35 ton per day. Seasonal estimates of the dissolved-solids load discharging from the study area ranged from 2,800 tons in the winter to 6,400 tons in the spring. The estimate of dissolved solids discharging from the study area annually is 15,700 tons. Water samples collected from selected sites within

  16. Long-term trends in alkalinity in large rivers of the conterminous US in relation to acidification, agriculture, and hydrologic modification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stets, Edward G.; Kelly, Valerie J.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2014-01-01

    Alkalinity increases in large rivers of the conterminous US are well known, but less is understood about the processes leading to these trends as compared with headwater systems more intensively examined in conjunction with acid deposition studies. Nevertheless, large rivers are important conduits of inorganic carbon and other solutes to coastal areas and may have substantial influence on coastal calcium carbonate saturation dynamics. We examined long-term (mid-20th to early 21st century) trends in alkalinity and other weathering products in 23 rivers of the conterminous US. We used a rigorous flow-weighting technique which allowed greater focus on solute trends occurring independently of changes in flow. Increasing alkalinity concentrations and yield were widespread, occurring at 14 and 13 stations, respectively. Analysis of trends in other weathering products suggested that the causes of alkalinity trends were diverse, but at many stations alkalinity increases coincided with decreasing nitrate + sulfate and decreasing cation:alkalinity ratios, which is consistent with recovery from acidification. A positive correlation between the Sen–Thiel slopes of alkalinity increases and agricultural lime usage indicated that agricultural lime contributed to increasing solute concentration in some areas. However, several stations including the Altamaha, Upper Mississippi, and San Joaquin Rivers exhibited solute trends, such as increasing cation:alkalinity ratios and increasing nitrate + sulfate, more consistent with increasing acidity, emphasizing that multiple processes affect alkalinity trends in large rivers. This study was unique in its examination of alkalinity trends in large rivers covering a wide range of climate and land use types, but more detailed analyses will help to better elucidate temporal changes to river solutes and especially the effects they may have on coastal calcium carbonate saturation state.

  17. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  18. Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture - an initiative of the University of West Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyas, Cs.; Berki, I.; Drüszler, A.; Eredics, A.; Galos, B.; Moricz, N.; Rasztovits, E.

    2012-04-01

    In whole Central Europe agricultural production is highly vulnerable and sensitive to impacts of projected climatic changes. The low-elevation regions of the Carpathian Basin (most of the territory of Hungary), where precipitation is the minimum factor of production, are especially exposed to climatic extremes, especially to droughts. Rainfed agriculture, animal husbandry on nature-close pastures and nature-close forestry are the most sensitive sectors due to limited possibilities to counterbalance moisture supply constraints. These sectors have to be best prepared to frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses. So far, there is a lack of information about the middle and long term consequences on regional and local level. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimation is increasing. The aim of the initiative is to set up a fine-scale, GIS-based, complex, integrated system for the definition of the most important regional and local challenges and tasks of climate change adaptation and mitigation in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and also nature protection. The Service Center for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture is planned to provide the following services: § Complex, GIS-supported database, which integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions; § Evaluation of existing satellite-based and earth-based monitoring systems; § GIS-supported information about the future trends of climate change impacts on the agroecological potential and sensitivity status on regional and local level (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.) in fine-scale horizontal resolution, based first of all on natural produce, including also social and economic consequences; § Complex decision supporting system on

  19. Problems and Conditions of Workers' Organisations in Agriculture and Implications for Workers' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The background, achievements, problems, and future plans of various workers' organizations in agriculture are discussed: International Federation of Plantation, Agricultural, and Allied Workers; Trade Union International of Agricultural, Forestry, and Plantation Workers; World Federation of Agricultural Workers; and the Asian Trade Union College.…

  20. Technology transfer in agriculture. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in agriculture. Topics include applications of technology transfer in aquaculture, forestry, soil maintenance, agricultural pollution, agricultural biotechnology, and control of disease and insect pests. Use of computer technology in agriculture and technology transfers to developing countries are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 235 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Technology transfer in agriculture. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in agriculture. Topics include applications of technology transfer in aquaculture, forestry, soil maintenance, agricultural pollution, agricultural biotechnology, and control of disease and insect pests. Use of computer technology in agriculture and technology transfers to developing countries are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 178 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; hydrology of a small carbonate site near Ephrata, Pennsylvania, prior to implementation of nutrient management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koerkle, E.H.; Hall, D.W.; Risser, D.W.; Lietman, P.L.; Chichester, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, investigated the effects of agricultural best-management practices on water quality in the Conestoga River headwaters watershed. This report describes environmental factors and the surface-water and ground-water quality of one 47.5-acre field site, Field-Site 2, from October 1984 through September 1986, prior to implementation of nutrient management. The site is partially terraced agricultural cropland underlain by carbonate rock. Twenty-seven acres are terraced, pipe-drained, and are under no-till cultivation. The remaining acreage is under minimum-till cultivation. Corn is the primary crop. The average annual rate of fertilization at the site was 480 pounds per acre of nitrogen and 110 pounds per acre of phosphorus. An unconfined limestone and dolomitic aquifer underlies the site, Depth to bedrock ranges from 5 to 30 feet below land surface. Estimated specific yields range from 0.05 to 0.10, specific capacities of wells range from less than 1 to about 20 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown, and estimates of transmissivities range from 10 to 10,000 square feet per day. Average ground-water recharge was estimated to be about 23 inches per year. The specific capacity and transmissivity data indicate that two aquifer regimes are present at the site. Wells drilled into dolomites in the eastern part of the site have larger specific capacities (averaging 20 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown) relative to specific capacities (averaging less than 1 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown) of wells drilled into limestones in the western part of the site. Median concentrations of soil-soluble nitrate and soluble phosphorus in the top 4 feet of silt- or silty-clay-loam soil ranged from 177 to 329 and 8.5 to 35 pounds per acre, respectively. Measured runoff from the pipe-drained terraces ranged from 10 to 48,000 cubic feet and was

  3. Hydrologic modeling in semi-arid agricultural region: An integrated approach to study water resources in southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sagarika

    Drought is one of the most severe natural hazards in the world. This research aims at assessing the limited water resources for better crop-water irrigation and conservation of a drought affected agricultural area in California. Evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the most important parameters to study crop water use for irrigation scheduling and water management. The remote sensing based ET estimation using Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) is the efficient way to understand crop water use. Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) quantifies plant stress under different field conditions. The remote sensing approach allows efficient irrigation by applying water when symptoms of water stress appear. To avoid water stress and poor productivity, agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater extraction. The flow of percolated irrigated water and identification of potential recharge area in the field can minimize the water stress. A thorough understanding of the ET processes and reliable estimates of ET as well as precipitation are required to obtain reliable estimates for water balance. Results show that the average actual evapotranspiration (ETa) estimated from SEBAL, and Penman-Monteith (PM) was 0.67 mm/h and 0.75 mm/h respectively, with a mean percent difference of 0.109%. The analysis shows that the CWSI when greater than 0.5 resulted in maximum stress whereas the well-irrigated almond crops have CWSI less than 0.24. The flow of groundwater can indirectly influence the status of water stress and ET. It was observed that the groundwater is flowing towards the east of the study area. Excess irrigated water contributes to groundwater recharge. The average Water Surface Elevation (WSE) in 1955 for the growing season (May to July) is 161.04 m. This value is low when compared to those of 2009, 2010, and 2011, which are 237.14 m, 236.28 m, and 235.74 m respectively. The result shows that the average WSE in the wells increased. The total annual

  4. Career Preparation in Agriculture Project. Career Preparation Programs for Potential Agribusinessmen, Agricultural Agency Employees, and Agriculture Teachers. Final Report, July 1, 1977-June 30, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S.; And Others

    The purpose of this project was to develop innovative agricultural education programs within the comprehensive high school setting in selected school districts in Mississippi. The following programs were implemented: horticulture (Starkville Vocational Center); vocational forestry (Lamar County); agricultural suppliers and services program (Alcorn…

  5. Agricultural and forest resource surveys from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    An overview is presented on the use of spaceborne remote sensors as aid to agriculture and forestry for soil mapping, crop yield predictions, acreage determinations, damage assessment, and numerous other benefits. Some results obtained by ERTS 1 are discussed in terms of the significance of information derived and the potential use of these data for better management of our natural resources.

  6. Computer Software for Forestry Technology Curricula. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Roy C.; Scobie, Walter R.

    Since microcomputers are being used more and more frequently in the forest products industry in the Pacific Northwest, Green River Community College conducted a project to search for BASIC language computer programs pertaining to forestry, and when possible, to adapt such software for use in teaching forestry technology. The search for applicable…

  7. A Forestry Manual for Ontario Secondary School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, G. R.

    This manual is designed for use in a 1-year, grade 11 forestry course. The manual consists of eight units that focus on: (1) dendrology (tree description); (2) forestry measurements; (3) maps and aerial photography; (4) Canadian forest geography; (5) logging and utilization; (6) forest management and silviculture (the science and art of…

  8. Forestry/Forest Products. Subject Matter Update 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication recognizes the constantly changing requirements of the forestry/forest products industry and varying conditions for employment opportunities. It addresses the goal of relevance in education by enabling the educator to make timely adjustments in the subject matter of the forestry/forest products curriculum. There are six sections…

  9. Forestry. Guide to Standards and Implementation. Career & Technology Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

    This Alberta curriculum guide defines competencies that help students build daily living skills, investigate career options in forestry occupations, use technology in the forestry field effectively and efficiently, and prepare for entry into the workplace or related postsecondary programs. The first section provides a program rationale and…

  10. 77 FR 4276 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Register of December 28, 2011, in FR doc. 2011-33216 on page 81472 in the first column, correct the... Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council. The official FACA meeting scheduled in Washington, DC,...

  11. Estimating relative climatic change impact on groundwater of agricultural demand and recharge component in a multi-resources hydrological supply system: The case of the Fortore water supply system (South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyennon, Nicolas; Romano, Emanuele; Mariani, Davide; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Portoghese, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of shortage events on a water supply system can be investigated through models that simulate hydrological processes by describing the atmosphere/surface water/soil/groundwater interfaces, water demand variability and management options for different uses. However, when the supply system is fed by several water resources and dynamics changes of demand, it is necessary to develop models able to simulate the cause-effect mechanisms that involve not only the water budget physical processes, but also the choices of the users in terms of distribution of the demand among each resource and the actions implemented by the managers. The proposed overall model merges: (i) a 1 km2 discrete monthly soil water mass balance model (G-MAT) to estimate recharge to the aquifer, soil water content and surface runoff; (ii) a stochastic model based on a multi linear regression of standard precipitation index (SPI-Q) to reproduce inflow to surface water storage; (iii) a simple monthly reservoir water balance model considering inflow, demands and storage volumes; (iiii) a simple groundwater lumped budget model that considers soil recharge and well extraction following the management rules of the water supply system and the available surface water storage. While we consider the only seasonal variability for domestically and industrial water demand, the agricultural demand is estimated on the base of the monthly soil water content. The developed overall model has been implemented for the case study of the Fortore water supply system (Apulia region, South Italy), managed by the Consorzio di Bonifica della Capitanata. It allows to simulate the conjunctive use of the water from the Occhito artificial reservoir (160 Mm3) and from groundwater. We successfully reproduce the Occhito dam level variability (both seasonal and inter-annual) as well as the observed groundwater depletion until the early 2000 and the following recover. The resulting model is able to monitor relative

  12. Mechanization in short rotation intensive culture (SRIC) forestry

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, B.; Hartsough, B.

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes the information presented at an international conference on SRIC mechanization held in Mobile, Alabama during March 1994. Most of the approximately 20,000 ha of operational plantations in the United States are intended primarily for pulp production, with energy as a byproduct, therefore trees are grown to larger sizes than in dedicated energy plantations. Essentially all mechanization in the U.S. has been limited to the use of conventional agricultural equipment for site preparation and cultural activities, and conventional forestry equipment for harvesting. Most planting is done by hand. The relatively small scale of SRIC plantations, diversity of site condition and range of material requirements make the development of specialized equipment less attractive, yet development efforts in Sweden are yielding large gains in harvesting efficiency for small trees intended solely for energy use. A cooperative endeavor in the U.S. involving growers, researchers, manufacturers and government agencies might provide similar results for larger trees to be converted into pulp or liquid fuel.

  13. A distributed multi-compartment hydrological model with dynamic vegetation and nutrient turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Gayler, Sebastian; Streck, Thilo; Selle, Benny; Klein, Christian; Priesack, Eckart; Singh, Ashok; Kalbacher, Thomas; Wang, Wenqing; Kolditz, Olaf

    2013-04-01

    Agricultural practices impact soils and the wider environment (groundwater, receiving water courses and ponds, etc.) with various feedback loops. For instance, groundwater extraction may increase infiltration rates and nitrate leaching from the plant root zone. To assess such inter-compartment feedbacks with a numerical model, the object-oriented modeling platform OpenGeoSys (OGS), which is designed for Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical processes in porous and fractured media (open to the public via www.opengeosys.org), is coupled with the soil-plant-atmosphere model system Expert-N. Latter consists of interchangeable sub-modules for thermo-hydro-chemical processes at land surfaces subject to agricultural production and forestry. In the resulting model, OGS solves partial differential equations through a Galerkin finite element approach to transfer water, air, heat and nitrogen compounds in the overland, soil and aquifer compartments, while Expert-N provides source / sink terms for evapotranspiration, plant growth, and nutrient turnover (mineralization, denitrification, etc.). General criteria are determined to guarantee stability when coupling hydrological compartments by iterating and to ensure that inter-compartment water and solute fluxes are insensitive to variations in leakage. Test cases include a synthetic surface-subsurface flow benchmark with evapotranspiration (Panday & Huyakorn problem) and a cross section of the Ammer catchment in South-West Germany, where precipitation water flows to groundwater wells, which are used for the supply of potable water.

  14. Thermal contouring of forestry data: Wallops Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F.

    1972-01-01

    The contouring of 8-13.5 micrometer thermal data collected over a forestry site in Virginia is described. The data were collected at an altitude of 1000 ft above terrain on November 4, 1970. The site was covered on three approximately parallel lines. The purpose of the contouring was to attempt to delineate pine trees attacked by southern pine bark beetle, and to map other important terrain categories. Special processing steps were required to achieve the correct aspect ratio of the thermal data. The reference for the correction procedure was color infrared photography. Data form and quality are given, processing steps are outlined, a brief interpretation of results is given, and conclusion are presented.

  15. Bullying within the Forestry Organizations of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N = 835). Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations. PMID:23853543

  16. Interaction between land-use change and fire regime and its impact on eco-hydrological response in the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, Nadia; Romano, Nunzio

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades the average number of forest fires throughout the Mediterranean basin is increased significantly making the territory more vulnerable to extreme hydrological events. At the same time, as a result of improved economic conditions, a widespread abandonment of agricultural regions determined an expansion of the wooded area. As cropland is progressively abandoned, other species invade and consequently the control over the territory diminishes. The increase in fuel for fire and the loss of inhabitants with sense of responsibility are linked here to the modified fire regime following an eco-hydrologically driven predator-prey modeling approach where fire is conceptualized as the predator and the forest species as prey. This research extends upon a previous study that demonstrated how climate, vegetation composition, and soil properties may drive the fire frequency and intensity toward different characterization, and provides a quantitative estimate of the interrelation between climate, fire, land cover composition and changes in land-use. Outcomes of this research may have useful implications when evaluating hydrological ecosystem services provision and potential hazards in agro-forestry systems, such as efficient allocation of available water resources, flood, protection from soil erosion, etc.

  17. Enhancing NASA's Contribution to Arctic Terrestrial Hydrology and the Study of Polar Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. E.; Elfring, C.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; McGuire, A. D.

    2001-12-01

    vegetative distribution, and effects of changes in growing season and primary production on agriculture, forestry and disturbance regimes (e.g., fire, insects).

  18. A brief background on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed 1857

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed research is critical for quantifying the unique characteristics of hydrologic processes worldwide and especially in semiarid regions. In 1953, the United States Department of Agriculture established the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) near Tombstone, Arizona, to conduct hydrolog...

  19. Career Preparation in Agricultural Resources: A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Householder, Larry

    This curriculum guide in agricultural resources is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes eight occupational subgroups: fish, forestry, mining area restoration, outdoor recreation, soil, range, water, and wildlife. It is…

  20. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations. 780.215... forestry or lumbering operations. The term forestry or lumbering operations refers to the cultivation and... considers the sec. 13(b)(28) exemption for forestry or logging operations in which not more than...

  1. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations. 780.215... forestry or lumbering operations. The term forestry or lumbering operations refers to the cultivation and... considers the sec. 13(b)(28) exemption for forestry or logging operations in which not more than...

  2. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations. 780.215... forestry or lumbering operations. The term forestry or lumbering operations refers to the cultivation and... considers the sec. 13(b)(28) exemption for forestry or logging operations in which not more than...

  3. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations. 780.215... forestry or lumbering operations. The term forestry or lumbering operations refers to the cultivation and... considers the sec. 13(b)(28) exemption for forestry or logging operations in which not more than...

  4. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations. 780.215... forestry or lumbering operations. The term forestry or lumbering operations refers to the cultivation and... considers the sec. 13(b)(28) exemption for forestry or logging operations in which not more than...

  5. Current status and future potential of energy derived from Chinese agricultural land: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Ningning; Mao, Chunlan; Feng, Yongzhong; Zhang, Tong; Xing, Zhenjie; Wang, Yanhong; Zou, Shuzhen; Yin, Dongxue; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe

    2015-01-01

    Energy crisis is receiving attention with regard to the global economy and environmental sustainable development. Developing new energy resources to optimize the energy supply structure has become an important measure to prevent energy shortage as well as achieving energy conservation and emission reduction in China. This study proposed the concept of energy agriculture and constructed an energy agricultural technical support system based on the analysis of energy supply and demand and China's foreign dependence on energy resources, combined with the function of agriculture in the energy field. Manufacturing technology equipment and agricultural and forestry energy, including crop or forestry plants and animal feces, were used in the system. The current status and future potential of China's marginal land resources, energy crop germplasm resources, and agricultural and forestry waste energy-oriented resources were analyzed. Developing the function of traditional agriculture in food production may promote China's social, economic, and environmental sustainable development and achieve energy saving and emission reduction. PMID:25874229

  6. Current Status and Future Potential of Energy Derived from Chinese Agricultural Land: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Chunlan; Feng, Yongzhong; Zhang, Tong; Xing, Zhenjie; Wang, Yanhong; Zou, Shuzhen; Yin, Dongxue; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe

    2015-01-01

    Energy crisis is receiving attention with regard to the global economy and environmental sustainable development. Developing new energy resources to optimize the energy supply structure has become an important measure to prevent energy shortage as well as achieving energy conservation and emission reduction in China. This study proposed the concept of energy agriculture and constructed an energy agricultural technical support system based on the analysis of energy supply and demand and China's foreign dependence on energy resources, combined with the function of agriculture in the energy field. Manufacturing technology equipment and agricultural and forestry energy, including crop or forestry plants and animal feces, were used in the system. The current status and future potential of China's marginal land resources, energy crop germplasm resources, and agricultural and forestry waste energy-oriented resources were analyzed. Developing the function of traditional agriculture in food production may promote China's social, economic, and environmental sustainable development and achieve energy saving and emission reduction. PMID:25874229

  7. A Description and Source Listing of Curriculum Materials in Agricultural Education, 1970-1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Agricultural Education Div.

    To provide teachers of vocational agriculture, agricultural supervisors, and agricultural teacher educators with information on current curriculum materials available to them, this annotated bibliography presents 207 references classified according to the AGDEX filing system. Topics are: (1) Field Crops, (2) Horticulture, (3) Forestry, (4) Animal…

  8. A Description and Source Listing of Curriculum Materials in Agricultural Education. 1972-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Agricultural Education Div.

    Listed are 246 curriculum material items in ten categories: field crops, horticulture, forestry, animal science, soils, diseases and pests, agricultural engineering, agricultural economics, agricultural occupations, and professional. Most materials are annotated and all are classified according to the AGPEX filing system. Bibliographic and…

  9. 25 CFR 163.83 - Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture. 163.83... FORESTRY REGULATIONS Program Assessment § 163.83 Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture. The Secretary of the Interior may ask the Secretary of Agriculture, through the Forest Service, on...

  10. 25 CFR 163.83 - Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture. 163.83... FORESTRY REGULATIONS Program Assessment § 163.83 Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture. The Secretary of the Interior may ask the Secretary of Agriculture, through the Forest Service, on...

  11. 25 CFR 163.83 - Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture. 163.83... FORESTRY REGULATIONS Program Assessment § 163.83 Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture. The Secretary of the Interior may ask the Secretary of Agriculture, through the Forest Service, on...

  12. 25 CFR 163.83 - Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture. 163.83... FORESTRY REGULATIONS Program Assessment § 163.83 Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture. The Secretary of the Interior may ask the Secretary of Agriculture, through the Forest Service, on...

  13. 25 CFR 163.83 - Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture. 163.83... FORESTRY REGULATIONS Program Assessment § 163.83 Assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture. The Secretary of the Interior may ask the Secretary of Agriculture, through the Forest Service, on...

  14. Future tendencies of climate indicators important for adaptation and mitigation strategies in forestry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galos, Borbala; Hänsler, Andreas; Gulyas, Krisztina; Bidlo, Andras; Czimber, Kornel

    2014-05-01

    impact analyses and build an important basis of the future adaptation strategies in forestry, agriculture and water management. Funding: The research is supported by the TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0013 and TÁMOP-4.1.1.C-12/1/KONV-2012-0012 (ZENFE) joint EU-national research projects. Keywords: climate indices, climate change impacts, forestry, regional climate modelling

  15. Remote sensing in forestry: Application to the Amazon region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A.; Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of satellite remote sensing in forestry is reviewed with emphasis on studies performed for the Brazilian Amazon Region. Timber identification, deforestation, and pasture degradation after deforestation are discussed.

  16. Present/future California Department of Forestry remote sensing activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosta-Miller, N.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of LANDSAT data in forestry inventories in California is summarized. Problems in selecting meaningful classification systems, utilization of supervised or unsupervised classification systems, and data smoothing are discussed.

  17. Directory of selected tropical forestry journals and newsletters

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, C.; Durst, P.B.; Freed, E.

    1994-01-01

    Heightened public and professional interest in tropical forestry has led in recent years to a large increase in the volume of information produced on the subject. The directory catalogues and describes 473 tropical forestry periodicals, ranging from scientific journals to informal newsletters. Entries are arranged alphabetically and provide information on each journals focus, audience, language, frequency of publication, availability, and cost, as well as address, and telephone, fax, and telex number. Includes subject, geographic, and language indexes.

  18. Accidents in family forestry's firewood production.

    PubMed

    Lindroos, Ola; Aspman, Emma Wilhelmson; Lidestav, Gun; Neely, Gregory

    2008-05-01

    Firewood is commonly used around the world, but little is known about the work involved in its production and associated accidents. The objectives were to identify relationships between accidents and time exposure, workers' age and sex, equipment used and work activities in family forestry's firewood production. Data from a postal survey in Northern Sweden were compared to a database of injuries in the same region. Most accidents occurred to 50-69 year old men, who also worked most hours. No significant differences in sex and age were found between expected and recorded accident frequencies when calculated from total work hours; however, when calculated using numbers of active persons significant differences were found for both age and sex. Frequency of accidents per unit worked time was higher for machine involving activities than for other activities. Accidents that occurred when using wedge splitter machines were responsible for most of this overrepresentation. Fingers were the most commonly injured body parts. Mean accident rate for the equipment used was 87 accidents per million work hours, and the rate was highest for wedge splitters (122 accidents per million work hours). Exposure to elevated risks due to violation of safety procedures is discussed, as well as possible preventative measures. PMID:18460354

  19. EVALUATION OF HYDROLOGIC MODELS IN THE DESIGN OF STABLE LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates the utility of two hydrologic models in designing stable landfill cover systems. The models evaluated were HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) and CREAMS (Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems). Studies of paramet...

  20. S.3240 — 112th Congress (2011-2012) Agriculture Reform, Food, and Jobs Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Stabenow, Debbie [D-MI

    2012-05-24

    08/28/2012 By Senator Stabenow from Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry filed written report under authority of the order of the Senate of 08/02/2012. Report No. 112-203. Additional views filed. (All Actions)

  1. S.954 — 113th Congress (2013-2014) Agriculture Reform, Food, and Jobs Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Stabenow, Debbie [D-MI

    2013-05-14

    09/04/2013 By Senator Stabenow from Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry filed written report under authority of the order of the Senate of 08/01/2013. Report No. 113-88. Additional views filed. (All Actions)

  2. Hydrological cycle.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, H C; Mercante, M A; Santos, E T

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water. PMID:21537597

  3. Agriculture Education. Agriculture Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agriculture structures. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) shop safety, (2) identification and general use of hand tools, (3) power tools, (4) carpentry, (5) blueprint…

  4. Hydrology day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel-Seytoux, H. J.

    Registration for the Hydrology Day sponsored by the Front Range Branch of AGU on April 23 at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado, totaled 121 participants, of whom 61 were students.Thirty-one individuals joined the Front Range Branch. Three students from Colorado State University won the awards for best paper in their category: Thomas W. Anzia (Sr.), ‘A Comprehensive Table of Standard Deviates for Confidence Limits on Extreme Events’ Victor Nazareth (M.S.), ‘Aquifer Properties from Single-Hole Aquifer Tests’ and Roy W. Koch (Ph.D.), ‘A Physically Based Derivation of the Distribution of Excess Precipitation.’ Judges for the awards were Dr. Bittinger, Resource Consultants, Fort Collins; George Leavesley and Daniel Bauer, USGS, Water Resources Division, Denver; Scott Tucker, Executive Director, Denver Urban Drainage and Flood Control District; Charles Brendecke, Department of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder.

  5. Hydrology team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragan, R.

    1982-01-01

    General problems faced by hydrologists when using historical records, real time data, statistical analysis, and system simulation in providing quantitative information on the temporal and spatial distribution of water are related to the limitations of these data. Major problem areas requiring multispectral imaging-based research to improve hydrology models involve: evapotranspiration rates and soil moisture dynamics for large areas; the three dimensional characteristics of bodies of water; flooding in wetlands; snow water equivalents; runoff and sediment yield from ungaged watersheds; storm rainfall; fluorescence and polarization of water and its contained substances; discriminating between sediment and chlorophyll in water; role of barrier island dynamics in coastal zone processes; the relationship between remotely measured surface roughness and hydraulic roughness of land surfaces and stream networks; and modeling the runoff process.

  6. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction. PMID:26479843

  7. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forestry sector of The Gambia: Analysis based on COMAP model

    SciTech Connect

    Jallow, B.P.

    1996-12-31

    Results of the 1993 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory of The Gambia showed net CO{sub 2} emissions of over (1.66 x 10{sup 6} tons) and 1% was due to uptake by plantations (0.01 x 10{sup 6} tons). This is a clear indication that there is need to identify changes in the land-use policy, law and tenure that discourages forest clearing at the same time significantly influencing the sustainable distribution of land among forestry, rangeland and livestock, and agriculture. About 11% of the total area of The Gambia is either fallow or barren flats that once supported vegetation and hence is still capable of supporting vegetation. The US Country Study Programme has provided the Government of The Gambia through the National Climate Committee funds to conduct Assessment of Mitigation Options to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The Forestry Sector is one area for which assessment is being conducted. The assessment is expected to end in September 1996. The Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) is one of the Models supplied to the National Climate Committee by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, on behalf of the US Country Study Programme, and is being used to conduct the analysis in The Gambia.

  8. The expansion of farm-based plantation forestry in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Sandewall, Mats; Ohlsson, Bo; Sandewall, R Kajsa; Viet, Le Sy

    2010-12-01

    This study targets plantation forestry by farm households (small holders), which is increasing globally and most rapidly in China and Vietnam. By use of an interdisciplinary approach on three study sites in Vietnam, we examined the trends in farmers' tree planting over time, the various pre-requisites for farm-based plantation forestry and its impact on rural people's livelihood strategies, socioeconomic status, income and security. The findings indicated a change from subsistence to cash-based household economy, diversification of farmers' incomes and a transformation of the landscape from mainly natural forests, via deforestation and shifting cultivation, to a landscape dominated by farm-based plantations. The trend of transformation, over a period of some 30 years, towards cash crops and forestry was induced by a combination of policy, market, institutional, infrastructural and other conditions and the existence of professional farming communities, and was most rapid close to the industrial market. PMID:21141776

  9. HYDROLOGIC UNITS - NORTH CAROLINA (14-DIGIT HUC BOUNDARIES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Raleigh Office in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, and the NC Dept. of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality developed the Hydrologi...

  10. HYDROLOGIC UNITS - NORTH CAROLINA (6-DIGIT HUC BOUNDARIES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Raleigh Office in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, and the NC Dept. of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality developed the Hydrologi...

  11. HYDROLOGIC UNITS - NEUSE RIVER BASIN, NC 5-KM BUFFERED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Raleigh Office in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, and the NC Dept. of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality developed the Hydrologi...

  12. HYDROLOGIC UNITS - NORTH CAROLINA (8-DIGIT HUC BOUNDARIES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Raleigh Office in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, and the NC Dept. of Envirmnment, Health and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality developed the Hydrologi...

  13. HYDROLOGIC UNITS - NORTH CAROLINA (11-DIGIT HUC BOUNDARIES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Raleigh Office in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, and the NC Dept. of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality developed the Hydrologi...

  14. The Potential for Long-Term Sustainability in Seminatural Forestry: A Broad Perspective Based on Woodpecker Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lõhmus, Asko; Nellis, Renno; Pullerits, Mirjam; Leivits, Meelis

    2016-03-01

    We assessed ecological sustainability of seminatural forestry by analyzing 80-year dynamics and the current distribution of all woodpecker species in Estonia. We found that, despite the clear-cutting-based forestry system, woodpeckers inhabited commercial seminatural forests in substantial numbers, including the species generally considered vulnerable to timber harvesting. The only negative trend, a drastic decline in the Green Woodpecker, paralleled the loss of seminatural, wooded grasslands and is mostly an issue for landscape planning and agricultural land use. Major silvicultural factors supporting other species in commercial forests include natural regeneration with multiple native tree species and deadwood abundance. In such context, the main role of protected areas is to provide ecological resilience; however, we estimated that the current strict reserves could further double their carrying capacities for woodpeckers through successional recovery and, perhaps, active restoration. The long time series used were instrumental in detecting unexpected dynamics and the impacts of climatically extreme years. We conclude that (1) seminatural forestry can serve as a basis for reconciling timber harvesting and biodiversity protection at the landscape scale, given appropriate attention to key structures and landscape zoning and (2) woodpeckers represent a biological indicator system for the sustainability of forest landscapes in Europe.

  15. The Potential for Long-Term Sustainability in Seminatural Forestry: A Broad Perspective Based on Woodpecker Populations.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Asko; Nellis, Renno; Pullerits, Mirjam; Leivits, Meelis

    2016-03-01

    We assessed ecological sustainability of seminatural forestry by analyzing 80-year dynamics and the current distribution of all woodpecker species in Estonia. We found that, despite the clear-cutting-based forestry system, woodpeckers inhabited commercial seminatural forests in substantial numbers, including the species generally considered vulnerable to timber harvesting. The only negative trend, a drastic decline in the Green Woodpecker, paralleled the loss of seminatural, wooded grasslands and is mostly an issue for landscape planning and agricultural land use. Major silvicultural factors supporting other species in commercial forests include natural regeneration with multiple native tree species and deadwood abundance. In such context, the main role of protected areas is to provide ecological resilience; however, we estimated that the current strict reserves could further double their carrying capacities for woodpeckers through successional recovery and, perhaps, active restoration. The long time series used were instrumental in detecting unexpected dynamics and the impacts of climatically extreme years. We conclude that (1) seminatural forestry can serve as a basis for reconciling timber harvesting and biodiversity protection at the landscape scale, given appropriate attention to key structures and landscape zoning and (2) woodpeckers represent a biological indicator system for the sustainability of forest landscapes in Europe. PMID:26620054

  16. Agriculture Reform, Food, and Jobs Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Stabenow, Debbie [D-MI

    2012-05-24

    08/28/2012 By Senator Stabenow from Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry filed written report under authority of the order of the Senate of 08/02/2012. Report No. 112-203. Additional views filed. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: NON-AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDE USERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide provides an overview of non-agricultural pesticide se and presents options for minimizing waste through source-reduction and recycling. onagricultural pesticide users are defined as lawn garden; forestry, tree and shrub; sanitary; structural; nursery; and greenhouse pe...

  18. Agricultural utilization of ERTS-1 data in Thailand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheosakul, P.; Indrambarya, B.; Morgan, J. O.; Vibulsresth, S.

    1974-01-01

    Recent advances made in three disciplinary areas that are of major importance to Thailand are briefly discussed. These areas are; (1) agriculture, (2) forestry, and (3) land use. Preliminary investigations of the ERTS-1 data have been so successful that the Thai Government has decided to develop a remote sensing data handling and research center.

  19. Managing for soil protection and bioenergy production on agricultural lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy systems are needed that can aid in meeting the growing energy demands of the expanding human population without sacrificing the long-term sustainability, productivity and quality of the underlying natural resources. Agriculture, like the forestry sector, will produce the feedstocks. While ...

  20. Forestry, geology and hydrological investigations from ERTS-1 imagery in two areas of Ecuador, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, N. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Oriente area, well-drained forests containing commercially valuable hardwoods can be recognized confidently and delineated quickly on the ERTS imagery. In the tropical rainforest, ERTS can provide an abundance of inferential information about large scale geologic structures. ERTS imagery is better than normal aerial photography for recognizing linears. The imagery is particularly useful for updating maps of the distributary system of the Guagas River Basin and of any other river with a similarly rapid changing channel pattern.

  1. Restoration Hydrology: Synthesis of Hydrologic Data for Historical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. R.; Agarwal, D.; van Ingen, C.

    2009-12-01

    The inclusion of hydrologic data from various sources into a common cyber-infrastructure is essential for hydrologic synthesis in support of aquatic habitat restoration. With a compilation of all USGS watershed stream gauging records and all NOAA precipitation records for California, long-term as well as short-term watershed data can be made available for habitat restoration plans. This data synthesis would be tedious based on prior technology and thus was not frequently undertaken in the past. A few examples illustrate the essential role of cyber-infrastructure in restoration hydrology. When annual precipitation and runoff are examined for Coastal California watersheds, there is a near constancy in actual annual evapotranspiration that is watershed scale invariant over drainage areas from 1 to 3000 square kilometers. Another example examines stream baseflow recession in multiple streams where agricultural practices have changed over the last 40 years. These analyses are quantifying the magnitude of the human-induced change. Maintaining stream baseflows in summer months in central California coastal streams is essential for migratory fish habitat restoration, and the availability of an appropriate cyber-infrastructure significantly eases that assessment. The final example where data management was essential in habitat assessment was an examination of early spring river flows that had daily fluctuations caused by agricultural needs for frost protection in grape vineyards. Farmers anticipated frost conditions by night-time water extractions which in combination with low river flows negatively impacted the stream habitat for salmonids. These applications of cyber-infrastructure are being handed off to resource agency personnel to have them directly engage in restoration hydrology.

  2. Risk of tick-borne diseases in various categories of employment among forestry workers in eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Cisak, Ewa; Zając, Violetta; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Among the zoonotic agents causing occupational diseases, those transmitted by ticks are very important, in particular the spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi which are the common cause of occupational Lyme borreliosis in forestry and agricultural workers. The objective of this study was an evaluation of the exposure of forestry workers employed at individual workplaces to infection with tick-borne pathogens (especially Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes), based on epidemiological investigation and serologic tests. Epidemiological studies covered 111 forestry employees from eastern Poland employed in 4 randomly-selected forest inspectorates which replied to questions in the area of epidemiology and prophylaxis of diseases transmitted by ticks. Eighty-two forestry workers employed in one forest inspectorate were examined for the presence of specific anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies. The correlation between individual items of the questionnaire was assessed by Spearman's test. Results of serological tests were assessed by Mann-Whitney test. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that the workers performing manual jobs in the forest are at the greatest risk of tick bite and contraction of tick-borne disease. They are aware of the risk, but use the improper method of removal of ticks with the fingers. Comparisons of the relationship between job category and the results of serologic study, expressed in BBU/ml, revealed that the serologic response was significantly greater in manual workers than in administrative workers (p=0.019). All other comparisons did not produce significant results. Therefore, providing a simple tweezer-like device to forest inspectorates seems to be an effective mean of protection against Lyme borreliosis and other tick-borne diseases. PMID:23020041

  3. Hydrology and sediment yield calibration for the Barasona reservoir catchment (Spain) using SWAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazón, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2013-04-01

    Hydrological and soil erosion models, as Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), have become very useful tools and increasingly serve as vital components of integrated environmental assessments that provide information outside of direct field experiments and causal observation. The purpose of this study was to improve the calibration of SWAT model to use it in an alpine catchment as a simulator of processes related to water quality and soil erosion. SWAT is spatially semi-distributed, agro-hydrological model that operates on a daily time step (as a minimum) at basin scale. It is designed to predict the impact of management on water, sediment and agricultural chemical yields in ungaged catchments. SWAT provides physically based algorithms as an option to define many of the important components of the hydrologic cycle. The input requirements of the model are used to describe the climate, soil properties, topography, vegetation, and land management practices. SWAT analyzes small or large catchments by discretising into sub-basins, which are then further subdivided into hydrological response units (HRUs) with homogeneous land use, soil type and slope. SWAT model (SWAT2009) coupled with a GIS interface (ArcSWAT), was applied to the Barasona reservoir catchment located in the central Spanish Pyrenees. The 1509 km2 agro-forestry catchment presents a mountain type climate, an altitudinal range close to 3000 meters and a precipitation variation close to 1000 mm/km. The mountainous characteristics of the catchment, in addition to the scarcity of climate data in the region, require specific calibration for some processes. Snowfall and snowmelt are significant processes in the hydrologic regime of the area and were calibrated in a previous work. In this work some of the challenges of the catchment to model with SWAT which affected the hydrology and the sediment yield simulation were performed as improvement of the previous calibration. Two reservoirs, a karst system which

  4. Social Sciences in Forestry, A Current Selected Bibliography, No. 55, June 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Judith L., Ed.

    Documents which address the interface between forestry and the social sciences comprise this annotated bibliography. The publications described are grouped under five headings: (1) social science applied to forestry at large; (2) applied to forestry's productive agents; (3) applied to forest production; (4) applied to manufacturing; and (5)…

  5. Social Sciences in Forestry. A Current Selected Bibliography and Index, No. 67.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Jean, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This is the sixth issue of Social Sciences in Forestry which provides a current annotated bibliographic listing of references related to four major areas of forestry. The main categories include: (1) applications to forestry at large (containing citings on resources, history, legislation, economics, education, research, technology, and…

  6. Social Sciences in Forestry. A Current Selected Bibliography and Index. No. 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Jean, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This is the eighth issue of "Social Sciences in Forestry," which provides a current annotated bibliographic listing of references related to four major areas of forestry. The main categories include: (1) applications to forestry at large (containing citings on resources, history, legislation, policy, planning, appraisal and valuation, investment…

  7. Social Sciences in Forestry. A Current Selected Bibliography and Index. No. 72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Jean, Ed.; Rodkewich, Patricia, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This issue of "Social Sciences in Forestry" provides an annotated bibliographic listing of 648 current references arranged according to four major areas of forestry: (1) social sciences applications to forestry at large (containing citations on resources, history, legislation, policy, planning, appraisal and valuation, investment and finance,…

  8. Social Sciences in Forestry. A Current Selected Bibliography and Index. No. 71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Jean, Ed.; Rodkewich, Patricia, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This issue of "Social Sciences in Forestry" provides an annotated bibliographic listing of 682 current references arranged according to four major areas of forestry: (1) social sciences applications to forestry at large (containing citations on resources, history, legislation, policy, planning, appraisal and valuation, investment and finance,…

  9. Social Sciences in Forestry. A Current Selected Bibliography and Index. No. 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Jean, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This is the seventh issue of Social Sciences in Forestry, a publication which provides a current annotated bibliographic listing of references related to four major areas of forestry. The main categories are: (1) applications to forestry at large (containing citations on resources, history, legislation, policy, planning, appraisal and evaluation,…

  10. Social Sciences in Forestry. A Current Selected Bibliography and Index. No. 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Jean, Ed.; Rodkewich, Patricia, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This issue of "Social Sciences in Forestry" provides an annotated bibliographic listing of 592 current references arranged according to four major areas of forestry: (1) applications to forestry at large (containing citings on resources, history, legislation, policy, planning, appraisal and valuation, investment and finance, taxation,…

  11. Social Sciences in Forestry. A Current Selected Bibliography and Index. No. 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Jean, Ed.; Rodkewich, Patricia, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This issue of "Social Sciences in Forestry" provides an annotated bibliographic listing of 660 current references arranged according to four major areas of forestry: (1) applications to forestry at large (containing citings on resources, history, legislation, policy, planning, appraisal and valuation, investment and finance, taxation,…

  12. Social Sciences in Forestry, A Current Selected Bibliography, No. 42, February 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Joan, Comp.

    Compiled is a selected bibliography of social sciences in forestry, including economic, historic, sociological, and business aspects. Five major inclusive categories are the following: social science applied to forestry at large, applied to forestry's productive agents, applied to forest production, applied to manufacturing, and applied to…

  13. Social Sciences in Forestry, a Current Selected Bibliography, No. 38, October 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Amy, Comp.

    Compiled is a selected bibliography of social sciences in forestry, including economic, historic, sociological, and business aspects. Five major inclusive categories are the following: social science applied to forestry at large, applied to forestry's productive agents, applied to forest production, applied to manufacturing, and applied to…

  14. Social Sciences in Forestry, A Current Selected Bibliography, No. 49, June 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauby, Anne, Ed.

    Compiled is a selected bibliography of social sciences in forestry, including economic, historic, sociological, and business aspects. Five major inclusive categories are the following: (1) social science applied to forestry at large; (2) applied to forestry's productive agents; (3) applied to forest production; (4) applied to manufacturing; and…

  15. Social Sciences in Forestry, A Current Selected Bibliography, No. 40, June 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Amy, Comp.

    Compiled is a selected bibliography of social sciences in forestry, including economic, historic, sociological, and business aspects. Five major inclusive categories are the following: social science applied to forestry at large, applied to forestry's productive agents, applied to forest production, applied to manufacturing, and applied to…

  16. Social Sciences in Forestry, A Current Selected Bibliography, No. 48, February 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauby, Anne, Ed.

    Compiled is a selected bibliography of social sciences in forestry, including economic, historic, sociological, and business aspects. Five major inclusive categories are the following: social science applied to forestry at large, applied to forestry's productive agents, applied to forest production, applied to manufacturing, and applied to…

  17. Social Sciences in Forestry, A Current Selected Bibliography, No. 41, October 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts, Cindy, Comp.

    Compiled is a selected bibliography of social sciences in forestry, including economic, historic, sociological, and business aspects. Five major inclusive categories are the following: social science applied to forestry at large, applied to forestry's productive agents, applied to forest production, applied to manufacturing, and applied to…

  18. 40 CFR 49.134 - Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for forestry and silvicultural... Provisions General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.134 Rule for forestry... permitting program for forestry and silvicultural burning within the Indian reservation to control...

  19. 78 FR 58994 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council Meetings AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council... recommended to the public and those attending the Partners in Community Forestry Conference; finalize...

  20. 40 CFR 49.134 - Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rule for forestry and silvicultural... Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for forestry and silvicultural burning within the...

  1. 75 FR 68599 - Solicitation for Membership to the Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Office of the Secretary Solicitation for Membership to the Forestry Research Advisory Council AGENCY... nominations to fill thirteen vacancies on the Forestry Research Advisory Council. DATES: Nominations must be..., Senior Staff Assistant, U.S. Forest Service; Research and Development, Forestry Research Advisory...

  2. 40 CFR 49.134 - Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rule for forestry and silvicultural... Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for forestry and silvicultural burning within the...

  3. 40 CFR 49.134 - Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rule for forestry and silvicultural... Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for forestry and silvicultural burning within the...

  4. Differences in Forestry Students' Perceptions across Study Years in a Brazilian Undergraduate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arevalo, Javier; Jarschel, Barbara; Pitkanen, Sari; Tahvanainen, Liisa; Enkenberg, Jorma

    2010-01-01

    Forestry higher curricula reform is being debated globally. This study examines the views of students on aspects related to forestry education and the profession, focusing on how these views differ across the study years of a higher education forestry program. The objective of the study was to investigate the differences across study years with…

  5. 40 CFR 49.134 - Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rule for forestry and silvicultural... Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for forestry and silvicultural burning within the...

  6. Nitrate removal and denitrification in headwater agricultural streams of the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    Headwater streams can serve as important sites for nitrogen (N) removal in watersheds. Here we examine the influence of agricultural streams on watershed N export in the Willamette River Basin of western Oregon, USA, a region with mixed agricultural, urban and forestry land uses...

  7. New Brunswick`s forestry sector. Forest report number 7

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, D.D.; Simpson, C.M.

    1991-12-31

    The report presents data on the New Brunswick forestry industry, including forest land area, ownership, stock inventory, wood utilization, forest management expenditures, volume of roundwood production, silviculture activities, economic benefits from forest, fish, and wildlife, fuelwood consumption, Christmas tree production, maple syrup production, forest sector employment, salaries, income taxes from the industry, exports, and gross domestic product due to the forest sector.

  8. Community Forestry and the Social Ecology of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabarle, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Community forestry is an approach to forest management that could protect the environment while benefiting the rural poor by restoring local control of natural resources. Three interrelated issues must be addressed: land and resource tenure, development of local organizational and management skills, and adapting technology for sustainable…

  9. Forestry Activities. A Guide for Youth Group Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Twenty-six activities related to forestry, conservation, and outdoor education comprise the content of this leader's guide. Designed for use with youth groups, ideas and techniques range from forest conservation mobiles, locating forest fires, and Christmas tree uses to litterbug campaigns, watershed experiments, and crossword puzzles. Activities…

  10. Economic principles to appraise agro-forestry projects

    SciTech Connect

    Harou, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    Basic economic principles and the classical project evaluation technique can be satisfactorily used to solve investment decisions for agroforestry projects. Recommendations made for this type of appraisal are to: concentrate on the small farm participants; study the forestry component and risk diversification; detail the externalities; and consider the cultural environment. 15 references.

  11. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Forestry Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ffolliott, Peter F.; Thames, John L.

    This manual, the third in a series of publications that address community development possibilities in developing nations, provides guidelines for small-scale forestry projects that are integrative and conservation-oriented. Chapters focus on: (1) users and uses (specifying targeted audience and general objectives); (2) planning process (including…

  12. Forestry/Forest Products Cluster Brief. Vocational Education in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Howard

    This guide sets forth minimum approval criteria for vocational forestry/forest products training programs in Oregon. The curriculum emphasizes the basic skills of forest management, harvesting, and manufacturing. The information in the guide is intended for use by district-level curriculum planners, teachers, regional coordinators, or state…

  13. 7 CFR 1410.12 - Emergency Forestry Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... damage from hurricanes in calendar year 2005 may be enrolled through the Emergency Forestry Conservation... hurricane-affected county due to 2005 hurricanes. (c) The provisions of § 1410.4 do not apply to this... practicable, native species or similar species as existing prior to hurricane damages as may be specified...

  14. 7 CFR 1410.12 - Emergency Forestry Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... damage from hurricanes in calendar year 2005 may be enrolled through the Emergency Forestry Conservation... hurricane-affected county due to 2005 hurricanes. (c) The provisions of § 1410.4 do not apply to this... practicable, native species or similar species as existing prior to hurricane damages as may be specified...

  15. 7 CFR 1410.12 - Emergency Forestry Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... damage from hurricanes in calendar year 2005 may be enrolled through the Emergency Forestry Conservation... hurricane-affected county due to 2005 hurricanes. (c) The provisions of § 1410.4 do not apply to this... practicable, native species or similar species as existing prior to hurricane damages as may be specified...

  16. 7 CFR 1410.12 - Emergency Forestry Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... damage from hurricanes in calendar year 2005 may be enrolled through the Emergency Forestry Conservation... hurricane-affected county due to 2005 hurricanes. (c) The provisions of § 1410.4 do not apply to this... practicable, native species or similar species as existing prior to hurricane damages as may be specified...

  17. Act No. 15.939 on Forestry, 28 December 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Act sets forth the basic forestry law of Uruguay. It defines forest land and the duties of the forestry service, which include afforestation and the protection of forests. Forest land is divided into two categories, public and private. Afforestation by the owners of private land is obligatory when declared necessary by a Presidential Order. If the required planting is not completed, the owner is subject to a monthly fine and the land may be taken by the State. Both kinds of land are subject to basic protection provisions, including limitations on operations and transfers affecting protection and natural forests and general requirements concerning fire protection, pests, and diseases. Any unauthorized operation prejudicial to a protected forest is prohibited and the author is required to reforest without the benefit of financial incentives. In addition, the Act gives the authorities the power to prohibit transit, settlement, logging, grazing, and other activities in state forests. The Act also establishes a Forestry Fund and provides for the encouragement of afforestation through tax and financial benefits and direct intervention. It calls for an amount equivalent to the cost of 10,000 hectares of reforestation to be set aside for forest development each year and requires the Executive to produce a five-year forestry plan setting the number of hectares to be reforested each year. Further provisions of the Act describe enforcement procedures and penalties, among other things. PMID:12289490

  18. University Green: How Urban Forestry Partnerships Plant More Than Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Patricia; Maslin, Mindy; Pringle, Susan M.; Van Clief, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The University Green program of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society (PHS) is an urban forestry partnership between four universities and their surrounding communities. The program offers excellent strategies for fostering improved college-community relations and stewardship by students and residents alike. University Green aims to improve the…

  19. Forestry Tour Educates Youth in North Central Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Randall H.; Moroney, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    The Clearwater County Sixth Grade Forestry Tour is a unique 3-day, 2-night program that provides participants an objective view of the importance and impact of natural resource-based industries while promoting an understanding of issues regarding natural resource uses. The targeted audience is 6th grade youth, but others interested in natural…

  20. Virginia's Link to Education about Forestry (LEAF) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsell, John F.; Gagnon, Jennifer L.; Barrett, Scott; Powell, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Virginia's LEAF Program incorporates educational opportunities with heritage experiences and technology to advance forestry education in the Commonwealth. Statewide heritage-based outdoor classrooms use an integrated outdoor learning system to provide both formal and informal education. Online learning modules are coupled with the classrooms to…

  1. An Educational Evaluation of Web-Based Forestry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Shorna Broussard; Smallidge, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Online forestry education can serve large populations of woodland owners and managers. Cornell University's ForestConnect program initiated the nation's first woodlot management educational webinar series. We conducted an educational evaluation to determine: (1) the educational impact of the ForestConnect Webinar series, (2) the involvement of new…

  2. Treatments of Precipitation Inputs to Hydrologic Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrological models are used to assess many water resources problems from agricultural use and water quality to engineering issues. The success of these models are dependent on correct parameterization; the most sensitive being the rainfall input time series. These records can come from land-based ...

  3. Development and deforestation: Indian forestry in perspective.

    PubMed

    Haeuber, R

    1993-07-01

    Discussion focused primarily on the industrial demand for forest resources, which were affected by India's policies and contributed to deforestation. Forest policy failed due to inadequate understanding and knowledge of the social, political, and economic complexities of consuming forest resources. Policy can be beneficial when it fulfills national goals and satisfies the needs of competing interests. Future efforts must take into account that economic development will be constrained by ecological systems and must serve to improve the quality of life, rather than improve the quantity of goods and services produced. Development must also be concerned with stabilizing population growth. Approaches must not focus exclusively on population pressure or commercialization. The task of reformulating concepts of development is one that India and all countries face. According to the National Remote Sensing Agency, forests covered 14.1% of India's territory in 1980-82; this forest area has decreased by 22.4% in 10 years. Over 40 years, the development strategy and political context has been to increase agricultural productivity through land clearing rather than land reform, and industrial demand was given priority. This postindependence strategy followed in the footsteps of British colonial policy, and the dominant theoretical and practical knowledge of development at the time. The assumptions were based on an infinite supply of natural resources and perfect substitutability of resources. Progress in economic development was based on measures such as the gross national product or the national income accounts. The consequence was a neglect of the needs of poor rural populations, and increasing pressure on forest resources. India's development strategy is traced from 1947 when it had vast undeveloped resources and a large work force capability through the various 5-year plans directed to expanding agricultural production and to achieving rapid industrialization. PMID:12286769

  4. Effects of hydrology and field management on phosphorus transport in surface runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural landscapes arise from the interaction of hydrologic, edaphic and management factors, complicated by their spatial and temporal variability. We monitored sites along two agricultural hillslopes to assess the effects of field management and hydrology on P trans...

  5. Introduction to hydrology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrology deals with the occurrence, movement, and storage of water in the Earth system. Hydrologic science comprises understanding the underlying physical and stochastic processes involved and estimating the quantity and quality of water in the various phases and stores. The study of hydrology als...

  6. Multi-disciplinary assessments of climate change impacts on agriculture to support adaptation decision making in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Mariko; Kanamaru, Hideki

    2016-04-01

    Many existing climate change impact studies, carried out by academic researchers, are disconnected from decision making processes of stakeholders. On the other hand many climate change adaptation projects in developing countries lack a solid evidence base of current and future climate impacts as well as vulnerabilities assessment at different scales. In order to fill this information gap, FAO has developed and implemented a tool "MOSAICC (Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change)" in several developing countries such as Morocco, the Philippines and Peru, and recently in Malawi and Zambia. MOSAICC employs a multi-disciplinary assessment approach to addressing climate change impacts and adaptation planning in the agriculture and food security sectors, and integrates five components from different academic disciplines: 1. Statistical downscaling of climate change projections, 2. Yield simulation of major crops at regional scale under climate change, 3. Surface hydrology simulation model, 4. Macroeconomic model, and 5. Forestry model. Furthermore MOSAICC has been developed as a capacity development tool for the national scientists so that they can conduct the country assessment themselves, using their own data, and reflect the outcome into the national adaptation policies. The outputs are nation-wide coverage, disaggregated at sub-national level to support strategic planning, investments and decisions by national policy makers. MOSAICC is designed in such a way to promote stakeholders' participation and strengthen technical capacities in developing countries. The paper presents MOSAICC and projects that used MOSAICC as a tool with case studies from countries.

  7. Remote Sensing May Provide Unprecedented Hydrological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, R.; Houser, P.; Engman, E.; Kustas, W.

    1999-01-01

    , field experiments must be designed that combine relevant satellite measurements with traditional in situ measurements in regions that are al- ready well understood hydrologically. Such field experiments can lead to the development of hydrological models that are driven with remotely sensed data. Once the performance of these models is deemed acceptable in the heavily monitored basins, they can be "transported" for use in regions having little or no in situ measurement system. Author,5: Randal D. Koster, Paul R. Houser and Edwin T. Engman, Hydrological Sciences Branch, Laboratory for Hydrospheric Process, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA; William P. Kustas, Hydrology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland, USA.

  8. Hydrology and the natural heritage of the Scottish mountains.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R C; Thompson, D B

    2002-07-22

    The physical natures of the Scottish mountains and their geographical position have created a montane environment, which can be considered as unique in European terms. The mountains of Scotland have been subjected to major environmental changes throughout the past centuries including climate change, deforestation, hydropower developments and more recently the expansion of plantation forestry. Mountain ecosystems have the ability to withstand large climatic variations and extreme events but it is suggested that they may not withstand some of the climatic barriers, which have recently been crossed. The greatest recent land use change in Scotland's mountains has been the expansion of plantation forests. The effects on headwater catchment hydrology are mainly in the reduction in runoff. It is suggested that plantation forestry has a more significant impact on the natural heritage through other influences such as water chemistry and river sediments. Future management of the Scottish mountains needs to consider the great natural heritage value in addition to other interests such as water resources, hydropower generation, commercial forestry and tourism. PMID:12169004

  9. Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fedrowitz, Katja; Koricheva, Julia; Baker, Susan C; Lindenmayer, David B; Palik, Brian; Rosenvald, Raul; Beese, William; Franklin, Jerry F; Kouki, Jari; Macdonald, Ellen; Messier, Christian; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Gustafsson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Industrial forestry typically leads to a simplified forest structure and altered species composition. Retention of trees at harvest was introduced about 25 years ago to mitigate negative impacts on biodiversity, mainly from clearcutting, and is now widely practiced in boreal and temperate regions. Despite numerous studies on response of flora and fauna to retention, no comprehensive review has summarized its effects on biodiversity in comparison to clearcuts as well as un-harvested forests. Using a systematic review protocol, we completed a meta-analysis of 78 studies including 944 comparisons of biodiversity between retention cuts and either clearcuts or un-harvested forests, with the main objective of assessing whether retention forestry helps, at least in the short term, to moderate the negative effects of clearcutting on flora and fauna. Retention cuts supported higher richness and a greater abundance of forest species than clearcuts as well as higher richness and abundance of open-habitat species than un-harvested forests. For all species taken together (i.e. forest species, open-habitat species, generalist species and unclassified species), richness was higher in retention cuts than in clearcuts. Retention cuts had negative impacts on some species compared to un-harvested forest, indicating that certain forest-interior species may not survive in retention cuts. Similarly, retention cuts were less suitable for some open-habitat species compared with clearcuts. Positive effects of retention cuts on richness of forest species increased with proportion of retained trees and time since harvest, but there were not enough data to analyse possible threshold effects, that is, levels at which effects on biodiversity diminish. Spatial arrangement of the trees (aggregated vs. dispersed) had no effect on either forest species or open-habitat species, although limited data may have hindered our capacity to identify responses. Results for different comparisons were largely

  10. Hearing profile of brazilian forestry workers' noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Adriana; Quintiliano, Juliana; Lobato, Diolen; Gonçalves, Claudia; Marques, Jair

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Researchers studying the hearing health of forestry workers have revealed the presence of a noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in this population and have concluded that the vibration of the equipment, the carbon monoxide released by motors, and pesticides might also contribute to NIHL. Objective To analyze the noise exposure in the Brazilian forestry industry workers and the effects on hearing. Methods The study sample comprised 109 employees of a company that specialized in reforestation. Their participants' mean age was 35.5 years (21 to 54 years), mean tenure at the company was 3.9 years (1 to 13 years), and mean total duration of noise exposure was 12.3 years (1 to 30 years). The existing documentation reporting on the jobs risk analysis was examined, noise level was measured, and pure tone audiometry was performed in all participants. Participants were divided into three groups according to their noise exposure levels in their current job. Results Of the participants who were exposed to noise levels less than 85 dBA (decibels with A-weighting filter), 23.8% had hearing loss, and 5.5% of the participants who were exposed to noise ranging from 85 to 89.9 dBA and 11% of the participants who were exposed to noise greater than 90 dBA had audiogram results suggestive of NIHL. Conclusion The implementation of a hearing loss prevention program tailored to forestry workers is needed. PMID:25992147

  11. Hearing Profile of Brazilian Forestry Workers' Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Adriana; Quintiliano, Juliana; Lobato, Diolen; Gonçalves, Claudia; Marques, Jair

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Researchers studying the hearing health of forestry workers have revealed the presence of a noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in this population and have concluded that the vibration of the equipment, the carbon monoxide released by motors, and pesticides might also contribute to NIHL. Objective To analyze the noise exposure in the Brazilian forestry industry workers and the effects on hearing. Methods The study sample comprised 109 employees of a company that specialized in reforestation. Their participants' mean age was 35.5 years (21 to 54 years), mean tenure at the company was 3.9 years (1 to 13 years), and mean total duration of noise exposure was 12.3 years (1 to 30 years). The existing documentation reporting on the jobs risk analysis was examined, noise level was measured, and pure tone audiometry was performed in all participants. Participants were divided into three groups according to their noise exposure levels in their current job. Results Of the participants who were exposed to noise levels less than 85 dBA (decibels with A-weighting filter), 23.8% had hearing loss, and 5.5% of the participants who were exposed to noise ranging from 85 to 89.9 dBA and 11% of the participants who were exposed to noise greater than 90 dBA had audiogram results suggestive of NIHL. Conclusion The implementation of a hearing loss prevention program tailored to forestry workers is needed. PMID:25992147

  12. Immunochemical analysis of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, a biomarker of forestry worker exposure to pyrethroid insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ki Chang; Gee, Shirley J.; Kim, Hee-Joo; Aronov, Pavel A.; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides widely used in forestry, agricultural, industrial, and residential applications have potential for human exposure. Short sample preparation time and sensitive, economical high-throughput assays are needed for biomonitoring studies that analyze a large number of samples. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for determining 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a general urinary biomarker of exposure to some pyrethroid insecticides. A mixed-mode solid-phase extraction reduced interferences from acid hydrolyzed urine and gave 110±6% recoveries from spiked samples. The method limit of quantification was 2 μg/L. Urine samples were collected from forestry workers that harvest pine cone seeds where pyrethroid insecticides were applied at ten different orchards. At least four samples for each worker were collected in a 1-week period. The 3-PBA in workers classified as high, low, or no exposure based on job analysis over all sampling days was 6.40± 9.60 (n=200), 5.27±5.39 (n=52), and 3.56±2.64 ng/mL (n=34), respectively. Pair-wise comparison of the differences in least squares means of 3-PBA concentrations among groups only showed a significant difference between high and no exposure. Although this difference was not significant when 3-PBA excretion was normalized by creatinine excretion, the general trend was still apparent. No significant differences were observed among days or orchards. This ELISA method using a 96-well plate was performed as a high-throughput tool for analyzing around 300 urine samples measured in triplicate to provide data for workers exposure assessment. PMID:21717113

  13. Modeling hydrologic and ecologic responses using a new eco-hydrological model for identification of droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Yohei; Koike, Toshio; Jaranilla-Sanchez, Patricia Ann

    2014-07-01

    Drought severely damages water and agricultural resources, and both hydrological and ecological responses are important for its understanding. First, precipitation deficit induces soil moisture deficiency and high plant water stress causing agricultural droughts. Second, hydrological drought characterized by deficit of river discharge and groundwater follows agricultural drought. However, contributions of vegetation dynamics to these processes at basin scale have not been quantified. To address this issue, we develop an eco-hydrological model that can calculate river discharge, groundwater, energy flux, and vegetation dynamics as diagnostic variables at basin scale within a distributed hydrological modeling framework. The model is applied to drought analysis in the Medjerda River basin. From model inputs and outputs, we calculate drought indices for different drought types. The model shows reliable accuracy in reproducing observed river discharge in long-term (19 year) simulation. Moreover, the drought index calculated from the model-estimated annual peak of leaf area index correlates well (correlation coefficient r = 0.89) with the drought index from nationwide annual crop production, which demonstrates that the modeled leaf area index is capable of representing agricultural droughts related to historical food shortages. We show that vegetation dynamics have a more rapid response to meteorological droughts than river discharge and groundwater dynamics in the Medjerda basin because vegetation dynamics are sensitive to soil moisture in surface layers, whereas soil moisture in deeper layers strongly contributes to streamflow and groundwater level. Our modeling framework can contribute to analyze drought progress, although analyses for other climate conditions are needed.

  14. Water Resources Research and Interdisciplinary Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeze, R. Allan

    1990-09-01

    Water Resource Research was born under the watchful eye of Walter Langbein, a modern-day Renaissance man whose interests spanned not only hydrology but all of the earth sciences, and not only the earth sciences but all of science. From its founding in1965 to the present day, the editors of WRR have always seen the journal as a medium of interdisciplinary interaction. On this 25th anniversary of WRR, I thought it might be worthwhile to look back on the interdisciplinary successes and failures of the past quarter decade, in our journal and in our science. There is no question that research in water resources is an interdisciplinary endeavor. At my university we have a graduate program in interdisciplinary hydrology on the books, and on those occasions when we gather together, there are students and faculty there from as many as seven different departments: geography, geology, soil science, forestry, civil engineering, mining engineering, and bioresource engineering. In addition, our campus hosts the Westwater Research Institute where physical scientists can get involved in interdisciplinary research with social scientists from regional and community planning, resource management, resource economics, commerce, and law. I suspect that many campuses have a similar breadth of water resources interests. It is this breadth that WRR is designed to serve.

  15. Applications of Mobile GIS in Forestry South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battad, D. T.; Mackenzie, P.

    2012-07-01

    South Australian Forestry Corporation (ForestrySA) had been actively investigating the applications of mobile GIS in forestry for the past few years. The main objective is to develop an integrated mobile GIS capability that allows staff to collect new spatial information, verify existing data, and remotely access and post data from the field. Two (2) prototype mobile GIS applications have been developed already using the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ARCGISR technology as the main spatial component. These prototype systems are the Forest Health Surveillance System and the Mobile GIS for Wetlands System. The Forest Health Surveillance System prototype is used primarily for aerial forest health surveillance. It was developed using a tablet PC with ArcMapR GIS. A customised toolbar was developed using ArcObjectsR in the Visual Basic 6 Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The resulting dynamic linked library provides a suite of custom tools which enables the following: - quickly create spatial features and attribute the data - full utilisation of global positioning system (GPS) technology - excellent screen display navigation tools, i.e. pan, rotate map, capture of flight path - seamless integration of data into GIS as geodatabase (GDB) feature classes - screen entry of text and conversion to annotation feature classes The Mobile GIS for Wetlands System prototype was developed for verifying existing wetland areas within ForestrySA's plantation estate, collect new wetland data, and record wetland conditions. Mapping of actual wetlands within ForestrySA's plantation estate is very critical because of the need to establish protection buffers around these features during the implementation of plantation operations. System development has been focussed on a mobile phone platform (HTC HD2R ) with WindowsR Mobile 6, ESRI's ArcGISR Mobile software development kit (SDK) employing ArcObjectsR written on C#.NET IDE, and ArcGIS ServerR technology. The system

  16. Climate Risk Management and Decision Support Tools for the Agriculture Sector in Lao PDR, Bangladesh, and Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allis, E. C.; Greene, A. M.; Cousin, R.

    2014-12-01

    We describe a comprehensive project for developing climate information and decision support / climate risk management tools in Lao PDR, Bangladesh and Indonesia. Mechanisms are developed for bringing the benefits of these tools to both policy makers and poor rural farmers, with the goal of enabling better management, at the farm level, of the risks associated with climate variability and change. The project comprises several interwoven threads, differentially applied in the different study regions. These include data management and quality control, development of seasonal forecast capabilities, use of dynamic cropping calendars and climate advisories, the development of longer-term climate information for both past and future and a weather index insurance component. Stakeholder engagement and capacity building served as reinforcing and complementary elements to all components. In this talk we will provide a project overview, show how the various components fit together and describe some lessons learned in this attempt to promote the uptake of actionable climate information from farmer to policy level. The applied research project was led by the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) at Columbia University with funding from the International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD) and in close collaboration with our regional partners at the Centre for Climate Risk and Opportunity Management in Southeast Asia Pacific (at Bogor Agricultural University in Indonesia), Indonesia's National Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Lao PDR's National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute (NAFRI), Laotian Department of Meteorology and Hydrology (DMH), WorldFish Center, Bangladesh Meteorology Department (BMD), and CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).

  17. Modeling GHG Emissions and Carbon Changes in Agricultural and Forest Systems to Guide Mitigation and Adaptation: Synthesis and Future Needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production systems and land use change for agriculture and forestry are important sources of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Recent commitments by the European Union, the United States, and China to reduce GHG emissions highlight the need to improve estimates of current em...

  18. Descriptions and Source Listings of Professional Information in Agricultural Education, 1966-67, 1967-68, and 1968-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Professional Information Committee.

    These annotated bibliographies contain a total of 449 references of professional information in agricultural education published annually. References are organized under headings of: (1) Agricultural Mechanics, (2) Animal Science, (3) Conservation and Forestry, (4) Curriculum Development and Course of Study, (5) Farm Business Management and…

  19. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  20. Sustained yield forestry in Sweden and Russia: how does it correspond to sustainable forest management policy?

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kjell; Angelstam, Per; Armstrong, Glen W; Axelsson, Robert; Doyon, Frederik; Hermansson, Martin; Jacobsson, Jonas; Pautov, Yurij

    2013-03-01

    This paper analyzes how sustained yield (SY) forestry is defined and implemented in Sweden and Russia, two countries with different forest-industrial regimes. We first compare definitions of SY forestry in national legislation and policies. Then we study forest management planning in two large forest management units with respect to: delivered forest products and values, how the harvest level of timber is defined, where the harvest takes place, and what treatments are used to sustain desired forest products and values. In Sweden SY forestry is maximum yield based on high-input forest management, and in Russia it is forestry based on natural regeneration with minimum investments in silviculture. We conclude that how SY forestry contributes to SFM depends on the context. Finally, we discuss the consequences of SY forestry as performed in Sweden and Russia related to its ability to support diverse forest functions, as envisioned in sustainable forest management policy. PMID:23475653

  1. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  2. New hydrology bibliography available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, Jan R.

    Hydrotitles is the first bibliography to be published specifically covering hydrology and hydrology-related sciences. With the increasing numbers of journals and publications in this area, Hydrotitles fills a long-felt need for assistance in guiding the practitioner through the mass of literature to publications that are relevant to his or her needs. The bimonthly publication is published by Geosystems (P.O. Box 40, Didcot, Oxon OX11 9BX, United Kingdom; ISSN 0953-7589, $150 per year.)Entries are arranged by a subject hierarchy according to Geosaurus, Geosystem's thesaurus of geoscience. The main subject headings are hydrology; hydrogeology; hydraulics; experimental hydrology and hydrometry; numerical hydrology; hydrogeochemistry; water quality, treatment, supply and management; environmental hydrology, water pollution and acid rain; fluvial geomorphology; glaciology; climate change; energy; equipment; computer methods; policy and law; limnology; and engineering. There follows a locational index, a stratigraphical index, a geographical index, and an author index.

  3. Agriculture: access to technology limited.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology. PMID:12293737

  4. A review of post-modern management techniques as currently applied to Turkish forestry.

    PubMed

    Dölarslan, Emre Sahin

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of six post-modern management concepts as applied to Turkish forestry. Up to now, Turkish forestry has been constrained, both in terms of its operations and internal organization, by a highly bureaucratic system. The application of new thinking in forestry management, however, has recently resulted in new organizational and production concepts that promise to address problems specific to this Turkish industry and bring about positive changes. This paper will elucidate these specific issues and demonstrate how post-modern management thinking is influencing the administration and operational capacity of Turkish forestry within its current structure. PMID:18194835

  5. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  6. Computer-aided classification for remote sensing in agriculture and forestry in Northern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejace, J.; Megier, J.; Mehl, W.

    1977-01-01

    A set of results concerning the processing and analysis of data from LANDSAT satellite and airborne scanner is presented. The possibility of performing inventories of irrigated crops-rice, planted groves-poplars, and natural forests in the mountians-beeches and chestnuts, is investigated in the Po valley and in an alphine site of Northern Italy. Accuracies around 95% or better, 70% and 60% respectively are achieved by using LANDSAT data and supervised classification. Discrimination of rice varieties is proved with 8 channels data from airborne scanner, processed after correction of the atmospheric effect due to the scanning angle, with and without linear feature selection of the data. The accuracies achieved range from 65% to more than 80%. The best results are obtained with the maximum likelihood classifier for normal parameters but rather close results are derived by using a modified version of the weighted euclidian distance between points, with consequent decrease in computing time around a factor 3.

  7. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Mycorrhizal Fungi in Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) encourage plant growth by producing growth regulators, facilitating nutrient uptake, accelerating mineralization, reducing plant stress, stimulating nodulation, providing nitrogen fixation, promoting mycorrhizal fungi, suppressing plant diseases, and funct...

  8. 78 FR 37397 - Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). SBA recognizes that changes in industry... FR 55755) seeking public comment on its proposal to increase the size standards for 11 industries in... 77 FR 55755). SBA also evaluated the level and small business share of Federal contract dollars...

  9. U.S. Agriculture and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Inventory: 1990-2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions of the three most important long-lived greenhouse gases (GHG) have increased measurably over the past two centuries. Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by approximately 35%, 155%, and 18%, respectively, since 1750. ...

  10. An original resolution authorizing expenditures by the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Stabenow, Debbie [D-MI

    2011-02-17

    02/17/2011 Referred to the Committee on Rules and Administration. (text of measure as introduced: CR S915-916) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Application of remote sensing in agriculture and forestry and ground truth documentation in resource planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Varied small scale imagery was used for detecting and assessing damage by the southern pine beetle. The usefulness of ERTS scanner imagery for vegetation classification and pine beetle damage detection and assessment is evaluated. Ground truth acquisition for forest identification using multispectral aerial photographs is reviewed.

  12. Effects of land use on fresh waters: Agriculture, forestry, mineral exploitation, urbanisation

    SciTech Connect

    Solbe, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This book offers a broad consideration of the effects of land use on fresh waters above and below ground. Experts address a wide range of issues in relation to the four major uses of land. Taken from an international conference held at the University of Stirling in 1985, coverage includes sewerage and waste-water treatment, long-term contamination of aquifers below cities, mineral exploitation, use of water in food production, wood production and more. Remedies and areas requiring further study are outlined.

  13. Environmental and economic evaluation of energy recovery from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    Four conversion methods and five residues are examined in this report, which describes six model systems: hydrolysis of corn residues, pyrolysis of corn residues, combustion of cotton-ginning residues, pyrolysis of wheat residues, fermentation of molasses, and combustion of pulp and papermill wastes. Estimates of material and energy flows for those systems are given per 10/sup 12/ Btu of recovered energy. Regional effects are incorporated by addressing the regionalized production of the residues. A national scope cannot be provided for every residue considered because of the biological and physical constraints of crop production. Thus, regionalization of the model systems to the primary production region for the crop from which the residue is obtained has been undertaken. The associated environmental consequences of residue utilization are then assessed for the production region. In addition, the environmental impacts of operating the model systems are examined by quantifying the residuals generated and the land, water, and material requirements per 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy generated. On the basis of estimates found in the literature, capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates are given for the model systems. These data are also computed on the basis of 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy recovered. The cost, residual, material, land, and water data were then organized into a format acceptable for input into the SEAS data management program. The study indicates that the most serious environmental impacts arise from residue removal rather than from conversion.

  14. Vocational Agriculture Education. Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Eddie; And Others

    To assist teachers in agricultural mechanics in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the mechanical skills and knowlege necessary for this specialized area. Six sections are included, as follow: orientation and safety; agricultural mechanics skills; agricultural power and machinery; agricultural…

  15. The Carbon Stocks of Peatlands Under Forestry in the Republic of Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellock, M.; Laperle, C.; Kiely, G.; Reidy, B.; Duffy, C.; Tobin, B.

    2009-04-01

    Under the Kyoto Protocol it is necessary for all industries (including forestry) within the Republic of Ireland to report their GHG emission sinks and sources. Forestry plays an important role within the global carbon cycle as a carbon store within the biomass (above- and below-ground), litter and soil. Along with forests, peatlands are another important store for carbon, holding around one third of the global soil carbon pool. Peatlands held very important roles for irish society for hundreds of years, i.e. agriculture, horticulture, energy etc, and cover approximately 17.2 % or 1.34 million ha of the total irish land area (Hammond, 1981) with around 260,000 ha of the peatland forested (NFI, 2007). Afforestation of peatlands began in Ireland in the 1950s with the majority of the planting being done by the state. At present the state doesn't forest peatland, but there is still substantial planting from the private sector. Afforested peatland in Ireland represents a large store of C and so far there has been no quantification of the total carbon stock of the soil. The project FORESTC is aiming to provide an analysis of the stocks of C that are stored within the afforested peatlands of Ireland. To achieve this 20 forested peatland sites around Ireland will be sampled, comprising 5 conifer, low level blanket peat sites (peats located at elevations lower than 150 m), 5 conifer, high level blanket peat sites (peats located at elevations greater than 150 m), 5 conifer basin peats and 5 mixed conifer and broadleaf basin peats. The peat will be sampled down the entire soil profile up to 10 m deep for both bulk density and carbon % every 50 cm using a peat sampler (Eijlelkamp, NL). Along with the peat samples, litter and F/H layer samples will be taken to quantify the carbon stock of the litter layer atop the peat. This data shall then be able to provide a total carbon stock of these 20 forest sites that hopefully will allow for the estimation of the total C stock of the

  16. GHG Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - Relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  17. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  18. Geology and forestry classification from ERTS-1 digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, R. D.; Herzog, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Computer classifications into seven and ten classes of two areas in central Oregon of interest to geology and forestry demonstrate the extraction of information from ERTS-1 data. The area around Newberry Caldera was classified into basalt, rhyolite obsidian, pumice flats, Newberry pumice, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, and water classes. The area around Mt. Washington was classified into two basalts, three forest, two clearcut, burn, snow, and water classes. Both also include an unclassified category. Significant details that cannot be extracted from photographic reconstitutions of the data emerge from these classifications, such as moraine locations and paleowind directions. Spectral signatures for the various rocks are comparable to those published elsewhere.

  19. Hazardous solid waste from agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, R C

    1978-01-01

    Large quantities of food processing, crop, forestry, and animal solid wastes are generated in the United States each year. The major components of these wastes are biodegradable. However, they also contain components such as nitrogen, human and animal pathogens, medicinals, feed additives, salts, and certain metals, that under uncontrolled conditions can be detrimental to aquatic, plant, animal, or human life. The most common method of disposal of these wastes is application to the land. Thus the major pathways for transmission of hazards are from and through the soil. Use of these wastes as animal feed also can be a pathway. While at this time there are no crises associated with hazardous materials in agricultural solid wastes, the potential for problems should not be underestimated. Manpower and financial support should be provided to obtain more detailed information in this area, esepcially to better delineate transport and dispersal and to determine and evaluate risks. PMID:367770

  20. Hydrologic information server for benchmark precipitation dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnery, John A.; McKee, Paul W.; Shelton, Gregory P.; Ramsey, Ryan W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will present the methodology and overall system development by which a benchmark dataset of precipitation information has been made available. Rainfall is the primary driver of the hydrologic cycle. High quality precipitation data is vital for hydrologic models, hydrometeorologic studies and climate analysis,and hydrologic time series observations are important to many water resources applications. Over the past two decades, with the advent of NEXRAD radar, science to measure and record rainfall has improved dramatically. However, much existing data has not been readily available for public access or transferable among the agricultural, engineering and scientific communities. This project takes advantage of the existing CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System ODM model and tools to bridge the gap between data storage and data access, providing an accepted standard interface for internet access to the largest time-series dataset of NEXRAD precipitation data ever assembled. This research effort has produced an operational data system to ingest, transform, load and then serve one of most important hydrologic variable sets.

  1. Principles of Snow Hydrology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snow hydrology is a specialized field of hydrology that is of particular importance for high latitudes and mountainous terrain. In many parts of the world, river and groundwater supplies for domestic, irrigation, industrial and ecosystem needs are generated from snowmelt, and an in-depth understand...

  2. Hydrologic Services Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Weather Service.

    A course to develop an understanding of the scope of water resource activities, of the need for forecasting, of the National Weather Service's role in hydrology, and of the proper procedures to follow in fulfilling this role is presented. The course is one of self-help, guided by correspondence. Nine lessons are included: (1) Hydrology in the…

  3. Hands-On Hydrology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  4. [Application of ecological classification system in China's digital forestry].

    PubMed

    Tang, Li-Na; Dai, Li-Min

    2008-02-01

    In China's conventional forest management system, there are two types of sub-compartment, i.e., the 2nd- and 3rd-level sub-compartments, which are concurrent but inconsistent in size and boundary locations. Even in the same type of sub-compartments, the inconsistency still existed at different time, which is unbeneficial to the long-term forest management planning by using digital technologies. With the mountainous region in eastern Liaoning Province as a case, this paper established an ecological classification system (ECS), which contained 5 ecological land types (ELTs) and 34 ecological land type phases (ELTPs). Based on the basic technical needs of China's digital forestry, the ELTPs could be used as a fixed sub-compartment system. A compatible forest inventory system was designed then. It was concluded that ecosystem management based on ECS and geospatial information technologies combined with computer models and decision-support systems would be the important component of digital forestry. PMID:18464630

  5. Agriculture, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, R.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of remotely sensed data in agriculture are enumerated. These include: predictions of forage for range animal consumption, forest management, soil mapping, and crop inventory and management.

  6. Agriculture Reform, Food, and Jobs Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2013-01-22

    01/22/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. (text of measure as introduced: CR S48-156) (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2642, which became Public Law 113-79 on 2/7/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Agriculture Reform, Food, and Jobs Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Stabenow, Debbie [D-MI

    2013-05-14

    09/04/2013 By Senator Stabenow from Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry filed written report under authority of the order of the Senate of 08/01/2013. Report No. 113-88. Additional views filed. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2642, which became Public Law 113-79 on 2/7/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. The Academic Roots of Forestry Programs: A Case Study from Virginia Tech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copenheaver, Carolyn A.; Nelson, Katie L.; Goldbeck, Kryrille

    2009-01-01

    Constructing academic genealogies involves the practice of creating family trees based on doctoral advisors, that is, the advisor-graduate student relationship replaces the father-son relationship. Forestry academic genealogies document the historical development of forestry and quantify the contributions of other disciplines. In this study, the…

  9. Forestry Technical Advisory Committee on Curriculum Development. Job Clusters, Competencies and Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Montana Coll., Havre. Montana Center for Vocational Education, Research, Curriculum and Personnel Development.

    This skills inventory for forestry occupations was developed by a technical committee in Montana to assist in the development of model curricula and to address state labor market needs. The committee included employers from the forestry industry, members from trade and professional associations, and educators. The validated task list and defined…

  10. 29 CFR 788.10 - “Preparing * * * other forestry products.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âPreparing * * * other forestry products.â 788.10 Section... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.10 “Preparing * * * other...

  11. 29 CFR 788.10 - “Preparing * * * other forestry products.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âPreparing * * * other forestry products.â 788.10 Section... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.10 “Preparing * * * other...

  12. 4-H and Forestry Afterschool Clubs: A Collaboration to Foster Stewardship Attitudes and Behaviors in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Angela S.; Grant, Samantha; Strauss, Andrea Lorek

    2012-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension's 4-H and Forestry Afterschool program combined the 4-H structure and various forestry curricula to foster positive attitudes towards the environment and stewardship-related behaviors as these may serve as precursors to later choices that benefit the environment. Evaluation of third through fifth grade…

  13. 29 CFR 788.10 - “Preparing * * * other forestry products.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âPreparing * * * other forestry products.â 788.10 Section... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.10 “Preparing * * * other...

  14. 29 CFR 788.10 - “Preparing * * * other forestry products.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âPreparing * * * other forestry products.â 788.10 Section... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.10 “Preparing * * * other...

  15. 29 CFR 788.10 - “Preparing * * * other forestry products.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPreparing * * * other forestry products.â 788.10 Section... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.10 “Preparing * * * other...

  16. Extension, Communities, and Schools: Results of a Collaborative Forestry Education Project in Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Shorna R.; Jones, Stephen B.

    2001-01-01

    Penn State Extension, Philadelphia community leaders, school district administrators, and teachers developed a comprehensive program to teach inner-city youth about forestry and forest management. Evaluation results indicate that students were more knowledgeable about forestry and forest management; teachers were more likely to use natural…

  17. In every drop a job - On the nexus between Water, Economic Development and Jobs and key role of socio-hydrology for good policy making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Connor, Rick; Kogacul, Engin

    2016-04-01

    This presentation is based on the main findings of the World Water Development Report (WWDR) 2016 entitled Water and Jobs. It clearly demonstrates the linkage between water, jobs and economic development and the important role socio-hydrology has to play to inform society and support good policy making. Water is an essential component of national and local economies, and is needed to create and maintain jobs across all sectors of the economy. Half of the global workforce is employed in eight water and natural resource-dependent industries: agriculture, forestry, fisheries, energy, resource-intensive manufacturing, recycling, building and transport. Sustainable water management, water infrastructure and access to a safe, reliable and affordable supply of water and adequate sanitation services improve living standards, expand local economies, and lead to the creation of more decent jobs and greater social inclusion. Sustainable water management is also an essential driver of green growth and sustainable development. Conversely, neglecting water issues runs the risk of imposing serious negative impacts on economies, livelihoods and populations with potentially catastrophic and extremely costly results. Unsustainable management of water and other natural resources can cause severe damages to economies and to society, thus reversing many poverty reduction, job creation and hard-won development gains. Addressing the water-jobs nexus, notably through coordinated policies and investments, is therefore a prerequisite to sustainable development in both developed and developing countries and, consequently, addresses directly the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Developments and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

  18. UNTAC, CEAT, other international actions and the restoration of Cambodia`s forestry policy

    SciTech Connect

    Mareth, M.; Vanderstighelen, D.; Bann, C.; Ngongi, M.I.; Aertgeerts, R.; Eav, B.B.

    1995-03-01

    Although no verifiable hard data regarding the rate of nation-wide deforestation in Cambodia exists, it is understood that on account of increasing logging activities, uncontrolled forest fires, increased demand for agricultural land and fuel wood for charcoal production and other domestic usage, the rates of deforestation and the degradation of existing forests will continue to be on the rise if no effective policy and management plans are established soon. There now seems to be international recognition and acceptance of the fact that unless the impact of human activities are incorporated into forestry management plans, the problems of deforestation in the world`s poorest regions will continue unabated. The depletion of this natural resource brings about complex changes in the environment which results in such phenomenon as global warming. Sound forest policies and management practices are central to the global warming solution. Without these, human survival remains, potentially, threatened. An essential key to the development of such policies and management practices lies in the identification of the problems related to the forests. In this process of identification and subsequent concrete actions in restoring Cambodia`s forest policies and management practices, the Royal government of Cambodia has been assisted and supported by the international community through organizations and agencies. The examine and appraisal of such assistance and the strategies and efforts of the Royal Government of Cambodia, is the main theme of this paper.

  19. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  1. Agriculture Technical Advisory Committee on Curriculum Development. Job Clusters, Competencies and Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Montana Coll., Havre. Montana Center for Vocational Education, Research, Curriculum and Personnel Development.

    This skills inventory for agricultural occupations was developed by a technical committee in Montana to assist in the development of model curricula and to address state labor market needs. The committee included employers from the forestry industry, members from trade and professional associations, and educators. The validated task list and…

  2. AGDEX: A System for Classifying, Indexing, and Filing Agricultural Publications. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Howard L.; Woodin, Ralph J.

    This document provides an introduction to and instructions for the use of AGDEX, a comprehensive numeric filing system to classify and organize a wide variety of agricultural publications. The index is subdivided and color coded according to the following categories: (1) field crops; (2) horticulture; (3) forestry; (4) animal science; (5) soils;…

  3. A DESCRIPTION AND SOURCE LISTING OF PROFESSIONAL INFORMATION IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION, 1963-64.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLEDGE, GEORGE W.; AND OTHERS

    BRIEF ANNOTATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR MANY OF THE 107 REFERENCES LISTED UNDER THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES -- (1) ADULT EDUCATION, (2) AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, (3) ANIMAL SCIENCE, (4) CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND CURRICULUM IN CROPS, ENTOMOLOGY, FARM MANAGEMENT, FARM MECHANICS, AND LIVESTOCK, (5) FARM BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING, (6) FORESTRY, (7)…

  4. Impacts of climate change on vegetation, hydrological and socio-economic droughts in a transitional wet-to-dry Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Pulquério, Mário; Grosso, Nuno; Duarte Santos, Filipe; João Cruz, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The Tagus river basin is located in a transitional region between humid and semi-arid climate. The lower part of the basin is a strategic source of water for Portugal, providing water for agricultural irrigation, hydropower generation, and domestic water supplies for over 4 million people. Climate change in this region is expected to lead to higher temperatures and lower rainfall, therefore increasing climatic aridity. In this transitional region, this could lead to an increased frequency of severe droughts, threatening climatic support for current agricultural and forestry practices, as well as the sustainability of domestic water supplies. This work evaluated the impacts of climate change on drought frequency and severity for the Portuguese part of the Tagus river basin. Climate change scenarios for 2010-2100 (A2 greenhouse emission scenarios) were statistically downscaled for the study area. They were evaluated with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) eco-hydrological model, which simulated vegetation water demand and drought stress, soil water availability, irrigation abstraction, streamflow, reservoir storage and groundwater recharge. Water inflows from Spain were estimated using an empirical climate-based model. Drought occurrence and severity was analyzed in terms of: * meteorological drought, based on (i) the Standardized Precipitation Index and (ii) the Aridity Index; * vegetation/agricultural drought, based on plant water stress; * hydrological drought, based on (i) streamflow rates and (ii) reservoir storage; * socio-economic drought, based on (i) the capacity of the main reservoir in the system (Castelo de Bode) to sustain hydropower and domestic supplies, and (ii) the rate of groundwater extraction vs. irrigation demands for the cultures located in the intensive cultivation regions of the Lezírias near the Tagus estuary. The results indicate a trend of increasing frequency and severity of most drought types during the XXIst century, with a

  5. Using Multi-Criteria Analysis for the Study of Human Impact on Agro-Forestry Ecosystem in the Region of Khenchela (algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzekri, A.; Benmessaoud, H.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work is to study and analyze the human impact on agro-forestry-pastoral ecosystem of Khenchela region through the application of multi-criteria analysis methods to integrate geographic information systems, our methodology is based on a weighted linear combination of information on four criteria chosen in our analysis representative in the vicinity of variables in relation to roads, urban areas, water resources and agricultural space, the results shows the effect of urbanization and socio-economic activity on the degradation of the physical environment and found that 32% of the total area are very sensitive to human impact.

  6. Social Sciences in Forestry, A Current Selected Bibliography, No. 57. Special Appendix: Theses and Dissertations in Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Judith L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Documents which address the interface between forestry and the social sciences comprise this annotated bibliography. A subject-matter classification scheme is used to group publications by subheadings under five major heading: (1) social science applied to forestry at large; (2) applied to forestry's productive agents; (3) applied to forest…

  7. Social Sciences in Forestry, A Current Selected Bibliography, No. 53, October 1980. Cumulative Author Index for 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Judith L., Ed.

    Presented is a bibliography of over 300 publications related to the application of the social sciences to various aspects of forestry. The major categories under which documents are classified involve social science as it applies to: (1) forestry in general; (2) forestry's productive agents; (3) forest production; (4) manufacturing; and (5)…

  8. 29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., timber tract occupations, forestry service occupations, logging occupations, and occupations in the... § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry... forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention, in timber tracts, in forestry services, logging, and...

  9. 29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., timber tract occupations, forestry service occupations, logging occupations, and occupations in the... § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry... forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention, in timber tracts, in forestry services, logging, and...

  10. 29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., timber tract occupations, forestry service occupations, logging occupations, and occupations in the... § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry... forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention, in timber tracts, in forestry services, logging, and...

  11. 29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., timber tract occupations, forestry service occupations, logging occupations, and occupations in the... § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry... forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention, in timber tracts, in forestry services, logging, and...

  12. Fast Pyrolysis of Agricultural Wastes in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. H.; Chen, H. P.; Yang, H. P.; Dai, X. M.; Zhang, S. H.

    Solid biomass can be converted into liquid fuel through fast pyrolysis, which is convenient to be stored and transported with potential to be used as a fossil oil substitute. In China, agricultural wastes are the main biomass materials, whose pyrolysis process has not been researched adequately compared to forestry wastes. As the representative agricultural wastes in China, peanut shell and maize stalk were involved in this paper and pine wood sawdust was considered for comparing the different pyrolysis behaviors of agricultural wastes and forestry wastes. Fast pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor. The bio-oil yieldsof peanut shell and maize stalk were obviously lower than that ofpine sawdust. Compared with pine sawdust, the char yields of peanut shell and maize stalk were higher but the heating value of uncondensable gaswas lower. This means that the bio-oil cost will be higher for agricultural wastes if taking the conventional pyrolysis technique. And the characteristic and component analysis resultsof bio-oil revealed that the quality of bio-oil from agricultural wastes, especially maize stalk, was worse than that from pine wood. Therefore, it is important to take some methods to improve the quality of bio-oilfrom agricultural wastes, which should promote the exploitation of Chinese biomass resources through fast pyrolysis in afluidized bed reactor.

  13. The Experimental Hydrology Wiki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, Theresa; van Meerveld, Ilja; Graeff, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The "Experimental Hydrology Wiki" is a forum for hydrologists to learn about, recommend, question and discuss new and established, basic and advanced methods and equipment for hydrological research. As a database of "lessons learned" it does not only contain short descriptions of specific experimental equipment but also information on encountered errors and problems and recommendations on how to deal with them. This makes valuable personal field experience accessible to a wider audience. The Wiki allows experimentalists to share and find solutions for common problems and thus helps us in not making the same mistakes others have made before us. At the same time modellers can use this platform to find information on sources of error and uncertainty in the data they use for model validation and calibration. The general idea and layout of the Experimental Hydrology Wiki is presented here along with an invitation to all experimental hydrologists to contribute their knowledge and experiences! http://www.experimental- hydrology.net/

  14. Clonal forestry, heterosis and advanced-generation breeding

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, G.A.

    1997-08-01

    This report discusses the clonal planting stock offers many advantages to the forest products industry. Advanced-generation breeding strategies should be designed to maximize within-family variance and at the same time allow the capture of heterosis. Certainly there may be a conflict in the choice of breeding strategy based on the trait of interest. It may be that the majority of the traits express heterosis due to overdominance. Alternatively, disease resistance is expressed as the lack of a specific metabolite or infection court then the homozygous recessive genotype may be the most desirable. Nonetheless, as the forest products industry begins to utilize the economic advantages of clonal forestry, breeding strategies will have to be optimized for these commercial plant materials. Here, molecular markers can be used to characterize the nature of heterosis and therefore define the appropriate breeding strategy.

  15. [The forestry doctor and the lumber camp people].

    PubMed

    Bache, T

    2001-03-30

    In the beginning of the last century there were many accidents in Norwegian forestry, and doctors in the rural districts made great efforts to improve the work environment. District physician Otto Mejlaender (1865-1944) in Trysil was a pioneer. He was actively involved in educational work, wrote articles about the working conditions in the forests and work accidents. The papers refers to various injuries that occurred during work in the forests and how the layman should attend to them. It describes the poor conditions in the lumber cabins, the long and tiresome working day, and the illnesses these activities caused. A summary is also given of an article written by Mejlaender in the Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association in 1906, in which he presents a somewhat unusual case of a young man who damaged his testicles. PMID:11354886

  16. Remote sensing in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Gert A.

    1988-07-01

    The "Electronic Age" offers new and attractive opportunities to hydrologists for remote sensing (RS) of hydrological data. A discussion of hydrologically relevant platforms and sensors and the type of electromagnetic signals used by such sensors is followed by an analysis of the structure of mathematical hydrologic models which use RS information either as input or to provide a basis for model parameter estimation. Three examples of RS application in hydrological modeling are given: (1) model parameter estimation with the aid of multispectral Landsat satellite data; (2) computation of historic monthly runoff for design purposes with the aid of a lumped system model using NOAA infrared satellite data as input; and (3) real-time flood forecasting applying a distributed system model using radar rainfall measurements as input. Further applications of RS information in hydrology are discussed in the field of evapotranspiration, soil moisture, rainfall, surface water, snow and ice, sediments and water quality. A brief discussion of RS data availability and the hardware and software required is followed by an assessment of future opportunities. The potential of passive and active microwave sensors for hydrological applications is emphasized.

  17. Hydrologic Connections and Landscape Metrics to Advance Ecosystem Goods and Services in Tampa Bay Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the hydrological characteristics of coastal wetlands across land use gradients ranging from natural to urban to agricultural is important for significantly enhancing our ability to utilize environmental data in interpreting ecosystem condition and processes. Here we...

  18. The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, F.; Ramirez, J. A.; Thurow, T. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO), located within the Platte River Basin, of the U.S. central Great Plains, affords excellent interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary research opportunities for scientists to examine the impacts of scaling, to investigate forcing feedbacks and coupling of various interconnected hydrological, geological, climatological and biological systems, and to test the applicability and limits of prediction in keeping with all five of CUAHSI's priority science criteria; linking hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, sustainability of water resources, hydrologic and ecosystem interactions, hydrologic extremes, and fate and transport of contaminants. In addition, PRIVHO is uniquely positioned to investigate many human dimension questions such as those related to interstate and intrastate conflicts over water use, evolution of water policy and law in the wake of advancing science, societal and economic changes that are driven by water use, availability and management, and human impacts on climate and land use changes. The Platte River traverses several important environmental gradients, including temperature and precipitation-to-evaporation ratio, is underlain by the High Plains Aquifer under much of its reach, crosses a number of terrestrial ecoregions, and in central Nebraska, serves as a vital link in the Central Flyway, providing habitat for 300 species of migratory birds and many threatened or endangered species. The Platte River flows through metropolitan, urban and agricultural settings and is impacted by both point and non-point pollution. The Platte River is one of the most over-appropriated rivers in the country with 15 major dams, hundreds of small reservoirs, and thousands of irrigation wells. The river provides municipal and industrial water supplies for about 3.5 million people, irrigation water for millions of acres of farmland, and generates millions of dollars of hydroelectric power. PRIVHO will allow researchers to

  19. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  20. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...