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Sample records for agriculture home economics

  1. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

    This presentation of suggested layouts and specifications for home economics facilities has been prepared to be of service to school boards, architects, teachers, and administrators who are planning new schools or making renovations to existing structures. Room layouts are shown for a foods and nutrition room, or the foods and nutrition area of a…

  2. Status of Teaching Pre-Vocational Subjects in the Junior Secondary School Level (Agricultural Science and Home Economics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndem, J. U.; Akubue, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the status of teaching pre-vocational subjects in junior secondary school level. The study adopted descriptive survey method. The population of the study was 2,916, while the sample for the study was 215 pre-vocational teachers and agricultural science and home economics students. The study was carried out in Afikpo Education…

  3. Home Economics Unlimited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopkin, Doris

    This publication advocates the teaching of home economics to both boys and girls, and describes some home economics programs that provide meaningful learning experiences for students of both sexes. The philosophy and legal considerations behind teaching home economics to boys are examined. Changing life styles and social pressures are considered.…

  4. Methodology and Data for a Study of Higher Education in Agriculture and Home Economics in the South: A User's Guide. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frank M.; Parent, Dale

    The User's Guide to the Regional Study of Higher Education in Agriculture and Home Economics in the South explains the purpose and organization of the study, one of three phases of a larger investigation being conducted by collaborating researchers in several Agricultural Experiment Stations. The guide provides a detailed description of the…

  5. Comprehensive Home Economics. Vocational Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This curriculum guide is one of a number of curriculum guides developed for use in vocational home economics education in Texas. The guide is correlated closely with the essential elements prescribed by the State Board of Education. The competencies in the guide are the essential elements, and the subcompetencies are the subelements prescribed in…

  6. Development and Families: Implications for Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Eloise

    1985-01-01

    This article integrates literature from such diverse sources as population, agriculture, women in development, macro-economics, and health studies to document the changes that have occurred in families in the last 20-25 years. Program issues for the home economics profession are considered in light of these changes. (CT)

  7. Caracteristicas de los Estudiantes de Ciencias Agricolas y de Economia Domestica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (Characteristics of the Agricultural Science and Home Economics Students of the University of Puerto Rico). Publicacion 135.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lube, Edna Droz; Calero, Reinaldo

    As part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture research project on young adults, a questionnaire was distributed in the fall of 1977 to all agriculture science and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico in order to determine their personal and parental backgrounds; work, college, and high school experiences; life goals and attitudes…

  8. Home Economics Career Preparation Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCuiston, Wendy; Stevens, Sarah; Mathieson, Mary

    This handbook is designed to help secondary education teachers in Texas to conduct courses in a broad range of occupationally-specific training options in home economics. These programs usually include general related instruction, specific related instruction, and work-based instruction for careers in home economics areas. The handbook is divided…

  9. Bring back home economics education

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Home economics, otherwise known as domestic education, was a fixture in secondary schools through the 1960’s, at least for girls. It’s an idea that now seems quaint, but in the midst of a pediatric obesity epidemic and concerns about the poor diet quality of adolescents in the US, instruction in bas...

  10. Home Economics Education, Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    Annotations on selected home economics research studies published since 1963 are presented. Program development studies summarize data on such topics as teacher and supervisor involvement in curriculum planning, comparison of instructional methods, curriculum evaluation, preparation for gainful employment, family finance, and attitudes toward the…

  11. Teaching Home Economics on a Low Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggans, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    Describes how a home economics teacher developed a low budget home economics program for elementary students aged six to twelve. Includes class activities in clothing construction, baby care, foods and nutrition, crafts, and shopping. (EM)

  12. Confronting Issues in Occupational Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Susan F.; Carlos, Ellen A.

    1983-01-01

    Occupational home economics has been affected by several critical problems which hamper its integration with home economics education, including sex discrimination, devaluation of homemaking and "women's jobs," and marital parity. Educators should find new ways to encourage and nurture occupational home economics. (SK)

  13. Home Economics. Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection contains 41 cognitive objectives and related test items for home economics, grades 10-12. It is organized into the following categories: child development (home discipline); clothing and textiles, consumer practices; design principals; health services, home management and family economics; housing; and pregnancy. Each objective is…

  14. Home Economics: Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection contains 74 cognitive objectives and related test items for home economics instruction in grades 7-9. It is organized into the following categories: child development--including toys, babysitting, and home discipline; clothing and textiles; consumer practices; foods and nutrition; and home management and family economics. Each…

  15. Fuel ethanol and agriculture: an economic assessment. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, G.; Gavett, E.

    1986-08-01

    Increased fuel ethanol production through 1995 would raise net farm income, benefiting mainly corn and livestock producers. Production of additional byproduct feeds would depress the price of soybeans. Large ethanol subsidies, which are required to sustain the industry, would offset any savings in agricultural commodity programs. Increased ethanol production would also raise consumer expenditures for food. Any benefits of higher income to farmers would be more than offset by increased Government costs and consumer food expenditures. Direct cash payments to farmers would be more economical than attempting to boost farm income through ethanol subsidies.

  16. Perspectives for the Home Economics Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odland, Lura M; Cebik, Mary Helen

    The paper was developed as part of a series on the employment outlook for graduates in various fields of study. The goals of home economics which reflect its commitment to the family and to the interaction between man and his environment are briefly described. Trends influencing the demand for professional home economics are presented. The trends…

  17. Guide to Teaching. Vocational Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This guide was developed to help vocational home economics teachers in Texas incorporate the essential elements mandated by the State Board of Education into the curriculum. The guide contains advice to teachers in the following 10 areas: program planning; curriculum; teaching basic academic skills in vocational home economics classes; supervised…

  18. Home Economics Curricula in Pakistan: Time for Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeed, Fouzia; McClelland, Jerry

    1991-01-01

    Most home economics in Pakistan focuses on women's homemaking skills (food preparation, clothing, interior design), not career orientation; it caters to upper/middle class needs and traditional roles. Rural/lower class women's needs (agricultural production, nutrition, hygiene, family planning) are not generally served. (SK)

  19. Home Economics--Housing and Home Furnishings. Kit No. 37. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Thelma

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on housing and home furnishings are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of home economics. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  20. Index to Research in Home Economics: 1972-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetterman, Nelma I.; Lefebvre, Verna M.

    This index lists 945 research articles from 4 English-language journals in the field of home economics: the "Canadian Home Economics Journal," volumes 23-30; the "Home Economics Research Journal" (United States), volumes 1-14; the "Journal of Consumer Studies and Home Economics" (United Kingdom), volumes 1-10; and the "Journal of Vocational Home…

  1. Home Economics Education Career Path Guide and Model Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Northridge.

    This curriculum guide developed in California and organized in 10 chapters, provides a home economics education career path guide and model curriculum standards for high school home economics programs. The first chapter contains information on the following: home economics education in California, home economics careers for the future, home…

  2. Facilities and Equipment for Home Economics Education: Consumer and Homemaking, Occupational Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Home Economics Education Section.

    Suggestions and recommendations presented in this guide are intended to provide teachers, administrators, and architects who plan and equip home economics departments with the objectives and an overview of home economics education programs so that functional facilities will be designed. The first section, consumer and homemaking education, lists…

  3. Home Economics Related Occupations Training Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupsinel, P., Ed.

    A framework is provided for teacher use in coordinating related classroom instruction, vocational homemaking student career objectives, and planned training station learning experiences. The details were prepared and revised by students of Home Economics Related Occupations 585 at Indiana State University. Child care occupation plans include those…

  4. Consumer Education. Vocational Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Donna

    This guide contains both teacher and student materials for a one-semester course in consumer education to be presented as part of an 11th or 12th grade or an adult vocational home economics program. The book is organized into six sections containing 15 units of instruction. The sections cover the following topics: management (of time, money,…

  5. Home Economics. Education for Technology Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb. Dept. of Technology.

    This guide was developed in an Illinois program to help home economics teachers integrate the use of computers and program-related software into existing programs. After students are taught the basic computer skills outlined in the beginning of the guide, 50 learning activities can be used as an integral part of the instructional program. (One or…

  6. Marriage and Family Life. Vocational Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Donna

    These course materials, designed to be used with students in the 11th and 12th grades and for adult students, are intended to provide basic knowledge of family life and adult living. The one-semester home economics course focuses on basic marriage and family skills, life choices, parenthood, and family changes. The guide contains 4 sections and 10…

  7. Home Economics II. Basic Core. Tenth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ann

    Seven home economics curriculum areas for grade 10 are presented in this guide, with each area consisting of one or more instructional units as follows: (1) Career Exploration (obtaining a job, progress on the job, business etiquette); (2) Child Development (guiding the preschool child, middle childhood); (3) Clothing and Textiles (labeling,…

  8. Exploratory Home Economics for Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Home Economics Education.

    This guide is intended to assist teachers in using a life skills approach to introducing early adolescents to the five basic areas of home economics. The following topics are covered in the individual units: life skills in family communication (hearing and listening, speaking, writing, obtaining and responding to feedback, holding a sustained…

  9. Home Economics Senior I Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This curriculum guide describes the content of the curriculum of the senior home economics program for high schools in Manitoba. The curriculum, revised to foster both intellectual and personal growth and enhance a positive life-style, encompasses primary skills of inferring, synthesizing, analyzing, and evaluating, as well as a complete range of…

  10. Measuring Student Achievement in Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Home Economics Education.

    Many home economics teachers have experienced difficulty in developing good classroom tests and have expressed a need for help. This publication was prepared to provide guidance in the construction and use of a variety of measurement devices. Section 1 discusses the role of measurement in the instructional process including why measure, what to…

  11. Who Chooses to Study Home Economics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frances M.

    1995-01-01

    One university's survey of 3,791 home economics freshmen in a 10-year period revealed the following: 87% were female; 70% of males enrolled in hotel/restaurant management; 10% were over age 23; 26% were majoring in textiles/clothing; more were choosing business over service/caring areas; 69% believed college increases earning power; and, for 70%,…

  12. Life Management Skills. Vocational Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This curriculum guide is one of a number of curriculum guides developed for use in vocational home economics education in Texas. The guide is correlated closely with the essential elements prescribed by the State Board of Education. The competencies in the guide are the essential elements, and the subcompetencies are the subelements prescribed in…

  13. Home Economics Education Guide for Occupational Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Era F.

    Designed to assist home economics teachers in providing a training program to prepare high school students for jobs in foods occupations, this curriculum guide contains a two-year course of study in occupational foods. The first-year program consists of nineteen units, as follow: (1) introduction to food service occupations; (2) sanitation; (3)…

  14. Energy Management Strategies for Home Economics Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver.

    This energy activity guide, developed and field tested in Colorado, presents teaching units and strategies to aid home economics teachers to teach energy management. The guide is divided into six subject areas: introduction (background information on energy use and conservation); foods and nutrition; clothing and textiles; housing and home…

  15. What's Your Payoff for Teaching Home Economics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Harriett; Warren, Rachel D.

    1982-01-01

    Maslow's hierarchy of human needs is examined and the similarities between those needs and the subject matter traditionally taught in home economics are observed. These needs include physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, self-actualization, cognitive, and aesthetic needs. Subject matter areas include nutrition, housing, clothing,…

  16. Curriculum: Innovations, Home Economics, Career Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A class at the University of the Pacific is learning how loneliness can be turned into a positive experience; home economics students are learning how to manage a household and a budget in a housing project apartment; and a gourmet restaurant operated by students is open to the community. (Author/MLF)

  17. Curriculum Orientations of Home Economics Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Rebecca; And Others

    A study collected descriptive information about 152 Nebraska home economics teachers and their curriculum orientation(s). The questionnaire was adapted from the Curriculum Orientation Profile designed by Babin (1979) and revised by Carlson (1991). Teachers responded to 45 statements on a Likert-type scale. Nine statements reflected each of five…

  18. Computers in the Home Economics Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Ruth; Durbin, Sandra

    This guide for teachers focuses on how microcomputers may be used in the home economics classroom and how the computer is affecting and changing family life. A brief discussion of potential uses of the microcomputer in educational settings is followed by seven major sections. Sections 1 and 2 provide illustrations and definitions for microcomputer…

  19. Advanced Child Development. Vocational Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This curriculum guide, developed for use in secondary vocational home economics education in Texas, is correlated closely with the essential elements prescribed by the State Board of Education. The competencies in each guide are the essential elements, and the subcompetencies are the subelements prescribed in the Texas Administrative Codes for…

  20. Orientation to Home Economics Occupations. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for a 6- to 9-week orientation to home economics occupations course for seventh grade students. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Overview, Human Care Cluster, Food and Nutrition, Home Service Cluster,…

  1. Microcomputers in Vocational Home Economics Classrooms in USD #512.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawnee Mission Public Schools, KS.

    A project was conducted to identify software suitable for use in home economics classes and to train home economics teachers to use that software with an Apple II Plus microcomputer. During the project, home economics software was identified, evaluated, and catalogued. Teaching strategies were adapted to include using the computer in the…

  2. Enrichment Materials in Home Economics for Gifted and Talented Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Div. of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Designed to provide the home economics teacher with a resource of enrichment materials for gifted/talented students, this manual consists of information to assist home economics teachers and students in designing enrichment materials to supplement classroom learning and suggested learning activities in five home economics areas. Part 1 of the…

  3. Radicalizing and Renewing Home Economics for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterat, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Examines the concept of home economics through five theoretical discourses: community/grassroots economics, feminist economics, ecofeminism, everyday life, and health and well-being. Proposes a radical renewal of home economics that incorporates elements of all. (Contains 32 references.) (SK)

  4. Learning Space for Food: Exploring Three Home Economics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Höijer, Karin; Fjellström, Christina; Hjälmeskog, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Studies on children's learning about food commonly focus on socialisation within a temporal perspective taking an interest in linear and developmental issues, where the home is assumed as the primary place for learning food skills that should be deepened through education in Home Economics. Home Economics concern topics that are related to…

  5. Living in the Home. A Resource Guide for Home Economics Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore County Board of Education, Towson, MD.

    This home economics course is designed to help pupils gain a better understanding of themselves and others, to provide opportunities for developing competence in certain home activities, and to give a better basis for making decisions about personal and family life. The goals of the home economics program and using the bulletin are briefly…

  6. Economic importance of bats in agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

  7. Pesticides in dust from homes in an agricultural area.

    PubMed

    Harnly, Martha E; Bradman, Asa; Nishioka, Marcia; McKone, Thomas E; Smith, Daniel; McLaughlin, Robert; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Castorina, Rosemary; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2009-12-01

    We collected indoor dust samples from homes in the Salinas Valley of California. Of 22 pesticides measured in 504 samples, permethrins and the organophosphate chlorpyrifos were present in highest amounts. In multivariate Tobit regression models among samples from 197 separate residences, reported agricultural uses of chlorpyrifos, a herbicide (2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA)), and a fungicide (iprodione) on agricultural fields were significantly (p < 0.01) associated, with 83%, 19%, and 49% increases, respectively, in dust concentrations for each kg applied per day, near participant homes, in the month or season prior to sample collection. However, agricultural use of diazinon, which was 2.2 times that of chlorpyrifos, and of permethrin were not significantly associated with dust levels. Other variables independently associated with dust levels included temperature and rainfall, farmworkers storing work shoes in the home, storing a diazinon product in the home, housing density, having a home less clean, and having an air conditioner. Permethrins, chlorpyrifos, DCPA, and iprodione have either a log octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) greater than 4.0, a very low vapor pressure, or both. Health risk assessments for pesticides that have these properties may need to include evaluation of exposures to house dust.

  8. Pesticides in dust from homes in an agricultural area.

    PubMed

    Harnly, Martha E; Bradman, Asa; Nishioka, Marcia; McKone, Thomas E; Smith, Daniel; McLaughlin, Robert; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Castorina, Rosemary; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2009-12-01

    We collected indoor dust samples from homes in the Salinas Valley of California. Of 22 pesticides measured in 504 samples, permethrins and the organophosphate chlorpyrifos were present in highest amounts. In multivariate Tobit regression models among samples from 197 separate residences, reported agricultural uses of chlorpyrifos, a herbicide (2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA)), and a fungicide (iprodione) on agricultural fields were significantly (p < 0.01) associated, with 83%, 19%, and 49% increases, respectively, in dust concentrations for each kg applied per day, near participant homes, in the month or season prior to sample collection. However, agricultural use of diazinon, which was 2.2 times that of chlorpyrifos, and of permethrin were not significantly associated with dust levels. Other variables independently associated with dust levels included temperature and rainfall, farmworkers storing work shoes in the home, storing a diazinon product in the home, housing density, having a home less clean, and having an air conditioner. Permethrins, chlorpyrifos, DCPA, and iprodione have either a log octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) greater than 4.0, a very low vapor pressure, or both. Health risk assessments for pesticides that have these properties may need to include evaluation of exposures to house dust. PMID:19943644

  9. Consumer & Home Economics In-Service/Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy (Shirley) & Associates, Sierra Madre, CA.

    Mt. San Antonio Community College District's Consumer/Home Economics In-Service/Curriculum Development Project was designed to provide activities to meet staff development and program improvement needs. The choice of activities was based on evaluation data from previous home economics projects, and priorities identified by the Consumer/Home…

  10. Energy Conservation Teaching Activities for Home Economics Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedlicka, Ella, Ed.

    This collection of home economics activities is intended to meet the special needs of home economics teachers who wish to include energy education activities in their curricula. The 45 activities can be used as presented, or can be modified to individual needs or local conditions. Each activity includes: (1) title, (2) objective, (3) activity…

  11. Exploring Home Economics Related Careers. Introduction to Vocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoggatt, Carolyn, Ed.

    Developed to meet the career educational needs of students enrolled in home economics courses and/or an introductory vocational program, this document (teacher's copy) contains six units of study focusing on the home economics related careers cycles of: child development and care; clothing, textiles and fashion; food services; institutional,…

  12. Entrepreneurship: A Senior High School Home Economics Career Exploration Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanslow, Alyce M.; Compton, Cheryl W.

    Entrepreneurship is a career option through which home economics teachers can challenge their students who have the independence, skills, and self-discipline necessary to succeed as small business owners. This unit was developed to assist home economics teachers in incorporating an entrepreneurial dimension into their programs. The unit contains…

  13. A Comprehensive National Plan for New Initiatives in Home Economics Research, Extension, and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Education Administration (USDA), Hyattsville, MD.

    New initiatives in home economics research, extension, and higher education are proposed in order to influence national goals for family well-being measurably within five to ten years. The proposals are for work to be conducted cooperatively by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the land-grant colleges and universities, cooperative extension…

  14. Training Home Economists for Rural Development. Report of a Global Study on the Development of Criteria for Establishing Training Institutions for Home Economics Staff in Rural Development. FAO Economic and Social Development Paper 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.

    In 1973 a global study aimed toward the development of criteria for establishing institutions for training home economists for rural development programs was initiated by the Home Economics and Social Programmes Services of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N. As a first step, a survey was developed on the variety of roles appropriate…

  15. Agricultural Modernization and Economic Inequality: The Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Aruna Nayyar

    1978-01-01

    Argues that agriculture production in developing nations should be organized to ensure economic viability. Government policy must emphasize participants' productive capacities and integrate agricultural workers into the new organization of production. (Author/DB)

  16. Quantitative studies in public and agricultural economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Adele Cecile

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation contains three essays. The first is entitled "Property Tax Treatment of Farmland: Does Tax Relief Delay Land Development?" I investigate use-value assessment, a state policy allowing farmland to be assessed at its agriculture-only value, rather than its full market value. Using Census data from 2963 counties over 1959--1987, I test the effect of use-value assessment on the proportion of county land in farming. Estimates indicate that after adoption, use-value assessment produced a gradually increasing proportion of farmland relative to counties who did not have the policy. The effect rose to ten percentage points more land in farming after twenty years. I present a model of the landowner's decision to develop farmland for urban uses and derive the effect of use-value assessment policy on the optimal development timing. The second essay is "State and Local Government Employment: Do Governments Respond Asymmetrically to Changes in Incomes?" I develop models for changes in government employment that allow an asymmetric response to increases and decreases in per capita private income to see whether government employment increases more in years of economic growth than it decreases in years of economic decline. I develop a model that does not require special assumptions to predict a positive relationship between the dependent and independent variables, and estimate it with U.S. Census data from 1970 to 1991 for 48 states. Results demonstrate symmetrical government employment response to incomes and are quite robust, holding consistently for several functional forms and other specifications of asymmetric response. I find that Democratic and Republican governors hire equivalently, but may slow layoffs in election years. The third essay is "Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Soil Management in Crop Production." I develop a theoretical model for optimal factor intensity (input per unit output). Using cross-sectional data from USDA's 1996

  17. Exploration of Home Economics Related Occupations in Clothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Virginia F.; Plumb, Sandra

    1976-01-01

    A five-unit lesson plan is presented titled "Introduction to Careers in the Fashion Industry" which involved three sections of a ninth grade home economics class in an assembly line sewing experience in a clothing production factory. (JT)

  18. Family and Consumer Science (Home Economics) Education References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This document lists a total of 141 family and consumer science (home economics) references that were gleaned from popular press periodicals dating from December 1, 1994, to December 15, 1995. The references are organized by the following categories: child development, consumerism, grooming and clothing care, home environment, personal…

  19. Pennsylvania's Energy Curriculum for the Secondary Grades: Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    Presented are 15 energy-related lessons for secondary school home economics students. Typical among these lessons are a home appliance energy audit, an analysis of the energy costs of various foods, and a study of energy conservation strategies in washing clothes and in personal care. The activities are grouped under three headings: (1) clothing…

  20. Comparison of Three Media Presentations of Selected Home Economics Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Doris E.; Graham, Nancy

    The study was designed to test the effectiveness of three media approaches in presenting home economics career information to students. Taped interviews with three home economists in the fields of food service, child care, and fabric and fashion served as the basis for developing the presentations: (1) a tape recording, (2) tape-slide…

  1. Intellectual Investment in Agriculture for Economic and Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In a project of agricultural research, education, and advice for economic growth and development, data was obtained from 14 countries and summarized with implications for action. Chapters in the report discuss: (1) Intellectual Investment and Economic and Social Development, (2) Intellectual Investment in Agriculture, (3) Agronomic Research, (4)…

  2. Agricultural Economics Students at Southern Land Grant Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, John L.; And Others

    Data were obtained in 1977 via mail questionnaires sent to students at all 1890 and 1860 Land Grant Universities in the South with programs in agriculture, to examine selected background characteristics and subjective perspectives of agricultural economics majors, compared with majors in production sciences and all agriculture curricula. The…

  3. Made in Montana: Entrepreneurial Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetting, Marsha A.; Muggli, Gayle Y.

    1988-01-01

    Reports results from a survey of 13 Montana home economists who each started a small business. Information is included on types of businesses the women had started, income, personal characteristics, reasons for starting a business, its impact on family concerns, marketing, obstacles to success, and resources. (CH)

  4. Nursing home reform: its legislative history and economic impact upon nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Emerzian, A D; Stampp, T

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a legislative history of Subtitle C of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 (OBRA '87). It articulates the philosophy behind the act and describes the economic and organizational impact on the nursing home industry. Additionally, data from Connecticut nursing homes are analyzed to determine the factors that affect the costs of complying with OBRA.

  5. ENROLLMENT IN VOCATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAMS IN KENTUCKY. A SUMMARY REPORT OF THE RESEARCH STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIMPSON, RUBY; AND OTHERS

    FACTORS THAT MAY BE INFLUENCING ENROLLMENTS IN HOME ECONOMICS AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL WERE INVESTIGATED -- (1) THE QUALITY OF THE HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAM, (2) PRESSURES TO TAKE OTHER SUBJECTS, (3) SCHOOL SCHEDULES, (4) ATTITUDES TOWARD HOME ECONOMICS, (5) PATTERNS OF HOME ECONOMICS OFFERINGS, AND (6) JUNIOR HIGH HOMEMAKING PROGRAMS. QUESTIONNAIRES…

  6. Teaching Agricultural Ethics in the Agricultural Economics Curriculum. Faculty Paper Series 86-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Paul B.

    The undergraduate course in agricultural ethics has been under development at Texas A&M University for four years. The course that has evolved is the result of discussion between the philosophy and agriculture departments. The course attempts to incorporate basic economic principles that affect agriculture as well as to tie these principles to…

  7. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  8. Economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production within a biomass system

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Flaim, S.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

    1980-12-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production in the United States is discussed. The beverage fermentation processes are compared and contrasted with the wet milling of corn, and alternative agricultural products for alcohol production are discussed. Alcohol costs for different fermentation methods and for various agricultural crops (corn, sugar cane, sugar beets, etc.) are presented, along with a brief discussion of US government policy implications. (JMT)

  9. 78 FR 25691 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... of Agriculture Tom Vilsack, and the Under Secretary of Research, Education, and Economics Dr...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA....

  10. Emergy assessment of three home courtyard agriculture production systems in Tibet Autonomous Region, China*

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Fa-chun; Sha, Zhi-peng; Zhang, Yu-yang; Wang, Jun-feng; Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Home courtyard agriculture is an important model of agricultural production on the Tibetan plateau. Because of the sensitive and fragile plateau environment, it needs to have optimal performance characteristics, including high sustainability, low environmental pressure, and high economic benefit. Emergy analysis is a promising tool for evaluation of the environmental-economic performance of these production systems. In this study, emergy analysis was used to evaluate three courtyard agricultural production models: Raising Geese in Corn Fields (RGICF), Conventional Corn Planting (CCP), and Pea-Wheat Rotation (PWR). The results showed that the RGICF model produced greater economic benefits, and had higher sustainability, lower environmental pressure, and higher product safety than the CCP and PWR models. The emergy yield ratio (EYR) and emergy self-support ratio (ESR) of RGICF were 0.66 and 0.11, respectively, lower than those of the CCP production model, and 0.99 and 0.08, respectively, lower than those of the PWR production model. The impact of RGICF (1.45) on the environment was lower than that of CCP (2.26) and PWR (2.46). The emergy sustainable indices (ESIs) of RGICF were 1.07 and 1.02 times higher than those of CCP and PWR, respectively. With regard to the emergy index of product safety (EIPS), RGICF had a higher safety index than those of CCP and PWR. Overall, our results suggest that the RGICF model is advantageous and provides higher environmental benefits than the CCP and PWR systems. PMID:27487808

  11. Emergy assessment of three home courtyard agriculture production systems in Tibet Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Fa-Chun; Sha, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Yu-Yang; Wang, Jun-Feng; Wang, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Home courtyard agriculture is an important model of agricultural production on the Tibetan plateau. Because of the sensitive and fragile plateau environment, it needs to have optimal performance characteristics, including high sustainability, low environmental pressure, and high economic benefit. Emergy analysis is a promising tool for evaluation of the environmental-economic performance of these production systems. In this study, emergy analysis was used to evaluate three courtyard agricultural production models: Raising Geese in Corn Fields (RGICF), Conventional Corn Planting (CCP), and Pea-Wheat Rotation (PWR). The results showed that the RGICF model produced greater economic benefits, and had higher sustainability, lower environmental pressure, and higher product safety than the CCP and PWR models. The emergy yield ratio (EYR) and emergy self-support ratio (ESR) of RGICF were 0.66 and 0.11, respectively, lower than those of the CCP production model, and 0.99 and 0.08, respectively, lower than those of the PWR production model. The impact of RGICF (1.45) on the environment was lower than that of CCP (2.26) and PWR (2.46). The emergy sustainable indices (ESIs) of RGICF were 1.07 and 1.02 times higher than those of CCP and PWR, respectively. With regard to the emergy index of product safety (EIPS), RGICF had a higher safety index than those of CCP and PWR. Overall, our results suggest that the RGICF model is advantageous and provides higher environmental benefits than the CCP and PWR systems.

  12. Emergy assessment of three home courtyard agriculture production systems in Tibet Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Fa-Chun; Sha, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Yu-Yang; Wang, Jun-Feng; Wang, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Home courtyard agriculture is an important model of agricultural production on the Tibetan plateau. Because of the sensitive and fragile plateau environment, it needs to have optimal performance characteristics, including high sustainability, low environmental pressure, and high economic benefit. Emergy analysis is a promising tool for evaluation of the environmental-economic performance of these production systems. In this study, emergy analysis was used to evaluate three courtyard agricultural production models: Raising Geese in Corn Fields (RGICF), Conventional Corn Planting (CCP), and Pea-Wheat Rotation (PWR). The results showed that the RGICF model produced greater economic benefits, and had higher sustainability, lower environmental pressure, and higher product safety than the CCP and PWR models. The emergy yield ratio (EYR) and emergy self-support ratio (ESR) of RGICF were 0.66 and 0.11, respectively, lower than those of the CCP production model, and 0.99 and 0.08, respectively, lower than those of the PWR production model. The impact of RGICF (1.45) on the environment was lower than that of CCP (2.26) and PWR (2.46). The emergy sustainable indices (ESIs) of RGICF were 1.07 and 1.02 times higher than those of CCP and PWR, respectively. With regard to the emergy index of product safety (EIPS), RGICF had a higher safety index than those of CCP and PWR. Overall, our results suggest that the RGICF model is advantageous and provides higher environmental benefits than the CCP and PWR systems. PMID:27487808

  13. Vocational Home Economics Education Handbook for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewald, Margaret R.

    Intended to give assistance to the vocational home economics teacher in providing a program of continuing education for out-of-school youths and adults, the programs contained in this handbook are designed to assist participants in their life role as homemaker, wage earner, consumer, and parent. The handbook provides an overview of adult education…

  14. Power Pacs for Teaching Home Economics Related Science and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide contains materials designed to assist teachers and students in home economics related courses with mastery of job-related mathematics, science, and behavioral science. The 40 Power Pacs are divided into mathematics (16 Power Pacs), science (15), and behavioral science (9). Each Power Pac contains teacher materials and student materials.…

  15. Advanced Food Science and Nutrition. Vocational Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This curriculum guide for advanced food science and nutrition is one of a number of guides developed for use in vocational home economics education in Texas. Introductory materials address use of the guide and list the essential elements upon which the content is based. The guide is divided into five units: the significance of nutrition, food…

  16. Program of Studies: Home Economics: Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Schools, VA.

    Part 1 of the home economics curriculum guide for grades 7-12 provides a brief program description and concise diagrams depicting the overview chart, course charts for grades 7-8 and grades 9-12, and models for semester courses. Part 2 presents detailed unit plans, which include unit descriptions, credit values, minimum class times, prerequisites,…

  17. Home Economics/Social Studies Cross-Credit Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellino, Claire; And Others

    This curriculum guide outlines two one-semester home economics courses that students can take to fulfill requirements in social studies or vocational education. The courses, Money and Your Future and Consumer Skills, contain the academic competencies from the Connecticut Common Core of Learning required for credit in social studies. The curriculum…

  18. Gender Equity and Secondary School Home Economics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayibor, Bernice; Peterat, Linda

    1995-01-01

    Three home economics textbooks on human relations were analyzed in terms of intentions, photographs, language, and content about gender relations. In terms of five approaches (visual balance, neutral/inclusive language, gender balance in information, gender sensitivity, and critical thinking), many parts were inadequate and contributed to myths…

  19. Examinations of Home Economics Textbooks for Sex Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Susan F.

    1979-01-01

    Four analyses were conducted on a sample of 100 randomly selected, secondary home economics textbooks published between 1964 and 1974. Results indicated that the contents presented sex bias in language usage, in pictures portraying male and female role environments, and in role behaviors and expectations emphasized. (Author/JH)

  20. Integration of Social Studies Principles in the Home Economics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document is intended to help secondary home economics teachers incorporate social studies principles into their curriculum. After an introduction, the document is divided into three sections. The first section identifies and explains fundamental principles within social studies and covers the history and current state of the social studies…

  1. An Academic/Vocational Curriculum Partnership: Home Economics and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frances M.; Hausafus, Cheryl O.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes middle-school curriculum integrating two diverse disciplines (home economics and science), incorporates social issues, and deals with fundamental concerns of young adolescents. Three major areas are included in framework: food additives for appeal, science of textile fibers, and chemistry of household cleaning. All should be taught by…

  2. Home Economics. Sample Test Items. Levels I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary and Secondary Educational Testing.

    A sample of behavioral objectives and related test items that could be developed for content modules in Home Economics levels I and II, this book is intended to enable teachers to construct more valid and reliable test materials. Forty-eight one-page modules are presented, and opposite each module are listed two to seven specific behavioral…

  3. The Rape of a Discipline: Home Economics under Attack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Patricia J.

    Changes in a Home Economics curriculum at Lehman College of the City University of New York from 1979-1988 are examined, and a line of inquiry first reported in 1983 is continued. A secondary, feminist analysis of the earlier data, combined with the current data, discloses the extent to which the patriarchal academy will go to attack the "mental…

  4. Home Economics by Any Other Name. Trends and Issues Alerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Within the last decade, many schools and departments of home economics have changed their name to "human ecology," whereas others have become "family and consumer sciences," and still others have remained unchanged. "Human ecology" has tended to be used more in higher education, and "family and consumer sciences," in secondary schools and…

  5. Home Economics/Health Grades 6-12. Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Moines Public Schools, IA. Teaching and Learning Div.

    Home economics programs are offered to students in grades 6-12 in the Des Moines INdependent Community School District (Iowa). Programs at the middle school level are exploratory, leading to occupational training in family and consumer science, child care, food service, and textile and fashion arts at the high school level. Health education…

  6. Metrics. A Resource Guide for Home Economics. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ruth

    This guide is to be used as a resource for teaching metrics at various educational levels in the home economics program. The lessons are intended for flexible use by the teacher, and the contents can be adapted for use with varying abilities, ages, and teaching-learning situations. Categorized into ten units, each unit includes concepts,…

  7. Entrepreneurship: A Viable Addition to Home Economics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortenberry, Sally L.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that information relating to entrepreneurship should be part of every curriculum within the field of home economics. Discusses characteristics of successful entrepreneurs and discusses how the curriculum can be modified to develop these characteristics. Reviews sources of entrepreneurship materials. (CH)

  8. Home Economics Education Guide for Occupational Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewald, Margaret R.

    Designed to assist home economics teachers in providing a training program to prepare high school students for jobs in the child care field, this curriculum guide contains a two-year course of study in occupational child care. In the first year, the following nine topics are outlined: (1) an orientation to the philosophies and overview of careers…

  9. Montana Vocational Home Economics Comprehensive Introductory Units, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Marjorie; Martin, Marlys

    This guide is designed to provide an overview of the total curriculum for Level I Home Economics. Three scope and sequence options and block plans for periods that are 9, 18, and 36 weeks in length are suggested. The six subject areas (and concept areas) are child development (child as individual, babysitting, job skills), clothing and textiles…

  10. Home Economics: Child Development. Secondary Schools. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This document, a curriculum guide in home economics on child development, for secondary schools, is one of six guides developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson…

  11. Home Economics: Foods and Nutrition. Secondary Schools. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This home economics curriculum guide on foods and nutrition for secondary students is one of six developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals, and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson plans for effective…

  12. REVISED OUTLINE FOR THE PREPARATORY COURSE IN OCCUPATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS IN THE FIELD OF CLOTHING, TEXTILES, AND HOME FURNISHINGS SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Home Economics Service.

    DEVELOPED BY TEACHERS AND SUPERVISORS, THIS EXPERIMENTAL OUTLINE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN PLANNING A PREPARATORY VOCATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS COURSE FOR TRAINING SECONDARY OR ADULT STUDENTS AS WORKERS FOR CLOTHING, TEXTILE, AND HOME FURNISHINGS OCCUPATIONS. BASIC HOME ECONOMICS COURSES ARE RECOMMENDED AS PREREQUISITES. A PRIMARY OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE…

  13. Task Lists for Home Economics Occupations, 1988: Cluster Matrices for Home Economics Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Below, Virginia

    This document contains information for home economics occupations in Illinois in seven sections. The first part provides lists of employability skills for the following: food preparation and service worker, fashion designer, dietetic technician, and service coordinator/consumer assistant/concierge. The second section contains task analyses for the…

  14. Home Economics--Food Services, Basic Cake Decorating. Kit No. 57. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard, Eddie, Jr.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on basic cake decorating are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of home economics (food services). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  15. Survey of Student Interest in Home Economics Wage-Earning Programs and Employment Opportunities in Home Economics Related Occupations in Dade County, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Margaret R.

    Occupational areas and coincident student interest in home economics were surveyed in Dade County to provide a basis for future program planning. Surveyed were 11,402 junior and senior high school students enrolled in home and family education courses in May 1972 and 64 employers in home economics related occupations. A series of recommendations…

  16. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  17. Exploration of Home Economics Occupations; Home and Family Education: 6775.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Pauline; Estrada, Rosa J.

    The course, for use at the junior high school level, explores employment possibilities in home economics and related areas. Lists of resource materials, a pretest and posttest, and an extensive, 70-page curriculum guide are appended. The guide explores eight block areas: (1) introduction; (2) homemaking; (3) personal development for careers; (4)…

  18. Assessment of the economic effects of ozone on US agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.M.; Hamilton, S.A.; McCarl, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Past attempts to measure the economic consequences of ozone on agriculture have been based on limited plant science information. This paper reports on an economic assessment of ozone on US agriculture using recent crop response data from the National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN). The results are derived from a US agricultural sector model that includes major crop and livestock production as well as domestic consumption, livestock feeding and export uses. The economic effects of four hypothetical ambient ozone levels are investigated. The analysis indicates that the benefits to society of moderate (25%) ozone reductions are approximately $1.7 billion. A 25% increase in ozone pollution results in cost (negative benefits) of $2.1 billion. These estimates do not reflect compliance costs of achieving the ozone changes and hence are not net benefits.

  19. Science and Math Activities and Resources for Teaching Home Economics (S.M.A.R.T.).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Marjorie C.

    This guide was written to aid home economics teachers in developing a greater understanding and use of basic skills in the home economics curriculum. The objectives of this guide are (1) to expand the awareness of underlying mathematics and science principles in the consumer and vocational home economics curriculum and (2) to provide a bank of…

  20. The Conversation and Company of Educated Women. A Colloquy on Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterat, Linda, Ed.

    The papers in this publication are the result of a symposium assessing the role of home economics in women's education. In her paper entitled "The Human Sciences and Home Economics: An Emerging Conversation," Francine H. Hultgren questions the possibilities for home economics within the human sciences. "Hestian Hermeneutics: A Lens of Analysis for…

  1. An Economic Analysis of USDA Erosion Control Programs: A New Perspective. Agricultural Economic Report No. 560.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohbehn, Roger, Ed.

    A study analyzed the total (public and private) economic costs and benefits of three U.S. Department of Agriculture erosion control programs. These were the Conservation Technical Assistance Program, Great Plains Conservation Program, and Agricultural Conservation Program. Significant efforts at funding for current programs were directed to…

  2. Climate Change Effects on Agriculture: Economic Responses to Biophysical Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(sup 2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  3. Climate change effects on agriculture: economic responses to biophysical shocks.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gerald C; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-03-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change. PMID:24344285

  4. Land Resources for Crop Production. Agricultural Economic Report Number 572.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hexem, Roger; Krupa, Kenneth S.

    About 35 million acres not being cultivated have high potential for crop use and 117 million more have medium potential, according to the 1982 National Resources Inventory (NRI) conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA committees evaluated the economic potential for converting land based on physical characteristics of the soil; size…

  5. Developing Transferable Research Skills in First Year Agricultural Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppi, Tony; Nolan, Elizabeth; Field, Damien

    2010-01-01

    A problem-based learning approach was adopted for a unit of study in first year agricultural economics at the University of Sydney with the aim of starting development of students' research skills earlier than usual. The novel teaching approach employed a structured and guided problem activity in the first semester and progressed to a more…

  6. Climate change effects on agriculture: economic responses to biophysical shocks.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gerald C; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-03-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... evidence of such time deposits shall be issued in the names of the Depositor and the Farmers Home... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home... Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law...

  8. Inservice Activities for Consumer & Homemaking Education & Occupational Home Economics Instructors. A Report of Inservice Activities Conducted for California Community College Home Economics & Related Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Community Coll. District, Walnut, CA.

    In August 1990, a statewide inservice training project for two-year college home economics instructors was initiated by the Chancellor's Office of the California Community Colleges. The project's three main objectives were to: (1) identify inservice priority needs through a review of existing data from previous home economics projects; (2) plan,…

  9. Montana Vocational Home Economics Curriculum...Flow Charts and Learner Outcomes. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman.

    This publication was designed to assist home economics teachers, school administrators, guidance counselors, and community and parent advisory groups in Montana to plan vocational home economics programs. Information included in the publication is intended to define concepts and to provide suggested learner outcomes appropriate for home economics…

  10. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler 6-12. Home Economics. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    This set of activities is intended to assist home economics teachers in incorporating basic energy education concepts into traditional home economics topics. Awareness activities that are intended to help students develop an understanding of fundamental energy conservation concepts and, at the same time, apply these concepts in home economics…

  11. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d’Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2. The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change. PMID:24344285

  12. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Gerald; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Mueller, C.; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, E.; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2013-12-16

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and will thus be directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the IPCC’s Representative Concentration Pathway that result in end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 watts per square meter. The mean biophysical impact on crop yield with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17 percent reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11 percent, increase area of major crops by 12 percent, and reduce consumption by 2 percent. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences includes model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  13. 78 FR 52496 - Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Meeting Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home... Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan,...

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home... Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan,...

  16. A Guide for Planning Competency-Based Institutional and Home Management Services Education in Home Economics Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This guide is designed to help teachers, especially in South Carolina, develop an effective competency-based vocational education program in occupational home economics, with emphasis on home health aides or homemaker services for the elderly. The course covers the following topics: the aging process (biological aging, psychology of aging,…

  17. Economic Analysis of Nitrate Source Reductions in California Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Howitt, R.; Rosenstock, T.; Harter, T.; Pettygrove, S. G.; Dzurella, K.; Lund, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    We present an analytical approach to assess the economic impact of improving nitrogen management practices in California agriculture. We employ positive mathematical programming to calibrate crop production to base input information. The production function representation is a nested constant elasticity of substitution with two nests: one for applied water and one for applied nitrogen. The first nest accounts for the tradeoffs between irrigation efficiency and capital investments in irrigation technology. The second nest represents the tradeoffs between nitrogen application efficiency and the marginal costs of improving nitrogen efficiency. In the production function nest, low elasticities of substitution and water and nitrogen stress constraints keep agricultural crop yields constant despite changes in nitrogen management practices. We use the Tulare Basin, and the Salinas Valley in California's Central Valley and Central Coast respectively as our case studies. Preliminary results show that initial reductions of 25% in nitrogen loads to groundwater may not impose large costs to agricultural crop production as substitution of management inputs results in only small declines in net revenue from farming and total land use. Larger reductions in the nitrogen load to groundwater of 50% imposes larger marginal costs for better nitrogen management inputs and reductions in the area of lower valued crops grown in the study areas. Despite the shortage of data on quantitative effects of improved nitrogen efficiency; our results demonstrate the potential of combining economic and agronomic data into a model that can reflect differences in cost and substitutabilty in nitrogen application methods, that can be used to reduce the quantity of nitrogen leaching into groundwater.

  18. Water transfers, agriculture, and groundwater management: a dynamic economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Keith C; Weinberg, Marca; Howitt, Richard; Posnikoff, Judith F

    2003-04-01

    Water transfers from agricultural to urban and environmental uses will likely become increasingly common worldwide. Many agricultural areas rely heavily on underlying groundwater aquifers. Out-of-basin surface water transfers will increase aquifer withdrawals while reducing recharge, thereby altering the evolution of the agricultural production/groundwater aquifer system over time. An empirical analysis is conducted for a representative region in California. Transfers via involuntary surface water cutbacks tilt the extraction schedule and lower water table levels and net benefits over time. The effects are large for the water table but more modest for the other variables. Break-even prices are calculated for voluntary quantity contract transfers at the district level. These prices differ considerably from what might be calculated under a static analysis which ignores water table dynamics. Canal-lining implies that districts may gain in the short-run but lose over time if all the reduction in conveyance losses is transferred outside the district. Water markets imply an evolving quantity of exported flows over time and a reduction in basin net benefits under common property usage. Most aquifers underlying major agricultural regions are currently unregulated. Out-of-basin surface water transfers increase stress on the aquifer and management benefits can increase substantially in percentage terms but overall continue to remain small. Conversely, we find that economically efficient management can mitigate some of the adverse consequences of transfers, but not in many circumstances or by much. Management significantly reduced the water table impacts of cutbacks but not annual net benefit impacts. Neither the break-even prices nor the canal-lining impacts were altered by much. The most significant difference is that regional water users gain from water markets under efficient management.

  19. Home Economics Occupations. Practical Arts. Instructor's Manual. Competency-Based Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeton, Martha; And Others

    This manual provides curriculum materials for implementing a career exploration class in home economics occupations within a Practical Arts Education program for middle/junior high school students. Introductory materials include the program master sequence, a list of home economics occupations, and an overview of the competency-based instructional…

  20. Building Your Own Scenario: Home Economics, Sex Equity, and Alternative Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Louise; And Others

    This training manual, one of eight in a series, has been developed to help state and local supervisors and teacher educators in home economics to conduct a workshop on sex equity as it relates to their future programs for vocational education teachers and administrators in the home economics service area. The workshop's intent is to help these…

  1. The New Jersey Cooperative Home Economics Education Handbook. Part B: The Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Dorothy

    This guide is intended for use with students enrolled in cooperative occupational home economics programs. The following topics are covered in the individual modules: the basic principles of cooperative home economics; preparation for the world of work (choosing, finding, applying for, and exploring a job); safety, security, and sanitation (on and…

  2. Enhancing the Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics Lecturers in South Eastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejinkeonye, Uju Bridget; Usoroh, Comfort I.

    2016-01-01

    The study was on enhancing the utilization of information communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics lecturers in south Eastern Nigeria. The study adopted a survey method. The area of the study is south eastern Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The population was made up of 63 Home Economics lecturers from the six…

  3. Conceptual Framework and Basic Competencies for Vocational Home Economics Education in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document was developed for the purposes of (1) outlining the competencies and subcompetencies to be developed in vocational home economics classes in Texas; (2) providing guidance to teachers for local program planning; and (3) serving as a means of communicating the scope and content of vocational home economics education in Texas to others.…

  4. Insitute for Home Economics Teacher Educators on Preparing Teachers for Occupational Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Alberta D.

    Thirty selected home economics teacher educators from 24 states participated in a 3-week summer institute which was devoted to (1) the identification and clarification of philosophies of vocational education affecting teacher education in home economics, (2) teacher qualifications, (3) program development, and (4) guidelines for evaluating teacher…

  5. The Illinois Plan for Home Economics Education. A Curriculum Guide. Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This document provides additional information for teachers and administrators who are implementing the Illinois Plan for Home Economics Education by conducting the several exploratory/orientation courses developed in the curriculum. These six appendixes contain the following: (1) the Illinois Home Economics Sequential Program; (2) a comparison of…

  6. The Role of Home Economics: Population and Family Life Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukpore, Bessie A.

    2005-01-01

    Home economics is a dynamic field that imparts knowledge intended to help people adapt to their environment by making effective use of human and material resources. Hence, the profession values global concerns for the environment, human rights, health, and well-being. In Nigeria, home economics teachers must also consider the role they play in…

  7. A National Supply and Demand Study of Secondary Home Economics Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Diane H.; Rehm, Marsha

    A study examined the supply of and demand for home economics teacher educators identified through the American Vocational Association's 1993 national directory of the home economics division teacher educators. Demand data were obtained from state supervisors of vocational education (or their designees). Follow-up contacts resulted in a response…

  8. Home Economics Teachers: An Important Element for Transforming Middle Level Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Diane H.; Beaton, Joan E.

    A study identified the needs expressed by home economics teachers regarding middle-level education to provide a baseline from which to work toward development and implementation of a middle school home economics curriculum in North Dakota. A review of the literature isolated specific characteristics generally accepted as unique to developmentally…

  9. Home Economics Education. Curriculum Planning Guidelines. Levels III-IV-V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    This curriculum guide for levels III, IV, and V home economics teachers in New York State describes a process for planning and developing home economics courses. Emphasis is placed on the determination of student needs and the enrichment of learnings through participation in the Future Homemakers of America (FHA). The guide begins with a…

  10. Economic assessment of home-based COPD management programs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheena Xin; Lee, Michael C; Atakhorrami, Maryam; Tatousek, Jan; McCormack, Meredith; Yung, Rex; Hart, Nicholas; White, David P

    2013-12-01

    Home-based exacerbation management programs have been proposed as an approach to reducing the clinical and financial burden of COPD. We demonstrate a framework to evaluate such programs in order to guide program design and performance decisions towards optimizing cost and clinical outcomes. This study models the impact of hypothetical exacerbation management programs through probabilistic Markov simulations. Patients were stratified by risk using exacerbation rates from the ECLIPSE study and expert opinion. Three scenarios were modeled, using base, worst and best case parameters to suggest potential telehealth program performance. In these scenarios, acute exacerbations could be detected early, with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 60-90%. Detected acute exacerbations could be diverted to either a sub-acute pathway (12.5-50% probability), thus entirely avoiding hospitalization, or a lower cost pathway through length-of-stay reduction (14-28% reduction). For a cohort of patients without prior hospitalization, the base case telehealth scenario results in a cumulative per-patient lifetime savings of $2.9 K over ≈ 12 years. For a higher risk cohort of patients with a prior admission and 1 to 2 acute exacerbations per year, a cumulative $16K per patient was saved during the remaining ≈ 3 life-years. Acceptable prices for home-based exacerbation detection testing were highly dependent on patient risk and scenario, but ranged from $290-$1263 per month for the highest risk groups. These results suggest the economic viability of exacerbation management programs and highlight the importance of risk stratification in such programs. The presented model can further be adapted to model specific programs as trial data becomes available. PMID:23848542

  11. 77 FR 64794 - Cancellation of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Cancellation of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics, USDA..., Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board scheduled for October 23-25, 2012 has been cancelled....

  12. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  13. Migration between home country and diaspora: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1997-07-01

    "This paper investigates the distribution of a population group between a home country and diaspora, given sequential decision-making regarding migration at the individual level. The home country is attractive to the members of the group, yet their presence there requires a fixed amount of public spending (e.g., on defense). The per-capita tax burden depends then on the size of the domestic population, reflecting a case of ¿fiscal externality'. This results in an inefficient distribution of the group between the home country and the diaspora. Encouraging immigration to the home country is an interest not only of those individuals who are currently in the home country but also of those residing in the diaspora. However, only when the burden of public spending in the home country is large enough do the latter volunteer to bear part of it. Even then, in general, this part is smaller than socially optimal."

  14. Teacher's Guide for Home Economics Curriculum Competency Based Modules for Integrating Basic Skills in Reading, Writing, and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabtree, Myrna P.; Maltby, Carolyn T.

    This teacher's guide is designed to encourage home economics teachers to plan and implement units of study that will facilitate student competency development in home economics content areas as well as in basic skills. It is intended to assist teachers in the effective use of "Home Economics Curriculum Competency Based Modules in Reading, Writing,…

  15. Paraprofessionals in Home Economics Programs for Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidenfrost, Nancy B.; And Others

    This booklet was developed as a guide for home economists who are responsible for teaching paraprofessionals (individuals who usually have no college degree and are trained and supervised by county home economists) how to teach low-income families. The content is in seven short sections: (1) Planning the Program discusses available resources,…

  16. The economics of soil C sequestration and agricultural emissions abatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.; Paustian, K.; Smith, P.; Moran, D.

    2015-04-01

    Carbon is a critical component of soil vitality and is crucial to our ability to produce food. Carbon sequestered in soils also provides a further regulating ecosystem service, valued as the avoided damage from global climate change. We consider the demand and supply attributes that underpin and constrain the emergence of a market value for this vital global ecosystem service: markets being what economists regard as the most efficient institutions for allocating scarce resources to the supply and consumption of valuable goods. This paper considers how a potentially large global supply of soil carbon sequestration is reduced by economic and behavioural constraints that impinge on the emergence of markets, and alternative public policies that can efficiently transact demand for the service from private and public sector agents. In essence, this is a case of significant market failure. In the design of alternative policy options, we consider whether soil carbon mitigation is actually cost-effective relative to other measures in agriculture and elsewhere in the economy, and the nature of behavioural incentives that hinder policy options. We suggest that reducing the cost and uncertainties of mitigation through soil-based measures is crucial for improving uptake. Monitoring and auditing processes will also be required to eventually facilitate wide-scale adoption of these measures.

  17. Progressive Retrenchment: A Strategy for Home Economics Survival in the Secondary School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandholtz, Judy Haymore

    1987-01-01

    The author argues that home economics educators must plan better for retrenchment, since currently the courses being cut (consumer education and family relations) are the ones that are most relevant to modern life. (CH)

  18. Impact of Limited Cross-Cultural Experience on Preservice Vocational Home Economics Education Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Gladys M.

    1992-01-01

    American Indian teenagers and preteens were tutored by 24 home economics student teachers. Compared with a control group of 24, student teachers' attitudes were significantly more positive toward the youths' abilities, appearance, conduct and knowledge after the tutoring program. (SK)

  19. Employment Opportunities in Which Knowledge and Skill in Home Economics are Needed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Anna M.

    To give direction to future program planning, this study was conducted to determine employment opportunities, analyze data to predict job trends, and analyze requirements for jobs in the home economics area. Structured interviews were conducted at 250 randomly selected businesses, industries and homes in seven major population centers of Kentucky.…

  20. Occupational Home Economics Education Series. Care and Independent Living Services for Aging. Competency Based Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler-Liston, Carol; And Others

    This large training module is intended to help prepare home helpers or others who can provide direct care and can utilize resources to assist older persons. The document presents first a general discussion of the background and rationale behind a series of occupational home economics modules. In addition, the particular module on serving the aging…

  1. Understanding Canadian Agriculture. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyns, R. M. A.

    This document for secondary school Canadian students analyzes the role of agriculture in the national economy and in Canadian trade, describes characteristics of Canadian farms, and discusses governmental inlfuences on Canadian agriculture. The document stresses that agriculture is a large source of national wealth; about 30% of Canadian farm…

  2. Economic and Social Conditions Relating to Agriculture and Its Structure to Year 2000. CARD Miscellaneous Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Earl O.

    Possible economic and social trends in world agriculture by year 2000 will include increased energy costs; larger, fewer and more specialized farms; decreasing agricultural population; closer ties between farmers and large agribusinesses; more emphasis on consumer and environmental protection; and an increased importance of agriculture in…

  3. California Community College Home Economics Program Plan, 1992. Including: Directory of Professional and Trade Organizations and Directory of Home Economics and Related Program Areas and Instructional Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    Designed to assist local colleges/districts in assessing their existing home economics program, and in developing curricula that respond to the changing needs of students, communities, and the workforce, this plan presents the program guidelines of the California Community Colleges (CCCs). Introductory material describes the history of the program…

  4. Inservice for Occupational and Consumer and Home Economics Instructors: Community College Home Economics Regional Workshops (California, May 26, 1986-February 28, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Community Coll. District, Walnut, CA.

    During fall 1986, a series of seven regional workshops were conducted for community college full- and part-time occupational and consumer and home economics instructors in California. The workshops were attended by a total of 319 instructors, 36 students, and 30 to 40 host college administrators and students. The workshops were designed to expand…

  5. Vocational Home Economics Curriculum Guide for Occupational Home and Institutional Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewald, Margaret R.

    The training program outlined in this guide focuses upon the development of students for gainful employment through a two-year course of study in home and institutional services. Instructional topics are provided in nine areas: orientation to home and institutional services, cleaning supplies and equipment, cleaning surfaces, cleaning clothes and…

  6. Child Care: Volume II. Vocational Home Economics Education. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ann; Kates, Donna

    Intended for use in a four-semester occupational child care program for 11th- or 12th-grade and adult students, this curriculum guide provides instructional materials covering basic information and skills for operating a child care center or a family day care home. It includes 4 sections and 23 instructional units. Each unit of instruction…

  7. A Supplementary Program for Environmental Education, Home Economics, Beginning, Intermediate, Advanced.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warpinski, Robert

    Presented in this teacher's guide for beginning, intermediate, and advanced grades are lesson plans and ideas for integrating home economics (family living, child development, family consumer economics, family housing and interiors, family foods and nutrition, and family clothing and textiles) and environmental education. Each lesson originates…

  8. World Food and Agriculture. Economic Problems and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asefa, Sisay, Ed.

    This book contains a series of essays based on public lectures delivered by six agricultural economists during the 1986-1987 academic year at Western Michigan University. Some of the main issues and problems addressed in the essays are the role of technical change in agricultural development, the value of learning from historical and comparative…

  9. A generic bio-economic farm model for environmental and economic assessment of agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Sander; Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K

    2010-12-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models. PMID:21113782

  10. A generic bio-economic farm model for environmental and economic assessment of agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Sander; Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K

    2010-12-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models.

  11. A Generic Bio-Economic Farm Model for Environmental and Economic Assessment of Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Louhichi, Kamel; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Zander, Peter; Flichman, Guillermo; Hengsdijk, Huib; Meuter, Eelco; Andersen, Erling; Belhouchette, Hatem; Blanco, Maria; Borkowski, Nina; Heckelei, Thomas; Hecker, Martin; Li, Hongtao; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stokstad, Grete; Thorne, Peter; van Keulen, Herman; van Ittersum, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models. PMID:21113782

  12. Agriculture sector resource and environmental policy analysis: an economic and biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    House, R; McDowell, H; Peters, M; Heimlich, R

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural pollution of the environment is jointly determined by economic decisions driving land use, production practices, and stochastic biophysical processes associated with agricultural production, land and climate characteristics. It follows that environmental and economic statistics, traditionally collected independently of each other, offer little insight into non-point pollutant loadings. We argue that effective policy development would be facilitated by integrating environmental and economic data gathering, combined with simulation modelling linking economic and biophysical components. Integrated data collection links economics, land use, production methods and environmental loadings. An integrated economic/biophysical modelling framework facilitates policy analysis because monetary incentives to reduce pollution can be evaluated in the context of market costs and returns that influence land use and production activity. This allows prediction of environmental and economic outcomes from alternative policies to solve environmental problems. We highlight steps taken to merge economic and biophysical modelling for policy analysis within the Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. An example analysis of a policy to reduce agricultural nitrogen pollution is presented, with the economic and environmental results illustrating the value of linked economic and biophysical analysis. PMID:10231835

  13. Examining economic improvements in managing diabetes in the nursing home.

    PubMed

    Dornberger, S; Stone, D; Elliott-Bynum, S

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, two-thirds of the medical cost of diabetes was borne by the elderly and nursing home care attributable to diabetes accounted for a third of that financial burden. The development of the Insulin Delivery Pen system can provide cost efficiency, and concurrently reduce the potential for contamination, free up nursing time, improve the administration process, and maintain dosing accuracy. The insulin pen delivery system (vs. the traditional vial and syringe method) is an attractive and cost effective option in the treatment of diabetes mellitus for residents in nursing facilities.

  14. Government Intervention in Agriculture. Measurement, Evaluation, and Implications for Trade Negotiations. Foreign Agricultural Economic Report No. 229.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report presents an analysis that defines and quantifies the extent of government intervention in the agricultural sectors of the market-oriented countries most active in trade. One aim is to provide usable economic information for the multilateral trade negotiations (MTN), recently launched under the auspices of the General Agreement on…

  15. Exploration of Home Furnishings, Equipment and Services Occupations. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of three terminal objectives for an exploration of home furnishing, equipment, and services occupations course for eighth and ninth grade students. The materials were developed for a 12- to 18-week course designed to provide exploration…

  16. LOW INCOME FAMILY, TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS, HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION, EDUCATION 685.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANN, OPAL H.

    A STUDY WAS MADE OF THE NEED FOR EXTENSION WORK WITH LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN EASTERN KENTUCKY (APPALACHIA) AND OF THE PROBLEMS AND TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS WHO WORK WITH THESE FAMILIES. THE AGENTS FELT THEY HAD A RESPONSIBILITY TO HELP LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN BUDGETING TIME, EFFORT, AND RESOURCES TO MEET MINIMUM…

  17. Consumer Education: A Guide for Teachers of Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ava A.; Whorley, Beulah

    The guide offers suggested curriculum materials in consumer education for secondary schools or as background information for teaching adults. It focuses on an understanding of decision making, the economic system, and management. The units of instruction are based on 13 concepts: (1) the process of decision making in relation to consumer behavior;…

  18. Labor Resources in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Four Corners Agricultural and Development Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    One of five reports developed to summarize research efforts conducted as part of an Agricultural-Forestry Development Project, this report presents the results of an inventory of human resources used in the agricultural and forestry industries in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Explored are such aspects of labor as: (1) employment…

  19. An inexpensive economical solar heating system for homes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, J. W.; Shinn, J. M., Jr.; Kirby, C. E.; Barringer, S. R.

    1976-01-01

    A low-cost solar home heating system to supplement existing warm-air heating systems is described. The report is written in three parts: (1) a brief background on solar heating, (2) experience with a demonstration system, and (3) information for the homeowner who wishes to construct such a system. Instructions are given for a solar heating installation in which the homeowner supplies all labor necessary to install off-the-shelf components estimated to cost $2,000. These components, which include solar collector, heat exchanger, water pump, storage tank, piping, and controls to make the system completely automatic, are available at local lumber yards, hardware stores, and plumbing supply stores, and are relatively simple to install. Manufacturers and prices of each component used and a rough cost analysis based on these prices are included. This report also gives performance data obtained from a demonstration system which was built and tested at the Langley Research Center.

  20. Discovering Information Use in Agricultural Economics: A Citation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2007-01-01

    This citation study investigated the research needs and activity of U.S. agricultural economists. Journals were the dominant format of cited sources. Books, government publications, and working papers formed the other important types of references, whereas electronic sources were sparsely used. Subject scatter in this interdisciplinary field was…

  1. Strategies and Economics for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION Agriculture can make significant contributions to climate change mitigation by a) increasing soil organic carbon sinks, b) reducing GHG emissions, and c) off-setting fossil fuel by promoting biofuels. The latter has the potential to counter-balance fossil-fuel emissions to some degree, ...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration or Its Sucessor Agency Under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home... Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan,...

  3. Internet Multi-Homing Problems: Explanations from Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Richard

    Companies seeking to ensure that their Internet connection is resilient often purchase services from multiple providers. This leads them inexorably towards having their IP address range visible in the global routing table, increasing the resource usage of every Internet router. Since this is essentially ‘free', yet impacts the cost and stability of every router in the world, this is a classic ‘tragedy of the commons'. There is little prospect of change in the IPv4 world, but there is a chance to fix the problem as IPv6 is rolled out. Unfortunately, SHIM6, the engineering solution chosen to solve this issue in IPv6, will only be effective if universally adopted, and there are no short-term incentives to prefer SHIM6 over a duplication of the IPv4 arrangements. Incentives could be artificially introduced by requiring payment for adding multi-homed address space to the global routing table — a naïve estimate of the actual cost being 77 000 per routing prefix. However, it would be almost impossible to ensure the substantial revenues involved are correctly redistributed to those bearing the costs.

  4. Economic and Social Factors in Mate Selection: An Ethnographic Analysis of an Agricultural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Brown, Karen; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the impact of a variety of causal factors--economic, social, familial, and dyadic--on ethnoreligious marriages over 50 years in an Illinois agricultural community. Indicated that economic and social factors were more powerful influences in mate selection than is evident in much of the current research on premarital relationships.…

  5. The Illinois Plan for Home Economics Education. A Curriculum Guide. Creative Lifeskills Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This curriculum guide, which was designed for an exploration/orientation course in home economics aimed at encouraging and developing personal creativity, contains the following materials: a course description, course objectives, background information for instructors, curriculum guide interpretation, an abbreviated course outline, a detailed…

  6. CONCEPTS AND GENERALIZATIONS AS A NEW APPROACH TO TEACHING HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PIERETTI, GENEVIEVE

    AS THE MODEL FOR THE GRADUATE IN HOME ECONOMICS HAS CHANGED TO ONE OF A DECISION-MAKER WHO HAS THE NECESSARY KNOWLEDGE AND ABILITIES TO SOLVE PROBLEMS AND MAKE JUDGMENTS FOR HIMSELF RATHER THAN APPLY PRESCRIPTIONS LEARNED IN SCHOOL, THE CONCEPT METHOD OF TEACHING HAS BECOME MORE IMPORTANT. A CONFERENCE IN FEBRUARY 1961, CALLED TO CONSIDER HOW A…

  7. The Illinois Plan for Home Economics Education. A Curriculum Guide. Living Science Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal. Dept. of Home Economics.

    The rapid growth of science and technology has a tremendous impact upon how an individual functions in today's society. This experiment-oriented course encourages the student to investigate home economics subject matter from a scientific viewpoint. Using the scientific method to solve problems and make decisions, the student conducts laboratory…

  8. Professional Distance-Mentoring of Beginning Design and Technology Home Economics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, M. G.; Williams, J.; Awidi, Isaiah

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a research project that was conducted in 2009 and 2010 to support new teachers in the areas of Design and Technology and Home Economics. As a result of a retraining program, teachers in these areas were posted to remote schools, and the concern was that the combined difficulties of a new teaching area and a remote location would…

  9. Microcomputer Applications in Vocational Education: Home Economics. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarle, Ruth; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates the "Microcomputer Applications in Vocational Education: Home Economics" program developed by the Illinois State Board of Education. (This series of programs--not contained in this document--includes interior decorating estimating, pounds away program, decision analysis, fiber care, clothing figure analysis, stain…

  10. Family Living, Personal Culture, Child Development, [and] Careers in Home Economics. Career Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gloria E.; And Others

    The four instructional units or mini-courses in the area of home economics are designed for the seventh through ninth grade levels. In the first two units (parts A and B), both six-week courses, provide seven learning activities in family living and 10 activities in personal culture focusing on: self and personality development, goals and values,…

  11. Home Economics as an Academic Discipline: A Short History. Topical Paper No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Marie Negri

    The history of the home economics curriculum is traced from the late nineteenth century. The importance of the ideas of Sir Francis Bacon and Count Rumford in providing the philosophical justification for the application of science to everyday living is emphasized. The establishment of land grant colleges and women's colleges in the nineteenth…

  12. Sex-Role Illustrations in Junior High School Home Economics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Sandra S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of 1,116 illustrations in six home economics textbooks classified the illustrations by activity and noted whether males or females were the principal actors for each in order to study the sex-role images that are presented. The illustrations were found to reinforce traditional sex stereotypes in most instances. (BP)

  13. Population Education in Health and Home Economics: Some Sample Lessons for the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This booklet contains five sample lessons integrating population education into health and home economics instruction. It is one of four in a series. Materials differ from those in an earlier series (1980) in that lessons are presented at the secondary level only; there is no duplication of lessons from the earlier series in content and teaching…

  14. Influences of the Kentucky Cooperative Extension Home Economics Program. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Opal

    In planning a reorganization of the Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service by re-grouping counties, a statewide study of home economics education was made to determine the audience for the programs, methods by which audiences were reached, and differences between members of homemakers clubs and nonmembers. Interviews were held with a 5% random…

  15. Home Economics Teachers' Intentions and Engagement in Teaching Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapala, Irja; Biggs, Simon; Cederberg, Riitta; Kosonen, Anna-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    Home Economics (HE) teachers can have a central role in teaching sustainable development (SD) to young adolescents through everyday household management and the promotion of personally and globally sustainable well-being. How well the teachers cope with this task is not well known. The objective of this study was to survey Finnish HE…

  16. Land-Grant College Education, 1910-1920. Part V: Home Economics. Bulletin, 1925, No. 29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Walton C. Ed.

    1925-01-01

    At the beginning of the decennium 1910-1920 specialized courses in home economics were maintained in the land-grant institutions in the New England states, except Massachusetts, and Connecticut; in New York, at Cornell University; in Pennsylvania at Pennsylvania State College, and all of the states north of the Ohio River and west of the Allegheny…

  17. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Presented is the Home Economics component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades 7-12. Also included in the program are activity sets for Industrial Arts (SE 034 679), Language Arts (SE 034 680), Mathematics (SE 034 681), Science (SE…

  18. Investigating Home and School Computer-Mediated Communication Practices in Low Socio-Economic Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Ilana; Angus, Lawrie

    A study in Australia is examining home and school computer-mediated communication (CMC) practices in low socio-economic communities. Using qualitative methods, the study aims to enhance the understanding of emerging communication practices associated with the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The research has already begun…

  19. Development of Home Economics Curriculum Materials and Their Use in a Field Study of Applied Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolley, Margaret Virginia

    To improve students' food habits through teacher training in newer teaching methods as applied to nutrition, curriculum materials based on four basic nutrition concepts were developed, pilot tested, evaluated, and revised. Ten Louisiana home economics teachers were given inservice training, and they field tested the curriculum materials using 425…

  20. Impact of Technology and Culture on Home Economics and Nutrition Science Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aburime, M. O.; Uhomoibhi, J. O.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine and report on the impact of technology and culture on home economics and nutrition science education in developing countries with a focus on Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Globally and most especially in developing countries, the advent of information and communication technologies has meant…

  1. Predictors of the Perceived Importance of Food Skills of Home Economics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordyce-Voorham, Sandra P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test an hypothesis that teachers' personal orientations toward food preparation, nutrition and environmental issues would be related to their perceived importance of food skills. Design/methodology/approach: Little research has been conducted on home economics teachers' views on the importance of the food…

  2. Analysis of Readability and Interest of Home Economics Textbooks for Special Needs Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karen H.

    A study examined 58 home economics education textbooks in terms of reading difficulty, writing style, and interest level for special population learners. The objective was to identify texts, using six different readability formulas that were significantly more difficult and provided educational obstacles to special populations in their preparation…

  3. A Plan to the Future in Home Economics Education. Draft Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruckes, Nina Tiglio; Mongillo, Michael

    This curriculum guide was prepared to help Connecticut high schools offer an opportunity to disadvantaged high school students who are interested in home economics education to earn some college credit toward a degree in dietetic technology. The curriculum guide includes an overview of the course with a course description, recommended textbooks,…

  4. A Pilot Study for Gainful Employment in Home Economics. Final Report. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozine, June; And Others

    The major purpose of the study was to develop and test curriculum materials for three entry level gainful employment courses: Child Care Services, Clothing Services, Food Services. A second objective was to formulate recommendations for policies and procedures to follow in initiating and developing gainful employment programs in home economics.…

  5. We Are Tomorrow's Past. History of the Canadian Home Economics Association 1939-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Home Economics Association, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This publication traces the history of the Canadian Home Economics Association (CHEA) during the 50 years 1939-1989. The following articles are included: "The Beginning: Our Founding Convention" (Elizabeth Feniak); "Leading the Way: The Presidents"; "The Symbols: Crest, Chain of Office, and Ring" (Fran Genereux); "Keeping Us Informed: The…

  6. Vocational Home Economics for the Mainstreamed Physically Handicapped Student: The Least Restrictive Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Susan J.

    School building and classroom accessibility are the first factors considered in a discussion of making provisions for mainstreamed physically handicapped students in vocational home economics programs. Legal mandates are cited, and ideas for adapting food labs and sewing labs for wheelchair students and students with visual impairments are noted.…

  7. Adult Roles & Responsibilities. Home Economics Family Life Course. Grades 11-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for developing a home economics family life course to assist students in improving the quality of individual and family life. The course contains 12 units that cover the following topics: self-awareness, wheel of life, dating, mate selection, engagement, marriage, money management, parenting, crisis…

  8. Teaching Home Economics Content Material in an Individualized Reading Skills Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comerford, Linnie Sue

    Eighth grade students whose reading achievement scores fell between second and fourth grade level were given an individualized self-concept approach to reading instruction in home economics. Causes for their reading difficulties were identified as lack of interest in school, no set goals, poor attitudes, poor attendance and suspensions, and…

  9. Home Economics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document was developed to provide home economics teachers with background information on energy, and activities that can be used/adapted with a minimum of preparation time. The…

  10. Vocational Instructional Materials for Vocational Home Economics Education Available from Federal Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carol L., Comp.

    This listing of federally produced curriculum and instructional materials for vocational home economics education is one of eight annotated bibliographies that provide information for vocational educators at the secondary, postsecondary, and adult levels. Introductory information given includes a description of how to use the listing and sources…

  11. Individualized Instructional Materials for Special Needs Students in Junior High School Home Economics Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteford, Emma B.

    As a part of the general project investigating how home economics teachers can adapt their teaching methods and materials to the special needs students, this individualized instructional guide is designed to provide practical information, suggestions, and guidance for the classroom teacher. Following a brief description of special needs students,…

  12. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological

  13. Economic assessment of acid deposition and ozone damage on the San Joaquin Valley agriculture. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Howitt, R.

    1993-02-01

    The California Agricultural Resources Model (CARM) was used to estimate the economic impact of acidic deposition and ozone on crops in the San Joaquin Valley. Data on ozone exposure-crop response and agricultural markets are used in the CARM to estimate the potential economic benefits of an improvement in air quality. The study focused on the economic impact of two ozone reduction scenarios in agricultural regions of California. The CARM projected that if growing season concentrations of ozone were reduced to 0.04 ppm, annual benefits to consumers (higher availability and lower prices) and producers (higher production and lower production costs) would be approximately $489 million. In comparison, the benefit projected if statewide levels of ozone were uniformly reduced to 0.025 ppm was approximately $1.5 billion. Although the 0.025 ppm scenario is unlikely, the economic benefits were estimated to be correspondingly large.

  14. OUTLINE FOR THE PREPARATORY COURSE IN OCCUPATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS IN THE FIELD OF FOOD SERVICES (PREPARATION AND MANAGEMENT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Home Economics Service.

    TEACHERS MAY USE THIS EXPERIMENTAL OUTLINE IN PLANNING A PREPARATORY COURSE IN OCCUPATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS FOOD SERVICE FOR SECONDARY AND ADULT STUDENTS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY VOCATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS SUPERVISORS AND TEACHERS. THE OBJECTIVES ARE TO HELP STUDENTS RECOGNIZE THE CONTRIBUTIONS AND SCOPE OF THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY AND TO ACQUIRE…

  15. State Course of Study in Home Economics for Junior and Senior High Schools in Alabama, Vol. III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    Curriculum materials in each home economics area for junior and senior high school levels were developed over a 5-year period by a committee of state supervisory staff, college department chairmen, teacher educators, and teachers. The sequence of offerings is based on student experience at suggested grade levels and include: basic home economics,…

  16. "As Members of the Social Whole": A History of Social Reform as a Focus of Home Economics, 1895-1940.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Rima D.; Coleman, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    Late 19th- and early 20th-century founders saw home economics as a vehicle for social reform by applying scientific knowledge to family and community. By the 1920s, social responsibility of homemakers disappeared from home economics rhetoric. External factors such as legislation, educational theories, professional specialization, and changes in…

  17. Two Paths into Home Economics: A Study of Black and White Women in 1890 and 1862 Land-Grant Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, B.; And Others

    This 1977 study was conducted to determine the relative importance of selected variables on choice of major in home economics which distinguished black women attending southern 1890 land-grant universities from white women attending southern 1862 land-grant institutions. A 15% random sample of women with home economic majors was selected to…

  18. The Role of Agriculture in the Economic Development of West Virginia: An Input-Output Analysis. Miscellaneous Publication No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Gerard E.; And Others

    This study deals with the structural interrelationships among agricultural sub-sectors, and between the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors of the West Virginia economy. The study is intended to offer information on which to base sound economic development decisions. An input-output economic model is used in order to focus on the interaction…

  19. Land degradation and economic conditions of agricultural households in a marginal region of northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorent, Hugues; Evangelou, Christakis; Stellmes, Marion; Hill, Joachim; Papanastasis, Vasilios; Tsiourlis, Georgios; Roeder, Achim; Lambin, Eric F.

    2008-12-01

    Land degradation is caused by and has impacts on both the social and natural components of coupled human-environment systems. However, few studies integrate both aspects simultaneously. The main objective of this study is to test a method to evaluate land degradation based on the integration of aggregate metrics of biophysical and socio-economic "degradation". We applied a framework that integrates the biophysical and socio-economic dimensions of land degradation to test the hypothesis that macro-economic policies, and in particular agricultural subsidies, are an important driving force of land degradation in marginal regions of the Mediterranean Europe. We analysed the influence of subsidies on the profitability of each crop and livestock type found in a sample of farms in a region of northern Greece. Spatial and socio-economic data on agricultural households were collected to link remote sensing data and land degradation maps to socio-economic conditions of these households, as measured by the standard gross margin. The results demonstrate that subsidies provide a crucial socio-economic support to maintain the profitability of agricultural activities but may also promote land-use practices with damaging ecological impacts. Different levels of biophysical and socio-economic "degradation" were associated with different land use practices. The integration of the socio-economic and biophysical dimensions of land degradation reveals associations that would not be detectable if indicators along one dimension alone would be used.

  20. Support for agriculture during economic transformation: impacts on poverty and undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Webb, Patrick; Block, Steven

    2012-07-31

    This paper explores trends in poverty and nutrition during economic transformation and especially the impacts linked to government support for agriculture during the process. Analysis of multiyear data for 29 developing countries confirms that structural transformation raises total income and that poverty falls faster with strong support for agriculture. In turn, poverty reduction supports improved nutrition, especially in rural areas. However, transformation brings problems through health risks associated with rising obesity in rural as well as urban areas. Thus, the transition process must be managed better, through targeted support for smallholder agriculture and health interventions, if the negative consequences of obesity and chronic disease are to be mitigated.

  1. Home behavioral economics: Childcare decisions in the United States and Norway.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Katharine F; Hantula, Donald A

    2016-06-01

    This research investigated how a couple decides which parent stays home as a childcare provider by attempting to determine the economic value on maternal care versus paternal care while examining the potential effects of nationality, gender role attitudes, and social support. We collected data from 240 American participants and 250 Norwegian participants who were asked to decide how much a mother needs to earn to allow her husband to stay at home to provide childcare and how much a father needs to earn to allow his wife to stay at home and provide childcare, in addition to items assessing gender role attitudes. No effect of social support was found, but Norwegians were slightly more likely than Americans to place a heavier earning burden on the husband. There were few differences in gender role attitudes by nationality. The impact of public policy and social desirability on the results and childcare decision making are discussed. PMID:26991664

  2. Impoverishment of practice: analysis of effects of economic discourses in home care case management practice.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Christine

    2006-03-01

    Home care is a health sector under increasing pressure. Demand is often said to be outstripping capacity, with constant change and retrenchment distinguishing features of the current context. This paper takes a reading of the current conditions of home care using data gathered during a field study of home care case management practices conducted in 2004. As economic discourses become increasingly influential in determining responses to client situations, case managers (and their managers) find themselves with limited capacity to exercise control over their practices. A growing gap between professionally influenced discourses--those presumably intended to guide practice--and organizational priorities creates a dissonance for case managers as the political-ethical dimensions of their practices are displaced by budget "realities." For front-line workers, such displacement cannot be sustained in their face-to-face encounters with clients, leading to a growing sense of frustration and powerlessness among these highly skilled practitioners.

  3. Home Influences on the Academic Performance of Agricultural Science Students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndirika, Maryann C.; Njoku, U. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the home influences on the academic performance of agricultural science secondary school students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The instrument used in data collection was a validated questionnaire structured on a two point rating scale. Simple random sampling technique was used to select…

  4. The economic potential of carbon sequestration in Californian agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catala-Luque, Rosa

    This dissertation studies the potential success of a carbon sequestration policy based on payments to farmers for adoption of alternative, less intensive, management practices in California. Since this is a first approach from a Californian perspective, we focus on Yolo County, an important agricultural county of the State. We focus on the six more important crops of the region: wheat, tomato, corn, rice, safflower, and sunflower. In Chapter 1, we characterize the role of carbon sequestration in Climate Change policy. We also give evidence on which alternative management practices have greenhouse gas mitigation potential (reduced tillage, cover-cropping, and organic systems) based on a study of experimental sites. Chapter 2 advances recognizing the need for information at the field level, and describes the survey designed used to obtain data at the field level, something required to perform a complete integrated assessment of the issue. The survey design is complex in the sense that we use auxiliary information to obtain a control (subpopulation of conventional farmers)-case (subpopulation of innovative farmers) design with stratification for land use. We present estimates for population quantities of interest such as total variable costs, profits, managerial experience in different alternatives, etc. This information efficiently gives field level information for innovative farmers, a missing piece of information so far, since our sampling strategy required the inclusion with probability one of farmers identified as innovative. Using an agronomic process model (DayCent) for the sample and population units, we construct carbon mitigation cost curves for each crop and management observed. Chapter 3 builds different econometric models for cross-sectional data taking into account the survey design, and expanding the sample size constructing productivity potential under each alternative. Based on the yield productivity potential modeled for each unit, we conclude that a

  5. An Economic Evaluation of Home Versus Laboratory-Based Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Richard D.; Kapur, Vishesh K.; Redline-Bruch, Julie; Rueschman, Michael; Auckley, Dennis H.; Benca, Ruth M.; Foldvary-Schafer, Nancy R.; Iber, Conrad; Zee, Phyllis C.; Rosen, Carol L.; Redline, Susan; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We conducted an economic analysis of the HomePAP study, a multicenter randomized clinical trial that compared home-based versus laboratory-based testing for the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design: A cost-minimization analysis from the payer and provider perspectives was performed, given that 3-mo clinical outcomes were equivalent. Setting: Seven academic sleep centers. Participants: There were 373 subjects at high risk for moderate to severe OSA. Interventions: Subjects were randomized to either home-based limited channel portable monitoring followed by unattended autotitration with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), versus a traditional pathway of in-laboratory sleep study and CPAP titration. Measurements and Results: From the payer perspective, per subject costs for the laboratory-based pathway were $1,840 (95% confidence interval [CI] $1,660, $2,015) compared to $1,575 (95% CI $1,439, $1,716) for the home-based pathway under the base case. Costs were $264 (95% CI $39, $496, P = 0.02) in favor of the home arm. From the provider perspective, per subject costs for the laboratory arm were $1,697 (95% CI $1,566, $1,826) compared to $1,736 (95% CI $1,621, $1,857) in the home arm, for a difference of $40 (95% CI −$213, $142, P = 0.66) in favor of the laboratory arm under the base case. The provider operating margin was $142 (95% CI $85, $202,P < 0.01) in the laboratory arm, compared to a loss of −$161 (95% CI −$202, −$120, P < 0.01) in the home arm. Conclusions: For payers, a home-based diagnostic pathway for obstructive sleep apnea with robust patient support incurs fewer costs than a laboratory-based pathway. For providers, costs are comparable if not higher, resulting in a negative operating margin. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00642486. Citation: Kim RD, Kapur VK, Redline-Bruch J, Rueschman M, Auckley DH, Benca RM, Foldvary-Schafer NR, Iber C, Zee PC, Rosen CL, Redline S, Ramsey SD. An economic

  6. Bone mineral density and diet of teachers of College of Home Economics at Lahore

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Zahra; Imam, Sardar Fakhar; Imam, Neelam; Saba, Kanwal; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and diet of teachers of a Govt. College of Home Economics in Lahore. Methods: It was survey research. Purposive sampling technique was adopted for the selection of 50 teachers from Govt. College of Home Economics of age group 30 – 60 years. Results: About 46% of the subjects had BMD ratio in between -2.58 to -4.0 (Osteoporotic category). The root cause of low BMD ratio was not really age related but in majority of the sample it was due to sedentary life style and lack of awareness about the importance of exercise in relation to bone health. Conclusion: The total mineral and vitamin intake required for bone health (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus & vitamin D) was below the recommended, among majority of the sample. PMID:26430440

  7. Review Article: Economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture - review and analysis of existing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémond, P.; Grelot, F.; Agenais, A.-L.

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, economic evaluation of flood management projects is increasingly used to help decision making. At the same time, the management of flood risk is shifting towards new concepts such as giving more room to water by restoring floodplains. Agricultural areas are particularly targeted by projects following those concepts since they are frequently located in floodplain areas and since the potential damage to such areas is expected to be lower than to cities or industries for example. Additional or avoided damage to agriculture may have a major influence on decisions concerning these projects and the economic evaluation of flood damage to agriculture is thus an issue that needs to be tackled. The question of flood damage to agriculture can be addressed in different ways. This paper reviews and analyzes existing studies which have developed or used damage functions for agriculture in the framework of an economic appraisal of flood management projects. A conceptual framework of damage categories is proposed for the agricultural sector. The damage categories were used to structure the review. Then, a total of 42 studies are described, with a detailed review of 26 of them, based on the following criteria: types of damage considered, the influential flood parameters chosen, and monetized damage indicators used. The main recommendations resulting from this review are that even if existing methods have already focused on damage to crops, still some improvement is needed for crop damage functions. There is also a need to develop damage functions for other agricultural damage categories, including farm buildings and their contents. Finally, to cover all possible agricultural damage, and in particular loss of activity, a farm scale approach needs to be used.

  8. A Comparison of Life Goals, Attitudes and Perceptions of Home Economics Majors at Bob Jones University and 1862 Colleges and Universities in the Southern Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Marcella Anne

    To develop a profile of home economics majors at a private Christian university and to compare their goals, attitudes and perceptions with those of 1126 home economics majors at the 37 land grant institutions participating in the S-114 Southern Regional Study, the S-114 questionnaire is used to survey all 247 home economics majors at Bob Jones…

  9. Hydro-economic analysis of groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture in California's Central Valley, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellín-Azuara, Josué; MacEwan, Duncan; Howitt, Richard E.; Koruakos, George; Dogrul, Emin C.; Brush, Charles F.; Kadir, Tariq N.; Harter, Thomas; Melton, Forrest; Lund, Jay R.

    2015-09-01

    As in many places, groundwater in California (USA) is the major alternative water source for agriculture during drought, so groundwater's availability will drive some inevitable changes in the state's water management. Currently, agricultural, environmental, and urban uses compete for groundwater, resulting in substantial overdraft in dry years with lowering of water tables, which in turn increases pumping costs and reduces groundwater pumping capacity. In this study, SWAP (an economic model of agricultural production and water use in California) and C2VISim (the California Department of Water Resources groundwater model for California's Central Valley) are connected. This paper examines the economic costs of pumping replacement groundwater during drought and the potential loss of pumping capacity as groundwater levels drop. A scenario of three additional drought years continuing from 2014 show lower water tables in California's Central Valley and loss of pumping capacity. Places without access to groundwater and with uncertain surface-water deliveries during drought are the most economically vulnerable in terms of crop revenues, employment and household income. This is particularly true for Tulare Lake Basin, which relies heavily on water imported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Remote-sensing estimates of idle agricultural land between 2012 and 2014 confirm this finding. Results also point to the potential of a portfolio approach for agriculture, in which crop mixing and conservation practices have substantial roles.

  10. Spatial Modeling of Indian Agriculture, Economic Activity and Population under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, G. C.

    2010-12-01

    We present a spatial model of economic activity and human population built on physical geography that takes particular account of its effects through agricultural productivity and transport costs for trade. A major component of this work is an agricultural model, driven in part by high-resolution climate data and model output. We put forward India as the initial region for this modeling work; India is a relatively data-rich country, it exhibits significant within-country spatial and temporal variation in agricultural productivity, urbanization rates, and population growth rates, and the climate dynamics of the monsoon are well-studied and expected to change on decadal time scales. Agricultural productivity is modeled as a function of soil, climate, and technology variables. Farmers locate optimally given varying geography and transport costs; in turn, food availability defines urbanization rates and economic activity in non-agricultural sectors. This “social system” integrated assessment model is a step towards a valuable policy tool, but requires a significant mobilization of data and a grid-cell-level system of equations to describe the underlying dynamics of the model. We test against past trends of social-natural system progression in demography, human location, income, food production, etc., and argue that the model could be used to assess future trends under varying climate change scenarios, and eventually serve to model feedbacks through effects on migration, population growth rates, or economic activity.

  11. A Case Study of Rural Industrialization in Jamestown, North Dakota. Agricultural Economics Report No. 95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Delmer L.; Zink, Maurice J.

    The study's objectives were to: (1) determine the criteria used by industry in the selection of an area as a plant site; (2) measure the interdependence and economic impact that a manufacturing sector has on an agriculturally dominated rural area; and (3) evaluate employees' attitudes toward their new jobs in manufacturing. Jamestown, North Dakota…

  12. Socio-Economic Background and Access to Internet as Correlates of Students' Achievement in Agricultural Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegoke, Sunday Paul; Osokoya, Modupe M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated access to internet and socio-economic background as correlates of students' achievement in Agricultural Science among selected Senior Secondary Schools Two Students in Ogbomoso South and North Local Government Areas. The study adopted multi-stage sampling technique. Simple random sampling was used to select 30 students from…

  13. 77 FR 11064 - National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20250-0321. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: J. Robert Burk, Executive Director or Shirley Morgan-Jordan, Program Support Coordinator, National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board; telephone: (202) 536-6547; fax: (202) 720-6199; or email:...

  14. Grade Performance of Face-to-Face versus Online Agricultural Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenway, Gina A.; Makus, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    Online course offerings have been growing at a rapid pace in post-secondary education. An ordered probit model is estimated to analyze the effects of online vs. face-to-face course format in achieving specific letter grades. An upper-division agricultural economics course taught over 9 years using both formats is used for the analysis. For a…

  15. An Approach to Determining the Market for Academic Positions: Application to the Discipline of Agricultural Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Terence; Casavant, Ken; Jessup, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present issues that are relevant to pursuing an academic career in the chosen discipline of each student. The application will be a general case study of agricultural economics. The analytical model will be used to evaluate options for Ph.D. graduates in a supply and demand context. The first issue presented is a…

  16. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF THE SHUNDE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM UNDER CHINA'S SMALL CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of small cities has been adopted as the main strategy to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of agricultural systems ...

  17. Teaching Basic Production Economic Principles to Secondary School Students of Vocational Agriculture: An Evaluative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, James E.

    Four modules of instruction on basic production economic principles were developed, tried in high school classes of students preparing for on- and off-farm agricultural occupations, and evaluated for content and teaching. Basic principles studied were supply and demand, value theory, variable proportions, and marginal analysis. Total and part…

  18. Analysis of economic impacts of climate change on agricultural water management in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrote, Luis; Iglesias, Ana

    2016-04-01

    on changes in management practices due to adaptation or land use changes. These have been estimated through a socio-economic model that accounts for the evolution of population, GDP, agricultural land use and other relevant socio-economic variables linked to climate change adaptation. The combination of the results of the SARA model, the WAAPA model and the socioeconomic model allow the estimation of total economic value of agricultural production in terms of fraction of GDP.

  19. Planning for Free Lives: Curriculum Materials for Combatting Sex Stereotyping in Home Economics, Family Living, and Career Awareness Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feminists Northwest, Seattle, WA.

    Classroom activities for high-school students in home economics are provided. Designed to help male and female students gain home management skills without the usual limits of traditional sex-role stereotyping, the activities aim at assisting members of both sexes realize their potential as independent, thoughtful, cooperative, and assertive…

  20. Home Economics Guide for Visually Handicapped Students. A Five County Vocational Skills Training Program for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Constance H.

    Presented is a curriculum guide for home economics which developed out of a 3 year program designed to provide vocational education for visually impaired students enrolled in junior high, secondary, and community colleges in a five county region of California. The guide presents a section each on foods, grooming, home management and child care,…

  1. Economic, Social and Political Issues of Intergovernmental Contracting. Agricultural Economics Staff Paper 89-37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Lynn R.

    This paper focuses on the economic, social, and political considerations of contracting. The increasing tendency of government to contract services is attributed to higher financial stress facing local governments, a growing political belief that the extent of government should be reduced, and the perception that the private sector is a more…

  2. High-performance workplace practices in nursing homes: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Christine E

    2014-02-01

    To develop implications for research, practice and policy, selected economics and human resources management research literature was reviewed to compare and contrast nursing home culture change work practices with high-performance human resource management systems in other industries. The organization of nursing home work under culture change has much in common with high-performance work systems, which are characterized by increased autonomy for front-line workers, self-managed teams, flattened supervisory hierarchy, and the aspiration that workers use specific knowledge gained on the job to enhance quality and customization. However, successful high-performance work systems also entail intensive recruitment, screening, and on-going training of workers, and compensation that supports selective hiring and worker commitment; these features are not usual in the nursing home sector. Thus despite many parallels with high-performance work systems, culture change work systems are missing essential elements: those that require higher compensation. If purchasers, including public payers, were willing to pay for customized, resident-centered care, productivity gains could be shared with workers, and the nursing home sector could move from a low-road to a high-road employment system.

  3. Potential ecological and economic consequences of climate-driven agricultural and silvicultural transformations in central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, Nadezhda M.; Zander, Evgeniya V.; Pyzhev, Anton I.; Parfenova, Elena I.; Soja, Amber J.

    2014-05-01

    Increased warming predicted from general circulation models (GCMs) by the end of the century is expected to dramatically impact Siberian forests. Both natural climate-change-caused disturbance (weather, wildfire, infestation) and anthropogenic disturbance (legal/illegal logging) has increased, and their impact on Siberian boreal forest has been mounting over the last three decades. The Siberian BioClimatic Model (SiBCliM) was used to simulate Siberian forests, and the resultant maps show a severely decreased forest that has shifted northwards and a changed composition. Predicted dryer climates would enhance the risks of high fire danger and thawing permafrost, both of which challenge contemporary ecosystems. Our current goal is to evaluate the ecological and economic consequences of climate warming, to optimise economic loss/gain effects in forestry versus agriculture, to question the relative economic value of supporting forestry, agriculture or a mixed agro-forestry at the southern forest border in central Siberia predicted to undergo the most noticeable landcover and landuse changes. We developed and used forest and agricultural bioclimatic models to predict forest shifts; novel tree species and their climatypes are introduced in a warmer climate and/or potential novel agriculture are introduced with a potential variety of crops by the end of the century. We applied two strategies to estimate climate change effects, motivated by forest disturbance. One is a genetic means of assisting trees and forests to be harmonized with a changing climate by developing management strategies for seed transfer to locations that are best ecologically suited to the genotypes in future climates. The second strategy is the establishment of agricultural lands in new forest-steppe and steppe habitats, because the forests would retreat northwards. Currently, food, forage, and biofuel crops primarily reside in the steppe and forest-steppe zones which are known to have favorable

  4. The Role of Food Selection in Swedish Home Economics: The Educational Visions and Cultural Meaning.

    PubMed

    Höijer, Karin; Hjälmeskog, Karin; Fjellström, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article explores foods talked about and chosen in the education of Swedish Home Economics as a relationship between structural processes and agency. Three data sets from observations and focus group interviews with teachers and students were analyzed for food classifications. These were related to a culinary triangle of contradictions, showing factors of identity, convenience and responsibility. Results show that foods talked about and chosen by teachers and students were reflections of dominant cultural values. Results also indicate that teachers had more agency than students, but that the choices they made were framed by educational visions and cultural values. PMID:25105860

  5. CGE Simulation Analysis on the Labor Transfer, Agricultural Technical Progress, and Economic Development in Chongqing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heng; Ran, Maosheng

    2014-01-01

    The basic structure of a CGE model dividing Mainland China into two parts, including Chongqing and rest regions, is described. Based on this CGE model, both the unilateral impact and collaborative impact of two policies, agricultural technical progress and supporting policies for improving rural labor transfer on the economic development in Chongqing, are simulated and analyzed. The results demonstrate that compared with the sum of each unilateral policy effect, the collaboration of two policies has more effective impact on facilitating the labor transfer, promoting regional economic growth, and improving income and welfare of urban and rural residents. PMID:24892037

  6. Perennial grasses for energy and conservation: Evaluating some ecological agricultural, and economic issues

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Walsh, M.; McLaughlin, S.

    1995-11-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  7. Health, agricultural, and economic effects of adoption of healthy diet recommendations.

    PubMed

    Lock, Karen; Smith, Richard D; Dangour, Alan D; Keogh-Brown, Marcus; Pigatto, Gessuir; Hawkes, Corinna; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Chalabi, Zaid

    2010-11-13

    Transition to diets that are high in saturated fat and sugar has caused a global public health concern, as the pattern of food consumption is a major modifiable risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases. Although agri-food systems are intimately associated with this transition, agriculture and health sectors are largely disconnected in their priorities, policy, and analysis, with neither side considering the complex inter-relation between agri-trade, patterns of food consumption, health, and development. We show the importance of connection of these perspectives through estimation of the eff ect of adopting a healthy diet on population health, agricultural production, trade, the economy, and livelihoods,with a computable general equilibrium approach. On the basis of case-studies from the UK and Brazil, we suggest that benefits of a healthy diet policy will vary substantially between different populations, not only because of population dietary intake but also because of agricultural production, trade, and other economic factors.

  8. Bio-physical vs. Economic Uncertainty in the Analysis of Climate Change Impacts on World Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, T. W.; Lobell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that agricultural production could be greatly affected by climate change, but there remains little quantitative understanding of how these agricultural impacts would affect economic livelihoods in poor countries. The recent paper by Hertel, Burke and Lobell (GEC, 2010) considers three scenarios of agricultural impacts of climate change, corresponding to the fifth, fiftieth, and ninety fifth percentiles of projected yield distributions for the world’s crops in 2030. They evaluate the resulting changes in global commodity prices, national economic welfare, and the incidence of poverty in a set of 15 developing countries. Although the small price changes under the medium scenario are consistent with previous findings, their low productivity scenario reveals the potential for much larger food price changes than reported in recent studies which have hitherto focused on the most likely outcomes. The poverty impacts of price changes under the extremely adverse scenario are quite heterogeneous and very significant in some population strata. They conclude that it is critical to look beyond central case climate shocks and beyond a simple focus on yields and highly aggregated poverty impacts. In this paper, we conduct a more formal, systematic sensitivity analysis (SSA) with respect to uncertainty in the biophysical impacts of climate change on agriculture, by explicitly specifying joint distributions for global yield changes - this time focusing on 2050. This permits us to place confidence intervals on the resulting price impacts and poverty results which reflect the uncertainty inherited from the biophysical side of the analysis. We contrast this with the economic uncertainty inherited from the global general equilibrium model (GTAP), by undertaking SSA with respect to the behavioral parameters in that model. This permits us to assess which type of uncertainty is more important for regional price and poverty outcomes. Finally, we undertake a

  9. Policy toward individual economic holdings and private enterprises in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, November 1988.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    On 29 November 1988, Viet Nam adopted a policy allowing individual economic holdings and private enterprises in the areas of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. The policy recognizes the positive effect of such holdings and charges the state with creating favorable conditions for them. Ownership and inheritance rights are recognized, and all citizens are entitled to apply for permission to use certain land for business purposes. The production of exports is encouraged, and such enterprises may engage in financial transactions, including borrowing money.

  10. Economic impacts of climate change on agriculture: the AgMIP approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincé, Jacques; Ciaian, Pavel; Witzke, Heinz-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The current paper investigates the long-term global impacts on crop productivity under different climate scenarios using the AgMIP approach (Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project). The paper provides horizontal model intercomparison from 11 economic models as well as a more detailed analysis of the simulated effects from the Common Agricultural Policy Regionalized Impact (CAPRI) model to systematically compare its performance with other AgMIP models and specifically for the Chinese agriculture. CAPRI is a comparative static partial equilibrium model extensively used for medium and long-term economic and environmental policy impact applications. The results indicate that, at the global level, the climate change will cause an agricultural productivity decrease (between -2% and -15% by 2050), a food price increase (between 1.3% and 56%) and an expansion of cultivated area (between 1% and 4%) by 2050. The results for China indicate that the climate change effects tend to be smaller than the global impacts. The CAPRI-simulated effects are, in general, close to the median across all AgMIP models. Model intercomparison analyses reveal consistency in terms of direction of change to climate change but relatively strong heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effects between models.

  11. Families' Social Backgrounds Matter: Socio-Economic Factors, Home Learning and Young Children's Language, Literacy and Social Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…

  12. Delegation of GP-home visits to qualified practice assistants: assessment of economic effects in an ambulatory healthcare centre

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Against the background of a decreasing number of general practitioners (GPs) in rural regions in Germany, the AGnES-concept (AGnES = GP-supporting, community-based, e-health-assisted, systemic intervention) supports the delegation of regular GP-home visits to qualified practice assistants. The concept was implemented and evaluated in different model projects in Germany. To explore the economic effects of this concept, the development of the number of home visits in an ambulatory healthcare centre was analysed and compared with the number of home visits in the surrounding county. Methods Information about GP-home visits was derived from reimbursement data of the ambulatory healthcare centre and a statutory health insurance. Information about home visits conducted by AGnES-practice assistants was collected from the project documentation over a time period of 12 consecutive quarter years, four quarter years before the beginning of the project and 8 quarter years while the project was implemented, considering background temporal trends on the population level in the study region. Results Within the ambulatory healthcare centre, the home visits by the GPs significantly decreased, especially the number of medically urgent home visits. However, the overall rate of home visits (conducted by the GPs and the AGnES-practice assistants together) did not change significantly after implementation of the AGnES-concept. In the surrounding county, the home visit rates of the GPs were continuous; the temporal patterns were approximately equal for both usual and urgent home visits. Conclusion The results of the analyses show that the support by AGnES-practice assistants led to a decrease of GP-home visits rather than an induction of additional home visits by the AGnES-practice assistants. The most extended effect is related to the medically urgent home visits rather than to the usual home visits. PMID:20529307

  13. Center for Consumer Home Economics Education. Project Number 91-0095 and 91-0095, A-1 and A-2, January 31, 1992-June 30, 1993. A Report on Center Operation and Activities Conducted for California Community College Home Economics and Related Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

    In an effort to improve community college home economics programs, the Chancellor's Office of the California Community Colleges established the Center for Consumer Home Economics Education (CCHEE) to provide support services for colleges receiving home economics MiniGrants, to establish linkages between colleges and the Chancellor's Office, and to…

  14. Career Education. Human Ecology/Home Economics Objectives, Grades 6-12. DS Manual 2850.1 [and] Approved List of Essential Textbooks/Instructional Materials for Human Ecology/Home Economics, Grades 6-12. DS Manual 2850.2; Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This manual provides program and instructional objectives as guidelines for a human ecology/home economics program in Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS). Four sections are inlcuded in the manual: (1) Human Ecology/Home Economics Program Objectives; (2) Human Ecology/Home Economics, Grades 6-8, Exploratory; (3) Fundamentals Level…

  15. Towards an integrated economic assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotze-Campen, H.; Piontek, F.; Stevanovic, M.; Popp, A.; Bauer, N.; Dietrich, J.; Mueller, C.; Schmitz, C.

    2012-12-01

    For a detailed understanding of the effects of climate change on global agricultural production systems, it is essential to consider the variability of climate change patterns as projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs), their bio-physical impact on crops and the response in land-use patterns and markets. So far, approaches that account for the interaction of bio-physical and economic impacts are largely lacking. We present an integrative analysis by using a soft-coupled system of a biophysical impact model (LPJmL, Bondeau et al. 2007), an economically driven land use model (MAgPIE, Lotze-Campen et al. 2008) and an integrated assessment model (ReMIND-R, Leimbach et al. 2010) to study climate change impacts and economic damages in the agricultural sector. First, the dynamic global vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL is used to derive climate change impacts on crop yields for wheat, maize, soy, rice and other major crops. A range of different climate projections is used, taken from the dataset provided by the Intersectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP, www.isi-mip.org), which bias-corrected the latest CMIP5 climate data (Taylor et al. 2011). Crop yield impacts cover scenarios with and without CO2 fertilization as well as different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and different GCMs. With increasing temperature towards the end of the century yields generally decrease in tropical and subtropical regions, while they tend to benefit in higher latitudes. LPJmL results have been compared to other global crop models in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP, www.agmip.org). Second, changes in crop yields are analysed with the spatially explicit agro-economic model MAgPIE, which covers their interaction with economic development and changes in food demand. Changes in prices as well as welfare changes of producer and consumer surplus are taken as economic indicators. Due to climate-change related reductions in

  16. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; Tubiello, Francesco N; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-11-29

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological-economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5' X 5' latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change.

  17. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; N. Tubiello, Francesco; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological–economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5′×5′ latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change. PMID:16433094

  18. [Coupling situation of agriculture-ecology-economic system in Zhifanggou watershed of Loess hilly and gully region].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Ji-Jun

    2010-06-01

    Based on the investigations in the Zhifanggou Watershed of Loess hilly and gully region from 1938 to 2007, and the establishment of eco-environmental and socio-economic comprehensive evaluation indices and coupling model, this paper analyzed the coupling situation of the agriculture-ecology-economic system in the watershed. During the study period, the agriculture-ecology-economic system in the watershed had gone through the coupling processes of economic system vs. ecosystem initial regenesis-consumption-promotion-coordination, and of ecosystem vs. economic system primary response-lag behind-recovery-coordination. According to the coupling degree fitting curves and the coupling type classification, the current agriculture-ecology-economic system in the watershed was still in the situation of coupling, and would be well coordinated.

  19. Coupled urbanization and agricultural ecosystem services in Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z X; Li, J; Zhang, W

    2016-08-01

    Ecosystems offer material and environmental support for human habitation and development in those areas of the earth where people choose to live. However, urbanization is an inexorable trend of human social development and threatens the health of those ecosystems inhabited by humans. This study calculates the values of NPP (net primary productivity), carbon sequestration, water interception, soil conservation, and agricultural production in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone. At the same time, we combined DMSP/OLS (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Line Scanner) night lights remote sensing data and statistical data to analyze the level of urbanization. Quantitative analysis was performed on the interactions between the ecosystem service functions and urbanization based on the calculations of their coupled coordination degrees. The results were the following: (1) The values of NPP, carbon sequestration, and agricultural production showed a trend of increase. However, water interception decreased before increasing, while soil conservation showed the reverse trend; (2) Urbanization levels in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone for the last 10 years have proceeded at a fast pace with comprehensive promotion; and (3) Coupled and coupled coordination degrees between urbanization and ecosystem services show increasing trends. This research can provide a theoretical basis for the region's rapid economic development in the balance. PMID:27117147

  20. Coupled urbanization and agricultural ecosystem services in Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z X; Li, J; Zhang, W

    2016-08-01

    Ecosystems offer material and environmental support for human habitation and development in those areas of the earth where people choose to live. However, urbanization is an inexorable trend of human social development and threatens the health of those ecosystems inhabited by humans. This study calculates the values of NPP (net primary productivity), carbon sequestration, water interception, soil conservation, and agricultural production in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone. At the same time, we combined DMSP/OLS (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Line Scanner) night lights remote sensing data and statistical data to analyze the level of urbanization. Quantitative analysis was performed on the interactions between the ecosystem service functions and urbanization based on the calculations of their coupled coordination degrees. The results were the following: (1) The values of NPP, carbon sequestration, and agricultural production showed a trend of increase. However, water interception decreased before increasing, while soil conservation showed the reverse trend; (2) Urbanization levels in the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone for the last 10 years have proceeded at a fast pace with comprehensive promotion; and (3) Coupled and coupled coordination degrees between urbanization and ecosystem services show increasing trends. This research can provide a theoretical basis for the region's rapid economic development in the balance.

  1. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

    2010-05-14

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

  2. The benefits of improved technologies in agricultural aviation. [economic impact and aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The economic benefits attributable to a variety of potential technological improvements in agricultural aviation are discussed. Topics covered include: the ag-air industry, the data base used to estimate the potential benefits and a summary of the potential benefits from technological improvements; ag-air activities in the United States; foreign ag-air activities; major ag-air aircraft is use and manufacturers' sales and distribution networks; and estimates of the benefits to the United States of proposed technological improvements to the aircraft and dispersal equipment. A bibliography of references is appended.

  3. Agriculture and the Property Tax: A Forward Look Based on a Historical Perspective. Agricultural Economic Report No. 392.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stam, Jerome M.; Sibold, Ann G.

    Assessing the property tax in terms of agriculture, this report analyzes the following in an historical sense in order to draw implications for the future: (1) the importance of the property tax to the agricultural sector; (2) the horizontal equity of the property tax for the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors in terms of income and wealth;…

  4. EXTENSION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES, A MANUAL FOR AGRICULTURAL AND HOME EXTENSION WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAVILE, A.H.

    A PRACTICAL GUIDE IS PROVIDED FOR TRAINERS OF ADVISORY AND EXTENSION WORKERS AND LOCAL LEADERS IN AGRICULTURE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING NATIONS. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, COMMUNITY SURVEY PROCEDURES, ELEMENTS OF PROGRAM PLANNING, AND PURPOSES AND METHODS OF PROGRAM EVALUATION ARE DESCRIBED. THEN FOLLOW TWO CHAPTERS…

  5. Can we do better? Economic analysis of human resource investment to improve home care service for the elderly in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Mihic, Marko M; Todorovic, Marija Lj; Obradovic, Vladimir Lj; Mitrovic, Zorica M

    2016-01-01

    Background Social services aimed at the elderly are facing great challenges caused by progressive aging of the global population but also by the constant pressure to spend funds in a rational manner. Purpose This paper focuses on analyzing the investments into human resources aimed at enhancing home care for the elderly since many countries have recorded progress in the area over the past years. The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of performing an economic analysis of the investment. Methods This paper combines statistical analysis methods such as correlation and regression analysis, methods of economic analysis, and scenario method. Results The economic analysis of investing in human resources for home care service in Serbia showed that the both scenarios of investing in either additional home care hours or more beneficiaries are cost-efficient. However, the optimal solution with the positive (and the highest) value of economic net present value criterion is to invest in human resources to boost the number of home care hours from 6 to 8 hours per week and increase the number of the beneficiaries to 33%. Conclusion This paper shows how the statistical and economic analysis results can be used to evaluate different scenarios and enable quality decision-making based on exact data in order to improve health and quality of life of the elderly and spend funds in a rational manner. PMID:26869778

  6. From plantation agriculture to oil storage: economic development and social transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines two separate concepts of development. At the macrolevel, development is viewed as an advance in the organization of production and the extension of capitalist relations of production. At the community level, it is viewed as a process leading to qualitative change in a people's say of life. Focusing on a rural coastal valley and bay ecosystem in St. Lucia, a Windward Island in the Lesser Antilles, this research distinguished three separate stages in this ecosystem's economic development and examines the consequences of these economic transitions on a single rural village and group of fisherman living within it. The economic stages described begin with the terminal era of sugar cane cultivation, followed by the rationalization of commercial agriculture under translational control and the introduction of bananas, and concludes with the breaking up of the valley plantation and the introduction of a petroleum transshipment terminal. Each of these enterprises defined the valley's resources differently and each had a distinct organization of production. The relationship between hillside households and these enterprises varied accordingly. Households went from being an essential part of the productive process to being marginalized by it. Fishermen also became excluded from this environment. For these rural St. Lucians, large-scale economic development has not lead to qualitative improvement in their lives.

  7. Extension Leadership Development Seminar: Empowering Adults as Leaders through Home Economics Programs. Proceedings (Charlotte, North Carolina, July 10, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Elizabeth B.

    The seminar reported in this document had two main goals: (1) to strengthen the competencies of career professionals working on leadership development in teaching, research, or extension settings; and (2) to broaden the overall knowledge base of leadership development within home economics programs. The following nine papers are included:…

  8. A Curriculum Guide for Occupational Orientation and Exploration in Junior High School Home Economics and Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Grace

    The specific purpose of the curriculum guide is utilization in industrial arts and home economics of part of the junior high phase of the SPAN Project--An Accelerated Project for a System Program Approaching Non-Unemployment of Vocational Students, or "Start Planning Ahead Now". The document is designed to assist the teacher in providing…

  9. STEPS. Surviving Today's Experiences and Problems Successfully. A Comprehensive Home Economics Course for Grades 9-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall Univ., Huntington, WV. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This curriculum consists of guidelines for teaching a comprehensive home economics course for grades 9 and 10, an outline of competencies and learner outcomes, a resource list, addresses of publishers, and a series of learning activities to supplement the course learning modules. Addressed in the units are the following topics: coping with today,…

  10. Home Economics Education. Teacher Handbook. Vocational Education. Grades 9-12. North Carolina Competency-Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This teacher handbook provides recommended goals and objectives and suggested measures for competency-based courses in the vocational program area of home economics education. A background and overview section contains the philosophy and rationale, discusses thinking skills and programs for exceptional children, and provides notes that explain how…

  11. Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Practical Reasoning Instruction on Student Outcome in Home Economics Education in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Nan Sook

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviewed the effect of practical reasoning instruction (PRI) on student outcome in Home Economics education in Korea. In this meta-analysis, 25 studies with 35 effect sizes were analyzed. The results of this review indicated that PRI is more effective than traditional instruction on student outcomes. A medium and significant…

  12. How Home Economics Undergraduates Picture Their Work Lives in the Year 2,000: Implications for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinn, Lynn Marie; Pike, Gary R.

    The objective of a research project was to describe how undergraduate home economics students perceive their work lives in the year 2000 according to age, race, gender, marital status, and geographic region of the country. A valid, field-tested survey instrument developed specifically for this project was administered to 324 volunteer…

  13. Comparing Students' Enrolment and Graduate Output in Home Economics with Other Vocational Subjects in Colleges of Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare students' enrolment and graduate output in Home Economics with other Vocational subjects in the Colleges of Education in Nigeria. The target population included twenty (20) Federal Colleges and twenty-seven (27) State Colleges of Education offering eight Vocational and Technical disciplines during the…

  14. Proceedings of the 1968 Home Economics Research Conference (Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn., June 27 to 29, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    Interdisciplinary research, use of computers, communicating findings, and evaluation criteria for research were topics of this conference. Speeches included: (1) "The Interdisciplinary Approach to Research in Home Economics," by D.S. Hoffman, (2) "The Relationship of Clothing to the Personal and Social Acceptability of Adolescents," by N.H.…

  15. The economic impact of more sustainable water use in agriculture: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzadilla, Alvaro; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryAgriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater resources - around 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals are used for food production. These agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is, therefore, impossible without understanding the international market for food and related products, such as textiles. Based on the global general equilibrium model GTAP-W, we offer a method for investigating the role of green (rain) and blue (irrigation) water resources in agriculture and within the context of international trade. We use future projections of allowable water withdrawals for surface water and groundwater to define two alternative water management scenarios. The first scenario explores a deterioration of current trends and policies in the water sector (water crisis scenario). The second scenario assumes an improvement in policies and trends in the water sector and eliminates groundwater overdraft world-wide, increasing water allocation for the environment (sustainable water use scenario). In both scenarios, welfare gains or losses are not only associated with changes in agricultural water consumption. Under the water crisis scenario, welfare not only rises for regions where water consumption increases (China, South East Asia and the USA). Welfare gains are considerable for Japan and South Korea, Southeast Asia and Western Europe as well. These regions benefit from higher levels of irrigated production and lower food prices. Alternatively, under the sustainable water use scenario, welfare losses not only affect regions where overdrafting is occurring. Welfare decreases in other regions as well. These results indicate that, for water use, there is a clear trade-off between economic welfare and environmental sustainability.

  16. The economic and environmental consequences of implementing nitrogen-efficient technologies and management practices in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L; Davidson, Eric A; Kanter, David R; Cai, Ruohong

    2015-03-01

    Technologies and management practices (TMPs) that reduce the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer while maintaining crop yields can improve N use efficiency (NUE) and are important tools for meeting the dual challenges of increasing food production and reducing N pollution. However, because farmers operate to maximize their profits, incentives to implement TMPs are limited, and TMP implementation will not always reduce N pollution. Therefore, we have developed the NUE Economic and Environmental impact analytical framework (NUE) to examine the economic and environmental consequences of implementing TMPs in agriculture, with a specific focus on farmer profits, N fertilizer consumption, N losses, and cropland demand. Our analytical analyses show that impact of TMPs on farmers' economic decision-making and the environment is affected by how TMPs change the yield ceiling and the N fertilization rate at the ceiling and by how the prices of TMPs, fertilizer, and crops vary. Technologies and management practices that increase the yield ceiling appear to create a greater economic incentive for farmers than TMPs that do not but may result in higher N application rates and excess N losses. Nevertheless, the negative environmental impacts of certain TMPs could be avoided if their price stays within a range determined by TMP yield response, fertilizer price, and crop price. We use a case study on corn production in the midwestern United States to demonstrate how NUE can be applied to farmers' economic decision-making and policy analysis. Our NUE framework provides an important tool for policymakers to understand how combinations of fertilizer, crop, and TMP prices affect the possibility of achieving win-win outcomes for farmers and the environment. PMID:26023951

  17. Home Economics/Family Studies Curricula in Canada: Current Status and Challenges = Programmes d'etudes en economie familiale et sciences familiale au Canada: Situation actuelle et enjeux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterat, Linda; Khamasi, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Replicating a 1984 study, a survey of home economics/family studies coordinators in the 10 Canadian provinces found the following: home economics has expanded into grades lower than 8; required courses have increased; core curriculum has not changed radically; there is increased focus on family well-being; and there is a need to address curriculum…

  18. Soybean Development: The Impact of a Decade of Agricultural Change on Urban and Economic Growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state’s economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso’s economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  19. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  20. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings.

  1. Readjustment and Life Satisfaction of International Students in Agriculture Returning Home to a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreisbach, Peter B.; And Others

    A study was conducted to identify and compare anticipated life satisfaction and readjustment as perceived by bachelor and graduate degree-level international students returning to developing countries after studying agriculture in the United States with actual life satisfaction and readjustment as perceived by students with similar backgrounds who…

  2. The potential for carbon sequestration in Australian agricultural soils is technically and economically limited

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Shu Kee; Chen, Deli; Mosier, Arvin R.; Roush, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), have raised worldwide interest in the potential of agricultural soils to be carbon (C) sinks. In Australia, studies that have quantified the effects of improved management practices in croplands on soil C have generally been inconclusive and contradictory for different soil depths and durations of the management changes. We therefore quantitatively synthesised the results of Australian studies using meta-analytic techniques to assess the technical and economic feasibility of increasing the soil C stock by improved management practices. Our results indicate that the potential of these improved practices to store C is limited to the surface 0–10 cm of soil and diminishes with time. None of these widely adopted practices is currently financially attractive under Australia's new legislation known as the Carbon Farming Initiative. PMID:23846398

  3. Home food availability is associated with multiple socio-economic indicators in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Renée; Gearry, Richard B; Grant, Emily; Pearson, John; Skidmore, Paula Ml

    2014-01-01

    Financial restraints and poverty lead to poor diets and poor health outcomes. Limited research shows that socioeconomic status is related to home availability of certain foods. However, studies in this area have used different socio-economic indicators, which may not equally influence eating-related behaviors. Using multiple indicators of socio-economic status may provide a more accurate picture of these relationships. The aim of this study was to investigate whether several socio-economic indicators are independently associated with home availability of selected foods known to influence chronic disease risk in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand, participating in the CHALICE study. Participants were selected randomly from health research extracts from Canterbury. Data from 216 participants (110 females, 106 males) were included. The presence (but not quantity) of foods/beverages in the home was measured by a validated home food inventory. Linear regression analyses were performed for the following home food inventory scores: fruit, vegetables, lower fat dairy, obesogenic foods and sweetened beverages with household income, standard of living and education using multivariate models. Higher household income and standard of living were individually associated with a 2% to 3% higher fruit and vegetables (3 to 5 types/forms) and total food scores (6 to 9 types/forms) (p<0.03). Higher education level was associated with a 2.5% increase in fruit and vegetables score (4 types/forms) and an 8% decrease in sweetened beverages score (0.4 beverages) (p<0.02). These results suggest that using only one measure of socio-economic status cannot accurately capture the effects of social inequalities in food availability. Those experiencing the most social disadvantage had a lesser availability of fruit and vegetables which may be detrimental to good health. PMID:25516330

  4. Economic and environmental impacts of the corn grain ethanol industry on the United States agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J.A.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Menard, R.J.; Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.

    2010-09-10

    This study evaluated the impacts of increased ethanol production from corn starch on agricultural land use and the environment in the United States. The Policy Analysis System simulation model was used to simulate alternative ethanol production scenarios for 2007 through 2016. Results indicate that increased corn ethanol production had a positive effect on net farm income and economic wellbeing of the US agricultural sector. In addition, government payments to farmers were reduced because of higher commodity prices and enhanced net farm income. Results also indicate that if Conservation Reserve Program land was converted to crop production in response to higher demand for ethanol in the simulation, individual farmers planted more land in crops, including corn. With a larger total US land area in crops due to individual farmer cropping choices, total US crop output rose, which decreased crop prices and aggregate net farm income relative to the scenario where increased ethanol production happened without Conservation Reserve Program land. Substantial shifts in land use occurred with corn area expanding throughout the United States, especially in the traditional corn-growing area of the midcontinent region.

  5. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  6. Economic and energetic evaluation of alcohol fuel production from agriculture: Yolo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Meo, M.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation reviews the technical aspects of alcohol fuel production and consumption, examines the set of policy-related issues that affect both the private and the public sectors, and investigates the economic and energetic feasibility of small-scale on-farm production on a representative Sacramento Valley field and vegetable crop farm. Candidate feedstocks, including both starch and sugar-rich crops, are: barley, corn, fodder beet, grain sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, sugar beet, sweet sorghum, tomatoes, and wheat. The leading fuel crops were found to be sweet sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, corn, fodder beet, and grain sorghum in order of declining preference. With better than average crop yields and the current mix of financial incentives, the breakeven cost of alcohol fuel is $1.03 per gallon when diesel fuel and gasoline prices are $1.30 and $1.46, respectively. Without subsidy, the breakeven cost is $1.62 per gallon. An energy analysis was calculated for each of the feedstocks under consideration. With the exception of sweet sorghum, wheat, and barley, all feedstocks showed a negative net energy balance. The use of agricultural residues as a boiler fuel, however, made a significant difference in the overall energy balance. The role of government in energy policy is reviewed and typical policy instruments are discussed. Although on-farm alcohol fuel production is not currently economically competitive with gasoline and diesel fuel, technological innovation and the return of increasing petroleum prices could alter the situation.

  7. Reorienting Agricultural Education towards a Free Market Model Emphasizing Economic Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amberson, Max L.

    Agricultural education has grown and flourished in the past because it took students with farm backgrounds and helped them become better managers and producers, thus improving agriculture in general. Now that fewer students are coming from farms into agricultural education, agricultural education has lost its protected status and become just…

  8. Structural Changes in Illinois Agriculture and Industry: Impact on Illinois School Finance. Series E. Agricultural Economics. No. 85-E-335.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicoine, David L.; Langston, Suzanne W.

    Simulation of changes through 1988-89 in the distribution of general school aid (GSA) in Illinois demonstrated implications of a dual state economy for educational finance. Agricultural and heavy manufacturing areas were found to have suffered loss of tax revenue while service and light industry areas experienced increased revenue. Downstate…

  9. Increasing organic carbon stocks in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Eriksson, Jan O.; Lundblad, Mattias; Kätterer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Management changes can induce significant alterations of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Including trends in SOC within a certain land-use category can thus strongly influence the annual national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. In 2013, the European Union has therefore decided that all member states shall report the evolvement of SOC within agricultural soils to increase the incentives to mitigate climate change by improving the management of those soils. Here, we present the country and county-wise SOC trends in Swedish agricultural mineral soils on the basis of three soil inventories conducted between 1988 and 2013. In the past two decades, the average topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC content of the whole country increased from 2.48% to 2.67% representing a relative change of 7.7% or 0.38% yr-1. This is in contrast to trends observed in neighboring countries such as Norway and Finland. We attributed this positive SOC trend to the increasing cultivation of leys throughout the country. Indeed, the below-ground carbon input of perennial grasses is up to fourfold as compared to cereals, which leads to a significant soil carbon sequestration potential under cropping systems with ley. The increase in ley proportion was significantly correlated to the increase in horse population in each county (R2=0.71), which has more than doubled in the past three decades. Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area as long-term set-aside land (mostly old leys) also contributed to an increase in leys. This discloses the strong impact of rather local socio-economic trends on soil carbon storage, which also need to be considered in larger-scale model applications. This database is used in the continuous validation process of the Swedish national system for reporting changes in SOC stocks.

  10. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration or Its Sucessor Agency Under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administration or Its Sucessor Agency Under Public Law 103-354-Interest-Bearing Deposit Agreement B Exhibit B to... Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration or Its Sucessor Agency Under Public Law 103-354... Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354, referred to as the “Government,” which...

  11. The economic value of breast-feeding. Food and Agriculture Organization of the the United Nations.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    A request from the Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 1973 led to a research project funded by the Government of Norway to examine the declining use of mother's milk in developing countries. Two consultants were appointed to compile information on the subject, to develop a theoretical model to illustrate the economic value of breastfeeding, and to study the situation in two developing countries, Ghana and the Ivory Coast. Lack of data was a problem in both countries, but estimates could be made, and some of the conclusions reached are the following. Breastfeeding is still the norm in both countries, yet if it were to increase in the Ivory Coast so that every infant were breastfed for two years the savings in national goods cost could amount to US$ 16 to 28 million annually. If it declined to the level of Paris in 1955 (chosen for comparison) the annual national cost would be between US$ 33 and 55 million. At the individual level, by breastfeeding rather than artificially feeding an infant for two years the average family in either country would save between US$ 600 and 730 in the cost of goods and time, plus any savings that might result from the avoidance of disease or malnutrition caused by artificial feeding. In Ghana, changes in the infant-feeding pattern due to rural-to-urban migration would cause only a 20-percent increase in formula imports, while import increases would be more than five times as great as this if the present severe restrictions were relaxed so that formula replaced only one percent of the potential national breast-milk production. A change to artificial feeding could possibly result in considerable population growth because of loss of the contraceptive effect (through lactation amenorrhoea) of breastfeeding. In-depth studies of the economics of breastfeeding present great difficulties and would probably not justify their high cost. The report suggests that studies be

  12. Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries:Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests and Weeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AgroAtlas is a comprehensive on-line bilingual reference on the geographic distribution of economic plants, their diseases, pests and weeds, and environmental factors that influence agricultural production through out the Former Soviet Union. Online users can read about and examine maps and ima...

  13. The Impacts and Economic Costs of Climate Change in Agriculture and the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, A.; Quiroga, S.; Garrote, L.; Cunningham, R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides monetary estimates of the effects of agricultural adaptation to climate change in Europe. The model computes spatial crop productivity changes as a response to climate change linking biophysical and socioeconomic components. It combines available data sets of crop productivity changes under climate change (Iglesias et al 2011, Ciscar et al 2011), statistical functions of productivity response to water and nitrogen inputs, catchment level water availability, and environmental policy scenarios. Future global change scenarios are derived from several socio-economic futures of representative concentration pathways and regional climate models. The economic valuation is conducted by using GTAP general equilibrium model. The marginal productivity changes has been used as an input for the economic general equilibrium model in order to analyse the economic impact of the agricultural changes induced by climate change in the world. The study also includes the analysis of an adaptive capacity index computed by using the socio-economic results of GTAP. The results are combined to prioritize agricultural adaptation policy needs in Europe.

  14. Reorienting Agricultural Education towards a Free Market Model Emphasizing Economic Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amberson, Max L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the National Council for Vocational and Technology Education in Agriculture designed to foster creative and innovative leadership for the improvement and further development of the field. Stresses the importance of working with private sector agricultural producers and agribusinesses. (JOW)

  15. Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry

    SciTech Connect

    Mccarl, Bruce A.; Schneider, Uwe; Murray, Brian; Williams, Jimmy; Sands, Ronald D.

    2001-05-14

    This paper examines the relative contribution of agricultural and forestry activities in an emission reduction program, focusing in part on the relative desirability of sequestration in forests and agricultural soils. The analysis considers the effects of competition for land and other resources between agricultural activities, forestry activities and traditional production. In addition, the paper examines the influence of saturation and volatility.

  16. Ethics in Today's World. Proceedings, Anniversary Conference, Illinois Teacher of Home Economics (30th, Champaign, Illinois, April 11-14, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Hazel Taylor, Ed.

    Presentations and panel discussion papers are provided from a conference on ethics, specifically in regard to home economics education. Presentations include "Education for an Ethical Society: Transforming Moral Education, Insuring Domestic Tranquility" (Jane Martin); "Taking Our Ethical Responsibilities Seriously as Home Economists" (Margaret…

  17. A Systematic Review of Health Economic Analyses of Housing Improvement Interventions and Insecticide-Treated Bednets in the Home

    PubMed Central

    Pega, Frank; Wilson, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Background Housing improvements have considerable potential for improving health. So does the provision of insecticide-treated bednets for malaria prevention. Therefore we aimed to conduct updated systematic reviews of health economic analyses in both these intervention domains. Methods and findings The search strategy included economic analyses of housing improvement interventions and use of insecticide-treated bednets for community-dwelling, healthy populations (published between 1 January 2000 and 15 April 2014). We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and three health economics databases. Thirty-five economic analyses of seven types of intervention fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most included studies adopted a health sector perspective and were cost-effectiveness analyses using decision analytic modeling or conducted alongside trials. The overall quality of the studies was generally likely to be adequate for informing policy-making (albeit with limitations in some areas). There was fairly consistent evidence for the cost-effectiveness/favorable cost-benefit of removing indoor lead to prevent lead poisoning and sequelae, and retrofitting insulation to prevent lung disease. But the value of assessing and improving home safety and providing smoke alarms to prevent injuries was more mixed and the economic evidence was inconclusive or insufficient for: home ventilation to prevent lung disease, installing heaters to prevent lung disease and regulating tap water temperatures to prevent scalding. Few studies (n = 4) considered health equity. The 12 studies of providing insecticide-treated bednets or hammocks to prevent malaria found these interventions to be moderately to highly cost-effective. Conclusions This systematic review provides updated evidence that several housing improvement interventions (such as removing indoor lead and retrofitting insulation) and also the provision of insecticide-treated bednets are cost

  18. Evaluating the relative impact of climate and economic changes on forest and agricultural ecosystem services in mountain regions.

    PubMed

    Briner, Simon; Elkin, Ché; Huber, Robert

    2013-11-15

    Provisioning of ecosystem services (ES) in mountainous regions is predicted to be influenced by i) the direct biophysical impacts of climate change, ii) climate mediated land use change, and iii) socioeconomic driven changes in land use. The relative importance and the spatial distribution of these factors on forest and agricultural derived ES, however, is unclear, making the implementation of ES management schemes difficult. Using an integrated economic-ecological modeling framework, we evaluated the impact of these driving forces on the provision of forest and agricultural ES in a mountain region of southern Switzerland. Results imply that forest ES will be strongly influenced by the direct impact of climate change, but that changes in land use will have a comparatively small impact. The simulation of direct impacts of climate change affects forest ES at all elevations, while land use changes can only be found at high elevations. In contrast, changes to agricultural ES were found to be primarily due to shifts in economic conditions that alter land use and land management. The direct influence of climate change on agriculture is only predicted to be substantial at high elevations, while socioeconomic driven shifts in land use are projected to affect agricultural ES at all elevations. Our simulation results suggest that policy schemes designed to mitigate the negative impact of climate change on forests should focus on suitable adaptive management plans, accelerating adaptation processes for currently forested areas. To maintain provision of agricultural ES policy needs to focus on economic conditions rather than on supporting adaptation to new climate. PMID:23995509

  19. Evaluating the relative impact of climate and economic changes on forest and agricultural ecosystem services in mountain regions.

    PubMed

    Briner, Simon; Elkin, Ché; Huber, Robert

    2013-11-15

    Provisioning of ecosystem services (ES) in mountainous regions is predicted to be influenced by i) the direct biophysical impacts of climate change, ii) climate mediated land use change, and iii) socioeconomic driven changes in land use. The relative importance and the spatial distribution of these factors on forest and agricultural derived ES, however, is unclear, making the implementation of ES management schemes difficult. Using an integrated economic-ecological modeling framework, we evaluated the impact of these driving forces on the provision of forest and agricultural ES in a mountain region of southern Switzerland. Results imply that forest ES will be strongly influenced by the direct impact of climate change, but that changes in land use will have a comparatively small impact. The simulation of direct impacts of climate change affects forest ES at all elevations, while land use changes can only be found at high elevations. In contrast, changes to agricultural ES were found to be primarily due to shifts in economic conditions that alter land use and land management. The direct influence of climate change on agriculture is only predicted to be substantial at high elevations, while socioeconomic driven shifts in land use are projected to affect agricultural ES at all elevations. Our simulation results suggest that policy schemes designed to mitigate the negative impact of climate change on forests should focus on suitable adaptive management plans, accelerating adaptation processes for currently forested areas. To maintain provision of agricultural ES policy needs to focus on economic conditions rather than on supporting adaptation to new climate.

  20. Using Coupled Hydrologic and Agro-economic Models to Evaluate the Impact of Agricultural Activity on Streamflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugger, D. R.; Maneta, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation substantially alters the timing and magnitude of surface water flows, and continued agricultural intensification to keep up with demand means perpetual stress on surface water resources. A critical challenge is to manage irrigation in a way that balances ecosystem health with sustaining agricultural economies. Coupled hydrologic-agroeconomic models are promising tools for meeting this challenge: the models can quantify 1) how water withdrawal for irrigation impacts streamflows, 2) how these impacts propagate through a surface water system, 3) how the amount of water available for irrigation changes the allocation of resources (e.g. land, water) to available crops, and 4) the impact of water availability on agricultural economies. However, these models can be very data intensive, which limits their applicability. We present a parsimonious coupled hydrologic-agroeconomic model that uses the Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP) method, extensively used in agricultural resource economics, and calibrates to data on allotment of agricultural inputs, available from sources such as the USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service. PMP assumes that farmers allocate resources to maximize net revenues, justifying the use of optimality conditions to constrain the parameters of the agroeconomic model. We improve the standard PMP model by 1) having the calibrated model reproduce not only the observed input allotment but also the observed yield, and 2) using the ensemble Kalman filter equations to solve the mathematical programming problem recursively, which permits refinement of the model calibration as new observations become available. We demonstrate the proposed agroeconomic model by coupling it to HEC-HMS, a hydrologic model capable of simulating regional natural and man-made water distribution networks, to investigate the sensitivity of streamflows to the allocation of agricultural inputs (land and water) in response to changes in climatic and economic

  1. Assessment of China's economic loss resulting from the degradation of agricultural land in the end of 20th century.

    PubMed

    Hao, Fang-hua; Chang, Ying; Ning, Da-tong

    2004-01-01

    Land degradation is a consequence stemming from both natural processes and social economic activities. On the bases of analyzing general situation of agricultural land degradation in China, the monetary estimating methods such as market value method and shadow engineering method were used to quantitatively assess the economic loss resulting from land deterioration. Results showed that the economic loss in 1999 was 326.81 billion RMB Yuan, which accounted for 4.1% of GDP in the same year of China. If taking five items namely farmland conversion, soil erosion, salinization, decline in reservoir functions, and siltation in waterways and, comparing with that in 1992, the percentage of economic loss to GDP has increased by 1.5 in the only 7 years.

  2. Economic burden of multidrug-resistant bacteria in nursing homes in Germany: a cost analysis based on empirical data

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Claudia; Roggelin, Marcus; Flessa, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infections and colonisations with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) increasingly affect different types of healthcare facilities worldwide. So far, little is known about additional costs attributable to MDROs outside hospitals. The aim of this study was to analysis the economic burden of multidrug-resistant bacteria in nursing homes in Germany. Setting The cost analysis is performed from a microeconomic perspective of the healthcare facilities. Study took place in six long-term care facilities in north-eastern Germany. Participants Data of 71 residents with a positive MDRO status were included. Primary and secondary outcome measures The study analysed MDRO surveillance data from 2011 to 2013. It was supplemented by an empirical analysis to determine the burden on staff capacity and materials consumption. Results 11 793 days with a positive multidrug-resistant pathogen diagnosis could be included in the analysis. On average, 11.8 (SD±6.3) MDRO cases occurred per nursing home. Mean duration per case was 163.3 days (SD±97.1). The annual MDRO-related costs varied in nursing homes between €2449.72 and €153 263.74 on an average €12 682.23 per case. Main cost drivers were staff capacity (€43.95 per day and €7177.04 per case) and isolation materials (€24.70 per day and €4033.51 per case). Conclusions The importance of MDROs in nursing homes could be confirmed. MDRO-related cost data in this specific healthcare sector were collected for the first time. Knowledge about the burden of MDROs will enable to assess the efficiency of hygiene intervention measures in nursing homes in the future. PMID:26908511

  3. Integrated Modeling to Assess the Impacts of Changes in Climate and Socio Economics on Agriculture in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Malek, K.; Nelson, R.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Kruger, C.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the impacts of climate change and socio economics on agriculture in the Columbia River basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. and a portion of Southwestern Canada. The water resources of the CRB are managed to satisfy multiple objectives including agricultural withdrawal, which is the largest consumptive user of CRB water with 14,000 square kilometers of irrigated area. Agriculture is an important component of the region's economy, with an annual value over 5 billion in Washington State alone. Therefore, the region is relevant for applying a modeling framework that can aid agriculture decision making in the context of a changing climate. To do this, we created an integrated biophysical and socio-economic regional modeling framework that includes human and natural systems. The modeling framework captures the interactions between climate, hydrology, crop growth dynamics, water management and socio economics. The biophysical framework includes a coupled macro-scale physically-based hydrology model (the Variable Infiltration Capacity, VIC model), and crop growth model (CropSyst), as well as a reservoir operations simulation model. Water rights data and instream flow target requirements are also incorporated in the model to simulate the process of curtailment during water shortage. The economics model informs the biophysical model of the short term agricultural producer response to water shortage as well as the long term agricultural producer response to domestic growth and international trade in terms of an altered cropping pattern. The modeling framework was applied over the CRB for the historical period 1976-2006 and compared to a future 30-year period centered on the 2030s. Impacts of climate change on irrigation water availability, crop irrigation demand, frequency of curtailment, and crop yields are quantified and presented. Sensitivity associated with estimates of water availability, irrigation demand, crop

  4. Optimizing Economic Indicators in the Case of Using Two Types of State-Subsidized Chemical Fertilizers for Agricultural Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldea, M.; Sala, F.

    2010-09-01

    We admit that the mathematical relation between agricultural production f(x, y) and the two types of fertilizers x and y is given by function (1). The coefficients that appear are determined by using the least squares method by comparison with the experimental data. We took into consideration the following economic indicators: absolute benefit, relative benefit, profitableness and cost price. These are maximized or minimized, thus obtaining the optimal solutions by annulling the partial derivatives.

  5. Training Home Economics Program Assistants to Work with Low Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouls, Janalyce; And Others

    These materials are designed to present ideas for developing a program for training nonprofessional workers to help low income families to raise their aspirations, develop pride in homemaking, improve homemaking skills, have a more satisfying home and family life, improve the health of family members, gain knowledge to help children develop, and…

  6. Identification of Tasks in Home Economics Related Occupations: Institutional and Household Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Irene; And Others

    The study of task identification in institutional and household maintenance presents statistical correlations of task frequencies obtained by questionnaire in 10 task clusters for the occupations of executive housekeeper, supervising housekeeper, housekeeping director, custodian, homemaker/home health aide, hotel/motel housekeeping aide, nursing…

  7. Agro-ecology, household economics and malaria in Uganda: empirical correlations between agricultural and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper establishes empirical evidence relating the agriculture and health sectors in Uganda. The analysis explores linkages between agricultural management, malaria and implications for improving community health outcomes in rural Uganda. The goal of this exploratory work is to expand the evidence-base for collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors in Uganda. Methods The paper presents an analysis of data from the 2006 Uganda National Household Survey using a parametric multivariate Two-Limit Tobit model to identify correlations between agro-ecological variables including geographically joined daily seasonal precipitation records and household level malaria risk. The analysis of agricultural and environmental factors as they affect household malaria rates, disaggregated by age-group, is inspired by a complimentary review of existing agricultural malaria literature indicating a gap in evidence with respect to agricultural management as a form of malaria vector management. Crop choices and agricultural management practices may contribute to vector control through the simultaneous effects of reducing malaria transmission, improving housing and nutrition through income gains, and reducing insecticide resistance in both malaria vectors and agricultural pests. Results The econometric results show the existence of statistically significant correlations between crops, such as sweet potatoes/yams, beans, millet and sorghum, with household malaria risk. Local environmental factors are also influential- daily maximum temperature is negatively correlated with malaria, while daily minimum temperature is positively correlated with malaria, confirming trends in the broader literature are applicable to the Ugandan context. Conclusions Although not necessarily causative, the findings provide sufficient evidence to warrant purposefully designed work to test for agriculture health causation in vector management. A key constraint to modeling the

  8. Potential economic benefits of adapting agricultural production systems to future climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Pederson, Gregory; Bengtson, Lindsey E.; Prato, Tony; Qui, Zeyuan; Williams, Jimmie R.

    2010-01-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960–2005) and future climate period (2006–2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO2 emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting

  9. Potential economic benefits of adapting agricultural production systems to future climate change.

    PubMed

    Prato, Tony; Zeyuan, Qiu; Pederson, Gregory; Fagre, Dan; Bengtson, Lindsey E; Williams, Jimmy R

    2010-03-01

    Potential economic impacts of future climate change on crop enterprise net returns and annual net farm income (NFI) are evaluated for small and large representative farms in Flathead Valley in Northwest Montana. Crop enterprise net returns and NFI in an historical climate period (1960-2005) and future climate period (2006-2050) are compared when agricultural production systems (APSs) are adapted to future climate change. Climate conditions in the future climate period are based on the A1B, B1, and A2 CO(2) emission scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Steps in the evaluation include: (1) specifying crop enterprises and APSs (i.e., combinations of crop enterprises) in consultation with locals producers; (2) simulating crop yields for two soils, crop prices, crop enterprises costs, and NFIs for APSs; (3) determining the dominant APS in the historical and future climate periods in terms of NFI; and (4) determining whether NFI for the dominant APS in the historical climate period is superior to NFI for the dominant APS in the future climate period. Crop yields are simulated using the Environmental/Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model and dominance comparisons for NFI are based on the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) criterion. Probability distributions that best fit the EPIC-simulated crop yields are used to simulate 100 values for crop yields for the two soils in the historical and future climate periods. Best-fitting probability distributions for historical inflation-adjusted crop prices and specified triangular probability distributions for crop enterprise costs are used to simulate 100 values for crop prices and crop enterprise costs. Averaged over all crop enterprises, farm sizes, and soil types, simulated net return per ha averaged over all crop enterprises decreased 24% and simulated mean NFI for APSs decreased 57% between the historical and future climate periods. Although adapting APSs

  10. The Economic Crisis Hits Home: The Unfolding Increase in Child & Youth Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Barbara; Lovell, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    While the economic downturn has appropriately become the top priority of policy makers, one element of the crisis has gone largely unnoticed: its impact on children and youth. Largely due to the economic and housing crises, many school districts across the country report increases in the number of homeless students in the classroom. "The Economic…

  11. Groundwater economics: An object-oriented foundation for integrated studies of irrigated agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integrated foundation is presented to study the impacts of external forcings on irrigated agricultural systems. Individually, models are presented that simulate groundwater hydrogeology and econometric farm level crop choices and irrigated water use. The natural association between groundwater we...

  12. Sports Nutrition: A Modern Approach to Teaching Foods in High School Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Sheryl

    1991-01-01

    In a program designed to couple the awareness of the relationship between nutrition and physical activity, the principles of nutrition were tailored to individual athletes, and students were encouraged to develop a diet that adheres to U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines as modified for body type, activity level, and sport. (JOW)

  13. Unit-Credit Titles under Program Headings, Directory. Technology Education: Vocational Industrial, Industrial Arts, Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg. Curriculum Services Branch.

    This directory lists the unit-credit titles of the technology education courses offered in Manitoba, along with their corresponding department codes and course numbers. Sections A through C list the unit-credit titles of the following vocational-industrial clusters: heavy industrial (agriculture, auto body repair, building construction, building…

  14. Economic Analysis of Energy Crop Production in the U.S. - Location, Quantities, Price, and Impacts on Traditional Agricultural Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.E.; De La Torre Ugarte, D.; Slinsky, S.; Graham, R.L.; Shapouri, H.; Ray, D.

    1998-10-04

    POLYSYS is used to estimate US locations where, for any given energy crop price, energy crop production can be economically competitive with conventional crops. POLYSYS is a multi-crop, multi-sector agricultural model developed and maintained by the University of Tennessee and used by the USDA-Economic Research Service. It includes 305 agricultural statistical districts (ASD) which can be aggregated to provide state, regional, and national information. POLYSYS is being modified to include switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow on all land suitable for their production. This paper summarizes the preliminary national level results of the POLYSYS analysis for selected energy crop prices for the year 2007 and presents the corresponding maps (for the same prices) of energy crop production locations by ASD. Summarized results include: (1) estimates of energy crop hectares (acres) and quantities (dry Mg, dry tons), (2) identification of traditional crops allocated to energy crop production and calculation of changes in their prices and hectares (acres) of production, and (3) changes in total net farm returns for traditional agricultural crops. The information is useful for identifying areas of the US where large quantities of lowest cost energy crops can most likely be produced.

  15. Agriculture--Agriculture Science--Seed Germination. Kit No. 51. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Samuel

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on seed germination are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  16. Agriculture--Agricultural Production 1, Seed Bed. Kit No. 6. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Lee

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on the seed bed are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  17. Domestic dog health worsens with socio-economic deprivation of their home communities.

    PubMed

    Fung, H L; Calzada, J; Saldaña, A; Santamaria, A M; Pineda, V; Gonzalez, K; Chaves, L F; Garner, B; Gottdenker, N

    2014-07-01

    Dogs play an important role in infectious disease transmission as reservoir hosts of many zoonotic and wildlife pathogens. Nevertheless, unlike wildlife species involved in the life cycle of pathogens, whose health status might be a direct reflection of their fitness and competitive abilities, dog health condition could be sensitive to socio-economic factors impacting the well-being of their owners. Here, we compare several dog health indicators in three rural communities of Panama with different degrees of socio-economic deprivation. From a total of 78 individuals, we collected blood and fecal samples, and assessed their body condition. With the blood samples, we performed routine hematologic evaluation (complete blood counts) and measured cytokine levels (Interferon-γ and Interleukin-10) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. With the fecal samples we diagnosed helminthiases. Dogs were also serologically tested for exposure to Trypanosoma cruzi and canine distemper virus, and molecular tests were done to assess T. cruzi infection status. We found significant differences between dog health measurements, pathogen prevalence, parasite richness, and economic status of the human communities where the dogs lived. We found dogs that were less healthy, more likely to be infected with zoonotic pathogens, and more likely to be seropositive to canine distemper virus in the communities with lower economic status. This study concludes that isolated communities of lower economic status in Panama may have less healthy dogs that could become major reservoirs in the transmission of diseases to humans and sympatric wildlife.

  18. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  19. On the usage of agricultural raw materials--energy or food? An assessment from an economics perspective.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Fabian; Bröring, Stefanie; Herzog, Philipp; Leker, Jens

    2007-12-01

    Bioenergies are promoted across the globe as the answer for global warming and the chance to reduce dependency from fossil energy sources. Despite the fact that renewable energy sources offer the opportunity to reduce CO2 emission and present a chance to increase agricultural incomes, they also come along with some drawbacks that have been mostly neglected in the current discussion. This paper seeks to build a basis for discussing the impacts of the growing subsidization of bioenergy and the resulting usage competition of agricultural raw materials between foods and energy. To assess the usage competition and the subsidization of bioenergy, this article employs a welfare economics perspective associated with an emphasize on the construct of externalities. This will help to foster the discussion on the further subsidization of bioenergy, where funding for R&D on new ways of using non-food raw materials ought to play a significant role.

  20. As the Economic Crisis Hits Home, Colleges Seek Help from Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Congress is crafting a second economic-stimulus bill, and the nation's colleges, hit by the deepening fiscal crisis, want a share of the money. Over the last few weeks, colleges and their lobbyists have bombarded members of Congress with letters and phone calls seeking money for research, student aid, and infrastructure. However, Congress is…

  1. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Agricultural Economics. Planning for Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utley, Michael; Scanlon, Dennis C.

    This unit of instruction on farm management for energy savings was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their…

  2. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1977. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…

  3. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1976. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agricultural…

  4. Agricultural Employment and Economic Growth in the Lower Rio Grande Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Conrad F.

    Using the basic input-output model developed by the Texas Input-Output Project for a 19 county South Texas Region, income transfer effects from the extension of unemployment insurance to the agricultural sector were derived. Total income transferred would have ranged from $1.5 million to $2.3 million depending upon coverage provisions. About…

  5. A nursing home in Arab-Israeli society: targeting utilization in a changing social and economic environment.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Khalid; Walter-Ginzburg, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    This article is a case study of the first 10 years of operation (1992-2002) of the Dabouriya Home for the Aged, the first publicly funded culturally adapted nursing home for Israeli citizens of Arab descent. Although 44% of Arab Israelis and 26% of Jewish Israelis aged 65 and older are disabled, in 1999, 4.3% of the Jewish population but only 0.7% of the Arab-Israeli population aged 65 or older lived in long-term care institutions; disabled Arab-Israeli elderly were mainly cared for by families. As Arab-Israeli society modernizes and traditional caregiving is reduced, alternatives must be found for this growing, disabled population. Medical and administrative records of 404 people admitted consecutively to a 136-bed facility over 10 years were analyzed. Two distinct segments of the needy population were served: people with independent activity of daily living (ADL) function but little or no family to provide help with intermediate ADLs and those dependent in ADLs and with health problems, especially dementia. Economic, demographic, and social changes in Arab-Israeli society may mean that traditional caregivers will not be able to adequately care for this highly disabled population. Administrators of the public health system in Israel should be aware of the underutilization of publicly funded long-term care by disabled Arab Israelis and the lack of care alternatives for the population that does use nursing homes, because there may be severe consequences in terms of caregiver burden and social stress when disabled elderly people remain in unsuitable environments.

  6. Doubling Up When Times Are Tough: A Study of Obligations to Share a Home in Response to Economic Hardship

    PubMed Central

    Seltzer, Judith A.; Lau, Charles Q.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a factorial vignette design embedded in an Internet survey to investigate attitudes toward an adult child and parent living together in response to economic hardship. Over half of Americans said the desirability of intergenerational co-residence depends on particularistic aspects of the family, notably the quality of family relationships. Support for co-residence is greatest when the adult child is single rather than partnered. Support is weaker if the adult child is cohabiting rather than married to the partner, although groups with greater exposure to cohabitation make less of a distinction between cohabitation and marriage. Presence of a grandchild does not affect views about co-residence. There is more support for sharing a home when a mother needs a place to live than when the adult child does. Responses to open-ended questions show that individuals invoke both universalistic family obligations and particularistic qualities of family relationships to explain their attitudes. PMID:23017934

  7. Concentrations of polybromobiphenyls and polybromodiphenyl ethers in home dust: relevance to socio-economic status and human exposure rate.

    PubMed

    Kefeni, Kebede K; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Botha, Ben M

    2014-02-01

    This study reports on the levels of all major polybromobiphenyls (PBBs) and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in 31 home dust samples collected in Pretoria, South Africa. Low concentrations of PBB and PBDE congeners were detected in 21 and 7 samples, respectively. The Σ10PBDEs concentration ranged from <0.3 to 234 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) of dust with a median of 18.3 ng g(-1) dw. No significant differences in the total concentration of PBDEs were observed among three socio-economic categories considered. The overall daily intake of PBDEs via ingestion of dust was estimated for children and adults using median concentrations of Σ10PBDEs. Accordingly, for children and adults the exposure rate values are 0.96 and 0.38 ng day(-1), respectively. In addition, the estimated daily dust ingestion exposure rate doses for children and adults with respect to BDE-47 and BDE-99 were by far lower than the reference dose values. It can, therefore, be said that South Africans living in Pretoria are exposed to low concentrations of PBDEs from home environment dust. PMID:24252199

  8. Economic Evaluation of Home Blood Pressure Monitoring With or Without Telephonic Behavioral Self-Management in Patients With Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Shelby D.; Li, Yanhong; Oddone, Eugene Z.; Neary, Alice M.; Orr, Melinda M.; Grubber, Janet M.; Graham, Felicia L.; Olsen, Maren K.; Svetkey, Laura P.; Dolor, Rowena J.; Powers, Benjamin J.; Adams, Martha B.; Bosworth, Hayden B.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Take Control of Your Blood Pressure trial evaluated the effect of a multicomponent telephonic behavioral lifestyle intervention, patient self-monitoring, and both interventions combined compared with usual care on reducing systolic blood pressure during 24 months. The combined intervention led to a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure compared with usual care alone. We examined direct and patient time costs associated with each intervention. Methods We conducted a prospective economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial of 636 patients with hypertension participating in each study intervention. Medical costs were estimated using electronic data representing medical services delivered within the health system. Intervention-related costs were derived using information collected during the trial, administrative records, and published unit costs. Results During 24 months, patients incurred a mean of $6965 (SD, $22,054) in inpatient costs and $8676 (SD, $9368) in outpatient costs, with no significant differences among the intervention groups. With base-case assumptions, intervention costs were estimated at $90 (SD, $2) for home blood pressure monitoring, $345 (SD, $64) for the behavioral intervention ($31 per telephone encounter), and $416 (SD, $93) for the combined intervention. Patient time costs were estimated at $585 (SD, $487) for home monitoring, $55 (SD, $16) for the behavioral intervention, and $741 (SD, $529) for the combined intervention. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrated that the interventions are cost-additive to the health care system in the short term and that patients’ time costs are nontrivial. PMID:19927132

  9. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5 years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households. PMID:21107891

  10. Satellite-guided hydro-economic analysis for integrated management and prediction of the impact of droughts on agricultural regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneta, M. P.; Howitt, R.; Kimball, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural activity can exacerbate or buffer the impact of climate variability, especially droughts, on the hydrologic and socioeconomic conditions of rural areas. Potential negative regional impacts of droughts include impoverishment of agricultural regions, deterioration or overuse of water resources, risk of monoculture, and regional dependence on external food markets. Policies that encourage adequate management practices in the face of adverse climatic events are critical to preserve rural livelihoods and to ensure a sustainable future for agriculture. Diagnosing and managing drought effects on agricultural production, on the social and natural environment, and on limited water resources, is highly complex and interdisciplinary. The challenges that decision-makers face to mitigate the impact of water shortage are social, agronomic, economic and environmental in nature and therefore must be approached from an integrated multidisciplinary point of view. Existing observation technologies, in conjunction with models and assimilation methods open the opportunity for novel interdisciplinary analysis tools to support policy and decision making. We present an integrated modeling and observation framework driven by satellite remote sensing and other ancillary information from regional monitoring networks to enable robust regional assessment and prediction of drought impacts on agricultural production, water resources, management decisions and socioeconomic policy. The core of this framework is a hydroeconomic model of agricultural production that assimilates remote sensing inputs to quantify the amount of land, water, fertilizer and labor farmers allocate for each crop they choose to grow on a seasonal basis in response to changing climatic conditions, including drought. A regional hydroclimatologic model provides biophysical constraints to an economic model of agricultural production based on a class of models referred to as positive mathematical programming (PMP

  11. Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Waterhouse, Benjamin; Wratten, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295–728 million annually. PMID:27441108

  12. Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Waterhouse, Benjamin; Boyer, Stephane; Wratten, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295-728 million annually.

  13. Scarcity of ecosystem services: an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Waterhouse, Benjamin; Boyer, Stephane; Wratten, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295-728 million annually. PMID:27441108

  14. The Massachusetts Home-Project Plan of Vocational Agricultural Education. Bulletin, 1914, No. 8. Whole Number 579

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimson, R. W.

    1914-01-01

    For a large portion of the children of the United States, vocational education must mean education in agriculture and the art of life on the farm. In recognition of this fact, agriculture is now taught in some way and to some extent in hundreds of public high schools and in the lower schools of many of the States. Possibly the greatest difficulty…

  15. Socio-economic, Biophysical, and Perceptional Factors Associated with Agricultural Adaptation of Smallholder Farmers in Gujarat, Northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to negatively impact many agricultural communities across the globe, particularly smallholder farmers who often do not have access to appropriate technologies to reduce their vulnerability. To better predict which farmers will be most impacted by future climate change at a regional scale, we use remote sensing and agricultural census data to examine how cropping intensity and crop type have shifted based on rainfall variability across Gujarat, India from 1990 to 2010. Using household-level interviews, we then identify the socio-economic, biophysical, perceptional, and psychological factors associated with smallholder farmers who are the most impacted and the least able to adapt to contemporaneous rainfall variability. We interviewed 750 farmers in 2011 and 2012 that span a rainfall, irrigation, socio-economic, and caste gradient across central Gujarat. Our results show that farmers shift cropping practices in several ways based on monsoon onset, which farmers state is the main observable rainfall signal influencing cropping decisions during the monsoon season. When monsoon onset is delayed, farmers opt to plant more drought-tolerant crops, push back the date of sowing, and increase the number of irrigations used. Comparing self-reported income and yields, we find that switching crops does not improve agricultural income, shifting planting date does not influence crop yield, yet increasing the number of irrigations significantly increases yield. Future work will identify which social (e.g. social networks), psychological (e.g. risk preference), and knowledge (e.g. information sources) factors are associated with farmers who are best able to adapt to rainfall variability.

  16. Economic Benefits of Predictive Models for Pest Control in Agricultural Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various forms of crop models or decision making tools for managing crops have existed for many years. The potential advantage of all of these decision making tools is that more informed and economically improved crop management or decision making is accomplished. However, examination of some of thes...

  17. Economic analysis of small-scale agricultural digesters in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic digestion is a manure treatment option that is gaining popularity throughout the world due to its multiple environmental and economic benefits. However, further research is needed for anaerobic technology to become more readily available, cost effective and manageable for small-scale to m...

  18. The U.S. Oats Industry. Agricultural Economic Report Number 573.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Linwood A.; Livezey, Janet

    This report describes the United States oats industry from producers to consumers and provides a single source of economic and statistical information on oats. Background information on oats is provided first. The report then examines the basic factors of supply, demand, and price to determine what caused the decline in the importance of oats and…

  19. An Economic Study of the Investment Effects of Education in Agriculture. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persons, Edgar A.; And Others

    To determine the absolute economic return to adult farm business management education, the diminishing marginal return effect from added increments of education, and benefit-cost ratio of the educational program for participants and the sponsoring community, data were collected from 3,578 farm business records representing farmers enrolled in farm…

  20. Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes vulnerability, impacts, and adaptability by irrigation to drought.It accounts for economic incentives affecting choices on irrigation technology, crop mix, and water sources.When surface water supplies fall, farmers increase pumping, even when pumping raises production costs.Conservation program subsidies raise the value of food production but can increase crop water depletions.

  1. The U.S. Soybean Industry. Agricultural Economic Report Number 588.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, James; And Others

    This report describes the U.S. soybean industry from producers to consumers and provides a single source of economic and statistical information on soybeans. Highlights are as follows: U.S. soybean production has increased sevenfold since 1950, making soybeans the second highest valued crop after corn. Soybean production has risen in response to…

  2. Impacts of Hispanic Population Growth on Rural Wages. Agricultural Economic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    Although earnings generally increased in rural areas in the 1990s, Hispanic population growth led to lower wages for at least one segment of the rural population--workers with a high school degree (skilled workers), particularly men in this skill group. Using data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Current Population Survey, this report…

  3. 75 FR 12171 - Notice of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Tuesday, March 30, 2010 a focus session on the topic of Food Security will begin at 8 a.m. and adjourn at... on Food Security and draft preliminary recommendations. An opportunity for public comment will be..., extension, education, and economic programs for the protection of U.S. food, fiber, fuel and...

  4. Accessible integration of agriculture, groundwater, and economic models using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI): methodology and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatewicz, T.; Yang, X.; Peterson, J. M.; Staggenborg, S.; Welch, S. M.; Steward, D. R.

    2010-03-01

    Policy for water resources impacts not only hydrological processes, but the closely intertwined economic and social processes dependent on them. Understanding these process interactions across domains is an important step in establishing effective and sustainable policy. Multidisciplinary integrated models can provide insight to inform this understanding, though the extent of software development necessary is often prohibitive, particularly for small teams of researchers. Thus there is a need for practical methods for building interdisciplinary integrated models that do not incur a substantial development effort. In this work we adopt the strategy of linking individual domain models together to build a multidisciplinary integrated model. The software development effort is minimized through the reuse of existing models and existing model-linking tools without requiring any changes to the model source codes, and linking these components through the use of the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI). This was found to be an effective approach to building an agricultural-groundwater-economic integrated model for studying the effects of water policy in irrigated agricultural systems. The construction of the integrated model provided a means to evaluate the impacts of two alternative water-use policies aimed at reducing irrigated water use to sustainable levels in the semi-arid grasslands overlying the Ogallala Aquifer of the Central US. The results show how both the economic impact in terms of yield and revenue and the environmental impact in terms of groundwater level vary spatially throughout the study region for each policy. Accessible integration strategies are necessary if the practice of interdisciplinary integrated simulation is to become widely adopted.

  5. Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, C.; Bolinder, M. A.; Eriksson, J.; Lundblad, M.; Kätterer, T.

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past 2 decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988-1997 (Inventory I), 2001-2007 (Inventory II) and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III), and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr-1) over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72). Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys) also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

  6. The World Food Problem. A Case Study of a Home Economics Teaching Unit in Development Education. Development Education Paper No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunstan, Carol

    Developed as a means of fostering concern for world issues within an Eltham College (Australia) Year 12 home economics course, "Human Development and Society," this teaching unit has five broad topics: (1) the social significance of food; (2) Australian food patterns; (3) the world food problem; (4) detailed study of nutrients; and (5) human…

  7. Homemaking--Family Living. Curriculum Planning Guidelines. Level I-II. Middle School, Grades 5-8. Reprint 1978. Home Economics Education, [No. 1].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    This curriculum guide for Levels I and II home economics teachers in New York State provides guidelines for developing instructional program content for grades 5-8. An introductory section describes the design of the homemaking-family living curriculum; presents procedures for utilizing modules in planning instruction with an example of plans for…

  8. University Programs in Home Economics: Past, Present and Future = Les programmes universitaires d'economie familiale: hier, aujourd'hui et demain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Ruth E.

    2000-01-01

    Follows the history of home economics programs in Canada at the postsecondary level from 1902 to the present restructuring that is taking place in many universities. Suggests that the present position of the field is precarious and young scholars must be encouraged to enter it and become successful teachers and researchers. (JOW)

  9. Curriculum Reorientation in Rural Development: Implications for Home Economics. Report of the International Seminar (Nairobi, Kenya, February 19-23, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Vynckt, Susan, Ed.; Sachs-Israel, Margarete, Ed.

    This document contains papers presented at a seminar that examined the Home Economics curriculum at Kenyatta University (Nairobi, Kenya) in the context of Kenya's new educational system. The seminar studied themes of nutrition and health, child development and care, and rural development. Working groups prepared reports on each of these themes.…

  10. The CAP Approach to Modifying Vocational Programs for Handicapped Students. Vol. 4: Home Economics with an Example in Food Preparation. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Carol Berry; Mendini, Daniel

    This workbook, the fourth in a five-volume series on vocational programs for the handicapped (see note), is an illustrated student guide for a food preparation task in a home economics course. The workbook provides step-by-step procedures, each accompanied by photographs, for making blender cheesecake. (CP)

  11. Minimum Teaching Essentials: Grades 5-9. Special Subjects. English as a Second Language, Foreign Language, Home Economics, Industrial Arts, Library Media, Typewriting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This guide presents the "minimum teaching essentials" published by the New York City Board of Education for grades 5-9. Subjects covered include: (1) communication arts; (2) English as a second language; (3) foreign language; (4) home economics; (5) industrial arts; (6) library skills; and (7) typewriting. Study skills for these areas are given…

  12. Clinical, social, and economic impacts of home parenteral nutrition dependence in short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Marion F; Smith, Carol E

    2014-05-01

    Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) provides nourishment and hydration to patients with short bowel syndrome and intestinal failure and is thus a life-sustaining therapy for these patients. However, measures of quality of life (QOL) are lower among the HPN-dependent population than among patients with other intestinal diseases who do not require HPN. Multiple factors contribute to lower QOL in HPN-dependent patients, including fears surrounding the increased risk of HPN-associated adverse events, such as catheter-related complications, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, and metabolic bone disease. In addition, HPN-dependent patients report impaired sleep and daytime fatigue because of pump noises, equipment alarms, and nocturia. Psychosocial burdens on families of HPN-dependent patients include decreased social activities, disrupted family relationships and friendships, and depression. These families also face imposing financial constraints, including decreased employment and large out-of-pocket expenses for insurance premiums and nonreimbursed copayments, medications, and supplies. Furthermore, HPN technology and HPN-related complications and sequelae contribute to the rapid overall increase in the costs of healthcare systems. Additionally, family caregivers provide unpaid healthcare services for patients who require HPN, often to the detriment of their own physical and mental well-being. Nonetheless, patients dependent on HPN and their caregivers often demonstrate considerable resilience and are frequently able to normalize their response to illness and disability. Interventions that may improve QOL among HPN-dependent patients and caregivers include patient education, affiliation with support groups, treatment of concomitant symptoms, and pharmacotherapies that decrease HPN requirements.

  13. Future Projections for Southern High Plains Agriculture Using Coupled Economic and Hydrologic Models and Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainwater, K.; Tewari, R.; Willis, D.; Stovall, J.; Hayhoe, K.; Hernandez, A.; Mauget, S. A.; Leiker, G.; Johnson, J.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the project was to evaluate the hypothesis that predicted climate change will affect the useful life of the Ogallala aquifer in the Southern High Plains (SHP) through its impact on the amount of irrigation withdrawals, and thus affect the yields and economic costs and net income. A ninety-year time frame has been considered, although the research team recognizes that long-term predictions of crop prices and selections are perhaps even more uncertain than long-term weather projections. Previous work by the research team recently demonstrated the development of regionally downscaled climate projections for the SHP. Quantitative projections of precipitation, potential evaporation, and temperature trends for the 90-yr duration were selected from a downscaled set of high-resolution (one-eighth degree) daily climate and hydrological simulations covering the entire Great Plains region, driven by the latest IPCC AR4 climate model outputs. These projections were used as input to the Ogallala Ag Tool software developed by the USDA-ARS to predict daily and seasonal values of those variables, which directly affect irrigation, at different locations in the study area. Results from the Ogallala Ag Tool were then used to drive future projected crop production functions for cotton, corn, wheat, and sorghum using the DSSAT crop model. These production functions were then included in an integrated economic-hydrologic modeling approach that coupled an economic optimization model with a groundwater hydrological model. The groundwater model was based on the Texas Water Development Board's Southern Ogallala Groundwater Availability Model, which has been recalibrated by the research team for previous applications. The coupling of the two models allowed better recognition of spatial heterogeneity across the SHP, such that irrigation water availability was better represented through the spatial variations in pumping demands and saturated thickness. With this hydrologic

  14. Influence of soil and climate heterogeneity on the performance of economic instruments for reducing nitrate leaching from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Peña-Haro, Salvador; García-Prats, Alberto; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2014-11-15

    Economic instruments can be used to control groundwater nitrate pollution due to the intensive use of fertilizers in agriculture. In order to test their efficiency on the reduction of nitrate leaching, we propose an approach based on the combined use of production and pollution functions to derive the impacts on the expected farmer response of these instruments. Some of the most important factors influencing nitrate leaching and crop yield are the type of soil and the climatic conditions. Crop yield and nitrate leaching responses to different soil and climatic conditions were classified by means of a cluster analysis, and crops located in different areas but with similar response were grouped for the analysis. We use a spatial economic optimization model to evaluate the potential of taxes on nitrogen fertilizers, water prices, and taxes on nitrate emissions to reduce nitrate pollution, as well as their economic impact in terms of social welfare and farmers' net benefits. The method was applied to the Mancha Oriental System (MOS) in Spain, a large area with different soil types and climatic conditions. We divided the study area into zones of homogeneous crop production and nitrate leaching properties. Results show spatially different responses of crop growth and nitrate leaching, proving how the cost-effectiveness of pollution control instruments is contingent upon the spatial heterogeneities of the problem.

  15. Home Economics/Family Studies Education in Canadian Schools: A Position Paper = L'enseignement de l'economie familiale/etudes familiales dans les ecoles canadiennes: Expose de principes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Home Economics Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    English and French versions of the Canadian Home Economics Association's position paper describe the place of home economics/family studies (HEFS) in education and worldwide trends indicating the need for HEFS. Suggests it is the only subject with the primary focus on preparing students for everyday life in an increasingly complex global society.…

  16. Health and economic benefits of scaling up a home-based neonatal care package in rural India: a modelling analysis.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Arindam; Colson, Abigail R; Verma, Amit; Megiddo, Itamar; Ashok, Ashvin; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 900 000 newborn children die every year in India, accounting for 28% of neonatal deaths globally. In 2011, India introduced a home-based newborn care (HBNC) package to be delivered by community health workers across rural areas. We estimate the disease and economic burden that could be averted by scaling up the HBNC in rural India using IndiaSim, an agent-based simulation model, to examine two interventions. In the first intervention, the existing community health worker network begins providing HBNC for rural households without access to home- or facility-based newborn care, as introduced by India's recent programme. In the second intervention, we consider increased coverage of HBNC across India so that total coverage of neonatal care (HBNC or otherwise) in the rural areas of each state reaches at least 90%. We find that compared with a baseline of no coverage, providing the care package through the existing network of community health workers could avert 48 [95% uncertainty range (UR) 34-63] incident cases of severe neonatal morbidity and 5 (95% UR 4-7) related deaths, save $4411 (95% UR $3088-$5735) in out-of-pocket treatment costs, and provide $285 (95% UR $200-$371) in value of insurance per 1000 live births in rural India. Increasing the coverage of HBNC to 90% will avert an additional 9 (95% UR 7-12) incident cases, 1 death (95% UR 0.72-1.33), and $613 (95% UR $430-$797) in out-of-pocket expenditures, and provide $55 (95% UR $39-$72) in incremental value of insurance per 1000 live births. Intervention benefits are greater for lower socioeconomic groups and in the poorer states of Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Assam and Uttar Pradesh. PMID:26561440

  17. Economic Impact of Water Allocation on Agriculture in the Lower Chattahoochee River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Paudel, Krishna P.; Musleh, Fuad; Cruise, James F.; Hatch, L. Upton

    2004-01-01

    The relative value of irrigation water was assessed for three important crops (corn, cotton, and peanuts) grown in the southeastern United States. A decision tool was developed with the objective of allocating limited available water among competing crops in a manner that would maximize the economic returns to the producers. The methodology was developed and tested for a hypothetical farm located in Henry County, Alabama in the Chattahoochee river basin. Crop yield - soil moisture response functions were developed using Monte Carlo simulated data for cotton, corn, and peanuts. A hydrologic model was employed to simulate runoff over the period of observed rainfall the county to provide inflows to storage facilities that could be used as constraints for the optimal allocation of the available water in the face of the uncertainty of future rainfall and runoff. Irrigation decisions were made on a weekly basis during the critical water deficit period in the region. An economic optimization model was employed with the crop responses, and soil moisture functions to determine the optimum amount of water place on each crop subject to the amount of irrigation water availability and climatic uncertainty. The results indicated even small amounts of irrigation could significantly benefit farmers in the region if applied judiciously. A weekly irrigation sequence was developed that maintained the available water on the crops that exhibited the most significant combination of water sensitivity and cash value.

  18. Cohort study of smoke-free homes in economically disadvantaged communities in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, Ann M.; Diaz, Sergio; Guido, Joseph; de Monegro, Zahira Quiñones; McIntosh, Scott; Fisher, Susan G.; Ossip, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze household smoking bans over time and predictors of bans among communities in the Dominican Republic, historically a significant tobacco-growing country with few tobacco control regulations. Methods Baseline (2004) and follow-up surveillance surveys (2006, 2007) (each n > 1 000 randomly selected households) conducted in six economically disadvantaged communities (three tobacco-growing and two each urban, peri-urban, and rural) assessed household members’ demographics, health status, and household characteristics, including smoking restrictions. Results Between 2004 and 2007, household smoking-ban prevalence increased in all communities (24%–45%). Households with smokers (versus those without) adopted bans at lower rates (6%–17%; 35%–58%). Logistic regression models demonstrated that allowing smoking in nonsmoking households was more likely in tobacco-growing communities, Catholic households, and those with a member with a cardiovascular problem. Having a child under age 5 or a member with a respiratory condition was not significantly related to establishing smoking bans. Conclusions Prevalence of households banning smoking increased in all communities but remained well below rates in industrialized countries. For low- and middle-income countries or those early in tobacco control, small awareness-raising measures (including surveillance activities) may lead to significant increases in household-ban adoption, particularly among nonsmoking households. Increasing household-ban prevalence may affect community norms that can lead to greater adoption. Having household members who smoke and being in a tobacco-growing community may mitigate the establishment of household bans. Increasing individuals’ knowledge about the far-reaching health effects of secondhand smoke exposure on children and nonsmoking adults (healthy or unhealthy) may help overcome these obstacles. PMID:24626445

  19. Developing Livestock Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Melius, C; Robertson, A; Hullinger, P

    2006-10-24

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of livestock diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each livestock facility within the US. At the present time, the only national database of livestock facilities that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data.' The NASS data provides facility data at the county level for various livestock types (i.e., beef cows, milk cows, cattle on feed, other cattle, total hogs and pigs, sheep and lambs, milk goats, and angora goats). However, the number and sizes of facilities for the various livestock types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of livestock, and some livestock are of more than one type (e.g., 'other cattle' that are being fed for slaughter are also 'cattle on feed'). In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of animals or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D.'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or animals. At the same time, it must account for all the animals, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual livestock operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national livestock facility database with twenty-eight facility types. The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to estimate the data that is suppressed within the NASS database. The second step converts the NASS livestock types into the operational facility

  20. Economic evaluation and conceptual design of optimal agricultural systems for production of food and energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    The major technical and economic considerations which determined the scope of the study and the structure of the linear programming (LP) models are discussed. Four models, each representing a typical crop, beef, dairy, or swine farm in conjunction with ethanol facilities are characterized by the same general behavioral and mathematical model structure. Specific activities, constraints, and data for each of the four models are presented. An overview of the model structure is provided in the context of the general scope and background assumptions, and of its LP implementation. Simulated initial conditions and outcomes are reported for typical Illinois farms. Policy implications are discussed as related to agriculture, energy, and inter-industry coordination. (MHR)

  1. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+20%; high-very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high-very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status (i

  2. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+20%; high-very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high-very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status (i

  3. Economics of fuel ethanol production in US agriculture: a national linear programming model with projections to the year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    A food versus fuel policy dilemma exists concerning the extent of structural changes in US agriculture that would occur in response to fuel ethanol production from crops in the future. Limitations of previous analyses necessitates further study of this resource allocation issue. The purpose was to determine whether ethanol production from US agricultural resources will be an economically attractive technology in the future. Criteria include energy balance impacts, food, feed and fiber price and consumption impacts, balance of payments impacts, and income changes. Results for the base scenario (ranges in parentheses) relative to the case without ethanol technology available are as follows. Annual ethanol output is 38 (4-86) billion gallons, or 20 (2-54)% of liquid fuel demand. Net energy production is 4.9 (.5-11.2) quads for liquid energy. The domestic retail food price index increases by 4 (1-14)%. Net exports increase 45.7 (5.4-141.6) billion dollars. Crop land rent increases 12.6 (3.1-60.7) billion dollars and sector value-added increases 36.7 (3.8-85.9) billion dollars. Most ethanol is produced from corn, the rest by sugar beets and other grains. Much corn processing to ethanol jointly produces vegetable oil. Corn acreage increases substantially at the expense largely of soybeans and sorghum. Livestock rations incorporate 24 (3-49)% ethanol coproduct feeds.

  4. Energy potential from livestock and poultry wastes in the South. Agricultural Economic Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, H.B.; Ogden, E.A.

    1984-11-01

    Livestock and poultry wastes could produce significant amounts of biomass energy if conventional energy prices continue to rise. This study estimates the economically recoverable energy available through anaerobic digestion or direct burning of animal wastes in the South for the base year 1980 with projections for 1985 and 1990. Potential thermal energy from livestock and poultry wastes in 1990 could total more than 79.5 trillion Btu, or about 30 percent of the energy from such sources nationwide. The total potential farm value of biomass energy from livestock and poultry enterprises in the South could range from $344 million to $1.08 billion in 1990 depending upon the types of conventional energy displaced. Energy products from these wastes attained their highest value when substituted for LP gas.

  5. Climate, Health, Agricultural and Economic Impacts of Tighter Vehicle-Emission Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Walsh, Michael; Anenberg, Susan C.; VanDingen, Rita; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Austin, Jeff; Koch, Dorothy; Milly, George

    2011-01-01

    Non-CO2 air pollutants from motor vehicles have traditionally been controlled to protect air quality and health, but also affect climate. We use global composition climate modelling to examine the integrated impacts of adopting stringent European on-road vehicle-emission standards for these pollutants in 2015 in many developing countries. Relative to no extra controls, the tight standards lead to annual benefits in 2030 and beyond of 120,000-280,000 avoided premature air pollution-related deaths, 6.1-19.7 million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops, $US0.6-2.4 trillion avoided health damage and $US1.1-4.3 billion avoided agricultural damage, and mitigation of 0.20 (+0.14/-0.17) C of Northern Hemisphere extratropical warming during 2040-2070. Tighter vehicle-emission standards are thus extremely likely to mitigate short-term climate change in most cases, in addition to providing large improvements in human health and food security. These standards will not reduce CO2 emissions, however, which is required to mitigate long-term climate change.

  6. Climate, health, agricultural and economic impacts of tighter vehicle-emission standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Walsh, Michael; Anenberg, Susan C.; van Dingenen, Rita; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Austin, Jeff; Koch, Dorothy; Milly, George

    2011-04-01

    Non-CO2 air pollutants from motor vehicles have traditionally been controlled to protect air quality and health, but also affect climate. We use global composition-climate modelling to examine the integrated impacts of adopting stringent European on-road vehicle-emission standards for these pollutants in 2015 in many developing countries. Relative to no extra controls, the tight standards lead to annual benefits in 2030 and beyond of 120,000-280,000 avoided premature air pollution-related deaths, 6.1-19.7 million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops, $US0.6-2.4 trillion avoided health damage and $US1.1-4.3 billion avoided agricultural damage, and mitigation of 0.20 (+0.14/-0.17) °C of Northern Hemisphere extratropical warming during 2040-2070. Tighter vehicle-emission standards are thus extremely likely to mitigate short-term climate change in most cases, in addition to providing large improvements in human health and food security. These standards will not reduce CO2 emissions, however, which is required to mitigate long-term climate change.

  7. Focusing Agricultural Education Research: The Challenge of the 1990's and Beyond. Proceedings of the National Agricultural Education Research Meeting (17th, Cincinnati, Ohio, November 30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert A., Comp.

    Selected titles among the 51 papers accepted for presentation or publication by the 1990 meeting of a yearly forum for agricultural research presentation include the following: "Effectiveness of Beginning Scholars Program in Attracting High Ability Students to the College of Agriculture and Home Economics" (Lester, Graham); "Analysis of Enrollment…

  8. The economic impact of climate change on Kenyan crop agriculture: A Ricardian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Karanja, Fredrick K.

    2007-06-01

    This paper measures the economic impact of climate on crops in Kenya. We use cross-sectional data on climate, hydrological, soil and household level data for a sample of 816 households. We estimate a seasonal Ricardian model to assess the impact of climate on net crop revenue per acre. The results show that climate affects crop productivity. There is a non-linear relationship between temperature and revenue on one hand and between precipitation and revenue on the other. Estimated marginal impacts suggest that global warming is harmful for crop productivity. Predictions from global circulation models confirm that global warming will have a substantial impact on net crop revenue in Kenya. The results also show that the temperature component of global warming is much more important than precipitation. Findings call for monitoring of climate change and dissemination of information to farmers to encourage adaptations to climate change. Improved management and conservation of available water resources, water harvesting and recycling of wastewater could generate water for irrigation purposes especially in the arid and semi-arid areas.

  9. Developing Poultry Facility Type Information from USDA Agricultural Census Data for Use in Epidemiological and Economic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Melius, C

    2007-12-05

    The epidemiological and economic modeling of poultry diseases requires knowing the size, location, and operational type of each poultry type operation within the US. At the present time, the only national database of poultry operations that is available to the general public is the USDA's 2002 Agricultural Census data, published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, herein referred to as the 'NASS data'. The NASS data provides census data at the county level on poultry operations for various operation types (i.e., layers, broilers, turkeys, ducks, geese). However, the number of farms and sizes of farms for the various types are not independent since some facilities have more than one type of operation. Furthermore, some data on the number of birds represents the number sold, which does not represent the number of birds present at any given time. In addition, any data tabulated by NASS that could identify numbers of birds or other data reported by an individual respondent is suppressed by NASS and coded with a 'D'. To be useful for epidemiological and economic modeling, the NASS data must be converted into a unique set of facility types (farms having similar operational characteristics). The unique set must not double count facilities or birds. At the same time, it must account for all the birds, including those for which the data has been suppressed. Therefore, several data processing steps are required to work back from the published NASS data to obtain a consistent database for individual poultry operations. This technical report documents data processing steps that were used to convert the NASS data into a national poultry facility database with twenty-six facility types (7 egg-laying, 6 broiler, 1 backyard, 3 turkey, and 9 others, representing ducks, geese, ostriches, emus, pigeons, pheasants, quail, game fowl breeders and 'other'). The process involves two major steps. The first step defines the rules used to estimate the data that is suppressed

  10. An economic value of remote-sensing information—Application to agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Mishra, Shruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Does remote-sensing information provide economic benefits to society, and can a value be assigned to those benefits? Can resource management and policy decisions be better informed by coupling past and present Earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) applied an established conceptual framework to answer these questions, as well as to estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote-sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate-resolution land-imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, the USGS modeled the relation between a population of the CDL's land uses and dynamic nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Employing various multiscaled, multitemporal geospatial datasets with MRLI to maximize the value of agricultural production, the approach develops and uses multiple environmental science models to address dynamic nitrogen loading and transport at specified distances from specific sites (wells) and at landscape scales (for example, across 35 counties and two aquifers). In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on the use of MRLI for the management of the major land uses in the study region-the production of corn and soybeans, which can impact groundwater quality. Derived methods and results include (1) economic and dynamic nitrate-pollution models, (2) probabilities of the survival of groundwater, and (3) a VOI for remote sensing. For the northeastern Iowa study region, the marginal benefit of the MRLI VOI (in 2010 dollars) is $858 million ±$197 million annualized, which corresponds to a net present value of $38

  11. Why Do Global Long-term Scenarios for Agriculture Differ? An overview of the AgMIP Global Economic Model Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    von Lampe, Martin; Willenbockel, Dirk; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Cai, Yongxia; Calvin, Katherine V.; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Nelson, Gerald; Sands, Ronald; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Valin, Hugo; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; van Meijl, Hans

    2013-12-02

    Recent studies assessing plausible futures for agricultural markets and global food security have had contradictory outcomes. Ten global economic models that produce long-term scenarios were asked to compare a reference scenario with alternate socio-economic, climate change and bioenergy scenarios using a common set of key drivers. Results suggest that, once general assumptions are harmonized, the variability in general trends across models declines, and that several common conclusions are possible. Nonetheless, differences in basic model parameters, sometimes hidden in the way market behavior is modeled, result in significant differences in the details. This holds for both the common reference scenario and for the various shocks applied. We conclude that agro-economic modelers aiming to inform the agricultural and development policy debate require better data and analysis on both economic behavior and biophysical drivers. More interdisciplinary modeling efforts are required to cross-fertilize analyses at different scales.

  12. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Termansen, Mette

    2016-11-15

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96€ before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO3-N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N2O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system. PMID:27471980

  13. A bio-economic analysis of a sustainable agricultural transition using green biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Termansen, Mette

    2016-11-15

    Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage. The GBR using grass as feedstock also produces valuable byproducts, e.g. fibre and biogas. In this study we combine a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic and environmental effects of producing the pig feed to produce 1ton of pork using two feeding systems. We apply this approach to the intensive Danish pork production as a case study. The results show that compared with traditional cereal-based feeding system for producing a ton of pork, using proteinaceous concentrate from small-scale GBR will (1) decrease the average feed cost by 5.01%; (2) produce a profit of 96€ before tax in the GBR; and (3) decrease the nitrogen leaching (NO3-N) by 28.2%. However, in most of the scenarios (except for G2), the nitrogen emissions into the air (N2O-N) will also increase because of the increased N fertilizer application compared to a cereal-based system. In most of the scenarios (except for S1 and G1), the energy and land use will also be saved. However, some important factors, e.g. the soil characteristics, pressed juice fraction in fresh biomass and scale of GBR, could subvert the conclusion about energy and land use saving in the alternative feeding system.

  14. Home Economics Semester Modules: Adult Living, Bachelor Survival, Foods and You, Home Decor, Personal Finance, Teen Clothing, Young Child. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehighton Area School District, PA.

    This curriculum guide consists of course modules for instruction at the secondary level. Each module contains a concept title, major generalization, behavioral objective, subgeneralizations, list of learning experiences, and resources. The courses are entitled: Adult Living, Bachelor Survival, Foods and You, Home Decor, Personal Finance, Teen…

  15. Agriculture--Forestry Seedlings. Kit No. 53. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Larkin V., Jr.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on forestry seedlings are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  16. Agriculture--Horticulture. Kit No. 36. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Claudia

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on horticulture are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focus on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  17. Agriculture--Livestock Management. Kit No. 61. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, William

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on livestock management are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  18. Agriculture--Forestry. Kit No. 31. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Lee

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on forestry are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics, distributive…

  19. Agricultural waste as household fuel: techno-economic assessment of a new rice-husk cookstove for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Francesco; Parmigiani, Simone; Vaccari, Mentore; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    In many rural contexts of the developing world, agricultural residues and the organic fraction of waste are often burned in open-air to clear the lands or just to dispose them. This is a common practice which generates uncontrolled emissions, while wasting a potential energy resource. This is the case of rice husk in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon). In such a context household energy supply is a further critical issue. Modern liquid fuel use is limited and traditional solid fuels (mainly wood) are used for daily cooking in rudimentary devices like 3-stone fires, resulting in low efficiency fuel use, huge health impacts, increasing exploitation stress for the local natural resources. Rice husk may be an alternative fuel to wood for household energy supply. In order to recover such a biomass, the authors are testing a proper stove with an original design. Its lay-out (featuring a metal-net basket to contain the fuel and a chimney to force a natural air draft) allows a mix of combustion/gasification of the biomass occurring in a completely burning fire, appropriate for cooking tasks. According to results obtained with rigorous test protocols (Water Boiling Test), different lay-outs have been designed to improve the performance of the stove. Technical and economic issues have been addressed in the development of such a model; building materials have been chosen in order to guarantee a cost as low as possible, using locally available items. The feasibility of the introduction of the stove in the studied context was assessed through an economic model that keeps into account not only the technology and fuel costs, but also the energy performance. According to the model, the threshold for the trade-off of the stove is the use of rice husk to cover 10-15% of the household energy needs both with traditional fireplaces or with improved efficiency cookstoves. The use of the technology proposed in combination with improved woodstove would provide householders with an

  20. Agricultural waste as household fuel: techno-economic assessment of a new rice-husk cookstove for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Francesco; Parmigiani, Simone; Vaccari, Mentore; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    In many rural contexts of the developing world, agricultural residues and the organic fraction of waste are often burned in open-air to clear the lands or just to dispose them. This is a common practice which generates uncontrolled emissions, while wasting a potential energy resource. This is the case of rice husk in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon). In such a context household energy supply is a further critical issue. Modern liquid fuel use is limited and traditional solid fuels (mainly wood) are used for daily cooking in rudimentary devices like 3-stone fires, resulting in low efficiency fuel use, huge health impacts, increasing exploitation stress for the local natural resources. Rice husk may be an alternative fuel to wood for household energy supply. In order to recover such a biomass, the authors are testing a proper stove with an original design. Its lay-out (featuring a metal-net basket to contain the fuel and a chimney to force a natural air draft) allows a mix of combustion/gasification of the biomass occurring in a completely burning fire, appropriate for cooking tasks. According to results obtained with rigorous test protocols (Water Boiling Test), different lay-outs have been designed to improve the performance of the stove. Technical and economic issues have been addressed in the development of such a model; building materials have been chosen in order to guarantee a cost as low as possible, using locally available items. The feasibility of the introduction of the stove in the studied context was assessed through an economic model that keeps into account not only the technology and fuel costs, but also the energy performance. According to the model, the threshold for the trade-off of the stove is the use of rice husk to cover 10-15% of the household energy needs both with traditional fireplaces or with improved efficiency cookstoves. The use of the technology proposed in combination with improved woodstove would provide householders with an

  1. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  2. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  3. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:27620113

  4. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  5. An Occupational Therapy intervention for residents with stroke-related disabilities in UK Care Homes (OTCH): cluster randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Sackley, Catherine M; Walker, Marion F; Burton, Christopher R; Watkins, Caroline L; Mant, Jonathan; Roalfe, Andrea K; Wheatley, Keith; Sheehan, Bart; Sharp, Leslie; Stant, Katie E; Fletcher-Smith, Joanna; Steel, Kerry; Barton, Garry R; Irvine, Lisa; Peryer, Guy

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Care home residents with stroke-related disabilities have significant activity limitations. Phase II trial results suggested a potential benefit of occupational therapy (OT) in maintaining residents' capacity to engage in functional activity. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a targeted course of OT in maintaining functional activity and reducing further health risks from inactivity for UK care home residents living with stroke-related disabilities. DESIGN Pragmatic, parallel-group, cluster randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation. Cluster randomisation occurred at the care-home level. Homes were stratified according to trial administrative centre and type of care provided (nursing or residential), and they were randomised 1 : 1 to either the intervention or the control arm. SETTING The setting was 228 care homes which were local to 11 trial administrative centres across England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS Care home residents with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack, including residents with communication and cognitive impairments, not receiving end-of-life care. INTERVENTION Personalised 3-month course of OT delivered by qualified therapists. Care workers participated in training workshops to support personal activities of daily living. The control condition consisted of usual care for residents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Outcome data were collected by a blinded assessor. The primary outcome at the participant level was the Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living (BI) score at 3 months. The secondary outcomes included BI scores at 6 and 12 months post randomisation, and the Rivermead Mobility Index, Geriatric Depression Scale-15 and European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, three levels, questionnaire scores at all time points. Economic evaluation examined the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gain. Costs were estimated from the perspective of the NHS and Personal

  6. Environmental and economic development consequences of forest and agricultural sector policies in Latin America (a synthesis of case studies of Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Bolivia)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.; Gibson, D.

    1994-04-15

    This paper draws heavily on the results of case studies in Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Ecuador to explain how sectoral policies have tilted land use decisions against forestry and in favor of agriculture, and to present estimates of the economic development effects of those decisions. The paper summarizes information on forests and forest industries of the three countries, and it describes the framework within which policies are designed. It presents the effects of sectoral policies on land use and forest management, and then quantifies and discusses economic costs of relevant sectoral policies. Conclusions and recommendations for policy reform are offered.

  7. Agricultural Chartbook 1988. Agriculture Handbook No. 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These charts present an overview of the current economic health of American agriculture. The charts move from the national and international arenas to farm economic health measures and crop and livestock trends. A small amount of descriptive narrative accompanies most of the charts. Charts depicting the economic picture of U.S. agriculture include…

  8. Improved (ERTS) information and its impact on U.S. markets for agricultural commodities: A quantitiative economic investigation of production, distribution and net export effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scope, and architecture of the analysis and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The major empirical results and policy conclusions are set forth. These results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. A number of promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  9. Canadian economic and emissions model for agriculture, C.E.E.M.A., version 1.0, report 1: Model description

    SciTech Connect

    Kulshreshtha, S.N.

    1999-09-01

    This is one of three technical reports which document an integrated agro-ecological economic modelling system that can be used to simultaneously assess the economic and the greenhouse gas emission impacts of agricultural policies at the regional and national levels. After an introduction on the background to the model and on the importance of agricultural emissions of greenhouse gases, chapter 2 outlines a conceptual basis for developing a sub-model for emission of greenhouse gases. It includes the conceptual linkages between agricultural production activities and the nature of greenhouse gas emissions. An overview of the sub-model and considerations involved in its development are provided in chapter 3. Chapter 4 follows with a description of the methodology adopted in the estimation of various emission coefficients for crop and livestock production activities. Results of a baseline scenario, agricultural production in 1994 as estimated in the CRAM model, are shown in chapter 5, and results of two alternative scenarios are presented in chapter 6. The final chapter summarizes the report and discusses areas of further research.

  10. Economic and Physical Modeling of Land Use in GCAM 3.0 and an Application to Agricultural Productivity, Land, and Terrestrial Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Edmonds, James A.

    2014-09-01

    We explore the impact of changes in agricultural productivity on global land use and terrestrial carbon using the new agriculture and land use modeling approach developed for Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) version 3.0. This approach models economic land use decisions with regional, physical, and technological specificity while maintaining economic and physical integration with the rest of the GCAM model. Physical land characteristics and quantities are tracked explicitly, and crop production practices are modeled discretely to facilitate coupling with physical models. Economic land allocation is modeled with non-linear functions in a market equilibrium rather than through a constrained optimization. In this paper, we explore three scenarios of future agriculture productivity in all regions of the globe over this century, ranging from a high growth to a zero growth level. The higher productivity growth scenario leads to lower crop prices, increased production of crops in developing nations, preservation of global forested lands and lower terrestrial carbon emissions. The scenario with no productivity improvement results in higher crop prices, an expansion of crop production in the developed world, loss of forested lands globally, and higher terrestrial carbon emissions.

  11. RELATIONSHIP OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC POSITION TO THE CONNOTATIVE MEANING OF CERTAIN WORDS USED IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCMILLION, MARTIN B.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE (1) WHETHER THREE DIFFERENT SOCIOECONOMIC GROUPS OF STUDENTS AND VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS PLACED DIFFERENT CONNOTATIVE MEANINGS ON CERTAIN WORDS AND PHRASES IMPORTANT IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE, AND (2) THE EXTENT TO WHICH TEACHERS RECOGNIZED DIFFERENCES EXISTING AMONG STUDENTS. PUPILS IN 21 ILLINOIS…

  12. Quality of Rural Economic Development Data. Testimony to the Subcommittee on Agriculture and Transportation, Joint Economic Committee, Ninety-Ninth Congress (June 13, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulver, Glen C.

    Although the private sector has the primary role for job generation in the U.S. market economy, local community leaders can play a significant part in creating a growth-stimulating economic environment. A comprehensive economic development strategy appropriate to a community's specific goals and conditions requires careful analysis of the…

  13. Understanding the design and economics of distributed tri-generation systems for home and neighborhood refueling-Part II: Neighborhood system case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuping; Ogden, Joan M.

    2012-01-01

    The lack of a hydrogen infrastructure remains a major barrier for fuel cell vehicle (FCV) adoption. The high cost of an extensive hydrogen station network and the low utilization in the near term discourage private investment. Past experience of fuel infrastructure development for motor vehicles, indicates that innovative, distributed, small-volume hydrogen refueling methods may be required to refuel FCVs in the near term. Among small-volume refueling methods, home and neighborhood tri-generation systems stand out because the technology is available and has potential to alleviate consumer's fuel availability concerns. Additionally, it has features attractive to consumers such as convenience and security to refuel at home or in their neighborhood. In this paper, we study neighborhood tri-generation systems in multi-unit dwellings such as apartment complexes. We apply analytical tools including an interdisciplinary framework and an engineering/economic model to a representative multi-family residence in the Northern California area. The simulation results indicate that a neighborhood tri-generation system improves the economics of providing the three energy products for the households compared with the two alternatives studied. The small capacity of the systems and the valuable co-products help address the low utilization problem of hydrogen infrastructure.

  14. Cost effectiveness of home ultraviolet B phototherapy for psoriasis: economic evaluation of a randomised controlled trial (PLUTO study)

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Vigfús; van Weelden, Huib; Steegmans, Paul H A; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A F M; Buskens, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the costs and cost effectiveness of phototherapy with ultraviolet B light provided at home compared with outpatient ultraviolet B phototherapy for psoriasis. Design Cost utility, cost effectiveness, and cost minimisation analyses performed alongside a pragmatic randomised clinical trial (the PLUTO study) at the end of phototherapy (mean 17.6 weeks) and at one year after the end of phototherapy (mean 68.4 weeks). Setting Secondary care, provided by a dermatologist in the Netherlands. Participants 196 adults with psoriasis who were clinically eligible for narrowband (TL-01) ultraviolet B phototherapy were recruited from the dermatology departments of 14 hospitals and were followed until the end of phototherapy. From the end of phototherapy onwards, follow-up was continued for an unselected, consecutive group of 105 patients for one year after end of phototherapy. Interventions Ultraviolet B phototherapy provided at home (intervention) and conventional outpatient ultraviolet B phototherapy (control) in a setting reflecting routine practice in the Netherlands. Both treatments used narrowband ultraviolet B lamps (TL-01). Main outcome measures Total costs to society, quality adjusted life years (QALYs) as calculated using utilities measured by the EQ-5D questionnaire, and the number of days with a relevant treatment effect (≥50% improvement of the baseline self administered psoriasis area and severity index (SAPASI)). Results Home phototherapy is at least as effective and safe as outpatient phototherapy, therefore allowing cost minimisation analyses (simply comparing costs). The average total costs by the end of phototherapy were €800 for home treatment and €752 for outpatient treatment, showing an incremental cost per patient of €48 (95% CI €−77 to €174). The average total costs by one year after the end of phototherapy were €1272 and €1148 respectively (difference €124, 95% CI €−155 to €403). Cost utility analyses revealed

  15. Canadian economic and emissions model for agriculture, C.E.E.M.A., version 1.0, report 2: Preliminary results of selected scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kulshreshtha, S.N.

    1999-09-01

    This is one of three technical reports which document an integrated agro-ecological economic modelling system that can be used to simultaneously assess the economic and the greenhouse gas emission impacts of agricultural policies at the regional and national levels. After an introduction on the importance of agricultural emissions of greenhouse gases and the need for a study of this issue, chapter 2 reviews the greenhouse gas emission model. Chapter 3 contains model-based estimates of greenhouse gas emission levels for the base year of 1990. Chapter 4 predicts future levels of emissions under medium-term baseline projections. Chapter 5 reviews some of the mitigation strategies available to Canadian farmers and assesses their impact on greenhouse emissions. Implications of trends in livestock production are also examined as a separate scenario. Using the scenarios developed in chapter 5, chapter 6 presents results of greenhouse gas emission estimates for individual gases, various production regions, and various emissions activities. The final chapter summarizes major results and discusses their implications for agricultural policy. Appendices include a description of the modelling methodology and a table showing estimates of the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions by crop and livestock production activities under various scenarios.

  16. Monitoring of the risk of farmland abandonment as an efficient tool to assess the environmental and socio-economic impact of the Common Agriculture Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milenov, Pavel; Vassilev, Vassil; Vassileva, Anna; Radkov, Radko; Samoungi, Vessela; Dimitrov, Zlatomir; Vichev, Nikola

    2014-10-01

    Farmland abandonment (FLA) could be defined as the cessation of agricultural activities on a given surface of land (Pointereau et al., 2008). FLA, often associated with social and economic problems in rural areas, has significant environmental consequences. During the 1990s, millions of hectares of farmland in the new EU Member States, from Central and Eastern Europe, were abandoned as a result of the transition process from centralized and planned to market economy. The policy tools adopted gradually within the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (EU CAP), as well as the EU environmental and structural policies, aimed to prevent further expansion of this phenomenon and to facilitate the revival of the agriculture land, being abandoned (ComReg 1122/2009). The Agri-Environment (AGRI-ENV) component of the Core Information Service (CIS), developed within the scope of the FP7-funded project "geoland2" were designed to support the agricultural user community at pan-European and national levels by contributing to the improvement of more accurate and timely monitoring of the status of agricultural land use in Europe and its change. The purpose of the product ‘Farmland abandonment', as part of the AGRI-ENV package, is to detect potentially abandoned agriculture land, based on multi-annual SPOT data with several acquisitions per year. It provides essential independent information on the status of the agricultural land as recorded in the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), which is one of the core instruments of the implementation of CAP. The production line is based on object-based image analysis and benefits from the extensive availability of Biophysical parameters derived from the satellite data (geoland2). The method detects/tracks those land (or so-called reference) parcels in the LPIS, holding significant amount of land agriculture found as potentially abandoned. Reference parcels with such change are flagged and reported, enabling the National

  17. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  18. Agricultural nonpoint source pollution and economic incentive policies. Issues in the reauthorization of the Clean Water Act. Staff report

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, A.S.; Larson, B.A.; Ribaudo, M.

    1992-11-01

    The limited success of command-and-control policies for reducing nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution mandated under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA) has prompted increased interest in economic incentive policies as an alternative control mechanism. No single policy, however, is likely to be effective in reducing all NPS pollution. Economic incentives may be effective in some cases, command-and-control practices in others.

  19. Resistant to the Recession: Low-Income Adults’ Maintenance of Cooking and Away-From-Home Eating Behaviors During Times of Economic Turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Ng, Shu Wen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of state-level unemployment rates during the recession of 2008 on patterns of home food preparation and away-from-home (AFH) eating among low-income and minority populations. Methods. We analyzed pooled cross-sectional data on 118 635 adults aged 18 years or older who took part in the American Time Use Study. Multinomial logistic regression models stratified by gender were used to evaluate the associations between state-level unemployment, poverty, race/ethnicity, and time spent cooking, and log binomial regression was used to assess respondents’ AFH consumption patterns. Results. High state-level unemployment was associated with only trivial increases in respondents’ cooking patterns and virtually no change in their AFH eating patterns. Low-income and racial/ethnic minority groups were not disproportionately affected by the recession. Conclusions. Even during a major economic downturn, US adults are resistant to food-related behavior change. More work is needed to understand whether this reluctance to change is attributable to time limits, lack of knowledge or skill related to food preparation, or lack of access to fresh produce and raw ingredients. PMID:24625145

  20. Modelling economic and biophysical drivers of agricultural land-use change. Calibration and evaluation of the Nexus Land-Use model over 1961-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souty, F.; Dorin, B.; Brunelle, T.; Dumas, P.; Ciais, P.

    2013-12-01

    The central role of land-use change in the Earth System and its implications for food security, biodiversity and climate has spurred the development of global models that combine economical and agro-ecological drivers and constraints. With such a development of integrated approaches, evaluating the performance of global models of land-use against observed historical changes recorded by agricultural data becomes increasingly challenging. The Nexus Land-Use model is an example of land-use model integrating both biophysical and economical processes and constraints. This paper is an attempt to evaluate its ability to simulate historical agricultural land-use changes over 12 large but economically coherent regions of the world since 1961. The evaluation focuses on the intensification vs. extensification response of crop and livestock production in response to changes of socio-economic drivers over time, such as fertiliser price, population and diet. We examine how well the Nexus model can reproduce annual observation-based estimates of cropland vs. pasture areas from 1961 to 2006. Food trade, consumption of fertilisers and food price are also evaluated against historical data. Over the 12 regions considered, the total relative error on simulated cropland area is 2% yr-1 over 1980-2006. During the period 1961-2006, the error is larger (4% yr-1) due to an overestimation of the cropland area in China and Former Soviet Union over 1961-1980. Food prices tend to be underestimated while the performances of the trade module vary widely among regions (net imports are underestimated in Western countries at the expense of Brazil and Asia). Finally, a sensitivity analysis over a sample of input datasets provides some insights on the robustness of this evaluation.

  1. Patient-centered medical home initiative produced modest economic results for Veterans Health Administration, 2010-12.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Paul L; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Wong, Edwin S; Hernandez, Susan E; Batten, Adam; Lo, Sophie; Lemon, Jaclyn M; Conrad, Douglas A; Grembowski, David; Nelson, Karin; Fihn, Stephan D

    2014-06-01

    In 2010 the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) began a nationwide initiative called Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACT) that reorganized care at all VHA primary care clinics in accordance with the patient-centered medical home model. We analyzed data for fiscal years 2003-12 to assess how trends in health care use and costs changed after the implementation of PACT. We found that PACT was associated with modest increases in primary care visits and with modest decreases in both hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions and outpatient visits with mental health specialists. We estimated that these changes avoided $596 million in costs, compared to the investment in PACT of $774 million, for a potential net loss of $178 million in the study period. Although PACT has not generated a positive return, it is still maturing, and trends in costs and use are favorable. Adopting patient-centered care does not appear to have been a major financial risk for the VHA.

  2. Agricultural Research Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protection Crop Production and Protection Natural Resources and Sustainable Agricultural Systems Nutrition, Food Safety, and Quality Overseas ... LA, MS, NC, PR, SC) Footer Content ARS Home | USDA.gov | Site Map | Statements and Disclaimers | Plain ...

  3. Integrated emergy, energy and economic evaluation of rice and vegetable production systems in alluvial paddy fields: implications for agricultural policy in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongfang; Bai, Yu; Ren, Hai; Campbell, Daniel E

    2010-12-01

    China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation. Important questions that must be answered to determine what strategy is best for society are, "What is the reason behind this conversion?"; "Which system is more productive and which is more sustainable?"; and "How can economic policy be used to adjust the pattern of farmland use to attain sustainable development?" To answer these questions, a combined evaluation of these agricultural production systems was done using emergy, energy and economic methods. An economic analysis clearly showed that the reason for this conversion was simply that the economic output/input ratio and the benefit density of the vegetable production system were greater than that of rice. However, both energy and emergy evaluations showed that long-term rice was the best choice for sustainable development, followed by rotation systems. The current price of rice is lower than the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, but higher than that of rice produced from the rotation system. Scenario analysis showed that if the government increases the price of rice to the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, US$0.4/kg, and takes the value of soil organic matter into account, the economic output/input ratios of both the rice and rotation systems will be higher than that of the vegetable system. The three methods, energy, emergy and economics, are different but complementary, each revealing a different aspect of the same system. Their combined use shows not only the reasons behind a system's current state or condition, but also the way to adjust these systems to move toward more sustainable states.

  4. Techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration using agricultural residue--a case study for an Indian district.

    PubMed

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2015-04-01

    Presently, most of world electricity and other energy services are catered by fossil fuel resources. This is unsustainable in the long run both with respect to energy security and climate change problems. Fuel switching, specifically using biomass may partially address this problem. Polygeneration is an efficient way of delivering multiple utility outputs with one or more inputs. Decentralized small or large scale polygeneration using alternative fuels may be a future sustainable solution. In this paper, a techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration with four utility outputs and rice straw as input has been reported. Results of the simulation and real-life data as inputs are used for the techno-economic analysis. The analysis is specific for a district in the state of West Bengal of India. Results show that such a plant has strong potential to qualify in techno-economic performance in addition to higher efficiency and lower CO2 emission. PMID:25647027

  5. Techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration using agricultural residue--a case study for an Indian district.

    PubMed

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2015-04-01

    Presently, most of world electricity and other energy services are catered by fossil fuel resources. This is unsustainable in the long run both with respect to energy security and climate change problems. Fuel switching, specifically using biomass may partially address this problem. Polygeneration is an efficient way of delivering multiple utility outputs with one or more inputs. Decentralized small or large scale polygeneration using alternative fuels may be a future sustainable solution. In this paper, a techno-economic evaluation of a polygeneration with four utility outputs and rice straw as input has been reported. Results of the simulation and real-life data as inputs are used for the techno-economic analysis. The analysis is specific for a district in the state of West Bengal of India. Results show that such a plant has strong potential to qualify in techno-economic performance in addition to higher efficiency and lower CO2 emission.

  6. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of economic opportunity costs to promote the adoption of alternative land uses in grain growing agricultural areas: an Australian example.

    PubMed

    Lyle, G; Bryan, B A; Ostendorf, B

    2015-05-15

    Grain growers face many future challenges requiring them to adapt their land uses to changing economic, social and environmental conditions. To understand where to make on ground changes without significant negative financial repercussions, high resolution information on income generation over time is required. We propose a methodology which utilises high resolution yield data collected with precision agriculture (PA) technology, gross margin financial analysis and a temporal standardisation technique to highlight the spatial and temporal consistency of farm income. On three neighbouring farms in Western Australia, we found non-linear relationships between income and area. Spatio-temporal analysis on one farm over varying seasons found that between 37 and 49% (1082-1433ha) of cropping area consistently produced above the selected income thresholds and 43-32% (936-1257ha) regularly produced below selected thresholds. Around 20% of area showed inconsistent temporal variation in income generation. Income estimated from these areas represents the income forgone if a land use change is undertaken (the economic opportunity cost) and the average costs varied spatially from $190±114/ha to $560±108/ha depending on what scenario was chosen. The interaction over space and time showed the clustering of areas with similar values at a resolution where growers make input decisions. This new evidence suggests that farm area could be managed with two strategies: (a) one that maximises grain output using PA management in temporally stable areas which generate moderate to high income returns and (b) one that proposes land use change in low and inconsistent income returning areas where the financial returns from an alternative land use may be comparable. The adoption of these strategies can help growers meet the demand for agricultural output and offer income diversity and adaptive capacity to deal with the future challenges to agricultural production.

  7. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of economic opportunity costs to promote the adoption of alternative land uses in grain growing agricultural areas: an Australian example.

    PubMed

    Lyle, G; Bryan, B A; Ostendorf, B

    2015-05-15

    Grain growers face many future challenges requiring them to adapt their land uses to changing economic, social and environmental conditions. To understand where to make on ground changes without significant negative financial repercussions, high resolution information on income generation over time is required. We propose a methodology which utilises high resolution yield data collected with precision agriculture (PA) technology, gross margin financial analysis and a temporal standardisation technique to highlight the spatial and temporal consistency of farm income. On three neighbouring farms in Western Australia, we found non-linear relationships between income and area. Spatio-temporal analysis on one farm over varying seasons found that between 37 and 49% (1082-1433ha) of cropping area consistently produced above the selected income thresholds and 43-32% (936-1257ha) regularly produced below selected thresholds. Around 20% of area showed inconsistent temporal variation in income generation. Income estimated from these areas represents the income forgone if a land use change is undertaken (the economic opportunity cost) and the average costs varied spatially from $190±114/ha to $560±108/ha depending on what scenario was chosen. The interaction over space and time showed the clustering of areas with similar values at a resolution where growers make input decisions. This new evidence suggests that farm area could be managed with two strategies: (a) one that maximises grain output using PA management in temporally stable areas which generate moderate to high income returns and (b) one that proposes land use change in low and inconsistent income returning areas where the financial returns from an alternative land use may be comparable. The adoption of these strategies can help growers meet the demand for agricultural output and offer income diversity and adaptive capacity to deal with the future challenges to agricultural production. PMID:25836353

  8. Losing Chlordimeform Use in Cotton Production. Its Effects on the Economy and Pest Resistance. Agricultural Economic Report Number 587.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osteen, Craig; Suguiyama, Luis

    This report examines the economic implications of losing chlordimeform use on cotton and considers chlordimeform's role in managing the resistance of bollworms and tobacco budworms to synthetic pyrethroids. It estimates changes in prices, production, acreage, consumer expenditures, aggregate producer returns, regional crop effects, and returns to…

  9. A Comparative Economic Analysis of North-Central New Mexico. New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 211.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Garrey E.; Eastman, Clyde

    North-Central New Mexico has many of the problems common to other rural areas. Unemployment and underemployment rates tend to be high and per capita income relatively low. This study evaluated regional economic performance over a 19-year period (1949-1968) as compared to other regions and the nation. Shift analysis (a means of examining regional…

  10. Career Orientations of Female Students Enrolling in Agricultural Curricula at Clemson University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Nancy J.; Boyd, Virlyn A.

    The study determined the occupational values of 166 female home economics freshmen and 33 female agricultural freshmen at Winthrop College by asking the question: "In picking the job you would most like to have, how important are the following things about the job?" The freshmen rated by importance seven items: (1) high salary, (2) steady…

  11. Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single-family homes: An update of the BECA-B database

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

    1991-02-01

    The energy bill for US single-family households was over $77 billion in 1987 (excluding auto fuel purchases), accounting for approximately 20% of national energy expenditures. Large sums are spent on residential retrofits by individual homeowners, government agencies, and utilities. As of late 1987, over 21 million households indicated that they had added at least one energy-saving measure in the previous two years, while a recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) study estimated that nearly 15 million residential customers have participated in some kind of demand-side management (DSM) program. Given the level of continuing investments in residential energy efficiency, accurate estimates of savings from various conservation measures are increasingly necessary, especially as new technologies become more sophisticated and incremental efficiency gains more difficult to achieve. This report provides a comparative analysis of measured data on the performance and cost-effectiveness of energy-saving measures in existing single-family homes, based on information in the Buildings Energy-Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) data base. The initial BECA report on measured data for single-family retrofits was completed seven years ago. In updating the single-family database, we have added 135 data points, representing over 33,000 houses, to the original database of 145 retrofit projects. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides a summary of energy savings and costs of individual retrofit measures and strategies and results from federal/state low-income and utility weatherization programs. we also discuss measurement issues, predicted versus actual savings, trends in single-family retrofit programs, and implications for the next generation'' of cost-effective single-family retrofits. Volume 2 contains a written summary of each retrofit project and complete data tables. 87 refs., 20 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  13. Economic gains from targeted measures related to non-point pollution in agriculture based on detailed nitrate reduction maps.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Brian H; Hansen, Anne Lausten

    2016-06-15

    From 1990 to 2003, Denmark reduced N-leaching from the root zone by 50%. However, more measures are required, and in recent years, the focus has been on how to differentiate measures in order to ensure that they are implemented where the effect on N-loss reductions per ha is the greatest. The purpose of the NiCA project has been to estimate the natural nitrate reduction in the groundwater more precisely than before using a plot size down to 1ha. This article builds on these findings and presents the possible economic gains for the farmer when using this information to reach a given N-loss level. Targeted measures are especially relevant where the subsurface N-reduction varies significantly within the same farm and national analyses have shown that a cost reduction of around 20-25% using targeted measures is likely. The analyses show an increasing potential with increasing variation in N-reduction in the catchment. In this analysis, the knowledge of spatial variation in N-reduction potential is used to place measures like catch crops or set-a-side at locations with the greatest effect on 10 case farms in the Norsminde Catchment, Denmark. The findings suggest that the gains are from 0 to 32€/ha and the average farm would gain approximately 14-21€/ha/year from the targeted measures approach. The analysis indicates that the economic gain is greater than the costs of providing the detailed maps of 5-10€/ha/year. When N-loss reduction requirements are increased, the economic gains are greater. When combined with new measures like mini-wetlands and early sowing the economic advantage is increased further. The paper also shows that not all farms can use the detailed information on N-reduction and there is not a clear link between spatial variation in N-reduction at the farm level and possible economic gains for all these 10 farms. PMID:26974574

  14. No Place Like Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    To fight rampant consumerism (Martha Stewart Inc.), reduce the divorce rate, prevent cancer and heart disease, and ensure domestic tranquility, educators should bring back home economics. Workers must put more energy into the home front, and we must begin teaching our children how to live well on less. (MLH)

  15. The Importance of Considering the Temporal Distribution of Climate Variables for Ecological-Economic Modeling to Calculate the Consequences of Climate Change for Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plegnière, Sabrina; Casper, Markus; Hecker, Benjamin; Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The basis of many models to calculate and assess climate change and its consequences are annual means of temperature and precipitation. This method leads to many uncertainties especially at the regional or local level: the results are not realistic or too coarse. Particularly in agriculture, single events and the distribution of precipitation and temperature during the growing season have enormous influences on plant growth. Therefore, the temporal distribution of climate variables should not be ignored. To reach this goal, a high-resolution ecological-economic model was developed which combines a complex plant growth model (STICS) and an economic model. In this context, input data of the plant growth model are daily climate values for a specific climate station calculated by the statistical climate model (WETTREG). The economic model is deduced from the results of the plant growth model STICS. The chosen plant is corn because corn is often cultivated and used in many different ways. First of all, a sensitivity analysis showed that the plant growth model STICS is suitable to calculate the influences of different cultivation methods and climate on plant growth or yield as well as on soil fertility, e.g. by nitrate leaching, in a realistic way. Additional simulations helped to assess a production function that is the key element of the economic model. Thereby the problems when using mean values of temperature and precipitation in order to compute a production function by linear regression are pointed out. Several examples show why a linear regression to assess a production function based on mean climate values or smoothed natural distribution leads to imperfect results and why it is not possible to deduce a unique climate factor in the production function. One solution for this problem is the additional consideration of stress indices that show the impairment of plants by water or nitrate shortage. Thus, the resulting model takes into account not only the ecological

  16. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  17. A systematic review of the impact of parental socio-economic status and home environment characteristics on children's oral health related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santhosh; Kroon, Jeroen; Lalloo, Ratilal

    2014-03-21

    Childhood circumstances such as socio-economic status and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the influence of parental Socio-Economic Status (SES) and home environment on children's OHRQoL. A systematic search was conducted in August 2013 using PubMed, Medline via OVID, CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, and Cochrane databases. Studies that have analysed the effect of parental characteristics (SES, family environment, family structure, number of siblings, household crowding, parents' age, and parents' oral health literacy) on children's OHRQoL were included. Quality assessment of the articles was done by the Effective Public Health Practice Project's Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative studies. Database search retrieved a total of 2,849 titles after removing the duplicates, 36 articles were found to be relevant. Most of the studies were conducted on Brazilian children and were published in recent two years. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and Children's Perception Questionnaire were the instruments of choice in preschool and school aged children respectively. Findings from majority of the studies suggest that the children from families with high income, parental education and family economy had better OHRQoL. Mothers' age, family structure, household crowding and presence of siblings were significant predictors of children's OHRQoL. However, definitive conclusions from the studies reviewed are not possible due to the differences in the study population, parental characteristics considered, methods used and statistical tests performed.

  18. Theme: Agricultural Educators in Non-School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannebach, Alfred J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four theme articles illustrate other settings for agriculture teachers besides public schools, including agriculture lobbying, children's home, preschool, exporting business, utilities industry, and youth group. (SK)

  19. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources: Agriculture. Part 1: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornhauser, A. L.; Wilson, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Potential economic benefits obtainable from a state-of-the-art ERS system in the resource area of intensive use of living resources, agriculture, are studied. A spectrum of equal capability (cost saving), increased capability, and new capability benefits are quantified. These benefits are estimated via ECON developed models of the agricultural marketplace and include benefits of improved production and distribution of agricultural crops. It is shown that increased capability benefits and new capability benefits result from a reduction of losses due to disease and insect infestation given ERS's capability to distinguish crop vigor and from the improvement in world trade negotiations given ERS's worldwide surveying capability.

  20. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Tawil, J.

    1982-08-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in developing methods for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts due to the effects of increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ on agricultural production. First, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken to determine what types of models and methods have been developed, which could be effectively used to conduct assessments of the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon models and methods for assessing the physical impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields; national and multi-regional agricultural sector models; and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The second task involved a thorough investigation of the research efforts being conducted by other public and private sector organizations in order to determine how more recent analytical methods being developed outside of DOE could be effectively integrated into a more comprehensive analysis of the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. The third and final task involved synthesizing the information gathered in the first two tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes originating in the agricultural sector of the US economy. It is concluded that the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the agricultural sector and the indirect economic impacts caused by spillover effects from agriculture to other sectors of the economy will be pervasive; however, the direction and magnitude of these impacts on producers and consumers cannot be determined a priori.

  1. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Alternative methods for quantifying the economic impacts associated with future increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ were examined. A literature search was undertaken, both to gain a better understanding of the ways in which CO/sub 2/ buildup could affect crop growth and to identify the different methods available for assessing the impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields. The second task involved identifying the scope of both the direct and indirect economic impacts that could occur as a result of CO/sub 2/-induced changes in crop yields. The third task then consisted of a comprehensive literature search to identify what types of economic models could be used effectively to assess the kinds of direct and indirect economic impacts that could conceivably occur as a result of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon national and multi-regional agricultural sector models, multi-country agricultural trade models, and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The fourth and final task of this research involved synthesizing the information gathered in the previous tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes related to agricultural production.

  2. Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nursing Homes Basic Facts & Information Nursing homes have changed ... physical health and/or mental disabilities. Is a Nursing Home Right for You? Almost half of all ...

  3. Organical residue and agriculture like energetic reservoir: Study of economic and environmental effects in electricity production from biomass in Venice county

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoni, G.; Tromboni, S.

    1996-12-31

    The study proposes, through a technical analysis of feasibility, the individulation of a concrete solution that allows an reduction of pollution`s fonts that they burden on the Venice`s basin. This area, for his particular formation and position, contains a strongs intrinsic brittleness that progressively gets worse because of organic nature environmental pollution. This particularly forms of pollution are provoked by the agricultural activity and by other economic activity. This study examine an alternative and integrated system to utilize organic material coming from livestock farming, urban communities and various production activities that gravitates on the Venice`s logoon. This research exploits an innovative context where {open_quotes}waste implementation{close_quotes} by different methodologies is none of the most powerful means to defend the environment and to recuperate their potential energetical resources. In the present study we will try to transform the current concept of {open_quotes}eliminating and destroying{close_quotes} into a more progressive one where organic wastes take the role of raw material to be converted in energy. The loss of a high quantity of the potential energy that they present can be avoided by technologies and know-how, now available, by which we are able to transform such latent energy in alternative forms that can be directly utilized.

  4. The role of microalgae as biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting: Economics, agro-energy competitiveness, and potential impacts on regional agricultural feedstock production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boll, Matias G.

    The objective of this study is to obtain a realistic evaluation of the potential role of microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock in a tropical setting. First, microalgae economics are estimated, including the detailed design of a 400 ha microalgae open pond production farm together with the microalgae biomass and crude oil production costs calculations. Sensitivity analysis and a stochastic evaluation of the microalgae venture chances for profit are also included. Next, microalgae potential for biodiesel production is compared to traditional oil crops such as soybeans and African palm. This comparison is performed using the Northeast Region (NER) of Brazil as background. Six potential biodiesel feedstock sources produced in the NER and microalgae are compared considering selected environmental, economic and social sustainability indicators. Finally, in the third chapter, the study proposes a cropland allocation model for the NER. The model aims to offer insights to the decision maker concerning biofuel development strategies and their impact on regional agricultural feedstock production. In the model, cropland allocation among three agriculture feedstock sectors, namely staple food, commodity export and biofuel is optimized through the use of the multiple objective technique referred to as compromise programming (CP). Our results indicate a projected microalgae total production cost of R 78,359 ha-1 (US43,533), which has a breakdown as follows: R 34,133 ha-1 (US18,963) for operating costs and R 44,226 ha-1 (US24,570) for overhead (ownership) costs. Our stochastic analysis indicates that microalgae production under the conditions assumed in the baseline scenario of this study has a 0% chance to present a positive NPV for a microalgae crude oil price of R 1.86. This price corresponds to an international oil price around US 77 bbl-1. To obtain a reasonable investment return (IRR = 12%) from the microalgae farm, an international oil price as high as US 461 bbl-1 is

  5. Improving community development by linking agriculture, nutrition and education: design of a randomised trial of “home-grown” school feeding in Mali

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Providing food through schools has well documented effects in terms of the education, health and nutrition of school children. However, there is limited evidence in terms of the benefits of providing a reliable market for small-holder farmers through “home-grown” school feeding approaches. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school feeding programmes sourced from small-holder farmers on small-holder food security, as well as on school children’s education, health and nutrition in Mali. In addition, this study will examine the links between social accountability and programme performance. Design This is a field experiment planned around the scale-up of the national school feeding programme, involving 116 primary schools in 58 communities in food insecure areas of Mali. The randomly assigned interventions are: 1) a school feeding programme group, including schools and villages where the standard government programme is implemented; 2) a “home-grown” school feeding and social accountability group, including schools and villages where the programme is implemented in addition to training of community based organisations and local government; and 3) the control group, including schools and household from villages where the intervention will be delayed by at least two years, preferably without informing schools and households. Primary outcomes include small-holder farmer income, school participation and learning, and community involvement in the programme. Other outcomes include nutritional status and diet-diversity. The evaluation will follow a mixed method approach, including household, school and village level surveys as well as focus group discussions with small-holder farmers, school children, parents and community members. The impact evaluation will be incorporated within the national monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system strengthening activities that are currently underway in Mali. Baselines surveys are planned for 2012. A monthly

  6. Geo-spatial analysis of land-water resource degradation in two economically contrasting agricultural regions adjoining national capital territory (Delhi).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Minhas, P S; Jain, P C; Singh, P; Dubey, D S

    2009-07-01

    The present study was aimed at characterizing the soil-water resource degradation in the rural areas of Gurgaon and Mewat districts, the two economically contrasting areas in policy zones-II and III of the National Capital Region (NCR), and assessing the impact of the study area's local conditions on the type and extent of resource degradation. This involved generation of detailed spatial information on the land use, cropping pattern, farming practices, soils and surface/ground waters of Gurgaon and Mewat districts through actual resource surveys, standard laboratory methods and GIS/remote sensing techniques. The study showed that in contrast to just 2.54% (in rabi season) to 4.87% (in kharif season) of agricultural lands in Gurgaon district, about 11.77% (in rabi season) to 24.23% (in kharif season) of agricultural lands in Mewat district were irrigated with saline to marginally saline canal water. Further, about 10.69% of agricultural lands in the Gurgaon district and 42.15% of agricultural lands in the Mewat district were drain water irrigated. A large part of this surface water irrigated area, particularly in Nuh (48.7%), Nagina (33.5%), and Punhana (24.1%) blocks of Mewat district, was either waterlogged (7.4% area with agricultural lands in the Mewat district. Geo-spatial analysis showed that due to seepage of these degraded waters from unlined drains and canals, ground waters of about 39.6% of Mewat district were salt affected (EC(m)ean = 7.05 dS/m and SAR(m)ean = 7.71). Besides, sub-surface drinking waters of almost the entire Mewat district were contaminated with undesirable concentrations of chromium (Cr 2.0-3.23 ppm

  7. Geo-spatial analysis of land-water resource degradation in two economically contrasting agricultural regions adjoining national capital territory (Delhi).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Minhas, P S; Jain, P C; Singh, P; Dubey, D S

    2009-07-01

    The present study was aimed at characterizing the soil-water resource degradation in the rural areas of Gurgaon and Mewat districts, the two economically contrasting areas in policy zones-II and III of the National Capital Region (NCR), and assessing the impact of the study area's local conditions on the type and extent of resource degradation. This involved generation of detailed spatial information on the land use, cropping pattern, farming practices, soils and surface/ground waters of Gurgaon and Mewat districts through actual resource surveys, standard laboratory methods and GIS/remote sensing techniques. The study showed that in contrast to just 2.54% (in rabi season) to 4.87% (in kharif season) of agricultural lands in Gurgaon district, about 11.77% (in rabi season) to 24.23% (in kharif season) of agricultural lands in Mewat district were irrigated with saline to marginally saline canal water. Further, about 10.69% of agricultural lands in the Gurgaon district and 42.15% of agricultural lands in the Mewat district were drain water irrigated. A large part of this surface water irrigated area, particularly in Nuh (48.7%), Nagina (33.5%), and Punhana (24.1%) blocks of Mewat district, was either waterlogged (7.4% area with agricultural lands in the Mewat district. Geo-spatial analysis showed that due to seepage of these degraded waters from unlined drains and canals, ground waters of about 39.6% of Mewat district were salt affected (EC(m)ean = 7.05 dS/m and SAR(m)ean = 7.71). Besides, sub-surface drinking waters of almost the entire Mewat district were contaminated with undesirable concentrations of chromium (Cr 2.0-3.23 ppm

  8. The economic value of remote sensing information: a case study of agricultural production and groundwater vulnerability using applied environmental science and hydrogeospatial methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forney, W.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Mishra, S.; Raunikar, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    William M. Forney1*, Richard L. Bernknopf1, Shruti K. Mishra2, Ronald P. Raunikar1. 1=Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. 2=Contractor, Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California *=Contact author, wforney@usgs.gov, 650-329-4237. Does remote sensing information provide economic benefits to society and can those benefits be valued? Can resource management and policy be better informed by coupling past and present earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the USGS's research applies an established conceptual framework to answer these questions as well as estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate resolution land imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the US Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, we model the relationship between a population of the CDL's land uses and the evolution of nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Using source data from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and the USGS's National Water Quality Assessment Program, the approach uses multi-scaled, environmental science models to address dynamic, biophysical process models of nitrogen fate and transport at specific sites (wells) and at landscape scale (35 counties) in order to assess groundwater vulnerability. In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on particular agricultural goods and land uses: corn, soybeans and livestock manure management. Results of this four-year study will be presented, including: 1) the integrated models of the assessment approach, 2) mapping the range of vulnerabilities

  9. Home sweet medical home.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2014-11-01

    Starting with a solid primary care foundation, the patient-centered medical home has become a hot commodity for making health care more efficient and effective and less fragmented and costly. Whether the enhanced primary care model lives up to its promise is still up for debate, based on the available research. Still, policymakers, payers, and physician practices are increasingly taking the bet.

  10. Home-Based Businesses: Implications for the Rural Economy of the South. The Rural South: Preparing for the Challenges of the 21st Century, No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Pamela J.; Muske, Glenn

    In the face of changing agriculture, an aging population, and the outflow of citizens seeking livable wages, rural Southern communities are challenged with how to enhance their economies to insure long-term business viability. Home-based businesses are an effective aspect of rural economic development. They allow flexibility and choice of work…

  11. Effects of land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality in a mountainous watershed with intensive agricultural production in East china.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale.

  12. Assessing the biophysical and socio-economic potential of Sustainable Land Management and Water Harvesting Technologies for rainfed agriculture across semi-arid Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Brian; Fleskens, Luuk; Kirkby, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Stakeholders in recent EU projects identified soil erosion as the most frequent driver of land degradation in semi-arid environments. In a number of sites, historic land management and rainfall variability are recognised as contributing to the serious environmental impact. In order to consider the potential of sustainable land management and water harvesting techniques stakeholders and study sites from the projects selected and trialled both local technologies and promising technologies reported from other sites . The combined PESERA and DESMICE modelling approach considered the regional effects of the technologies in combating desertification both in environmental and socio-economical terms. Initial analysis was based on long term average climate data with the model run to equilibrium. Current analysis, primarily based on the WAHARA study sites considers rainfall variability more explicitly in time series mode. The PESERA-DESMICE approach considers the difference between a baseline scenario and a (water harvesting) technology scenario, typically, in terms of productivity, financial viability and scope for reducing erosion risk. A series of 50 year rainfall realisations are generated from observed data to capture a full range of the climatic variability. Each realisation provides a unique time-series of rainfall and through modelling can provide a simulated time-series of crop yield and erosion risk for both baseline conditions and technology scenarios. Subsequent realisations and model simulations add to an envelope of the potential crop yield and cost-benefit relations. The development of such envelopes helps express the agricultural and erosional risk associated with climate variability and the potential for conservation measures to absorb the risk, highlighting the probability of achieving a given crop yield or erosion limit. Information that can directly inform or influence the local adoption of conservation measures under the climatic variability in semi

  13. Home Visitation--A Chance for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosen, Roger L.

    1976-01-01

    Some ideas for improving the effectiveness of home visitation of students by vocational agriculture instructors include: planning for the visit, getting to know the student, assessing the home situation for influencing factors, using home responsibilities for plant and animal care as learning experiences, and considering life goals. (MS)

  14. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  15. Housing and Home Furnishings Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    These sixty-seven modules provide student materials for a home economics course in housing and home furnishings. (A companion instructor's guide is available separately--see note.) Each module contains an objective, student information, learning activities (and activity sheets as needed), student self-checks, student self-check answers, check-out…

  16. Alternatives and Consequences: Proceedings of the Home Economics-Community Resource Development Regional Conference on Public Policy (Windsor Locks, Connecticut, October. 23-25, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development, Ithaca, NY.

    Issues clarification, skills and techniques, and methods and strategy in Extension public policy education were the themes of the conference. The first keynote speaker, R.J. Hildreth, justified public policy education by home economist and community resource development educators. The second keynote speaker, J.B. Wyckoff, described the function of…

  17. HOMES: A Household Model for Economic and Social Studies. Reference Guide for Household Projections. Version 1.0. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, #106.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Andrew

    This book contains a reference guide for the use of HOMES, a demographic model and computer program developed to project the number and demographic characteristics of households. Through application of this computer program to standard population projectors, users can retrieve data on: (1) number of households; (2) age and sex of household heads;…

  18. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  19. Home Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help Related Topics Assisted Living Community-Based Care Nursing Homes Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Home Care Basic Facts & Information Role of Health Care Professionals in Home Care Your physician is the leader ...

  20. A Farming Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinkenborg, Verlyn

    1995-01-01

    Growing realization of the economic, social, and environmental costs of conventional agriculture has led many U.S. farmers to embrace and become advocates for agricultural practices that limit the need for pesticides and chemical fertilizers, decrease soil erosion, and improve soil health. Some hope that sustainable agriculture can promote smaller…

  1. The Historiography of American Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, R. Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Provides secondary school U.S. history teachers with a beginning bibliography for incorporating agricultural history into their classes. Annotates books covering the social, economic, and political aspects of agricultural history. Identifies works dealing with topical matters such as land settlement, slavery, agricultural policy, and the Dust…

  2. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  3. Problems of Manpower in Agriculture. OECD Documentation in Food and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Problems related to rapid reduction of the agricultural labor force were examined in the 21 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The size and changes of the agricultural labor force, economic forces tending towards change, technical requirements for labor in agriculture, and obstacles hindering economic adjustment of…

  4. Home Management House: Reflections of Alumnae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tifft, Kathleen; Fletcher, Janice; Junk, Virginia W.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, curriculum for home economics included experiences in home management residences. In this qualitative study, nine alumnae and one advisor who lived in a home management house between 1939 and 1959 were interviewed about how their experiences influenced the quality of their lives in the 40-60 subsequent years. Alumnae of the residence…

  5. Home Ec Educators Get Their Story Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porteous, Peter L.

    1977-01-01

    Reports on activities of home economics educators at the American Vocational Association convention in Houston including their assessment of home economics education, the concern they expressed about the new voc ed amendments, and a leadership training session in which they participated. (Editor/HD)

  6. Extension and Home-Based Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loker, Suzanne; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Building Home Businesses in Rural Communities" (Loker et al.); "Home-Based Business...A Means to Economic Growth in Rural Areas" (Bastow-Shoop et al.); "Business Not As Usual" (Millar, Mallilo); and "Economic Options for Farm Families" (Williams). (SK)

  7. Impact of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program on Low-Income Families: An Indepth Analysis. Agricultural Economic Report Number 220.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feaster, J. Gerald

    This report evaluates the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) of the Extension Service of the Department of Agriculture. About 184,000 low-income families participated in the program prior to October 1969. A national sample of 10,500 showed that family incomes were very low--less than 2,700 dollars, of which more than a third was…

  8. The Aftermath of the Bracero: A Study of the Economic Impact on the Agricultural Hired Labor Market of Michigan from the Termination of Public Law 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John Dancer

    To test the "stoop labor" hypotheses that the supply response of domestic migrants to increased wages would be inelastic, this study examined wage adjustment in Michigan agriculture after 1964, supply response to wage changes in the pickle industry, and acreage decline and capital substitution following the termination of the bracero program.…

  9. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... home; PICC line - home; Infusion therapy - home; Home health care - IV treatment ... Often, home health care nurses will come to your home to give you the medicine. Sometimes, a family member, a friend, or ...

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Western Regional Home Management-Family Economics Educators (25th, Scottsdale, Arizona, November 6-8, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Ruth E., Ed.

    These proceedings consist of 12 presentations, most of which are followed by responses or comments. The papers include: "Integrating Family Economics and Family Counseling" (Hogan; discussants Schnittgrund, Wilhelm); "A Test of the Deacon-Firebaugh Management Model" (Gage, Schmid); "Perceived Income Adequacy and Selected Financial Management…

  11. Life Insurance for Consumers: A Teacher's Guide. A Teacher Inservice Module for Secondary Level Consumer Education Units in Home Economics, Business Education, Social Studies and Related Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelen, Judith

    This teacher-oriented learning module for secondary level consumer education teachers, the first in a series of three, was developed to provide information on life insurance and ideas for conveying this content to students. The module begins with a definition and general goals of consumer economics, an overview, a pre-test, a performance objective…

  12. Home Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, William M.; And Others

    Cases that address the issue of home schooling are summarized in this report. Organized chronologically, each case description includes quoted material from the court ruling. Issues involve parent actions regarding compulsory student enrollment, parent qualifications for home teaching, student certification, church-state separation, constitutional…

  13. Clinical, patient-related, and economic outcomes of home-based high-dose hemodialysis versus conventional in-center hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Mitsides, Nicos; Mitra, Sandip; Cornelis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Despite technological advances in renal replacement therapy, the preservation of health and quality of life for individuals on dialysis still remains a challenge. The high morbidity and mortality in dialysis warrant further research and insight into the clinical domains of the technique and practice of this therapy. In the last 20 years, the focus of development in the field of hemodialysis (HD) has centered around adequate removal of urea and other associated toxins. High-dose HD offers an opportunity to improve mortality, morbidity, and quality of life of patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, the uptake of this modality is low, and the risk associated with the therapy is not fully understood. Recent studies have highlighted the evidence base and improved our understanding of this technique of dialysis. This article provides a review of high-dose and home HD, its clinical impact on patient outcome, and the controversies that exist. PMID:27462173

  14. Child injury: Does home matter?

    PubMed

    Osborne, Jodie M; Davey, Tamzyn M; Spinks, Anneliese B; McClure, Roderick J; Sipe, Neil; Cameron, Cate M

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between home risk and hospital treated injury in Australian children up to five years old. Women with children between two and four years of age enrolled in the Environments for Healthy Living (EFHL): Griffith Birth Cohort Study were invited to complete a Home Injury Prevention Survey from March 2013 to June 2014. A total home risk score (HRS) was calculated and linked to the child's injury related state-wide hospital emergency and admissions data and EFHL baseline demographic surveys. Data from 562 households relating to 566 child participants were included. We found an inverse relationship between home risk and child injury, with children living in homes with the least injury risk (based on the absence of hazardous structural features of the home and safe practices reported) having 1.90 times the injury rate of children living in high risk homes (95% CI 1.15-3.14). Whilst this appears counter-intuitive, families in the lowest risk homes were more likely to be socio-economically disadvantaged than families in the highest risk homes (more sole parents, lower maternal education levels, younger maternal age and lower income). After adjusting for demographic and socio-economic factors, the relationship between home risk and injury was no longer significant (p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that children in socio-economically deprived families have higher rates of injury, despite living in a physical environment that contains substantially fewer injury risks than their less deprived counterparts. Although measures to reduce child injury risk through the modification of the physical environment remain an important part of the injury prevention approach, our study findings support continued efforts to implement societal-wide, long term policy and practice changes to address the socioeconomic differentials in child health outcomes. PMID:26928586

  15. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Housing and Home Environment. Home Energy Usage and Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Barbara; And Others

    This unit of instruction on home energy usage and conservation was designed for use by home economics teachers in Florida high schools and by home economics extension agents as they work with their clientele. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients about…

  16. Bradford's Law and the Literature of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawani, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of separate data on the literature of tropical and subtropical agriculture, and the world literature of agricultural economics and rural socilogy, in relation to Bradford's law. (8 references) (Author/SJ)

  17. Economics of selected WECS dispersed applications

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, S.

    1980-04-01

    An economic analysis for distributed Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) has been conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Solar Commercial Readiness Assessment task at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The objective of this paper is to analyze: the cost of electricity generated by selected wind energy systems in residential and agricultural applications; the breakeven cost of wind systems able to compete economically with conventional power sources in dispersed applications; and the impact of major economic factors on the cost performance index. Two major measures of economics used are breakeven period and levelized cost of electricity (life-cycle cost). The cost performance index was calculated for a dispersed application of a commercially available 10 kW wind turbine generator. All-electric homes consuming 15,000 kWh annually or more have been selected for analysis. The agricultural application is represented by a commercial poultry and egg farm demanding over 92,000 kWh annually.

  18. Agricultural biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Waage, J K; Mumford, J D

    2008-02-27

    The prevention and control of new pest and disease introductions is an agricultural challenge which is attracting growing public interest. This interest is in part driven by an impression that the threat is increasing, but there has been little analysis of the changing rates of biosecurity threat, and existing evidence is equivocal. Traditional biosecurity systems for animals and plants differ substantially but are beginning to converge. Bio-economic modelling of risk will be a valuable tool in guiding the allocation of limited resources for biosecurity. The future of prevention and management systems will be strongly influenced by new technology and the growing role of the private sector. Overall, today's biosecurity systems are challenged by changing national priorities regarding trade, by new concerns about environmental effects of biological invasions and by the question 'who pays?'. Tomorrow's systems may need to be quite different to be effective. We suggest three changes: an integration of plant and animal biosecurity around a common, proactive, risk-based approach; a greater focus on international cooperation to deal with threats at source; and a commitment to refocus biosecurity on building resilience to invasion into agroecosystems rather than building walls around them.

  19. Home Modification

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is important to consider certain safety modifications. Adaptations such as those in the following list can ... The importance of a Consumer Perspective in Home Adaptation of Alzheimer’s Households” (Chapter 6 pp 91-112) ...

  20. Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... up like a hospital. The staff provides medical care, as well as physical, speech and occupational therapy. ... relationships with residents. Some nursing homes have special care units for people with serious memory problems such ...

  1. Home Hemodialysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... more flexible schedule and better health. More Flexible Schedule A person can choose the schedule for home ... treat. When prepared, this content included the most current information available. For updates or for questions about ...

  2. 77 FR 67329 - Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment... collection associated with the Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) of 1978. DATES: We will... Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) Program Manager, Natural Resources Analysis Group, Economic...

  3. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  4. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  5. Home health care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skilled nursing - home care; Physical therapy - at home; Occupational therapy - at home; Discharge - home health care ... medicines that you may be taking. Physical and occupational therapists can make sure your home is set ...

  6. The Medical Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy The Medical Home KidsHealth > For Parents > The Medical Home Print ... home" for your child. What Does the Term "Medical Home" Mean? A medical home isn't a ...

  7. Establishing a successful home dialysis program.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Buxo, Jose A; Crawford-Bonadio, Terri L; St Pierre, Donna; Ingram, Katherine M

    2006-01-01

    The renewed interest in home dialysis therapies makes it pertinent to address the essentials of establishing and running a successful home dialysis program. The success of a home program depends on a clear understanding of the structure of the home program team, the physical plant, educational tool requirements, reimbursement sources and a business plan. A good command of the technical and economic aspects is important, but the primary drivers for the creation and growth of a home dialysis program are the confidence and commitment of the nephrological team. PMID:16361836

  8. Genetic Technology and Agricultural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, William J.; Blase, Melvin G.

    1971-01-01

    Examines the nature, application, limits and potential of applied genetics in plant breeding as a factor in South Asian agricultural development. Concludes other factors were also present in recent agricultural growth, and indicates some economic implications of continued growth, including problems of employment of displaced rural workers. (AL)

  9. 7 CFR 3555.208 - Special requirements for manufactured homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special requirements for manufactured homes. 3555.208... Property § 3555.208 Special requirements for manufactured homes. Loans may be guaranteed for manufactured homes if all the requirements in this section are met. (a) Eligible costs. In addition to the...

  10. Nursing homes in China.

    PubMed

    Chu, Leung-Wing; Chi, Iris

    2008-05-01

    China will face a dramatic transition from a young to an aged society in the coming 30 to 40 years. In 2000, there were 88,110,000 persons aged 65 years and older, which represented 7% of the population. This percentage is projected to increase to 23% in 2050. Regarding health and long-term care for older adults, the current challenge is to build a comprehensive system of care for older adults. Nursing home care is an inevitable care model for frail older adults in China, which is largely sponsored by the government of China with contributions from some nongovernment organizations and private investors. China is a large country. Within the country, long-term care varies greatly between rural and urban areas, and among the different economic developing areas. In urban and better-developed areas, the range of services exists; however, in rural and less-developed areas, the range of services is limited. The "Star Light Program" and "Beloved Care Engineering" were recent government initiatives to improve aged care. They were launched in 2001 and have dramatically increased the number of both senior centers and nursing homes for older adults. While the quantity of nursing homes is still inadequate with an additional mismatch problem between the supply and demand, the quality of care in most nursing homes is suboptimal. At present, most administrative and frontline workers in nursing homes have received little training in elder care. There is a need for good-quality structured training in long-term care for all types of staff. Moreover, quality standard for care, including standard setting, assessment, and monitoring, is an important issue and needs substantial improvement for nursing homes in China. Currently, 1.5% of older people live in nursing homes and apartments for older people. Because of the peculiar 4-2-1 family structure in China, we expect the prevalence of nursing home placement of older adults will increase in the coming years. The government of China has

  11. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  12. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  13. Snails home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunstan, D. J.; Hodgson, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    Many gardeners and horticulturalists seek non-chemical methods to control populations of snails. It has frequently been reported that snails that are marked and removed from a garden are later found in the garden again. This phenomenon is often cited as evidence for a homing instinct. We report a systematic study of the snail population in a small suburban garden, in which large numbers of snails were marked and removed over a period of about 6 months. While many returned, inferring a homing instinct from this evidence requires statistical modelling. Monte Carlo techniques demonstrate that movements of snails are better explained by drift under the influence of a homing instinct than by random diffusion. Maximum likelihood techniques infer the existence of two groups of snails in the garden: members of a larger population that show little affinity to the garden itself, and core members of a local garden population that regularly return to their home if removed. The data are strongly suggestive of a homing instinct, but also reveal that snail-throwing can work as a pest management strategy.

  14. Combined effects of nitrogen fertilization and biochar on the net global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity and net ecosystem economic budget in intensive vegetable agriculture in southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Fan, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Chen, Z. Z.; Sun, L. Y.; Xiong, Z. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization and biochar addition on the net global warming potential (net GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) and net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB). These experiments were conducted in an intensive vegetable field with 4 consecutive vegetable crops in 2012 and 2013 in southeastern China. The experiment was conducted with a 32 factorial design in triplicate at N fertilizer rates of 0, 1475, 1967 kg N ha-1 and biochar rates of 0, 20, and 40 t ha-1. Although CH4 emissions were not obviously affected by N fertilization, N2O emissions increased by 27.2-116.2% and the net GWP increased by 30.6-307.2%. Consequently, the GHGI increased significantly, but vegetable yield and the NEEB did not improve. Furthermore, biochar amendments did not significantly influence CH4 emissions, but significantly decreased the N2O emissions by 1.7-25.4%, the net GWP by 89.6-700.5%, and the GHGI by 89.5-644.8%. In addition, vegetable yields significantly increased by 2.1-74.1%, which improved the NEEB. Thus, N fertilization did not increase vegetable yields or the NEEB. However, N fertilization did increase the net GWP and GHGI. In contrast, biochar additions resulted in lower N2O emissions and net GWP and GHGI, but increased vegetable yield and the NEEB in the intensive vegetable production system. Therefore, appropriate biochar amendment should be studied to combat changing climate and to improve the economic profits of vegetable production.

  15. Home Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Under the Guaranteed Watt Savers (GWS) system, plans for a new home are computer analyzed for anticipated heat loss and gain. Specifications are specifically designed for each structure and a Smart- House Radiant Barrier is installed. Designed to reflect away 95% of the Sun's radiant energy, the radiant barrier is an adaptation of an aluminum shield used on Apollo spacecraft. On completion of a home, technicians using a machine, check for air tightness, by creating a vacuum in the house and computer calculations that measure the amount of air exchanged. A guarantee that only the specified number kilowatt hours will be used is then provided.

  16. Nursing Home Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    Nursing home checklist Name of nursing home: ____________________________________________________ Address: ________________________________________________________________ Phone number: __________________________________________________________ Date of visit: _____________________________________________________________ Basic information Yes No Notes Is the nursing home Medicare certified? Is the nursing ...

  17. What Futurists Believe: Implications for Home Economists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenbaum, Shawna

    1992-01-01

    The challenges that the future will present to the home economist will be many. Technological, scientific, economic, environmental, climatic, social, political, institutional, and personal pressures will cause changes that will be favorable and unfavorable. (JOW)

  18. Home Modifications

    MedlinePlus

    ... use, and flexible enough to be adapted for special needs. Back to top Evaluating Your Needs Before any changes are made to the home, evaluate your current and future needs room by room. Once you have explored all areas, make a list of potential problems and solutions. ...

  19. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  1. Home Seismometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Nakmaura, H.; Wu, C.; Rydelek, P.; Kachi, M.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed an automated system for analyzing Hi-net seismograms for earthquake early warning (EEW) in Japan. Because of limitations imposed by station spacing, our system generally cannot issue an EEW to areas within about 30 km distance of the earthquake's hypocenter. We estimate that about 10 times the number of stations would be needed to issue an EEW in these areas, but the overhead would be cost prohibitive for governmental agencies. The practical deployment of EEW in Japan has started in October, 2007 and millions of people are expected to purchase and install the receiving/alarm unit of EEW. Since most of these units are connected to internet and equipped with a CPU and memory, we realized that the addition of an inexpensive seismometer and digitizer would transform the receiver into a real-time seismic observatory, which we are calling a home seismometer; these modifications only cost about $20. The home seismometer can help to generate alerts at the time of the occurrence of a large local earthquake by using locally observed data. Also, home seismograms can be used to estimate the amplification factor in sedimentary layers, which will be used to determine the site correction for shaking intensity by comparing the waveform data from the home seismometer against those from nearby Hi-net or K-NET stations. This amplification factor, which is essentially the basis of a shake-map with very-high spatial resolution, will help to establish a safety index of houses/buildings for large earthquakes, since a structure located at a site with large seismic amplification can be damaged more seriously than those with small amplification factors. The installation of home seismometers will create an extremely dense seismic network that is without precedence. We are developing an automatic system that collects waveform data from all home seismometer installations, calculates earthquake parameters in real-time, and then sends back alarms signals based on computed

  2. Home Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Home Health Care Home health care helps older adults live independently for as long ... need for long-term nursing home care. Home health care may include occupational and physical therapy, speech therapy, ...

  3. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  4. [Home Treatment].

    PubMed

    Widmann, F; Bachhuber, G; Riedelsheimer, A; Schiele, A; Ullrich, S; Kilian, R; Becker, T; Frasch, K

    2016-01-01

    Home Treatment (HT) means acute psychiatric treatment in the patient's usual environment. Conceptually, HT is to be differentiated from other home-based services: It is limited with regard to duration and multiprofessional (e. g. psychiatrist plus psychiatric nursing staff plus social worker); the "24/7"-accessibility is frequently provided by the corresponding background hospital infrastructure. Target group are acutely mentally ill persons with an indication to inpatient treatment, who are willing to cooperate, and absence of endangerment to self and others. In contrast to the Scandinavian and many Anglophone countries where nationwide HT services are delivered, there are not many HT sites in Germany so far. Consequently, empirical data concerning HT in Germany is scarce. In summary, international studies show equivalent effects on psychopathological measures compared to inpatient treatment, reductions with regard to inpatient days, higher patient satisfaction and a trend towards cost-effectivity. PMID:26878432

  5. Home Energy Score

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The Home Energy Score allows a homeowner to compare her or his home's energy consumption to that of other homes, similar to a vehicle's mile-per-gallon rating. A home energy assessor will collect energy information during a brief home walk-through and then score that home on a scale of 1 to 10.

  6. [Organic agriculture and sustainable development].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Wang, Gang

    2004-12-01

    Basing on the research and practice of organic agriculture at home and abroad, this paper discussed the objectives of developing green food and the principles that must be persisted in the practice in China. In the light of the arguments concerning with sustainable agriculture, we also discussed the significance of "alternative agriculture" in theory and practice. Compared with conventional high-intensity agriculture, the production approaches of organic alternatives can improve soil fertility and have fewer detrimental effects on the environment. It is unclear whether conventional agriculture can be sustained because of the shortcomings presented in this paper, and it has taken scientists approximately one century to research and practice organic farming as a representative of alternative agriculture. The development of green food in China has only gone through more than ten years, and there would be some practical and theoretical effects on the development of China's green food if we exploit an environment-friendly production pattern of organic agriculture which majors in keeping human health and maintaining sustainable agriculture.

  7. Economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  8. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  9. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  10. Vocational Home Economics Education. Needle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmes, Ellen; Sawatzky, Joyce

    This instructional package, designed for use in secondary and adult education, focuses on the vocational area of needle trades. Section A of this document contains three units of instruction; "Securing a Job,""Career Success," and "The Free Enterprise System." Section B contains four units on sewn products operations: "Sewing Machine Maintenance…

  11. Sociological Research and Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Gale

    1996-01-01

    Examines four orientations of sociological research: functional analysis, systems theory, symbolic interaction, and critical theory/conflict analysis. Recommends avoiding adherence to one single orientation and suggests constant reevaluation of the frame of reference. (SK)

  12. Model Learner Outcomes for Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cheryl, Ed.; And Others

    Chapter 1 of this document contains sets of statements adopted by either the Minnesota State Board of Education or the Minnesota State Legislature. They represent the hierarchy used by Department of Education staff as they develop model learner outcomes for each subject area. Contents include learner values, education system values, philosophy for…

  13. The Determinants of Care Home Closure

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Stephen; Forder, Julien

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the causes of full closure of care homes in the English care home/nursing home market. We develop theoretical arguments about two causes for closure that are triggered by errors or external shocks: poor economic sustainability and regulatory action. Homes aiming to operate with lower quality in the market are argued for a number of reasons to be more susceptible to errors/shocks in setting quality, especially negative errors, leading to an empirical hypothesis that observed quality should negatively affect closure chance. In addition, given quality, homes facing relatively high levels of local competition should also have an increased chance of closure. We use a panel of care homes from 2008 and 2010 to examine factors affecting their closure status in subsequent years. We allow for the potential endogeneity of home quality and use multiple imputation to replace missing data. Results suggest that homes with comparatively higher quality and/or lower levels of competition have less chance of closure than other homes. We discuss that the results provide some support for the policy of regulators providing quality information to potential purchasers in the market. © 2015 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25760588

  14. Exiting and Returning to the Parental Home for Boomerang Kids

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg-Thoma, Sara E.; Snyder, Anastasia R.; Jang, Bohyun Joy

    2015-01-01

    Young adults commonly exit from and return to the parental home, yet few studies have examined the motivation behind these exits and returns using a life course framework. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the authors examined associations between mental health problems and economic characteristics and exits from (n = 8,162), and returns to (n = 6,530), the parental home during the transition to adulthood. The average age of the respondents was 24 years. The authors found evidence that mental health and economic characteristics were related to home leaving and returning. Emotional distress was associated with earlier exits from, and returns to, the parental home; alcohol problems were associated with earlier returns to the parental home. The findings regarding economic resources were unexpectedly mixed. Greater economic resources were linked to delayed exits from, and earlier returns to, the parental home. The implications of these findings for young adults are discussed. PMID:26023244

  15. Home-School Partnerships: Shall We Dance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. Howard

    1994-01-01

    The traditional home-school partnership was a communitywide, adult conspiracy to raise good, responsible children. Because of massive social and economic changes, parents and school personnel no longer necessarily share neighborhoods, economic status, language, culture, or child-rearing viewpoints. A new, mutually respectful, and enjoyable "dance"…

  16. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  17. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEVENS, GLENN Z.

    FEDERAL LEGISLATION HAS PROVIDED FOR PUBLIC PROGRAMS OF OCCUPATIONAL AGRICULTURE EDUCATION IN LAND GRANT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES, LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS, AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES SHOULD BE TO DEVELOP KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS, PROVIDE OCCUPATIONAL GUIDANCE AND PLACEMENT, AND DEVELOP ABILITIES IN HUMAN RELATIONS AND…

  18. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  19. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Housing and Home Environment. Electrical Energy Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Barbara; And Others

    This unit of instruction on electrical energy usage in the home was designed for use by home economics teachers in Florida high schools and by home economics extension agents as they work with their clientele. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients about…

  20. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Housing and Home Environment. Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Barbara; And Others

    This unit of instruction on home management of lighting was designed for use by home economics teachers in Florida high schools and by home economics extension agents as they work with their clientele. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and clients about the…

  1. Low Energy Technology, A Unit of Instruction in Housing and Home Environment. Insulation, Caulking & Weatherstripping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Barbara; And Others

    This unit of instruction on insulation, caulking, and weatherstripping homes was designed for use by home economic teachers in Florida high schools and by home economics extension agents as they work with their clientele. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  2. 7 CFR 226.12 - Administrative payments to sponsoring organizations for day care homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative payments to sponsoring organizations for day care homes. 226.12 Section 226.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND...

  3. 7 CFR 226.12 - Administrative payments to sponsoring organizations for day care homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative payments to sponsoring organizations for day care homes. 226.12 Section 226.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND...

  4. 7 CFR 3560.69 - Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group homes. 3560.69 Section 3560.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination §...

  5. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  6. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789

  7. Respiratory Home Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition ... Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at home can contribute to improved ...

  8. Staying safe at home

    MedlinePlus

    Carbon monoxide safety; Electrical safety; Furnace safety; Gas appliance safety; Water heater safety ... inside the home and outside the home: Put gas and charcoal grills well away from your home, ...

  9. Home Care Services

    MedlinePlus

    Home care is care that allows a person with special needs stay in their home. It might be for people who are getting ... chronically ill, recovering from surgery, or disabled. Home care services include Personal care, such as help with ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  11. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Divisions Home Health Insights Exercise Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  12. Building on Our Rich Heritage in Agriculture Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougan, James E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the past and future of vocational agriculture education in the United States. Discusses aspects of the program relating to social and economic change, community-based programs, teacher education, supervision, core curriculum approach, and vocational agriculture teachers. (LRA)

  13. Farming with Grass: Achieving Sustainable Mixed Agricultural Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Grassla...

  14. Regional variation in solar energy economic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunton, D.; Kirschner, C.; Ben-David, S.; Roach, F.

    1981-03-01

    A solar economic performance code (EASE-III) was used to indicate the extent of production function variations as applied to a Trombe wall solar design incorporated in a new home. The economic performance of the solar heated residence was compared to the alternative non solar home heated by the characteristic conventional fuel of each region. These economic results are used to discuss the impact of subsidy programs.

  15. A Reference Unit on Home Vegetable Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCully, James S., Comp.; And Others

    Designed to provide practical, up-to-date, basic information on home gardening for vocational agriculture students with only a limited knowledge of vegetable gardening, this reference unit includes step-by-step procedures for planning, planting, cultivating, harvesting, and processing vegetables in a small plot. Topics covered include plot…

  16. 78 FR 44092 - Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Request for Nominations of Members for the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Solicitation for membership. SUMMARY: The notice announced the USDA's request for membership on the National Agricultural...

  17. 7 CFR 3560.69 - Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR part 1924, subparts A and C. (b) Design criteria. Congregate housing and group homes must be... group homes. 3560.69 Section 3560.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.69 Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group...

  18. 7 CFR 3560.69 - Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR part 1924, subparts A and C. (b) Design criteria. Congregate housing and group homes must be... group homes. 3560.69 Section 3560.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.69 Supplemental requirements for congregate housing and group...

  19. Global climate change and US agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Peart, Robert M.; Ritchie, Joe T.; Mccarl, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Agricultural productivity is expected to be sensitive to global climate change. Models from atmospheric science, plant science, and agricultural economics are linked to explore this sensitivity. Although the results depend on the severity of climate change and the compensating effects of carbon dioxide on crop yields, the simulation suggests that irrigated acreage will expand and regional patterns of U.S. agriculture will shift. The impact of the U.S. economy strongly depends on which climate model is used.

  20. Income Tax Reform and Agriculture: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Five papers are provided from a symposium organized to present several economic studies relating to income tax structure and reform in agriculture. "Toward an Optimal Income Tax Policy for Southern and U.S. Agriculture" (Harold F. Breimyer) is a structured argument for comprehensive tax reform that increases the equity of the income tax system…