Science.gov

Sample records for agriculture human health

  1. Agricultural chemical utilization and human health.

    PubMed Central

    Mushak, E W; Piver, W T

    1992-01-01

    The public is justifiably concerned about the human health effects of agricultural chemicals. The many gaps in information about the mechanisms of toxic action, human exposures, and the nature and extent of human health effects are large. Very few older pesticides, in particular, have been tested for human health effects. Workers who produce, harvest, store, transport, process, and prepare food and fibers are exposed to many chemicals that are potentially hazardous and that are used in agriculture. The occupational health of these workers has not been adequately studied, and protective efforts have sometimes been minimal. Valid and accurate risk assessment is best based on sound information about how chemicals, in this case agricultural chemicals, are involved in toxic events--their mechanisms of action. These health effects include tumor promotion, chronic and acute neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Another key part of risk assessment is exposure assessment. Fundamental studies of the toxicology of target organisms and nontarget organisms exposed to agricultural chemicals are needed to discover and develop better solutions to the problems of agricultural pest control, including better formulations, optimal application rates and public education in safety and alternative agricultural practices. The large number of pesticides that have never been adequately tested for effects on human health is particularly worrisome in light of emerging information about delayed nervous system effects. PMID:1396466

  2. Human health problems associated with current agricultural food production.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh V

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technological developments in the agricultural sectors in the recent past has resulted in increased food production and at the same time led to certain public health concerns. Unseasonal rains at the time of harvest and improper post harvest technology often results in agricultural commodities being contaminated with certain fungi and results in the production of mycotoxins. Consumption of such commodities has resulted in human disease outbreaks. Naturally occurring toxins, inherently present in foods and either consumed as such or mixed up with grains, had been responsible for disease outbreaks. Other possible causes of health concern include the application of various agrochemicals such as pesticides and the use of antibiotics in aquaculture and veterinary practices. Foodborne pathogens entering the food chain during both traditional and organic agriculture pose a challenge to public health. Modern biotechnology, producing genetically modified foods, if not regulated appropriately could pose dangers to human health. Use of various integrated food management systems like the Hazard Analysis and critical control system approach for risk prevention, monitoring and control of food hazards are being emphasized with globalization to minimise the danger posed to human health from improper agricultural practices.

  3. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-05-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. PMID:12003747

  4. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-05-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable.

  5. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S; Walker, Polly

    2002-01-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production. The proliferation of factory-style animal agriculture creates environmental and public health concerns, including pollution from the high concentration of animal wastes and the extensive use of antibiotics, which may compromise their effectiveness in medical use. At the consumption end, animal fat is implicated in many of the chronic degenerative diseases that afflict industrial and newly industrializing societies, particularly cardiovascular disease and some cancers. In terms of human health, both affluent and poor countries could benefit from policies that more equitably distribute high-protein foods. The pesticides used heavily in industrial agriculture are associated with elevated cancer risks for workers and consumers and are coming under greater scrutiny for their links to endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. In this article we outline the environmental and human health problems associated with current food production practices and discuss how these systems could be made more sustainable. PMID:12003747

  6. 77 FR 47351 - Notification of Submission to the Secretaries of Agriculture and Health and Human Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Agriculture and Health and Human Services; Declaration of Prion as a Pest Under FIFRA; Related Amendments; and... concerning Declaration of Prion as a Pest Under FIFRA; Related Amendments; and Availability of Final...

  7. Chemical Pesticides and Human Health: The Urgent Need for a New Concept in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Maipas, Sotirios; Kotampasi, Chrysanthi; Stamatis, Panagiotis; Hens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs, and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production, which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken. PMID:27486573

  8. Chemical Pesticides and Human Health: The Urgent Need for a New Concept in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Maipas, Sotirios; Kotampasi, Chrysanthi; Stamatis, Panagiotis; Hens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs, and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production, which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken. PMID:27486573

  9. Health professionals' roles in animal agriculture, climate change, and human health.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha Z; Greger, Michael; Ferdowsian, Hope; Frank, Erica

    2009-02-01

    What we eat is rapidly becoming an issue of global concern. With food shortages, the rise in chronic disease, and global warming, the impact of our dietary choices seems more relevant today than ever. Globally, a transition is taking place toward greater consumption of foods of animal origin, in lieu of plant-based diets. With this transition comes intensification of animal agriculture that in turn is associated with the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases, environmental degradation, and the epidemics of chronic disease and obesity. Health professionals should be aware of these trends and consider them as they promote healthier and more environmentally-sustainable diets.

  10. Human and ecosystem health: the environment-agriculture connection in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Graber, D R; Jones, W J; Johnson, J A

    1995-01-01

    It is posited that farming methods and activities are both affected by and have an impact on local and global environmental ecosystems. This article discusses regional and global trends that affect the environment and the health and survival of rural agricultural populations. Political, social, and environmental factors that "underlie and generate" medical issues are identified for developing countries with large rural populations dependent upon the land for survival. Although food production appears to have kept pace with population growth in macro statistics, 35% of the population in sub-Saharan Africa, 22% of the Asian population, and 22% of developing market economies were estimated to be malnourished in the mid-1980s. The Green Revolution involved the widespread use of chemicals in agriculture that had adverse environmental impacts. The interrelationships between water resources, erosion, pesticides and fertilizers, deforestation, population pressure, and biodiversity, and farmers are individually addressed. It is argued that a new perspective may be necessary in order to preserve agriculture and other ecosystems and human health. A universal formula for environmentally sensitive and productive agriculture is not possible. However, it is likely that some approaches may involve traditional practices, such as crop rotation and natural pest management, combined with the tools of the Green Revolution (pesticides, fertilizers, and intensive irrigation). An increasing number of people are aware that creative and locally rational farming methods are the best option, and that the costs of chemical-intensive farming in developing countries are too high. National policies that promote cultivation of non-food cash crops and favor the land-wealthy elite have serious consequences for the small farmer and national food availability. The World Bank has the greatest potential to guide agricultural reforms that promote protective practices engendered in local controls over

  11. Assessing health in agriculture--towards a common research framework for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Vieweger, Anja; Döring, Thomas F

    2015-02-01

    In agriculture and food systems, health-related research includes a vast diversity of topics. Nutritional, toxicological, pharmacological, epidemiological, behavioural, sociological, economic and political methods are used to study health in the five domains of soils, plants, livestock, humans and ecosystems. An idea developed in the early founding days of organic agriculture stated that the health of all domains is one and indivisible. Here we show that recent research reveals the existence and complex nature of such health links among domains. However, studies of health aspects in agriculture are often separated by disciplinary boundaries. This restrains the understanding of health in agricultural systems. Therefore we explore the opportunities and limitations of bringing perspectives together from the different domains. We review current approaches to define and assess health in agricultural contexts, comparing the state of the art of commonly used approaches and bringing together the presently disconnected debates in soil science, plant science, veterinary science and human medicine. Based on a qualitative literature analysis, we suggest that many health criteria fall into two paradigms: (1) the Growth Paradigm, where terms are primarily oriented towards continued growth; (2) the Boundary Paradigm, where terms focus on maintaining or coming back to a status quo, recognising system boundaries. Scientific health assessments in agricultural and food systems need to be explicit in terms of their position on the continuum between Growth Paradigm and Boundary Paradigm. Finally, we identify areas and concepts for a future direction of health assessment and research in agricultural and food systems.

  12. Is health a labour, citizenship or human right? Mexican seasonal agricultural workers in Leamington, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nielan

    2013-07-01

    Post-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade liberalisation combined with post-9/11 border securitisation means North America increasingly relies on pools of temporary foreign labour, particularly in the agricultural and service sectors. Despite being temporary, these workers often spend most of their years on foreign soil, living and working in isolated rural communities, far from their own families and communities. Migrants' mental and physical health suffers due to hazardous and stressful working conditions, sub-standard housing, lack of social support and limited access to health and social welfare services. Assuming access to health is a basic human right, who is responsible for the health of temporary foreign migrant workers? Is it the nation-state? or the Employers and/or unions? or Civil society? Research and practice show that a combined multisector approach is best; however, such initiatives are often uneven due to questions of sovereignty and citizenship rights. Community-based organisations (CBOs) have emerged to advocate for and serve migrants' social and welfare needs; analysis of CBO projects reveals an uneven application of rights to migrants. Using a comparative case study from Canada, this project contributes to understanding how civil-society helps to activate different types of health care rights for migrants, and to create an informed policy that provides migrant workers with access to a wider range of human and health rights.

  13. Is health a labour, citizenship or human right? Mexican seasonal agricultural workers in Leamington, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nielan

    2013-07-01

    Post-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade liberalisation combined with post-9/11 border securitisation means North America increasingly relies on pools of temporary foreign labour, particularly in the agricultural and service sectors. Despite being temporary, these workers often spend most of their years on foreign soil, living and working in isolated rural communities, far from their own families and communities. Migrants' mental and physical health suffers due to hazardous and stressful working conditions, sub-standard housing, lack of social support and limited access to health and social welfare services. Assuming access to health is a basic human right, who is responsible for the health of temporary foreign migrant workers? Is it the nation-state? or the Employers and/or unions? or Civil society? Research and practice show that a combined multisector approach is best; however, such initiatives are often uneven due to questions of sovereignty and citizenship rights. Community-based organisations (CBOs) have emerged to advocate for and serve migrants' social and welfare needs; analysis of CBO projects reveals an uneven application of rights to migrants. Using a comparative case study from Canada, this project contributes to understanding how civil-society helps to activate different types of health care rights for migrants, and to create an informed policy that provides migrant workers with access to a wider range of human and health rights. PMID:23672480

  14. Climate change and its effect on agriculture, water resources and human health sectors in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwed, M.; Karg, G.; Pińskwar, I.; Radziejewski, M.; Graczyk, D.; Kedziora, A.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2010-08-01

    Multi-model ensemble climate projections in the ENSEMBLES Project of the EU allowed the authors to quantify selected extreme-weather indices for Poland, of importance to climate impacts on systems and sectors. Among indices were: number of days in a year with high value of the heat index; with high maximum and minimum temperatures; length of vegetation period; and number of consecutive dry days. Agricultural, hydrological, and human health indices were applied to evaluate the changing risk of weather extremes in Poland in three sectors. To achieve this, model-based simulations were compared for two time horizons, a century apart, i.e., 1961-1990 and 2061-2090. Climate changes, and in particular increases in temperature and changes in rainfall, have strong impacts on agriculture via weather extremes - droughts and heat waves. The crop yield depends particularly on water availability in the plant development phase. To estimate the changes in present and future yield of two crops important for Polish agriculture i.e., potatoes and wheat, some simple empirical models were used. For these crops, decrease of yield is projected for most of the country, with national means of yield change being: -2.175 t/ha for potatoes and -0.539 t/ha for wheat. Already now, in most of Poland, evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation during summer, hence the water storage (in surface water bodies, soil and ground) decreases. Summer precipitation deficit is projected to increase considerably in the future. The additional water supplies (above precipitation) needed to use the agro-potential of the environment would increase by half. Analysis of water balance components (now and in the projected future) can corroborate such conclusions. As regards climate and health, a composite index, proposed in this paper, is a product of the number of senior discomfort days and the number of seniors (aged 65+). The value of this index is projected to increase over 8-fold during 100 years. This is an

  15. Antibiotics in agriculture and the risk to human health: how worried should we be?

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Qiuzhi; Wang, Weike; Regev-Yochay, Gili; Lipsitch, Marc; Hanage, William P

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is routinely described as a major contributor to the clinical problem of resistant disease in human medicine. While a link is plausible, there are no data conclusively showing the magnitude of the threat emerging from agriculture. Here, we define the potential mechanisms by which agricultural antibiotic use could lead to human disease and use case studies to critically assess the potential risk from each. The three mechanisms considered are as follows 1: direct infection with resistant bacteria from an animal source, 2: breaches in the species barrier followed by sustained transmission in humans of resistant strains arising in livestock, and 3: transfer of resistance genes from agriculture into human pathogens. Of these, mechanism 1 is the most readily estimated, while significant is small in comparison with the overall burden of resistant disease. Several cases of mechanism 2 are known, and we discuss the likely livestock origins of resistant clones of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium, but while it is easy to show relatedness the direction of transmission is hard to assess in robust fashion. More difficult yet to study is the contribution of mechanism 3, which may be the most important of all. PMID:25861382

  16. Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects of climate change Video not supported Human Health Climate change threatens human health and well-being ... Copy link to clipboard Key Message: Wide-ranging Health Impacts Climate change threatens human health and well- ...

  17. Oat agriculture, cultivation and breeding targets: implications for human nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Derek; McDougall, Gordon

    2014-10-01

    Oats are undervalued in comparison with wheat, rice and barley, despite their unique composition that includes many of the nutrients required for health and a reduced risk of degenerative disease incidence. Furthermore, oats as whole grain and some of their associated products also contain β-glucan, a complex polysaccharide that has an approved health claim to reduce blood cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of CHD incidence if consumed at ≥ 3 g/d. At the agronomic level, oats exhibit optimal growth in regions of moderate temperature and long day length. In addition, they can tolerate wet weather and acidic soils more effectively than other cereals, such as wheat. Studies have shown that there is diversity in the content and composition of nutrients and health-beneficial components within the available wild and cultivated germplasm and that these are amenable to be enhanced by different agronomic practices as well as are susceptible to climatic variation. The advances in modern plant genetics, developed in sister cereals such as wheat, rice and barley, mean that oat development and exploitation should see an acceleration in the coming decade as they are adopted and applied. These advances include approaches such as genome sequencing, genotyping by sequencing and the allied next-level analytical approaches of RNA sequencing, transcriptome profiling and metabolomics. The collation and coordination of these approaches should lead to the generation of new, tailored oat varieties that are nutritionally enhanced and contain a greater proportion of health-beneficial components that can be translated through into a wide(r) range of consumer products with the ultimate hope of associated benefits to human health and nutrition.

  18. Aromatic amine pesticide use and human cancer risk: results from the U.S. Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Koutros, Stella; Lynch, Charles F.; Ma, Xiaomei; Lee, Won Jin; Hoppin, Jane A.; Christensen, Carol H.; Andreotti, Gabriella; Freeman, Laura Beane; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Hou, Lifang; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Imazethapyr, a heterocyclic aromatic amine, is a widely used crop herbicide first registered for use in the United States in 1989. We evaluated cancer incidence among imazethapyr-exposed pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. The Agricultural Health Study is a prospective cohort of 57,311 licensed pesticide applicators in the U.S., enrolled from 1993-1997. Among the 49,398 licensed pesticide applicators eligible for analysis, 20,646 applicators reported use of imazethapyr and 2,907 incident cancers developed through 2004. Imazethapyr exposure was classified by intensity-weighted lifetime exposure days calculated as [years of use × days per year × intensity level]. Poisson regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between imazethapyr exposure and cancer incidence. We found significant trends in risk with increasing lifetime exposure for bladder cancer (p for trend 0.01) and colon cancer (p for trend 0.02). Rate ratios were increased by 137% for bladder cancer and 78% for colon cancer when the highest exposed were compared with the nonexposed. The excess risk for colon cancer was limited to proximal cancers, (Rate Ratio =2.73, 95% confidence intervals 1.42, 5.25, p for trend 0.001). No association was observed for prostate, lung, rectum, kidney, oral, pancreas, lymphohematopoietic cancers or melanoma. These findings provide new evidence that exposure to aromatic amine pesticides may be an overlooked exposure in the etiology of bladder and colon cancer. The use of imazethapyr and other imidazolinone compounds should continue to be evaluated for potential risk to humans. PMID:19058219

  19. The i5K Initiative: Advancing arthropod genomics for knowledge, human health, agriculture, and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects and their arthropod relatives including mites, spiders, and crustaceans, play major roles in the world’s terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Arthropods compete with humans for food and transmit devastating diseases. They also comprise the most diverse and successful branch of metazo...

  20. The i5K Initiative: advancing arthropod genomics for knowledge, human health, agriculture, and the environment.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Insects and their arthropod relatives including mites, spiders, and crustaceans play major roles in the world's terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Arthropods compete with humans for food and transmit devastating diseases. They also comprise the most diverse and successful branch of metazoan evolution, with millions of extant species. Here, we describe an international effort to guide arthropod genomic efforts, from species prioritization to methodology and informatics. The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5K) community met formally in 2012 to discuss a roadmap for sequencing and analyzing 5000 high-priority arthropods and is continuing this effort via pilot projects, the development of standard operating procedures, and training of students and career scientists. With university, governmental, and industry support, the i5K Consortium aspires to deliver sequences and analytical tools for each of the arthropod branches and each of the species having beneficial and negative effects on humankind. PMID:23940263

  1. The i5K Initiative: Advancing Arthropod Genomics for Knowledge, Human Health, Agriculture, and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Insects and their arthropod relatives including mites, spiders, and crustaceans play major roles in the world’s terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Arthropods compete with humans for food and transmit devastating diseases. They also comprise the most diverse and successful branch of metazoan evolution, with millions of extant species. Here, we describe an international effort to guide arthropod genomic efforts, from species prioritization to methodology and informatics. The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5K) community met formally in 2012 to discuss a roadmap for sequencing and analyzing 5000 high-priority arthropods and is continuing this effort via pilot projects, the development of standard operating procedures, and training of students and career scientists. With university, governmental, and industry support, the i5K Consortium aspires to deliver sequences and analytical tools for each of the arthropod branches and each of the species having beneficial and negative effects on humankind. PMID:23940263

  2. Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

    2009-01-01

    The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

  3. CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) was undertaken to ascertain the etiology of cancers observed to be elevated in agricultural populations. Methods: The AHS is a large prospective, cohort study of private applicators and commercial applicators licensed to apply restricted use ...

  4. Assessment of ecological and human health risks of heavy metal contamination in agriculture soils disturbed by pipeline construction.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding

    2014-02-28

    The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW), which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management.

  5. Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Risks of Heavy Metal Contamination in Agriculture Soils Disturbed by Pipeline Construction

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding

    2014-01-01

    The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW), which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management. PMID:24590049

  6. Health and safety strategy in Swedish agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Peter; Svennefelt, Catharina Alwall

    2012-01-01

    In Sweden there is a joint focus on injury prevention in agriculture and this is coordinated through the Swedish Committee on Working Environment (LAMK). LAMK is a network working for a good, healthy and safe working environment in Swedish agriculture from the view of the enterprise with the humans in focus. It is a committee consisting of representatives of authorities, institutions, companies, research & education institutions and organisations referring to the green sector. Examples of on-going initiatives & partners are presented which are included in this mission against injuries in agriculture. It involves the Swedish Work Environment Authority,, the Federation of Swedish Farmers (LRF), the Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU, the Federation of Swedish Forestry and Agricultural Employers (SLA) and the Swedish Municipal Worker's Union. PMID:22317540

  7. Health effect of human wastes use in agriculture in El Azzouzia (the wastewater spreading area of Marrakesh city, Morocco).

    PubMed

    Melloul, Ait; Amahmid, O; Hassani, L; Bouhoum, K

    2002-03-01

    The use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture constitutes an important source of spread Salmonella strains and protozoan infections into the environment. This practice has been used in El Azzouzia (the wastewater-spreading area of Marrakesh city, Morocco) for several years. The available circumstantial evidence gained from epidemiological and microbiological investigations suggests that the use of untreated wastewater causes an excess of protozoan infections among children living in El Azzouzia (72%) compared with those from a control area (45%). The pathogenic protozoan infections observed were giardiasis (39%) and amoebiasis (28%). For Salmonella infection, 21.34% of the exposed children were infected, while this rate did not exceed 1.14% in the control group. The serogroups B and C were the most commonly isolated. The sewage farming children are therefore more exposed to detectable risk from pathogenic micro-organisms than the control children.

  8. Does consumption of leafy vegetables grown in peri-urban agriculture pose a risk to human health?

    PubMed

    Nabulo, G; Black, C R; Craigon, J; Young, S D

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of potentially toxic elements were measured in soils and five contrasting tropical leafy vegetables grown in a replicated field trial at five contaminated urban agriculture sites in Kampala City, Uganda. Soil contamination at each site could be tentatively ascribed to known waste disposal practices. There was considerable variation in metal uptake between vegetable types. Washing leafy vegetables reduced chromium and lead concentrations but exogenous contamination of leaves also depended on vegetable type, with Gynandropsis gynandra L. showing a marked tendency to accumulate Pb and Cr. For the worst case scenario of children consuming unwashed vegetables, some metal 'hazard quotient' (HQ) limits (1.0) were violated at four of the five sites studied. For the 25 'site-vegetable' combinations assessed, the HQ for Pb exceeded 1.0 in 36% of cases. A vegetable-specific site screening tool based on soil extraction with 0.01 M CaCl(2) and extrapolation to provide HQ values was assessed.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China: Regional contamination characteristics, combined ecological effects and human health risks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhan, Yu; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Zhu, Lizhong; Li, Xiangdong

    2016-11-01

    The current contamination status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied in the agricultural soils of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), one of the largest economic zones in China. The concentrations of PCBs ranged from <0.1 to 130 ng/g dry weight. Higher concentrations of PCBs were observed in the 0-30 cm surface layers relative to the subsurface soils. A distinct spatial distribution was observed with a declining concentration gradient from the northwest to the southeast of the region. The composition of PCBs in the soils was consistent with the Chinese commercial PCB mixtures, but different from the compositions in global background soil. Local sources including large-scale use and disposal of PCB-containing products were the main potential sources to soil. The ecological effects and human health risks associated with combined persistent organic pollutants, including PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were further estimated. The four toxic organic compounds and seven physicochemical parameters together could only explain 12.7% of the variation in microbial community composition, suggesting the soil ecosystem function was not strongly influenced by the combined pollution at low concentrations. However, the potential health risks to residents via multiple pathways were notably higher for PCBs than other chemicals. The potential risks were mainly derived from PCB-126, 81, and 169. PMID:27565309

  10. Accumulation of Heavy Metals and Metalloid in Foodstuffs from Agricultural Soils around Tarkwa Area in Ghana, and Associated Human Health Risks.

    PubMed

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Akoto, Osei; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Fobil, Julius N; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-08-01

    This study was carried out to assess the extent of heavy metals and metalloid accumulation from agricultural soils to foodstuffs (viz, M. esculenta (cassava) and Musa paradisiaca (plantain)) around thirteen neighboring communities within Tarkwa, Ghana; and to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of these foodstuffs. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and mercury analysis was done using a mercury analyzer. From the results, 30% of cassava samples collected, contained higher concentrations of Pb when compared to Codex Alimentarius Commission standard values. Bioconcentration factor indicated that Ni had higher capacity of absorption into food crops from soil than the other heavy metals. For both children and adults, the target hazard quotient (THQ) of Pb in cassava in communities such as Techiman, Wangarakrom, Samahu, and Tebe (only children) were greater than 1, which is defined as an acceptable risk value. This indicated that residents could be exposed to significant health risks associated with cassava consumption. PMID:26225988

  11. Accumulation of Heavy Metals and Metalloid in Foodstuffs from Agricultural Soils around Tarkwa Area in Ghana, and Associated Human Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Akoto, Osei; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Fobil, Julius N.; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the extent of heavy metals and metalloid accumulation from agricultural soils to foodstuffs (viz, M. esculenta (cassava) and Musa paradisiaca (plantain)) around thirteen neighboring communities within Tarkwa, Ghana; and to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of these foodstuffs. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured with an inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometer and mercury analysis was done using a mercury analyzer. From the results, 30% of cassava samples collected, contained higher concentrations of Pb when compared to Codex Alimentarius Commission standard values. Bioconcentration factor indicated that Ni had higher capacity of absorption into food crops from soil than the other heavy metals. For both children and adults, the target hazard quotient (THQ) of Pb in cassava in communities such as Techiman, Wangarakrom, Samahu, and Tebe (only children) were greater than 1, which is defined as an acceptable risk value. This indicated that residents could be exposed to significant health risks associated with cassava consumption. PMID:26225988

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China: Regional contamination characteristics, combined ecological effects and human health risks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhan, Yu; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Zhu, Lizhong; Li, Xiangdong

    2016-11-01

    The current contamination status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied in the agricultural soils of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), one of the largest economic zones in China. The concentrations of PCBs ranged from <0.1 to 130 ng/g dry weight. Higher concentrations of PCBs were observed in the 0-30 cm surface layers relative to the subsurface soils. A distinct spatial distribution was observed with a declining concentration gradient from the northwest to the southeast of the region. The composition of PCBs in the soils was consistent with the Chinese commercial PCB mixtures, but different from the compositions in global background soil. Local sources including large-scale use and disposal of PCB-containing products were the main potential sources to soil. The ecological effects and human health risks associated with combined persistent organic pollutants, including PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were further estimated. The four toxic organic compounds and seven physicochemical parameters together could only explain 12.7% of the variation in microbial community composition, suggesting the soil ecosystem function was not strongly influenced by the combined pollution at low concentrations. However, the potential health risks to residents via multiple pathways were notably higher for PCBs than other chemicals. The potential risks were mainly derived from PCB-126, 81, and 169.

  13. Review of assessments of the human health risk associated with the use of antimicrobial agents in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bailar, John C; Travers, Karin

    2002-06-01

    To our knowledge, no comprehensive risk assessment of agricultural uses of antimicrobial agents has been published. The published risk assessments of antimicrobial use in farm settings are all subject to multiple, serious limitations in scope, including (1) limitation to one species of microorganism; (2) limitation to one or a very few related antimicrobial agents; (3) limitation to a single outcome (death, hospital days, number of illnesses, etc.); (4) limitation to one species of farm animal (e.g., chicken or swine); and (5) limitation to therapeutic use, despite reason for concern about misstated, off-label, or illegal use. In addition, all of the risk assessments reviewed overlooked important issues by accepting 2 further limitations: (6) limiting the scope of the analysis to what has already happened and ignoring the effects of continuing the practices of recent years; and (7) examining only the effects on the species of microorganism that was initially affected and ignoring the cross-species spread of resistance by plasmid transfer. After our review of the risk assessments now available, we propose a comprehensive scheme for organizing existing knowledge and dealing with critical gaps.

  14. Targeting allergenic fungi in agricultural environments aids the identification of major sources and potential risks for human health.

    PubMed

    Weikl, F; Radl, V; Munch, J C; Pritsch, K

    2015-10-01

    Fungi are, after pollen, the second most important producers of outdoor airborne allergens. To identify sources of airborne fungal allergens, a workflow for qPCR quantification from environmental samples was developed, thoroughly tested, and finally applied. We concentrated on determining the levels of allergenic fungi belonging to Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma in plant and soil samples from agricultural fields in which cereals were grown. Our aims were to identify the major sources of allergenic fungi and factors potentially influencing their occurrence. Plant materials were the main source of the tested fungi at and after harvest. Amounts of A. alternata and C. cladosporioides varied significantly in fields under different management conditions, but absolute levels were very high in all cases. This finding suggests that high numbers of allergenic fungi may be an inevitable side effect of farming in several crops. Applied in large-scale studies, the concept described here may help to explain the high number of sensitization to airborne fungal allergens.

  15. Targeting allergenic fungi in agricultural environments aids the identification of major sources and potential risks for human health.

    PubMed

    Weikl, F; Radl, V; Munch, J C; Pritsch, K

    2015-10-01

    Fungi are, after pollen, the second most important producers of outdoor airborne allergens. To identify sources of airborne fungal allergens, a workflow for qPCR quantification from environmental samples was developed, thoroughly tested, and finally applied. We concentrated on determining the levels of allergenic fungi belonging to Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma in plant and soil samples from agricultural fields in which cereals were grown. Our aims were to identify the major sources of allergenic fungi and factors potentially influencing their occurrence. Plant materials were the main source of the tested fungi at and after harvest. Amounts of A. alternata and C. cladosporioides varied significantly in fields under different management conditions, but absolute levels were very high in all cases. This finding suggests that high numbers of allergenic fungi may be an inevitable side effect of farming in several crops. Applied in large-scale studies, the concept described here may help to explain the high number of sensitization to airborne fungal allergens. PMID:26022406

  16. Evaluation of potential human health effects associated with the agricultural uses of 1,3-D: Spatial and temporal stochastic risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Driver, Jeffrey H; Price, Paul S; Van Wesenbeeck, Ian; Ross, John H; Gehen, Sean; Holden, Larry R; Landenberger, Bryce; Hastings, Kerry; Yan, Zhongyu June; Rasoulpour, Reza

    2016-11-15

    Dow AgroSciences (DAS) markets and sells 1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D), the active ingredient in Telone®, which is used as a pre-plant soil fumigant nematicide in economically important crops in California. 1,3-D has been regulated as a "probable human carcinogen" and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation limits use of 1,3-D based on human health risk assessments for bystanders. This paper presents a risk characterization for bystanders based on advances in the assessment of both exposure and hazard. The revised bystander risk assessment incorporates significant advances: 1) new data on residency duration and mobility in communities where 1,3-D is in high demand; 2) new information on spatial and temporal concentrations of 1,3-D in air based on multi-year modeling using a validated model; and 3) a new stochastic spatial and temporal model of long-term exposures. Predicted distributions of long-term, chronic exposures indicate that current, and anticipated uses of 1,3-D would result in lifetime average daily doses lower than 0.002mg/kg/d, a dose associated with theoretical lifetime excess cancer risk of <10(-5) to >95% of the local population based on a non-threshold risk assessment approach. Additionally, examination of 1,3-D toxicity studies including new chronic toxicity data and mechanism of action supports the use of a non-linear, threshold based risk assessment approach. The estimated maximum annual average daily dose of <0.0016mg/kg/d derived from the updated exposure assessment was then compared with a threshold point of departure. The calculated margin of exposure is >1000-fold, a clear indication of acceptable risk for human health. In summary, the best available science supports 1,3-D's threshold nature of hazard and the revised exposure assessment supports that current agricultural uses of 1,3-D are associated with reasonable certainty of no harm, i.e., estimated long-term exposures pose insignificant health risks to bystanders even when the

  17. Evaluation of potential human health effects associated with the agricultural uses of 1,3-D: Spatial and temporal stochastic risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Driver, Jeffrey H; Price, Paul S; Van Wesenbeeck, Ian; Ross, John H; Gehen, Sean; Holden, Larry R; Landenberger, Bryce; Hastings, Kerry; Yan, Zhongyu June; Rasoulpour, Reza

    2016-11-15

    Dow AgroSciences (DAS) markets and sells 1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D), the active ingredient in Telone®, which is used as a pre-plant soil fumigant nematicide in economically important crops in California. 1,3-D has been regulated as a "probable human carcinogen" and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation limits use of 1,3-D based on human health risk assessments for bystanders. This paper presents a risk characterization for bystanders based on advances in the assessment of both exposure and hazard. The revised bystander risk assessment incorporates significant advances: 1) new data on residency duration and mobility in communities where 1,3-D is in high demand; 2) new information on spatial and temporal concentrations of 1,3-D in air based on multi-year modeling using a validated model; and 3) a new stochastic spatial and temporal model of long-term exposures. Predicted distributions of long-term, chronic exposures indicate that current, and anticipated uses of 1,3-D would result in lifetime average daily doses lower than 0.002mg/kg/d, a dose associated with theoretical lifetime excess cancer risk of <10(-5) to >95% of the local population based on a non-threshold risk assessment approach. Additionally, examination of 1,3-D toxicity studies including new chronic toxicity data and mechanism of action supports the use of a non-linear, threshold based risk assessment approach. The estimated maximum annual average daily dose of <0.0016mg/kg/d derived from the updated exposure assessment was then compared with a threshold point of departure. The calculated margin of exposure is >1000-fold, a clear indication of acceptable risk for human health. In summary, the best available science supports 1,3-D's threshold nature of hazard and the revised exposure assessment supports that current agricultural uses of 1,3-D are associated with reasonable certainty of no harm, i.e., estimated long-term exposures pose insignificant health risks to bystanders even when the

  18. Human health and transgenic crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under the joint auspices of the Agrochemical and the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Divisions of the American Chemical Society, we organized a short symposium on “Human Health and Transgenic Crops” at the 244th ACS national meeting, held August 19-23, 2012 in Philadelphia, PA, to examine an array o...

  19. HEALTH AND EXPOSURE RESEARCH FOR THE AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITY: THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The AHS is the...

  20. The links between agriculture and health: an intersectoral opportunity to improve the health and livelihoods of the poor.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna; Ruel, Marie

    2006-12-01

    Agriculture and health are linked in many ways. First, agriculture is essential for good health: it produces the world's food, fibre and materials for shelter; in many countries it is also an important source of livelihood among the poor. At the same time, agriculture can be linked with poor health, including malnutrition, malaria, foodborne illnesses, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), livestock-related diseases, chronic diseases and occupational ill-health. Health also affects agriculture: people's health status influences the demand for agricultural outputs, and in agricultural communities, poor health reduces work performance, reducing income and productivity and perpetuating a downward spiral into ill-health. This paper presents an overview of the bidirectional links between agriculture and health with a focus on the developing world. It develops a conceptual framework that brings together the various links between agriculture and health into a single broad framework. The framework comprises the core components of the agricultural supply chain (producers, systems and outputs), key health concerns and the mechanisms of common interaction between the agricultural and health components: income, labour, environment and access -- all key social determinants of health. These links between agriculture and health present an opportunity for the two sectors to work together to find solutions to each other's problems. Yet the health and agricultural sectors remain poorly coordinated. Leadership from global health and agricultural institutions is needed to build policies and good governance to facilitate integration, while capacity building is needed at all levels to help translate the conceptual links into comprehensive action on the ground. Health and agricultural researchers likewise need to work more closely together to achieve common goals. PMID:17242835

  1. The links between agriculture and health: an intersectoral opportunity to improve the health and livelihoods of the poor.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna; Ruel, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture and health are linked in many ways. First, agriculture is essential for good health: it produces the world's food, fibre and materials for shelter; in many countries it is also an important source of livelihood among the poor. At the same time, agriculture can be linked with poor health, including malnutrition, malaria, foodborne illnesses, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), livestock-related diseases, chronic diseases and occupational ill-health. Health also affects agriculture: people's health status influences the demand for agricultural outputs, and in agricultural communities, poor health reduces work performance, reducing income and productivity and perpetuating a downward spiral into ill-health. This paper presents an overview of the bidirectional links between agriculture and health with a focus on the developing world. It develops a conceptual framework that brings together the various links between agriculture and health into a single broad framework. The framework comprises the core components of the agricultural supply chain (producers, systems and outputs), key health concerns and the mechanisms of common interaction between the agricultural and health components: income, labour, environment and access -- all key social determinants of health. These links between agriculture and health present an opportunity for the two sectors to work together to find solutions to each other's problems. Yet the health and agricultural sectors remain poorly coordinated. Leadership from global health and agricultural institutions is needed to build policies and good governance to facilitate integration, while capacity building is needed at all levels to help translate the conceptual links into comprehensive action on the ground. Health and agricultural researchers likewise need to work more closely together to achieve common goals. PMID:17242835

  2. The links between agriculture and health: an intersectoral opportunity to improve the health and livelihoods of the poor.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna; Ruel, Marie

    2006-12-01

    Agriculture and health are linked in many ways. First, agriculture is essential for good health: it produces the world's food, fibre and materials for shelter; in many countries it is also an important source of livelihood among the poor. At the same time, agriculture can be linked with poor health, including malnutrition, malaria, foodborne illnesses, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), livestock-related diseases, chronic diseases and occupational ill-health. Health also affects agriculture: people's health status influences the demand for agricultural outputs, and in agricultural communities, poor health reduces work performance, reducing income and productivity and perpetuating a downward spiral into ill-health. This paper presents an overview of the bidirectional links between agriculture and health with a focus on the developing world. It develops a conceptual framework that brings together the various links between agriculture and health into a single broad framework. The framework comprises the core components of the agricultural supply chain (producers, systems and outputs), key health concerns and the mechanisms of common interaction between the agricultural and health components: income, labour, environment and access -- all key social determinants of health. These links between agriculture and health present an opportunity for the two sectors to work together to find solutions to each other's problems. Yet the health and agricultural sectors remain poorly coordinated. Leadership from global health and agricultural institutions is needed to build policies and good governance to facilitate integration, while capacity building is needed at all levels to help translate the conceptual links into comprehensive action on the ground. Health and agricultural researchers likewise need to work more closely together to achieve common goals.

  3. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-09-23

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)).

  4. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element–induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10−6) and lower than priority risk levels (10−4) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10−4, higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10−4). PMID:27669274

  5. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)). PMID:27669274

  6. Virginia agricultural health and safety survey.

    PubMed

    Mariger, S C; Grisso, R D; Perumpral, J V; Sorenson, A W; Christensen, N K; Miller, R L

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive study was conducted primarily to identify the common causes of agricultural injuries on active Virginia farms and to identify hazardous agricultural operations, exposure duration, and injuries associated with each hazardous operation. In addition, the influences of factors such as general health status of farmers, age, weight, and alcohol and tobacco use on injury were examined. This information will be used for the development of educational programs that will improve the safety of agricultural operations. The sample selected for the study included farms of 28 ha or more, operating on a full- or part-time basis. This stipulation was to ensure that all farms in the sample are active and that participants generated a major portion of their income from the farm. Of the 26,000 farms meeting this requirement, 1,650 were selected to participate in the study. A survey instrument was mailed to the farmers selected to collect the information needed for meeting the established objectives of the study. Approximately 19% of the surveys were returned. In terms of percentage injuries, livestock handling was the primary cause. This was followed by working in elevated locations, operating and repairing agricultural machinery, and heavy lifting. The activities carried out most frequently by the participants were: operating farm tractors, operating trucks/automobiles, using hand and power tools, and working with agricultural chemicals. The overall injury rate was 5.6 injuries per 100,000 h. The exposure to agricultural hazards appeared to have minimal or no effect on the health status of Virginia farmers. Farm workers in the 45 to 64 age group sustained the most injuries. Older, more experienced farmers reported fewer injuries because of limited exposure to hazards and work experience. The average age of Virginia farmers surveyed was 60. This is expected to rise because most respondents reported no plans to retire during the next five years. Based on the results

  7. Children's environmental health in agricultural settings.

    PubMed

    Karr, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Children residing in rural settings may encounter environmental hazards derived from agricultural production activities. Health consequences of organic dusts, farm chemicals including pesticides, machinery noise, excess sun exposure, and zoonotic infectious agents have been clearly described among farm-working adults. The author reviews the related evidence base on child health with a life-stage perspective on their differential exposure and vulnerabilities. Methemoglobinemia among infants consuming nitrate-contaminated well water, neurodevelopmental health impacts associated with early life exposure to organophosphate pesticides, and diarrheal disease due to zoonotic infectious agents are well-described pediatric concerns. There is suggestive but more limited evidence for respiratory health consequences from air contaminants associated with confined animal feeding operations and hearing deficits for children exposed to machinery-related noise. Many contaminants of concern for children in these environments remain largely understudied-diesel exhaust, biomass burning, solvents, veterinary antibiotics, and silica-containing particulate matter. Overall, the state of knowledge and programmatic activities on agriculturally derived environmental contaminants and child health is immature and much less complete than for working adults. This overview provides a context for research, policy, and programmatic needs. PMID:22490026

  8. [Ecosystem health and human health].

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Giuliano; Mancini, Laura

    2005-01-01

    The study of ecosystem health is a relatively recent discipline that has already provided new insights into numerous aspects of environmental management. One of the most interesting fields of study is the one investigating the relationships between ecosystem and human heath. In this paper some basic terms of reference are given in order to help the understanding of this new approach. One definition of ecosystem health is given, possible causes of degradation are indicated and links with human health are addressed. The ecosystem approach to human health stresses the importance of cultural and social values in shaping the concept of health, both at human and at ecosystem level. Two case-studies showing man-ecosystem interactions are described: mining activities, that provide a suitable field of application of the ecosystem approach, and the case of malaria and DDT, that shows the risks of certain policies neglecting basic human expectations such as health. As a conclusion, some suggestions for possible research activities are given and a few recommendations for sound public health policies are indicated.

  9. Paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Laurette; Pingali, Prabhu; Webb, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This special feature calls for forward thinking around paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth. Such convergence aims for a richer integration of smallholder farmers into national and global agricultural and food systems, health systems, value chains, and markets. The articles identify analytical innovation, where disciplines intersect, and cross-sectoral action where single, linear, and siloed approaches have traditionally dominated. The issues addressed are framed by three main themes: (i) lessons related to agricultural and food market growth since the 1960s; (ii) experiences related to the integration of smallholder agriculture into national and global business agendas; and (iii) insights into convergence-building institutional design and policy, including a review of complexity science methods that can inform such processes. In this introductory article, we first discuss the perspectives generated for more impactful policy and action when these three themes converge. We then push thematic boundaries to elaborate a roadmap for a broader, solution-oriented, and transdisciplinary approach to science, policies, and actions. As the global urban population crosses the 50% mark, both smallholder and nonsmallholder agriculture are keys in forging rural–urban links, where both farm and nonfarm activities contribute to sustainable nutrition security. The roadmaps would harness the power of business to reduce hunger and poverty for millions of families, contribute to a better alignment between human biology and modern lifestyles, and stem the spread of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:22826252

  10. Paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Pingali, Prabhu; Webb, Patrick

    2012-07-31

    This special feature calls for forward thinking around paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth. Such convergence aims for a richer integration of smallholder farmers into national and global agricultural and food systems, health systems, value chains, and markets. The articles identify analytical innovation, where disciplines intersect, and cross-sectoral action where single, linear, and siloed approaches have traditionally dominated. The issues addressed are framed by three main themes: (i) lessons related to agricultural and food market growth since the 1960s; (ii) experiences related to the integration of smallholder agriculture into national and global business agendas; and (iii) insights into convergence-building institutional design and policy, including a review of complexity science methods that can inform such processes. In this introductory article, we first discuss the perspectives generated for more impactful policy and action when these three themes converge. We then push thematic boundaries to elaborate a roadmap for a broader, solution-oriented, and transdisciplinary approach to science, policies, and actions. As the global urban population crosses the 50% mark, both smallholder and nonsmallholder agriculture are keys in forging rural-urban links, where both farm and nonfarm activities contribute to sustainable nutrition security. The roadmaps would harness the power of business to reduce hunger and poverty for millions of families, contribute to a better alignment between human biology and modern lifestyles, and stem the spread of noncommunicable chronic diseases.

  11. Paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Pingali, Prabhu; Webb, Patrick

    2012-07-31

    This special feature calls for forward thinking around paths of convergence for agriculture, health, and wealth. Such convergence aims for a richer integration of smallholder farmers into national and global agricultural and food systems, health systems, value chains, and markets. The articles identify analytical innovation, where disciplines intersect, and cross-sectoral action where single, linear, and siloed approaches have traditionally dominated. The issues addressed are framed by three main themes: (i) lessons related to agricultural and food market growth since the 1960s; (ii) experiences related to the integration of smallholder agriculture into national and global business agendas; and (iii) insights into convergence-building institutional design and policy, including a review of complexity science methods that can inform such processes. In this introductory article, we first discuss the perspectives generated for more impactful policy and action when these three themes converge. We then push thematic boundaries to elaborate a roadmap for a broader, solution-oriented, and transdisciplinary approach to science, policies, and actions. As the global urban population crosses the 50% mark, both smallholder and nonsmallholder agriculture are keys in forging rural-urban links, where both farm and nonfarm activities contribute to sustainable nutrition security. The roadmaps would harness the power of business to reduce hunger and poverty for millions of families, contribute to a better alignment between human biology and modern lifestyles, and stem the spread of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:22826252

  12. HUMAN HEALTH RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to protect public health and safeguard the environment. Risk assessment is an integral part of this mission in that it identifies and characterizes environmentally related human health problems. The Human Health Re...

  13. Chitinases: in agriculture and human healthcare.

    PubMed

    Nagpure, Anand; Choudhary, Bharti; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2014-09-01

    Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi and insects continues to inspire the research and development of environmentally friendly bioactive alternatives. Potentially lytic enzymes, chitinases can act as a biocontrol agent against agriculturally important fungi and insects. The cell wall in fungi and protective covers, i.e. cuticle in insects shares a key structural polymer, chitin, a β-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine polymer. Therefore, it is advantageous to develop a common biocontrol agent against both of these groups. As chitin is absent in plants and mammals, targeting its metabolism will signify an eco-friendly strategy for the control of agriculturally important fungi and insects but is innocuous to mammals, plants, beneficial insects and other organisms. In addition, development of chitinase transgenic plant varieties probably holds the most promising method for augmenting agricultural crop protection and productivity, when properly integrated into traditional systems. Recently, human proteins with chitinase activity and chitinase-like proteins were identified and established as biomarkers for human diseases. This review covers the recent advances of chitinases as a biocontrol agent and its various applications including preparation of medically important chitooligosaccharides, bioconversion of chitin as well as in implementing chitinases as diagnostic and prognostic markers for numerous diseases and the prospect of their future utilization.

  14. Potential chemical and microbiological risks on human health from urban wastewater reuse in agriculture. Case study of wastewater effluents in Spain.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ivan; Tomàs, Núria; Mas, Jordi; García-Reyes, Juan Fracisco; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-05-01

    Potential health risks derived from wastewater reuse in agriculture have been evaluated with Risk Assessment modelling techniques, in a case study involving the effluents of two Spanish wastewater treatment plants. One of the plants applies primary and secondary treatment, and the other one applies an additional tertiary treatment. Health risks were assessed on the basis of ingesting contaminated food, due to exposure to: (i) 22 chemical pollutants, namely pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and priority pollutants included in the European Framework Directive, and (ii) microorganisms, namely enterovirus. Chemical Risk Assessment has been carried out following the European Commission's technical guidelines, while risks from exposure to viruses have been evaluated by means of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, assuming a virus to coliform ratio of 1:10(5). The results of the chemical assessment show that there is a margin of safety above 100 for all substances, with the exception of gemfibrozil, for which the mean margin of safety (MOS) is above 100, but the lower bound of MOS with a 95 % confidence interval lies in the 3-4 range. A MOS under 100 was also found for 2,3,7,8-TCDD in one of the effluents. The assessment of risks from viruses shows a very low probability of infection. The overall results show that risks are lower for the plant applying tertiary treatment, especially concerning microbiological parameters.

  15. One foot in the furrow: linkages between agriculture, plant pathology, and public health.

    PubMed

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2003-01-01

    Plant pathology is a field of biology that focuses on understanding the nature of disease in plants as well as on more practical aspects of preventing and controlling plant diseases in crop plants that are important to agriculture. Throughout history, plant diseases have had significant effects on human health and welfare. Several examples, in both historical and contemporary contexts, are presented in this review to show how plant pathogens, biotechnology, and farming practices have affected public health. Specific topics illustrating clear linkages between agriculture and human health include allergens in the environment, food-safety and agricultural practices, mycotoxigenic fungi, agrobioterrorism, and the biological control of plant diseases. The further argument is made that in order to monitor and ensure that good health and safety practices are maintained from "farm to fork," public health specialists may benefit from the resources and expertise of agricultural scientists.

  16. Energy and human health.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirk R; Frumkin, Howard; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Butler, Colin D; Chafe, Zoë A; Fairlie, Ian; Kinney, Patrick; Kjellstrom, Tord; Mauzerall, Denise L; McKone, Thomas E; McMichael, Anthony J; Schneider, Mycle

    2013-01-01

    Energy use is central to human society and provides many health benefits. But each source of energy entails some health risks. This article reviews the health impacts of each major source of energy, focusing on those with major implications for the burden of disease globally. The biggest health impacts accrue to the harvesting and burning of solid fuels, coal and biomass, mainly in the form of occupational health risks and household and general ambient air pollution. Lack of access to clean fuels and electricity in the world's poor households is a particularly serious risk for health. Although energy efficiency brings many benefits, it also entails some health risks, as do renewable energy systems, if not managed carefully. We do not review health impacts of climate change itself, which are due mostly to climate-altering pollutants from energy systems, but do discuss the potential for achieving near-term health cobenefits by reducing certain climate-related emissions.

  17. Pesticides and Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose ...

  18. Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongsasuluk, Pokkate; Chotpantarat, Srilert; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Most local people in the agricultural areas of Hua-ruea sub-district, Ubon Ratchathani province (Thailand), generally consume shallow groundwater from farm wells. This study aimed to assess the health risk related to heavy metal contamination in that groundwater. Samples were randomly collected from 12 wells twice in each of the rainy and the dry seasons and were analyzed by inductive coupled plasma spectrometry-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentration of detected metals in each well and the overall mean were below the acceptable groundwater standard limits for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn, but Pb levels were higher in four wells with an overall average Pb concentration of 16.66 ± 18.52 μg/l. Exposure questionnaires, completed by face-to-face interviews with 100 local people who drink groundwater from farm wells, were used to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQs) and hazard indices (HIs). The HQs for non-carcinogenic risk for As, Cu, Zn and Pb, with a range of 0.004-2.901, 0.053-54.818, 0.003-6.399 and 0.007-26.80, respectively, and the HI values (range from 0.10 to 88.21) exceeded acceptable limits in 58 % of the wells. The HI results were higher than one for groundwater wells located in intensively cultivated chili fields. The highest cancer risk found was 2.6 × 10(-6) for As in well no. 11. This study suggested that people living in warmer climates are more susceptible to and at greater risk of groundwater contamination because of their increased daily drinking water intake. This may lead to an increased number of cases of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health defects among local people exposed to heavy metals by drinking the groundwater.

  19. Mortality in the Agricultural Health Study: 1993 - 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparing agricultural cohorts with the general population is challenging because the general healthiness of farmers may mask potential adverse health effects of farming. Using data from the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of 89,656 pesticide applicators and their spouses (

  20. The changing face of agricultural health and safety--alternative agriculture.

    PubMed

    Donham, Kelley J; Larabee, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Alternative agriculture (defined as any production that is not commodity production) is an important growing area of agriculture. The produce ranges widely, from organic products, locally grown products, and exotic crops and animals. This conference included an overview of the evolving field of alternative agriculture plus descriptions of three different alternative agricultural operations, by the actual producers. These producers described the health and safety concerns encountered in their operations. Affordable and accessible health care was a common and very important concern of all these producers. Further, the extensive manual work load is extremely challenging, risking mental and physical stress and burnout. The major occupational health issues were musculoskeletal pain and dysfunction related to the extensive manual labor. Producers presented several suggestions for managing their occupational health issues. It was clear that research is warranted in investigating ergonomic solutions. Further, research and solutions to affordable and accessible health care is a priority issue.

  1. Agricultural Pesticide Management in Thailand: Situation and Population Health Risk

    PubMed Central

    Panuwet, Parinya; Siriwong, Wattasit; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Ryan, P. Barry; Fiedler, Nancy; Robson, Mark G.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2012-01-01

    As an agricultural country and one of the world’s major food exporters, Thailand relies heavily on the use of pesticides to protect crops and increase yields. During the past decade, the Kingdom of Thailand has experienced an approximate four-fold increase in pesticide use. This increase presents a challenge for the Royal Thai Government in effectively managing and controlling pesticide use based upon the current policies and legal infrastructure. We have reviewed several key components for managing agricultural pesticides in Thailand. One of the main obstacles to effective pesticide regulation in Thailand is the lack of a consolidated, uniform system designed specifically for pesticide management. This deficit has weakened the enforcement of existing regulations, resulting in misuse/overuse of pesticides, and consequently, increased environmental contamination and human exposure. This article provides a systematic review of how agricultural pesticides are regulated in Thailand. In addition, we provide our perspectives on the current state of pesticide management, the potential health effects of widespread, largely uncontrolled use of pesticides on the Thai people and ways to improve pesticide management in Thailand. PMID:22308095

  2. Partnering Strategies for Childhood Agricultural Safety and Health

    PubMed Central

    Hard, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been the lead federal agency of the national Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention Initiative (CAIPI) since the program's inception in 1996 and in this role, collaborated with numerous partners in childhood agricultural injury prevention activities. This collaboration has likely helped achieve the current reduction in childhood agricultural injury. The paper looks at existing groups with past and current childhood agricultural injury prevention activities for partnering strategies that could contribute to reducing the morbidity and mortality of childhood agricultural injuries. Based upon the review, suggestions are made for future partnering strategies to continue progress in this area. PMID:22490034

  3. Seaweed and human health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Emma S; Allsopp, Philip J; Magee, Pamela J; Gill, Chris I R; Nitecki, Sonja; Strain, Conall R; McSorley, Emeir M

    2014-03-01

    Seaweeds may have an important role in modulating chronic disease. Rich in unique bioactive compounds not present in terrestrial food sources, including different proteins (lectins, phycobiliproteins, peptides, and amino acids), polyphenols, and polysaccharides, seaweeds are a novel source of compounds with potential to be exploited in human health applications. Purported benefits include antiviral, anticancer, and anticoagulant properties as well as the ability to modulate gut health and risk factors for obesity and diabetes. Though the majority of studies have been performed in cell and animal models, there is evidence of the beneficial effect of seaweed and seaweed components on markers of human health and disease status. This review is the first to critically evaluate these human studies, aiming to draw attention to gaps in current knowledge, which will aid the planning and implementation of future studies.

  4. CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...

  5. Agriculture and Biology Teaching. Biology and Human Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, A. N.; Pritchard, Alan J.

    This six-chapter document (part of a series on biology and human welfare) focuses on agriculture and the teaching of this subject area. Major topic areas considered in the first five chapters are: (1) the development of agriculture; (2) agricosystems (considering agriculture as an ecosystem, land utilization and soils, soils and food production,…

  6. Oceans and Human Health Center

    MedlinePlus

    ocean and human health science can help prevent disease outbreaks and improve public health through a deeper understanding of the causes ... our Center and the field of oceans and human health science. More Research Learn about the research ...

  7. An Evaluation Tool for Agricultural Health and Safety Mobile Applications.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Iris; Ellis, Tammy; Yoder, Aaron; Keifer, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    As the use of mobile devices and their software applications, or apps, becomes ubiquitous, use amongst agricultural working populations is expanding as well. The smart device paired with a well-designed app has potential for improving workplace health and safety in the hands of those who can act upon the information provided. Many apps designed to assess workplace hazards and implementation of worker protections already exist. However, the abundance and diversity of such applications also presents challenges regarding evaluation practices and assignation of value. This is particularly true in the agricultural workspace, as there is currently little information on the value of these apps for agricultural safety and health. This project proposes a framework for developing and evaluating apps that have potential usefulness in agricultural health and safety. The evaluation framework is easily transferable, with little modification for evaluation of apps in several agriculture-specific areas.

  8. An Evaluation Tool for Agricultural Health and Safety Mobile Applications.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Iris; Ellis, Tammy; Yoder, Aaron; Keifer, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    As the use of mobile devices and their software applications, or apps, becomes ubiquitous, use amongst agricultural working populations is expanding as well. The smart device paired with a well-designed app has potential for improving workplace health and safety in the hands of those who can act upon the information provided. Many apps designed to assess workplace hazards and implementation of worker protections already exist. However, the abundance and diversity of such applications also presents challenges regarding evaluation practices and assignation of value. This is particularly true in the agricultural workspace, as there is currently little information on the value of these apps for agricultural safety and health. This project proposes a framework for developing and evaluating apps that have potential usefulness in agricultural health and safety. The evaluation framework is easily transferable, with little modification for evaluation of apps in several agriculture-specific areas. PMID:27494309

  9. PESTICIDES AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the relationship between 50 widely used agricultural pesticides and lung cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 57,284 pesticide applicators, and 32,333 spouses of farmer applicators with no prior history of lung cancer. Self...

  10. MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

  11. Using the cooperative extension service in agricultural health education.

    PubMed

    James, P A; Langley, R L

    1991-01-01

    In summary, the North Carolina experience of cooperation and health education using the Cooperative Extension Service has been very successful. Agriculture and medicine have found a common ground where responsibilities can be shared. By discovering the special capabilities and contributions of the Cooperative Extension Service, medical professionals may more closely address preventive medicine in an agricultural setting.

  12. [The Environment: Agriculture and Health Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charles C.; Byerly, T. C.

    On January 1, 1970, President Nixon signed into law a bill establishing a national policy to maintain conditions of the environment under which man and nature can exist in productive harmony. In keeping with this, the 1970 National Agricultural Outlook Conference was held, at which the 2 speeches presented in this document were delivered. The…

  13. The impact of biotechnology on agricultural worker safety and health.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M

    2002-08-01

    Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here. PMID:12363179

  14. The impact of biotechnology on agricultural worker safety and health.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M

    2002-08-01

    Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here.

  15. Residues of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Sediment from CauBay River and Their Impacts on Agricultural Soil, Human Health Risk in KieuKy Area, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Toan, Vu Duc; Quy, Nguyen Phuong

    2015-08-01

    An evaluation of the PCB residues from CauBay River and KieuKy area, Vietnam was carried out. CauBay River has been playing an important role in irrigated water supply for agriculture activities at KieuKy area in the downstream. The PCBs concentrations of sediment, soil samples were analyzed and obtained results indicated the wide extent of contamination of PCBs in CauBay River (from 30.74 to 167.35 ng g(-1) dry weight) and KieuKy area (from 21.62 to 60.22 ng g(-1) dry weight). This clearly reflected the effect of PCB residues from CauBay River to the quality of agricultural soil of the KieuKy area. The PCBs composition analyses in the samples reflect their long-time release. The total cancer risk of PCBs in the soil of KieuKy fell into the very low range suggesting low risk. However, since PCBs were the species of POPs with more concern in this area, ecological risk assessment should be further investigated.

  16. ASSESSING EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study examining cancer and non-cancer health outcomes for over 55,000 pesticide applicators and 34,000 spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Questionnaires were used to collect information about the use of specific ...

  17. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  18. Antibiotic resistance: what is the impact of agricultural uses of antibiotics on children's health?

    PubMed

    Shea, Katherine M

    2003-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance has reached crisis stage in human medicine. The rapid acceleration of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the past 2 decades has overtaken new drug development, and patients and clinicians are faced with the prospect of untreatable infections. Although much of the problem stems from overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents in human medicine, large-scale use of antimicrobials in agriculture also contributes to the crisis. Agricultural uses of antibiotics produce environmental exposures in a variety of reservoirs, which select for resistant microbes and microbial genes. This article presents the major lines of evidence documenting the risks to human health of some of the agricultural uses of antimicrobials. A brief review of the microbiologic antecedents of resistance is followed by a discussion of agricultural uses of antimicrobials and a targeted review of the literature, which provides the background knowledge and evidence necessary for pediatricians and other clinicians to be informed and to advocate for judicious use of antimicrobials in all sectors.

  19. Impacts of climate change on indirect human exposure to pathogens and chemicals from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Boxall, Alistair; Hardy, Anthony; Beulke, Sabine; Boucard, Tatiana; Burgin, Laura; Falloon, Peter; Haygarth, Philip; Hutchinson, Thomas; Kovats, Sari; Leonardi, Giovanni; Levy, Leonard; Nichols, Gordon; Parsons, Simon; Potts, Laura; Stone, David; Topp, Edward; Turley, David; Walsh, Kerry; Wellington, Elizabeth; Williams, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is likely to affect the nature of pathogens/ chemicals in the environment and their fate and transport. We assess the implications of climate change for changes in human exposures to pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems in the UK and discuss the effects on health impacts, using expert input and literature on climate change; health effects from exposure to pathogens/chemicals arising from agriculture; inputs of chemicals/pathogens to agricultural systems; and human exposure pathways for pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems. We established the evidence base for health effects of chemicals/pathogens in the agricultural environment; determined the potential implications of climate change on chemical/pathogen inputs in agricultural systems; and explored the effects of climate change on environmental transport and fate of various contaminants. We merged data to assess the implications of climate change in terms of indirect human exposure to pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems, and defined recommendations on future research and policy changes to manage adverse increases in risks.

  20. Agricultural health in The Gambia II: A systematic survey of safety and injuries in production agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kuye, Rex; Donham, Kelley; Marquez, Shannon; Sanderson, Wayne; Fuortes, Laurence; Rautiainen, Risto; Jones, Martin; Culp, Kennith

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide baseline information on the injuries and health and safety conditions in Gambian agriculture. The objective was to produce information to guide the formulation of an agricultural health and safety policy for the country, future investigations, prevention and surveillance of the adverse health effects in agriculture. A cross-sectional survey of 20 farmers, 20 nurses, and 20 agricultural extension workers was conducted in the Central and Upper River Divisions of The Gambia. The survey was implemented by the means of questionnaires, walk-through survey and hazard checklist. Seventy percent of farms reported an injury during the past year. Major sources and contributing factors for the injuries were characterized. Predisposing factors to the injuries were climatic conditions, working in static positions, bending and twisting and carrying heavy objects. Cuts and lacerations were identified as the commonest injury types and the most common sources were hand tools (hand hoe, cutlass, axe and knife) and animal-powered carts. A workshop for the major stake holders in the country's agriculture was also held to identify problems and possible solutions for health promotion of Gambian farmers.

  1. Health effect of wastewater reuse in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bouhoum, K; Amahmid, O

    2000-01-01

    The present study addresses the impact of wastewater reuse in agriculture on the transmission of protozoan and helminthic infections. For this purpose, an epidemiological study was carried out on two populations of children totalling 608 individuals for protozoan infections and 528 for helminthic infections. Each population comprised an exposed group living in the wastewater spreading area of Marrakech and a control group. Results showed that 72% of the exposed group had protozoan infections. This rate did not exceed 45% in the control group. The pathogenic protozoan infections observed were giardiasis and amoebiasis. Regarding helminthic infections, 73% of the exposed children were infected compared with 30% of the control group. The risk attributable to wastewater reuse in the transmission of pathogenic protozoan and helminthic infections was 41% and 43%, respectively. Children of the spreading area are therefore more exposed to detectable risks from parasitic helminths and protozoa than the control children.

  2. Agricultural health and safety: incorporating the worker perspective.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Amy K; Augustave, Wilson

    2010-07-01

    This commentary offers a worker's perspective on agricultural health and safety and describes (1) the historical exemption of agriculture from regulatory oversight and barriers encountered due to lack of regulations and poor enforcement of the existing standards; (2) the effect of immigration status on worker protections; and (3) the basic desire for economic survival and how this impacts worker health and safety. The commentary describes two models to reduce hazards at work that illustrate how workers' perspectives can be incorporated successfully at the policy level and during the intervention development process and puts forth recommendations for employers, researchers, and funding agencies to facilitate the integration of workers' perspectives into occupational health and safety in agriculture. Ultimately, improved worker protection requires systemic policy and regulatory changes as well as strong enforcement of existing regulations. This commentary summarizes the presentation, "Ground View: Perspectives of Hired Workers," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. PMID:20665305

  3. Occupational health and safety in agriculture: situation and priorities at the beginning of the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Bulat, P; Somaruga, Chiara; Colosio, C

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture is a human activity, which includes a number of different tasks and occupies a huge number of people worldwide. Estimates of World Bank for 2003 suggest that 51% of globalpopulation lives in rural areas. ILO estimates that 1.3 billion of workers are engaged in agriculture, and they represent almost a half of the total number of economically active subjects (2,838,897,404). In developed countries, agriculture workers are only a small fraction of the whole work force (up to 9% according to ILO data), while in developing countries, especially in Asia, agriculture workers represent up to the 60% of the total work force. Most agriculture workers reside in Asia, in the Pacific (74%) and in Africa (16%). ILO estimates suggest that half of fatal occupational injuries in the world are attributable to agriculture. This means that around 170,000 agriculture workers die every year as a consequence of occupational injuries. Using the same estimate, half of the fatal accidents could be linked to agricultural activities (more than 130 million). Comparing this estimate with the 6.328.217 people injured in war in 2002 or with the 20-50 million injured victims of road accidents, one has a much clearer picture about the importance of preventing agricultural injuries. In a complicated situation such as occupational health and safety problems in agriculture, it is not so easy to select priorities clearly. But "legalization" of agriculture workers could be a key to solving all the other problems. Actual data on fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries in agriculture show that occupational health and safety issues are among the top priorities for that discipline.

  4. DIETARY EXPOSURE FROM PESTICIDE APPLICATION ON FARMS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of total human exposure measurements performed on six farms in Iowa and North Carolina during the Agricultural Health Pilot Study, a household duplicate diet, several locally grown foods, an applicator meal, a child duplicate diet, and drinking water samples were collecte...

  5. Where Do Agricultural Producers Get Safety and Health Information?

    PubMed

    Chiu, Sophia; Cheyney, Marsha; Ramirez, Marizen; Gerr, Fred

    2015-01-01

    There is little empirical guidance regarding communication sources and channels used and trusted by agricultural producers. The goal of this study was to characterize frequency of use and levels of trust in agricultural safety and health information sources and channels accessed by agricultural producers. A sample of 195 agricultural producers was surveyed at county fairs in Iowa. Information was collected about the frequency of use and level of trust in 14 information sources and channels. Associations between age, gender, and education level and use and trust of each information source or channel were estimated using logistic regression. The sample consisted of 72% men with a mean age of 50.1 (SD = 15.6) years. Newspaper and magazine articles were the most commonly used agricultural safety and health information source or channel; 77% (n = 140) of respondents reporting using them at least monthly. Among those reporting monthly or more frequent use, 75% reported trusting mostly or completely, compared with 58% using and 49% trusting the Internet. High levels of use and trust of newspaper and magazine articles did not vary significantly by age, gender, or education level. Age in the highest tertile (57-83 years) was marginally associated with lower odds of using, as well as using and trusting, all the information sources and channels studied except for medical clinics (use only: odds ratio [OR], 3.51, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-15.64; use and trust: OR, 5.90, 95% CI, 0.91-38.42). These findings suggest that traditional media may be more effective than digital media for delivering agricultural safety and health information to agricultural producers. Medical clinics may be an untapped venue for communicating with older agricultural producers. PMID:26237716

  6. Where Do Agricultural Producers Get Safety and Health Information?

    PubMed

    Chiu, Sophia; Cheyney, Marsha; Ramirez, Marizen; Gerr, Fred

    2015-01-01

    There is little empirical guidance regarding communication sources and channels used and trusted by agricultural producers. The goal of this study was to characterize frequency of use and levels of trust in agricultural safety and health information sources and channels accessed by agricultural producers. A sample of 195 agricultural producers was surveyed at county fairs in Iowa. Information was collected about the frequency of use and level of trust in 14 information sources and channels. Associations between age, gender, and education level and use and trust of each information source or channel were estimated using logistic regression. The sample consisted of 72% men with a mean age of 50.1 (SD = 15.6) years. Newspaper and magazine articles were the most commonly used agricultural safety and health information source or channel; 77% (n = 140) of respondents reporting using them at least monthly. Among those reporting monthly or more frequent use, 75% reported trusting mostly or completely, compared with 58% using and 49% trusting the Internet. High levels of use and trust of newspaper and magazine articles did not vary significantly by age, gender, or education level. Age in the highest tertile (57-83 years) was marginally associated with lower odds of using, as well as using and trusting, all the information sources and channels studied except for medical clinics (use only: odds ratio [OR], 3.51, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-15.64; use and trust: OR, 5.90, 95% CI, 0.91-38.42). These findings suggest that traditional media may be more effective than digital media for delivering agricultural safety and health information to agricultural producers. Medical clinics may be an untapped venue for communicating with older agricultural producers.

  7. Links among human health, animal health, and ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Conti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In the face of growing world human and animal populations and rapid environmental change, the linkages between human, animal, and environmental health are becoming more evident. Because animals and humans have shared risk to health from changing environments, it seems logical to expand the perspective of public health beyond a single species to detect and manage emerging public health threats. Mitigating the effects of climate change, emerging pathogens, toxicant releases, and changes in the built environment requires a retooling of global public health resources and capabilities across multiple species. Furthermore, human and animal health professionals must overcome specific barriers to interprofessional collaboration to implement needed health strategies. This review outlines the relationships between human, animal, and ecosystem health and the public health challenges and opportunities that these links present.

  8. Impacts of Climate Change on Indirect Human Exposure to Pathogens and Chemicals from Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Boxall, Alistair B.A.; Hardy, Anthony; Beulke, Sabine; Boucard, Tatiana; Burgin, Laura; Falloon, Peter D.; Haygarth, Philip M.; Hutchinson, Thomas; Kovats, R. Sari; Leonardi, Giovanni; Levy, Leonard S.; Nichols, Gordon; Parsons, Simon A.; Potts, Laura; Stone, David; Topp, Edward; Turley, David B.; Walsh, Kerry; Wellington, Elizabeth M.H.; Williams, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Climate change is likely to affect the nature of pathogens and chemicals in the environment and their fate and transport. Future risks of pathogens and chemicals could therefore be very different from those of today. In this review, we assess the implications of climate change for changes in human exposures to pathogens and chemicals in agricultural systems in the United Kingdom and discuss the subsequent effects on health impacts. Data sources In this review, we used expert input and considered literature on climate change; health effects resulting from exposure to pathogens and chemicals arising from agriculture; inputs of chemicals and pathogens to agricultural systems; and human exposure pathways for pathogens and chemicals in agricultural systems. Data synthesis We established the current evidence base for health effects of chemicals and pathogens in the agricultural environment; determined the potential implications of climate change on chemical and pathogen inputs in agricultural systems; and explored the effects of climate change on environmental transport and fate of different contaminant types. We combined these data to assess the implications of climate change in terms of indirect human exposure to pathogens and chemicals in agricultural systems. We then developed recommendations on future research and policy changes to manage any adverse increases in risks. Conclusions Overall, climate change is likely to increase human exposures to agricultural contaminants. The magnitude of the increases will be highly dependent on the contaminant type. Risks from many pathogens and particulate and particle-associated contaminants could increase significantly. These increases in exposure can, however, be managed for the most part through targeted research and policy changes. PMID:19440487

  9. MORTALITY AMONG PARTICIPANTS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose: This analysis of the Agricultural Health Study cohort assesses the mortality experience of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses.

    Methods: This report is based on 52,393 private applicators (who are mostly farmers) and 32,345 spouses of farmers in Iowa...

  10. Coalitions: partnerships to promote agricultural health and safety.

    PubMed

    Palermo, T; Ehlers, J

    2002-05-01

    Throughout the 1990s, a variety of partnerships and community-based organizations have been formed with the primary mission to promote agricultural safety and health. These groups are altruistic, creative, energetic, and provide critical perspectives for improving the safety and health of the agricultural workforce at the local, regional, and national levels. These coalitions have been created as a result of philanthropic support, public funding, grassroots interest, and personal experiences with agricultural injuries andfatalities. They are playing important roles in collaborating with researchers and in reaching the individual agricultural communities. They have been instrumental in conducting needs assessments and are critical to the development and implementation of successful surveillance programs and interventions. Outreach and dissemination of research findings and other safety and health information to target audiences are strengths of these diverse coalitions. This article will focus on primarily community-based coalitions, providing an overview of the development, foci, membership activities, and contributions or impact of these groups during the 1990s and the challenges in maintaining and sustaining the coalitions. This information should be useful to those seeking to understand the activities of existing coalitions and identify potential partnerships for future activities.

  11. Growth and Development Symposium: promoting healthier humans through healthier livestock: animal agriculture enters the metagenomics era.

    PubMed

    Frank, D N

    2011-03-01

    The priorities of public health and agricultural sciences intersect through a shared objective to foster better human health. Enhancements in food quality and reductions in the environmental effects of modern agriculture represent 2 distinct paths through which animal sciences can contribute to the cause of public health. Recent developments in the study of human-associated microbial communities (microbiotas), notably in association with disease, indicate that better understanding of the microbial ecology of livestock can contribute to achieving the goals of better foods and a cleaner environment. Culture-independent microbiological technologies now permit comprehensive study of complex microbial communities in their natural environments. Microbiotas associated with both humans and animals provide myriad beneficial services to their hosts that, if lost or diminished, could compromise host health. Dysfunctional microbial communities have been noted in several human conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Examination of the mechanisms by which the human microbiota influences health and disease susceptibility can inform similar studies of host-microbe function in the animal sciences. Insights gained from human studies indicate strategies to raise not only healthier livestock, through selective manipulation of microbial communities, but also healthier humans.

  12. Assessment of a Pesticide Exposure Intensity Algorithm in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accuracy of the exposure assessment is a critical factor in epidemiological investigations of pesticide exposures and health in agricultural populations. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate questionnaire-based exposure metrics. The Agricultural Health Study...

  13. Psychiatric agriculture: systemic nutritional modification and mental health in the developing world.

    PubMed

    London, Douglas S; Stoll, Andrew L; Manning, Bruce B

    2006-01-01

    Modernization of agricultural systems to increase output causes changes to the nutritional content of food entire populations consume. Human nutritional needs differ from their "food", thus producing healthy agricultural products is not equivalent to providing agricultural products that are healthy for humans. Inclusion of the food production system as a factor in the increase of neuropsychiatric disorders and other chronic diseases helps explain negative trends in modern chronic diseases that remain unchecked despite stunning advances in modern medicine. Diseases in which our own technology plays a significant role include obesity and resulting disorders, such as diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and arthritis. Modernization's lure leads to importation of modern agricultural practices into a nutritionally vulnerable, malnourished and sometimes starving developing world. Wealthier nations hedge their food portfolio by having access to a wider variety of foods. The developing world's reliance on staple foods means even a minor widespread nutritional modification of one key food can have profound effects. New agricultural techniques may improve or exacerbate neuropsychiatric disorders through nutritional modification in regions where populations walk a nutritional tightrope with little margin for error. In most of the developing world western psychiatric interventions have failed to make inroads. People's consumption of fish has a demonstrated beneficial effect on their mental health and the omega-3 fatty acid content is a significant factor. Epidemiological, biological and agricultural studies implicate a lack of dietary omega-3s as a factor in certain mental disorders. Replenishing omega-3s has improved mental illnesses in controlled clinical trials. This article's detailed tilapia fish-farming model demonstrates how aquaculture/agriculture techniques can function as a public health intervention by increasing dietary omega-3s through creation of

  14. Human Health at the Beach

    MedlinePlus

    ... near the site where polluted discharges enter the water. Pollution can also come from high concentrations of farm ... is available online. Other Beach Safety Topics Beyond water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health ...

  15. Health implications of human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population. PMID:24750655

  16. Health implications of human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population.

  17. Human rights and health law.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2006-08-01

    Important statutory and common law developments are changing the landscape of health law in Australia. Human rights considerations are formally included amongst the factors to be applied in the interpretation of statutory provisions and evaluating the lawfulness of actions on the part of government instrumentalities. The Human Rights Act 2004 (ACT) and the Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic) create limited bills of rights at State/Territory level in two Australian jurisdictions. Although neither is entrenched, they have the potential to make it more difficult for government to promulgate laws that are inconsistent with human rights, as defined. They will have important repercussions for the evolution of health law in these jurisdictions. The decision of Royal Women's Hospital v Medical Practitioners Board (Vic) [2006] VSCA 85 by the Victorian Court of Appeal has also provided a legitimation for parties to incorporate human rights perspectives in submissions about the interpretation of statutory provisions where health rights are in conflict.

  18. Toward a national core course in agricultural medicine and curriculum in agricultural safety and health: the "building capacity" consensus process.

    PubMed

    Rudolphi, Josie M; Donham, Kelley J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The agricultural industry poses specific hazards and risks to its workers. Since the 1970s, the University of Iowa has been establishing programs to educate rural health care and safety professionals who in turn provide education and occupational health and safety services to farm families and farm workers. This program has been well established in the state of Iowa as a program of Iowa's Center for Agricultural Safety and Health (I-CASH). However, the National 1989 Agriculture at Risk Report indicated there was a great need for agricultural medicine training beyond Iowa's borders. In order to help meet this need, Building Capacity: A National Resource of Agricultural Medicine Professionals was initiated as a project of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health in 2006. Before the first phase of this project, a consensus process was conducted with a group of safety and health professionals to determine topics and learning objectives for the course. Over 300 students attended and matriculated the agricultural medicine course during first phase of the project (2007-2010). Beginning the second phase of the project (2012-2016), an expanded advisory committee (38 internationally recognized health and safety professionals) was convened to review the progress of the first phase, make recommendations for revisions to the required topics and competencies, and discuss updates to the second edition of the course textbook (Agricultural Medicine: Occupational and Environmental Health for the Health Professions). A formal consensus process was held and included an online survey and also a face-to-face meeting. The group was charged with the responsibility of developing the next version of this course by establishing best practices and setting an agenda with the long-term goal of developing a national course in agricultural medicine.

  19. Public health and human values

    PubMed Central

    Häyry, M

    2006-01-01

    The ends and means of public health activities are suggested to be at odds with the values held by human individuals and communities. Although promoting longer lives in better health for all seems like an endeavour that is obviously acceptable, it can be challenged by equally self‐evident appeals to autonomy, happiness, integrity and liberty, among other values. The result is that people's actual concerns are not always adequately dealt with by public health measures and assurances. PMID:16943332

  20. Climate change and Australian agriculture: a review of the threats facing rural communities and the health policy landscape.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Elizabeth G; Bell, Erica; King, Debra; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2011-03-01

    Population health is a function of social and environmental health determinants. Climate change is predicted to bring significant alterations to ecological systems on which human health and livelihoods depend; the air, water, plant, and animal health. Agricultural systems are intrinsically linked with environmental conditions, which are already under threat in much of southern Australian because of rising heat and protracted drying. The direct impact of increasing heat waves on human physiology and survival has recently been well studied. More diffusely, increasing drought periods may challenge the viability of agriculture in some regions, and hence those communities that depend on primary production. A worst case scenario may herald the collapse of some communities. Human health impacts arising from such transition would be profound. This article summarizes existing rural health challenges and presents the current evidence plus future predictions of climate change impacts on Australian agriculture to argue the need for significant augmentation of public health and existing health policy frameworks. The article concludes by suggesting that adaptation to climate change requires planning for worst case scenario outcomes to avert catastrophic impacts on rural communities. This will involve national policy planning as much as regional-level leadership for rapid development of adaptive strategies in agriculture and other key areas of rural communities.

  1. Acute Human Lethal Toxicity of Agricultural Pesticides: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Senarathna, Lalith; Mohamed, Fahim; Gawarammana, Indika; Bowe, Steven J.; Manuweera, Gamini; Buckley, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Agricultural pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in the developing world, killing at least 250,000–370,000 people each year. Targeted pesticide restrictions in Sri Lanka over the last 20 years have reduced pesticide deaths by 50% without decreasing agricultural output. However, regulatory decisions have thus far not been based on the human toxicity of formulated agricultural pesticides but on the surrogate of rat toxicity using pure unformulated pesticides. We aimed to determine the relative human toxicity of formulated agricultural pesticides to improve the effectiveness of regulatory policy. Methods and Findings We examined the case fatality of different agricultural pesticides in a prospective cohort of patients presenting with pesticide self-poisoning to two clinical trial centers from April 2002 to November 2008. Identification of the pesticide ingested was based on history or positive identification of the container. A single pesticide was ingested by 9,302 patients. A specific pesticide was identified in 7,461 patients; 1,841 ingested an unknown pesticide. In a subset of 808 patients, the history of ingestion was confirmed by laboratory analysis in 95% of patients. There was a large variation in case fatality between pesticides—from 0% to 42%. This marked variation in lethality was observed for compounds within the same chemical and/or WHO toxicity classification of pesticides and for those used for similar agricultural indications. Conclusion The human data provided toxicity rankings for some pesticides that contrasted strongly with the WHO toxicity classification based on rat toxicity. Basing regulation on human toxicity will make pesticide poisoning less hazardous, preventing hundreds of thousands of deaths globally without compromising agricultural needs. Ongoing monitoring of patterns of use and clinical toxicity for new pesticides is needed to identify highly toxic pesticides in a timely manner. Please see later in the

  2. Sustainability of current agriculture practices, community perception, and implications for ecosystem health: an Indian study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary

    2011-12-01

    In order to support agribusiness and to attain food security for ever-increasing populations, most countries in the world have embraced modern agricultural technologies. Ecological consequences of the technocentric approaches, and their sustainability and impacts on human health have, however, not received adequate attention particularly in developing countries. India is one country that has undergone a rapid transformation in the field of agriculture by adopting strategies of the Green Revolution. This article provides a comparative analysis of the effects of older and newer paradigms of agricultural practices on ecosystem and human health within the larger context of sustainability. The study was conducted in three closely situated areas where different agricultural practices were followed: (a) the head-end of a modern canal-irrigated area, (b) an adjacent dryland, and (c) an area (the ancient area) that has been provided with irrigation for some 800 years. Data were collected by in-depth interviews of individual farmers, focus-group discussions, participatory observations, and from secondary sources. The dryland, receiving limited rainfall, continues to practice diverse cropping centered to a large extent on traditional coarse cereals and uses only small amounts of chemical inputs. On the other hand, modern agriculture in the head-end emphasizes continuous cropping of rice supported by extensive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Market forces have, to a significant degree, influenced the ancient area to abandon much of its early practices of organic farming and to take up aspects of modern agricultural practice. Rice cultivation in the irrigated parts has changed the local landscape and vegetation and has augmented the mosquito population, which is a potential vector for malaria, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases. Nevertheless, despite these problems, perceptions of adverse environmental effects are lowest in the heavily irrigated area.

  3. Sustainability of current agriculture practices, community perception, and implications for ecosystem health: an Indian study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary

    2011-12-01

    In order to support agribusiness and to attain food security for ever-increasing populations, most countries in the world have embraced modern agricultural technologies. Ecological consequences of the technocentric approaches, and their sustainability and impacts on human health have, however, not received adequate attention particularly in developing countries. India is one country that has undergone a rapid transformation in the field of agriculture by adopting strategies of the Green Revolution. This article provides a comparative analysis of the effects of older and newer paradigms of agricultural practices on ecosystem and human health within the larger context of sustainability. The study was conducted in three closely situated areas where different agricultural practices were followed: (a) the head-end of a modern canal-irrigated area, (b) an adjacent dryland, and (c) an area (the ancient area) that has been provided with irrigation for some 800 years. Data were collected by in-depth interviews of individual farmers, focus-group discussions, participatory observations, and from secondary sources. The dryland, receiving limited rainfall, continues to practice diverse cropping centered to a large extent on traditional coarse cereals and uses only small amounts of chemical inputs. On the other hand, modern agriculture in the head-end emphasizes continuous cropping of rice supported by extensive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Market forces have, to a significant degree, influenced the ancient area to abandon much of its early practices of organic farming and to take up aspects of modern agricultural practice. Rice cultivation in the irrigated parts has changed the local landscape and vegetation and has augmented the mosquito population, which is a potential vector for malaria, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases. Nevertheless, despite these problems, perceptions of adverse environmental effects are lowest in the heavily irrigated area. PMID

  4. Influence resistance on human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Harits, M.; Bahtiar, Yusuf; Achdan, M. Syahdani; Sunarno, .

    2010-05-01

    Health is an important part of human life. Every person in this world want healthy body, in other words free of any disease. When seeing the pattern of human life today is high activity, always eat instant foods and lack of exercise makes a very bad human health from year to year. Therefore, there is need for the health revolution that can keep human health in order to remain in the condition is always healthy. Eat healthy foods four plus five perfect diligent exercise is the real solution to maintain health. In addition also advisable to always check each month to the doctor so that our health can be controlled. Most people underestimate it, especially the routine checks once a month to the doctor, therefore I created a simple research that aims to get people to mengonytrol health at any time without having to check into the doctor. By utilizing the resistance in the human body's health so we can be controlled. By using a simple tool to measure human resistance by using the concept of the bridge. Bridge circuit used to convert impedance variations into voltage variations. One advantage of this circuit is the voltage produced can vary around 0. This means strengthening can be used to raise the voltage level so as sensitivity to variations in impedance also increases. Another application is the impedance measurement accuracy. The bridge is the simplest and most widely used is the Wheatstone bridge circuit. This circuit is used for signal conditioning applications where a sensor can change the resistance value when the process variable is changed.

  5. RELIABILITY OF REPORTING ON LIFESTYLE AND AGRICULTURAL FACTORS BY A SAMPLE OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY FROM IOWA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Repeat interviews from 4,088 Iowa pesticide applicators participating in the Agricultural Health Study provided the opportunity to evaluate the reliability of self-reported information on pesticide use and various demographic and lifestyle factors. Self-completed questionnaire...

  6. Health Experiences, Concerns, and Interactions with Effectiveness of Secondary Agriculture Teachers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S.; Westrom, Lyle E.

    This publication summarizes the findings of several initiatives in studying the health aspects of secondary agriculture teachers in the United States. The study was specifically conducted to determine the health experiences of secondary agriculture teachers, the health problems that cause them to miss work, their health care concerns, personal…

  7. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  8. Soil biodiversity and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Diana H.; Nielsen, Uffe N.; Six, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health.

  9. Soil biodiversity and human health.

    PubMed

    Wall, Diana H; Nielsen, Uffe N; Six, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health.

  10. Soil biodiversity and human health.

    PubMed

    Wall, Diana H; Nielsen, Uffe N; Six, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health. PMID:26595276

  11. Complexity of human and ecosystem interactions in an agricultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coupe, Richard H.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of human interaction in the commercial agricultural landscape and the resulting impacts on the ecosystem services of water quality and quantity is largely ignored by the current agricultural paradigm that maximizes crop production over other ecosystem services. Three examples at different spatial scales (local, regional, and global) are presented where human and ecosystem interactions in a commercial agricultural landscape adversely affect water quality and quantity in unintended ways in the Delta of northwestern Mississippi. In the first example, little to no regulation of groundwater use for irrigation has caused declines in groundwater levels resulting in loss of baseflow to streams and threatening future water supply. In the second example, federal policy which subsidizes corn for biofuel production has encouraged many producers to switch from cotton to corn, which requires more nutrients and water, counter to national efforts to reduce nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico and exacerbating groundwater level declines. The third example is the wholesale adoption of a system for weed control that relies on a single chemical, initially providing many benefits and ultimately leading to the widespread occurrence of glyphosate and its degradates in Delta streams and necessitating higher application rates of glyphosate as well as the use of other herbicides due to increasing weed resistance. Although these examples are specific to the Mississippi Delta, analogous situations exist throughout the world and point to the need for change in how we grow our food, fuel, and fiber, and manage our soil and water resources.

  12. Space Agriculture, Tourism and Health - Lessons from British Imperial History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivier, D. J.

    Advocates of space commercialisation and colonisation have drawn on previous centuries' experience of the exploration and exploitation of terrestrial New Worlds. Although so far chiefly confined to the colonisation of the Americas and exploration of the Antarctic, a proper examination of the problems and solutions faced and found by the late 19th - early 20th century Jamaican tourist trade, mid-Victorian planter agriculturalists in Sri Lanka and the impact of climatic theories of health on early 20th century White colonists in Kenya and Rhodesia, can, if properly applied to today's conditions affecting modern space businesses, offer important insights to the psychological impact and aetiology of disease amongst future space colonists, and the success- ful establishment and management of tourism and agriculture in space. By following the precedents set by the imperial pioneers, it should be possible to apply their founding principles in these sectors successfully, while avoiding the pitfalls and excesses of terrestrial imperialism.

  13. Industrial food animal production, antimicrobial resistance, and human health.

    PubMed

    Silbergeld, Ellen K; Graham, Jay; Price, Lance B

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a major public health crisis, eroding the discovery of antimicrobials and their application to clinical medicine. There is a general lack of knowledge of the importance of agricultural antimicrobial use as a factor in antimicrobial resistance even among experts in medicine and public health. This review focuses on agricultural antimicrobial drug use as a major driver of antimicrobial resistance worldwide for four reasons: It is the largest use of antimicrobials worldwide; much of the use of antimicrobials in agriculture results in subtherapeutic exposures of bacteria; drugs of every important clinical class are utilized in agriculture; and human populations are exposed to antimicrobial-resistant pathogens via consumption of animal products as well as through widespread release into the environment.

  14. Wind Turbines and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Knopper, Loren D.; Ollson, Christopher A.; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Berger, Robert G.; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health. PMID:24995266

  15. Wind turbines and human health.

    PubMed

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health. PMID:24995266

  16. Wind turbines and human health.

    PubMed

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  17. 76 FR 76335 - Notification of Draft Proposed Rule Submission to the Secretaries of Agriculture and Health and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ...This document notifies the public that EPA has forwarded to the Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture and the Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services a draft proposed rule under sections 21(b) and 25(a) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), entitled ``Pesticides; Revisions to Minimum Risk Exemptions'' and......

  18. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STUDY DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY BIOMARKER RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to quantify cancer and non-cancer health risks in the agricultural communit...

  19. A Review of Health Risks and Pathways for Exposure to Wastewater Use in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Dickin, Sarah K.; Schuster-Wallace, Corinne J.; Qadir, Manzoor; Pizzacalla, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Wastewater is increasingly being used in the agricultural sector to cope with the depletion of freshwater resources as well as water stress linked to changing climate conditions. As wastewater irrigation expands, research focusing on the human health risks is critical because exposure to a range of contaminants must be weighed with the benefits to food security, nutrition and livelihoods. Objectives: The goal of this paper was to review research examining health risks and exposure pathways associated with wastewater irrigation to identify research trends and gaps. Methods: We conducted a review of the literature and identified a total of 126 studies published from 1995 to 2013. Findings were summarized based on several themes including types of exposure pathways, wastewater contaminants, methodological approaches and the geographical distribution of research. Results: Only 23 studies used epidemiological methods, while most research applied alternative methods to estimate risk, such as quantitative risk assessment models or comparisons of crop contamination to established guidelines for wastewater reuse. A geographic breakdown demonstrated a focus on microbiological contaminants in specific regions such as sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, despite growing chemical risks associated with rapid urbanization and industrialization that may change the types and distribution of wastewater contaminants. Conclusions: To provide a more comprehensive understanding of the health risks of wastewater use in agriculture, future research should consider multiple exposure routes, long-term health implications, and increase the range of contaminants studied, particularly in regions heavily dependent on wastewater irrigation. Citation: Dickin SK, Schuster-Wallace CJ, Qadir M, Pizzacalla K. 2016. A review of health risks and pathways for exposure to wastewater use in agriculture. Environ Health Perspect 124:900–909; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509995 PMID

  20. Land use change and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patz, Jonathan A.; Norris, Douglas E.

    Disease emergence events have been documented following several types of land use change. This chapter reviews several health-relevant land use changes recognized today, including: 1) urbanization and urban sprawl; 2) water projects and agricultural development; 3) road construction and deforestation in the tropics; and 4) regeneration of temperate forests. Because habitat or climatic change substantially affects intermediate invertebrate hosts involved in many prevalent diseases, this chapter provides a basic description of vector-borne disease biology as a foundation for analyzing the effects of land use change. Urban sprawl poses health challenges stemming from heat waves exacerbated by the "urban heat island" effect, as well as from water contamination due to expanses of impervious road and concrete surfaces. Dams, irrigation and agricultural development have long been associated with diseases such as schistosomiasis and filariasis. Better management methods are required to address the trade-offs between expanded food production and altered habitats promoting deadly diseases. Deforestation can increase the nature and number of breeding sites for vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and onchocerciasis. Human host and disease vector interaction further increases risk, as can a change in arthropod-vector species composition.

  1. 75 FR 9902 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... history information for respondents enrolled in the Agriculture Health Study. This represents a request to.... Affected Public: Private Sector, Farms. Type of Respondents: Licensed pesticide applicators and...

  2. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647

  3. A Brief Report Describing the Union of Medical Training and Agricultural Health.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeffrey L; Bowling, John; Wickman, Amanda J; Harris, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This brief report describes a mutually beneficial partnership forged to extend agricultural medicine training to physicians, nurses, veterinarians, public health workers, health care professionals, medical residents, and students. Agricultural Medicine: Occupational and Environmental Health for Rural Health Professionals originated at the University of Iowa, Iowa's Center for Agricultural Safety and Health, and the Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health. Through a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded Training Project Grant, The University of Texas Health Northeast worked with the University of Iowa and regional experts to adapt the agricultural medicine content for the southwestern United States. Further partnerships were developed with the Southwest Center for Agricultural Health, Injury Prevention and Education, The University of North Texas Health Science Center College of Osteopathic Medicine, and the Texas Rural Health Association to extend the reach of this training to other important stakeholders. Each of the collaborators offered unique resources to the coordination of the agricultural medicine course. Likewise, each organization benefited from extending regionally relevant agricultural medicine training to current and future health care providers. The long-term goal for the partnership is to train a broad array of health care providers with the basics of anticipation, recognition, diagnosis, treatment, and the prevention of occupational and environmental illnesses and injuries within rural and agricultural communities, customized to the Southwest Region. This brief descriptive report highlights the process by which strategic partners collaborated to conduct a regional agricultural medicine course, such that other organizations interested in offering a similar training might gain insight to best practices from our experience. PMID:26479683

  4. A Brief Report Describing the Union of Medical Training and Agricultural Health.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeffrey L; Bowling, John; Wickman, Amanda J; Harris, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This brief report describes a mutually beneficial partnership forged to extend agricultural medicine training to physicians, nurses, veterinarians, public health workers, health care professionals, medical residents, and students. Agricultural Medicine: Occupational and Environmental Health for Rural Health Professionals originated at the University of Iowa, Iowa's Center for Agricultural Safety and Health, and the Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health. Through a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded Training Project Grant, The University of Texas Health Northeast worked with the University of Iowa and regional experts to adapt the agricultural medicine content for the southwestern United States. Further partnerships were developed with the Southwest Center for Agricultural Health, Injury Prevention and Education, The University of North Texas Health Science Center College of Osteopathic Medicine, and the Texas Rural Health Association to extend the reach of this training to other important stakeholders. Each of the collaborators offered unique resources to the coordination of the agricultural medicine course. Likewise, each organization benefited from extending regionally relevant agricultural medicine training to current and future health care providers. The long-term goal for the partnership is to train a broad array of health care providers with the basics of anticipation, recognition, diagnosis, treatment, and the prevention of occupational and environmental illnesses and injuries within rural and agricultural communities, customized to the Southwest Region. This brief descriptive report highlights the process by which strategic partners collaborated to conduct a regional agricultural medicine course, such that other organizations interested in offering a similar training might gain insight to best practices from our experience.

  5. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. Ths paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  6. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  7. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health

  8. Nitrite in feed: from animal health to human health.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Cottrill, Bruce; van Peteghem, Carlos; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  9. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  10. Nitrite in feed: from animal health to human health.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Cottrill, Bruce; van Peteghem, Carlos; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  11. Human capital, schooling and health.

    PubMed

    Schultz, T Paul

    2003-06-01

    A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population's child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human capital investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human capital, and then measure the changed wage opportunities of those who have been induced to make these investments. Statistical estimation of wage functions that seek to represent the relationship between wage rates and a variety of human capital stocks may yield biased estimates of private rates of return from these investments for a variety of reasons. The paper summarizes several of these problems and illustrates how data and statistical methods can be used to deal with some of them. The measures of labor productivity and the proxies specified for schooling and adult health are first discussed, and then the functional relationships between human capital and wages are described. Three types of estimation problem are discussed: (1) bias due to omitted variables, such as ability or frailty; (2) bias due to the measurement of an aggregation of multiple sources of human capital, e.g. genetic and socially reproducible variation, which may contribute to different gains in worker productivity; and (3) errors in measurement of the human capital stocks. Empirical examples and illustrative estimates are surveyed.

  12. USE OF AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES AND PROSTATE CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY COHORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of specific agricultural chemicals in relation to prostate cancer risk has not been firmly established due to the lack of precise exposure data. We examined the relationship between 45 common agricultural pesticides and prostate cancer incidence in a prospective cohor...

  13. Agricultural Pesticide Use and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in the Agricultural Health Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Hou, Lifang; Coble, Joseph; Rusiecki, Jennifer; Hoppin, Jane A.; Silverman, Debra T.; Alavanja, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a rapidly fatal disease that has been linked with pesticide use. Previous studies have reported excess risks of pancreatic cancer with organochlorines such as DDT, however, many other commonly used pesticides have not been examined. To further examine the potential associations between the use of a number of pesticides and pancreatic cancer, we conducted a case-control analysis in the Agricultural Health Study, one of the largest prospective cohorts with over 89,000 participants including pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. This analysis included 93 incident pancreatic cancer cases (64 applicators, 29 spouses) and 82,503 cancer-free controls who completed an enrollment questionnaire providing detailed pesticide use, demographic and lifestyle information. Ever use of 24 pesticides and intensity-weighted lifetime days [(lifetime exposure days) × (exposure intensity score)] of 13 pesticides was assessed. Risk estimates were calculated using unconditional logistic regression controlling for age, smoking, and diabetes. Among pesticide applicators, two herbicides (EPTC and pendimethalin) of the 13 pesticides examined for intensity-weighted lifetime use showed a statistically significant exposure-response association with pancreatic cancer. Applicators in the top half of lifetime pendimethalin use had a 3.0-fold (95% CI 1.3-7.2, p-trend=0.01) risk compared to never users, and those in the top half of lifetime EPTC use had a 2.56-fold (95% CI=1.1-5.4, p-trend=0.01) risk compared to never users. Organochlorines were not associated with an excess risk of pancreatic cancer in this study. These findings suggest that herbicides, particularly pendimethalin and EPTC, may be associated with pancreatic cancer. PMID:19142867

  14. Solar radiation and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Brekke, Pål; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Jörg; Moan, Kristin; Holick, Michael F.; Grant, William B.; Moan, Johan

    2011-06-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  15. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilman, David; Clark, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.

  16. Associations between Schistosomiasis and the Use of Human Waste as an Agricultural Fertilizer in China

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Elizabeth J.; Liu, Yang; Zhong, Bo; Hubbard, Alan; Spear, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human waste is used as an agricultural fertilizer in China and elsewhere. Because the eggs of many helminth species can survive in environmental media, reuse of untreated or partially treated human waste, commonly called night soil, may promote transmission of human helminthiases. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an open cohort study in 36 villages to evaluate the association between night soil use and schistosomiasis in a region of China where schistosomiasis has reemerged and persisted despite control activities. We tested 2,005 residents for Schistosoma japonicum infection in 2007 and 1,365 residents in 2010 and interviewed heads of household about agricultural practices each study year. We used an intervention attributable ratio framework to estimate the association between night soil use and S. japonicum infection. Night soil use was reported by half of households (56% in 2007 and 46% in 2010). Village night soil use was strongly associated with human S. japonicum infection in 2007. We estimate cessation of night soil use would lead to a 49% reduction in infection prevalence in 2007 (95% CI: 12%, 71%). However, no association between night soil and schistosomiasis was observed in 2010. These inconsistent findings may be due to unmeasured confounding or temporal shifts in the importance of different sources of S. japonicum eggs on the margins of disease elimination. Conclusions/Significance The use of untreated or partially treated human waste as an agricultural fertilizer may be a barrier to permanent reductions in human helminthiases. This practice warrants further attention by the public health community. PMID:25590142

  17. Linking agriculture and health in low- and middle-income countries: an interdisciplinary research agenda.

    PubMed

    Dangour, Alan D; Green, Rosemary; Häsler, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan; Shankar, Bhavani; Waage, Jeff

    2012-05-01

    Recent global fluctuations in food prices and continuing environmental degradation highlight the future challenge of feeding a growing world population. However, current dialogues rarely address the relationship between agricultural changes and health. This relationship is traditionally associated with the role of food in nutrition and with food safety, and while these are key interactions, we show in this paper that the relationship is far more complex and interesting. Besides the direct effects of agriculture on population nutrition, agriculture also influences health through its impact on household incomes, economies and the environment. These effects are felt particularly in low- and middle-income countries, where dramatic changes are affecting the agriculture-health relationship, in particular the growth of nutrition-related chronic disease and the associated double burden of under- and over-nutrition. Greater understanding of the negative effects of agriculture on health is also needed. While lengthening food value chains make the chain of influence between agricultural policy, food consumption, nutrition and health more complex, there remain opportunities to improve health by changing agricultural systems. The first challenge in doing this, we suggest, is to improve our capacity to measure the impact of agricultural interventions on health outcomes, and vice versa.

  18. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    PubMed Central

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  19. The SDGs Will Require Integrated Agriculture, Nutrition, and Health at the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Canavan, Chelsey R; Graybill, Lauren; Fawzi, Wafaie; Kinabo, Joyce

    2016-03-01

    Child malnutrition is an urgent and complex issue and requires integrated approaches across agriculture, nutrition, and health. This issue has gained prominence at the global level. While national-level efforts are underway in many countries, there is little information on how to integrate at the community level. Here, we offer a community-based approach using cadres of agricultural and community health workers, drawing on qualitative work we have conducted in Tanzania. Agriculture is an important driver of nutritional and health outcomes, and improving child health will require practical solutions for integration that can add to the evidence base.

  20. Perceptions of Environmental and Occupational Health Hazards Among Agricultural Workers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Crowe, Jennifer; Postma, Julie; Ybarra, Vickie; Keifer, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers. Interviews were conducted with 389 agricultural workers in the Yakima Valley in central Washington State in the summers of 2004 and 2005. Undergraduate students from the community conducted interviews in Spanish or English. Environmental and occupational health issues were ranked by frequency of concern, and differences by demographic characteristics were evaluated using multivariate analyses. In both 2004 and 2005, agricultural workers expressed high levels of concern about working in hot weather, agricultural injuries, pesticides, and pediatric asthma. Perceptions of environmental and occupational health issues among agricultural workers differed by certain demographic characteristics, particularly age and ethnicity. Consideration should be given to these issues when designing research studies, creating educational materials, and developing interventions related to environmental and occupational hazards among agricultural workers. PMID:19715263

  1. Implications of leading crop production practices on environmental quality and human health.

    PubMed

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Teboh, Jasper M; Eze, Peter N; Stietiya, M Hashem; Kumar, Vipan; Hendrix, James; Mascagni, Henry J; Ying, Teng; Kandakji, Tarek

    2015-03-15

    Globally, much weight is currently being placed on agriculture to provide food for the growing population as well as feedstock for the bioenergy industry. Unfortunately, the intensification of agricultural operations to satisfy these growing needs has been associated with a number of environmental and human health risks. A review of publications on the subject was conducted and emphasis was placed on articles focusing on agriculture, environment, and public health as well as their interactions. Supporting information was also gathered from publications of various agricultural and environmental agencies. Agricultural practices with potential negative implications on the environment and human health were identified broadly as: (a) utilization of biosolids and animal manures, (b) use of agricultural chemicals, (c) management of post-harvest residue, (d) irrigation, and (e) tillage operations. Soil, water, and air contamination by nutrients, heavy metals, pathogens, and pesticides, as well as air contamination by particulate matters, noxious gases, and pathogens were among the leading environmental impacts. Some of the human-health impacts identified included neurological and reproductive defects, cardiovascular risks, cancers and other diseases (of kidney, liver, lung, and skin), skin allergies, gastroenteritis, and methemoglobinemia. Continual awareness on the impacts of the reviewed agricultural practices on environmental quality and human health and the implementation of experimentally-backed best management practices in agricultural systems remain indispensable.

  2. Implications of leading crop production practices on environmental quality and human health.

    PubMed

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Teboh, Jasper M; Eze, Peter N; Stietiya, M Hashem; Kumar, Vipan; Hendrix, James; Mascagni, Henry J; Ying, Teng; Kandakji, Tarek

    2015-03-15

    Globally, much weight is currently being placed on agriculture to provide food for the growing population as well as feedstock for the bioenergy industry. Unfortunately, the intensification of agricultural operations to satisfy these growing needs has been associated with a number of environmental and human health risks. A review of publications on the subject was conducted and emphasis was placed on articles focusing on agriculture, environment, and public health as well as their interactions. Supporting information was also gathered from publications of various agricultural and environmental agencies. Agricultural practices with potential negative implications on the environment and human health were identified broadly as: (a) utilization of biosolids and animal manures, (b) use of agricultural chemicals, (c) management of post-harvest residue, (d) irrigation, and (e) tillage operations. Soil, water, and air contamination by nutrients, heavy metals, pathogens, and pesticides, as well as air contamination by particulate matters, noxious gases, and pathogens were among the leading environmental impacts. Some of the human-health impacts identified included neurological and reproductive defects, cardiovascular risks, cancers and other diseases (of kidney, liver, lung, and skin), skin allergies, gastroenteritis, and methemoglobinemia. Continual awareness on the impacts of the reviewed agricultural practices on environmental quality and human health and the implementation of experimentally-backed best management practices in agricultural systems remain indispensable. PMID:25585140

  3. Continuing education in physical rehabilitation and health issues of agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Wilhite, Carla S; Jaco, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Limited attention has been devoted to the cultural and practice competencies needed by occupational therapy and physical therapy professionals who provide services to farming families impacted by chronic health or disability issues. Agricultural occupational safety and health should represent a continuum of services responsive to individuals, families, and agricultural communities across a life span and range of health status changes. Physical rehabilitation professionals have a key role in impacting an agricultural producer's sense of self-efficacy and capacities for returning to agricultural living and work. However, demonstration of competency is essential in providing person-centered rehabilitation services of assessment, evaluation, treatment planning, interventions, referrals, and discharge issues. The paper highlights methods utilized by a state AgrAbility program and a former National AgrAbility Project to develop a model of continuing education programming for occupational and physical therapists that evaluate and treat agricultural workers after acute injury or exacerbation of chronic health conditions.

  4. Human Resource Development for Modernizing the Agricultural Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.; Alex, Gary E.

    2008-01-01

    Greater commercialization of agricultural systems and increasing trade liberalization dictate the need for better capacity on the part of the agriculture workforce in the 21st century. Global changes in the roles of the public and private sectors and the dramatic advancements in technology have also strongly affected agricultural workforce…

  5. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    PubMed

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing.

  6. National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Childhood Resources Ag Injury News Clippings Mini-Grants Nurture Newsletter Year in Review Research Areas Filling the ... 2016 Childhood Agricultural Injuries Fact Sheet released Summer Nurture Newsletter published Upcoming Events 18 Oct National FFA ...

  7. 78 FR 43215 - Submission for OMB review; 30-day Comment Request: The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and Women in...: The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men...

  8. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, D.R.

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  9. Overcoming Language and Literacy Barriers in Safety and Health Training of Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Estrada, Jorge M.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, “Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture,” is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the US to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented. PMID:20665309

  10. Overcoming language and literacy barriers in safety and health training of agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Estrada, Jorge M; Quandt, Sara A

    2010-07-01

    The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," is divided into five sections. First, we describe the occupational and demographic characteristics of agricultural workers in the United States to highlight their safety and health training needs. Second, we summarize current research on the social and cultural attributes of agricultural workers and agricultural employers that affect the provision of safety and health training. Worker and employer attributes include language, literacy, financial limitations, work beliefs, and health beliefs. Third, we review current initiatives addressing safety and health training for agricultural workers that consider worker language and literacy. These initiatives are limited to a few specific topics (e.g., pesticides, heat stress); they do not provide general programs of safety training that would help establish a culture of workplace safety. However, several innovative approaches to health and safety training are being implemented, including the use of community-based participatory approaches and lay health promoter programs. Fourth, the limited industry response for safety training with this linguistically diverse and educationally limited workforce is summarized. Finally, gaps in knowledge and practice are summarized and recommendations to develop educationally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate safety and health training are presented. PMID:20665309

  11. USE OF AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES AND PROSTATE CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY COHORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors examined the relationship between 45 common agricultural pesticides and prostate cancer incidence in a prospective cohort study of 55,332 male pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina with no prior history of prostate cancer. Data were collected by means...

  12. USE OF AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY COHORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the relationship between 45 common agricultural pesticides and lung cancer incidence in a prospective cohort study of 52,395 private pesticide applicators, 4,916 commercial pesticide applicators and 32,347 spouses of farmer applicators from Iowa and North Carolina w...

  13. Human health impacts of ecosystem alteration.

    PubMed

    Myers, Samuel S; Gaffikin, Lynne; Golden, Christopher D; Ostfeld, Richard S; Redford, Kent H; Ricketts, Taylor H; Turner, Will R; Osofsky, Steven A

    2013-11-19

    Human activity is rapidly transforming most of Earth's natural systems. How this transformation is impacting human health, whose health is at greatest risk, and the magnitude of the associated disease burden are relatively new subjects within the field of environmental health. We discuss what is known about the human health implications of changes in the structure and function of natural systems and propose that these changes are affecting human health in a variety of important ways. We identify several gaps and limitations in the research that has been done to date and propose a more systematic and comprehensive approach to applied research in this field. Such efforts could lead to a more robust understanding of the human health impacts of accelerating environmental change and inform decision making in the land-use planning, environmental conservation, and public health policy realms.

  14. Human health impacts of ecosystem alteration

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Samuel S.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Golden, Christopher D.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; H. Redford, Kent; H. Ricketts, Taylor; Turner, Will R.; Osofsky, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Human activity is rapidly transforming most of Earth’s natural systems. How this transformation is impacting human health, whose health is at greatest risk, and the magnitude of the associated disease burden are relatively new subjects within the field of environmental health. We discuss what is known about the human health implications of changes in the structure and function of natural systems and propose that these changes are affecting human health in a variety of important ways. We identify several gaps and limitations in the research that has been done to date and propose a more systematic and comprehensive approach to applied research in this field. Such efforts could lead to a more robust understanding of the human health impacts of accelerating environmental change and inform decision making in the land-use planning, environmental conservation, and public health policy realms. PMID:24218556

  15. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  16. The Human Health, Growth, and Development Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyles, Linda R.; And Others

    This health and human development curriculum for grades 1-6 contains tips for teachers and overviews of the philosophy behind teaching these topics to elementary school students. The section on health education is structured around ten content strands: (1) health knowledge, attitudes, decisions, and behavior; (2) emotional and social health; (3)…

  17. National assessment of capacity in public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratories--United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    2013-03-01

    In 2011, the University of Michigan's Center of Excellence in Public Health Workforce Studies and the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) assessed the workforce and program capacity in U.S. public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratories. During April-August 2011, APHL sent a web-based questionnaire to 105 public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratory directors comprising all 50 state public health laboratories, 41 local public health laboratories, eight environmental laboratories, and six agricultural laboratories. This report summarizes the results of the assessment, which inquired about laboratory capacity, including total number of laboratorians by occupational classification and self-assessed ability to carry out functions in 19 different laboratory program areas. The majority of laboratorians (74%) possessed a bachelor's degree, associate's degree, or a high school education or equivalency; 59% of all laboratorians were classified as laboratory scientists. The greatest percentage of laboratories reported no, minimal, or partial program capacity in toxicology (45%), agricultural microbiology (54%), agricultural chemistry (50%), and education and training for their employees (51%). Nearly 50% of laboratories anticipated that more than 15% of their workforce would retire, resign, or be released within 5 years, lower than the anticipated retirement eligibility rate of 27% projected for state public health workers. However, APHL and partners in local, state, and federal public health should collaborate to address gaps in laboratory capacity and rebuild the workforce pipeline to ensure an adequate future supply of public health laboratorians.

  18. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agriculture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women facing social and economic disadvantage in stressed communities of developing countries are at greater risk due to health problems. This paper investigates the relationships between structural, health and psychosocial predictors among women in mining and agricultural communities. This paper is a report of a study of the predictors of the health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agricultural communities. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. The instruments used are SF-36 Health Survey and Coping Strategy Checklist. ANOVA, MANOVA and GLM were used in the analysis. The study was conducted between January-September 2008 with randomly selected women in a mining (145) and an agricultural community (133) in India. Results Women in the agricultural community had significantly increased Physical Health, Mental Health and SF36 scores compared with those in the mining community. Years of stay, education and employment were significant predictors among women in the agricultural community. 39% (33%) and 40% (26%) of the variance in Physical and Mental health respectively among women in agricultural and mining communities are predicted by the structural, health and psychosocial variables. Conclusion Perceived health status should be recognised as an important assessment of Physical and Mental Health among women in rural stressed communities. Cognitive, emotional and behavioural coping strategies are significant predictors of health related quality of life. Implications. Nurses should use the SF-36 as a diagnostic tool for assessing health related quality of life among women and discuss coping strategies, so that these can target women’s adaptive behaviour. This should be an essential part of the nursing process for facilitating adaptive process for improved health related quality of life. PMID:23336256

  19. Dust and human health: Chapter 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Knippertz, Peter; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that exposure to fine particulate matter may increase risk for human morbidity and mortality. Until recently, population health related studies examining the effects of particulate matter on human health generally examined anthropogenic (industry and combustion by-products) sources with few studies considering contributions from natural sources. This chapter provides an overview of naturally occurring inorganic mineral dust research and associated human health ailments and some of the challenges in elucidating the etiological mechanisms responsible.

  20. Health, human rights and mobilization of resources for health.

    PubMed

    Lie, Reidar K

    2004-10-08

    BACKGROUND: There has been an increased interest in the role of a human rights framework to mobilize resources for health. DISCUSSION: This paper argues that the human rights framework does provide us with an appropriate understanding of what values should guide a nation's health policy, and a potentially powerful means of moving the health agenda forward. It also, however, argues that appeals to human rights may not necessarily be effective at mobilizing resources for specific health problems one might want to do something about. Specifically, it is not possible to argue that a particular allocation of scarce health care resources should be changed to a different allocation, benefiting other groups. Lack of access to health care services by some people only shows that something has to be done, but not what should be done. SUMMARY: The somewhat weak claim identified above together with the obligation to realize progressively a right to health can be used to mobilize resources for health.

  1. Health, human rights and mobilization of resources for health

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Reidar K

    2004-01-01

    Background There has been an increased interest in the role of a human rights framework to mobilize resources for health. Discussion This paper argues that the human rights framework does provide us with an appropriate understanding of what values should guide a nation's health policy, and a potentially powerful means of moving the health agenda forward. It also, however, argues that appeals to human rights may not necessarily be effective at mobilizing resources for specific health problems one might want to do something about. Specifically, it is not possible to argue that a particular allocation of scarce health care resources should be changed to a different allocation, benefiting other groups. Lack of access to health care services by some people only shows that something has to be done, but not what should be done. Summary The somewhat weak claim identified above together with the obligation to realize progressively a right to health can be used to mobilize resources for health. PMID:15473899

  2. A Brief History of Soils and Human Health Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Sauer, Thomas J.

    2013-04-01

    The idea that there are links between soils and human health is an ancient one. The Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people in approximately 1400 B.C. as they entered Canaan, and in 400 B.C. Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the ground. Moving into the 18th and 19th Centuries, some North American farmers have been documented as recognizing a link between soils and human vitality. However, the recognition of links between soils and human health by these early people was based on casual observations leading to logical conclusions rather than scientific investigation. In the 1900s the idea that soils influence human health gained considerable traction. At least three chapters in the 1938 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture included recognition of the importance of soil as the origin of many of the mineral elements necessary for human health and in the 1957 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture scientists realized that soils were not only important in the supply of essential nutrients, but that they could also supply toxic levels of elements to the human diet. The U.S. Department of Agriculture established the Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research Unit (PSNRU) on the Cornell University campus in 1940 with a mission to conduct research at the interface of human nutrition and agriculture to improve the nutritional quality and health-promoting properties of food crops. A major human health breakthrough in 1940 was the isolation of antibiotic compounds from soil organisms by the research group at Rutgers University lead by Selman Waksman. Soil microorganisms create antibiotic compounds in an effort to gain a competitive advantage in the soil ecosystem. Humans have been able to isolate those compounds and use them advantageously in the fight against bacterial infections. Waksman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1952, the only soil

  3. Canadian soil quality guidelines for copper: Environmental and human health

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report begins with background information on the physical and chemical properties of copper, the production and use of copper in Canada, its levels in the Canadian environment, and existing guidelines and criteria regarding copper concentrations in various media. It then reviews the environmental fate and behaviour of copper, notably in the soil; the behavior and effects of copper in biota, including soil microbial processes, terrestrial plants and invertebrates, livestock and wildlife, and bioaccumulation; and the pharmacokinetics and toxicology of copper in mammals and humans, concluding with an overall toxicological evaluation and human exposure estimates. This information is used to derive environmental and human health soil quality guidelines for copper to protect environmental and human health receptors, for agricultural, residential/parkland, commercial, and industrial land uses.

  4. Service Courses in Avian Health Taught to Students Pursuing Degrees in Colleges of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    Avian health courses for agriculture students cover common types of poultry diseases and techniques for disease prevention and emphasize isolation, sanitation, and immunization. The outline of such a course at North Carolina State University is presented. (LBH)

  5. Impact of Pesticide Exposure Misclassification on Estimates of Related Risks in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective study of licensed pesticide applicators (largely fanners) and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. We evaluate the impact of occupational pesticide exposure misclassification on relative risks using data from t...

  6. The Status of Human Nutrition and Agricultural Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Bonita; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The authors state that the U.S. Department of Agriculture should be considering productive alternatives for the American farmer, exploring ways to use or export the excess fat, and should be spending at least half of its resources to convince the consumers of the value they are getting from agricultural products. (CT)

  7. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Focus Animal Health Animal Welfare Biotechnology Business Services Civil Rights Emergency Response Imports & Exports International Services Plant ... Focus Animal Health Animal Welfare Biotechnology Business Services Civil Rights Emergency Response Imports & Exports International Services Plant ...

  8. An agriculture and health inter-sectorial research process to reduce hazardous pesticide health impacts among smallholder farmers in the Andes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    rolling out pesticide poisoning surveillance modeled on our system; the Ecuadorian Association of Municipalities holding a national virtual forum on healthier agriculture; and the Ecuadorian Ministry of Agriculture promulgating restrictions on highly hazardous pesticides in June 2010. Conclusion Work with multiple actors is needed to shift agriculture towards greater sustainability and human health, particularly for vulnerable smallholders. PMID:22165981

  9. Agro-ecology, household economics and malaria in Uganda: empirical correlations between agricultural and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper establishes empirical evidence relating the agriculture and health sectors in Uganda. The analysis explores linkages between agricultural management, malaria and implications for improving community health outcomes in rural Uganda. The goal of this exploratory work is to expand the evidence-base for collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors in Uganda. Methods The paper presents an analysis of data from the 2006 Uganda National Household Survey using a parametric multivariate Two-Limit Tobit model to identify correlations between agro-ecological variables including geographically joined daily seasonal precipitation records and household level malaria risk. The analysis of agricultural and environmental factors as they affect household malaria rates, disaggregated by age-group, is inspired by a complimentary review of existing agricultural malaria literature indicating a gap in evidence with respect to agricultural management as a form of malaria vector management. Crop choices and agricultural management practices may contribute to vector control through the simultaneous effects of reducing malaria transmission, improving housing and nutrition through income gains, and reducing insecticide resistance in both malaria vectors and agricultural pests. Results The econometric results show the existence of statistically significant correlations between crops, such as sweet potatoes/yams, beans, millet and sorghum, with household malaria risk. Local environmental factors are also influential- daily maximum temperature is negatively correlated with malaria, while daily minimum temperature is positively correlated with malaria, confirming trends in the broader literature are applicable to the Ugandan context. Conclusions Although not necessarily causative, the findings provide sufficient evidence to warrant purposefully designed work to test for agriculture health causation in vector management. A key constraint to modeling the

  10. One Health: a perspective from the human health sector.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, M; Hossain, S S; Abbas, S S

    2014-08-01

    Despite emerging consensus that the One Health concept involves multiple stakeholders, the human health sector has continued to view it from a predominantly human health security perspective. It has often ignored the concerns of other sectors, e.g. concerns that relate to trade, commerce, livelihoods and sustainable development, all of which are important contributors to societal well-being. In the absence of a culture of collaboration, clear One Health goals, conceptual clarity and operating frameworks, this disconnect between human health and One Health efforts has often impeded the translation of One Health from concept to reality, other than during emergency situations. If there are to be effective and sustainable One Health partnerships we must identify clear operating principles that allow flexible approaches to intersectoral collaborations. To convince technical experts and political leaders in the human health sector of the importance of intersectoral cooperation, and to make the necessary structural adjustments, we need examples of best practice models and trans-sectoral methods for measuring the risks, burden and costs across sectors. Informal collaborations between researchers and technical experts will play a decisive role in developing these methods and models and instilling societal well-being into the human health sector's view of One Health.

  11. Antioxidant relevance to human health.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Human ecology requires both oxygen and water with the generation from food of an immediate energy source, ATP, by oxidative phosphorylation. A continuing balance between oxidation and antioxidation is necessary for longer less-disabled lives, taking account of oxidative stresses and the critical roles of oxidants in defence against infection, tissue repair and signalling. Antioxidant capacity is derived both exogenously (from food, beverage and sunlight) and endogenously (from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways). A number of oxidant food factors service antioxidant metallo-enzymes. The capacity operates extra- or intracellularly. Uric acid is the major antioxidant in primate blood. Uric acid synthesis is increased by dietary fructose from fruit, sugary foods and drinks. This indirect antioxidant effect of fruit is separate from that attributable to its flavonoids. Alcohol also increases serum uric acid. Urate excess and retention is associated with disease. The high prevalence of hyperuricaemia in NE Asia presents a major public health dilemma in regard to putative benefits and risks. Foods with high antioxidant activity include berries, nuts and legumes, tomatoes and sweet potato leaves. Each of the antioxidants in these foods is pleiotropic being inter-alia anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic or anti-neoplastic. Moreover, food matrices and patterns contribute to the safety of antioxidant consumption. There is no evidence to date that isolated antioxidants as food supplements improve health outcomes or survival; and some that indicate unacceptable risk. Their use as biomarkers of food cannot justify their isolated use. Nevertheless, a spectrum of dietary pluripotential antioxidants for tissues, metabolic and immune systems is advantageous.

  12. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations.

  13. Health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides with emphasis on DDTs and HCHs in abandoned agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Man, Yu Bon; Chow, Ka Lai; Wang, Hong Sheng; Lau, Ka Yan; Sun, Xiao Lin; Wu, Sheng Chun; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Chung, Shan Shan; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequence of changing land use from agriculture land to other use purposes with respect to OCPs non-cancer and cancer risk on human health, based on concentrations of DDTs and HCHs in soils collected from 55 locations representing 12 different land use types. There were no non-cancer risks of DDTs and γ-HCHs on adults and children, and there were very low cancer risks of DDD, o,p'-DDE, DDT, α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH based on their total concentrations in all samples. Nonetheless, there were significant correlations of DDT to its metabolites (DDE and DDD) (r = 0.506 and r = 0.648) and DDE to DDD (r = 0.438) both at p < 0.01. OCP levels should be routinely monitored in different environmental media and food in order to verify whether there is fresh input. Their potential risks on human health should also be assessed.

  14. Relations between retired agricultural land, water quality, and aquatic-community health, Minnesota River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; McLees, James M.; Niemela, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    The relative importance of agricultural land retirement on water quality and aquatic-community health was investigated in the Minnesota River Basin. Eighty-two sites, with drainage areas ranging from 4.3 to 2200 km2, were examined for nutrient concentrations, measures of aquatic-community health (e.g., fish index of biotic integrity [IBI] scores), and environmental factors (e.g., drainage area and amount of agricultural land retirement). The relation of proximity of agricultural land retirement to the stream was determined by calculating the land retirement percent in various riparian zones. Spearman's rho results indicated that IBI score was not correlated to the percentage of agricultural land retirement at the basin scale (p = 0.070); however, IBI score was correlated to retired land percentage in the 50- to 400-m riparian zones surrounding the streams (p < 0.05), indicating that riparian agricultural land retirement may have more influence on aquatic-community health than does agricultural land retirement in upland areas. Multivariate analysis of covariance and analysis of covariance models indicated that other environmental factors (such as drainage area and lacustrine and palustrine features) commonly were correlated to aquatic-community health measures, as were in-stream factors (standard deviation of water depth and substrate type). These results indicate that although agricultural land retirement is significantly related to fish communities as measured by the IBI scores, a combination of basin, riparian, and in-stream factors act together to influence IBI scores.

  15. [The greenhouse effect and human health].

    PubMed

    Berger, A

    1991-01-01

    Numerous scenarios describing the potential evolution of man's activities during the next few decades enable to predict the components of the future environmental system. On this basis and using the most reliable models, it may be predicted that, unless we alter our developmental policy, the Earth system will be significantly perturbed during the course of the 21st century. In particular, the greenhouse warming will cause profound changes in climatic zones as we know them to-day and, consequently, in regional climates and in the agricultural, economic, social and health infrastructures associated with them. According to the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, the Business-as-Usual scenario of emission would lead to a warming of about 3 degrees C above the 1990 level by the end of the next century. Sea level will rise due to the thermal expansion of the warmer oceans and potential melting of glaciers with a "best" estimate of 60 cm for the end of the XXIst century. Much more needs to be known about man-made effects on his surroundings, but action must be taken rapidly and effectively to ensure that instead of destroying the basis for human life on Earth, man's ingenuity is applied to saving and improving it.

  16. Climate, Health, Agricultural and Economic Impacts of Tighter Vehicle-Emission Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Walsh, Michael; Anenberg, Susan C.; VanDingen, Rita; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Austin, Jeff; Koch, Dorothy; Milly, George

    2011-01-01

    Non-CO2 air pollutants from motor vehicles have traditionally been controlled to protect air quality and health, but also affect climate. We use global composition climate modelling to examine the integrated impacts of adopting stringent European on-road vehicle-emission standards for these pollutants in 2015 in many developing countries. Relative to no extra controls, the tight standards lead to annual benefits in 2030 and beyond of 120,000-280,000 avoided premature air pollution-related deaths, 6.1-19.7 million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops, $US0.6-2.4 trillion avoided health damage and $US1.1-4.3 billion avoided agricultural damage, and mitigation of 0.20 (+0.14/-0.17) C of Northern Hemisphere extratropical warming during 2040-2070. Tighter vehicle-emission standards are thus extremely likely to mitigate short-term climate change in most cases, in addition to providing large improvements in human health and food security. These standards will not reduce CO2 emissions, however, which is required to mitigate long-term climate change.

  17. Climate, health, agricultural and economic impacts of tighter vehicle-emission standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Walsh, Michael; Anenberg, Susan C.; van Dingenen, Rita; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Austin, Jeff; Koch, Dorothy; Milly, George

    2011-04-01

    Non-CO2 air pollutants from motor vehicles have traditionally been controlled to protect air quality and health, but also affect climate. We use global composition-climate modelling to examine the integrated impacts of adopting stringent European on-road vehicle-emission standards for these pollutants in 2015 in many developing countries. Relative to no extra controls, the tight standards lead to annual benefits in 2030 and beyond of 120,000-280,000 avoided premature air pollution-related deaths, 6.1-19.7 million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops, $US0.6-2.4 trillion avoided health damage and $US1.1-4.3 billion avoided agricultural damage, and mitigation of 0.20 (+0.14/-0.17) °C of Northern Hemisphere extratropical warming during 2040-2070. Tighter vehicle-emission standards are thus extremely likely to mitigate short-term climate change in most cases, in addition to providing large improvements in human health and food security. These standards will not reduce CO2 emissions, however, which is required to mitigate long-term climate change.

  18. A Brief History of Soils and Human Health Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Sauer, Thomas J.

    2013-04-01

    The idea that there are links between soils and human health is an ancient one. The Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people in approximately 1400 B.C. as they entered Canaan, and in 400 B.C. Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the ground. Moving into the 18th and 19th Centuries, some North American farmers have been documented as recognizing a link between soils and human vitality. However, the recognition of links between soils and human health by these early people was based on casual observations leading to logical conclusions rather than scientific investigation. In the 1900s the idea that soils influence human health gained considerable traction. At least three chapters in the 1938 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture included recognition of the importance of soil as the origin of many of the mineral elements necessary for human health and in the 1957 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture scientists realized that soils were not only important in the supply of essential nutrients, but that they could also supply toxic levels of elements to the human diet. The U.S. Department of Agriculture established the Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research Unit (PSNRU) on the Cornell University campus in 1940 with a mission to conduct research at the interface of human nutrition and agriculture to improve the nutritional quality and health-promoting properties of food crops. A major human health breakthrough in 1940 was the isolation of antibiotic compounds from soil organisms by the research group at Rutgers University lead by Selman Waksman. Soil microorganisms create antibiotic compounds in an effort to gain a competitive advantage in the soil ecosystem. Humans have been able to isolate those compounds and use them advantageously in the fight against bacterial infections. Waksman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1952, the only soil

  19. Eutrophication, marine biotoxins, human health.

    PubMed

    Viviani, R

    1992-01-01

    Eutrophication phenomena in marine coastal waters can today be explained on the basis of natural or anthropogenic causes. Undesirable effects and also sanitary problems in both types of eutrophication are often produced, but they may differ greatly in frequency and significance. Some algal biotoxins can affect both marine animals and man, whilst others affect man alone. From data currently available it appears that the sanitary state of man can be affected through the digestive, respiratory and cutaneous apparatus. Four main dinoflagellate biointoxications are now recognized: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and venerupin poisoning. Other biointoxications are due to a diatom bloom responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and to blue algae blooms which have effects on the skin and the respiratory tract. All these marine toxins are considered and particular attention is paid to: producing organisms, chemistry of the components, compromised sea foods, methods of analysis, occurrence worldwide, human intoxications, toxicology and mechanism of action on a molecular level, therapeutical notes, tolerance levels and remarks on safety. Attention is also paid to the relationship between the anthropogenic eutrophication and PSP and DSP since these are the most widespread biointoxications from toxic marine dinoflagellates in the world today and for which the European Economic Community (EEC) is proposing health legislation such as tolerance limits and methods for official analysis. In view of the harmful potential of coastal anthropogenic eutrophication, the main current committment of various countries concerns control. Finally, it is important to develop a suitable monitor research system using all the specific standards of allowed toxic substances, and also research on effective antiodotes against all biotoxins. PMID:1475681

  20. Review of Pesticide Education Materials for Health Care Providers Providing Care to Agricultural Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiott, Ann E.; Quandt, Sara A.; Early, Julie; Jackson, David S.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Pesticide exposure is an important environmental and occupational health risk for agricultural workers and their families, but health care providers receive little training in it. Objective: To evaluate the medical resources available to providers caring for patients, particularly farmworkers, exposed to pesticides and to recommend a…

  1. HEALTH CONDITIONS AND SERVICES FOR DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS AND THEIR FAMILIES IN CALIFORNIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Public Health, Berkeley.

    FIELD INTERVIEWS WERE HELD WITH COMMUNITY LEADERS AND WITH SEVERAL HUNDRED WORKERS' FAMILIES. THE ACQUIRED INFORMATION SUPPLEMENTED A SURVEY OF PAST AND PRESENT CONDITIONS AND ASSISTED IN FORMULATING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION TO MEET THE ACUTE HEALTH NEEDS OF CALIFORNIA'S SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. THE HEALTH PROBLEM CAN BE MET BY LOCAL…

  2. Health, agricultural, and economic effects of adoption of healthy diet recommendations.

    PubMed

    Lock, Karen; Smith, Richard D; Dangour, Alan D; Keogh-Brown, Marcus; Pigatto, Gessuir; Hawkes, Corinna; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Chalabi, Zaid

    2010-11-13

    Transition to diets that are high in saturated fat and sugar has caused a global public health concern, as the pattern of food consumption is a major modifiable risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases. Although agri-food systems are intimately associated with this transition, agriculture and health sectors are largely disconnected in their priorities, policy, and analysis, with neither side considering the complex inter-relation between agri-trade, patterns of food consumption, health, and development. We show the importance of connection of these perspectives through estimation of the eff ect of adopting a healthy diet on population health, agricultural production, trade, the economy, and livelihoods,with a computable general equilibrium approach. On the basis of case-studies from the UK and Brazil, we suggest that benefits of a healthy diet policy will vary substantially between different populations, not only because of population dietary intake but also because of agricultural production, trade, and other economic factors.

  3. Health impact assessment of agriculture and food policies: lessons learnt from the Republic of Slovenia.

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Karen; Gabrijelcic-Blenkus, Mojca; Martuzzi, Marco; Otorepec, Peter; Wallace, Paul; Dora, Carlos; Robertson, Aileen; Zakotnic, Jozica Maucec

    2003-01-01

    The most important public health priority in agricultural policy-making is currently food safety, despite the relatively higher importance of food security, nutrition, and other agricultural-related health issues in terms of global burden of disease. There is limited experience worldwide of using health impact assessment (HIA) during the development of agriculture and food policies, which perhaps reflects the complex nature of this policy sector. This paper presents methods of HIA used in the Republic of Slovenia, which is conducting a HIA of proposed agricultural and food policies due to its accession to the European Union. It is the first time that any government has attempted to assess the health effects of agricultural policy at a national level. The HIA has basically followed a six-stage process: policy analysis; rapid appraisal workshops with stakeholders from a range of backgrounds; review of research evidence relevant to the agricultural policy; analysis of Slovenian data for key health-related indicators; a report on the findings to a key cross-government group; and evaluation. The experience in Slovenia shows that the HIA process has been a useful mechanism for raising broader public health issues on the agricultural policy agenda, and it has already had positive results for policy formation. HIA is one useful approach to more integrated policy-making across sectors, but clearly it is not the only mechanism to achieve this. A comparison of the approach used in Slovenia with HIA methods in other countries and policy contexts shows that there are still many limitations with HIA application at a government level. Lessons can be learnt from these case studies for future development and application of HIA that is more relevant to policy-makers, and assists them in making more healthy policy choices. PMID:12894321

  4. Agriculture, Food Production, and Rural Land Use in Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, William G.; Watson, Nancy H.

    2016-01-01

    ''Agriculture, Food, and Rural Land Use" constitutes a major part of the AP Human Geography course outline. This article explores challenging topics to teach, emerging research trends in agricultural geography, and sample teaching approaches for concretizing abstract topics. It addresses content identified as "essential knowledge"…

  5. Relationship between humanity and plant natural resources – in the context of food and agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture, the domestication, culture, and management of plants and animals, has led to profound social changes in human evolution and development; it can be considered as the basis for civilization. Roughly 12,000 years ago agriculture appeared independently in several parts of the world. A natur...

  6. Returns to Human and Research Capital, United States Agriculture, 1949-1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishelson, Gideon

    This study estimated rates of return to public investments in human and research capital (formal schooling and extension and vocational agricultural education) in the United States agricultural industry. (Southern states were excluded because of demographic and educational factors that would have biased the variables.) Output per farm was defined…

  7. A Survey of Human Resource Management and Qualification Levels in Hungarian Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berde, Csaba; Piros, Marta

    2006-01-01

    The question of quality and value of human resources have been at the forefront of Hungarian agriculture for the past few years. The decreasing number of agricultural employees in Hungary in the last decade (1990-2000) is a result of the crisis caused by the change of the socio-economic system rather than economic and technological development.…

  8. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    PubMed

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings.

  9. HEALTH, VITAL GOALS, AND CENTRAL HUMAN CAPABILITIES

    PubMed Central

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or ‘central human capabilities and functionings’. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings—or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. PMID:22420910

  10. [Human resources for local health systems].

    PubMed

    Linger, C

    1989-01-01

    The economic and social crises affecting Latin America have had a profound social and political effect on its structures. This paper analyzes this impact from 2 perspectives: 1) the impact on the apparatus of the state, in particular on its health infra-structures; and 2) the direction of the democratic process in the continent and the participatory processes of civil societies. The institutionalization of the Local Health Systems (SILOS) is an effort to analyze the problem from within the health sector and propose solutions. This paper discusses the issues of human resource development in health systems; training in human resource development and human resource development in local health care systems. There are 3 strategies used to change health systems: 1) The judicial-political system: The state's apparatus 2) The political-administrative system: the national health care system; and 3) the political-operative system: local health care systems. To assure implementation of SILOS there are 4 steps to be followed: 1) create political conditions that allow the transformation and development of local health systems; 2) development of high-level institutional and political initiatives to develop health care networks; 3) offer key players institutional space and social action to develop the SILOS process; 4) rapidly develop SILOS in regions to assure its integration with other development efforts. The labor force in the health sector and organized communities play critical roles in proposing and institutionalizing health programs.

  11. [Human resources for local health systems].

    PubMed

    Linger, C

    1989-01-01

    The economic and social crises affecting Latin America have had a profound social and political effect on its structures. This paper analyzes this impact from 2 perspectives: 1) the impact on the apparatus of the state, in particular on its health infra-structures; and 2) the direction of the democratic process in the continent and the participatory processes of civil societies. The institutionalization of the Local Health Systems (SILOS) is an effort to analyze the problem from within the health sector and propose solutions. This paper discusses the issues of human resource development in health systems; training in human resource development and human resource development in local health care systems. There are 3 strategies used to change health systems: 1) The judicial-political system: The state's apparatus 2) The political-administrative system: the national health care system; and 3) the political-operative system: local health care systems. To assure implementation of SILOS there are 4 steps to be followed: 1) create political conditions that allow the transformation and development of local health systems; 2) development of high-level institutional and political initiatives to develop health care networks; 3) offer key players institutional space and social action to develop the SILOS process; 4) rapidly develop SILOS in regions to assure its integration with other development efforts. The labor force in the health sector and organized communities play critical roles in proposing and institutionalizing health programs. PMID:2766984

  12. Human Constraints to Sustainable Agriculture in the Arid Regions of South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvel, G. H.; Botha, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 79 South African farmers in arid regions showed that their conservation practices were influenced by such human factors as needs, perceptions, and knowledge. Direct influence on adoption behaviors was recommended to encourage sustainable agriculture practices. (SK)

  13. NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate, issued the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration. In January 2012, leadership and key directorate personnel were once again brought together to assess the current and expected future environment against its 2007 Strategy and the Agency and Johnson Space Center goals and strategies. The result was a refined vision and mission, and revised goals, objectives, and strategies. One of the first changes implemented was to rename the directorate from Space Life Sciences to Human Health and Performance to better reflect our vision and mission. The most significant change in the directorate from 2007 to the present is the integration of the Human Research Program and Crew Health and Safety activities. Subsequently, the Human Health and Performance Directorate underwent a reorganization to achieve enhanced integration of research and development with operations to better support human spaceflight and International Space Station utilization. These changes also enable a more effective and efficient approach to human system risk mitigation. Since 2007, we have also made significant advances in external collaboration and implementation of new business models within the directorate and the Agency, and through two newly established virtual centers, the NASA Human Health and Performance Center and the Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation. Our 2012 Strategy builds upon these successes to address the Agency's increased emphasis on societal relevance and being a leader in research and development and innovative business and communications practices. The 2012 Human Health and Performance Vision is to lead the world in human health and performance innovations for life in space and on Earth. Our mission is to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable

  14. NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate, issued the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration. In January 2012, leadership and key directorate personnel were once again brought together to assess the current and expected future environment against its 2007 Strategy and the Agency and Johnson Space Center goals and strategies. The result was a refined vision and mission, and revised goals, objectives, and strategies. One of the first changes implemented was to rename the directorate from Space Life Sciences to Human Health and Performance to better reflect our vision and mission. The most significant change in the directorate from 2007 to the present is the integration of the Human Research Program and Crew Health and Safety activities. Subsequently, the Human Health and Performance Directorate underwent a reorganization to achieve enhanced integration of research and development with operations to better support human spaceflight and International Space Station utilization. These changes also enable a more effective and efficient approach to human system risk mitigation. Since 2007, we have also made significant advances in external collaboration and implementation of new business models within the directorate and the Agency, and through two newly established virtual centers, the NASA Human Health and Performance Center and the Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation. Our 2012 Strategy builds upon these successes to address the Agency s increased emphasis on societal relevance and being a leader in research and development and innovative business and communications practices. The 2012 Human Health and Performance Vision is to lead the world in human health and performance innovations for life in space and on Earth. Our mission is to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HHPD functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable

  15. An Overview of Soils and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    Few people recognize the connection between soils and human health, even though soils are actually very important to health. Soils influence health through the nutrients taken up by plants and the animals that eat those plants, nutrients that are needed for adequate nutrition for growth and development. Soils can also act to harm human health in three major ways: i) toxic levels of substances or disease-causing organisms may enter the human food chain from the soil ii) humans can encounter pathogenic organisms through direct contact with the soil or inhaling dust from the soil, and iii) degraded soils produce nutrient-deficient foods leading to malnutrition. Soils have also been a major source of medicines. Therefore, soils form an integral link in the holistic view of human health. In this presentation, soils and their influence on human health are discussed from a broad perspective, including both direct influences of soils on health and indirect influences through things such as climate change, occupational exposure to soil amendments, and the role of soils in providing food security.

  16. A New Health Care Prevention Agenda: Sustainable Food Procurement and Agricultural Policy

    PubMed Central

    Harvie, Jamie; Mikkelsen, Leslie; Shak, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Health care leaders are broadening their awareness to include the need to address the food system as a means to individual, public, and global health, above and beyond basic nutritional factors. Key voices from the health care sector have begun to engage in market transformation and are aggregating to articulate the urgency for engagement in food and agricultural policy. Systemic transformation requires a range of policies that complement one another and address various aspects of the food system. Health care involvement in policy and advocacy is vital to solve the expanding ecological health crises facing our nation and globe and will require an urgency that may be unprecedented. PMID:23144678

  17. The health of women temporary agricultural workers in Canada: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Kathryn; Berman, Helene; Basok, Tanya; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2011-12-01

    Among high-income countries such as Canada, there is growing dependency on "low skilled" temporary foreign workers in a variety of sectors. The purpose of this review is to critically synthesize and analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on gendered and temporary migration in the context of globalization and the health of temporary agricultural workers, particularly women in Canadian programs. While the social sciences literature contains well-developed conceptualizations of gendered migration, the research has focused on women in feminized occupations such as domestic work. Multidisciplinary searches produced only 11 research and review publications on the gendered constraints or health of temporary agricultural workers in Canada. Further investigation is needed to explore and integrate the strengths, resiliencies, and health-care needs of women migrant agricultural workers in Canada, as well as the barriers they face, within the intersecting and gendered forces of inequities at all levels: local, national, and global.

  18. The health of women temporary agricultural workers in Canada: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Kathryn; Berman, Helene; Basok, Tanya; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2011-12-01

    Among high-income countries such as Canada, there is growing dependency on "low skilled" temporary foreign workers in a variety of sectors. The purpose of this review is to critically synthesize and analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on gendered and temporary migration in the context of globalization and the health of temporary agricultural workers, particularly women in Canadian programs. While the social sciences literature contains well-developed conceptualizations of gendered migration, the research has focused on women in feminized occupations such as domestic work. Multidisciplinary searches produced only 11 research and review publications on the gendered constraints or health of temporary agricultural workers in Canada. Further investigation is needed to explore and integrate the strengths, resiliencies, and health-care needs of women migrant agricultural workers in Canada, as well as the barriers they face, within the intersecting and gendered forces of inequities at all levels: local, national, and global. PMID:22435309

  19. Occupational health and the rural worker: agriculture, mining, and logging.

    PubMed

    Pratt, D S

    1990-10-01

    More than 50 million Americans live in rural areas. These rural residents often work for small businesses or in the extraction industries (farming, mining, and logging). Because of the size of the businesses, the mandate of the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) does not cover these workers and they are seldom afforded the same protection as urban workers. This review focuses on the special health problems facing farm workers, farmers, miners, and loggers. Farm workers are often ill and are affected by psychological illness, injuries, parasites, skin diseases, and the dangers of agrichemicals. Farm owners also face the hazards of stress and have very high rates of suicide. In addition, they are often injured on the job and suffer the highest rate of job related fatality of any work group. The complex farm environment presents a continuous threat to the lungs. This danger has worsened with the increased use of confinement buildings for poultry, hogs, and cattle. As farming has changed with increased mechanization, attendant medical problems have arisen. These "illnesses of innovation" are important. Mining and logging also are dangerous occupations with acute and chronic problems including respiratory illness, vascular problems, and malignancy. The decade of the 1990s must be one of increased attention to rural occupational health care and research.

  20. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACTS OF EXPOSURE TO POPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was adopted in 2001 to protect human health and the environment from chemicals that are highly toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and undergo long range transport. These POPs include 9 pesticides, polychlorinated d...

  1. NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffery R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the purpose, potential members and participants of the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC). Included in the overview is a brief description of the administration and current activities of the NHHPC.

  2. INTERCONNECTIONS BETWEEN HUMAN HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL INTEGRITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interconnections between Human Health and Ecological Integrity emanates from a June 2000 Pellston Workshop in Snowbird, Utah, USA. Jointly sponsored by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and the Society of Toxicology (SOT), the workshop was motivated by...

  3. Human health benefits from livestock vaccination for brucellosis: case study.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Felix; Zinsstag, Jakob; Orkhon, Dontor; Chimed-Ochir, G.; Hutton, Guy; Cosivi, Ottorino; Carrin, Guy; Otte, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic benefit, cost-effectiveness, and distribution of benefit of improving human health in Mongolia through the control of brucellosis by mass vaccination of livestock. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness and economic benefit for human society and the agricultural sector of mass vaccination against brucellosis was modelled. The intervention consisted of a planned 10-year livestock mass vaccination campaign using Rev-1 livestock vaccine for small ruminants and S19 livestock vaccine for cattle. Cost-effectiveness, expressed as cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, was the primary outcome. FINDINGS: In a scenario of 52% reduction of brucellosis transmission between animals achieved by mass vaccination, a total of 49,027 DALYs could be averted. Estimated intervention costs were US$ 8.3 million, and the overall benefit was US$ 26.6 million. This results in a net present value of US$ 18.3 million and an average benefit-cost ratio for society of 3.2 (2.27-4.37). If the costs of the intervention were shared between the sectors in proportion to the benefit to each, the public health sector would contribute 11%, which gives a cost-effectiveness of US$ 19.1 per DALY averted (95% confidence interval 5.3-486.8). If private economic gain because of improved human health was included, the health sector should contribute 42% to the intervention costs and the cost-effectiveness would decrease to US$ 71.4 per DALY averted. CONCLUSION: If the costs of vaccination of livestock against brucellosis were allocated to all sectors in proportion to the benefits, the intervention might be profitable and cost effective for the agricultural and health sectors. PMID:14997239

  4. RETHINKING HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most EIA programs around the world require the consideration of human health impacts. Yet relatively few EIA documents adequately address those impacts. This article examines how, why, and to what extent health impacts are analyzed in environmental impact assessments in the U.S. ...

  5. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  6. NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. R.; Richard, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) will provide a collaborative and virtual forum to integrate all disciplines of the human system to address spaceflight, aviation, and terrestrial human health and performance topics and issues. The NHHPC will serve a vital role as integrator, convening members to share information and capture a diverse knowledge base, while allowing the parties to collaborate to address the most important human health and performance topics of interest to members. The Center and its member organizations will address high-priority risk reduction strategies, including research and technology development, improved medical and environmental health diagnostics and therapeutics, and state-of-the art design approaches for human factors and habitability. Once full established in 2011, the NHHPC will focus on a number of collaborative projects focused on human health and performance, including workshops, education and outreach, information sharing and knowledge management, and research and technology development projects, to advance the study of the human system for spaceflight and other national and international priorities.

  7. Tetracycline and Phenicol Resistance Genes and Mechanisms: Importance for Agriculture, the Environment, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Marilyn C; Schwarz, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Recent reports have speculated on the future impact that antibiotic-resistant bacteria will have on food production, human health, and global economics. This review examines microbial resistance to tetracyclines and phenicols, antibiotics that are widely used in global food production. The mechanisms of resistance, mode of spread between agriculturally and human-impacted environments and ecosystems, distribution among bacteria, and the genes most likely to be associated with agricultural and environmental settings are included. Forty-six different tetracycline resistance () genes have been identified in 126 genera, with (M) having the broadest taxonomic distribution among all bacteria and (B) having the broadest coverage among the Gram-negative genera. Phenicol resistance genes are organized into 37 groups and have been identified in 70 bacterial genera. The review provides the latest information on tetracycline and phenicol resistance genes, including their association with mobile genetic elements in bacteria of environmental, medical, and veterinary relevance. Knowing what specific antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) are found in specific bacterial species and/or genera is critical when using a selective suite of ARGs for detection or surveillance studies. As detection methods move to molecular techniques, our knowledge about which type of bacteria carry which resistance gene(s) will become more important to ensure that the whole spectrum of bacteria are included in future surveillance studies. This review provides information needed to integrate the biology, taxonomy, and ecology of tetracycline- and phenicol-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes so that informative surveillance strategies can be developed and the correct genes selected.

  8. Child labor and environmental health: government obligations and human rights.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm.

  9. Child labor and environmental health: government obligations and human rights.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

  10. Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights

    PubMed Central

    Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

  11. MICROBES, MONITORING AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are about 20,000 wastewater treatment plants in the United States. These plants discharge about 50 trillion gallons of wastewater daily into the nation's surface waters. Most wastewater contains human feces, which are a potential source of microbial pathogens. Pathogens ...

  12. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD. PMID:27296501

  13. Exposure to UV radiation and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, Michael G.

    2005-08-01

    This paper will overview the significant issues facing researchers in relating the impact of exposure to sunlight and human health. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the major causative factor in most sun-related skin and eye disorders, however, very little is known quantitatively about human UV exposures. Interestingly, human exposure to sunlight also has a nutritional impact, namely the development of pre-Vitamin D, which is an important nutrient in bone health. New research suggest that low vitamin D status may be a causative factor in the development of selective types of cancer and autoimminue diseases, as well as a contributing factor in bone health. The 'health duality' aspect of sunlight exposure is an interesting and controversial topic that is a research focus of Kimlin's research group.

  14. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Yusa, Anna; Berry, Peter; Cheng, June J.; Ogden, Nicholas; Bonsal, Barrie; Stewart, Ronald; Waldick, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases). A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation) options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health. PMID:26193300

  15. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada.

    PubMed

    Yusa, Anna; Berry, Peter; J Cheng, June; Ogden, Nicholas; Bonsal, Barrie; Stewart, Ronald; Waldick, Ruth

    2015-07-17

    Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases). A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation) options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health.

  16. Utilization of agricultural by-products in healthful food products: Organogelators, antioxidants, and spreadable products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was found that several agricultural by-products could be utilized for healthful food products. Three major applications that our research group has been focusing on will be discussed: 1) plant waxes for trans-fat free, low saturated fat-containing margarine and spread products, 2) extracts of cor...

  17. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: YEAR 1 MEASUREMENT RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to targeted applied pesticides (2,4-D or chlorpyrifos) is being measured for a subset of applicators and their families in t...

  18. INTERIM RESULTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

  19. The Interaction of Secondary Agriculture Teacher Health and the School as a Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrom, Lyle; Lee, Jasper S.

    A study was conducted to identify the factors in the school workplace that may contribute to the health status of secondary agriculture teachers in the United States. The research involved a descriptive-correlational study, in which 303 teachers from a random sample of more than 500 replied to a questionnaire. Results showed that teachers…

  20. Occupational Safety and Health: A View of Current Practices in Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threeton, Mark D.; Ewing, John C.; Evanoski, Danielle C.

    2015-01-01

    Providing safe and secure teaching and learning environments within schools is an ongoing process which requires a significant amount of attention. Therefore, this study sought to: 1) explore safety and health practices within secondary Agricultural Mechanics Education; and 2) identify the perceived obstacles which appear to hinder implementation…

  1. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STATUS UPDATE AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

  2. SUMMARY OF BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING RESULTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos was measured for a subset of applicators and their families in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess...

  3. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  4. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  5. Agricultural Chemical and Pesticide Hazards. Module SH-50. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on agricultural chemical and pesticide hazards is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module contains information concerning the safe handling, use, and storage of many chemicals that are frequently used in the control of pests. Following the introduction, 10 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

  6. The National Program for Occupational Safety and Health in Agriculture. 1992 Project Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health (DHHS/PHS), Cincinnati, OH.

    This book contains information about a project instituted in 1990 by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to prevent work-related diseases and injuries among agricultural workers. Included are facts about 25 projects within NIOSH and 42 cooperative agreements between NIOSH and institutions in 25 states. These…

  7. Grounding & human health - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, I. A.; Jamieson, S. S.; ApSimon, H. M.; Bell, J. N. B.

    2011-06-01

    Whilst grounding is often undertaken in industry as a matter of good practice in situations where the risk of excess charge exists, little thought is usually given to the biological effects that such measures may have, or possible benefits that may arise from the more widespread application of electrostatic and other 'electromagnetic hygiene' measures in hospitals and the general built environment. Research, which is still in its infancy, indicates that grounding the human body using suitable methodologies, particularly in low electromagnetic field environments, can significantly enhance biological functioning. It is proposed that there are often a number of electrostatic and 'electromagnetic hygiene' factors that need to be addressed before the beneficial effects of grounding the human body can be fully realised in many everyday environments.

  8. Overview of naturally occurring Earth materials and human health concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2012-10-01

    The biosphere and the Earth's critical zone have maintained a dynamic equilibrium for more than 3.5 billion years. Except for solar energy, almost all terrestrial substances necessary for life have been derived from near-surface portions of the land, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. If aggregate biological activities are less than the rate of nutrient supply and/or resource renewal, sustained population growth is possible. Where the replenishment rate of a life-sustaining Earth material is finite, usage may reach a condition of dynamic equilibrium in which biological consumption equals but on average cannot exceed the overall supply. Although large, most natural resources are present in finite abundances; for such commodities, excessive present-day human utilization reduces future availability, and thus the ultimate planetary carrying capacity for civilization. Intensive use of Earth materials has enhanced the quality of life, especially in the developed nations. Still, natural background levels, and Earth processes such as volcanic eruptions, as well as human activities involving agriculture, construction, and the extraction, refining, and transformation of mineral resources have led to harmful side effects involving environmental degradation and public health hazards. Among naturally and anthropogenically induced risks are bioaccessible airborne dusts and gases, soluble pollutants in agricultural, industrial, and residential waters, and toxic chemical species in foods and manufactured products. At appropriate levels of ingestion, many Earth materials are necessary for existence, but underdoses and overdoses have mild to serious consequences for human health and longevity. This overview briefly sketches several natural resource health hazards. Included are volcanic ash + aerosols + gases, mineral dusts, non-volcanic aerosols + nanoparticles, asbestos + fibrous zeolites, arsenic, fluorine, iodine, uranium + thorium + radium + radon + polonium, selenium, mercury, copper

  9. Lead in soil and agricultural products in the Huainan Coal Mining Area, Anhui, China: levels, distribution, and health implications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ting; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Lu, Lanlan

    2015-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural soil is of great concern, as heavy metals can be finally transferred to the human body through the food chain. A field survey was conducted to investigate the lead (Pb) levels and distribution in soil, agricultural products (wheat, paddy, and soybean), and fish, in the Huainan Coal Mining Area (HCMA), Anhui Province, China, to provide reference information to local inhabitants. The daily intake and target hazard quotients of Pb through food consumption were assessed. Results showed that the mean Pb concentration in soil was higher than the Huainan soil background Pb value but lower than the maximum allowance Pb concentration for agricultural soil (GB 15618-2008). The elevated Pb in soil, especially in rainy months (June to August in Huainan), might be related to Pb leaching from ambient coal gangue piles. Excessive Pb concentration was found in the grains of food crops, which would pose a potential health risk to local inhabitants. Therein, wheat showed higher Pb bioaccumulation ability than other crops. With regard to the Pb levels in muscles, fishes were considered to be safe for consumption. The calculations on daily intake and tolerable hazard quotient of Pb suggest that the potential health hazard posed by Pb is currently insignificant for the inhabitants in the HCMA.

  10. Lead in soil and agricultural products in the Huainan Coal Mining Area, Anhui, China: levels, distribution, and health implications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ting; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Lu, Lanlan

    2015-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural soil is of great concern, as heavy metals can be finally transferred to the human body through the food chain. A field survey was conducted to investigate the lead (Pb) levels and distribution in soil, agricultural products (wheat, paddy, and soybean), and fish, in the Huainan Coal Mining Area (HCMA), Anhui Province, China, to provide reference information to local inhabitants. The daily intake and target hazard quotients of Pb through food consumption were assessed. Results showed that the mean Pb concentration in soil was higher than the Huainan soil background Pb value but lower than the maximum allowance Pb concentration for agricultural soil (GB 15618-2008). The elevated Pb in soil, especially in rainy months (June to August in Huainan), might be related to Pb leaching from ambient coal gangue piles. Excessive Pb concentration was found in the grains of food crops, which would pose a potential health risk to local inhabitants. Therein, wheat showed higher Pb bioaccumulation ability than other crops. With regard to the Pb levels in muscles, fishes were considered to be safe for consumption. The calculations on daily intake and tolerable hazard quotient of Pb suggest that the potential health hazard posed by Pb is currently insignificant for the inhabitants in the HCMA. PMID:25724617

  11. Human agricultural economy is, and likely always was, largely based on kinship - Why?

    PubMed

    Rusch, Hannes; Voland, Eckart

    2016-01-01

    We question the sequence of evolutionary transitions leading to ultrasociality in humans proposed by Gowdy & Krall. Evidence indicates that families are, and likely always have been, the primary productive units in human agricultural economies, suggesting that genetic relatedness is key to understanding when the suppression of individual autonomy to the benefit of subsistence groups, that is, extended families, evolved. PMID:27562232

  12. Occupational Exposure to Carbofuran and the Incidence of Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Matthew R.; Lee, Won Jin; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Alavanja, Michael C. R.

    2005-01-01

    Carbofuran is a carbamate insecticide registered for use on a variety of food crops including corn, alfalfa, rice, and tobacco. An estimated 5 million pounds of carbofuran is used annually in the United States, and 45% of urban African-American women have detectable levels of carbofuran in their plasma. Nitrosated carbofuran has demonstrated mutagenic properties. We examined exposure to carbofuran and several tumor sites among 49,877 licensed pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. We obtained information regarding years of use, frequency of use in an average year, and when use began for 22 pesticides using self-administered questionnaires. Poisson regression was used to calculate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusting for potential confounders. Lung cancer risk was 3-fold higher for those with > 109 days of lifetime exposure to carbofuran (RR = 3.05; 95% CI, 0.94–9.87) compared with those with < 9 lifetime exposure days, with a significant dose–response trend for both days of use per year and total years of use. However, carbofuran use was not associated with lung cancer risk when nonexposed persons were used as the referent. In addition, carbofuran exposure was not associated with any other cancer site examined. Although carbamate pesticides are suspected human carcinogens, these results should be interpreted cautiously because there was no a priori hypothesis specifically linking carbofuran to lung cancer. PMID:15743716

  13. Adverse impact of industrial animal agriculture on the health and welfare of farmed animals.

    PubMed

    D'Silva, Joyce

    2006-03-01

    Industrial animal agriculture is grounded in the concept of maximizing productivity and profit. Selective breeding for maximum productivity in one characteristic of the animal (e.g. milk yield in cows, or breast meat in broiler chickens) has resulted in genotypes and phenotypes that may predispose the animals to poor health and welfare. The conditions in which these individuals are kept may also frustrate many inherited behaviors that they are strongly motivated to perform. In order to curb the resulting harmful aberrant behaviors, such as feather-pecking in chickens, we sometimes resort to mutilating the animals. In many places chickens are routinely de-beaked by means of a hot metal guillotine. Compassion in World Farming (an international organization that promotes the humane treatment of farm animals) believes that it is unethical to treat sentient beings in such ways. We have a duty to respect farm animals' sentience by providing them with housing conditions that take their needs and wants into account, and by reverting to the use of dual-purpose, slower-growing breeds that have the potential for good welfare. Alternatives to current farming practices are available, and we owe it to the animals, and to our consciences, to pursue them.

  14. Health and welfare in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Nordenfelt, Lennart

    2011-06-01

    This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences.

  15. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  16. Global perspective of health related edible plants from the agricultural point of view.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Yang; Tsou, Chih-Sheng; Lin, Hai-Chen; Ien, Cheng-Hua; Wu, Ya-Tien

    2008-01-01

    In knowledge-based economies, nutrition concepts evolve with advances in agriculture. As people around the world become more health conscious, national health becomes one of the main directives for agricultural policies, including that of functional foods and their global markets. This article evaluates the development of the functional food industry in Taiwan and other countries through analysis of R&D capacity and bibliometrics. It attempts to identify future trends in nutrition with technology foresight research. Taiwan has a wide variety of indigenous herbal plants, although its functional food related literature is not large compared with some other Asian countries. However, there are quality papers on the immunologic functions of edible plants Globally there is much interest in edible plants with antioxidant activity and those phyto-nutrients which might help reduce the burden of chronic illness as well as in the nutrigenomics that will lead to the design of foods with these properties. To make the most of available agricultural resources, countries like Taiwan should relate agricultural development to the nutritional status of their populations. This strategy will add significant value to global agriculture.

  17. Human resources for health in India.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mohan; Rao, Krishna D; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Sundararaman, Thiagarajan

    2011-02-12

    India has a severe shortage of human resources for health. It has a shortage of qualified health workers and the workforce is concentrated in urban areas. Bringing qualified health workers to rural, remote, and underserved areas is very challenging. Many Indians, especially those living in rural areas, receive care from unqualified providers. The migration of qualified allopathic doctors and nurses is substantial and further strains the system. Nurses do not have much authority or say within the health system, and the resources to train them are still inadequate. Little attention is paid during medical education to the medical and public health needs of the population, and the rapid privatisation of medical and nursing education has implications for its quality and governance. Such issues are a result of underinvestment in and poor governance of the health sector--two issues that the government urgently needs to address. A comprehensive national policy for human resources is needed to achieve universal health care in India. The public sector will need to redesign appropriate packages of monetary and non-monetary incentives to encourage qualified health workers to work in rural and remote areas. Such a policy might also encourage task-shifting and mainstreaming doctors and practitioners who practice traditional Indian medicine (ayurveda, yoga and naturopathy, unani, and siddha) and homoeopathy to work in these areas while adopting other innovative ways of augmenting human resources for health. At the same time, additional investments will be needed to improve the relevance, quantity, and quality of nursing, medical, and public health education in the country.

  18. Human resources for health: overcoming the crisis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lincoln; Evans, Timothy; Anand, Sudhir; Boufford, Jo Ivey; Brown, Hilary; Chowdhury, Mushtaque; Cueto, Marcos; Dare, Lola; Dussault, Gilles; Elzinga, Gijs; Fee, Elizabeth; Habte, Demissie; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Jacobs, Marian; Kurowski, Christoph; Michael, Sarah; Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Sewankambo, Nelson; Solimano, Giorgio; Stilwell, Barbara; de Waal, Alex; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    In this analysis of the global workforce, the Joint Learning Initiative-a consortium of more than 100 health leaders-proposes that mobilisation and strengthening of human resources for health, neglected yet critical, is central to combating health crises in some of the world's poorest countries and for building sustainable health systems in all countries. Nearly all countries are challenged by worker shortage, skill mix imbalance, maldistribution, negative work environment, and weak knowledge base. Especially in the poorest countries, the workforce is under assault by HIV/AIDS, out-migration, and inadequate investment. Effective country strategies should be backed by international reinforcement. Ultimately, the crisis in human resources is a shared problem requiring shared responsibility for cooperative action. Alliances for action are recommended to strengthen the performance of all existing actors while expanding space and energy for fresh actors. PMID:15567015

  19. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-18

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being.

  20. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-01

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249

  1. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture—in the form of a primer—of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249

  2. Oceans and Human Health: Linking Ocean, Organism, and Human Health for Sustainable Management of Coastal Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandifer, P. A.; Trtanj, J.; Collier, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and policy-makers are increasingly recognizing that sustainable coastal communities depend on healthy and resilient economies, ecosystems, and people, and that the condition or "health" of the coastal ocean and humans are intimately and inextricably connected. A wealth of ecosystem services provided by ocean and coastal environments are crucial for human survival and well being. Nonetheless, the health of coastal communities, their economies, connected ecosystems and ecosystem services, and people are under increasing threats from health risks associated with environmental degradation, climate change, and unwise land use practices, all of which contribute to growing burdens of naturally-occurring and introduced pathogens, noxious algae, and chemical contaminants. The occurrence, frequency, intensity, geographic range, and number and kinds of ocean health threats are increasing, with concomitant health and economic effects and eroding public confidence in the safety and wholesomeness of coastal environments and resources. Concerns in the research and public health communities, many summarized in the seminal 1999 NRC Report, From Monsoons to Microbes and the 2004 final report of the US Commission on Ocean Policy, resulted in establishment of a new "meta-discipline" known as Oceans and Human Health (OHH). OHH brings together practitioners in oceanography, marine biology, ecology, biomedical science, medicine, economics and other social sciences, epidemiology, environmental management, and public health to focus on water- and food-borne causes of human and animal illnesses associated with ocean and coastal systems and on health benefits of seafood and other marine products. It integrates information across multiple disciplines to increase knowledge of ocean health risks and benefits and communicate such information to enhance public safety. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive approach to ocean health threats and benefits, Congress passed the Oceans and

  3. Assessing the Potential and Limitations of Leveraging Food Sovereignty to Improve Human Health.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew D; Fink Shapiro, Lilly; Wilson, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Food sovereignty has been defined as "the right of peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define their own food and agriculture systems." Human health is an implied component of this definition through the principle of healthy food. In fact, improved human health is commonly cited as a benefit of transforming food production away from the dominant practices of industrial agriculture. Yet, does the use of "ecologically sound and sustainable methods" of food production necessarily translate into better human health outcomes? Does greater choice in defining an agricultural or food system create gains in health and well-being? We elucidate the conceptual linkages between food sovereignty and human health, critically examine the empirical evidence supporting or refuting these linkages, and identify research gaps and key priorities for the food sovereignty-human health research agenda. Five domains of food sovereignty are discussed including: (1) use of agroecological management practices for food production, (2) the localization of food production and consumption, (3) promotion of social justice and equity, (4) valuation of traditional knowledge, and (5) the transformation of economic and political institutions and structures to support self-determination. We find that although there are many plausible linkages between food sovereignty and human health, the empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis that increasing food sovereignty yields improvements to human health is weak. We propose that a concerted effort to generate new empirical evidence on the health implications of these domains of food sovereignty is urgently needed, and suggest areas of research that may be crucial for addressing the gaps in the evidence base. PMID:26636062

  4. Assessing the Potential and Limitations of Leveraging Food Sovereignty to Improve Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew D.; Fink Shapiro, Lilly; Wilson, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Food sovereignty has been defined as “the right of peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define their own food and agriculture systems.” Human health is an implied component of this definition through the principle of healthy food. In fact, improved human health is commonly cited as a benefit of transforming food production away from the dominant practices of industrial agriculture. Yet, does the use of “ecologically sound and sustainable methods” of food production necessarily translate into better human health outcomes? Does greater choice in defining an agricultural or food system create gains in health and well-being? We elucidate the conceptual linkages between food sovereignty and human health, critically examine the empirical evidence supporting or refuting these linkages, and identify research gaps and key priorities for the food sovereignty-human health research agenda. Five domains of food sovereignty are discussed including: (1) use of agroecological management practices for food production, (2) the localization of food production and consumption, (3) promotion of social justice and equity, (4) valuation of traditional knowledge, and (5) the transformation of economic and political institutions and structures to support self-determination. We find that although there are many plausible linkages between food sovereignty and human health, the empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis that increasing food sovereignty yields improvements to human health is weak. We propose that a concerted effort to generate new empirical evidence on the health implications of these domains of food sovereignty is urgently needed, and suggest areas of research that may be crucial for addressing the gaps in the evidence base. PMID:26636062

  5. Health Education and Biology Teaching. Biology and Human Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, G.; And Others

    This three-chapter document (part of a series on biology and human welfare) focuses on the teaching of health concepts in biology courses. Health education (as used in this document) is aimed at achieving a state of health consisting of these five elements: body health; mental health; environmental health; social health; and transcendental health.…

  6. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past ... the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use human volunteers to help medical ...

  7. Health in the hot zone - How could global warming affect humans?

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1996-04-06

    A soon-to-be-released report from the World Health Organization examines the health effects of global warming, calling climate change one of the largest public health challenges for the upcoming century. The issue extends beyond tropical illness: deaths caused directly by heat, dwindling agricultural yields etc. could all affect human health. This article looks at the following health related effects and gives an overview of the scientific information available on each: temperature and mortality; tropical trouble, including vecorborne diseases and increase in susceptable populations; and waterborne problems such as cholera, harmful algal bloomes, food shortages.

  8. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: food and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Dangour, Alan D; Garnett, Tara; Lock, Karen; Chalabi, Zaid; Roberts, Ian; Butler, Ainslie; Butler, Colin D; Waage, Jeff; McMichael, Anthony J; Haines, Andy

    2009-12-12

    Agricultural food production and agriculturally-related change in land use substantially contribute to greenhouse-gas emissions worldwide. Four-fifths of agricultural emissions arise from the livestock sector. Although livestock products are a source of some essential nutrients, they provide large amounts of saturated fat, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We considered potential strategies for the agricultural sector to meet the target recommended by the UK Committee on Climate Change to reduce UK emissions from the concentrations recorded in 1990 by 80% by 2050, which would require a 50% reduction by 2030. With use of the UK as a case study, we identified that a combination of agricultural technological improvements and a 30% reduction in livestock production would be needed to meet this target; in the absence of good emissions data from Brazil, we assumed for illustrative purposes that the required reductions would be the same for our second case study in São Paulo city. We then used these data to model the potential benefits of reduced consumption of livestock products on the burden of ischaemic heart disease: disease burden would decrease by about 15% in the UK (equivalent to 2850 disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] per million population in 1 year) and 16% in São Paulo city (equivalent to 2180 DALYs per million population in 1 year). Although likely to yield benefits to health, such a strategy will probably encounter cultural, political, and commercial resistance, and face technical challenges. Coordinated intersectoral action is needed across agricultural, nutritional, public health, and climate change communities worldwide to provide affordable, healthy, low-emission diets for all societies.

  9. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: food and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Dangour, Alan D; Garnett, Tara; Lock, Karen; Chalabi, Zaid; Roberts, Ian; Butler, Ainslie; Butler, Colin D; Waage, Jeff; McMichael, Anthony J; Haines, Andy

    2009-12-12

    Agricultural food production and agriculturally-related change in land use substantially contribute to greenhouse-gas emissions worldwide. Four-fifths of agricultural emissions arise from the livestock sector. Although livestock products are a source of some essential nutrients, they provide large amounts of saturated fat, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We considered potential strategies for the agricultural sector to meet the target recommended by the UK Committee on Climate Change to reduce UK emissions from the concentrations recorded in 1990 by 80% by 2050, which would require a 50% reduction by 2030. With use of the UK as a case study, we identified that a combination of agricultural technological improvements and a 30% reduction in livestock production would be needed to meet this target; in the absence of good emissions data from Brazil, we assumed for illustrative purposes that the required reductions would be the same for our second case study in São Paulo city. We then used these data to model the potential benefits of reduced consumption of livestock products on the burden of ischaemic heart disease: disease burden would decrease by about 15% in the UK (equivalent to 2850 disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] per million population in 1 year) and 16% in São Paulo city (equivalent to 2180 DALYs per million population in 1 year). Although likely to yield benefits to health, such a strategy will probably encounter cultural, political, and commercial resistance, and face technical challenges. Coordinated intersectoral action is needed across agricultural, nutritional, public health, and climate change communities worldwide to provide affordable, healthy, low-emission diets for all societies. PMID:19942280

  10. Human health effects of ozone reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Modification of the stratosphere, such as a reduction in its equilibrium ozone content, could produce direct and indirect effects on human health. The direct hazard to humans would be caused by an increase in the cumulative amount of UV radiation reaching the earth's surface in the range of 285 to 340 nm, encompassing the UV-B or erythemal wavelength region of 280 to 320 nm. Exposing the susceptible human population to an increased total UV dosage of shorter wavelengths could increase skin cancer incidence. Although effects would be delayed by decades, for each 1% decrease in ozone the expected increase in skin cancer incidence would be on the order of 2%.

  11. A Human Science View of Behavioral Health.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L

    2016-04-01

    An exclusively quantitative public health approach to substance use in Mexico is criticized here as being of limited use to nurses working as clinicians with persons, families, and communities struggling with this issue. Three human science-based studies from three different countries are discussed to serve as options for addressing this limitation.

  12. Health Instruction Packages: The Human Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yapundich, Eleanor F.; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these four learning modules to instruct health sciences students and other interested persons in the various stages of human development. The first module, designed by Eleanor Yapundich for associate degree nursing students learning about growth and development, examines the fundamental…

  13. Caring for soil improves human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils have been our precious natural resources that are critical to our public health because of their impact on human and animal food, nutrition, water and air. Naturally, we strongly tied with our soils that are part of us and play major roles in our routine daily life. We rely on soils every day,...

  14. Acid precipitation and human health: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, S.

    1989-08-01

    This report, written for environmental managers in electric utilities, reviews potential indirect human health effects of acid precipitation. Possible exposure routes and materials examined in this review include drinking water contamination (aluminum and mercury), corrosion of metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, selenium, copper, and zinc) and asbestos from water piping, bioaccumulation of mercury and other metals in fish and game, and uptake of mobilized metals in crops. No direct effects (e.g., skin or eye irritation) of human exposure to acid precipitation have been identified, and air pollutant impacts on health are not included in this review, because these pollutants are acid precipitation precursors, not acid precipitation per se. The literature is summarized, presenting results from researchers' studies to support their conclusions. The review discusses potential acid precipitation impacts on metal levels in drinking water and food, summarizes the health effects of ingestion of these materials, and identifies areas of needed research. Metal-metal interactions in humans that may be related to acid precipitation are identified. Current research programs and planned assessments of the indirect human health effects of acid precipitation are summarized. 136 refs., 38 figs., 17 tabs

  15. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS.

    Robert J. Kavlock, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA.

    Over the past several decades a hypothesis has been put forth that a numb...

  16. Health: The Science of Human Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Charles R.; And Others

    This book examines human health behavior as a lifetime process of adaptation and response to internally and externally demanding environments. Beginning with conception, this book follows the family life cycle from "seed to sod" and beyond. From considerations of conception it moves to birth, growth and development, disease, life style,…

  17. Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Janice L.; Patel, Zarana S.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

  18. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    PubMed

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  19. Emerging health risks associated with modern agriculture practices: a comprehensive study in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Aronson, Kristan J; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary W

    2012-05-01

    In order to enhance food production, India has adopted modern agriculture practices and achieved noteworthy success. This achievement was essentially the result of a paradigm shift in agriculture that included high inputs of agrochemicals, water, and widespread practice of monoculture, as well as bureaucratic changes that promoted these changes. There are very few comprehensive analyses of potential adverse health outcomes that may be related to these changes. The objective of this study is to identify health risks associated with modern agricultural practices in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. This study aims to compare high-input and low-input agricultural practices and the consequences for health of people in these communities. The fieldwork was conducted from May to August, 2009 and included a survey carried out in six villages. Data were collected by in-depth personal interviews among 240 households and key informants, field observations, laboratory analyses, and data from secondary sources. The study identified four major visible impacts: occupational hazards, vector borne diseases, changing nutritional status, and inequity in development. In the high-input area, mechanization has resulted in more occurrences of serious accidents and injuries. Ecological changes due to rice cultivation in this area have further augmented mosquito breeding, and there has been a surge in the incidence of Japanese encephalitis and malaria. The traditional coarse cereals (complex carbohydrates, high protein) have been replaced by mill-polished rice (simple carbohydrate, low protein). The prevalence of overweight (BMI>25) has emerged as a new public health challenge, and this is most evident in large-landholding households, especially in the high-input agriculture areas. In all agro-ecological areas, it was observed that women faced a greater risk of both extremes of under-nutrition and being overweight. Output-driven and market-oriented modern agricultural practices have

  20. Climate change, human health, and epidemiological transition

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Bruce; Charles, Joel W.; Temte, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    The health of populations depends on the availability of clean air, water, food, and sanitation, exposure to pathogens, toxins and environmental hazards, and numerous genetic, behavioral and social factors. For many thousands of years, human life expectancy was low, and population growth was slow. The development of technology-based civilizations facilitated what Abdel Omran called “epidemiological transition,” with increasing life expectancy and rapid population growth. To a large extent, the spectacular growth of human populations during the past two centuries was made possible by the energy extracted from fossil fuels. We have now learned, however, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion are warming the planet's surface, causing changes in oceanic and atmospheric systems, and disrupting weather and hydrological patterns. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security, heat waves and droughts, violent storms, infectious disease, and rising sea levels. Whether or not humanity can reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly enough to slow climate change to a rate that will allow societies to successfully adapt is not yet known. This essay reviews the current state of relevant knowledge, and points in a few directions that those interested in human health may wish to consider. PMID:25434735

  1. Climate change, human health, and epidemiological transition.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Bruce; Charles, Joel W; Temte, Jonathan L

    2015-01-01

    The health of populations depends on the availability of clean air, water, food, and sanitation, exposure to pathogens, toxins and environmental hazards, and numerous genetic, behavioral and social factors. For many thousands of years, human life expectancy was low, and population growth was slow. The development of technology-based civilizations facilitated what Abdel Omran called "epidemiological transition," with increasing life expectancy and rapid population growth. To a large extent, the spectacular growth of human populations during the past two centuries was made possible by the energy extracted from fossil fuels. We have now learned, however, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion are warming the planet's surface, causing changes in oceanic and atmospheric systems, and disrupting weather and hydrological patterns. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security, heat waves and droughts, violent storms, infectious disease, and rising sea levels. Whether or not humanity can reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly enough to slow climate change to a rate that will allow societies to successfully adapt is not yet known. This essay reviews the current state of relevant knowledge, and points in a few directions that those interested in human health may wish to consider.

  2. Health risk assessment of abandoned agricultural soils based on heavy metal contents in Hong Kong, the world's most populated city.

    PubMed

    Man, Yu Bon; Sun, Xiao Lin; Zhao, Yin Ge; Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Chung, Shan Shan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming H

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequence of changing and using agricultural soils to other purposes in Hong Kong with respect to risk to human health. This study established concentrations of the following priority elements: As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn in terms of total burden (using mixed acid microwave digestion) and with respect to metal bioaccessibility (using an in vitro simulated gastric solution). 55 locations were sampled representing 12 different land use types, namely, agricultural (A), abandoned agricultural (Ab), organic farm (OF), container storage (CS), construction waste (CW), e-waste storage (EW (S)), e-waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)), e-waste open burning site (EW (OBS)), open burning site (OBS), petrol station (PS), metal recycling workshop (MRW) and car dismantling workshop (CDW). The elemental concentrations were subsequently used to establish Hazard Indices (for adults and children). 95th percentile values of total elemental concentrations were used to derive a combined (ingestion, dermal and inhalation) Hazard Index (HI) only for adults where the EW (DW) land use type indicated the potential for increased harm (HI=1.16). On the other hand, where 5th percentile values of total elemental concentrations were used to derive a combined Hazard Index (HI) for children the HI values exceeded 1 for CS, MRW, PS, EW (DW), EW (OBS) and CDW land use types (respectively, 1.21, 1.19, 1.52, 1.21, 1.81 and 2.04).

  3. Sowing the seeds of hope: providing regional behavioral health supports to the agricultural population.

    PubMed

    Rosmann, M R

    2005-11-01

    In 1999, project leaders from seven states (i.e., Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin) began to share ideas and resources for providing behavioral health assistance (i.e., mental health counseling and addictions services) to stressed farmers, ranchers, farm workers, and their families. The seven states are among those most impacted by the farm crisis of the 1980s and again by low commodity prices and disasters such as droughts and floods in the 1990s. Project leaders conferred in monthly telephone conference calls and by 2001 began meeting in semi-annual face-to-face meetings to formally agree on a mission, program components, and management structure. Administrative functions were transferred from the Wisconsin Office of Rural Health and Wisconsin Primary Healthcare Association, to AgriWellness, Inc., a regional nonprofit corporation founded to provide technical assistance, grant writing, training of service providers, and other administrative supports. The Sowing the Seeds of Hope program has become a model for the provision of behavioral health supports for the agricultural population, including development of farm stress telephone hotlines, provision of confidential and affordable outpatient mental health and substance abuse counseling, training of professional providers in agricultural behavioral health, training of indigenous farm and rural residents as outreach workers who can respond to disasters of all types, and weekend educational retreats for farm residents. The program has achieved economy of scale by sharing expertise across state boundaries and the formation of a regional administrative structure. Yet, many challenges exist, the greatest of which is obtaining ongoing permanent support for the increasing numbers of uninsured and underinsured people involved in agriculture.

  4. Hazard-ranking of agricultural pesticides for chronic health effects in Yuma County, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Sugeng, Anastasia J; Beamer, Paloma I; Lutz, Eric A; Rosales, Cecilia B

    2013-10-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam-sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk.

  5. Hazard-Ranking of Agricultural Pesticides for Chronic Health Effects in Yuma County, Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Beamer, Paloma I.; Lutz, Eric A.; Rosales, Cecilia B.

    2013-01-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. PMID:23783270

  6. Use of acetochlor and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lerro, Catherine C.; Koutros, Stella; Andreotti, Gabriella; Hines, Cynthia J.; Blair, Aaron; Lubin, Jay; Ma, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yawei; Freeman, Laura E. Beane

    2015-01-01

    Since its registration in 1994 acetochlor has become a commonly used herbicide in the US, yet no epidemiologic study has evaluated its carcinogenicity in humans. We evaluated use of acetochlor and cancer incidence among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. In telephone interviews administered 1999-2005, participants provided information on acetochlor use, use of other pesticides, and additional potential confounders. We used Poisson regression to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for cancers that occurred from the time of interview through 2011 in Iowa and 2010 in North Carolina. Among 33,484 men, there were 4,026 applicators who used acetochlor and 3,234 incident cancers, with 304 acetochlor-exposed cases. Increased risk of lung cancer was observed among acetochlor users (RR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.07-2.84) compared to nonusers, and among individuals who reported using acetochlor/atrazine product mixtures (RR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.30-4.17), compared to nonusers of acetochlor. Colorectal cancer risk was significantly elevated among the highest category of acetochlor users (RR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.08-2.83) compared to never users. Additionally, borderline significantly increased risk of melanoma (RR = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.98-2.66) and pancreatic cancer (RR = 2.36; 95% CI: 0.98-5.65) were observed among acetochlor users. The associations between acetochlor use and lung cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma, and pancreatic cancer are suggestive, however the lack of exposure-response trends, small number of exposed cases, and relatively short time between acetochlor use and cancer development, prohibit definitive conclusions. PMID:25559664

  7. Use of acetochlor and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lerro, Catherine C; Koutros, Stella; Andreotti, Gabriella; Hines, Cynthia J; Blair, Aaron; Lubin, Jay; Ma, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yawei; Beane Freeman, Laura E

    2015-09-01

    Since its registration in 1994 acetochlor has become a commonly used herbicide in the US, yet no epidemiologic study has evaluated its carcinogenicity in humans. We evaluated the use of acetochlor and cancer incidence among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. In telephone interviews administered during 1999-2005, participants provided information on acetochlor use, use of other pesticides and additional potential confounders. We used Poisson regression to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for cancers that occurred from the time of interview through 2011 in Iowa and 2010 in North Carolina. Among 33,484 men, there were 4,026 applicators who used acetochlor and 3,234 incident cancers, with 304 acetochlor-exposed cases. Increased risk of lung cancer was observed among acetochlor users (RR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.07-2.84) compared to nonusers, and among individuals who reported using acetochlor/atrazine product mixtures (RR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.30-4.17), compared to nonusers of acetochlor. Colorectal cancer risk was significantly elevated among the highest category of acetochlor users (RR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.08-2.83) compared to never users. Additionally, borderline significantly increased risk of melanoma (RR = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.98-2.66) and pancreatic cancer (RR = 2.36; 95% CI: 0.98-5.65) were observed among acetochlor users. The associations between acetochlor use and lung cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma and pancreatic cancer are suggestive, however the lack of exposure-response trends, small number of exposed cases and relatively short time between acetochlor use and cancer development prohibit definitive conclusions.

  8. Health (care) and human rights: a fundamental conditions approach.

    PubMed

    Liao, S Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Many international declarations state that human beings have a human right to health care. However, is there a human right to health care? What grounds this right, and who has the corresponding duties to promote this right? Elsewhere, I have argued that human beings have human rights to the fundamental conditions for pursuing a good life. Drawing on this fundamental conditions approach of human rights, I offer a novel way of grounding a human right to health care. PMID:27476575

  9. Health (care) and human rights: a fundamental conditions approach.

    PubMed

    Liao, S Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Many international declarations state that human beings have a human right to health care. However, is there a human right to health care? What grounds this right, and who has the corresponding duties to promote this right? Elsewhere, I have argued that human beings have human rights to the fundamental conditions for pursuing a good life. Drawing on this fundamental conditions approach of human rights, I offer a novel way of grounding a human right to health care.

  10. Epidemiology of health and safety risks in agriculture and related industries. Practical applications for rural physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Zejda, J E; McDuffie, H H; Dosman, J A

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies document that work in the agricultural sector is associated with many occupational health hazards. Exposure to organic dusts and airborne microorganisms and their toxins may lead to respiratory disorders. The burden of exposure-related chronic bronchitis, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic-dust toxic syndrome, and chronic airflow limitation can be diminished by appropriate preventive measures. The contribution of exposures to agricultural chemicals to cancers and neurodegenerative disorders is being investigated. Some studies document that farmers and those in related industries are at higher risk for the development of cancer of the stomach, soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Chronic encephalopathy and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases are being studied in relation to agricultural chemicals. The possible carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity of pesticides emphasize the need to promote the safe use of chemicals. Another area for health promotion programs is disabling injuries and traumatic deaths. Farm accidents are important because of their frequent occurrence among young people and disturbing fatality rates. Other health issues of concern in these industries include skin diseases, hearing loss, and stress. PMID:8470386

  11. The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Thomas E; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Burt, Lindsay; Curtis, Clifton; Luiza da Costa, Vera; Iqtidar, Silvae Usman; Liu, Yuchen; Pujari, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The health consequences of tobacco use are well known, but less recognized are the significant environmental impacts of tobacco production and use. The environmental impacts of tobacco include tobacco growing and curing; product manufacturing and distribution; product consumption; and post-consumption waste. The World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control addresses environmental concerns in Articles 17 and 18, which primarily apply to tobacco agriculture. Article 5.3 calls for protection from policy interference by the tobacco industry regarding the environmental harms of tobacco production and use. We detail the environmental impacts of the tobacco life-cycle and suggest policy responses. PMID:26668440

  12. The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Thomas E; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Burt, Lindsay; Curtis, Clifton; da Costa, Vera Luiza; Iqtidar, Silvae Usman; Liu, Yuchen; Pujari, Sameer; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2015-12-01

    The health consequences of tobacco use are well known, but less recognized are the significant environmental impacts of tobacco production and use. The environmental impacts of tobacco include tobacco growing and curing; product manufacturing and distribution; product consumption; and post-consumption waste. The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control addresses environmental concerns in Articles 17 and 18, which primarily apply to tobacco agriculture. Article 5.3 calls for protection from policy interference by the tobacco industry regarding the environmental harms of tobacco production and use. We detail the environmental impacts of the tobacco life-cycle and suggest policy responses.

  13. Human Capital, Social Classes, and the Earnings Determination Process in Brazilian Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neves, Jorge A.; Haller, Archibald O.; Fernandes, Danielle C.

    This paper examines the process of earnings determination in the agricultural sector of Brazil. Among the main causal factors analyzed are human capital (education and work experience), labor market segmentation, gender, social class position, level of development/modernization, and concentration of land ownership. Data on individuals employed in…

  14. The origin of human pathogens: evaluating the role of agriculture and domestic animals in the evolution of human disease.

    PubMed

    Pearce-Duvet, Jessica M C

    2006-08-01

    Many significant diseases of human civilization are thought to have arisen concurrently with the advent of agriculture in human society. It has been hypothesised that the food produced by farming increased population sizes to allow the maintenance of virulent pathogens, i.e. civilization pathogens, while domestic animals provided sources of disease to humans. To determine the relationship between pathogens in humans and domestic animals, I examined phylogenetic data for several human pathogens that are commonly evolutionarily linked to domestic animals: measles, pertussis, smallpox, tuberculosis, taenid worms, and falciparal malaria. The majority are civilization pathogens, although I have included others whose evolutionary origins have traditionally been ascribed to domestic animals. The strongest evidence for a domestic-animal origin exists for measles and pertussis, although the data do not exclude a non-domestic origin. As for the other pathogens, the evidence currently available makes it difficult to determine if the domestic-origin hypothesis is supported or refuted; in fact, intriguing data for tuberculosis and taenid worms suggests that transmission may occur as easily from humans to domestic animals. These findings do not abrogate the importance of agriculture in disease transmission; rather, if anything, they suggest an alternative, more complex series of effects than previously elucidated. Rather than domestication, the broader force for human pathogen evolution could be ecological change, namely anthropogenic modification of the environment. This is supported by evidence that many current emerging infectious diseases are associated with human modification of the environment. Agriculture may have changed the transmission ecology of pre-existing human pathogens, increased the success of pre-existing pathogen vectors, resulted in novel interactions between humans and wildlife, and, through the domestication of animals, provided a stable conduit for human

  15. Human rights, health, and capital accumulation in the Third World.

    PubMed

    Chossudovsky, M

    1979-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between human rights and the pattern of capital accumulation in the Third World. The repressive authoritarian State increasingly constitutes the means for enforcing the intensive exploitation of labor in Third World industrial enclaves and commercial agriculture. While the development of center capitalism has evolved toward "the Welfare State" and a framework of liberal sociodemocracy, the "peripheral State" is generally characterized by nondemocratic forms of government. This bipolarity in the state structure between center and periphery is functionally related to the international division of labor and the unity of production and circulation on a world level. The programs and policies of the center Welfare State (health, education, social security, etc.) constitute an input of "human capital" into the high-technology center labor process. Moreover, welfare programs in center countries activate the process of circulation by sustaining high levels of consumer demand. In underdeveloped countries, the underlying vacuum in the social sectors and the important allocations to military expenditure support the requirements of the peripheral labor process. Programs in health in the center and periphery are related to the bipolarity (qualification/dequalification) in the international division of labor. The social and economic functions of health programs are intimately related to the organic structure of the State and the mechanics whereby the State allocates its financial surplus in support of both capitalist production and circulation. PMID:422298

  16. Potential human health effects of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Adverse human health effects, namely acute and chronic respiratory effects, can occur from the pre-deposition phase of the acid rain phenomenon due to inhalation of acidic particles and gases. State-of-the-art methodology to evaluate these effects is just now being applied to this question. The major post-deposition effect of the acid rain phenomenon is to acidify water, increasing solubility and subsequent human exposure to mercury, lead, cadmium, and aluminum. Acidification increases bioconversion of mercury to methylmercury, a highly toxic compound, which accumulates in fish, increasing the risk to toxicity in people who eat fish. Increase in water and soil content of lead and cadmium increases human exposure to these metals which become additive to other sources presently under regulatory control. The potential adverse health effects of increased human exposure to aluminum is not known at the present time. Deficiencies in the identification of the contribution of pre-deposition of air pollutants and post-deposition mobilization of toxic metals to the recognized potential health effects of the involved toxic substances is due to the fact that scientists have not addressed these specific questions. 113 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  17. 75 FR 21508 - Health and Human Services Acquisition Regulation; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 48 CFR Chapter 3 Health and Human Services Acquisition Regulation; Corrections AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Correcting amendments. SUMMARY: This action corrects minor errors, inconsistencies and omissions in the final rule, which revised the Health and Human...

  18. Soils: their implications to human health.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, P W

    2002-05-27

    This paper reviews how the health of humans is affected by the world's soils, an association that to date has been under appreciated and under reported. Soils significantly influence a variety of functions (e.g. as a plant growth medium; its importance on the cycling of water; as a foundation for buildings) that sustains the human population. Through ingestion (either deliberate or involuntary), inhalation and dermal absorption, the mineral, chemical and biological components of soils can either be directly beneficial or detrimental to human health. Specific examples include: geohelminth infection and the supply of mineral nutrients and potentially harmful elements (PHEs) via soil ingestion; cancers caused by the inhalation of fibrous minerals or Rn gas derived from the radioactive decay of U and Th in soil minerals; and tetanus, hookworm disease and podoconiosis caused by skin contact and dermal absorption of appropriate soil constituents. Human health can also be influenced in more indirect ways as soils interact with the atmosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere. Examples include: the volatilisation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soils and their subsequent global redistribution that has health implications to the Aboriginal people of the Arctic; the frequent detrimental chemical and biological quality of drinking and recreational waters that are influenced by processes of soil erosion, surface runoff, interflow and leaching; and the transfer of mineral nutrients and PHEs from soils into the plants and animals that constitute the human food chain. The scale and magnitude of soil/health interactions are variable, but at times a considerable number of people can be affected as demonstrated by the extent of hookworm infection or the number of people at risk because they live in an I-deficient environment. Nevertheless, it can often be difficult to establish definite links between soils and human health. This, together with the emergence of new risks

  19. Gut Microbiota, Probiotics, and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    SUVOROV, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The review is devoted to the problems of microbiota and the ways of it correction employing beneficial life bacteria- probiotics. It covers the issues related to the functioning of human microbiota and its importance for the health, individual variability of microbial content, functioning of the probiotics in the human organism and the history of probiotic studies with particular focus on the microbiological investigations in the USSR. The article discusses the safety issues related to probiotics and the problems with probiotic therapy, trying to explain the reasons for the side effects caused by probiotics. The necessity of personified selection of the probiotic strain or individual microbial therapy autoprobiotics is also discussed. PMID:24936366

  20. Geophysical variables and human health and behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoilova, I.; Dimitrova, S.

    2008-02-01

    The increasing number of papers during the last years reveals an existence of effect of geophysical factors on human health. The subject of this paper is to present some results obtained confirming this effect and short review of some scientific opinions about mechanisms, according to which geomagnetic field (GMF) variations could influence on human. We have investigated the influence of geomagnetic disturbances on physiological parameters of healthy people as well as the relationship with dynamic of myocardial infarction. Although there are objective difficulties, investigations in that field will be extremely useful for protecting man from harmful effects of geophysical factors.

  1. Pesticide Exposure and Self-Reported Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Saldana, Tina M.; Basso, Olga; Hoppin, Jane A.; Baird, Donna D.; Knott, Charles; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between pesticide use during pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we estimated the association between self-reported pesticide-related activities during the first trimester of the most recent pregnancy and GDM among 11,273 women whose pregnancy occurred within 25 years of enrollment. RESULTS A total of 506 (4.5%) women reported having had GDM. Women who reported agricultural pesticide exposure (mixing or applying pesticides to crops or repairing pesticide application equipment) during pregnancy were more likely to report GDM (odds ratio [OR] 2.2 [95% CI 1.5–3.3]). We saw no association between residential pesticide exposure (applying pesticides in the home and garden during pregnancy) and GDM (1.0 [0.8–1.3]). Among women who reported agricultural exposure during pregnancy, risk of GDM was associated with ever-use of four herbicides (2,4,5-T; 2,4,5-TP; atrazine; or butylate) and three insecticides (diazinon, phorate, or carbofuran). CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that activities involving exposure to agricultural pesticides during the first trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk of GDM. PMID:17327316

  2. The demographic determinants of human microbiome health

    PubMed Central

    Estrela, Sylvie; Whiteley, Marvin; Brown, Sam P.

    2014-01-01

    The human microbiome is a vast reservoir of microbial diversity and increasingly recognized to play a fundamental role in human health. In polymicrobial communities, the presence of one species can modulate the demography (growth and distribution) of other species. These demographic impacts generate feedbacks in multi-species interactions, which can be magnified in spatially structured populations (e.g., host-associated communities). Here we argue that demographic feedbacks between species are central to microbiome development, shaping whether and how potential metabolic interactions come to be realized between expanding lineages of bacteria. Understanding how demographic feedbacks tune metabolic interactions and in turn shape microbiome structure and function is now a key challenge to our abilities to better manage microbiome health. PMID:25500524

  3. The demographic determinants of human microbiome health.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Sylvie; Whiteley, Marvin; Brown, Sam P

    2015-03-01

    The human microbiome is a vast reservoir of microbial diversity and increasingly recognized to have a fundamental role in human health. In polymicrobial communities, the presence of one species can modulate the demography (i.e., growth and distribution) of other species. These demographic impacts generate feedbacks in multispecies interactions, which can be magnified in spatially structured populations (e.g., host-associated communities). Here, we argue that demographic feedbacks between species are central to microbiome development, shaping whether and how potential metabolic interactions come to be realized between expanding lineages of bacteria. Understanding how demographic feedbacks tune metabolic interactions and in turn shape microbiome structure and function is now a key challenge to our abilities to better manage microbiome health.

  4. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs.

  5. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. PMID:22750033

  6. Ms No. 02858: Organohalogen Pollutants and Human Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past century, a vast number of organic chemicals have been manufactured and used in industrial, agricultural, public health, consumer products and other applications. The organohalogens, including chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated compounds, are ubiquitous in th...

  7. Helminth Genomics: The Implications for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka; Ghedin, Elodie; Lustigman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    More than two billion people (one-third of humanity) are infected with parasitic roundworms or flatworms, collectively known as helminth parasites. These infections cause diseases that are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality, delays in the physical development of children, loss of productivity among the workforce, and maintenance of poverty. Genomes of the major helminth species that affect humans, and many others of agricultural and veterinary significance, are now the subject of intensive genome sequencing and annotation. Draft genome sequences of the filarial worm Brugia malayi and two of the human schistosomes, Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni, are now available, among others. These genome data will provide the basis for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in helminth nutrition and metabolism, host-dependent development and maturation, immune evasion, and evolution. They are likely also to predict new potential vaccine candidates and drug targets. In this review, we present an overview of these efforts and emphasize the potential impact and importance of these new findings. PMID:19855829

  8. Farm Animal Welfare and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    The paper examines the relationship between farm animal welfare, industrial farm animal production, and human health consequences. The data suggest that when the animal welfare of land-based farm animals is compromised, there are resulting significant negative human health consequences due to environmental degradation, the use of non-therapeutic levels of antibiotics for growth promotion, and the consequences of intensification. This paper accepts that even if meat and fish consumption is reduced, meat and fish will be part of the diet of the future. Industrial production modified from the current intensified systems will still be required to feed the world in 2050 and beyond. This paper identifies the concept of sustainable intensification and suggests that if farm animal welfare is improved, many of the human health consequences of intensified industrial production can be eliminated or reduced. In water-based farm animal production, many new systems are resulting in a product that actually protects the environment and can be done at industrial levels without the use of antibiotics.

  9. Farm Animal Welfare and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    The paper examines the relationship between farm animal welfare, industrial farm animal production, and human health consequences. The data suggest that when the animal welfare of land-based farm animals is compromised, there are resulting significant negative human health consequences due to environmental degradation, the use of non-therapeutic levels of antibiotics for growth promotion, and the consequences of intensification. This paper accepts that even if meat and fish consumption is reduced, meat and fish will be part of the diet of the future. Industrial production modified from the current intensified systems will still be required to feed the world in 2050 and beyond. This paper identifies the concept of sustainable intensification and suggests that if farm animal welfare is improved, many of the human health consequences of intensified industrial production can be eliminated or reduced. In water-based farm animal production, many new systems are resulting in a product that actually protects the environment and can be done at industrial levels without the use of antibiotics. PMID:27344143

  10. Human health effects of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Kampa, Marilena; Castanas, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O(3)), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed.

  11. Water pollution and human health in China.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C; Maurer, C; Wang, Y; Xue, S; Davis, D L

    1999-01-01

    China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10090702

  12. Genetically modified plants and human health

    PubMed Central

    Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

    2008-01-01

    Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion. PMID:18515776

  13. RETINAL DEGENERATION AND OTHER EYE DISORDERS IN WIVES OF FARMER PESTICIDE APPLICATORS ENROLLED IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript describes an epidemiological investigation of the wives of licensed pesticide applicators who are enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study, a large ongoing epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their families in North Carolina and Iowa. The Agricult...

  14. Plant foods for human health: research challenges.

    PubMed

    Mathers, John C

    2006-05-01

    Plants provide the major part of human food intake. Whilst advances in agronomic characteristics (improved yield and better pest and disease resistance) continue to be a very high priority, there is increasing opportunity to enhance the nutritional value of plant based diets by improving the nutritional quality of staple foods. We now have proof of principle that genetic engineering can be used to produce plant-derived human vaccines. In relation to plant foods for human health, the research challenges include understanding: (1) why certain foods cause adverse reactions in some individuals but not in others; (2) the mechanisms of action of apparently 'protective' foods such as fruits and vegetables. There is also a need to develop much more informative and robust methods for measuring dietary exposure to specific plant foods or food constituents, including both recent exposure, for which a metabolomics approach may be particularly helpful, and long-term exposure.

  15. Human Health and Global Security. Relevance to Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornfeld, Howard

    1984-01-01

    Programs in human health and global security should be incorporated into medical school curricula. Information about nuclear arms proliferation and unmet human health needs will help physicians exert a critical leadership role. (SK)

  16. Comparative study of climate and human impacts on seasonal baseflow in urban and agricultural watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dingbao; Cai, Ximing

    2010-03-01

    This study explores the long-term trends of low flow magnitude and the slopes and shapes of the recession curves during winter and summer seasons under climatic and human factors. Four watersheds in the American Midwest are selected for the analysis, including two urban watersheds (Salt Creek and Des Plaines) and two agricultural watersheds (Embarras and Kankakee). The results show that the long-term baseflow recession slope trends in all the watersheds are primarily induced by human interferences. In the urban watersheds, the recession slopes decrease over time in both winter and summer due to effluent discharges. In the Kankakee watershed with irrigation, the recession slopes decrease in winter but increase in summer, and the opposite winter and summer trends are caused by the seasonal water use regime of irrigated agriculture. In the Embarras watershed with rainfed agriculture, the recession slopes decrease over time in winter but display no change in summer. Sources of water withdrawal (groundwater versus surface water) also have different impacts on the recession process. This long-term analysis of recession rates, in conjunction with the changes in low flow magnitude, offers valuable insight on human interferences to hydrologic processes. Beyond the specific case studies, this paper documents how a scientific approach based on existing streamflow observation can be applied to improving our understanding of the impact of human and climatic influences on baseflow and low flow processes.

  17. Improving animal and human health through understanding liver fluke immunology.

    PubMed

    Piedrafita, D; Spithill, T W; Smith, R E; Raadsma, H W

    2010-08-01

    Sheep, goats and cattle represent the most numerous and economically important agricultural species worldwide used as sources for milk, fibre and red meat. In addition, in the developing world, these species often represent the sole asset base for small-holder livestock farmers and cattle/buffaloes often provide the majority of draught power for crop production. Production losses caused by helminth diseases of these animals are a major factor in extending the cycle of poverty in developing countries and a major food security issue for developed economies. Fasciola spp. are one of the most important zoonotic diseases with a global economic impact in livestock production systems and a poorly defined but direct effect on human health. Improvements in human and animal health will require a concerted research effort into the development of new accurate and simple diagnostic tests and increased vaccine and drug development against Fasciola infections. Here, the use of definitive natural host breeds with contrasting resistance to Fasciola infections is discussed as a resource to contrast parasite-host interactions and identify parasite immune evasion strategies. Such studies are likely to boost the discovery of new vaccine, drug and diagnostic candidates and provide the foundation for future genetic selection of resistant animals. PMID:20626812

  18. Building Capacity to Use Earth Observations in Decision Making for Climate, Health, Agriculture and Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. W.; Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    In order to fill the gaps existing in climate and public health, agriculture, natural disasters knowledge and practices, the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) has developed a Curriculum for Best Practices in Climate Information. This Curriculum builds on the experience of 10 years courses on 'Climate Information' and captures lessons and experiences from different tailored trainings that have been implemented in many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this presentation, we will provide examples of training activities we have developed to bring remote sensing products to monitor climatic and environmental information into decision processes that benefited users such as the World Health Organization, Ministries of Health, Ministries of Agriculture, Universities, Research Centers such as CIFOR and FIOCRUZ. The framework developed by IRI to provide capacity building is based on the IDEAS framework: Innovation (research) Around climate impacts, evaluation of interventions, and the value of climate information in reducing risks and maximizing opportunities Demonstration E.g. in-country GFCS projects in Tanzania and Malawi - or El Nino work in Ethiopia Education Academic and professional training efforts Advocacy This might focus on communication of variability and change? We are WHO collaborating center so are engaged through RBM/Global Malaria Programme Service ENACTS and Data library key to this. Country data better quality than NASA as incorporates all relevant station data and NASA products. This presentation will demonstrate how the IDEAS framework has been implemented and lessons learned.

  19. Physician training in agricultural safety and health: the Emory Agromedicine Training Project.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Howard; Mason, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the Emory Agromedicine Training Project, a component of Occupational Medicine residency training at Emory University since 1991. The Project places occupational medicine residents in rural settings, where they perform a range of activities: working on farms, service visits to farms, grand rounds presentations to rural hospitals, public presentations in farm communities, and clinical service in the migrant health program. In addition they complete a directed reading syllabus and a research project. The rotation has been successful in building the residents' knowledge of agricultural safety and health, instilling positive attitudes toward the field, and achieving desired behaviors and skills. In addition, strong statewide networking was accomplished through this initiative. Areas of limited success include the small number of residents trained, some resident dissatisfaction with intense travel requirements and security concerns, and inability to secure long-term funding. We conclude that agricultural safety and health is highly suitable for inclusion in occupational medicine training, and this model should be extended to primary care specialties such as family practice.

  20. Desert dust and human health disorders.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Andrew S

    2014-02-01

    Dust storms may originate in many of the world's drylands and have an effect not only on human health in the drylands themselves but also in downwind environments, including some major urban centres, such as Phoenix, Kano, Athens, Madrid, Dubai, Jedda, Tehran, Jaipur, Beijing, Shanghai, Seoul, Taipei, Tokyo, Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne. In some parts of the world dust storms occur frequently throughout the year. They can transport particulate material, pollutants, and potential allergens over thousands of km from source. The main sources include the Sahara, central and eastern Asia, the Middle East, and parts of the western USA. In some parts of the world, though not all, the frequency of dust storms is changing in response to land use and climatic changes, and in such locations the health implications may become more severe. Data on the PM10 and P2.5 loadings of dust events are discussed, as are various pollutants (heavy metals, pesticides, etc.) and biological components (spores, fungi, bacteria, etc.). Particulate loadings can far exceed healthy levels. Among the human health effects of dust storms are respiratory disorders (including asthma, tracheitis, pneumonia, allergic rhinitis and silicosis) cardiovascular disorders (including stroke), conjunctivitis, skin irritations, meningococcal meningitis, valley fever, diseases associated with toxic algal blooms and mortality and injuries related to transport accidents.

  1. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Borowska, Sylwia; Brzóska, Malgorzata M

    2015-06-01

    Cosmetics, preparations repeatedly applied directly to the human skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails, should be safe for health, however, recently there has been increasing concern about their safety. Unfortunately, using these products in some cases is related to the occurrence of unfavourable effects resulting from intentional or the accidental presence of chemical substances, including toxic metals. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and nickel, as well as aluminium, classified as a light metal, are detected in various types of cosmetics (colour cosmetics, face and body care products, hair cosmetics, herbal cosmetics, etc.). In addition, necessary, but harmful when they occur in excessive amounts, elements such as copper, iron, chromium and cobalt are also present in cosmetic products. Metals occurring in cosmetics may undergo retention and act directly in the skin or be absorbed through the skin into the blood, accumulate in the body and exert toxic effects in various organs. Some cases of topical (mainly allergic contact dermatitis) and systemic effects owing to exposure to metals present in cosmetics have been reported. Literature data show that in commercially available cosmetics toxic metals may be present in amounts creating a danger to human health. Thus, the present review article focused on the problems related to the presence of heavy metals and aluminium in cosmetics, including their sources, concentrations and law regulations as well as danger for the health of these products users. Owing to the growing usage of cosmetics it is necessary to pay special attention to these problems. PMID:25809475

  2. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Borowska, Sylwia; Brzóska, Malgorzata M

    2015-06-01

    Cosmetics, preparations repeatedly applied directly to the human skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails, should be safe for health, however, recently there has been increasing concern about their safety. Unfortunately, using these products in some cases is related to the occurrence of unfavourable effects resulting from intentional or the accidental presence of chemical substances, including toxic metals. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and nickel, as well as aluminium, classified as a light metal, are detected in various types of cosmetics (colour cosmetics, face and body care products, hair cosmetics, herbal cosmetics, etc.). In addition, necessary, but harmful when they occur in excessive amounts, elements such as copper, iron, chromium and cobalt are also present in cosmetic products. Metals occurring in cosmetics may undergo retention and act directly in the skin or be absorbed through the skin into the blood, accumulate in the body and exert toxic effects in various organs. Some cases of topical (mainly allergic contact dermatitis) and systemic effects owing to exposure to metals present in cosmetics have been reported. Literature data show that in commercially available cosmetics toxic metals may be present in amounts creating a danger to human health. Thus, the present review article focused on the problems related to the presence of heavy metals and aluminium in cosmetics, including their sources, concentrations and law regulations as well as danger for the health of these products users. Owing to the growing usage of cosmetics it is necessary to pay special attention to these problems.

  3. The proliferation of human rights in global health governance.

    PubMed

    Gable, Lance

    2007-01-01

    Human rights play an integral role in the global governance of health. Recently, both structural and normative aspects of human rights have proliferated across multiple levels and within multiple contexts around the world. Human rights proliferation is likely to have a positive impact on the governance of health because it can expand the avenues through which a human rights framework or human rights norms may be used to address and improve health. PMID:18076506

  4. Community supported agriculture programs: a novel venue for theory-based health behavior change interventions.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Christopher M; Hughner, Renee Shaw; MacMillan, Lexi; Dumitrescu, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Local foods programs such as community supported agriculture programs (CSAs) and farmers' markets have increased greatly in popularity. However, little research has been conducted regarding the effect of involvement in local foods programs on diet-related attitudes and behaviors. A series of focus groups was conducted to identify the motives that propel individuals to join a CSA, the experiences of belonging to a CSA, and the diet-related outcomes of CSA membership. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a framework to categorize findings, data suggest the potential of CSAs as a viable intervention strategy for promoting healthful diets and behaviors.

  5. Community supported agriculture programs: a novel venue for theory-based health behavior change interventions.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Christopher M; Hughner, Renee Shaw; MacMillan, Lexi; Dumitrescu, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Local foods programs such as community supported agriculture programs (CSAs) and farmers' markets have increased greatly in popularity. However, little research has been conducted regarding the effect of involvement in local foods programs on diet-related attitudes and behaviors. A series of focus groups was conducted to identify the motives that propel individuals to join a CSA, the experiences of belonging to a CSA, and the diet-related outcomes of CSA membership. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a framework to categorize findings, data suggest the potential of CSAs as a viable intervention strategy for promoting healthful diets and behaviors. PMID:25706248

  6. Intensification through diversified resource use: the human ecology of a successful agricultural industry in Indonesian Borneo

    SciTech Connect

    Vondal, P.J.

    1987-03-01

    The success of an agricultural industry in commercial duck egg production in the swamplands of South Kalimantan (Borneo) is examined through the utilization of a human ecology framework. Seasonality of resource availability and human population growth are identified as two major constraints to production faced by farmers. Population increases in the urban sectors of southeastern Borneo also present economic opportunities for farmers because of the growing demand for poultry products. Farmers have responded by developing an intensification strategy in egg production based on the use of diversified resources for duck feed. The long-term consequences of these and other innovations in duck farming are discussed; and diversity-stability theory is examined for its applicability to this case of agricultural development and for rural development theory and practice.

  7. Community perceptions of human excreta as fertilizer in peri-urban agriculture in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mariwah, Simon; Drangert, Jan-Olof

    2011-08-01

    Although human excreta contain the necessary nutrients for plant growth, local authorities in Ghana spend huge sums of money to dispose them as waste. Reusing excreta for agricultural purposes saves expenditure for chemical fertilizers, improves soil fertility, reduces poverty and ensures food security. People's attitudes and perceptions about excreta vary between cultures and even within specific cultures. This study aimed to explore attitudes and perceptions among a peri-urban agricultural community towards sanitized human excreta and its use. The study adopted an exploratory design and collected data from 154 randomly selected households using questionnaires and focus group discussions. It was found that there is a general negative attitude to fresh excreta and the handling of it. However, the residents accept that excreta can be used as fertilizer, but they are not willing to use it on their own crops or consume crops fertilized with excreta. The study recommends open discussions in the community for a successful implementation of ecological sanitation.

  8. Implications of aquatic animal health for human health.

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, C J

    1990-01-01

    Human health and aquatic animal health are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relationships, but less visible and definable to many, is the role that aquatic animals play in the sustenance of our integrated planetary ecosystem. Up to the present, this ecosystem has been compatible with mankind's occupation of a niche within it at high but ultimately limited population levels. In the past century we have become clearly aware that human activities, particularly over-harvesting of aquatic animals together with chemical degradation of their habitats, can quite rapidly lead to perturbances that drastically shift aquatic ecosystems toward conditions of low productivity and impaired function as one of earth's vital organs. The negative values of aquatic animals as disease vectors are far outweighed by their positive values as nutritional sources and as sustainers of a relatively stable equilibrium in the global ecosystem. In the immediate future we can expect to see increased and improved monitoring of aquatic habitats to determine the extent to which aquatic animals cycle anthropogenic toxic and carcinogenic chemicals back to human consumers. In the long term, methods are particularly needed to assess the effects of these pollutants on reproductive success in aquatic communities and in human communities as well. As inputs of habitat-degrading substances change in quality and quantity, it becomes increasingly urgent to evaluate the consequences in advance, not in retrospect. A new, more realistic and comprehensive philosophy regarding aquatic environmental

  9. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality. PMID:27561384

  10. Measuring pesticide ecological and health risks in West African agriculture to establish an enabling environment for sustainable intensification

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, P. C.; Guzy, M.; Blaustein, K.; Sow, M.; Sarr, M.; Mineau, P.; Kegley, S.

    2014-01-01

    We outline an approach to pesticide risk assessment that is based upon surveys of pesticide use throughout West Africa. We have developed and used new risk assessment models to provide, to our knowledge, the first detailed, geographically extensive, scientifically based analysis of pesticide risks for this region. Human health risks from dermal exposure to adults and children are severe enough in many crops to require long periods of up to three weeks when entry to fields should be restricted. This is impractical in terms of crop management, and regulatory action is needed to remove these pesticides from the marketplace. We also found widespread risks to terrestrial and aquatic wildlife throughout the region, and if these results were extrapolated to all similar irrigated perimeters in the Senegal and Niger River Basins, they suggest that pesticides could pose a significant threat to regional biodiversity. Our analyses are presented at the regional, national and village levels to promote regulatory advances but also local risk communication and management. Without progress in pesticide risk management, supported by participatory farmer education, West African agriculture provides a weak context for the sustainable intensification of agricultural production or for the adoption of new crop technologies. PMID:24535399

  11. Measuring pesticide ecological and health risks in West African agriculture to establish an enabling environment for sustainable intensification.

    PubMed

    Jepson, P C; Guzy, M; Blaustein, K; Sow, M; Sarr, M; Mineau, P; Kegley, S

    2014-04-01

    We outline an approach to pesticide risk assessment that is based upon surveys of pesticide use throughout West Africa. We have developed and used new risk assessment models to provide, to our knowledge, the first detailed, geographically extensive, scientifically based analysis of pesticide risks for this region. Human health risks from dermal exposure to adults and children are severe enough in many crops to require long periods of up to three weeks when entry to fields should be restricted. This is impractical in terms of crop management, and regulatory action is needed to remove these pesticides from the marketplace. We also found widespread risks to terrestrial and aquatic wildlife throughout the region, and if these results were extrapolated to all similar irrigated perimeters in the Senegal and Niger River Basins, they suggest that pesticides could pose a significant threat to regional biodiversity. Our analyses are presented at the regional, national and village levels to promote regulatory advances but also local risk communication and management. Without progress in pesticide risk management, supported by participatory farmer education, West African agriculture provides a weak context for the sustainable intensification of agricultural production or for the adoption of new crop technologies.

  12. Measuring pesticide ecological and health risks in West African agriculture to establish an enabling environment for sustainable intensification.

    PubMed

    Jepson, P C; Guzy, M; Blaustein, K; Sow, M; Sarr, M; Mineau, P; Kegley, S

    2014-04-01

    We outline an approach to pesticide risk assessment that is based upon surveys of pesticide use throughout West Africa. We have developed and used new risk assessment models to provide, to our knowledge, the first detailed, geographically extensive, scientifically based analysis of pesticide risks for this region. Human health risks from dermal exposure to adults and children are severe enough in many crops to require long periods of up to three weeks when entry to fields should be restricted. This is impractical in terms of crop management, and regulatory action is needed to remove these pesticides from the marketplace. We also found widespread risks to terrestrial and aquatic wildlife throughout the region, and if these results were extrapolated to all similar irrigated perimeters in the Senegal and Niger River Basins, they suggest that pesticides could pose a significant threat to regional biodiversity. Our analyses are presented at the regional, national and village levels to promote regulatory advances but also local risk communication and management. Without progress in pesticide risk management, supported by participatory farmer education, West African agriculture provides a weak context for the sustainable intensification of agricultural production or for the adoption of new crop technologies. PMID:24535399

  13. Pectic oligosaccharides from agricultural by-products: production, characterization and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Neha; Dejonghe, Winnie; Gatti, Monica; Sforza, Stefano; Elst, Kathy

    2016-08-01

    Pectin containing agricultural by-products are potential sources of a new class of prebiotics known as pectic oligosaccharides (POS). In general, pectin is made up of homogalacturonan (HG, α-1,4-linked galacturonic acid monomers) and rhamnogalacturonan (RG, alternate galacturonic acid and rhamnose backbone with neutral side chains). Controlled hydrolysis of pectin containing agricultural by-products like sugar beet, apple, olive and citrus by chemical, enzymatic and hydrothermal can be used to produce oligo-galacturonides (GalpOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS), rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides (RGOS), etc. However, extensive research is needed to establish the role of POS, both as a prebiotic as well as therapeutic agent. This review comprehensively covers different facets of POS, including the nature and chemistry of pectin and POS, potential agricultural residual sources of pectin, pre-treatment methods for facilitating selective extraction of pectin, identification and characterization of POS, health benefits and important applications of POS in food and feed. This review has been compiled to establish a platform for future research in the purification and characterization of POS and for in vivo and in vitro studies of important POS, so that they could be commercially exploited.

  14. Modeling Agricultural Crop Production in China using AVHRR-based Vegetation Health Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Kogan, F.; Guo, W.; Zhiyuan, P.; Xianfeng, J.

    Weather related crop losses have always been a concern for farmers On a wider scale it has always influenced decision of Governments traders and other policy makers for the purpose of balanced food supplies trade and distribution of aid to the nations in need Therefore national policy and decision makers are giving increasing importance to early assessment of crop losses in response to weather fluctuations This presentation emphasizes utility of AVHRR-based Vegetation health index VHI for early warning of drought-related losses of agricultural production in China The VHI is a three-channel index characterizing greenness vigor and temperature of land surface which can be used as proxy for estimation of how healthy and potentially productive could be vegetation China is the largest in the world producer of grain including wheat and rice and cotton In the major agricultural areas China s crop production is very dependent on weather The VHI being a proxy indicator of weather impact on vegetation showed some correlation with productivity of agricultural crops during the critical period of their development The periods of the strongest correlation were investigated and used to build regression models where crop yield deviation from technological trend was accepted as a dependent and VHI as independent variables The models were developed for several major crops including wheat corn and soybeans

  15. Volcanic ash leachate compositions and assessment of health and agricultural hazards from 2012 hydrothermal eruptions, Tongariro, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, S. J.; Stewart, C.; Zernack, A. V.; Brenna, M.; Procter, J. N.; Pardo, N.; Christenson, B.; Wilson, T.; Stewart, R. B.; Irwin, M.

    2014-10-01

    that was dissolved within the hydrothermal fluids and adhering to ejected particles. This and the ubiquitous presence of gypsum dominated the soluble components of these ash deposits leading to a complex leaching profile. The leaching study carried out here showed that agricultural and human health hazard assessment (particularly of F and S) is not straightforward, particularly because F solubility may be complex and not well characterised by simple leaching studies. In the case of S, which is agriculturally important, saturation effects are apparent using normal leaching protocols and also imply a need for modification of standard methods.

  16. Occupational health and safety for agricultural workers in Thailand: gaps and recommendations, with a focus on pesticide use.

    PubMed

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Woskie, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Over 16.7 million workers in Thailand (42 percent of the working population) are engaged in agriculture, disproportionately from the lower socioeconomic strata of Thai society. Most agricultural workers (over 93 percent) work in the informal sector without the protections of regulations or enforcement of labor or health and safety laws or enrollment in a social security system. Although Thailand's use of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides is growing, there is little regulation of the sale, use, or application of these potentially toxic chemicals. This paper summarizes the research to date on occupational health and safety for Thai agricultural workers, identifies gaps in pesticide regulations and the current systems for occupational health and safety and social support for Thai agricultural workers, and makes recommendations for future policy and research initiatives to fill the identified gaps.

  17. [The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization].

    PubMed

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Marinho, Alice Maria Correia Pequeno; Rocha, Mayara Melo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Vicente; Braga, Lara de Queiroz Viana; Teixeira, Maiana Maia

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

  18. Ecological and health risk-based characterization of agricultural soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the vicinity of a chemical plant in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Geng; Niu, Junjie; Guo, Wenjiong; An, Xiangsheng; Zhao, Long

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from chemical plants can cause serious pollution of surrounding agricultural soils. A comprehensive study of agricultural soils was conducted in the vicinity of a chemical plant in China to characterize the soil PAH concentration, as well as their composition and sources. Human health and a screening-level ecological risk assessment were conducted for PAH contamination in agricultural soils. The results showed that the total concentrations of 16 priority PAHs ranged from 250.49 to 9387.26 ng g(-1), with an average of 2780.42 ng g(-1). High molecular weight PAHs (four to six rings) were the dominant component, accounting for more than 60% of all PAHs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization model (PMF) suggested that diesel emissions, coal combustion, coke ovens, and fuel combustion and gasoline emissions were the main sources of PAHs in agricultural soils. The ecological risk assessment results based on the effects range-low (ERL), the effects range-median (ERM), and the ecological screening levels (ESL) indicated that the exposure to ∑PAH16 was >ERL, >ERM, and ≥ERL and ESL at 78.1% of the soil sampling stations, and could induce biological effects in mammals. The Bapeq concentrations posed a potential carcinogenic risk to humans. Further risk management and control of soil PAHs in these agricultural soils is required to ensure the safety of the biocoenosis and human health. PMID:27565314

  19. Progress in rapid detection and identification of unknown human and agricultural pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T; Holzrichter, J F; Milanovich, F P

    1999-08-13

    , such as their full genomic information, can be very helpful in identifying malevolent users. In addition, it is undoubtedly true that an understanding of replication and human or other sensitivity to pathogens will improve our medical understanding of human health in general.

  20. The human microbiome: ecosystem resilience and health.

    PubMed

    Relman, David A

    2012-08-01

    Given the importance of the microbiome for human health, both the stability and the response to disturbance of this microbial ecosystem are crucial issues. Yet, the current understanding of these factors is insufficient. Early data suggest there is relative stability in the microbiome of adults in the absence of gross perturbation, and that long-term stability of the human indigenous microbial communities is maintained not by inertia but by the action of restorative forces within a dynamic system. After brief exposures to some antibiotics, there is an immediate and substantial perturbation and at least a partial recovery of taxonomic composition. Responses to antibiotics are individualized and are influenced by prior experience with the same antibiotic. These findings suggest that the human microbiome has properties of resilience. Besides serving to reveal critical underlying functional attributes, microbial interactions, and keystone species within the indigenous microbiota, the response to disturbance may have value in predicting future instability and disease and in managing the human microbial ecosystem.

  1. The human genome project and international health

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.D.; Cook-Deegan, R.M. )

    1990-06-27

    The human genome project is designed to provide common resources for the study of human genetics, and to assist biomedical researchers in their assault on disease. The main benefit will be to provide several kinds of maps of the human genome, and those of other organisms, to permit rapid isolation of genes for further study about DNA structure and function. This article describes genome research programs in developed and developing countries, and the international efforts that have contributed to genome research programs. For example, the large-scale collaborations to study Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis involve collaborators from many nations and families spread throughout the world. In the USA, the US Department of Energy was first to start a dedicated genome research program in 1987. Since then, another major government program has begun at the National Center for Human Genome Research of the National Institutes of Health. Italy, China, Australia, France, Canada, and Japan have genome research programs also.

  2. [Health and human rights: perceptions of health professionals and human rights defenders].

    PubMed

    Kabengele Mpinga, E; Chastonay, P

    2005-09-01

    A self-administered questionnaire served as the basis for a study carried out between February and June 2003 covering a panel of 125 experts from 33 countries spread over 5 continents. The objective of this study was to identify the human rights problems perceived as having a very negative health impact from approximately fifty proposals. This study also aimed at identifying the variables which could explain the differences in the perceptions observed. At the global level, the threats to physical integrity and attacks on human life, economic problems of a health or social nature, questions of political or democratic origin, as well as a wide spectrum of other problems are perceived as having very harmful effects on health with an average adhesion rate of severity (TMAG) ranging from 90-75%. For the same categories of problems at the national level, the TMAG varies from 67-40%: The observed consensus around the severity of human rights problems is tempered by the differences in perceptions according to profession, sex, and the level of the country's and continent's development. Other than the fact that these results corroborate the shared international concerns with regard to the state of the world's human rights, they suggest that the experts' opinions constitute a complementary source of information necessary for work on the international mechanisms for the surveillance of the implementation of international treaties; while at the same time, they indicate priorities for action in the field of public health and human rights.

  3. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C during the 21st century and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change (IPCC, 2007). Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric/climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties. Studies into the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties are still incomplete, but have revealed that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. The exact direction and magnitude of those impacts will be dependent on the amount of change in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise; this is particularly true of high latitude regions with permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. These soil changes will lead to both direct and indirect impacts on human health. Possible indirect impacts include temperature extremes, food safety and air quality issues, increased and/or expanded disease incidences, and occupational health issues. Potential direct impacts include decreased food security and increased atmospheric dust levels. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water-CO2 level-temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and how that affects soil organic matter dynamics is a critical

  4. Rheumatoid Arthritis in Agricultural Health Study Spouses: Associations with Pesticides and Other Farm Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Christine G.; Hoppin, Jane A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Costenbader, Karen H.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Farming has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the role of pesticides is not known. Objectives: We examined associations between RA and pesticides or other agricultural exposures among female spouses of licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods: Women were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 and followed through 2010. Cases (n = 275 total, 132 incident), confirmed by a physician or by self-reported use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, were compared with noncases (n = 24,018). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for age, state, and smoking pack-years. Results: Overall, women with RA were somewhat more likely to have reported lifetime use of any specific pesticide versus no pesticides (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6). Of the 15 pesticides examined, maneb/mancozeb (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.5, 7.1) and glyphosate (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.1) were associated with incident RA compared with no pesticide use. An elevated, but non-statistically significant association with incident RA was seen for DDT (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 0.97, 3.6). Incident RA was also associated with the application of chemical fertilizers (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7) and cleaning with solvents (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4), but inversely associated with lifetime livestock exposure as a child and adult (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.97) compared with no livestock exposure. Conclusions: Our results suggest that specific agricultural pesticides, solvents, and chemical fertilizers may increase the risk of RA in women, while exposures involving animal contact may be protective. Citation: Parks CG, Hoppin JA, De Roos AJ, Costenbader KH, Alavanja MC, Sandler DP. 2016. Rheumatoid arthritis in Agricultural Health Study spouses: associations with pesticides and other farm exposures. Environ Health Perspect 124:1728–1734; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP129 PMID:27285288

  5. [Animal health in organic agriculture: new guidelines and perspectives for food animal practitioners].

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, H; Walkenhorst, M; Klocke, P

    2003-11-01

    In the last decade, the organic agriculture in Switzerland has been substantially increased due to the interest of consumer and financial incentives of the federation. Ruminants take directly or indirectly the largest part from grassland used within the organic managed surfaces. As the contacts between veterinary practice and organic agriculture has increased, the potential for veterinary activity in this area has developed considerably. The organic agriculture guidelines stipulate that all the preventive measures should be taken in feeding, keeping and breeding to insure animal health safety. This requires veterinary services for herd management. The organic status of a farm affects veterinary practice also in the form of alternative therapy/drugs administration and measures like dehorning and tail-docking. An important point in organic managed herds requests that treatment of animals should depend on alternative medical preparations or procedures based on veterinarian's experience and also on the therapeutic effect on the animal species concerned as well as on the disease. However, there are no restrictions on the veterinarian to use registered drugs as long as no alternative therapy, according to experience and possible success, is available to treat the animals. The prophylactic administration of allopathic veterinary drugs is not permissible. Further features in organic farms regarding the use of drugs are the keeping of withholding/withdrawal time, the documentation and the treatment frequency tolerated by organic marketing. Despite the above measures, the animal health has a priority regardless of its organic status. Although management of organic farms represent a unique responsibility, there are still obvious deficits in the education of veterinary practitioners for this new situation. However, in the future the extension of veterinary activity to include the alternative medical therapy should be regarded for the practitioner as a challenge and an

  6. Using social marketing to address barriers and motivators to agricultural safety and health best practices.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Aaron M; Murphy, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    Social marketing is an intervention development strategy that pays considerable attention to barriers to and motivators for behavioral change or adoption of recommended behaviors. Barriers are obstacles that prevent individuals from changing or adopting behaviors and are often referred to as the "cons" or "costs" of doing something. Motivators, on the other hand, are factors that encourage individuals to change or adopt behaviors and are often referred to as the "pros," "benefits," or "influencing factors" of doing something. Importantly, social marketing does not target education or knowledge change as an end point; rather, it targets behavior change. Studies across several types of desired behaviors (e.g., smoking cessation, weight control, more exercise, sunscreen use, radon testing) using the Stages of Change model have found systematic relationships between stages of change and pros and cons of changing behavior. A review of literature identifies numerous research and intervention studies that directly reference social marketing in agricultural safety and health, studies that identify reasons why parents allow their children to be exposed to hazardous situations on the farm, and reasons why youth engage in risky behaviors, but only two studies were found that show evidence of systematically researching specific behavioral change motivating factors. The authors offer several suggestions to help address issues relating to social marketing and agricultural safety and health.

  7. Biofuels and North American agriculture--implications for the health and safety of North American producers.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    This decade has provided North American agricultural producers with opportunity to not only produce fiber and food, but also fuel and other industrial products. The drivers incenting this development could be sustained well into the future, therefore workforce safety and health implications are likely to persist for some time. Within production agriculture, the 'feedstock growth and harvest cycle' and 'transport' sectors possess the changing exposures experienced by workers. The Conference explored the following exposures: distiller's grains and bio-processing byproducts, spent catalyst, solvent brine, microbial agents, genetically modified organisms, discharge effluent, H2O dilutes, change in cropping patterns and resultant use of different seeding and harvest technologies, pests (whether target or non-target), and rural traffic resulting from concentrated movement of massive quantities of biomass and grain. Other issues of a more general public health nature such as watershed implications, other environmental impacts, emissions, uneven economic development potential, public safety issues associated with transport of both fuel and other industrial products, and rural emergency medical service need were explored. And, agronomic impacts were noted, including tillage change, potassium buildup in soil, nutrient depletion, sedimentation and erosion of tillable soil, and local esthetics. It was concluded that rural venues for formation and exploration of public policy need to be created.

  8. Integrating Human and Ecosystem Health Through Ecosystem Services Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Ford, Adriana E S; Graham, Hilary; White, Piran C L

    2015-12-01

    The pace and scale of environmental change is undermining the conditions for human health. Yet the environment and human health remain poorly integrated within research, policy and practice. The ecosystem services (ES) approach provides a way of promoting integration via the frameworks used to represent relationships between environment and society in simple visual forms. To assess this potential, we undertook a scoping review of ES frameworks and assessed how each represented seven key dimensions, including ecosystem and human health. Of the 84 ES frameworks identified, the majority did not include human health (62%) or include feedback mechanisms between ecosystems and human health (75%). While ecosystem drivers of human health are included in some ES frameworks, more comprehensive frameworks are required to drive forward research and policy on environmental change and human health.

  9. Which Factors Determine Metal Accumulation in Agricultural Soils in the Severely Human-Coupled Ecosystem?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Cao, Shanshan; Wang, Jihua; Lu, Anxiang

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural soil is typically an important component of urban ecosystems, contributing directly or indirectly to the general quality of human life. To understand which factors influence metal accumulation in agricultural soils in urban ecosystems is becoming increasingly important. Land use, soil type and urbanization indicators all account for considerable differences in metal accumulation in agricultural soils, and the interactions between these factors on metal concentrations were also examined. Results showed that Zn, Cu, and Cd concentrations varied significantly among different land use types. Concentrations of all metals, except for Cd, were higher in calcareous cinnamon soil than in fluvo-aquic soil. Expansion distance and road density were adopted as urbanization indicators, and distance from the urban center was significantly negatively correlated with concentrations of Hg, and negatively correlated with concentrations of Zn, and road density was positively correlated with Cd concentrations. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that Hg concentration was significantly influenced by the four-way interaction among all factors. The results in this study provide basic data to support the management of agricultural soils and to help policy makers to plan ahead in Beijing. PMID:27196922

  10. Human Health Risks of Engineered Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, A.; Lynch, I.; Grieger, K.; Chan-Remillard, S.; Gatti, A.; Gnewuch, H.; Kenawy, E.; Korenstein, R.; Kuhlbusch, T.; Linker, F.; Matias, S.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Pinto, V. R. S.; Rudnitsky, R.; Savolainen, K.; Shvedova, A.

    There are currently hundreds of available consumer products that contain nanoscale materials. Human exposure is, therefore, likely to occur in occupational and environmental settings. Mounting evidence suggests that some nanomaterials exert toxicity in cultured cells or following in vivo exposures, but this is dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the materials and the dose. This Working Group report summarizes the discussions of an expert scientific panel regarding the gaps in knowledge that impede effective human health risk assessment for nanomaterials, particularly those that are suspended in a gas or liquid and, thus, deposit on skin or in the respiratory tract. In addition to extensive descriptions of material properties, the Group identified as critical research areas: external and internal dose characterization, mechanisms of response, identification of sensitive subpopulations, and the development of screening strategies and technology to support these investigations. Important concepts in defining health risk are reviewed, as are the specific kinds of studies that will quickly reduce the uncertainties in the risk assessment process.

  11. Update on human health effects of boron.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    In vitro, animal, and human experiments have shown that boron is a bioactive element in nutritional amounts that beneficially affects bone growth and central nervous system function, alleviates arthritic symptoms, facilitates hormone action and is associated with a reduced risk for some types of cancer. The diverse effects of boron suggest that it influences the formation and/or activity of substances that are involved in numerous biochemical processes. Several findings suggest that this influence is through the formation of boroesters in biomolecules containing cis-hydroxyl groups. These biomolecules include those that contain ribose (e.g., S-adenosylmethionine, diadenosine phosphates, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). In addition, boron may form boroester complexes with phosphoinositides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids that affect cell membrane integrity and function. Both animal and human data indicate that an intake of less than 1.0mg/day inhibits the health benefits of boron. Dietary surveys indicate such an intake is not rare. Thus, increasing boron intake by consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts and pulses should be recognized as a reasonable dietary recommendation to enhance health and well-being.

  12. Does Genetic Diversity Predict Health in Humans?

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Hanne C.; Simmons, Leigh W.; Rhodes, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Genetic diversity, especially at genes important for immune functioning within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), has been associated with fitness-related traits, including disease resistance, in many species. Recently, genetic diversity has been associated with mate preferences in humans. Here we asked whether these preferences are adaptive in terms of obtaining healthier mates. We investigated whether genetic diversity (heterozygosity and standardized mean d2) at MHC and nonMHC microsatellite loci, predicted health in 153 individuals. Individuals with greater allelic diversity (d2) at nonMHC loci and at one MHC locus, linked to HLA-DRB1, reported fewer symptoms over a four-month period than individuals with lower d2. In contrast, there were no associations between MHC or nonMHC heterozygosity and health. NonMHC-d2 has previously been found to predict male preferences for female faces. Thus, the current findings suggest that nonMHC diversity may play a role in both natural and sexual selection acting on human populations. PMID:19633717

  13. 1961 ACTIVITIES IN CALIFORNIA DIRECTED TOWARD THE IMPROVEMENT OF HEALTH AMONG DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS AND THEIR FAMILIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1961

    A PROGRAM INSTITUTED IN 1961 TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH OF DOMESTIC SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN CALIFORNIA AND THEIR FAMILIES WAS GIVEN. IT SOUGHT TO HELP LOCAL HEALTH AGENCIES BY PROVIDING--TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO COUNTIES TRYING TO DEVELOP FACILITIES AND SERVICES, EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR USE OF STATE FUNDS BY LOCAL…

  14. Aspergillus flavus genomics: gateway to human and animal health, food safety, and crop resistance to diseases.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiujiang; Cleveland, Thomas E; Nierman, William C; Bennett, Joan W

    2005-12-01

    Aspergillus flavus is an imperfect filamentous fungus that is an opportunistic pathogen causing invasive and non-invasive aspergillosis in humans, animals, and insects. It also causes allergic reactions in humans. A. flavus infects agricultural crops and stored grains and produces the most toxic and potent carcinogic metabolites such as aflatoxins and other mycotoxins. Breakthroughs in A. flavus genomics may lead to improvement in human health, food safety, and agricultural economy. The availability of A. flavus genomic data marks a new era in research for fungal biology, medical mycology, agricultural ecology, pathogenicity, mycotoxin biosynthesis, and evolution. The availability of whole genome microarrays has equipped scientists with a new powerful tool for studying gene expression under specific conditions. They can be used to identify genes responsible for mycotoxin biosynthesis and for fungal infection in humans, animals and plants. A. flavus genomics is expected to advance the development of therapeutic drugs and to provide information for devising strategies in controlling diseases of humans and other animals. Further, it will provide vital clues for engineering commercial crops resistant to fungal infection by incorporating antifungal genes that may prevent aflatoxin contamination of agricultural harvest. PMID:16499411

  15. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  16. Ergonomics Perspective in Agricultural Research: A User-Centred Approach Using CAD and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Thaneswer; Sanjog, J.; Karmakar, Sougata

    2016-09-01

    Computer-aided Design (CAD) and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) (specialized CAD software for virtual human representation) technologies endow unique opportunities to incorporate human factors pro-actively in design development. Challenges of enhancing agricultural productivity through improvement of agricultural tools/machineries and better human-machine compatibility can be ensured by adoption of these modern technologies. Objectives of present work are to provide the detailed scenario of CAD and DHM applications in agricultural sector; and finding out means for wide adoption of these technologies for design and development of cost-effective, user-friendly, efficient and safe agricultural tools/equipment and operator's workplace. Extensive literature review has been conducted for systematic segregation and representation of available information towards drawing inferences. Although applications of various CAD software have momentum in agricultural research particularly for design and manufacturing of agricultural equipment/machinery, use of DHM is still at its infancy in this sector. Current review discusses about reasons of less adoption of these technologies in agricultural sector and steps to be taken for their wide adoption. It also suggests possible future research directions to come up with better ergonomic design strategies for improvement of agricultural equipment/machines and workstations through application of CAD and DHM.

  17. Ergonomics Perspective in Agricultural Research: A User-Centred Approach Using CAD and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Thaneswer; Sanjog, J.; Karmakar, Sougata

    2016-06-01

    Computer-aided Design (CAD) and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) (specialized CAD software for virtual human representation) technologies endow unique opportunities to incorporate human factors pro-actively in design development. Challenges of enhancing agricultural productivity through improvement of agricultural tools/machineries and better human-machine compatibility can be ensured by adoption of these modern technologies. Objectives of present work are to provide the detailed scenario of CAD and DHM applications in agricultural sector; and finding out means for wide adoption of these technologies for design and development of cost-effective, user-friendly, efficient and safe agricultural tools/equipment and operator's workplace. Extensive literature review has been conducted for systematic segregation and representation of available information towards drawing inferences. Although applications of various CAD software have momentum in agricultural research particularly for design and manufacturing of agricultural equipment/machinery, use of DHM is still at its infancy in this sector. Current review discusses about reasons of less adoption of these technologies in agricultural sector and steps to be taken for their wide adoption. It also suggests possible future research directions to come up with better ergonomic design strategies for improvement of agricultural equipment/machines and workstations through application of CAD and DHM.

  18. Resistant starch: promise for improving human health.

    PubMed

    Birt, Diane F; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized.

  19. Antibiotic, Pesticide, and Microbial Contaminants of Honey: Human Health Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Al-Waili, Noori; Salom, Khelod; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Ansari, Mohammad Javed

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria and radioactive materials. Pesticide residues cause genetic mutations and cellular degradation and presence of antibiotics might increase resistant human or animal's pathogens. Many cases of infant botulisms have been attributed to contaminated honey. Honey may be very toxic when produced from certain plants. Ingestion of honey without knowing its source and safety might be problematic. Honey should be labeled to explore its origin, composition, and clear statement that it is free from contaminants. Honey that is not subjected for analysis and sterilization should not be used in infants, and should not be applied to wounds or used for medicinal purposes. This article reviews the extent and health impact of honey contamination and stresses on the introduction of a strict monitoring system and validation of acceptable minimal concentrations of pollutants or identifying maximum residue limits for bee products, in particular, honey. PMID:23097637

  20. Antibiotic, pesticide, and microbial contaminants of honey: human health hazards.

    PubMed

    Al-Waili, Noori; Salom, Khelod; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Ansari, Mohammad Javed

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria and radioactive materials. Pesticide residues cause genetic mutations and cellular degradation and presence of antibiotics might increase resistant human or animal's pathogens. Many cases of infant botulisms have been attributed to contaminated honey. Honey may be very toxic when produced from certain plants. Ingestion of honey without knowing its source and safety might be problematic. Honey should be labeled to explore its origin, composition, and clear statement that it is free from contaminants. Honey that is not subjected for analysis and sterilization should not be used in infants, and should not be applied to wounds or used for medicinal purposes. This article reviews the extent and health impact of honey contamination and stresses on the introduction of a strict monitoring system and validation of acceptable minimal concentrations of pollutants or identifying maximum residue limits for bee products, in particular, honey. PMID:23097637

  1. Human Health and Support Systems Capability Roadmap Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grounds, Dennis; Boehm, Al

    2005-01-01

    The Human Health and Support Systems Capability Roadmap focuses on research and technology development and demonstration required to ensure the health, habitation, safety, and effectiveness of crews in and beyond low Earth orbit. It contains three distinct sub-capabilities: Human Health and Performance. Life Support and Habitats. Extra-Vehicular Activity.

  2. Urban conservation agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables are important sources of vitamins and nutrients for human nutrition. United States Department of Agriculture recommends filling half of the food plates with vegetables in every meal. While it is important in promoting good health, access to fresh vegetables is limited especially in urban ...

  3. Modeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness.

    PubMed

    Singer, Randall S; Cox, Louis A; Dickson, James S; Hurd, H Scott; Phillips, Ian; Miller, Gay Y

    2007-05-16

    To achieve further reductions in foodborne illness levels in humans, effective pre-harvest interventions are needed. The health status of food animals that are destined to enter the human food supply chain may be an important, although often overlooked, factor in predicting the risk of human foodborne infections. The health status of food animals can potentially influence foodborne pathogen levels in three ways. First, diseased animals may shed higher levels of foodborne pathogens. Second, animals that require further handling in the processing plant to remove affected parts may lead to increased microbial contamination and cross-contamination. Finally, certain animal illnesses may lead to a higher probability of mistakes in the processing plant, such as gastrointestinal ruptures, which would lead to increased microbial contamination and cross-contamination. Consequently, interventions that reduce the incidence of food animal illnesses might also help reduce bacterial contamination on meat, thereby reducing human illness. Some of these interventions, however, might also present a risk to human health. For example, the use of antibiotics in food animals can reduce rates of animal illness but can also select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria which can threaten human treatment options. In this study, we present a mathematical model to evaluate human health risks from foodborne pathogens associated with changes in animal illness. The model is designed so that potential human health risks and benefits from interventions such as the continued use of antibiotics in animal agriculture can be evaluated simultaneously. We applied the model to a hypothetical example of Campylobacter from chicken. In general, the model suggests that very minor perturbations in microbial loads on meat products could have relatively large impacts on human health, and consequently, small improvements in food animal health might result in significant reductions in human illness. PMID:17270298

  4. Impact on human health of climate changes.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that climate is rapidly changing. These changes, which are mainly driven by the dramatic increase of greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic activities, have the potential to affect human health in several ways. These include a global rise in average temperature, an increased frequency of heat waves, of weather events such as hurricanes, cyclones and drought periods, plus an altered distribution of allergens and vector-borne infectious diseases. The cardiopulmonary system and the gastrointestinal tract are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of global warming. Moreover, some infectious diseases and their animal vectors are influenced by climate changes, resulting in higher risk of typhus, cholera, malaria, dengue and West Nile virus infection. On the other hand, at mid latitudes warming may reduce the rate of diseases related to cold temperatures (such as pneumonia, bronchitis and arthritis), but these benefits are unlikely to rebalance the risks associated to warming. PMID:25582074

  5. Impact on human health of climate changes.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that climate is rapidly changing. These changes, which are mainly driven by the dramatic increase of greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic activities, have the potential to affect human health in several ways. These include a global rise in average temperature, an increased frequency of heat waves, of weather events such as hurricanes, cyclones and drought periods, plus an altered distribution of allergens and vector-borne infectious diseases. The cardiopulmonary system and the gastrointestinal tract are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of global warming. Moreover, some infectious diseases and their animal vectors are influenced by climate changes, resulting in higher risk of typhus, cholera, malaria, dengue and West Nile virus infection. On the other hand, at mid latitudes warming may reduce the rate of diseases related to cold temperatures (such as pneumonia, bronchitis and arthritis), but these benefits are unlikely to rebalance the risks associated to warming.

  6. Rhinitis associated with pesticide use among private pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study.

    PubMed

    Slager, Rebecca E; Simpson, Sean L; Levan, Tricia D; Poole, Jill A; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2010-01-01

    Farmers commonly experience rhinitis but the risk factors are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze cross-sectional data on rhinitis in the past year and pesticide use from 21,958 Iowa and North Carolina farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, enrolled 1993-1997, to evaluate pesticide predictors of rhinitis. Polytomous and logistic regression models were used to assess association between pesticide use and rhinitis while controlling for demographics and farm-related exposures. Sixty-seven percent of farmers reported current rhinitis and 39% reported 3 or more rhinitis episodes. The herbicides glyphosate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.05-1.13] and petroleum oil (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05-1.19) were associated with current rhinitis and increased rhinitis episodes. Of the insecticides, four organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and malathion), carbaryl, and use of permethrin on animals were predictors of current rhinitis. Diazinon was significant in the overall polytomous model and was associated with an elevated OR of 13+ rhinitis episodes (13+ episodes OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.09-1.38). The fungicide captan was also a significant predictor of rhinitis. Use of petroleum oil, use of malathion, use of permethrin, and use of the herbicide metolachlor were significant in exposure-response polytomous models. Specific pesticides may contribute to rhinitis in farmers; agricultural activities did not explain these findings.

  7. Quality of wastewater reuse in agricultural irrigation and its impact on public health.

    PubMed

    Al-Hammad, Bushra Ahmed; Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy; Ibrahim, Sahar Yassin

    2014-11-01

    This study is planned to perform a sanitary survey of the largest sewage treatment plant in Riyadh, KSA, fortnightly for 6 months to examine its effluent quality as an example for the growing dependence on reuse of treated municipal wastewater in agricultural irrigation purposes to cope with increasing water shortage. The biological and physico-chemical parameters of 12 wastewater samples from the plant were examined using standard methods. The physico-chemical analysis indicated that the surveyed municipal wastewater treatment plant contained some of the studied parameters, such as turbidity, total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and residual chlorine above the maximum permissible wastewater limits set by the Saudi Standards. However, heavy metal concentrations in all samples were lower than the recommended standards. Total and faecal coliform counts were above the permissible limits indicating poor sanitation level. Fifty percent of all wastewater samples were contaminated with faecal coliforms but, surprisingly, Escherichia coli were only detected in 8.3 % of the samples. Regular monitoring and enhancement of microbial and physico-chemical parameters of the wastewater quality served by different wastewater treatment plants for reuse in agricultural irrigation is recommended to preserve the environment and public health. PMID:25085428

  8. The Circadian Clock and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Roenneberg, Till; Merrow, Martha

    2016-05-23

    Epidemiological studies provided the first evidence suggesting a connection between the circadian clock and human health. Mutant mice convincingly demonstrate the principle that dysregulation of the circadian system leads to a multitude of pathologies. Chrono-medicine is one of the most important upcoming themes in the field of circadian biology. Although treatments counteracting circadian dysregulation are already being applied (e.g., prescribing strong and regular zeitgebers), we need to comprehend entrainment throughout the body's entire circadian network before understanding the mechanisms that tie circadian dysregulation to pathology. Here, we attempt to provide a systematic approach to understanding the connection between the circadian clock and health. This taxonomy of (mis)alignments on one hand exposes how little we know about entrainment within any organism and which 'eigen-zeitgeber' signals are used for entrainment by the different cells and tissues. On the other hand, it provides focus for experimental approaches and tools that will logically map out how circadian systems contribute to disease as well as how we can treat and prevent them. PMID:27218855

  9. Effects of agricultural, industrial, and municipal pollutants on wetlands and wildlife and wildlife health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Kathryn A.

    1995-01-01

    Wetlands accumulate pollutants from adjacent areas through intentional discharge of sewage or industrial wastes, runoff of agricultural fertilizers and pesticides, and discharge from municipal storm drains.  Coastal wetlands receive more pollutants indirectly as the endpoint for upland drainage systems and directly through petroleum spills and insect abatement.  Wetlands that serve as evaporation basins during seasonally high water, especially in more arid climates, concentrate natural compounds and as well as pollutants.  The ability of wetlands to be effective filtration systems for wastewater nutrients through microbial transformations, uptake by plants, and deposition of particulate matter, and the shortage of water in arid climates has resulted in revision of wetland regulations.  Wetlands can now be developed for wastewater treatment and natural wetlands can be restored or converted to wastewater treatment systems.  The effect of these accumulation pollutants on wetland ecology and wildlife health needs to be recognized.

  10. Agriculture, nutrition, and health in global development: typology and metrics for integrated interventions and research.

    PubMed

    Masters, William A; Webb, Patrick; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Despite rhetoric arguing that enhanced agriculture leads to improved nutrition and health, there is scant empirical evidence about potential synergies across sectors or about the mix of actions that best supports all three sectors. The geographic scale and socioeconomic nature of these interventions require integration of previously separate research methods. This paper proposes a typology of interventions and a metric of integration among them to help researchers build on each other's results, facilitating integration in methods to inform the design of multisector interventions. The typology recognizes the importance of regional effect modifiers that are not themselves subject to randomized assignment, and trade-offs in how policies and programs are implemented, evaluated, and scaled. Using this typology could facilitate methodological pluralism, helping researchers in one field use knowledge generated elsewhere, each using the most appropriate method for their situation.

  11. Neurologic Symptoms Associated With Cattle Farming in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Vegosen, Leora; Davis, Meghan F.; Silbergeld, Ellen; Breysse, Patrick N.; Agnew, Jacqueline; Gray, Gregory; Freeman, Laura Beane; Kamel, Freya

    2013-01-01

    Objective Infection with Campylobacter jejuni, a bacterium carried by poultry and livestock, is the most frequently identified antecedent to the autoimmune neurologic condition Guillain-Barré Syndrome. We used Agricultural Health Study data to assess whether cattle farming was associated with prevalence of neurologic symptoms. Methods Prevalence of self-reported symptoms in cattle farmers (n = 8878) was compared with farmers who did not work with animals (n = 7462), using multivariate regression. Results Prevalence of numbness and weakness were increased for beef and dairy farmers compared with the reference group (P < 0.0001). Of cattle farmers, 48% did not report raising other animal species, and prevalence of numbness and weakness were also increased in this subgroup compared with the reference group (P < 0.02). Conclusions Occupational exposure to cattle was associated with increased prevalence of self-reported symptoms associated with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:22975665

  12. Pesticide Use and Myocardial Infarction Incidence Among Farm Women in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Dayton, Shile B.; Sandler, Dale P.; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the relationship between pesticide use and myocardial infarction (MI) among farm women. Background Little is known about the potential association between pesticide use and cardiovascular outcomes. Methods We used logistic regression to evaluate pesticide use and self-reported incident non-fatal MI among women in the Agricultural Health Study. Results Of those MI-free at enrollment (n=22,425), 168 reported an MI after enrollment. We saw no association with pesticide use overall. Six of 27 individual pesticides evaluated were significantly associated with non-fatal MI, including chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, carbofuran, metalaxyl, pendimethalin and trifluralin, which all had odds ratios greater than 1.7. These chemicals were used by <10% of the cases and their use was correlated, making it difficult to attribute the risk elevation to a specific pesticide. Conclusion Pesticides may contribute to MI risk among farm women. PMID:20595914

  13. Global environmental change and human health: new challenges to scientist and policy-maker.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    1994-01-01

    Human health may not remain sustainable if damage to the global environment continues. The argument is simple: Earth is essentially a closed system; humans are proliferating and commandeering more surface area, food and energy; the resultant accumulation of waste gases, depletion of soil and water, and loss of biodiversity is starting to overload Earth's carrying capacity. There are limits in any closed system and our species is now pressing against some of them. These are new problems and we cannot be certain of the consequences for human health. A warmer world will probably have more frequent heatwaves, unstable weather, increased spread of mosquito-borne infectious diseases, and disruptions to agriculture. Ozone depletion, if sustained, may cause moderate increases in skin cancer and cataracts, and may damage crop growth and marine stocks. Depletion of agricultural resources, overfishing, and loss of genetic resources from species extinction all entail potentially serious consequences for human health. The manifest uncertainties of these global change processes and the need for prediction, rather than empirical observation, create new challenges to health scientists. Likewise, policy-makers will have to deal with best estimates and long time-frames, informed by understanding of ecological realities.

  14. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined. PMID:27406110

  15. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.

  16. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    PubMed

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed.

  17. Aluminum in the Environment and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, John R. J.; Campbell, Irene R.; Tepper, Lloyd B.; Lingg, Robert D.

    1974-01-01

    The review of over 800 references on aluminum (Al) published since the mid-fifties covers the occurrence of Al in soil, air, water, plants and food products, as well as air and water pollution problems. In addition, the existing quality criteria, the biology and toxicology of Al, and the therapeutic and medical uses are presented. It is concluded that absorption and retention or accumulation of Al in humans occurs at lower levels of intake than had been assumed formerly. However, levels of 5 to 50 times the normal daily intake do not appear to interfere with other metabolic processes. The adverse effects of Al reported in the more recent years resulted from the inhalation or ingestion of Al in concentrations many times greater than the amounts present under normal circumstances. As in the past, there is still no need for concern by the public or producers of Al or its products concerning hazards to human health derived from well established and extensively used products. PMID:4470920

  18. Pesticide Use and Thyroid Disease Among Women in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldner, Whitney S.; Sandler, Dale P.; Yu, Fang; Hoppin, Jane A.; Kamel, Freya; LeVan, Tricia D.

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid disease is common, and evidence of an association between organochlorine exposure and thyroid disease is increasing. The authors examined the cross-sectional association between ever use of organochlorines and risk of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism among female spouses (n = 16,529) in Iowa and North Carolina enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study in 1993–1997. They also assessed risk of thyroid disease in relation to ever use of herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and fumigants. Prevalence of self-reported clinically diagnosed thyroid disease was 12.5%, and prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism was 6.9% and 2.1%, respectively. There was an increased odds of hypothyroidism with ever use of organochlorine insecticides (adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) = 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 1.6) and fungicides (ORadj = 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.8) but no association with ever use of herbicides, fumigants, organophosphates, pyrethroids, or carbamates. Specifically, ever use of the organochlorine chlordane (ORadj = 1.3 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.7), the fungicides benomyl (ORadj = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.9, 5.1) and maneb/mancozeb (ORadj = 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3), and the herbicide paraquat (ORadj = 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.8) was significantly associated with hypothyroidism. Maneb/mancozeb was the only pesticide associated with both hyperthyroidism (ORadj = 2.3 (95% CI: 1.2, 4.4) and hypothyroidism. These data support a role of organochlorines, in addition to fungicides, in the etiology of thyroid disease among female spouses enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. PMID:20061368

  19. Cancer Incidence among Pesticide Applicators Exposed to Permethrin in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Patel, Rahulkumar; Koutros, Stella; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Landgren, Ola; Bonner, Matthew R.; Coble, Joseph; Lubin, Jay; Blair, Aaron; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide widely used in agriculture, in public health, and in many U.S. homes and gardens. Objective In this study we evaluated the incidence of cancer among pesticide applicators exposed to permethrin in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Methods A total of 49,093 pesticide applicators were included in this analysis of the AHS, a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Detailed information on pesticide exposure and lifestyle factors was obtained from self-administered questionnaires completed in 1993–1997. Average length of follow-up since applicator enrollment in the cohort was 9.14 years. We used two permethrin exposure metrics: a) lifetime days applicators personally mixed or applied permethrin and b) intensity-weighted lifetime days (lifetime days weighted by estimated intensity of exposure). We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for malignancies by tertiles of exposure. Results We found no associations between permethrin and all malignant neoplasms combined, or between permethrin and melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, or cancers of the colon, rectum, lung, or prostate. We found elevated and statistically significant risks for multiple myeloma in the highest tertiles of both lifetime exposure-days (RR = 5.72; 95% CI, 2.76–11.87) and intensity-weighted lifetime exposure-days (RR = 5.01; 95% CI, 2.41–10.42), compared with applicators reporting they never used permethrin; these results are based on only 15 exposed cases. These findings were similar across a variety of alternative exposure metrics, exposure categories, and reference groups. Conclusions This study found no association with most cancers analyzed. Although the suggested association with multiple myeloma was based on a small number of cases, it warrants further evaluation. PMID:19440497

  20. Intermittent drinking, oxytocin and human health.

    PubMed

    Pruimboom, L; Reheis, D

    2016-07-01

    Looking at a waterhole, it is surprising that so many animals share the same space without visible signs of anxiety or aggression. Although waterholes are the preferred feeding locations of large carnivores, waterholes are shared by all type of herbivores of all sizes and shapes, including elephants. Recent research shows that the homeostatic disturbances leading to the "thirst feeling" not only activate specific substances regulating water and mineral household, but also the "trust and love" hormone oxytocin, while decreasing the production of the typical stress hormone cortisol. People using drugs, seem to be in search for oxytocin, as evidenced in studies with individuals on drugs such as ecstasy and gamma-hydroxybyturate. Hot environment, drought and increased sweating also activate specific oxytocin-producing parts of the hypothalamus, just as breastfeeding does in mother and infant. Water homeostasis is the only allostatic system activating trust neuro-anatomy and we suggest that this is due to the fact that all animals depend on water, whereas food type is species specific. Our hypothesis; regulating drinking behaviour through intermittent bulk drinking could increase oxytocin signalling, recover human trust and increase health by down-regulation of stress axis activity and inflammatory activity of the immune system. Intermittent bulk drinking should be defined as water (including tea and coffee) drinking up to a feeling of satiety and regulated by a mild feeling of thirst. This would mean that people would not drink less quantity but less frequently and that's how all animals, but also human newborns behave. It is the latter group, which is probably the only group of humans with a normal fluid homeostasis. PMID:27241263

  1. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  2. Pollution's Price--The Cost in Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the detrimental effects of air pollution, and especially sulfur dioxide, on human health. Any relaxation of existing national air pollution standards because of the energy crisis could be costly in terms of the nation's health. (JR)

  3. The Past, Present, and Future of Soils and Human Health Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, E. C.; Sauer, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    The idea that human health is tied to the soil is not a new one. As far back as approximately 1400 B.C. the Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people. While exploring Canaan, Moses charged the men he sent to evaluate the fertility of the soil. In 400 B.C. the Greek philosopher Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the ground. By the late 1700 and early 1800s, American farmers had recognized that soil properties had some connection to human health. In "Letters from an American Farmer", published in 1792, J. Hector St. John De Crèvecoeur stated "Men are like plants; the goodness and flavor of the fruit proceeds from the peculiar soil and exposition in which they grow". And in "Larding the Lean Earth", published in 2002, S. Stoll noted that North American farmers in the early 1800s recognized a link between an enduring agriculture and an enduring society, leading them to become concerned about the fertility of their soils and to seek ways of improving the soil in order to insure a healthy society. Continuing into the first half of the 20th Century, a 1940 publication by the International Harvester Company noted that poor soils lead to "stoop-shouldered, poverty-stricken people." Then, in 1947, Sir Albert Howard published his landmark work "The Soil and Health: A Study of Organic Agriculture", a work that took a critical look at modern production agriculture and at the link between soil fertility and health. Despite these various lines of evidence of some earlier level of understanding that healthy soils are required for healthy people, the scientific study of the relationship between soils and human health is a fairly new undertaking. In his 1997 work "Soil and Human Health: A Review", M.A. Oliver states "… there is a dearth of quantitative information on the relations between elements in the soil and human health;…there is much

  4. Reliability of reporting on life-style and agricultural factors by a sample of participants in the Agricultural Health Study from Iowa.

    PubMed

    Blair, Aaron; Tarone, Robert; Sandler, Dale; Lynch, Charles F; Rowland, Andrew; Wintersteen, Wendy; Steen, William C; Samanic, Claudine; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Alavanja, Michael C R

    2002-01-01

    Repeat interviews from 4,088 Iowa pesticide applicators participating in the Agricultural Health Study provided the opportunity to evaluate the reliability of self-reported information on pesticide use and various demographic and life-style factors. Self-completed questionnaires were administered 1 year apart when participants returned to county agricultural extension offices for pesticide certification or training. Percentage agreement for ever-/never-use of specific pesticides and application practices was quite high, generally ranging from 70% to more than 90%, and did not vary by age, educational level, or farm size. Agreement was lower (typically 50-60%) for duration, frequency, or decade of first use of specific pesticides. Level of agreement regarding pesticide use in this population is similar to that generally found for factors typically used in epidemiologic studies such as tobacco use and higher than typically reported for diet, physical activity, and medical conditions. PMID:11805592

  5. Securing health and human rights: Sandwell's community health network.

    PubMed

    Al-Osaimi, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Minority communities face discrimination and abuse. The main health problems they face are those of severe and early chronic disease and poor well-being due to inequality in jobs, education and access to health care. The Sandwell community health network provides support workers to six major minority groups in Sandwell, providing information and access to skilled health services. Without securing health as a basic right for our minorities we perpetuate divisions in our society which cause mistrust, conflict and violence. The health system has a vital role to play in securing people's rights and campaigning for equality and justice for all our communities, to enhance community cohesion.

  6. Shamba Maisha: Randomized controlled trial of an agricultural and finance intervention to improve HIV health outcomes in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    WEISER, Sheri D.; BUKUSI, Elizabeth A.; STEINFELD, Rachel L.; FRONGILLO, Edward A.; WEKE, Elly; DWORKIN, Shari L.; PUSATERI, Kyle; SHIBOSKI, Stephen; SCOW, Kate; BUTLER, Lisa M.; COHEN, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Food insecurity and HIV/AIDS outcomes are inextricably linked in sub-Saharan Africa. We report on health and nutritional outcomes of a multisectoral agricultural intervention trial among HIV-infected adults in rural Kenya. Design Pilot cluster randomized controlled trial Methods The intervention included a human-powered water pump, a microfinance loan to purchase farm commodities, and education in sustainable farming practices and financial management. Two health facilities in Nyanza Region, Kenya were randomly assigned as intervention or control. HIV-infected adults 18 to 49 years old who were on antiretroviral therapy and had access to surface water and land were enrolled beginning in April 2012 and followed quarterly for one year. Data were collected on nutritional parameters, CD4 T lymphocyte counts, and HIV RNA. Difference in difference fixed-effects regression models were used to test whether patterns in health outcomes differed over time from baseline between the intervention and control arms. Results We enrolled 72 and 68 participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively. At 12 months follow-up, we found a statistically significant increase in CD4 cell counts (165 cells/mm3, p<0.001) and proportion virologically suppressed in the intervention arm compared to the control arm (comparative improvement in proportion of 0.33 suppressed, OR 7.6, 95% CI: 2.2–26.8). Intervention participants experienced significant improvements in food security (3.6 scale points higher, p<0.001) and frequency of food consumption (9.4 times per week greater frequency, p=0.013) compared to controls. Conclusion Livelihood interventions may be a promising approach to tackle the intersecting problems of food insecurity, poverty and HIV/AIDS morbidity. PMID:26214684

  7. The evolution of human rights in World Health Organization policy and the future of human rights through global health governance.

    PubMed

    Meier, B M; Onzivu, W

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political constraints in international relations, organizational resistance to legal discourses, and medical ambivalence toward human rights. Through legal research on international treaty obligations, historical research in the WHO organizational archives, and interview research with global health stakeholders, this research examines WHO's contributions to (and, in many cases, negligence of) the rights-based approach to health. Based upon such research, this article analyzes the evolving role of WHO in the development and implementation of human rights for global health, reviews the current state of human rights leadership in the WHO Secretariat, and looks to future institutions to reclaim the mantle of human rights as a normative framework for global health governance.

  8. The Effects of Organic Pollutants in Soil on Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Lynn

    2013-04-01

    The soil has always been depository of the organic chemicals produced naturally or anthropogenically. Soil contamination is a serious human and environmental problem. A large body of evidence has shown the risks of adverse health effects with the exposure to contaminated soil due to the large quantities of organic chemicals used in agriculture and urban areas that have a legacy of environmental pollution linked to industrial activities, coal burning, motor vehicle emissions, waste incineration and waste dumping. In agricultural areas, because of the effort to provide adequate quantities of agricultural products, farmers have been using an increasing amount of organic chemicals, but the resulting pollution has enormous potential for environmental damage. The types of organic pollutants commonly found in soils are polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides, herbicides and organic fuels, especially gasoline and diesel. Another source of soil pollution is the complex mixture of organic chemicals, metals and microorganisms in the effluent from septic systems, animal wastes and other sources of biowaste. The soils of the world are a vast mixture of chemicals and although conditions are such that an individual is rarely exposed to a single compound, the great majority of people are exposed to a vast chemical mixture of organics, their metabolites, and other compounds at low concentrations Human exposure to organic pollutants in the soil is an area of toxicology that is very difficult to study due to the low concentration of the pollutants. The toxicological studies of single organic pollutants found in soils are limited and research on the metabolites and of chemical mixtures is very limited. The majority of toxicological studies are conducted at relatively high doses and for short periods of exposure. This makes the application of this data to exposure

  9. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health.

    PubMed

    Téllez, Guillermo; Lauková, Andrea; Latorre, Juan D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M; Callaway, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals' health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs). This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health. PMID:25651994

  10. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health

    PubMed Central

    Téllez, Guillermo; Lauková, Andrea; Latorre, Juan D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Callaway, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals’ health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs). This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health. PMID:25651994

  11. Agriculture, health, and wealth convergence: bridging traditional food systems and modern agribusiness solutions.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Webb, Patrick; Arora, Narendra K; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    The causes of many vexing challenges facing 21st-century society are at the nexus of systems involved in agriculture, health and wealth production, consumption, and distribution. Using food as a test bed, and on the basis of emerging roadmaps that set achievable objectives over a 1- to 3-year horizon, we introduce this special feature with convergence thinking and practice at its core. Specifically, we discuss academic papers structured around four themes: (1) evidence for a need for convergence and underlying mechanisms at the individual and societal levels; (2) strategy for mainstreaming convergence as a driver of business engagement and innovation; (3) convergence in policy and governance; (4) convergence in metrics and methods. Academic papers under each theme are accompanied by a roadmap paper reporting on the current status of concrete transformative convergence-building projects associated with that theme. We believe that the insights provided by these papers have the potential to enable all actors throughout society to singly and collectively work to build supply and demand for nutritious food, in both traditional and modern food systems, while placing the burdens of malnutrition and ill health on their core strategic agendas.

  12. Agriculture, health, and wealth convergence: bridging traditional food systems and modern agribusiness solutions.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Laurette; Webb, Patrick; Arora, Narendra K; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    The causes of many vexing challenges facing 21st-century society are at the nexus of systems involved in agriculture, health and wealth production, consumption, and distribution. Using food as a test bed, and on the basis of emerging roadmaps that set achievable objectives over a 1- to 3-year horizon, we introduce this special feature with convergence thinking and practice at its core. Specifically, we discuss academic papers structured around four themes: (1) evidence for a need for convergence and underlying mechanisms at the individual and societal levels; (2) strategy for mainstreaming convergence as a driver of business engagement and innovation; (3) convergence in policy and governance; (4) convergence in metrics and methods. Academic papers under each theme are accompanied by a roadmap paper reporting on the current status of concrete transformative convergence-building projects associated with that theme. We believe that the insights provided by these papers have the potential to enable all actors throughout society to singly and collectively work to build supply and demand for nutritious food, in both traditional and modern food systems, while placing the burdens of malnutrition and ill health on their core strategic agendas. PMID:25514864

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Thanner, Sophie; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans. PMID:27094336

  14. Use of Dieselized Farm Equipment and Incident Lung Cancer: Findings from the Agricultural Health Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tual, Séverine; Silverman, Debra T.; Koutros, Stella; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Lebailly, Pierre; Andreotti, Gabriella; Hoppin, Jane A.; Freeman, Laura E. Beane

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diesel exhaust is a known lung carcinogen. Farmers use a variety of dieselized equipment and thus may be at increased risk of lung cancer, but farm exposures such as endotoxins may also be protective for lung cancer. Objectives: We evaluated the relative risk of incident lung cancer, including histological subtype, from enrollment (1993–1997) to 2010–2011 in relation to farm equipment use in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators and spouses in Iowa and North Carolina, USA. Methods: Farm equipment use was reported by 21,273 farmers and 29,840 spouses. Rate ratios (RRs) were estimated separately for farmers and spouses with Poisson regression models adjusted for smoking and other confounders. We conducted stratified analyses by exposure to animals or stored grain, a surrogate for endotoxin exposure. Results: Daily diesel tractor use (vs. no use) was positively associated with lung cancer in farmers (RR = 1.48; 95% CI: 0.87, 2.50; 35 exposed, 32 unexposed cases), particularly adenocarcinoma (RR = 3.39; 95% CI: 1.23, 9.33; 12 exposed, 7 unexposed cases). The association of adenocarcinoma with daily (vs. low/no) use of diesel tractors was stronger for farmers with no animal or stored grain exposures (RR = 6.23; 95% CI: 2.25, 17.25; 5 exposed, 18 unexposed cases) than among farmers with these exposures (RR = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.51, 2.79; 7 exposed, 27 unexposed cases) (p-interaction = 0.05). Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence of an increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma among daily drivers of diesel tractors and suggests that exposure to endotoxins may modify the impact of diesel exposure on lung cancer risk. Confirmation of these findings with more exposed cases and more detailed exposure information is warranted. Citation: Tual S, Silverman DT, Koutros S, Blair A, Sandler DP, Lebailly P, Andreotti G, Hoppin JA, Beane Freeman LE. 2016. Use of dieselized farm equipment and incident lung

  15. Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

  16. The Watershed as A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Environmental and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Kolok, Alan S.; Beseler, Cheryl L.; Chen, Xun-Hong; Shea, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    The watershed provides a physical basis for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, environmental health and human health. Current attempts to establish such linkages are limited by environmental and epidemiological constraints. Environmental limitations include difficulties in characterizing the temporal and spatial dynamics of agricultural runoff, in fully understanding the degradation and metabolism of these compounds in the environment, and in understanding complex mixtures. Epidemiological limitations include difficulties associated with the organization of risk factor data and uncertainty about which measurable endpoints are most appropriate for an agricultural setting. Nevertheless, it is our contention that an adoption of the watershed concept can alleviate some of these difficulties. From an environmental perspective, the watershed concept helps identify differences in land use and application of agrichemicals at a level of resolution relevant to human health outcomes. From an epidemiological perspective, the watershed concept places data into a construct with environmental relevance. In this perspectives paper, we discuss how the watershed can provide a conceptual framework for studies in environmental and human health. PMID:20508751

  17. Global environmental change and human population health: a conceptual and scientific challenge for epidemiology.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    1993-02-01

    A large and rapidly growing human population, resource intensive industrial practices, and land exhausting agriculture has overloaded the carrying capacity of the planet's natural systems. Evidence of overloading include global warming, soil degradation and topsoil loss, decreasing stratospheric ozone, depletion of groundwater, reduced genetic and ecosystem diversity, and acidification of water and soils. These global environmental changes threaten human health in qualitatively different way than the way conventional environmental pollutants do. The risks arising from these changes stem from impairment of productivity (soils, forests, oceans, biodiversity) or stability (climate, sea level, ultraviolet, filtration). Epidemiologist must adopt an ecological model to identify, study, and to quantify the health effects of ecological disturbances. The health effects from these disturbances include those caused by atmospheric changes, by reduced agricultural yield, and by uncontrolled growth of urban populations. The UN recognizes that scientific disciplines and human capabilities to evaluate and provide sound guidance cannot keep pace with the fast rate of ecological change. Thus, rather than empirical evidence, interdisciplinary research, using modeling and forecasting to assess health effects, is needed to provide decision makers with the best available estimates.

  18. Impact assessment of treated/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Mohan, Dinesh; Sinha, Sarita; Dalwani, R

    2004-04-01

    Studies were undertaken to assess the impact of wastewater/sludge disposal (metals and pesticides) from sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Jajmau, Kanpur (5 MLD) and Dinapur, Varanasi (80 MLD), on health, agriculture and environmental quality in the receiving/application areas around Kanpur and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India. The raw, treated and mixed treated urban wastewater samples were collected from the inlet and outlet points of the plants during peak (morning and evening) and non-peak (noon) hours. The impact of the treated wastewater toxicants (metals and pesticides) on the environmental quality of the disposal area was assessed in terms of their levels in different media samples viz., water, soil, crops, vegetation, and food grains. The data generated show elevated levels of metals and pesticides in all the environmental media, suggesting a definite adverse impact on the environmental quality of the disposal area. The critical levels of the heavy metals in the soil for agricultural crops are found to be much higher than those observed in the study areas receiving no effluents. The sludge from the STPs has both positive and negative impacts on agriculture as it is loaded with high levels of toxic heavy metals and pesticides, but also enriched with several useful ingredients such as N, P, and K providing fertilizer values. The sludge studied had cadmium, chromium and nickel levels above tolerable levels as prescribed for agricultural and lands application. Bio-monitoring of the metals and pesticides levels in the human blood and urine of the different population groups under study areas was undertaken. All the different approaches indicated a considerable risk and impact of heavy metals and pesticides on human health in the exposed areas receiving the wastewater from the STPs.

  19. Planning an integrated agriculture and health program and designing its evaluation: Experience from Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Donald C.; Levin, Carol; Loechl, Cornelia; Thiele, Graham; Grant, Frederick; Girard, Aimee Webb; Sindi, Kirimi; Low, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Multi-sectoral programs that involve stakeholders in agriculture, nutrition and health care are essential for responding to nutrition problems such as vitamin A deficiency among pregnant and lactating women and their infants in many poor areas of lower income countries. Yet planning such multi-sectoral programs and designing appropriate evaluations, to respond to different disciplinary cultures of evidence, remain a challenge. We describe the context, program development process, and evaluation design of the Mama SASHA project (Sweetpotato Action for Security and Health in Africa) which promoted production and consumption of a bio-fortified, orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP). In planning the program we drew upon information from needs assessments, stakeholder consultations, and a first round of the implementation evaluation of a pilot project. The multi-disciplinary team worked with partner organizations to develop a program theory of change and an impact pathway which identified aspects of the program that would be monitored and established evaluation methods. Responding to the growing demand for greater rigour in impact evaluations, we carried out quasi-experimental allocation by health facility catchment area, repeat village surveys for assessment of change in intervention and control areas, and longitudinal tracking of individual mother-child pairs. Mid-course corrections in program implementation were informed by program monitoring, regular feedback from implementers and partners’ meetings. To assess economic efficiency and provide evidence for scaling we collected data on resources used and project expenses. Managing the multi-sectoral program and the mixed methods evaluation involved bargaining and trade-offs that were deemed essential to respond to the array of stakeholders, program funders and disciplines involved. PMID:27003730

  20. Planning an integrated agriculture and health program and designing its evaluation: Experience from Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cole, Donald C; Levin, Carol; Loechl, Cornelia; Thiele, Graham; Grant, Frederick; Girard, Aimee Webb; Sindi, Kirimi; Low, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multi-sectoral programs that involve stakeholders in agriculture, nutrition and health care are essential for responding to nutrition problems such as vitamin A deficiency among pregnant and lactating women and their infants in many poor areas of lower income countries. Yet planning such multi-sectoral programs and designing appropriate evaluations, to respond to different disciplinary cultures of evidence, remain a challenge. We describe the context, program development process, and evaluation design of the Mama SASHA project (Sweetpotato Action for Security and Health in Africa) which promoted production and consumption of a bio-fortified, orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP). In planning the program we drew upon information from needs assessments, stakeholder consultations, and a first round of the implementation evaluation of a pilot project. The multi-disciplinary team worked with partner organizations to develop a program theory of change and an impact pathway which identified aspects of the program that would be monitored and established evaluation methods. Responding to the growing demand for greater rigour in impact evaluations, we carried out quasi-experimental allocation by health facility catchment area, repeat village surveys for assessment of change in intervention and control areas, and longitudinal tracking of individual mother-child pairs. Mid-course corrections in program implementation were informed by program monitoring, regular feedback from implementers and partners' meetings. To assess economic efficiency and provide evidence for scaling we collected data on resources used and project expenses. Managing the multi-sectoral program and the mixed methods evaluation involved bargaining and trade-offs that were deemed essential to respond to the array of stakeholders, program funders and disciplines involved. PMID:27003730

  1. Planning an integrated agriculture and health program and designing its evaluation: Experience from Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cole, Donald C; Levin, Carol; Loechl, Cornelia; Thiele, Graham; Grant, Frederick; Girard, Aimee Webb; Sindi, Kirimi; Low, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multi-sectoral programs that involve stakeholders in agriculture, nutrition and health care are essential for responding to nutrition problems such as vitamin A deficiency among pregnant and lactating women and their infants in many poor areas of lower income countries. Yet planning such multi-sectoral programs and designing appropriate evaluations, to respond to different disciplinary cultures of evidence, remain a challenge. We describe the context, program development process, and evaluation design of the Mama SASHA project (Sweetpotato Action for Security and Health in Africa) which promoted production and consumption of a bio-fortified, orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP). In planning the program we drew upon information from needs assessments, stakeholder consultations, and a first round of the implementation evaluation of a pilot project. The multi-disciplinary team worked with partner organizations to develop a program theory of change and an impact pathway which identified aspects of the program that would be monitored and established evaluation methods. Responding to the growing demand for greater rigour in impact evaluations, we carried out quasi-experimental allocation by health facility catchment area, repeat village surveys for assessment of change in intervention and control areas, and longitudinal tracking of individual mother-child pairs. Mid-course corrections in program implementation were informed by program monitoring, regular feedback from implementers and partners' meetings. To assess economic efficiency and provide evidence for scaling we collected data on resources used and project expenses. Managing the multi-sectoral program and the mixed methods evaluation involved bargaining and trade-offs that were deemed essential to respond to the array of stakeholders, program funders and disciplines involved.

  2. Governance and human resources for health.

    PubMed

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Hilhorst, Thea

    2011-01-01

    Despite an increase in efforts to address shortage and performance of Human Resources for Health (HRH), HRH problems continue to hamper quality service delivery. We believe that the influence of governance is undervalued in addressing the HRH crisis, both globally and at country level. This thematic series has aimed to expand the evidence base on the role of governance in addressing the HRH crisis. The six articles comprising the series present a range of experiences. The articles report on governance in relation to developing a joint vision, building adherence and strengthening accountability, and on governance with respect to planning, implementation, and monitoring. Other governance issues warrant attention as well, such as corruption and transparency in decision-making in HRH policies and strategies. Acknowledging and dealing with governance should be part and parcel of HRH planning and implementation. To date, few experiences have been shared on improving governance for HRH policy making and implementation, and many questions remain unanswered. There is an urgent need to document experiences and for mutual learning.

  3. THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

  4. Human rights, health and the state in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Redwanur M

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper broadly discusses the role of the State of Bangladesh in the context of the health system and human rights. The interrelation between human rights, health and development are well documented. The recognition of health as a fundamental right by WHO and subsequent approval of health as an instrument of welfare by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights (ICSECR) further enhances the idea. Moreover, human rights are also recognized as an expedient of human development. The state is entrusted to realize the rights enunciated in the ICSECR. Discussion In exploring the relationship of the human rights and health situation in Bangladesh, it is argued, in this paper, that the constitution and major policy documents of the Bangladesh government have recognized the health rights and development. Bangladesh has ratified most of the international treaties and covenants including ICCPR, ICESCR; and a signatory of international declarations including Alma-Ata, ICPD, Beijing declarations, and Millennium Development Goals. However the implementation of government policies and plans in the development of health institutions, human resources, accessibility and availability, resource distribution, rural-urban disparity, the male-female gap has put the health system in a dismal state. Neither the right to health nor the right to development has been established in the development of health system or in providing health care. Summary The development and service pattern of the health system have negative correlation with human rights and contributed to the underdevelopment of Bangladesh. The government should take comprehensive approach in prioritizing the health rights of the citizens and progressive realization of these rights. PMID:16611360

  5. TOXICOPROTEOMICS AND ITS APPLICATION TO HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants, and this together with a large number of interacting factors can contribute to an individual's risk for health. To understand the toxic mechanisms and/or modes of action for human health risk assessment, molecular charac...

  6. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2008-07-14

    This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  7. Peripheral Nervous System Function and Organophosphate Pesticide Use among Licensed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Sarah E.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F.; Jones, Michael P.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence is limited that long-term human exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, without poisoning, is associated with adverse peripheral nervous system (PNS) function. Objective: We investigated associations between OP pesticide use and PNS function by administering PNS tests to 701 male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Methods: Participants completed a neurological physical examination (NPx) and electrophysiological tests as well as tests of hand strength, sway speed, and vibrotactile threshold. Self-reported information on lifetime use of 16 OP pesticides was obtained from AHS interviews and a study questionnaire. Associations between pesticide use and measures of PNS function were estimated with linear and logistic regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. Results: Significantly increased odds ratios (ORs) were observed for associations between ever use of 10 of the 16 OP pesticides and one or more of six NPx outcomes. Most notably, abnormal toe proprioception was significantly associated with ever use of 6 OP pesticides, with ORs ranging from 2.03 to 3.06; monotonic increases in strength of association with increasing use was observed for 3 of the 6 pesticides. Mostly null associations were observed between OP pesticide use and electrophysiological tests, hand strength, sway speed, and vibrotactile threshold. Conclusions: This study provides some evidence that long-term exposure to OP pesticides is associated with signs of impaired PNS function among pesticide applicators. PMID:22262687

  8. [Human rights, an opportunity for public policies in health].

    PubMed

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Human rights outlined a better scenario for public policies in health. For it requires intersectoral and interdisciplinary approach. This article emphasizes the perspective of public health policies based on human rights, clarifies the relationship of public policies with the exercise of human rights, beyond the right to health. It recognizes the need to implement genuinely democratic and participatory mechanisms. It considers the universal declaration of human rights and other institutional expressions about the same as the international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights, discusses the ranking of the same and defend its entirety on the determinants of health through its cohesion and political factor. It defines a framework for public health and human rights that trend by strengthening social rights, as a new area of operation, based on public policies to address the determinants of health, upholding social justice, beyond the health field and the biological and behavioural risk factors to decisions arising from political power, exceeds medical solutions and access to health services. In conclusion, it promoting respect for human rights by greater understanding of them and strengthens the importance of indirect health policies (such as food, environment and health, violence gender) and the role of international policies in the global world.

  9. Humanization policy in primary health care: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Nora, Carlise Rigon Dalla; Junges, José Roque

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze humanization practices in primary health care in the Brazilian Unified Health System according to the principles of the National Humanization Policy. METHODS A systematic review of the literature was carried out, followed by a meta-synthesis, using the following databases: BDENF (nursing database), BDTD (Brazilian digital library of theses and dissertations), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to nursing and allied health literature), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean health care sciences literature), MedLine (International health care sciences literature), PAHO (Pan-American Health Care Organization Library) and SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online). The following descriptors were used: Humanization; Humanizing Health Care; Reception: Humanized care: Humanization in health care; Bonding; Family Health Care Program; Primary Care; Public Health and Sistema Único de Saúde (the Brazilian public health care system). Research articles, case studies, reports of experiences, dissertations, theses and chapters of books written in Portuguese, English or Spanish, published between 2003 and 2011, were included in the analysis. RESULTS Among the 4,127 publications found on the topic, 40 studies were evaluated and included in the analysis, producing three main categories: the first referring to the infrastructure and organization of the primary care service, made clear the dissatisfaction with the physical structure and equipment of the services and with the flow of attendance, which can facilitate or make difficult the access. The second, referring to the health work process, showed issues about the insufficient number of professionals, fragmentation of the work processes, the professional profile and responsibility. The third category, referring to the relational technologies, indicated the reception, bonding, listening, respect and dialog with the service users. CONCLUSIONS Although many practices were cited as humanizing they do not produce changes

  10. The Foundations of a Human Right to Health: Human Rights and Bioethics in Dialogue.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Audrey

    2015-06-11

    Human rights, including the right to health, are grounded in protecting and promoting human dignity. Although commitment to human dignity is a widely shared value, the precise meaning and requirements behind the term are elusive. It is also unclear as to how a commitment to human dignity translates into specific human rights, such as the right to the highest attainable standard of health, and delineates their scope and obligations. The resulting lack of clarity about the foundations of and justification for the right to health has been problematic in a number of ways. This article identifies the strengths of and some of the issues with the grounding of the right to health in human dignity. It then examines ethical and philosophical expositions of human dignity and several alternative foundations proposed for the right to health, including capability theory and the work of Norman Daniels, to assess whether any offer a richer and more adequate conceptual grounding for the right to health.

  11. Understanding the relationships between air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect

    S.T. Rao

    2006-09-15

    Although there has been substantial progress in improving ambient air quality in the United States, atmospheric concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) continue to exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in many locations. Consequently, a large portion of the U.S. population continues to be exposed to unhealthful levels of ozone and fine particles. This issue of EM, entitled 'Understanding the relationships between air quality and human health' presents a series of articles that focus on the relationships between air quality and human health - what we know so far and the challenges that remain. Their titles are: Understanding the effects of air pollution on human health; Assessing population exposures in studies of human health effects of PM2.5; Establishing a national environmental public health tracking network; Linking air quality and exposure models; and On alert: air quality forecasting and health advisory warnings.

  12. HUMAN HEALTH METRICS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS: LESSONS FROM HEALTH ECONOMICS AND DECISION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decision makers using environmental decision support tools are often confronted with information that predicts a multitude of different human health effects due to environmental stressors. If these health effects need to be contrasted with costs or compared with alternative scena...

  13. Global health rights: Employing human rights to develop and implement the Framework Convention on Global Health.

    PubMed

    Gable, Lance; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2013-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) represents an important idea for addressing the expanding array of governance challenges in global health. Proponents of the FCGH suggest that it could further the right to health through its incorporation of rights into national laws and policies, using litigation and community empowerment to advance rights claims and prominently establish the right to health as central to global health governance. Building on efforts to expand development and influence of the right to health through the implementation of the FCGH, in this article we find that human rights correspondingly holds promise in justifying the FCGH. By employing human rights as a means to develop and implement the FCGH, the existing and evolving frameworks of human rights can complement efforts to reform global health governance, with the FCGH and human rights serving as mutually reinforcing bases of norms and accountability in global health. PMID:25006087

  14. Global health rights: Employing human rights to develop and implement the Framework Convention on Global Health.

    PubMed

    Gable, Lance; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2013-06-14

    The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) represents an important idea for addressing the expanding array of governance challenges in global health. Proponents of the FCGH suggest that it could further the right to health through its incorporation of rights into national laws and policies, using litigation and community empowerment to advance rights claims and prominently establish the right to health as central to global health governance. Building on efforts to expand development and influence of the right to health through the implementation of the FCGH, in this article we find that human rights correspondingly holds promise in justifying the FCGH. By employing human rights as a means to develop and implement the FCGH, the existing and evolving frameworks of human rights can complement efforts to reform global health governance, with the FCGH and human rights serving as mutually reinforcing bases of norms and accountability in global health.

  15. Appearance of Symmetry, Beauty, and Health in Human Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidel, D.W.; Aarde, S.M.; Baig, K.

    2005-01-01

    Symmetry is an important concept in biology, being related to mate selection strategies, health, and survival of species. In human faces, the relevance of left-right symmetry to attractiveness and health is not well understood. We compared the appearance of facial attractiveness, health, and symmetry in three separate experiments. Participants…

  16. From ideals to tools: applying human rights to maternal health.

    PubMed

    Yamin, Alicia Ely

    2013-11-01

    Alicia Yamin argues that applying human rights frameworks and approaches to maternal health offers strategies and tools to address the root causes of maternal morbidity and mortality within and beyond health systems, in addition to addressing other violations of women's sexual and reproductive health and rights. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  17. Behavioral Systems Analysis in Health and Human Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Heather M.; Diener, Lori H.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a behavioral systems approach to improve operational performance in health and human service organizations. This article provides six performance truths that are relevant to any organization and a case study from a community mental health network of agencies. A comprehensive analysis, as described here, will help health and…

  18. Dietary protein intake and human health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao

    2016-03-01

    A protein consists of amino acids (AA) linked by peptide bonds. Dietary protein is hydrolyzed by proteases and peptidases to generate AA, dipeptides, and tripeptides in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. These digestion products are utilized by bacteria in the small intestine or absorbed into enterocytes. AA that are not degraded by the small intestine enter the portal vein for protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues. AA are also used for cell-specific production of low-molecular-weight metabolites with enormous physiological importance. Thus, protein undernutrition results in stunting, anemia, physical weakness, edema, vascular dysfunction, and impaired immunity. Based on short-term nitrogen balance studies, the Recommended Dietary Allowance of protein for a healthy adult with minimal physical activity is currently 0.8 g protein per kg body weight (BW) per day. To meet the functional needs such as promoting skeletal-muscle protein accretion and physical strength, dietary intake of 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 g protein per kg BW per day is recommended for individuals with minimal, moderate, and intense physical activity, respectively. Long-term consumption of protein at 2 g per kg BW per day is safe for healthy adults, and the tolerable upper limit is 3.5 g per kg BW per day for well-adapted subjects. Chronic high protein intake (>2 g per kg BW per day for adults) may result in digestive, renal, and vascular abnormalities and should be avoided. The quantity and quality of protein are the determinants of its nutritional values. Therefore, adequate consumption of high-quality proteins from animal products (e.g., lean meat and milk) is essential for optimal growth, development, and health of humans. PMID:26797090

  19. Public health ethics and more-than-human solidarity.

    PubMed

    Rock, Melanie J; Degeling, Chris

    2015-03-01

    This article contributes to the literature on One Health and public health ethics by expanding the principle of solidarity. We conceptualise solidarity to encompass not only practices intended to assist other people, but also practices intended to assist non-human others, including animals, plants, or places. To illustrate how manifestations of humanist and more-than-human solidarity may selectively complement one another, or collide, recent responses to Hendra virus in Australia and Rabies virus in Canada serve as case examples. Given that caring relationships are foundational to health promotion, people's efforts to care for non-human others are highly relevant to public health, even when these efforts conflict with edicts issued in the name of public health. In its most optimistic explication, One Health aims to attain optimal health for humans, non-human animals and their shared environments. As a field, public health ethics needs to move beyond an exclusive preoccupation with humans, so as to account for moral complexity arising from people's diverse connections with places, plants, and non-human animals.

  20. Pesticide Exposures and Body Mass Index (BMI) of Pesticide Applicators From the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    LaVerda, Nancy L; Goldsmith, David F; Alavanja, Michael C R; Hunting, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including pesticides, may be associated with weight gain. This is the first longitudinal study to examine a potential association between weight gain and pesticides using data on 8,365 male pesticide applicators from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort established in 1993. The relationship between total cumulative days of exposure to pesticide functional/chemical classes and to the four most frequently used individual pesticides was studied in relation to body mass index (BMI) at the time of 5-yr follow-up (beginning in 1998) with the length of the exposure period dating back to age 20 yr. Multiple regression, Spearman correlation, ordinal logistic regression, and logistic regression models all utilized a Bonferroni-adjusted p value, were adjusted for relevant covariates, and were stratified by state of residence (Iowa/North Carolina) and presence/absence of weight-related health conditions. Adjusted multiple regression yielded statistically significant positive parameter estimates for the study sample and Iowa subgroups with consistent findings for triazine herbicides and atrazine: Change in BMI per 100 cumulative pesticide exposure days ranged from 0.07 to 0.11 for triazine herbicides and from 0.10 to 0.19 for atrazine. Ordinal logistic regression compared normal weight with overweight and with obese using the zero exposure category as referent. Statistically significant adjusted odds ratios identified for the study sample and both state subgroups for the highest level of atrazine exposure ranged from 1.4 to 1.7. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the associations identified here.

  1. Cancer incidence and metolachlor use in the Agricultural Health Study: An update.

    PubMed

    Silver, Sharon R; Bertke, Steven J; Hines, Cynthia J; Alavanja, Michael C R; Hoppin, Jane A; Lubin, Jay H; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Sandler, Dale P; Beane Freeman, Laura E

    2015-12-01

    Metolachlor, a widely used herbicide, is classified as a Group C carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency based on increased liver neoplasms in female rats. Epidemiologic studies of the health effects of metolachlor have been limited. The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective cohort study including licensed private and commercial pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina enrolled 1993-1997. We evaluated cancer incidence through 2010/2011 (NC/IA) for 49,616 applicators, 53% of whom reported ever using metolachlor. We used Poisson regression to evaluate relations between two metrics of metolachlor use (lifetime days, intensity-weighted lifetime days) and cancer incidence. We saw no association between metolachlor use and incidence of all cancers combined (n = 5,701 with a 5-year lag) or most site-specific cancers. For liver cancer, in analyses restricted to exposed workers, elevations observed at higher categories of use were not statistically significant. However, trends for both lifetime and intensity-weighted lifetime days of metolachor use were positive and statistically significant with an unexposed reference group. A similar pattern was observed for follicular cell lymphoma, but no other lymphoma subtypes. An earlier suggestion of increased lung cancer risk at high levels of metolachlor use in this cohort was not confirmed in this update. This suggestion of an association between metolachlor and liver cancer among pesticide applicators is a novel finding and echoes observation of increased liver neoplasms in some animal studies. However, our findings for both liver cancer and follicular cell lymphoma warrant follow-up to better differentiate effects of metolachlor use from other factors. PMID:26033014

  2. Pesticide Exposures and Body Mass Index (BMI) of Pesticide Applicators From the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    LaVerda, Nancy L; Goldsmith, David F; Alavanja, Michael C R; Hunting, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including pesticides, may be associated with weight gain. This is the first longitudinal study to examine a potential association between weight gain and pesticides using data on 8,365 male pesticide applicators from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort established in 1993. The relationship between total cumulative days of exposure to pesticide functional/chemical classes and to the four most frequently used individual pesticides was studied in relation to body mass index (BMI) at the time of 5-yr follow-up (beginning in 1998) with the length of the exposure period dating back to age 20 yr. Multiple regression, Spearman correlation, ordinal logistic regression, and logistic regression models all utilized a Bonferroni-adjusted p value, were adjusted for relevant covariates, and were stratified by state of residence (Iowa/North Carolina) and presence/absence of weight-related health conditions. Adjusted multiple regression yielded statistically significant positive parameter estimates for the study sample and Iowa subgroups with consistent findings for triazine herbicides and atrazine: Change in BMI per 100 cumulative pesticide exposure days ranged from 0.07 to 0.11 for triazine herbicides and from 0.10 to 0.19 for atrazine. Ordinal logistic regression compared normal weight with overweight and with obese using the zero exposure category as referent. Statistically significant adjusted odds ratios identified for the study sample and both state subgroups for the highest level of atrazine exposure ranged from 1.4 to 1.7. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the associations identified here. PMID:26479458

  3. Improving health and safety conditions in agriculture through professional training of Florida farm labor supervisors.

    PubMed

    Morera, Maria C; Monaghan, Paul F; Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Roka, Fritz M; Asuaje, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Because farm labor supervisors (FLSs) are responsible for ensuring safe work environments for thousands of workers, providing them with adequate knowledge is critical to preserving worker health. Yet a challenge to offering professional training to FLSs, many of whom are foreign-born and have received different levels of education in the US and abroad, is implementing a program that not only results in knowledge gains but meets the expectations of a diverse audience. By offering bilingual instruction on safety and compliance, the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) FLS Training program is helping to improve workplace conditions and professionalize the industry. A recent evaluation of the program combined participant observation and surveys to elicit knowledge and satisfaction levels from attendees of its fall 2012 trainings. Frequency distributions and dependent- and independent-means t-tests were used to measure and compare participant outcomes. The evaluation found that attendees rated the quality of their training experience as either high or very high and scored significantly better in posttraining knowledge tests than in pretraining knowledge tests across both languages. Nonetheless, attendees of the trainings delivered in English had significantly higher posttest scores than attendees of the trainings delivered in Spanish. As a result, the program has incorporated greater standardization of content delivery and staff development. Through assessment of its program components and educational outcomes, the program has documented its effectiveness and offers a replicable approach that can serve to improve the targeted outcomes of safety and health promotion in other states.

  4. Cancer incidence and metolachlor use in the Agricultural Health Study: An update

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Sharon R.; Bertke, Steven J.; Hines, Cynthia J.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Lubin, Jay H.; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Metolachlor, a widely used herbicide, is classified as a Group C carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency based on increased liver neoplasms in female rats. Epidemiologic studies of the health effects of metolachlor have been limited. The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective cohort study including licensed private and commercial pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina enrolled 1993–1997. We evaluated cancer incidence through 2010/2011 (NC/IA) for 49,616 applicators, 53% of whom reported ever using metolachlor. We used Poisson regression to evaluate relations between two metrics of metolachlor use (lifetime days, intensity-weighted lifetime days) and cancer incidence. We saw no association between metolachlor use and incidence of all cancers combined (n = 5,701 with a 5-year lag) or most site-specific cancers. For liver cancer, in analyses restricted to exposed workers, elevations observed at higher categories of use were not statistically significant. However, trends for both lifetime and intensity-weighted lifetime days of metolachor use were positive and statistically significant with an unexposed reference group. A similar pattern was observed for follicular cell lymphoma, but no other lymphoma subtypes. An earlier suggestion of increased lung cancer risk at high levels of metolachlor use in this cohort was not confirmed in this update. This suggestion of an association between metolachlor and liver cancer among pesticide applicators is a novel finding and echoes observation of increased liver neoplasms in some animal studies. However, our findings for both liver cancer and follicular cell lymphoma warrant follow-up to better differentiate effects of metolachlor use from other factors. PMID:26033014

  5. Pesticide Exposure and Self-Reported Incident Depression among Wives in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Kamel, Freya

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression in women is a public health problem. Studies have reported positive associations between pesticides and depression, but few studies were prospective or presented results for women separately. Objectives We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and incident depression among farmers’ wives in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods We used data on 16,893 wives who did not report physician-diagnosed depression at enrollment (1993-1997) and who completed a follow-up telephone interview (2005-2010). Among these wives, 1,054 reported physician diagnoses of depression at follow-up. We collected information on potential confounders and on ever use of any pesticide, 11 functional and chemical classes of pesticides, and 50 specific pesticides by wives and their husbands via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for possible selection bias induced by the death or loss of 10,639 wives during follow-up. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results After weighting for age at enrollment, state of residence, education level, diabetes diagnosis, and not dropping out of the cohort, wives’ incident depression was positively associated with diagnosed pesticide poisoning, but was not associated with ever using any pesticide. Use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ depression. Among wives who never used pesticides, husbands’ ever use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ incident depression. Conclusions Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of

  6. A background to nuclear transfer and its applications in agriculture and human therapeutic medicine.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Keith H S

    2002-03-01

    The development of a single celled fertilized zygote to an animal capable of reproduction involves not only cell division but the differentiation or specialization to numerous cell types forming each tissue and organ of the adult animal. The technique of nuclear transfer allows the reconstruction of an embryo by the transfer of genetic material from a single donor cell, to an unfertilized egg from which the genetic material has been removed. Successful development of live offspring from such embryos demonstrates that the differentiated state of the donor nucleus is not fixed and can be reprogrammed by the egg cytoplasm to control embryo and fetal development. Nuclear transfer has many applications in agriculture and human medicine. This article will review some of the factors associated with the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer and outline the potential uses of the technology.

  7. A background to nuclear transfer and its applications in agriculture and human therapeutic medicine*

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Keith HS

    2002-01-01

    The development of a single celled fertilized zygote to an animal capable of reproduction involves not only cell division but the differentiation or specialization to numerous cell types forming each tissue and organ of the adult animal. The technique of nuclear transfer allows the reconstruction of an embryo by the transfer of genetic material from a single donor cell, to an unfertilized egg from which the genetic material has been removed. Successful development of live offspring from such embryos demonstrates that the differentiated state of the donor nucleus is not fixed and can be reprogrammed by the egg cytoplasm to control embryo and fetal development. Nuclear transfer has many applications in agriculture and human medicine. This article will review some of the factors associated with the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer and outline the potential uses of the technology. PMID:12033731

  8. Pesticide Use And Chronic Bronchitis Among Farmers in The Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Valcin, Martin; Henneberger, Paul K.; Kullman, Greg J.; Umbach, David M.; London, Stephanie J.; Alavanja, Michael CR; Sandler, Dale P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Farmers have increased risk for chronic bronchitis. Few investigators have considered pesticides. Methods We evaluated pesticides as risk factors for chronic bronchitis using the Agricultural Health Study enrollment data on lifetime pesticide use and history of doctor-diagnosed chronic bronchitis from 20,908 private pesticide applicators, primarily farmers. Results A total of 654 farmers (3%) reported chronic bronchitis diagnosed after age 20. After adjustment for correlated pesticides as well as confounders, 11 pesticides were significantly associated with chronic bronchitis. Heptachlor use had the highest odds ratio (OR=1.50, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.19, 1.89). Increased prevalence for chronic bronchitis was also seen for individuals who had a history of a high pesticide exposure event (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.51, 2.25) and for those who also applied pesticides in off-farm jobs (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.04, 1.88). Co-morbid asthma and current farm activities did not explain these results. Conclusions These results provide preliminary evidence that pesticide use may increase chronic bronchitis prevalence. PMID:17975796

  9. Project WEALTH (Water, Energy, Agriculture, Lighting, Training and Health): Harnessing the wealth of nations

    SciTech Connect

    Kashkari, C.

    1996-12-31

    Project WEALTH, hereafter referred to as WEALTH, is a global plan for the economic development of an estimated one million villages in the world, where one billion people live. The plan will focus on the provision of: Water, Energy, Agriculture, Lighting, Training and Health (WEALTH), by harnessing the natural resources of the villages and utilizing the technologies available in the industrialized countries. In the first phase of the project, one model village (WEALTH Center) will be established in every developing country of the world. The Center will serve as the training and demonstration center and promote the project in the country. WEALTH will provide economic opportunities for the industrialized and the developing countries. The Small Business Sector will play a major role in the implementation of the project. The project will be developed and implemented, not by governments, but by private sector, in cooperation with national governments. When fully operational, the project has the potential of generating business to the tune of billions of dollars every year. The Inner-cities of the US can participate in the project resulting in their own rapid development. WEALTH will spur global economic growth and lay the foundation for prosperity and peace in the twenty-first century.

  10. HYPOTHYROIDISM AND PESTICIDE USE AMONG MALE PRIVATE PESTICIDE APPLICATORS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Goldner, Whitney S.; Sandler, Dale P.; Yu, Fang; Shostrom, Valerie; Hoppin, Jane A.; Kamel, Freya; LeVan, Tricia D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the association between thyroid disease and use of insecticides, herbicides, fumigants/fungicides in male applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods We examined the association between use of 50 specific pesticides and self-reported hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and ‘other’ thyroid disease among 22,246 male pesticide applicators. Results There was increased odds of hypothyroidism with ever-use of the herbicides 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, 2,4,5-TP, alachlor, dicamba, and petroleum oil. Hypothyroidism was also associated with ever-use of eight insecticides: organochlorines chlordane, DDT, heptachlor, lindane, and toxaphene; organophosphates diazinon and malathion; and the carbamate carbofuran. Exposure-response analysis showed increasing odds with increasing level of exposure for the herbicides alachlor and 2,4-D, and the insecticides aldrin, chlordane, DDT, lindane, and parathion. Conclusions There is an association between hypothyroidism and specific herbicides and insecticides in male applicators, similar to previous results for spouses. PMID:24064777

  11. Environmental impact of recycling nutrients in human excreta to agriculture compared with enhanced wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Spångberg, J; Tidåker, P; Jönsson, H

    2014-09-15

    Human excreta are potential sources of plant nutrients, but are today usually considered a waste to be disposed of. The requirements on wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to remove nitrogen and phosphorus are increasing and to meet these requirements, more energy and chemicals are needed by WWTPs. Separating the nutrient-rich wastewater fractions at source and recycling them to agriculture as fertiliser is an alternative to removing them at the WWTP. This study used life cycle assessment methodology to compare the environmental impact of different scenarios for recycling the nutrients in the human excreta as fertiliser to arable land or removing them in an advanced WWTP. Three scenarios were assessed. In blackwater scenario, blackwater was source-separated and used as fertiliser. In urine scenario, the urine fraction was source-separated and used as fertiliser and the faecal water treated in an advanced WWTP. In NP scenario, chemical fertiliser was used as fertiliser and the toilet water treated in an advanced WWTP. The emissions from the WWTP were the same for all scenarios. This was fulfilled by the enhanced reduction in the WWTP fully removing the nutrients from the excreta that were not source-separated in the NP and urine scenarios. Recycling source-separated wastewater fractions as fertilisers in agriculture proved efficient for conserving energy and decreasing global warming potential (GWP). However, the blackwater and urine scenarios had a higher impact on potential eutrophication and potential acidification than the WWTP-chemical fertiliser scenario, due to large impacts by the ammonia emitted from storage and after spreading of the fertilisers. The cadmium input to the arable soil was very small with urine fertiliser. Source separation and recycling of excreta fractions as fertiliser thus has potential for saving energy and decreasing GWP emissions associated with wastewater management. However, for improved sustainability, the emissions from storage and

  12. The effect of cell phones on human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Isbeih, Ibrahim N.; Saad, Dina

    2011-10-01

    The effect of cell phone radiation on human health is the subject of recent interest and study, as a result of the enormous increase in cell phone usage throughout the world. Cell phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. Other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks, produce similar radiation. The objective of this survey is to review the effects of cell phones on human health: A large body of research exists, both epidemiological and experimental, in non-human animals and in humans, of which the majority shows no definite causative relationship between exposure to cell phones and harmful biological effects in humans. This is often paraphrased simply as the balance of evidence showing no harm to humans from cell phones, although a significant number of individual studies do suggest such a relationship, or are inconclusive.

  13. Using Multiple Imputation to Assign Pesticide Use for Non-Responders in the Follow-Up Questionnaire in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a large prospective cohort, was designed to elucidate associations between pesticide use and other agricultural exposures and health outcomes. The cohort includes 57,310 pesticide applicators who were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and...

  14. Bonhoeffer and universal health care as a human right.

    PubMed

    Clarke Chapman, G

    2013-12-01

    Bonhoeffer gave a theocentric basis for human rights, as God is the ground of ethics. In our earthly world, the "ultimate" must be prepared by what is "penultimate." That includes humanity's natural life and bodily wholeness, leading to human duties crafted by human reason. Nowadays, biblical texts should not be used as partisan weapons attacking government provision of health care, since all Scripture (even the Law) is seen as a Christ-centered focus on human redemption. Thus, Bonhoeffer implies a right to universal health care, but leaves entirely open which practical structures may best provide it.

  15. The implications of health sector reform for human resources development.

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Ala'; Hornby, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The authors argue that "health for all" is not achievable in most countries without health sector reform that incorporates a process of coordinated health and human resources development. They examine the situation in countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization. Though advances have been made, further progress is inhibited by the limited adaptation of traditional health service structures and processes in many of these countries. National reform strategies are needed. These require the active participation of health professional associations and academic training institutions as well as health service managers. The paper indicates some of the initiatives required and suggests that the starting point for many countries should be a rigorous appraisal of the current state of human resources development in health. PMID:11884974

  16. Health and human rights a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2014-01-01

    General statements of basic entitlements are established as a guide for potential laws and regulations protecting human rights. Human rights are those claimed to belong to every individual regardless of nationality or position within society. The historical evolution of human rights relative to health in the Republic of South Africa is discussed.

  17. Health and human rights a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2014-01-01

    General statements of basic entitlements are established as a guide for potential laws and regulations protecting human rights. Human rights are those claimed to belong to every individual regardless of nationality or position within society. The historical evolution of human rights relative to health in the Republic of South Africa is discussed. PMID:25080665

  18. Interdependence of the health and education sectors in meeting health human resource needs.

    PubMed

    Duckett, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The health sector is dynamic with change endemic. But role assignment in the workplace is varying little by little because of the rigidities associated with professional demarcations, the long training times for many health professions and the pace and ability of educational institutions to respond to changes in the health workforce. In their article, Tzountzouris and Gilbert identify a number of issues that could inform educational institutions' response to emerging health human resource needs. This commentary discusses limitations on our thinking, the intertwined relationships between the educational and health sectors and three critical steps to take in health sector human resource planning. PMID:19521150

  19. Response of Soil Properties and Microbial Communities to Agriculture: Implications for Primary Productivity and Soil Health Indicators.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Anderson, Ian C; Singh, Brajesh K

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is placing tremendous pressure on the soil's capacity to maintain its functions leading to large-scale ecosystem degradation and loss of productivity in the long term. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find early indicators of soil health degradation in response to agricultural management. In recent years, major advances in soil meta-genomic and spatial studies on microbial communities and community-level molecular characteristics can now be exploited as 'biomarker' indicators of ecosystem processes for monitoring and managing sustainable soil health under global change. However, a continental scale, cross biome approach assessing soil microbial communities and their functional potential to identify the unifying principles governing the susceptibility of soil biodiversity to land conversion is lacking. We conducted a meta-analysis from a dataset generated from 102 peer-reviewed publications as well as unpublished data to explore how properties directly linked to soil nutritional health (total C and N; C:N ratio), primary productivity (NPP) and microbial diversity and composition (relative abundance of major bacterial phyla determined by next generation sequencing techniques) are affected in response to agricultural management across the main biomes of Earth (arid, continental, temperate and tropical). In our analysis, we found strong statistical trends in the relative abundance of several bacterial phyla in agricultural (e.g., Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi) and natural (Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria) systems across all regions and these trends correlated well with many soil properties. However, main effects of agriculture on soil properties and productivity were biome-dependent. Our meta-analysis provides evidence on the predictable nature of the microbial community responses to vegetation type. This knowledge can be exploited in future for developing a new set of indicators for primary productivity and soil

  20. Response of Soil Properties and Microbial Communities to Agriculture: Implications for Primary Productivity and Soil Health Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Anderson, Ian C.; Singh, Brajesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is placing tremendous pressure on the soil’s capacity to maintain its functions leading to large-scale ecosystem degradation and loss of productivity in the long term. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find early indicators of soil health degradation in response to agricultural management. In recent years, major advances in soil meta-genomic and spatial studies on microbial communities and community-level molecular characteristics can now be exploited as ‘biomarker’ indicators of ecosystem processes for monitoring and managing sustainable soil health under global change. However, a continental scale, cross biome approach assessing soil microbial communities and their functional potential to identify the unifying principles governing the susceptibility of soil biodiversity to land conversion is lacking. We conducted a meta-analysis from a dataset generated from 102 peer-reviewed publications as well as unpublished data to explore how properties directly linked to soil nutritional health (total C and N; C:N ratio), primary productivity (NPP) and microbial diversity and composition (relative abundance of major bacterial phyla determined by next generation sequencing techniques) are affected in response to agricultural management across the main biomes of Earth (arid, continental, temperate and tropical). In our analysis, we found strong statistical trends in the relative abundance of several bacterial phyla in agricultural (e.g., Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi) and natural (Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria) systems across all regions and these trends correlated well with many soil properties. However, main effects of agriculture on soil properties and productivity were biome-dependent. Our meta-analysis provides evidence on the predictable nature of the microbial community responses to vegetation type. This knowledge can be exploited in future for developing a new set of indicators for primary productivity and

  1. Economic Barriers To Improvement Of Human Health Associated With Wastewater Irrigation In The Mezquital Valley, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, H.; Sedlak, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    To improve public health, the United Nations' Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 set Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015. The Mezquital Valley of Mexico is one of the places suffering serious human health problems such as ascariasis due to agricultural irrigation with untreated wastewater discharged by Mexico City. Despite the existence of serious health problems, wastewater treatment has not been installed due to economic barriers: the agricultural benefit of nutrients in the wastewater and cost of building and operating wastewater treatment plants. To develop solutions to this problem, the human health damage and the benefits of nutrient input were evaluated. The health impact caused by untreated wastewater reuse in the Mezquital Valley was estimated to be about 14 DALYs (disability-adjusted life year) per 100,000, which was 2.8 times higher than the DALYs lost by ascariasis in Mexico in 2002 estimated by WHO. The economic damage of the health impact was evaluated at 77,000 /year using willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing DALYs. The value of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) due to reuse of untreated wastewater was evaluated at 33 million /year using fertilizer prices. Therefore, attempts to decrease public health problems associated with reuse in the Mezquital Valley need to address losses of economic benefits associated with nutrients in sewage. In 2007, the Mexican Government announced plans to install wastewater treatment plants in this area. Although nutrient inputs in irrigated water is expected to decrease by 33% due to the wastewater treatment, farmers in the Mezquital Valley would still benefit from improved public health in the community and increases of crop values due to the ability to grow raw-eaten vegetables.

  2. Indicators of ocean health and human health: developing a research and monitoring framework.

    PubMed Central

    Knap, Anthony; Dewailly, Eric; Furgal, Chris; Galvin, Jennifer; Baden, Dan; Bowen, Robert E; Depledge, Michael; Duguay, Linda; Fleming, Lora E; Ford, Tim; Moser, Fredricka; Owen, Richard; Suk, William A; Unluata, Umit

    2002-01-01

    We need to critically assess the present quality of the marine ecosystem, especially the connection between ecosystem change and threats to human health. In this article we review the current state of indicators to link changes in marine organisms with eventual effects to human health, identify research opportunities in the use of indicators of ocean and human health, and discuss how to establish collaborations between national and international governmental and private sector groups. We present a synthesis of the present state of understanding of the connection between ocean health and human health, a discussion of areas where resources are required, and a discussion of critical research needs and a template for future work in this field. To understand fully the interactions between ocean health and human health, programs should be organized around a "models-based" approach focusing on critical themes and attributes of marine environmental and public health risks. Given the extent and complex nature of ocean and human health issues, a program networking across geographic and disciplinary boundaries is essential. The overall goal of this approach would be the early detection of potential marine-based contaminants, the protection of marine ecosystems, the prevention of associated human illness, and by implication, the development of products to enhance human well-being. The tight connection between research and monitoring is essential to develop such an indicator-based effort. PMID:12204815

  3. Globalization, human rights, and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-02-01

    Globalization, a process characterized by the growing interdependence of the world's people, impacts health systems and the social determinants of health in ways that are detrimental to health equity. In a world in which there are few countervailing normative and policy approaches to the dominant neoliberal regime underpinning globalization, the human rights paradigm constitutes a widely shared foundation for challenging globalization's effects. The substantive rights enumerated in human rights instruments include the right to the highest attainable level of physical and mental health and others that are relevant to the determinants of health. The rights stipulated in these documents impose extensive legal obligations on states that have ratified these documents and confer health entitlements on their residents. Human rights norms have also inspired civil society efforts to improve access to essential medicines and medical services, particularly for HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, many factors reduce the potential counterweight human rights might exert, including and specifically the nature of the human rights approach, weak political commitments to promoting and protecting health rights on the part of some states and their lack of institutional and economic resources to do so. Global economic markets and the relative power of global economic institutions are also shrinking national policy space. This article reviews the potential contributions and limitations of human rights to achieving greater equity in shaping the social determinants of health.

  4. Educating Health Care Professionals on Human Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Aimee M.; Lippert, Suzanne; Collins, Kristin; Pineda, Noelle; Tolani, Alisha; Walker, Rebecca; Jeong, Monica; Trounce, Milana Boukhman; Graham-Lamberts, Caroline; Bersamin, Melina; Martinez, Det. Jeremy; Dotzler, Det. Jennifer; Vanek, Lt John; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Chamberlain, Lisa J.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The US Department of State estimates that there are between 4 and 27 million individuals worldwide in some form of modern slavery. Recent studies have demonstrated that 28% to 50% of trafficking victims in the United States encountered health care professionals while in captivity, but were not identified and recognized. This study aimed to determine whether an educational presentation increased emergency department (ED) providers' recognition of human trafficking (HT) victims and knowledge of resources to manage cases of HT. Methods The 20 largest San Francisco Bay Area EDs were randomized into intervention (10 EDs) or delayed intervention comparison groups (10 EDs) to receive a standardized educational presentation containing the following: background about HT, relevance of HT to health care, clinical signs in potential victims, and referral options for potential victims. Participants in the delayed intervention group completed a pretest in the period the immediate intervention group received the educational presentation, and all participants were assessed immediately before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention. The intervention effect was tested by comparing the pre–post change in the intervention group to the change in 2 pretests in the delayed intervention group adjusted for the effect of clustering within EDs. The 4 primary outcomes were importance of knowledge of HT to the participant's profession (5-point Likert scale), self-rated knowledge of HT (5-point Likert scale), knowledge of who to call for potential HT victims (yes/no), and suspecting that a patient was a victim of HT (yes/no). Findings There were 258 study participants from 14 EDs; 141 from 8 EDs in the intervention group and 117 from 7 EDs in the delayed intervention comparison group, of which 20 served as the delayed intervention comparison group. Participants in the intervention group reported greater increases in their level of knowledge about HT versus those in the

  5. Human Growth and Development. Health Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Board of Education, Hartford.

    The overall goal of this module is to provide elementary and secondary students with the knowledge and skills necessary to evaluate their behavior, take responsibility for their health, and understand the consequences of their actions in order to minimize and/or avoid health risks. The module is divided into four major groupings: primary, upper…

  6. The Application of NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, C. T.

    2007-01-01

    With the help of satellites, the Earth's environment can be monitored from a distance. Earth observing satellites and sensors collect data and survey patterns that supply important information about the environment relating to its affect on human health. Combined with ground data, such patterns and remote sensing data can be essential to public health applications. Remote sensing technology is providing information that can help predict factors that affect human health, such as disease, drought, famine, and floods. A number of public health concerns that affect Earth's human population are part of the current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Applications Plan to provide remotely gathered data to public health decision-makers to aid in forming and implementing policy to protect human health and preserve well-being. These areas of concern are: air quality; water quality; weather and climate change; infectious, zoonotic, and vector-borne disease; sunshine; food resource security; and health risks associated with the built environment. Collaborations within the Earth Science Applications Plan join local, state, national, or global organizations and agencies as partners. These partnerships engage in projects that strive to understand the connection between the environment and health. The important outcome is to put this understanding to use through enhancement of decision support tools that aid policy and management decisions on environmental health risks. Future plans will further employ developed models in formats that are compatible and accessible to all public health organizations.

  7. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Davis, William W.; Mullany, Luke C.; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K.; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. Methods and Findings We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Conclusion Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations. PMID:26308850

  8. NASA Human Health and Performance Information Architecture Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Kadwa, Binafer; VanBaalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate at NASA's Johnson Space Center has a mission to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable mission success, optimizing human health and productivity in space before, during, and after the actual spaceflight experience of our crews, and include support for ground-based functions. Many of our spaceflight innovations also provide solutions for terrestrial challenges, thereby enhancing life on Earth.

  9. Animal products, diseases and drugs: a plea for better integration between agricultural sciences, human nutrition and human pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins) often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced). It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high) directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct costs for the farming sector

  10. Animal products, diseases and drugs: a plea for better integration between agricultural sciences, human nutrition and human pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Christophersen, Olav A; Haug, Anna

    2011-01-20

    Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins) often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced). It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high) directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct costs for the farming sector.

  11. Implications for human health of global ecological changes.

    PubMed

    Last, J; Guidotti, T L

    Comparatively little attention has been given to the health implications of global ecological changes on human health, with the exception of concern over ozone depletion leading to an increased frequency of ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin cancer and cataracts. The implications for human health of five large-scale ecological disruptions were explored: climate change (greenhouse effect), ozone depletion, acid precipitation, transregional pollution, and demographic changes. Limitations of presently available data and the uncertainty of current interpretations of apparent trend is emphasized. Rigorous assessment of the effects of these changes and the response required from public health professionals is needed. This overview provides a point of departure.

  12. "More money for health - more health for the money": a human resources for health perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background At the MDG Summit in September 2010, the UN Secretary-General launched the Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health. Central within the Global Strategy are the ambitions of "more money for health" and "more health for the money". These aim to leverage more resources for health financing whilst simultaneously generating more results from existing resources - core tenets of public expenditure management and governance. This paper considers these ambitions from a human resources for health (HRH) perspective. Methods Using data from the UK Department for International Development (DFID) we set out to quantify and qualify the British government's contributions on HRH in developing countries and to establish a baseline.. To determine whether activities and financing could be included in the categorisation of 'HRH strengthening' we adopted the Agenda for Global Action on HRH and a WHO approach to the 'working lifespan' of health workers as our guiding frameworks. To establish a baseline we reviewed available data on Official Development Assistance (ODA) and country reports, undertook a new survey of HRH programming and sought information from multilateral partners. Results In financial year 2008/9 DFID spent £901 million on direct 'aid to health'. Due to the nature of the Creditor Reporting System (CRS) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) it is not feasible to directly report on HRH spending. We therefore employed a process of imputed percentages supported by detailed assessment in twelve countries. This followed the model adopted by the G8 to estimate ODA on maternal, newborn and child health. Using the G8's model, and cognisant of its limitations, we concluded that UK 'aid to health' on HRH strengthening is approximately 25%. Conclusions In quantifying DFID's disbursements on HRH we encountered the constraints of the current CRS framework. This limits standardised measurement of ODA on HRH. This is a governance issue

  13. Community Health Care: Therapeutic Opportunities in the Human Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenburg, Justin L.; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    We are never alone. Humans coexist with diverse microbial species that live within and upon us—our so-called microbiota. It is now clear that this microbial community is essentially another organ that plays a fundamental role in human physiology and disease. Basic and translational research efforts have begun to focus on deciphering mechanisms of microbiome function—and learning how to manipulate it to benefit human health. In this Perspective, we discuss therapeutic opportunities in the human microbiome. PMID:21490274

  14. Agricultural Safety and Health: A Resource Guide. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 40. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joy, Comp.

    This guide lists resource materials that address agricultural occupational injuries and diseases and their prevention. Many of the entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agricultural Library and include journal articles, books, government reports, training materials, and audiovisual materials. The first section…

  15. The Pan American Health Organization and the mainstreaming of human rights in regional health governance.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Ayala, Ana S

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of centralized human rights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of human rights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream human rights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream human rights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American human rights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers in implementing human rights through PAHO governance. Analyzing the themes arising from this narrative, the authors examine the structural role of secretariat leadership, state support, legal expertise, and technical unit commitment in facilitating a rights-based approach to the health in the Americas. Human rights are increasingly framing PAHO efforts, and this analysis of the structures underlying PAHO's approach provides an understanding of the institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health, highlighting generalizable themes for the mainstreaming of human rights through regional health governance. With this regional-level understanding of health governance, future national-level research can begin to understand the causal forces linking regional human rights work with national policy reforms and public health outcomes. PMID:25264093

  16. The Pan American Health Organization and the mainstreaming of human rights in regional health governance.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Ayala, Ana S

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of centralized human rights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of human rights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream human rights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream human rights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American human rights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers in implementing human rights through PAHO governance. Analyzing the themes arising from this narrative, the authors examine the structural role of secretariat leadership, state support, legal expertise, and technical unit commitment in facilitating a rights-based approach to the health in the Americas. Human rights are increasingly framing PAHO efforts, and this analysis of the structures underlying PAHO's approach provides an understanding of the institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health, highlighting generalizable themes for the mainstreaming of human rights through regional health governance. With this regional-level understanding of health governance, future national-level research can begin to understand the causal forces linking regional human rights work with national policy reforms and public health outcomes.

  17. Health care and human rights: against the split duty gambit.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Gopal

    2016-08-01

    There are various grounds on which one may wish to distinguish a right to health care from a right to health. In this article, I review some old grounds before introducing some new grounds. But my central task is to argue that separating a right to health care from a right to health has objectionable consequences. I offer two main objections. The domestic objection is that separating the two rights prevents the state from fulfilling its duty to maximise the health it provides each citizen from its fixed health budget. The international objection is that separating a human right to health care fails the moral requirement that, for any given moral human right, the substance to which any two right-holders are entitled be of an equal standard. PMID:27491747

  18. Health care and human rights: against the split duty gambit.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Gopal

    2016-08-01

    There are various grounds on which one may wish to distinguish a right to health care from a right to health. In this article, I review some old grounds before introducing some new grounds. But my central task is to argue that separating a right to health care from a right to health has objectionable consequences. I offer two main objections. The domestic objection is that separating the two rights prevents the state from fulfilling its duty to maximise the health it provides each citizen from its fixed health budget. The international objection is that separating a human right to health care fails the moral requirement that, for any given moral human right, the substance to which any two right-holders are entitled be of an equal standard.

  19. Glacier Runoff and Human Vulnerability to Climate Change: The Case of Export Agriculture in Peru (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, M.

    2013-12-01

    There is growing concern about the effects of climate change and ensuing glacier shrinkage on water supplies for mountain communities worldwide. The issue is only becoming more complex as researchers seek to quantify glacier contributions to streamflow and to pinpoint when and how much glacier runoff will likely change as a result of future climate change and glacier variation. Additionally, some researchers are beginning to recognize the importance of understanding the human dimensions of glacier retreat to identify which social groups (stakeholders) use glacier runoff and how much they use, as well as what socio-environmental forces affect both water supplies and water use. This presentation examines these societal aspects of glacier runoff to analyze human vulnerability to hydrological changes in Peru's Santa River watershed below the most glaciated tropical mountain range in the world, the Cordillera Blanca. Specifically, it focuses on the billion-dollar export-oriented agricultural industry within the Chavimochic irrigation project, which uses Santa River water to irrigate approximately 80,000 hectares in the coastal desert region. Since the 1980s, Santa River water has allowed Chavimochic to sustain a major export economy, provide jobs in the agro-industry and related services, stimulate human migration, enhance or alter livelihoods, generate hydroelectricity, supply drinking water, and shape urban growth and land use practices. All of these variables are dependent on glacier meltwater from the Cordillera Blanca, especially during the dry season when glaciers provide most of the Santa River's water. In short, hundreds of thousands of people have come to depend on glacier runoff, thus revealing their high level of vulnerability to hydrological fluctuations in a glacier-fed watershed. What's more, people worldwide rely on the asparagus, avocados, and artichokes grown with glacier runoff. Consequently, the export-oriented agriculture, through the "virtual water

  20. Global human mandibular variation reflects differences in agricultural and hunter-gatherer subsistence strategies.

    PubMed

    von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2011-12-01

    Variation in the masticatory behavior of hunter-gatherer and agricultural populations is hypothesized to be one of the major forces affecting the form of the human mandible. However, this has yet to be analyzed at a global level. Here, the relationship between global mandibular shape variation and subsistence economy is tested, while controlling for the potentially confounding effects of shared population history, geography, and climate. The results demonstrate that the mandible, in contrast to the cranium, significantly reflects subsistence strategy rather than neutral genetic patterns, with hunter-gatherers having consistently longer and narrower mandibles than agriculturalists. These results support notions that a decrease in masticatory stress among agriculturalists causes the mandible to grow and develop differently. This developmental argument also explains why there is often a mismatch between the size of the lower face and the dentition, which, in turn, leads to increased prevalence of dental crowding and malocclusions in modern postindustrial populations. Therefore, these results have important implications for our understanding of human masticatory adaptation.

  1. A Review of Pesticide Exposure and Cancer Incidence in the Agricultural Health Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Weichenthal, Scott; Moase, Connie; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objective We reviewed epidemiologic evidence related to occupational pesticide exposures and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort. Data sources Studies were identified from the AHS publication list available at http://aghealth.nci.nih.gov as well as through a Medline/PubMed database search in March 2009. We also examined citation lists. Findings related to lifetime-days and/or intensity-weighted lifetime-days of pesticide use are the primary focus of this review, because these measures allow for the evaluation of potential exposure–response relationships. Data synthesis We reviewed 28 studies; most of the 32 pesticides examined were not strongly associated with cancer incidence in pesticide applicators. Increased rate ratios (or odds ratios) and positive exposure–response patterns were reported for 12 pesticides currently registered in Canada and/or the United States (alachlor, aldicarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dicamba, S-ethyl-N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate, imazethapyr, metolachlor, pendimethalin, permethrin, trifluralin). However, estimates of association for specific cancers were often imprecise because of small numbers of exposed cases, and clear monotonic exposure–response patterns were not always apparent. Exposure misclassification is also a concern in the AHS and may limit the analysis of exposure–response patterns. Epidemiologic evidence outside the AHS remains limited with respect to most of the observed associations, but animal toxicity data support the biological plausibility of relationships observed for alachlor, carbaryl, metolachlor, pendimethalin, permethrin, and trifluralin. Conclusions Continued follow-up is needed to clarify associations reported to date. In particular, further evaluation of registered pesticides is warranted. PMID:20444670

  2. Pesticide use and adult-onset asthma among male farmers in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Umbach, David M.; London, Stephanie J.; Henneberger, Paul K.; Kullman, Greg J.; Coble, Joseph; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2010-01-01

    Although specific pesticides have been associated with wheeze in farmers, little is known about pesticides and asthma. We used data from 19,704 male farmers in the Agricultural Health Study to evaluate lifetime use of 48 pesticides and prevalent adult-onset asthma, defined as doctor-diagnosed asthma after age 20. We categorized asthma cases as allergic (N=127) and non-allergic (N=314) based on their history of eczema or hayfever. We used polytomous logistic regression controlling for age, state, smoking, and body mass to assess pesticide associations. High pesticide exposure events were associated with a doubling of both allergic and non-allergic asthma. For ever use, 12 individual pesticides were associated with allergic asthma and four with non-allergic asthma. For allergic asthma, coumaphos (odds ratio (OR) =2.34, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) =1.49,3.70), heptachlor (OR=2.01, 95%CI=1.30,3.11), parathion (OR=2.05, 95%CI=1.21,3.46), 80/20 mix (carbon tetrachloride/carbon disulfide) (OR=2.15, 95%CI=1.23,3.76) and ethylene dibromide (OR=2.07, 95%CI=1.02,4.20), all had odds ratios greater than 2.0 and significant exposure-response trends. For non-allergic asthma, DDT had the strongest association (OR=1.41, 95%CI=1.09,1.84) but with little evidence of increasing asthma with increasing use. Current animal handling and farm activities did not confound these results. We saw little evidence that allergy alone was driving these associations. Pesticides may be an overlooked contributor to asthma risk among farmers. PMID:19541724

  3. Depression and Pesticide Exposures among Private Pesticide Applicators Enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beseler, Cheryl L.; Stallones, Lorann; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Keefe, Thomas; Kamel, Freya

    2008-01-01

    Background We evaluated the relationship between diagnosed depression and pesticide exposure using information from private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods There were 534 cases who self-reported a physician-diagnosed depression and 17,051 controls who reported never having been diagnosed with depression and did not feel depressed more than once a week in the past year. Lifetime pesticide exposure was categorized in three mutually exclusive groups: low (< 226 days, the reference group), intermediate (226–752 days), and high (> 752 days). Two additional measures represented acute high-intensity pesticide exposures: an unusually high pesticide exposure event (HPEE) and physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning. Logistic regression analyses were performed relating pesticide exposure to depression. Results After adjusting for state, age, education, marital status, doctor visits, alcohol use, smoking, solvent exposure, not currently having crops or animals, and ever working a job off the farm, pesticide poisoning was more strongly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74–3.79] than intermediate (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87–1.31) or high (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87–1.42) cumulative exposure or an HPEE (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.33–2.05). In analysis of a subgroup without a history of acute poisoning, high cumulative exposure was significantly associated with depression (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16–2.04). Conclusion These findings suggest that both acute high-intensity and cumulative pesticide exposure may contribute to depression in pesticide applicators. Our study is unique in reporting that depression is also associated with chronic pesticide exposure in the absence of a physician-diagnosed poisoning. PMID:19079725

  4. Pesticides and myocardial infarction incidence and mortality among male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katherine T; Blair, Aaron; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2009-10-01

    Acute organophosphate and carbamate pesticide poisonings result in adverse cardiac outcomes. The cardiac effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure have not been studied. The authors analyzed self-reported lifetime use of pesticides reported at enrollment (1993-1997) and myocardial infarction mortality through 2006 and self-reported nonfatal myocardial infarction through 2003 among male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Using proportional hazard models, the authors estimated the association between lifetime use of 49 pesticides and fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction. There were 476 deaths from myocardial infarction among 54,069 men enrolled in the study and 839 nonfatal myocardial infarctions among the 32,024 participants who completed the follow-up interview. Fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarctions were associated with commonly reported risk factors, including age and smoking. There was little evidence of an association between having used pesticides, individually or by class, and myocardial infarction mortality (e.g., insecticide hazard ratio (HR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 1.24; herbicide HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.10) or nonfatal myocardial infarction incidence (e.g., insecticide HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.09; herbicide HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.36). There was no evidence of a dose response with any pesticide measure. In a population with low risk for myocardial infarction, the authors observed little evidence of increased risk of myocardial infarction mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction associated with the occupational use of pesticides.

  5. Pesticide Use and Relative Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Hoppin, Jane A; Hou, Lifang; Koutros, Stella; Gadalla, Shahinaz M; Savage, Sharon A; Lubin, Jay; Blair, Aaron; Hoxha, Mirjam; Baccarelli, Andrea; Sandler, Dale; Alavanja, Michael; Beane Freeman, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    Some studies suggest that telomere length (TL) may be influenced by environmental exposures, including pesticides. We examined associations between occupational pesticide use reported at three time points and relative telomere length (RTL) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. RTL was measured by qPCR using leukocyte DNA from 568 cancer-free male AHS participants aged 31-94 years with blood samples collected between 2006 and 2008. Self-reported information, including pesticide use, was collected at three time points: enrollment (1993-1997) and two follow-up questionnaires (1998-2003, 2005-2008). For each pesticide, we evaluated cumulative use (using data from all three questionnaires), and more recent use (using data from the last follow-up questionnaire). Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between pesticide use (ever, lifetime days, intensity-weighted lifetime days (lifetime days*intensity score)) and RTL, adjusting for age at blood draw and use of other pesticides. Of the 57 pesticides evaluated with cumulative use, increasing lifetime days of 2,4-D (p-trend=0.001), diazinon (p-trend=0.002), and butylate (p-trend=0.01) were significantly associated with shorter RTL, while increasing lifetime days of alachlor was significantly associated with longer RTL (p-trend=0.03). Only the association with 2,4-D was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Of the 40 pesticides evaluated for recent use, malathion was associated with shorter RTL (p=0.03), and alachlor with longer RTL (p=0.03). Our findings suggest that leukocyte TL may be impacted by cumulative use and recent use of certain pesticides.

  6. Pesticide Use and Relative Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Hoppin, Jane A; Hou, Lifang; Koutros, Stella; Gadalla, Shahinaz M; Savage, Sharon A; Lubin, Jay; Blair, Aaron; Hoxha, Mirjam; Baccarelli, Andrea; Sandler, Dale; Alavanja, Michael; Beane Freeman, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    Some studies suggest that telomere length (TL) may be influenced by environmental exposures, including pesticides. We examined associations between occupational pesticide use reported at three time points and relative telomere length (RTL) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. RTL was measured by qPCR using leukocyte DNA from 568 cancer-free male AHS participants aged 31-94 years with blood samples collected between 2006 and 2008. Self-reported information, including pesticide use, was collected at three time points: enrollment (1993-1997) and two follow-up questionnaires (1998-2003, 2005-2008). For each pesticide, we evaluated cumulative use (using data from all three questionnaires), and more recent use (using data from the last follow-up questionnaire). Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between pesticide use (ever, lifetime days, intensity-weighted lifetime days (lifetime days*intensity score)) and RTL, adjusting for age at blood draw and use of other pesticides. Of the 57 pesticides evaluated with cumulative use, increasing lifetime days of 2,4-D (p-trend=0.001), diazinon (p-trend=0.002), and butylate (p-trend=0.01) were significantly associated with shorter RTL, while increasing lifetime days of alachlor was significantly associated with longer RTL (p-trend=0.03). Only the association with 2,4-D was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Of the 40 pesticides evaluated for recent use, malathion was associated with shorter RTL (p=0.03), and alachlor with longer RTL (p=0.03). Our findings suggest that leukocyte TL may be impacted by cumulative use and recent use of certain pesticides. PMID:26196902

  7. Multiple myeloma and glyphosate use: a re-analysis of US Agricultural Health Study (AHS) data.

    PubMed

    Sorahan, Tom

    2015-02-01

    A previous publication of 57,311 pesticide applicators enrolled in the US Agricultural Health Study (AHS) produced disparate findings in relation to multiple myeloma risks in the period 1993-2001 and ever-use of glyphosate (32 cases of multiple myeloma in the full dataset of 54,315 applicators without adjustment for other variables: rate ratio (RR) 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5 to 2.4; 22 cases of multiple myeloma in restricted dataset of 40,719 applicators with adjustment for other variables: RR 2.6, 95% CI 0.7 to 9.4). It seemed important to determine which result should be preferred. RRs for exposed and non-exposed subjects were calculated using Poisson regression; subjects with missing data were not excluded from the main analyses. Using the full dataset adjusted for age and gender the analysis produced a RR of 1.12 (95% CI 0.50 to 2.49) for ever-use of glyphosate. Additional adjustment for lifestyle factors and use of ten other pesticides had little effect (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.52 to 2.94). There were no statistically significant trends for multiple myeloma risks in relation to reported cumulative days (or intensity weighted days) of glyphosate use. The doubling of risk reported previously arose from the use of an unrepresentative restricted dataset and analyses of the full dataset provides no convincing evidence in the AHS for a link between multiple myeloma risk and glyphosate use. PMID:25635915

  8. Central nervous system function and organophosphate insecticide use among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Sarah E; Gerr, Fred; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F; Jones, Michael P; Alavanja, Michael C; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2011-01-01

    Acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure is associated with adverse central nervous system (CNS) outcomes, however, little is known about the neurotoxicity of chronic exposures that do not result in acute poisoning. To examine associations between long-term pesticide use and CNS function, neurobehavioral (NB) tests were administered to licensed pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) in Iowa and North Carolina. Between 2006 and 2008, 701 male participants completed nine NB tests to assess memory, motor speed and coordination, sustained attention, verbal learning and visual scanning and processing. Data on ever-use and lifetime days of use of 16 OP pesticides were obtained from AHS interviews conducted before testing between 1993 and 2007 and during the NB visit. The mean age of participants was 61 years (SD = 12). Associations between pesticide use and NB test performance were estimated with linear regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. NB test performance was associated with lifetime days of use of some pesticides. Ethoprop was significantly associated with reduced performance on a test of motor speed and visual scanning. Malathion was significantly associated with poor performance on a test of visual scanning and processing. Conversely, we observed significantly better test performance for five OP pesticides. Specifically, chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, parathion, phorate, and tetrachlorvinphos were associated with better verbal learning and memory; coumaphos was associated with better performance on a test of motor speed and visual scanning; and parathion was associated with better performance on a test of sustained attention. Several associations varied by state. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence that long-term OP pesticide use is associated with adverse CNS-associated NB test performance among this older sample of pesticide applicators. Potential reasons for these mostly null associations

  9. Pesticides and Myocardial Infarction Incidence and Mortality Among Male Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katherine T.; Blair, Aaron; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Sandler, Dale P.

    2009-01-01

    Acute organophosphate and carbamate pesticide poisonings result in adverse cardiac outcomes. The cardiac effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure have not been studied. The authors analyzed self-reported lifetime use of pesticides reported at enrollment (1993–1997) and myocardial infarction mortality through 2006 and self-reported nonfatal myocardial infarction through 2003 among male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Using proportional hazard models, the authors estimated the association between lifetime use of 49 pesticides and fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction. There were 476 deaths from myocardial infarction among 54,069 men enrolled in the study and 839 nonfatal myocardial infarctions among the 32,024 participants who completed the follow-up interview. Fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarctions were associated with commonly reported risk factors, including age and smoking. There was little evidence of an association between having used pesticides, individually or by class, and myocardial infarction mortality (e.g., insecticide hazard ratio (HR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 1.24; herbicide HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.10) or nonfatal myocardial infarction incidence (e.g., insecticide HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.09; herbicide HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.36). There was no evidence of a dose response with any pesticide measure. In a population with low risk for myocardial infarction, the authors observed little evidence of increased risk of myocardial infarction mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction associated with the occupational use of pesticides. PMID:19700503

  10. Suicide and Pesticide Use among Pesticide Applicators and Their Spouses in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: An association may exist between pesticide exposure and suicide. Objective: We sought to evaluate the existence of an association between pesticide use and suicide using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods: Via linkage to state mortality files and the National Death Index, we identified 110 suicides occurring between enrollment in the AHS (from 1993 to 1997) and 31 May 2009, among 81,998 cohort members contributing 1,092,943 person-years of follow-up. The average length of follow-up was 13.3 years. AHS participants provided data on pesticide use and potential confounders via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We evaluated several measures of pesticide use: use of any pesticide, ever use of 50 specific pesticides, cumulative lifetime days of use and intensity-adjusted cumulative lifetime days of use of 22 specific pesticides, and ever use of 10 functional and chemical classes of pesticides. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: After adjusting for age at enrollment, sex, number of children in family, frequency of alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, and smoking status, we found no association between prior pesticide use and suicide in applicators and their spouses. Results were the same for applicators and spouses together or for applicators alone and were consistent across several measures of pesticide use. Conclusions: Our findings do not support an association between moderate pesticide use and suicide. PMID:21749962

  11. New views of dioxin's effect on human health

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This paper reports that although dioxin has been shown to cause disease in animals, data from human studies collected over the last 30 years have failed to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between exposure to dioxin and a variety of diseases, including cancer. This disparity leads many scientists and public health officials to question the value of using animal study data to assess human risk from dioxin exposure. And, as information from human studies has evolved, the scientific evidence strongly suggests that dioxin-at very low levels- does not constitute a significant health risk to humans.

  12. Linking Human Health and Livestock Health: A “One-Health” Platform for Integrated Analysis of Human Health, Livestock Health, and Economic Welfare in Livestock Dependent Communities

    PubMed Central

    Thumbi, S. M.; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Marsh, Thomas L.; Noh, Susan; Otiang, Elkanah; Munyua, Peninah; Ochieng, Linus; Ogola, Eric; Yoder, Jonathan; Audi, Allan; Montgomery, Joel M.; Bigogo, Godfrey; Breiman, Robert F.; Palmer, Guy H.; McElwain, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status. Method We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness) and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens) are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households. Findings Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively). Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%). In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40%) and diarrhea illnesses (5%). While controlling

  13. Human Rights-Based Approaches to Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Valerie J.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of human rights violations in mental health care across nations has been described as a “global emergency” and an “unresolved global crisis.” The relationship between mental health and human rights is complex and bidirectional. Human rights violations can negatively impact mental health. Conversely, respecting human rights can improve mental health. This article reviews cases where an explicitly human rights-based approach was used in mental health care settings. Although the included studies did not exhibit a high level of methodological rigor, the qualitative information obtained was considered useful and informative for future studies. All studies reviewed suggest that human-rights based approaches can lead to clinical improvements at relatively low costs. Human rights-based approaches should be utilized for legal and moral reasons, since human rights are fundamental pillars of justice and civilization. The fact that such approaches can contribute to positive therapeutic outcomes and, potentially, cost savings, is additional reason for their implementation. However, the small sample size and lack of controlled, quantitative measures limit the strength of conclusions drawn from included studies. More objective, high quality research is needed to ascertain the true extent of benefits to service users and providers. PMID:27781015

  14. [One Health--mutual health of humans, animals and the environment].

    PubMed

    Sukura, Antti; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    The detection in the early 2000's of new, pandemically spreading viral diseases and threats led to "One Health", a holistic concept of the inevitability of collaboration between human and animal health and the protection of the ecosystem. The movement initiated by physicians and veterinarians emerges form the idea that the health of humans and animals is interconnected and connected with the environment and that changes occurring in the environment will have a significant impact on health. Problems associated with health, such as antimicrobial resistance or zoonoses, require global solutions. PMID:27522830

  15. Hendra virus vaccine, a one health approach to protecting horse, human, and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Deborah; Pallister, Jackie; Klein, Reuben; Feng, Yan-Ru; Haining, Jessica; Arkinstall, Rachel; Frazer, Leah; Huang, Jin-An; Edwards, Nigel; Wareing, Mark; Elhay, Martin; Hashmi, Zia; Bingham, John; Yamada, Manabu; Johnson, Dayna; White, John; Foord, Adam; Heine, Hans G; Marsh, Glenn A; Broder, Christopher C; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the emergence of several highly pathogenic zoonotic diseases in humans has led to a renewed emphasis on the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, otherwise known as One Health. For example, Hendra virus (HeV), a zoonotic paramyxovirus, was discovered in 1994, and since then, infections have occurred in 7 humans, each of whom had a strong epidemiologic link to similarly affected horses. As a consequence of these outbreaks, eradication of bat populations was discussed, despite their crucial environmental roles in pollination and reduction of the insect population. We describe the development and evaluation of a vaccine for horses with the potential for breaking the chain of HeV transmission from bats to horses to humans, thereby protecting horse, human, and environmental health. The HeV vaccine for horses is a key example of a One Health approach to the control of human disease.

  16. Hendra virus vaccine, a one health approach to protecting horse, human, and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Deborah; Pallister, Jackie; Klein, Reuben; Feng, Yan-Ru; Haining, Jessica; Arkinstall, Rachel; Frazer, Leah; Huang, Jin-An; Edwards, Nigel; Wareing, Mark; Elhay, Martin; Hashmi, Zia; Bingham, John; Yamada, Manabu; Johnson, Dayna; White, John; Foord, Adam; Heine, Hans G; Marsh, Glenn A; Broder, Christopher C; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the emergence of several highly pathogenic zoonotic diseases in humans has led to a renewed emphasis on the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, otherwise known as One Health. For example, Hendra virus (HeV), a zoonotic paramyxovirus, was discovered in 1994, and since then, infections have occurred in 7 humans, each of whom had a strong epidemiologic link to similarly affected horses. As a consequence of these outbreaks, eradication of bat populations was discussed, despite their crucial environmental roles in pollination and reduction of the insect population. We describe the development and evaluation of a vaccine for horses with the potential for breaking the chain of HeV transmission from bats to horses to humans, thereby protecting horse, human, and environmental health. The HeV vaccine for horses is a key example of a One Health approach to the control of human disease. PMID:24572697

  17. Effects of the presence of sulfonamides in the environment and their influence on human health.

    PubMed

    Baran, Wojciech; Adamek, Ewa; Ziemiańska, Justyna; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2011-11-30

    World production and consumption of pharmaceuticals has been steadily increasing. Anti-infectives have been particularly important in modern therapy of microbial infection. Sulfonamides have been widely used for a long time as anti-infectives and are still widely prescribed today. This review presents the most common types of sulfonamides used in healthcare and veterinary medicine and discusses the problems connected with their presence in the biosphere. Based on the analysis of over 160 papers, it was found that small amounts of sulfonamides present in the environment were mainly derived from agricultural activities. These drugs have caused changes in the population of microbes that could be potentially hazardous to human health. This human health hazard could have a global range, and administrative activities have been ineffective in risk reduction.

  18. ASSESSING BIOACCUMULATION FOR DERIVING NATIONAL HUMAN HEALTH WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is revising its methodology for deriving national ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) to protect human health. A component of this guidance involves assessing the potential for chemical bioaccumulation in commonly consumed fish ...

  19. The Human Microbiome and Public Health: Social and Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Kieran C; Virani, Alice; Wilcox, Elizabeth S

    2016-03-01

    Rapid advances in human microbiome research point to an increasing range of health outcomes related to the composition of an individual's microbiome. To date, much research has focused on individual health, with a paucity of attention to public health implications. This is a critical oversight owing to the potentially shared nature of the human microbiome across communities and vertical and horizontal mechanisms for transferring microbiomes among humans. We explored some key ethical and social implications of human microbiome research for public health. We focused on (1) insights from microbiome research about damage to individual and shared microbiomes from prevalent societal practices, and (2) ethical and social implications of novel technologies developed on the basis of emerging microbiome science. PMID:26794165

  20. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  1. HUMAN HEALTH OUTCOMES AND ACCOUNTABILITY - RISK POLICY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is identifying human health "outcomes" as part of a significant shift in how the Agency frames questions and assesses its impact on environmental quality. These outcomes, while complementing traditional process indicators such as decreases in emissions, discharges and pollut...

  2. [Dietary phytoestrogen and its potential benefits in adult human health].

    PubMed

    Garrido, Argelia; de la Maza, María Pía; Valladares, Luis

    2003-11-01

    Human diet contains a series of bioactive vegetal compounds that can improve human health. Among these, there has been a special interest for phytoestrogens. This article reviews the evidence about the potential benefits of phytoestrogens for human health. Forty eight manuscripts were selected for their study design and relevance to human health. The cell growth inhibitory effects of phytoestrogens and their implication in breast cancer are reviewed. Also the effects of these compounds on serum lipid levels and the effectiveness of a phytoestrogen derivate, ipriflavone, on the prevention of osteoporosis are analyzed. Although these compounds have a great potential for improving health, there is still not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of phytoestrogens.

  3. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Civil Rights

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resize A A A Print Share Office for Civil Rights (OCR) I would like info on. . . Contact ... enter your contact information below. Email Office for Civil Rights Headquarters U.S. Department of Health & Human Services ...

  4. The Human Microbiome and Public Health: Social and Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Kieran C; Virani, Alice; Wilcox, Elizabeth S

    2016-03-01

    Rapid advances in human microbiome research point to an increasing range of health outcomes related to the composition of an individual's microbiome. To date, much research has focused on individual health, with a paucity of attention to public health implications. This is a critical oversight owing to the potentially shared nature of the human microbiome across communities and vertical and horizontal mechanisms for transferring microbiomes among humans. We explored some key ethical and social implications of human microbiome research for public health. We focused on (1) insights from microbiome research about damage to individual and shared microbiomes from prevalent societal practices, and (2) ethical and social implications of novel technologies developed on the basis of emerging microbiome science.

  5. Urgent need for human resources to promote global cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Fuster, Valentin

    2011-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates the existence of a global shortage of over 4 million health-care workers. Given the growing global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the shortfall in global human resources for health (HRH) is probably even greater than predicted. A critical challenge going forward is to determine how to integrate CVD-related human resource needs into the overall global HRH agenda. We describe the CVD implications of core HRH objectives, including coverage, motivation, and competence, in addition to issues such as health-care worker migration and the need for input from multiple stakeholders to successfully address the current problems. We emphasize gaps in knowledge regarding HRH for global CVD-related care and research opportunities. In light of the current global epidemiologic transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, now is the time for the global health community to focus on CVD-related human resource needs.

  6. Climate Change in the US: Potential Consequences for Human Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. National Assessment identified five major areas of consequences of climate change in the United States: temperature-related illnesses and deaths, health effects related to extreme weather events, air pollution-related health effects, water- and food-borne diseases, and insect-, tick-, and rodent-borne diseases. The U.S. National Assessment final conclusions about these potential health effects will be described. In addition, a summary of some of the new tools for studying human health aspects of climate change as well as environment-health linkages through remotely sensed data and observations will be provided.

  7. Bioethics and health and human rights: a critical view.

    PubMed

    Benatar, D

    2006-01-01

    Recent decades have seen the emergence of two new fields of inquiry into ethical issues in medicine. These are the fields of bioethics and of health and human rights. In this critical review of these fields, the author argues that bioethics, partly because it has been construed so broadly, suffers from quality control problems. The author also argues that the field of health and human rights is superfluous because it does nothing that cannot be done by either bioethics of the law.

  8. Health and safety and the Human Rights Act 1998.

    PubMed

    Tearle, P

    2001-03-01

    The Human Rights Act 1998 came into effect on 2 October 2000. The list of human rights now embodied in United Kingdom law reflects the ideas and values of our changing and developing society. As a dynamic document the act has parallels with the ideals found in health and safety law. This article looks at the act and considers its implications for employers with regard to existing health and safety law.

  9. Emerging aspects of nanotoxicology in health and disease: From agriculture and food sector to cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Piperigkou, Zoi; Karamanou, Konstantina; Engin, Ayse Basak; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Docea, Anca Oana; Vynios, Demitrios H; Pavão, Mauro S G; Golokhvast, Kirill S; Shtilman, Mikhail I; Argiris, Athanassios; Shishatskaya, Ekaterina; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an evolving scientific field that has allowed the manufacturing of materials with novel physicochemical and biological properties, offering a wide spectrum of potential applications. Properties of nanoparticles that contribute to their usefulness include their markedly increased surface area in relation to mass, surface reactivity and insolubility, ability to agglomerate or change size in different media and enhanced endurance over conventional-scale substance. Here, we review nanoparticle classification and their emerging applications in several fields; from active food packaging to drug delivery and cancer research. Nanotechnology has exciting therapeutic applications, including novel drug delivery for the treatment of cancer. Additionally, we discuss that exposure to nanostructures incorporated to polymer composites, may result in potential human health risks. Therefore, the knowledge of processes, including absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, as well as careful toxicological assessment is critical in order to determine the effects of nanomaterials in humans and other biological systems. Expanding the knowledge of nanoparticle toxicity will facilitate designing of safer nanocomposites and their application in a beneficial manner. PMID:26969113

  10. A universal method for measuring functional activity of complement in humans, laboratory, domestic, and agricultural animals, amphibians, and birds.

    PubMed

    Kuleshina, O N; Kozlov, L V; Cheremnykh, E G

    2014-06-01

    A new universal method for measuring activity of the serum complement system in humans, laboratory, domestic, agricultural animals, birds and amphibians is based on automated evaluation of the mortality of ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis under the effect of the complement system. In contrast to the hemolytic method, measured activity of the complement shows no erroneously high results caused by reactive lysis in febrile patients. The method can be used for studies of the complement system in humans and animals without species-specific adaptation.

  11. The use of town refuse ash in urban agriculture around Jos, Nigeria: health and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, M W

    2006-01-15

    This paper reports on a study that examines the health and environmental risks of using town refuse ash in urban vegetable production in Jos, Nigeria, in terms of heavy metal accumulation in the food chain. Soil and crop samples, collected from five study farms, and samples of the river water used for irrigation, were analysed for seven heavy metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb. On the basis of the field data the paper discusses: (1) the potential soil deficiencies and toxicities; (2) the probable links between soil heavy metal levels and fertilisation practices; (3) the heavy metal concentrations in crop tissue in relation to crop growth and human health. The findings suggest that soil concentrations of the seven metals fall within 'typical' soil levels, and that there should not be any problems of either toxicities or deficiencies for crop growth. There was evidence of slight accumulation of Zn, Cu and Cd on some of the farms with a history of town refuse ash use. However, in all farms lettuce crops contained very large concentrations of Fe, and Pb concentrations that were 20 to 40 times higher than the WHO/FAO maximum recommended level in leafy vegetables for human consumption. The Cd content of carrot tissue was 10 times higher than the WHO/FAO recommended limit. The relatively small number of soil and crop samples precluded any formal attempt at correlating the concentrations of heavy metals found in the vegetable crops with the farm levels. Nevertheless, the data suggested that these were not linked. The paper goes on to consider various potential sources of the metals found in the crops, including irrigation water, town refuse ash and air-borne dust, and discusses additional health and environmental risks pertaining to the use of town refuse ash. Undoubtedly, the heavy Pb and Cd contamination of certain crops indicates the urgent need for future studies to ascertain the precise source of these metals, and although the practice of using town refuse ash does

  12. Human rights, public health and medicinal cannabis use

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Melissa; Seddon, Toby

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the human rights and drug control frameworks and critiques case law on medicinal cannabis use to demonstrate that a bona fide human rights perspective allows for a broader conception of ‘health’. This broad conception, encompassing both medicalised and social constructionist definitions, can inform public health policies relating to medicinal cannabis use. The paper also demonstrates how a human rights lens can alleviate a core tension between the State and the individual within the drug policy field. The leading medicinal cannabis case in the UK highlights the judiciary’s failure to engage with an individual’s human right to health as they adopt an arbitrary, externalist view, focussing on the legality of cannabis to the exclusion of other concerns. Drawing on some international comparisons, the paper considers how a human rights perspective can lead to an approach to medicinal cannabis use which facilitates a holistic understanding of public health. PMID:26692654

  13. Acid sulfate soils and human health--a Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

    PubMed

    Ljung, Karin; Maley, Fiona; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-11-01

    Acid sulfate soils have been described as the "nastiest soils on earth" because of their strong acidity, increased mobility of potentially toxic elements and limited bioavailability of nutrients. They only cover a small area of the world's total problem soils, but often have significant adverse effects on agriculture, aquaculture and the environment on a local scale. Their location often coincides with high population density areas along the coasts of many developing countries. As a result, their negative impacts on ecosystems can have serious implications to those least equipped for coping with the low crop yields and reduced water quality that can result from acid sulfate soil disturbance. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment called on by the United Nations in 2000 emphasised the importance of ecosystems for human health and well-being. These include the service they provide as sources of food and water, through the control of pollution and disease, as well as for the cultural services ecosystems provide. While the problems related to agriculture, aquaculture and the environment have been the focus of many acid sulfate soil management efforts, the connection to human health has largely been ignored. This paper presents the potential health issues of acid sulfate soils, in relation to the ecosystem services identified in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. It is recognised that significant implications on food security and livelihood can result, as well as on community cohesiveness and the spread of vector-borne disease. However, the connection between these outcomes and acid sulfate soils is often not obvious and it is therefore argued that the impact of such soils on human well-being needs to be recognised in order to raise awareness among the public and decision makers, to in turn facilitate proper management and avoid potential human ill-health.

  14. Regulation of lipid deposition in farm animals: Parallels between agriculture and human physiology.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Werner G; Brandebourg, Terry D

    2016-06-01

    For many years, clinically oriented scientists and animal scientists have focused on lipid metabolism and fat deposition in various fat depots. While dealing with a common biology across species, the goals of biomedical and food animals lipid metabolism research differ in emphasis. In humans, mechanisms and regulation of fat synthesis, accumulation of fat in regional fat depots, lipid metabolism and dysmetabolism in adipose, liver and cardiac tissues have been investigated. Further, energy balance and weight control have also been extensively explored in humans. Finally, obesity and associated maladies including high cholesterol and atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and health outcomes have been widely studied. In food animals, the emphasis has been on regulation of fatty acid synthesis and lipid deposition in fat depots and deposition of intramuscular fat. For humans, understanding the regulation of energy balance and body weight and of prevention or treatment of obesity and associated maladies have been important clinical outcomes. In production of food animals lowering fat content in muscle foods while enhancing intramuscular fat (marbling) have been major targets. In this review, we summarize how our laboratories have addressed the goal of providing lean but yet tasty and juicy muscle food products to consumers. In addition, we here describe efforts in the development of a new porcine model to study regulation of fat metabolism and obesity. Commonalities and differences in regulation of lipid metabolism between humans, rodents and food animals are emphasized throughout this review.

  15. The quest for One Health: human resource training aspects.

    PubMed

    Kiwara, Angwara; Semakafu, Ave-Maria; Frumence, Gasto

    2014-01-01

    Appropriately trained Human Resources for Health (HRH) are key inputs into One Health. '… more than 50% of all infectious diseases of humans originate from animals and that, of the emerging diseases about 75% could be traced back to animal origin' (Rweyemamu et al. 2006). A comprehensive understanding of the social determinants of health, through an appropriate training model for HRH, is a key input. This study aimed to explore if human and veterinary medical schools were using such a model or providing time for this model in their curricula. Specific objectives were to: determine the time that human and veterinary medical schools' curricula provide for subjects or courses related to the social determinants of health; analyse the curricula contents to establish how they relate to the social determinants of health; and explore how a bio-medical model may influence the graduates' understanding and practice of One Health. A review of human and veterinary graduate-level medical schools' curricula in East Africa was performed in April 2013 and May 2013. The findings were: in the curricula, SDH contents for knowledge enhancement about One Health are minimal and that teaching is Germ Theory model-driven and partisan. Out of the total training time for physicians and veterinarians, less than 10% was provided for the social determinants of health-related courses. In conclusion, the curricula and training times provided are inadequate for graduates to fully understand the social determinants of health and their role in One Health. Furthermore, the Germ Theory model that has been adopted addresses secondary causes and is inappropriate. There is a need for more in-depth model. This article suggests that a vicious cycle of ill-health model must be taught.

  16. Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element Management Plan: Human Research Program. Revision B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norsk, Peter; Baumann, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is an applied research and technology program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) that addresses human health and performance risk mitigation strategies in support of exploration missions. The HRP research and technology development is focused on the highest priority risks to crew health and safety with the goal of ensuring mission success and maintaining long-term crew health. Crew health and performance standards, defined by the NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO), set the acceptable risk level for exploration missions. The HRP conducts research to inform these standards as well as provide deliverables, such as countermeasures, that ensure standards can be met to maximize human performance and mission success. The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element was formed as part of the HRP to develop a scientifically-based, integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the health risks associated with human spaceflight. These health risks have been organized into four research portfolios that group similar or related risks. A fifth portfolio exists for managing technology developments and infrastructure projects. The HHC Element portfolios consist of: a) Vision and Cardiovascular; b) Exercise and Performance; c) Multisystem; d) Bone; and e) Technology and Infrastructure. The HHC identifies gaps associated with the health risks and plans human physiology research that will result in knowledge required to more fully understand risks and will result in validated countermeasures to mitigate risks.

  17. 2nd International Conference on Health and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, S

    1997-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Health and Human Rights held in 1996 explored the issue of human rights and public health advocacy in light of the AIDS pandemic. Speakers addressed the pervasive personal and institutional racism within the United States (known as structural violence) that hinders minority health status and health care. Poverty and its relationship to women's risk of HIV infection are viewed as one of the most significant manifestations of structural violence for those in the field of HIV/AIDS. Other speakers addressed the destruction of urban habitats and the effect of this destruction on urban society and health, and how social class can affect health care delivery, access, and mortality.

  18. Beyond toxicity: human health and the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, H

    2001-04-01

    Research and teaching in environmental health have centered on the hazardous effects of various environmental exposures, such as toxic chemicals, radiation, and biological and physical agents. However, some kinds of environmental exposures may have positive health effects. According to E.O. Wilson's "biophilia" hypothesis, humans are innately attracted to other living organisms. Later authors have expanded this concept to suggest that humans have an innate bond with nature more generally. This implies that certain kinds of contact with the natural world may benefit health. Evidence supporting this hypothesis is presented from four aspects of the natural world: animals, plants, landscapes, and wilderness. Finally, the implications of this hypothesis for a broader agenda for environmental health, encompassing not only toxic outcomes but also salutary ones, are discussed. This agenda implies research on a range of potentially healthful environmental exposures, collaboration among professionals in a range of disciplines from public health to landscape architecture to city planning, and interventions based on research outcomes.

  19. Zoonotic diseases and human health: the human influenza example.

    PubMed

    Schoub, Barry D

    2012-06-20

    Over the past few decades a large number of new and emerging infectious diseases have been recognised in humans, partly because of improved diagnostic technologies and increased awareness and also, partly because of dynamic ecological changes between human hosts and their exposure to animals and the environment (Coker et al. 2011). Some 177 new pathogenic organisms have been recognised to be 'emerging', that is, have newly arisen or been newly introduced into human populations; almost three quarters of these, 130 (73%), have come from zoonotic origins (Cascio et al. 2011; Cutler, Fooks & Van Der Poel 2010; Taylor, Latham & Woolhouse 2001; Woolhouse & Gowtage-Sequeria 2005). One of the most prevalent and important human infectious disease is influenza, a disease responsible globally for a quarter million deaths annually. In the USA alone the toll from influenza is estimated at 36 000 deaths and 226 000 hospitalisations, and it ranks as the most important cause of vaccine preventable mortality in that country (CDC 2010). The epidemiological behaviour of human influenza clearly defines it as an emerging infectious disease and the recent understanding of its zoonotic origins has contributed much to the understanding of its behaviour in humans (Fauci 2006).

  20. Peanut fatty acids and their impact on human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts contain a large amount of fat. Much of it is unsaturated, giving peanuts a positive effect on human health. A number of positive health effects from consuming peanuts have been reported in the scientific literature. These include lowering blood pressure, decreasing the risk of heart disea...

  1. INTEGRATING AIR QUALITY DATA TO INFORM HUMAN HEALTH DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The August 1-2, 2005 EPA-NIEHS workshop is addressing the linkages between air quality and human health. My presentation will discuss the strengths and limitations of various databases for relating air quality to health impacts. Specifically, the need for fusing ground-based, s...

  2. ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

  3. School Health Education about Human Sexuality. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Beverly J.; Mancuso, Patty; Cagginello, Joan B.; Board, Connie; Clark, Sandra; Harvel, Robin; Kelts, Susan

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that age-appropriate health education about human sexuality should be included as part of a comprehensive school health education program and be accessible to all students in schools. NASN recognizes the role of parents and families as the primary source of education about…

  4. AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER AND HUMAN HEALTH: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of recent research show that PM composition and size vary widely with both space and time. Despite the variability in PM characteristics, which are believed to influence human health risks, the observed relative health risk estimates per unit PM mass falls within a narrow...

  5. Human Trafficking: A Review for Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of current research on human trafficking for mental health practitioners and scholars. In addition to an overview of definitions, causes and processes of trafficking, the article highlights mental health consequences of trafficking along with suggestions for treatment of survivors. Directions for counseling services,…

  6. A Laboratory for Humanities and the Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Warren T.

    1982-01-01

    The Georgetown University Health and Humanities Program is based on the concept of the university as a community concerned with the universe of knowledge. The interprofessional, interdisciplinary program serves the purposes of health professional education and enhances the quality of clinical treatment. (Author/SK)

  7. Using satellite remote sensing and household survey data to assess human health and nutrition response to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Brown, Molly E; Grace, Kathryn; Shively, Gerald; Johnson, Kiersten B; Carroll, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vectorborne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis. PMID:25132700

  8. Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Household Survey Data to Assess Human Health and Nutrition Response to Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Grace, Kathryn; Shively, Gerald; Johnson, Kiersten B.; Carroll, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis.

  9. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  10. Human genome sequencing in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Lupski, James R; Gibbs, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Following the "finished," euchromatic, haploid human reference genome sequence, the rapid development of novel, faster, and cheaper sequencing technologies is making possible the era of personalized human genomics. Personal diploid human genome sequences have been generated, and each has contributed to our better understanding of variation in the human genome. We have consequently begun to appreciate the vastness of individual genetic variation from single nucleotide to structural variants. Translation of genome-scale variation into medically useful information is, however, in its infancy. This review summarizes the initial steps undertaken in clinical implementation of personal genome information, and describes the application of whole-genome and exome sequencing to identify the cause of genetic diseases and to suggest adjuvant therapies. Better analysis tools and a deeper understanding of the biology of our genome are necessary in order to decipher, interpret, and optimize clinical utility of what the variation in the human genome can teach us. Personal genome sequencing may eventually become an instrument of common medical practice, providing information that assists in the formulation of a differential diagnosis. We outline herein some of the remaining challenges.

  11. Department of Health and Human Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... flu vaccine. What You Need to Know about Zika Virus Find the most up-to-date information on the Zika virus and how you can protect yourself and your loved ones. Coverage to Care Understand your health coverage and connect to primary care and preventive services, so you ... Blog Zika and Pregnancy: My Professional and Personal Fight As ...

  12. INCORPORATING HUMAN INTERINDIVIDUAL BIOTRANSFORMATION VARIANCE IN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accom...

  13. Environmental Epigenetics: Potential Application in Human Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although previous studies have shown a significant involvement of epigenetic dysregulation in human diseases, the applicability of epigenetic data in the current human health risk assessment paradigm is unclear. The goals of this study are to compare the relative sensitivities of...

  14. A 21st Century Roadmap for Human Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades human health risk assessment has depended primarily on animal testing to predict adverse effects in humans, but that paradigm has come under question because of calls for more accurate information, less use of animals, and more efficient use of resources. Moreover, t...

  15. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates and ethylenethiourea: possible human health hazards.

    PubMed Central

    Houeto, P; Bindoula, G; Hoffman, J R

    1995-01-01

    Humans are exposed to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs) from environmental sources. Exposure to EBDCs is chronic for workers in a variety of industries, where EBDCs are used for their properties as slimicides, vulcanization accelerators, antioxidants, and scavengers in waste-water treatment. EBDCs, and particularly the EBDC metabolite ethylenethiourea, have clearly defined, important toxic effects in various animal species, and there is reason to suspect they are carcinogenic in humans. In the absence of definitive information regarding human risk, further studies need to be done. In the interim, regular surveillance of workers with high levels of exposure to EBDCs, with specific attention to markers of thyroid and hepatic pathology, should be considered. Images p568-a PMID:7556009

  16. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health.

    PubMed

    Miquel, S; Martín, R; Rossi, O; Bermúdez-Humarán, L G; Chatel, J M; Sokol, H; Thomas, M; Wells, J M; Langella, P

    2013-06-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically active commensal bacterium as a component of the healthy human microbiota. Changes in the abundance of F. prausnitzii have been linked to dysbiosis in several human disorders. Administration of F. prausnitzii strain A2-165 and its culture supernatant have been shown to protect against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Here, we discuss the role of F. prausnitzii in balancing immunity in the intestine and the mechanisms involved.

  17. Policy and evidence in Canadian health human resources planning.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The health human resources supply in Canada swings reactively between over- and under-supply. There are numerous policy actors in this arena, each of whom could contribute to good data collection and an agreed-on process for decision-making. This could form the basis for evidence-informed policy. Absent these tools for pan-Canadian health human resources policy development, smaller health jurisdictions are experimenting with quality improvement initiatives which, when properly evaluated, can discover useful methods of aligning patient and community needs with healthcare resources.

  18. The pyrohealth transition: how combustion emissions have shaped health through human history.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Fay H; Melody, Shannon; Bowman, David M J S

    2016-06-01

    Air pollution from landscape fires, domestic fires and fossil fuel combustion is recognized as the single most important global environmental risk factor for human mortality and is associated with a global burden of disease almost as large as that of tobacco smoking. The shift from a reliance on biomass to fossil fuels for powering economies, broadly described as the pyric transition, frames key patterns in human fire usage and landscape fire activity. These have produced distinct patters of human exposure to air pollution associated with the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions and post-industrial the Earth global system-wide changes increasingly known as the Anthropocene. Changes in patterns of human fertility, mortality and morbidity associated with economic development have been previously described in terms of demographic, epidemiological and nutrition transitions, yet these frameworks have not explicitly considered the direct consequences of combustion emissions for human health. To address this gap, we propose a pyrohealth transition and use data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) collaboration to compare direct mortality impacts of emissions from landscape fires, domestic fires, fossil fuel combustion and the global epidemic of tobacco smoking. Improving human health and reducing the environmental impacts on the Earth system will require a considerable reduction in biomass and fossil fuel combustion.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216506

  19. Contribution of Organically Grown Crops to Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Eva; Hussain, Abrar; Kuktaite, Ramune; Andersson, Staffan C.; Olsson, Marie E.

    2014-01-01

    An increasing interest in organic agriculture for food production is seen throughout the world and one key reason for this interest is the assumption that organic food consumption is beneficial to public health. The present paper focuses on the background of organic agriculture, important public health related compounds from crop food and variations in the amount of health related compounds in crops. In addition, influence of organic farming on health related compounds, on pesticide residues and heavy metals in crops, and relations between organic food and health biomarkers as well as in vitro studies are also the focus of the present paper. Nutritionally beneficial compounds of highest relevance for public health were micronutrients, especially Fe and Zn, and bioactive compounds such as carotenoids (including pro-vitamin A compounds), tocopherols (including vitamin E) and phenolic compounds. Extremely large variations in the contents of these compounds were seen, depending on genotype, climate, environment, farming conditions, harvest time, and part of the crop. Highest amounts seen were related to the choice of genotype and were also increased by genetic modification of the crop. Organic cultivation did not influence the content of most of the nutritional beneficial compounds, except the phenolic compounds that were increased with the amounts of pathogens. However, higher amounts of pesticide residues and in many cases also of heavy metals were seen in the conventionally produced crops compared to the organic ones. Animal studies as well as in vitro studies showed a clear indication of a beneficial effect of organic food/extracts as compared to conventional ones. Thus, consumption of organic food seems to be positive from a public health point of view, although the reasons are unclear, and synergistic effects between various constituents within the food are likely. PMID:24717360

  20. Contribution of organically grown crops to human health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Eva; Hussain, Abrar; Kuktaite, Ramune; Andersson, Staffan C; Olsson, Marie E

    2014-04-01

    An increasing interest in organic agriculture for food production is seen throughout the world and one key reason for this interest is the assumption that organic food consumption is beneficial to public health. The present paper focuses on the background of organic agriculture, important public health related compounds from crop food and variations in the amount of health related compounds in crops. In addition, influence of organic farming on health related compounds, on pesticide residues and heavy metals in crops, and relations between organic food and health biomarkers as well as in vitro studies are also the focus of the present paper. Nutritionally beneficial compounds of highest relevance for public health were micronutrients, especially Fe and Zn, and bioactive compounds such as carotenoids (including pro-vitamin A compounds), tocopherols (including vitamin E) and phenolic compounds. Extremely large variations in the contents of these compounds were seen, depending on genotype, climate, environment, farming conditions, harvest time, and part of the crop. Highest amounts seen were related to the choice of genotype and were also increased by genetic modification of the crop. Organic cultivation did not influence the content of most of the nutritional beneficial compounds, except the phenolic compounds that were increased with the amounts of pathogens. However, higher amounts of pesticide residues and in many cases also of heavy metals were seen in the conventionally produced crops compared to the organic ones. Animal studies as well as in vitro studies showed a clear indication of a beneficial effect of organic food/extracts as compared to conventional ones. Thus, consumption of organic food seems to be positive from a public health point of view, although the reasons are unclear, and synergistic effects between various constituents within the food are likely. PMID:24717360