Science.gov

Sample records for agriculture irish potatoes

  1. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., shoestrings, starch and flour. Processing does not include potatoes that are only peeled, or cooled, sliced... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Import regulations; Irish potatoes. 980.1 Section 980...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 980.1 Import regulations; Irish potatoes. (a) Findings and determinations...

  2. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., shoestrings, starch and flour. Processing does not include potatoes that are only peeled, or cooled, sliced... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Import regulations; Irish potatoes. 980.1 Section 980...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 980.1 Import regulations; Irish potatoes. (a) Findings and determinations...

  3. 78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 948 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 AGENCY: Agricultural... membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 (Committee). The Committee...

  4. 78 FR 48285 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... decreased the assessment rate established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the... potatoes handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for Irish potatoes grown...

  5. 76 FR 53842 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 948 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado... prescribed under the Colorado potato marketing order (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado, and is administered locally by the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee...

  6. 76 FR 65360 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 953 Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule continues in effect the interim rule that suspended the marketing order for Irish potatoes...

  7. 76 FR 4254 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 945 Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain....usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to Marketing Order No. 945 (7 CFR part 945), hereinafter... their appointees. List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 945 Irish potatoes, Marketing agreements, Reporting...

  8. 75 FR 43042 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Temporary Change to the Handling Regulations and Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... handlers while allowing the industry the opportunity to explore alternative marketing strategies. DATES... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Temporary Change to the Handling Regulations and Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA....

  9. 76 FR 27850 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Modification of the Rules and Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... potato industry to continue marketing russet potatoes without regard to the minimum quality, maturity... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Modification of the Rules and Regulations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for...

  10. 76 FR 41589 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... rate established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0035 to $0.003 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee...

  11. 78 FR 62967 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Temporary Change to the Handling Regulations and Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... necessary to administer the marketing order. This rule is expected to reduce overall industry expenses and... industry can evaluate the exemption's effects on the marketing of potatoes. As a result of this exemption... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Temporary Change to...

  12. 76 FR 33967 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... / Friday, June 10, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 953 Irish Potatoes Grown in Southeastern States; Suspension of Marketing Order Provisions AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for...

  13. Genome analyses of an aggressive and invasive lineage of the Irish potato famine pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest and pathogen losses pose a serious threat to global food security and ever since the 19th century Irish famine, potato late blight has exemplified this threat1,2. The causal oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, undergoes major population shifts in agricultural systems via the successive e...

  14. 75 FR 77749 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Temporary Change to the Handling Regulations and Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... while allowing the industry to explore alternative marketing strategies. Changes to the interim rule... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Temporary Change to the Handling Regulations and Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final...

  15. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  16. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  17. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  18. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  19. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  20. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  1. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  2. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  3. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown...

  4. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the...

  5. 76 FR 80211 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... CFR Part 948 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0051; FV11-948-1 FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification... rule. SUMMARY: This rule revises the size requirements for potatoes under the Colorado potato marketing order (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado, and is...

  6. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  7. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  8. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  9. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  10. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  11. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  12. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish...

  13. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  14. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  15. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish...

  16. 78 FR 3 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado.... Commercial. This change is expected to facilitate the handling and marketing of the Area No. 2 potato crop...), regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado, hereinafter referred to as the ``order.''...

  17. The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans originated in central Mexico rather than the Andes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora infestans is a destructive plant pathogen best known for causing the disease that triggered the Irish potato famine and continues to be the most costly potato pathogen to manage worldwide. Identification of its elusive center of origin is critical to understanding the mechanisms of repe...

  18. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  19. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  20. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  1. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  2. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  3. 78 FR 23829 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 948 Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area... rule that modified the grade requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing...\\-inch diameter round, red- skinned potatoes handled under the marketing order from U.S. No. 1 to...

  4. 78 FR 70191 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and Handling Regulation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of... expected to facilitate the handling and marketing of the Area No. 2 potato crop; provide producers... Marketing Order No. 948, both as amended (7 CFR part 948), regulating the handling of Irish potatoes...

  5. 78 FR 35743 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and Handling Regulation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in... type potatoes, other than red-skinned varieties. This change is expected to facilitate the handling and.... 97 and Marketing Order No. 948, both as amended (7 CFR part 948), regulating the handling of...

  6. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  7. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  8. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  9. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  10. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  11. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  12. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  13. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  14. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  15. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  16. Genome Analyses of an Aggressive and Invasive Lineage of the Irish Potato Famine Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Raffaele, Sylvain; Bain, Ruairidh A.; Cooke, Louise R.; Etherington, Graham J.; Deahl, Kenneth L.; Farrer, Rhys A.; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Goss, Erica M.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.; Hein, Ingo; MacLean, Daniel; McNicol, James W.; Randall, Eva; Oliva, Ricardo F.; Pel, Mathieu A.; Shaw, David S.; Squires, Julie N.; Taylor, Moray C.; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G. A. A.; Birch, Paul R. J.; Lees, Alison K.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2012-01-01

    Pest and pathogen losses jeopardise global food security and ever since the 19th century Irish famine, potato late blight has exemplified this threat. The causal oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, undergoes major population shifts in agricultural systems via the successive emergence and migration of asexual lineages. The phenotypic and genotypic bases of these selective sweeps are largely unknown but management strategies need to adapt to reflect the changing pathogen population. Here, we used molecular markers to document the emergence of a lineage, termed 13_A2, in the European P. infestans population, and its rapid displacement of other lineages to exceed 75% of the pathogen population across Great Britain in less than three years. We show that isolates of the 13_A2 lineage are among the most aggressive on cultivated potatoes, outcompete other aggressive lineages in the field, and overcome previously effective forms of plant host resistance. Genome analyses of a 13_A2 isolate revealed extensive genetic and expression polymorphisms particularly in effector genes. Copy number variations, gene gains and losses, amino-acid replacements and changes in expression patterns of disease effector genes within the 13_A2 isolate likely contribute to enhanced virulence and aggressiveness to drive this population displacement. Importantly, 13_A2 isolates carry intact and in planta induced Avrblb1, Avrblb2 and Avrvnt1 effector genes that trigger resistance in potato lines carrying the corresponding R immune receptor genes Rpi-blb1, Rpi-blb2, and Rpi-vnt1.1. These findings point towards a strategy for deploying genetic resistance to mitigate the impact of the 13_A2 lineage and illustrate how pathogen population monitoring, combined with genome analysis, informs the management of devastating disease epidemics. PMID:23055926

  17. Genome analyses of an aggressive and invasive lineage of the Irish potato famine pathogen.

    PubMed

    Cooke, David E L; Cano, Liliana M; Raffaele, Sylvain; Bain, Ruairidh A; Cooke, Louise R; Etherington, Graham J; Deahl, Kenneth L; Farrer, Rhys A; Gilroy, Eleanor M; Goss, Erica M; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Hein, Ingo; MacLean, Daniel; McNicol, James W; Randall, Eva; Oliva, Ricardo F; Pel, Mathieu A; Shaw, David S; Squires, Julie N; Taylor, Moray C; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A; Birch, Paul R J; Lees, Alison K; Kamoun, Sophien

    2012-01-01

    Pest and pathogen losses jeopardise global food security and ever since the 19(th) century Irish famine, potato late blight has exemplified this threat. The causal oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, undergoes major population shifts in agricultural systems via the successive emergence and migration of asexual lineages. The phenotypic and genotypic bases of these selective sweeps are largely unknown but management strategies need to adapt to reflect the changing pathogen population. Here, we used molecular markers to document the emergence of a lineage, termed 13_A2, in the European P. infestans population, and its rapid displacement of other lineages to exceed 75% of the pathogen population across Great Britain in less than three years. We show that isolates of the 13_A2 lineage are among the most aggressive on cultivated potatoes, outcompete other aggressive lineages in the field, and overcome previously effective forms of plant host resistance. Genome analyses of a 13_A2 isolate revealed extensive genetic and expression polymorphisms particularly in effector genes. Copy number variations, gene gains and losses, amino-acid replacements and changes in expression patterns of disease effector genes within the 13_A2 isolate likely contribute to enhanced virulence and aggressiveness to drive this population displacement. Importantly, 13_A2 isolates carry intact and in planta induced Avrblb1, Avrblb2 and Avrvnt1 effector genes that trigger resistance in potato lines carrying the corresponding R immune receptor genes Rpi-blb1, Rpi-blb2, and Rpi-vnt1.1. These findings point towards a strategy for deploying genetic resistance to mitigate the impact of the 13_A2 lineage and illustrate how pathogen population monitoring, combined with genome analysis, informs the management of devastating disease epidemics.

  18. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., shoestrings, starch and flour. Processing does not include potatoes that are only peeled, or cooled, sliced..., shoestrings, starch and flour. Processing does not include potatoes that are only peeled, or cooled,...

  19. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Therefore it is hereby determined that: (i) Imports of red-skinned, round type potatoes during each month of...), applicable to potatoes of the red-skinned, round type shall be the respective grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements for all imported red-skinned, round type potatoes. (2) Through the entire year,...

  20. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  1. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  2. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  3. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  4. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  5. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato...

  6. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato...

  7. An effector of the Irish potato famine pathogen antagonizes a host autophagy cargo receptor

    PubMed Central

    Dagdas, Yasin F; Belhaj, Khaoula; Maqbool, Abbas; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Pandey, Pooja; Petre, Benjamin; Tabassum, Nadra; Cruz-Mireles, Neftaly; Hughes, Richard K; Sklenar, Jan; Win, Joe; Menke, Frank; Findlay, Kim; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien; Bozkurt, Tolga O

    2016-01-01

    Plants use autophagy to safeguard against infectious diseases. However, how plant pathogens interfere with autophagy-related processes is unknown. Here, we show that PexRD54, an effector from the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, binds host autophagy protein ATG8CL to stimulate autophagosome formation. PexRD54 depletes the autophagy cargo receptor Joka2 out of ATG8CL complexes and interferes with Joka2's positive effect on pathogen defense. Thus, a plant pathogen effector has evolved to antagonize a host autophagy cargo receptor to counteract host defenses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10856.001 PMID:26765567

  8. A new inventory of ammonia emissions from Irish agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, B. P.; Carton, O. T.; O'Toole, P.; Misselbrook, T. H.

    Agriculture plays a vital role in the Irish economy, accounting for 3.5% of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2000. Grassland farming and, in particular, cattle rearing and dairying accounts for more than 90% of farming activity. In addition, there have been significant increases in the number of sheep, pigs and poultry over the last twenty years. As a consequence, gaseous nitrogen (N) emissions have shown a clear upward trend. Following the adoption of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Gothenburg protocol (Protocol to the 1979 convention on long-range transboundary air pollution to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. United Nations Economic Commissions for Europe (UNECE), Geneva.), Ireland has to achieve a 9% reduction in national ammonia (NH 3) emissions between 1990 and 2010. The agricultural sector accounts for virtually all NH 3 emissions in Ireland. It is on this basis that a new inventory of NH 3 emissions from agriculture has been produced. This paper describes the adoption of the UK national inventory model to Irish agricultural systems, the results of model calculations and the measures available to enable compliance with national targets and areas within the inventory, which require further investigation. Estimated total emissions from Irish agriculture were 89.9 and 91.8 kt NH 3-N for 1991 and 2010, respectively. Cattle farming accounts for more than 75% of total emissions. The largest emission factors found included 46.9 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for cattle housing, 29.5 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for pig housing and 150 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for housed broilers (lu being equivalent to 500 kg live weight). In addition, model predictions for the year 2010 showed that without any abatement strategies being implemented, NH 3 emissions would exceed the agreed national emission reduction target by 12%. It was also found that strategies for reducing emissions from the land spreading of manure offer the greatest potential to

  9. Quality evaluation of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) starch blends.

    PubMed

    Abu, Joseph Oneh; Enyinnaya, Chinma Chiemela; James, Samaila; Okeleke, Ezinne

    2012-06-01

    Quality attributes of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato and pigeon pea starch blends were studied. Starches were extracted from Irish potato and pigeon pea using a wet extraction method. Various ratios of the starches were mixed and analyzed for chemical, functional and pasting properties. The starch blends were then prepared into stiff porridges for sensory evaluation using a 20-man sensory panel. Substitution of Irish potato starch with pigeon pea starch led to increases in protein (0.15 to 1.2%), fat (0.26 to 0.56%) and ash (0.30 to 0.69%) while the amylose content of the starch blends decreased (from 23.8 to 18.4%) respectively. Functional properties such as bulk density (0.75 to 0.60 g/cm(3)), water absorption capacity (3.1 to 2.6 g water/ g sample) and dispersibility (58.6 to 42.7%) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at the highest concentration (50%) of pigeon pea starch respectively. Pasting properties such as peak, breakdown, final and setback viscosities increased with increasing levels of pigeon pea starch while peak time and pasting temperature decreased. The sensory attributes of stiff porridges were not adversely affected by pigeon pea starch inclusion. Therefore it should be possible to incorporate up to 50% of low digestible pigeon pea starch into Irish potato starch from legumes such as pigeon pea as alternatives to cassava starch in the preparation of stiff porridges. Such porridges made from Irish potato and legume starches could provide additional incentive for individuals requiring decreased and or slow starch digestibility such as diabetics.

  10. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  11. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  12. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  13. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  14. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5...

  15. The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans originated in central Mexico rather than the Andes

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Erica M.; Tabima, Javier F.; Cooke, David E. L.; Restrepo, Silvia; Fry, William E.; Forbes, Gregory A.; Fieland, Valerie J.; Cardenas, Martha; Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    2014-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans is a destructive plant pathogen best known for causing the disease that triggered the Irish potato famine and remains the most costly potato pathogen to manage worldwide. Identification of P. infestan’s elusive center of origin is critical to understanding the mechanisms of repeated global emergence of this pathogen. There are two competing theories, placing the origin in either South America or in central Mexico, both of which are centers of diversity of Solanum host plants. To test these competing hypotheses, we conducted detailed phylogeographic and approximate Bayesian computation analyses, which are suitable approaches to unraveling complex demographic histories. Our analyses used microsatellite markers and sequences of four nuclear genes sampled from populations in the Andes, Mexico, and elsewhere. To infer the ancestral state, we included the closest known relatives Phytophthora phaseoli, Phytophthora mirabilis, and Phytophthora ipomoeae, as well as the interspecific hybrid Phytophthora andina. We did not find support for an Andean origin of P. infestans; rather, the sequence data suggest a Mexican origin. Our findings support the hypothesis that populations found in the Andes are descendants of the Mexican populations and reconcile previous findings of ancestral variation in the Andes. Although centers of origin are well documented as centers of evolution and diversity for numerous crop plants, the number of plant pathogens with a known geographic origin are limited. This work has important implications for our understanding of the coevolution of hosts and pathogens, as well as the harnessing of plant disease resistance to manage late blight. PMID:24889615

  16. The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans originated in central Mexico rather than the Andes.

    PubMed

    Goss, Erica M; Tabima, Javier F; Cooke, David E L; Restrepo, Silvia; Fry, William E; Forbes, Gregory A; Fieland, Valerie J; Cardenas, Martha; Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2014-06-17

    Phytophthora infestans is a destructive plant pathogen best known for causing the disease that triggered the Irish potato famine and remains the most costly potato pathogen to manage worldwide. Identification of P. infestan's elusive center of origin is critical to understanding the mechanisms of repeated global emergence of this pathogen. There are two competing theories, placing the origin in either South America or in central Mexico, both of which are centers of diversity of Solanum host plants. To test these competing hypotheses, we conducted detailed phylogeographic and approximate Bayesian computation analyses, which are suitable approaches to unraveling complex demographic histories. Our analyses used microsatellite markers and sequences of four nuclear genes sampled from populations in the Andes, Mexico, and elsewhere. To infer the ancestral state, we included the closest known relatives Phytophthora phaseoli, Phytophthora mirabilis, and Phytophthora ipomoeae, as well as the interspecific hybrid Phytophthora andina. We did not find support for an Andean origin of P. infestans; rather, the sequence data suggest a Mexican origin. Our findings support the hypothesis that populations found in the Andes are descendants of the Mexican populations and reconcile previous findings of ancestral variation in the Andes. Although centers of origin are well documented as centers of evolution and diversity for numerous crop plants, the number of plant pathogens with a known geographic origin are limited. This work has important implications for our understanding of the coevolution of hosts and pathogens, as well as the harnessing of plant disease resistance to manage late blight.

  17. Persistence of the mitochondrial lineage responsible for the Irish potato famine in extant new world phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michael D; Ho, Simon Y W; Wales, Nathan; Ristaino, Jean B; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2014-06-01

    The plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans emerged in Europe in 1845, triggering the Irish potato famine and massive European potato crop losses that continued until effective fungicides were widely employed in the 20th century. Today the pathogen is ubiquitous, with more aggressive and virulent strains surfacing in recent decades. Recently, complete P. infestans mitogenome sequences from 19th-century herbarium specimens were shown to belong to a unique lineage (HERB-1) predicted to be rare or extinct in modern times. We report 44 additional P. infestans mitogenomes: four from 19th-century Europe, three from 1950s UK, and 37 from modern populations across the New World. We use phylogenetic analyses to identify the HERB-1 lineage in modern populations from both Mexico and South America, and to demonstrate distinct mitochondrial haplotypes were present in 19th-century Europe, with this lineage initially diversifying 75 years before the first reports of potato late blight.

  18. The rise and fall of the Phytophthora infestans lineage that triggered the Irish potato famine

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kentaro; Schuenemann, Verena J; Cano, Liliana M; Pais, Marina; Mishra, Bagdevi; Sharma, Rahul; Lanz, Chirsta; Martin, Frank N; Kamoun, Sophien; Krause, Johannes; Thines, Marco; Weigel, Detlef; Burbano, Hernán A

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans, the cause of potato late blight, is infamous for having triggered the Irish Great Famine in the 1840s. Until the late 1970s, P. infestans diversity outside of its Mexican center of origin was low, and one scenario held that a single strain, US-1, had dominated the global population for 150 years; this was later challenged based on DNA analysis of historical herbarium specimens. We have compared the genomes of 11 herbarium and 15 modern strains. We conclude that the 19th century epidemic was caused by a unique genotype, HERB-1, that persisted for over 50 years. HERB-1 is distinct from all examined modern strains, but it is a close relative of US-1, which replaced it outside of Mexico in the 20th century. We propose that HERB-1 and US-1 emerged from a metapopulation that was established in the early 1800s outside of the species' center of diversity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00731.001 PMID:23741619

  19. The rise and fall of the Phytophthora infestans lineage that triggered the Irish potato famine.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kentaro; Schuenemann, Verena J; Cano, Liliana M; Pais, Marina; Mishra, Bagdevi; Sharma, Rahul; Lanz, Chirsta; Martin, Frank N; Kamoun, Sophien; Krause, Johannes; Thines, Marco; Weigel, Detlef; Burbano, Hernán A

    2013-05-28

    Phytophthora infestans, the cause of potato late blight, is infamous for having triggered the Irish Great Famine in the 1840s. Until the late 1970s, P. infestans diversity outside of its Mexican center of origin was low, and one scenario held that a single strain, US-1, had dominated the global population for 150 years; this was later challenged based on DNA analysis of historical herbarium specimens. We have compared the genomes of 11 herbarium and 15 modern strains. We conclude that the 19th century epidemic was caused by a unique genotype, HERB-1, that persisted for over 50 years. HERB-1 is distinct from all examined modern strains, but it is a close relative of US-1, which replaced it outside of Mexico in the 20th century. We propose that HERB-1 and US-1 emerged from a metapopulation that was established in the early 1800s outside of the species' center of diversity. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00731.001.

  20. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  1. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  2. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  3. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  4. 7 CFR 946.140 - Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling potatoes for commercial processing into... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 946.140 Handling potatoes for commercial processing into products. Pursuant to §...

  5. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  6. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  7. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  8. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  9. 7 CFR 947.134 - Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment of list of manufacturers of potato... AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN ALL COUNTIES IN OREGON, EXCEPT MALHEUR COUNTY Rules and Regulations Safeguards § 947.134 Establishment of list of manufacturers of...

  10. Prediction of Potato Crop Yield Using Precision Agriculture Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gaadi, Khalid A.; Hassaballa, Abdalhaleem A.; Tola, ElKamil; Kayad, Ahmed G.; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Alblewi, Bander; Assiri, Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Crop growth and yield monitoring over agricultural fields is an essential procedure for food security and agricultural economic return prediction. The advances in remote sensing have enhanced the process of monitoring the development of agricultural crops and estimating their yields. Therefore, remote sensing and GIS techniques were employed, in this study, to predict potato tuber crop yield on three 30 ha center pivot irrigated fields in an agricultural scheme located in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia. Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellite images were acquired during the potato growth stages and two vegetation indices (the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI)) were generated from the images. Vegetation index maps were developed and classified into zones based on vegetation health statements, where the stratified random sampling points were accordingly initiated. Potato yield samples were collected 2–3 days prior to the harvest time and were correlated to the adjacent NDVI and SAVI, where yield prediction algorithms were developed and used to generate prediction yield maps. Results of the study revealed that the difference between predicted yield values and actual ones (prediction error) ranged between 7.9 and 13.5% for Landsat-8 images and between 3.8 and 10.2% for Sentinel-2 images. The relationship between actual and predicted yield values produced R2 values ranging between 0.39 and 0.65 for Landsat-8 images and between 0.47 and 0.65 for Sentinel-2 images. Results of this study revealed a considerable variation in field productivity across the three fields, where high-yield areas produced an average yield of above 40 t ha-1; while, the low-yield areas produced, on the average, less than 21 t ha-1. Identifying such great variation in field productivity will assist farmers and decision makers in managing their practices. PMID:27611577

  11. Prediction of Potato Crop Yield Using Precision Agriculture Techniques.

    PubMed

    Al-Gaadi, Khalid A; Hassaballa, Abdalhaleem A; Tola, ElKamil; Kayad, Ahmed G; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Alblewi, Bander; Assiri, Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Crop growth and yield monitoring over agricultural fields is an essential procedure for food security and agricultural economic return prediction. The advances in remote sensing have enhanced the process of monitoring the development of agricultural crops and estimating their yields. Therefore, remote sensing and GIS techniques were employed, in this study, to predict potato tuber crop yield on three 30 ha center pivot irrigated fields in an agricultural scheme located in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia. Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellite images were acquired during the potato growth stages and two vegetation indices (the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI)) were generated from the images. Vegetation index maps were developed and classified into zones based on vegetation health statements, where the stratified random sampling points were accordingly initiated. Potato yield samples were collected 2-3 days prior to the harvest time and were correlated to the adjacent NDVI and SAVI, where yield prediction algorithms were developed and used to generate prediction yield maps. Results of the study revealed that the difference between predicted yield values and actual ones (prediction error) ranged between 7.9 and 13.5% for Landsat-8 images and between 3.8 and 10.2% for Sentinel-2 images. The relationship between actual and predicted yield values produced R2 values ranging between 0.39 and 0.65 for Landsat-8 images and between 0.47 and 0.65 for Sentinel-2 images. Results of this study revealed a considerable variation in field productivity across the three fields, where high-yield areas produced an average yield of above 40 t ha-1; while, the low-yield areas produced, on the average, less than 21 t ha-1. Identifying such great variation in field productivity will assist farmers and decision makers in managing their practices.

  12. 78 FR 24981 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Committee's monetary reserve would be adequate to cover the recommended $37,400 budget for 2013-2014. Funds... times of Committee meetings are available from the Committee or USDA. Committee meetings are open to the... Committee reports that 11,018,670 hundredweight of Washington potatoes were shipped into the fresh...

  13. The rise and fall of the Phytophthora infestans lineage that triggered the Irish potato famine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is a plant pathogen of historical dimension that remains one of the world’s most destructive crop diseases. Ever since its first global outbreak of the 1840s that culminated in the Great Famine in Ireland, late blight has been a majo...

  14. The genome sequence of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes, a distinct lineage of fungus-like eukaryotes that are related to photosynthetic organisms such as brown algae and diatoms. Here, we report the genome sequence of P. infestans. The ~240 Mb genome...

  15. Changing Ploidy as a Strategy: The Irish Potato Famine Pathogen Shifts Ploidy in Relation to Its Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Shen, He; Zhou, Qian; Qian, Kun; van der Lee, Theo; Huang, Sanwen

    2017-01-01

    The oomycete Phytophthora infestans was the causal agent of the Irish Great Famine and is a recurring threat to global food security. The pathogen can reproduce both sexually and asexually, with high potential to adapt to various environments and great risk to break disease resistance genes in potato. As are other oomycetes, P. infestans is regarded to be diploid during the vegetative phase of its life cycle, although some studies reported trisomy and polyploidy. Using microsatellite fingerprinting, genome-wide assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms, nuclear DNA quantification, and microscopic counting of chromosome numbers, we assessed the ploidy level of a comprehensive selection of isolates. All progenies from sexual populations of P. infestans in nature were found to be diploid, in contrast nearly all dominant asexual lineages, including the most important pandemic clonal lineages US-1 and 13_A2 were triploid. Such triploids possess significantly more allelic variation than diploids. We observed that triploid genotype can change to a diploid genome constitution when exposed to artificial stress conditions. This study reveals that fluctuations in the ploidy level may be a key factor in the adaptation process of this notorious plant destroyer and imposes an extra challenge to control this disease.

  16. 76 FR 48713 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Modifications of the Rules and Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... handlers while allowing the industry the opportunity to continue exploring alternative marketing strategies... / Tuesday, August 9, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim rule as final rule....

  17. 78 FR 69985 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Decreased Assessment Rate for Area No. 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... citizens to access Government information and services, and for other purposes. USDA has not identified any... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... above. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sue Coleman, Marketing Specialist, or Gary D. Olson,...

  18. Trade-offs and evolution of thermal adaptation in the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Na; Zhu, Wen; Wu, E-Jiao; Yang, Ce; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J; Jin, Li-Ping; Shang, Li-Ping; Zhan, Jiasui

    2016-08-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental parameters with crucial impacts on nearly all biological processes. Due to anthropogenic activity, average air temperatures are expected to increase by a few degrees in coming decades, accompanied by an increased occurrence of extreme temperature events. Such global trends are likely to have various major impacts on human society through their influence on natural ecosystems, food production and biotic interactions, including diseases. In this study, we used a combination of statistical genetics, experimental evolution and common garden experiments to investigate the evolutionary potential for thermal adaptation in the potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and infer its likely response to changing temperatures. We found a trade-off associated with thermal adaptation to heterogeneous environments in P. infestans, with the degree of the trade-off peaking approximately at the pathogen's optimum growth temperature. A genetic trade-off in thermal adaptation was also evidenced by the negative association between a strain's growth rate and its thermal range for growth, and warm climates selecting for a low pathogen growth rate. We also found a mirror effect of phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation on growth rate. At below the optimum, phenotypic plasticity enhances pathogen's growth rate but nature selects for slower growing genotypes when temperature increases. At above the optimum, phenotypic plasticity reduces pathogen's growth rate but natural selection favours for faster growing genotypes when temperature increases further. We conclude from these findings that the growth rate of P. infestans will only be marginally affected by global warming.

  19. 78 FR 43827 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Modoc and Siskiyou Counties, California, and in All Counties in Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... that the order is no longer an effective marketing tool for the Oregon- California potato industry, and... conclude that the order is no longer an effective marketing tool. Termination would relieve the industry of... order is no longer an effective marketing tool for the Oregon-California potato industry. Evidence...

  20. Degradation of the potato glycoalkaloid alpha-solanine in three agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pia H; Pedersen, Rasmus B; Svensmark, Bo; Strobel, Bjarne W; Jacobsen, Ole Stig; Hansen, Hans Christian B

    2009-08-01

    The toxic glycoalkaloids produced by the potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) have previously been found in upper soil from a potato field during several months. Further insight into the fate of the glycoalkaloids is needed, as only little information about their degradation in soil is available. Degradation of the glycoalkaloid, alpha-solanine, has been followed for 42d in three agricultural soils with common texture and carbon contents. A similar degradation pattern was found in all soils, and the kinetics was well described by a sum of two first-order equations. Overall, degradation rates for the initial first reaction were in the range 0.22-1.64d(-1). Estimated half-lives were in the range 1.8-4.1d for the three top soils at 15 degrees C; the fastest degradation was observed in the sandy soil. The major proportion of alpha-solanine in the sandy soil was degraded by the fast process, while the proportion was lower for the two other soils. Fast degradation appeared to be related to the presence of low amount of sorbents. Additionally, degradation was followed at 5 degrees C in A- and C-horizon soil from the sandy location, and for both horizons the half-lives were of similar length (4.7-8.7d). For the slow process, degradation rates were in the range 0.000-0.123d(-1), and residuals were still present in all soils and all temperatures at the end of the experiment (d 42). Overall, fast degradation was found in both top- and subsoil even at low temperatures, and the risk for alpha-solanine leaching to the groundwater appears to be low.

  1. A Brief History of the Potato in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on the potato in Ireland focusing on how the potato arrived in Ireland and the advantages and disadvantages of the potato as a food crop. Discusses the Irish potato famine in Ireland, effects of the famine, and the government's laissez-faire response. Includes a list of questions. (CMK)

  2. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  3. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  4. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  5. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  6. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  7. The Great Irish Famine. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, James

    Between 1845 and 1850, more than a million Irish starved to death while massive quantities of food were being exported from their country. A half million were evicted from their homes during the potato blight. A million and a half emigrated to the United States, Britain, and Australia, often on board rotting, overcrowded "coffin ships."…

  8. Effect of low-temperature long-time and high-temperature short-time blanching and frying treatments on the French fry quality of six Irish potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ngobese, Nomali Ziphorah; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Siwela, Muthulisi

    2017-02-01

    Processing conditions are an important determinant of French fry quality. However, the effect of low-temperature long-time (LTLT) and high-temperature short-time (HTST) blanching and frying treatments has not been investigated in many cultivars. The current study investigates the effect of the sequential application of these treatments on French fries processed from six Irish potato cultivars (Fianna, Innovator, Mondial, Navigator, Panamera and Savanna). Blanching was effected at 75 °C for 10 min or 85 °C for 5 min and frying was effected at 160 °C for 2 min or 180 °C for 1 min. These treatments resulted in significant differences in the quality of the fries across the cultivars. The blanching treatments had a greater impact on the French fry quality than the frying treatments. LTLT blanching resulted in lower oil (12-13% fresh mass basis [fmb]), and higher protein (3.5-4.3% fmb) and mineral content in the French fries processed from Innovator, compared to HTST blanching. This was accompanied by a crispier crust, which required a greater puncture force (1.2-2.1 N) for penetration. Blanching with the LTLT treatment before HTST frying resulted in French fries that were the most acceptable to consumers and these were from Fianna, Innovator and Mondial. The current study demonstrates that the effect of French fry processing conditions is cultivar-dependent.

  9. Extract of Irish potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) decreases body weight gain and adiposity and improves glucose control in the mouse model of diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Kubow, Stan; Hobson, Luc; Iskandar, Michèle M; Sabally, Kebba; Donnelly, Danielle J; Agellon, Luis B

    2014-11-01

    Both sexes of mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks without and with polyphenolic-rich potato extracts (PRPE) of cultivars Onaway and Russet Burbank. PRPE attenuated weight gain in male and female mice by as much as 63.2%, which was associated mostly with a reduction in adiposity. Mice receiving PRPE showed enhanced capacity for blood glucose clearance. Sex differences regarding the impact of HFD and PRPE on plasma levels of insulin, ghrelin, leptin, gastric inhibitory peptide, and resistin were noted. PRPE may serve as part of a preventative dietary strategy against the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  10. The potato in Ireland's evolving agrarian landscape and agri-food system.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, Alice

    2010-01-01

    The scale, structure and impacts of food systems in Ireland have changed dramatically over the last several hundred years, predominantly since the mechanisation and intensification of farming began in the late nineteenth century. The transformation of the potato production system, which for the preceding century had dominated the Irish diet, was particularly dramatic. The time from the introduction of the potato c. 1600 to its catastrophic decline in the mid-1800s, represented a period of Irish agriculture distinctly at odds with what came before and after, involving as it did complete dependence on a single crop system. Despite devastating crop losses suffered in the nineteenth century and particularly associated with the Great Famine, the potato remained agriculturally significant in Ireland. From the late 1800s onwards the system underwent a transition towards the highly mechanised, specialised, intensive and market-oriented agri-industrial food systems of today. This new high input-high output system was accompanied by an expansion in environmental impacts extending from local to global scales. This article addresses that transition in the role and impacts of the potato in Ireland, from its introduction to the present day.

  11. Structural Basis of Host Autophagy-related Protein 8 (ATG8) Binding by the Irish Potato Famine Pathogen Effector Protein PexRD54*♦

    PubMed Central

    Tregidgo, Nicholas; Zess, Erin; Belhaj, Khaoula

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous plant pathogens deliver effector proteins to host cells to promote infection. The Phytophthora infestans RXLR-type effector PexRD54 binds potato ATG8 via its ATG8 family-interacting motif (AIM) and perturbs host-selective autophagy. However, the structural basis of this interaction remains unknown. Here, we define the crystal structure of PexRD54, which includes a modular architecture, including five tandem repeat domains, with the AIM sequence presented at the disordered C terminus. To determine the interface between PexRD54 and ATG8, we solved the crystal structure of potato ATG8CL in complex with a peptide comprising the effector's AIM sequence, and we established a model of the full-length PexRD54-ATG8CL complex using small angle x-ray scattering. Structure-informed deletion of the PexRD54 tandem domains reveals retention of ATG8CL binding in vitro and in planta. This study offers new insights into structure/function relationships of oomycete RXLR effectors and how these proteins engage with host cell targets to promote disease. PMID:27458016

  12. Agricultural Extension Messages Using Video on Portable Devices Increased Knowledge about Seed Selection, Storage and Handling among Smallholder Potato Farmers in Southwestern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Vandevelde, Senne; Walukano, Wilberforce; Van Asten, Piet

    2017-01-01

    To feed a growing population, agricultural productivity needs to increase dramatically. Agricultural extension information, with its public, non-rival nature, is generally undersupplied, and public provision remains challenging. In this study, simple agricultural extension video messages, delivered through Android tablets, were tested in the field to determine if they increased farmers' knowledge of recommended practices on (i) potato seed selection and (ii) seed storage and handling among a sample of potato farmers in southwestern Uganda. Using a field experiment with ex ante matching in a factorial design, it was established that showing agricultural extension videos significantly increased farmers' knowledge. However, results suggested impact pathways that went beyond simply replicating what was shown in the video. Video messages may have triggered a process of abstraction, whereby farmers applied insights gained in one context to a different context.

  13. Agricultural Extension Messages Using Video on Portable Devices Increased Knowledge about Seed Selection, Storage and Handling among Smallholder Potato Farmers in Southwestern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Vandevelde, Senne; Walukano, Wilberforce; Van Asten, Piet

    2017-01-01

    To feed a growing population, agricultural productivity needs to increase dramatically. Agricultural extension information, with its public, non-rival nature, is generally undersupplied, and public provision remains challenging. In this study, simple agricultural extension video messages, delivered through Android tablets, were tested in the field to determine if they increased farmers’ knowledge of recommended practices on (i) potato seed selection and (ii) seed storage and handling among a sample of potato farmers in southwestern Uganda. Using a field experiment with ex ante matching in a factorial design, it was established that showing agricultural extension videos significantly increased farmers’ knowledge. However, results suggested impact pathways that went beyond simply replicating what was shown in the video. Video messages may have triggered a process of abstraction, whereby farmers applied insights gained in one context to a different context. PMID:28122005

  14. The plant pathogen Phytophthora andina emerged via hybridization of an unknown Phytophthora species and the Irish potato famine pathogen, P. infestans.

    PubMed

    Goss, Erica M; Cardenas, Martha E; Myers, Kevin; Forbes, Gregory A; Fry, William E; Restrepo, Silvia; Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2011-01-01

    Emerging plant pathogens have largely been a consequence of the movement of pathogens to new geographic regions. Another documented mechanism for the emergence of plant pathogens is hybridization between individuals of different species or subspecies, which may allow rapid evolution and adaptation to new hosts or environments. Hybrid plant pathogens have traditionally been difficult to detect or confirm, but the increasing ease of cloning and sequencing PCR products now makes the identification of species that consistently have genes or alleles with phylogenetically divergent origins relatively straightforward. We investigated the genetic origin of Phytophthora andina, an increasingly common pathogen of Andean crops Solanum betaceum, S. muricatum, S. quitoense, and several wild Solanum spp. It has been hypothesized that P. andina is a hybrid between the potato late blight pathogen P. infestans and another Phytophthora species. We tested this hypothesis by cloning four nuclear loci to obtain haplotypes and using these loci to infer the phylogenetic relationships of P. andina to P. infestans and other related species. Sequencing of cloned PCR products in every case revealed two distinct haplotypes for each locus in P. andina, such that each isolate had one allele derived from a P. infestans parent and a second divergent allele derived from an unknown species that is closely related but distinct from P. infestans, P. mirabilis, and P. ipomoeae. To the best of our knowledge, the unknown parent has not yet been collected. We also observed sequence polymorphism among P. andina isolates at three of the four loci, many of which segregate between previously described P. andina clonal lineages. These results provide strong support that P. andina emerged via hybridization between P. infestans and another unknown Phytophthora species also belonging to Phytophthora clade 1c.

  15. Achieving sustainable cultivation of potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Every phase of the production cycle impacts the sustainability of potato. Potato physiology determines how genetically encoded developmental attributes interact with local environmental conditions as modified through agricultural practice to produce a perishable crop. In this chapter we highlight ho...

  16. Potatoes and Trout: Maintaining Robust Agriculture and a Healthy Trout Fishery in the Central Sands of Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienen, M. N.; Bradbury, K. R.; Kniffin, M.; Barlow, P. M.; Krause, J.; Westenbroek, S.; Leaf, A.

    2015-12-01

    The well-drained sandy soil in the Wisconsin Central Sands is ideal for growing potatoes, corn, and other vegetables. A shallow sand and gravel aquifer provides abundant water for agricultural irrigation but also supplies critical base flow to cold-water trout streams. These needs compete with one another, and stakeholders from various perspectives are collaborating to seek solutions. Stakeholders were engaged in providing and verifying data to guide construction of a groundwater flow model which was used with linear and sequential linear programming to evaluate optimal tradeoffs between agricultural pumping and ecologically based minimum base flow values. The connection between individual irrigation wells as well as industrial and municipal supply and streamflow depletion can be evaluated using the model. Rather than addressing 1000s of wells individually, a variety of well management groups were established through k-means clustering. These groups are based on location, potential impact, water-use categories, depletion potential, and other factors. Through optimization, pumping rates were reduced to attain mandated minimum base flows. This formalization enables exploration of possible solutions for the stakeholders, and provides a tool which is transparent and forms a basis for discussion and negotiation.

  17. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.; Newhouse, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    Remote sensing studies in Virginia and Chesapeake Bay areas to investigate soil and plant conditions via remote sensing technology are reported ant the results given. Remote sensing techniques and interactions are also discussed. Specific studies on the effects of soil moisture and organic matter on energy reflection of extensively occurring Sassafras soils are discussed. Greenhouse and field studies investigating the effects of chlorophyll content of Irish potatoes on infrared reflection are presented. Selected ground truth and environmental monitoring data are shown in summary form. Practical demonstrations of remote sensing technology in agriculture are depicted and future use areas are delineated.

  18. Potato agriculture, late blight science, and the molecularization of plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Turner, R Steven

    2008-01-01

    By the mid-1980s nucleic-acid based methods were penetrating the farthest reaches of biological science, triggering rivalries among practitioners, altering relationships among subfields, and transforming the research front. This article delivers a "bottom up" analysis of that transformation at work in one important area of biological science, plant pathology, by tracing the "molecularization" of efforts to understand and control one notorious plant disease -- the late blight of potatoes. It mobilizes the research literature of late blight science as a tool through which to trace the changing typography of the research front from 1983 to 2003. During these years molecularization intensified the traditional fragmentation of the late blight research community, even as it dramatically integrated study of the causal organism into broader areas of biology. In these decades the pathogen responsible for late blight, the oomycete "Phytophthora infestans," was discovered to be undergoing massive, frightening, and still largely unexplained genetic diversification -- a circumstance that lends the episode examined here an urgency that reinforces its historiographical significance as a case-study in the molecularization of the biological sciences.

  19. Genetically biodiverse potato cultivars grown on a suitable agricultural soil under compost amendment or mineral fertilization: yield, quality, genetic and epigenetic variations, soil properties.

    PubMed

    Cicatelli, Angela; Baldantoni, Daniela; Iovieno, Paola; Carotenuto, Maurizio; Alfani, Anna; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

    2014-09-15

    The use of compost for soil amendment is a promising agricultural practice environmentally and economically viable. In the framework of a wide research project designed to evaluate the effects of soil amendment with municipal solid waste compost in comparison with traditional mineral fertilization practices, 54 different cultivars (Cvs) of potatoes were AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) molecularly fingerprinted. The seven most genetically biodiverse potato Cvs were used to establish an experimental field in southern Italy. The field area was divided into two portions fertilized with compost (20 Mg ha(-1)) or with ammonium sulphate (200 kg ha(-1)). No significant differences in productivity, organoleptic characteristics and element concentrations were observed between the potato tubers obtained with both kinds of soil fertilization, while the tubers grown on compost amended soil showed, on average, higher K concentrations with respect to those grown on mineral fertilised soil. cDNA-AFLP (complementary DNA-AFLP) and MSAP (methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism) analyses were carried out on both leaves and tubers of one selected Cv to estimate if any transcriptome alterations or epigenetic modifications were induced by the two kinds of fertilization, however no variations were detected. Chemical and biological soil qualities (i.e., microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis, alkaline and acid phosphatase) were assessed on soil samples at the start of the experiment and at the end of potato crop cycle. No significant differences in soil pH and limited ones, in the available fraction of some trace elements, were observed; while conductivity was much higher for the compost amended portion of the experimental field. Microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis and acid phosphatase activities were significantly increased by compost amendment, in comparison with mineral fertilization. Finally, a sensory panel of potato Cvs detected no significant differences among

  20. Evaluation of the impact of various agricultural practices on nitrate leaching under the root zone of potato and sugar beet using the STICS soil-crop model.

    PubMed

    Jégo, G; Martínez, M; Antigüedad, I; Launay, M; Sanchez-Pérez, J M; Justes, E

    2008-05-15

    The quaternary aquifer of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country, Northern Spain) is characterised by a shallow water table mainly fed by drainage water, and thus constitutes a vulnerable zone in regards to nitrate pollution. Field studies were performed with a potato crop in 1993 and a sugar beet crop in 2002 to evaluate their impact on nitrate leaching. The overall predictive quality of the STICS soil-crop model was first evaluated using field data and then the model was used to analyze dynamically the impacts of different crop management practices on nitrate leaching. The model was evaluated (i) on soil nitrate concentrations at different depths and (ii) on crop yields. The simulated values proved to be in satisfactory agreement with measured values. Nitrate leaching was more pronounced with the potato crop than with the sugar beet experiment due to i) greater precipitation, ii) lower N uptake of the potato crop due to shallow root depth, and iii) a shorter period of growth. The potato experiment showed that excessive irrigation could significantly increase nitrate leaching by increasing both drainage and nitrate concentrations. The different levels of N-fertilization examined in the sugar beet study had no notable effects on nitrate leaching due to its high N uptake capacity. Complementary virtual experiments were carried out using the STICS model. Our study confirmed that in vulnerable zones agricultural practices must be adjusted, that is to say: 1) N-fertilizer should not be applied in autumn before winter crops; 2) crops with low N uptake capacity (e.g. potatoes) should be avoided or should be preceded and followed by nitrogen catch crops or cover crops; 3) the nitrate concentration of irrigation water should be taken into account in calculation of the N-fertilization rate, and 4) N-fertilization must be precisely adjusted in particular for potato crops.

  1. 75 FR 1269 - Vegetable Import Regulations; Modification of Potato Import Regulations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 980 Vegetable Import Regulations; Modification of Potato Import Regulations; Correction... rule modified the import regulations for Irish potatoes and made minor administrative changes to the potato, onion, and tomato import regulations to update informational references. This document...

  2. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  3. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  4. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  5. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  6. Irish Studies Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Keith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Preface" (Keith Gregor); "Cultural Nationalism and the Irish Literary Revival" (David Pierce); "Transitions in Irish Miscellanies between 1923 and 1940" (Malcom Ballin); "Born into the Troubles: Deirdre Madden's 'Hidden Symptoms'" (Tamara Benito de la…

  7. Some Issues Regarding Irish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Patrick J.

    1995-01-01

    A number of issues concerning revival and maintenance of the Irish language are discussed. First, it is found that public attitudes about language use in Ireland, outwardly positive toward revival of Irish usage but not carried through in mass media or education, reflect considerable ambiguity. Linguistic stewardship of the language has been…

  8. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section 948.151 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  9. Exploring Coverage of the 2008 Irish Dioxin Crisis in the Irish and UK Newsprint Media.

    PubMed

    De Brún, Aoife; Shan, Liran; Regan, Áine; McConnon, Áine; Wall, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    The 2008 dioxin crisis occurred as a result of contamination of Irish pork. The event had significant implications for Ireland's economy and the reputation of its agricultural industry, as well as raising concerns for human health. This study describes the results of a content analysis of Irish and UK newspaper coverage of the 2008 Irish dioxin crisis, as this is likely to provide insight into how public perceptions of this issue were shaped. Articles from 16 print publications were systematically sampled for the period December 2008 to February 2009. The resulting data set of 141 articles was examined using a coding protocol developed based on previous research and refined during piloting. Results indicated that the dioxin crisis was primarily portrayed by the media as an industry/economic crisis, dominant in 26.9% of articles in the sample. Within this dominant portrayal, the agricultural industry was frequently cited as being in crisis (42.6%); however, the implications of the crisis on the wider economic environment also received attention (17.7%). Differences between Irish and UK-based media were also examined, revealing that while the Irish media most frequently described the crisis in terms of its impact on the industry and economy, the UK media were more likely to portray the crisis as a risk to health. These dominant media messages and message framings have implications for the public understanding of the issue in each country and potential consequences regarding perception of the adequacy of existing food policy and regulatory oversight.

  10. Exploring the benefits of growing bioenergy crops to activate lead-contaminated agricultural land: a case study on sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu-Fen; Huang, Chin-Yuan; Chen, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Sheng-Chien; Lin, Yung-Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Phytoremediation is the most environmentally friendly remediation technology for heavy metal contaminated soil. However, the phytoremediation approach requires a long time to yield results, and the plants used must be economically profitable to maintain the sustainability of the process. Because high levels of bioethanol can be produced from sweet potatoes, an experiment was conducted by planting sweet potatoes in a lead-contaminated site to observe their growth and lead-uptake capacity, thereby enabling the evaluation of the phytoremediation efficiency of sweet potatoes. The lead content in the soil was approximately 6000 mg kg(-1), and the phytoavailable Pb content was 1766 mg kg(-1). Three starch-rich sweet potato varieties, Tainung No. 10 (TNG-10), Tainung No. 31 (TNG-31), and Tainung No. 57 (TNG-57), were used in the experiment. The results indicated that TNG-10, TNG-31, and TNG-57 had fresh root tuber yields of 94.5, 133.0, and 47.5 ton ha(-1) year(-1), produced 9450, 13,297, and 4748 L ha(-1) year(-1) of bioethanol, and removed 2.68, 7.73, and 3.22 kg ha(-1) year(-1) of lead, respectively. TNG-31 yielded the highest bioethanol production and the highest lead removal in the lead-contaminated site. Therefore, implementing phytoremediation by planting TNG-31 would decrease lead content and generate income, thereby rendering the sustainable and applicable activation of contaminated soil possible.

  11. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  12. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  13. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade...

  18. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades...

  20. 7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318.13... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-25 Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (a) Sweet potatoes may be... 5 Sweet potatoes may also be moved interstate from Hawaii with irradiation in accordance with §...

  1. Reawakening the Irish Language through the Irish Education System: Challenges and Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ó Ceallaigh, T. J.; Ní Dhonnabháin, Áine

    2015-01-01

    As a language, Irish is unique to Ireland and is, therefore, of crucial importance to the identity of the Irish people, to Irish culture and to world heritage. The Irish language however has had a turbulent and traumatic history and has endured a complex and varied relationship with the Irish people. Since the foundation of the Irish Free State,…

  2. [Accidents affecting potato harvesters].

    PubMed

    Hansen, J U

    1993-09-27

    During industrialization in agriculture, many farming machines have been introduced. It is well-known that farming is a dangerous workplace and that farm machinery cause many serious accidents every year. Four cases of accidents with potato harvesters are discussed. In three of four cases the farmers were injured while cleaning the machine without stopping it, which probably was the main cause of the accidents. Farmers are in general not careful enough when using farm machinery. Every year, farmers in Denmark are severely invalided in accidents with potato harvesters. A strategy to lower the accidents is proposed: 1. Information of farmers, farmer schools, machine constructors and importers about mechanisms of injury. 2. A better education of farmers in using potato harvesters (and other farming machines). 3. Better fencing of the potato harvesters. 4. If possibly constructional changes in the potato harvesters so things will not get stuck, or so that the machine will stop if things stuck. 5. Installation of switches on potato harvesters, which can be reached from all positions, stopping the machines immediately, or a remote switch control carried by the farmer.

  3. Injuries in Irish dance.

    PubMed

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury.

  4. Foreward: The Great Irish Famine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Maureen; Singer, Alan; Miletta, Maureen McCann; Singer, Judith Y.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the lessons offered in this issue of "Middle Level Learning" that are based on the materials prepared for the New York State Great Irish Famine curriculum guide in honor of the 150th anniversary of the worst year (1847) of the Great Irish Famine. (CMK)

  5. 76 FR 31787 - United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 51 United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule revises the United States.... The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the similar varietal characteristic...

  6. Potato Flavor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato is one of the most popular vegetables worldwide and is the most important vegetable crop in the United States, accounting for nearly one-third of per-capita vegetable consumption. Potatoes can be prepared in many ways, including baking, boiling, roasting, frying, and microwaving, allowin...

  7. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  8. The other "Irish question".

    PubMed

    Browne, H

    1992-05-01

    The influence of the Roman Catholic Church on Irish society makes it difficult for sex and health educators and HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. Divorce, abortion, consensual sex between consenting adult men, and contraception for those under 18 years is banned in Ireland. Public opinions and recent court decisions do appear to bring a measure of hope for more lenient attitudes. The trends vary from the recent Supreme Court case of the 14-year old rape victim being permitted an abortion because she was suicidal to a radio talk show host, Father Michael Cleary who suspected she was "set-up" to test the ban on abortion. Father Cleary also outraged health educators by stating inaccurately that condoms did not prevent AIDS. It is estimated that 500 Irish women have abortions each year in Britain; there have been 262 reported AIDS cases and estimates of up to 10,000 HIV infected out of a population of 3.5 million. An AIDS education campaign was mounted in 1987, but in the 37-minute Department of Health video only 1 minute was devoted to condoms and no sex was promoted as the only safe sex. Access is limited to consenting pharmacies and clinics for people 18 years of older; rural chemists may exercise discretion and refuse sales. In 1991, the government proposed lowering the age to 17 years for condom availability and assigning the regional health boards, the responsibility of determining who sells contraceptives. A university lecturer reported that inaction on this bill was close to "criminal inactivity." Challenges in February 1991 were made by the Irish Family Planning Association (IFPA) in setting up a condom sales kiosk in Dublin. The IFPA was fined, but opinion polls indicated that 57% supported condom availability for 16 year olds. On Valentines Day in 1992, condom vending machines, which are illegal, were installed in pubs and nightclubs, police action has been cautious. A new health minister is concerned about AIDS prevention and the republic's first woman President

  9. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  10. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  11. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  12. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  13. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  14. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  15. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  16. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  17. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  18. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  19. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  20. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been...

  1. Ozone risk assessment for agricultural crops in Europe: Further development of stomatal flux and flux-response relationships for European wheat and potato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleijel, H.; Danielsson, H.; Emberson, L.; Ashmore, M. R.; Mills, G.

    Applications of a parameterised Jarvis-type multiplicative stomatal conductance model with data collated from open-top chamber experiments on field grown wheat and potato were used to derive relationships between relative yield and stomatal ozone uptake. The relationships were based on thirteen experiments from four European countries for wheat and seven experiments from four European countries for potato. The parameterisation of the conductance model was based both on an extensive literature review and primary data. Application of the stomatal conductance models to the open-top chamber experiments resulted in improved linear regressions between relative yield and ozone uptake compared to earlier stomatal conductance models, both for wheat ( r2=0.83) and potato ( r2=0.76). The improvement was largest for potato. The relationships with the highest correlation were obtained using a stomatal ozone flux threshold. For both wheat and potato the best performing exposure index was AF st6 (accumulated stomatal flux of ozone above a flux rate threshold of 6 nmol ozone m -2 projected sunlit leaf area, based on hourly values of ozone flux). The results demonstrate that flux-based models are now sufficiently well calibrated to be used with confidence to predict the effects of ozone on yield loss of major arable crops across Europe. Further studies, using innovations in stomatal conductance modelling and plant exposure experimentation, are needed if these models are to be further improved.

  2. Memristors: Memory elements in potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Blockmon, Avery L; Volkova, Maya I

    2015-01-01

    A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. This element was postulated recently and researchers are looking for it in different biosystems. We investigated electrical circuitry of red Irish potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). The goal was to discover if potato tubers might have a new electrical component - a resistor with memory. The analysis was based on a cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the potato tubers with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of potato tubers has properties of a memristor. Uncoupler carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decreases the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  3. Memristors: Memory elements in potato tubers

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Blockmon, Avery L; Volkova, Maya I

    2015-01-01

    A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. This element was postulated recently and researchers are looking for it in different biosystems. We investigated electrical circuitry of red Irish potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). The goal was to discover if potato tubers might have a new electrical component - a resistor with memory. The analysis was based on a cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the potato tubers with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K+ channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of potato tubers has properties of a memristor. Uncoupler carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decreases the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:26237427

  4. 7 CFR 945.16 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... type of receptacle used in the packaging, transportation, sale, or other handling of potatoes....

  5. 7 CFR 945.11 - Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Committee. Committee means the administrative committee, called the Idaho-Eastern Oregon Potato...

  6. 7 CFR 945.11 - Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Committee. Committee means the administrative committee, called the Idaho-Eastern Oregon Potato...

  7. 7 CFR 945.11 - Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Committee. Committee means the administrative committee, called the Idaho-Eastern Oregon Potato...

  8. 7 CFR 945.11 - Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Committee. Committee means the administrative committee, called the Idaho-Eastern Oregon Potato...

  9. 7 CFR 945.16 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... type of receptacle used in the packaging, transportation, sale, or other handling of potatoes....

  10. 7 CFR 945.16 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... type of receptacle used in the packaging, transportation, sale, or other handling of potatoes....

  11. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  12. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  13. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  14. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  15. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions...

  16. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.144 Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop...

  17. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.143 Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality...

  18. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.146 Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance...

  19. Exporting Poor Health: The Irish in England

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Liam; Fernihough, Alan; Smith, James P

    2013-01-01

    The Irish-born population in England typically were in worse health than both the native population and the Irish population in Ireland, a reversal of the commonly observed healthy migrant effect (HIE). Recent birth-cohorts living in England and born in Ireland, however, are healthier than the English population. The substantial Irish migrant health penalty arises principally for cohorts born between 1920 and 1960. This paper attempts to understand the processes that generated these changing migrant health patterns for Irish migrants to England. Our results suggest a strong role for economic selection in driving the dynamics of health differences between the Irish-born migrants and White English populations. PMID:24014181

  20. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., ME 04767 (PH 207-764-2100) 1 Port of Boston, MA In-Charge, Boston Market Terminal Building, Room 1, 34 Market Street, Everett, MA 02149 (PH 617-389-2480) 1 Port of New York, NY In-Charge, 465B New York City Terminal Market, Bronx, NY 10474 (PH 718-991-7665) 1 Port of Philadelphia, PA In-Charge,...

  1. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Office, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS, U.S. Department of... Order Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS, USDA, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW... Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS, USDA; Telephone: (503) 326-2724, Fax: (503)...

  2. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  3. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends

    PubMed Central

    Ijah, Udeme Joshua Josiah; Aduloju, Mercy Oluwayemisi; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet) flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability) were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%) blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100%) while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100%) and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10%) aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%), and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5%) was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling. PMID:26904642

  4. Tonal Alignment in Irish Dialects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Martha; Ni Chasaide, Ailbhe

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of the contour alignment of nuclear and initial prenuclear accents was carried out for the Irish dialects of Gaoth Dobhair in Ulster (GD-U) and Cois Fharraige in Connaught (CF-C). This was done across conditions where the number of unstressed syllables following the nuclear and preceding the initial prenuclear accents was varied from…

  5. Diversity of potato genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Machida-Hirano, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    A considerable number of highly diverse species exist in genus Solanum. Because they can adapt to a broad range of habitats, potato wild relatives are promising sources of desirable agricultural traits. Potato taxonomy is quite complex because of introgression, interspecific hybridization, auto- and allopolyploidy, sexual compatibility among many species, a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction, possible recent species divergence, phenotypic plasticity, and the consequent high morphological similarity among species. Recent researchers using molecular tools have contributed to the identification of genes controlling several types of resistance as well as to the revision of taxonomical relationships among potato species. Historically, primitive forms of cultivated potato and its wild relatives have been used in breeding programs and there is still an enormous and unimaginable potential for discovering desirable characteristics, particularly in wild species Different methods have been developed to incorporate useful alleles from these wild species into the improved cultivars. Potato germplasm comprising of useful alleles for different breeding objectives is preserved in various gene banks worldwide. These materials, with their invaluable information, are accessible for research and breeding purposes. Precise identification of species base on the new taxonomy is essential for effective use of the germplasm collection. PMID:25931978

  6. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Platygastroidea

    PubMed Central

    Buhl, Peter N.; Notton, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised checklist of the British and Irish Platygastroidea (Platygastridae) substantially updates the previous comprehensive checklist, dating from 1978. Distribution data (i.e. occurrence in England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and the Isle of Man) is reported where known. New information A total of 381 British and Irish Platygastroidea represents a 47% increase on the number of British and Irish species reported in 1978. PMID:27279762

  7. In search of the history of Irish psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Nolan, P; Sheridan, A

    2001-01-01

    Based on a paper given at the Cinderella Services conference at South Bank University, London, in April 2001, this paper explores the origins and development of the asylum system in Ireland, and traces the relationship between the politics and practice of mental health care. The role of the attendants is illuminated in so far as the limited primary source material allows. Although some aspects of the history of Irish mental health services have been subject to scholarship, psychiatric nursing is an area that has not. In particular, very little attention has been paid to the role that attendants and asylum nurses played in the Irish asylum system, especially during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The government constructed an extensive network of asylums and workhouses to deal with the growing numbers of mentally disordered and impoverished people. Irish asylum nurses tended to come from rural stock, and have agricultural skills; they were able to communicate with patients in either English or Gaelic. They were encouraged to impart to patients skills that would permit them to find employment or contribute to the upkeep of the asylum.

  8. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  9. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  10. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  11. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  12. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  13. 75 FR 14491 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1207 Potato Research and Promotion Plan AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Potato Research and Promotion plan regulations to reflect the modification of the Harmonized Tariff...: Deborah Simmons, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs,...

  14. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205)...

  15. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205)...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205)...

  17. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205)...

  18. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a) A producer who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205)...

  19. Adult Education and the Irish Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Sexton

    2004-01-01

    The Irish Economy is at an interesting and dynamic phase of its development and people are faced with major decisions that will impact on the Irish society for many years to come. These decisions are and must be made by all who are in a position to influence. Economic evolution or revolution is not new and is most certainly not new to these…

  20. Flexibility in Higher Education: An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Marie; McGarr, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Irish public policy strongly promotes greater flexibility in higher education. This review paper examines Irish policy conceptualisations of flexible learning. The review finds that the promotion of flexible learning is positioned within strongly economistic discourses of lifelong learning, and primarily in human capital terms of meeting the…

  1. Engineering Research in Irish Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the main findings and recommendations of a report published in December 2010 by the Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE). The report, representing the views of a committee of distinguished Irish engineers from a wide range of disciplines, addresses the role of engineering research in Ireland's economic development and the…

  2. 78 FR 30737 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Office, Marketing Order and Agreement Division, Fruit and Vegetable Program, AMS, USDA; Telephone: (503... Order and Agreement Division, Fruit and Vegetable Program, AMS, USDA, 1400 Independence Avenue SW., STOP... complying with fruit, vegetable, and specialty crop marketing agreements and orders may be viewed at:...

  3. Potato production in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  4. 7 CFR 945.8 - Handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Handler is synonymous with shipper and means any person (except a common or contract carrier of potatoes owned by another person) who ships potatoes....

  5. 7 CFR 945.8 - Handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Handler is synonymous with shipper and means any person (except a common or contract carrier of potatoes owned by another person) who ships potatoes....

  6. 7 CFR 945.8 - Handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Handler is synonymous with shipper and means any person (except a common or contract carrier of potatoes owned by another person) who ships potatoes....

  7. 7 CFR 945.8 - Handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Handler is synonymous with shipper and means any person (except a common or contract carrier of potatoes owned by another person) who ships potatoes....

  8. Selected References and Irish Curios and Cameos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapham, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Provides a bibliography of literature for young adults and selected references on the Great Irish Famine. Presents hints to six riddles of Ireland and includes the answers to the riddles on page 15 of this issue. (CMK)

  9. On the Teaching of Irish Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Daniel J.

    1974-01-01

    The Irish Republic as a laboratory for teachers of comparative politics has potential in the areas of revolution, culture, economic development, and general problem solving as illustrated by this article and its references. (JH)

  10. Tonal alignment in Irish dialects.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Martha; Chasaide, Ailbhe Ní

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of the contour alignment of nuclear and initial prenuclear accents was carried out for the Irish dialects of Gaoth Dobhair in Ulster (GD-U) and Cois Fharraige in Connaught (CF-C). This was done across conditions where the number of unstressed syllables following the nuclear and preceding the initial prenuclear accents was varied from 2-0. This tests a variable peak hypothesis prompted by findings for other languages, that peak timing drifts as a function of the number of syllables preceding (the prenuclear) and following (the nuclear) accent. These data also test a second hypothesis that the L*+H dominant accent of GD-U might be viewed as being underlyingly the same as the dominant H* or H*+L accent of the CF-C dialect. According to this realignment hypothesis, the difference between these Ulster and Connaught dialects lies in the way that the melodic tier is aligned to the segmental tier: GD-U would be viewed as having a delayed realization of the peak relative to the Connaught dialect. Results do not support the variable peak hypothesis for Irish, as in either dialect, the peak appeared to be rather fixed across the three conditions examined (though not necessarily identical for prenuclear and nuclear positions). The results also militate against the realignment hypothesis, which rather than providing a more simple unifying account, would greatly complicate it. One reason is that there is a peak timing difference between the nuclear and prenuclear accents of CF-C, not mirrored in GD-U. Furthermore, even if one were to limit consideration to a single (e.g., prenuclear) context, a simple realignment of the accents in one dialect does not generate the appropriate contour in the other.

  11. Injury in professional Irish dancers.

    PubMed

    Cahalan, Roisin; O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2013-12-01

    Despite the evolution of Irish dance to professional status in recent decades, only scant investigation of musculoskeletal pain and injury among professional Irish dancers (PIDs) has been undertaken. This study investigated the rate of injury and associated factors among 178 PIDs, using an online questionnaire. One hundred and thirty-seven PIDs (76.7%) reported a previous injury, with the foot (67.9%) and ankle (60.6%) most commonly affected. A mean career rate of 2.25 injuries per dancer was computed. The majority of injuries were minor in nature, and almost half occurred midway through a tour. Sixty subjects (33.7%) reported that they often or always danced in pain. The main contributory factors to injury were accidents, fatigue or overwork, repetitive movements, and unsafe stages. Warm-up (98.8%) and cool-down (84.3%) were almost universally practised, with cross-training engaged in by 124 PIDs (74.7%). Popular treatments used to prevent and manage injuries were massage (N = 137, or 83.0% of PIDs), stretching (N = 117, or 70.1%) and physiotherapy (N = 105, or 62.9%). There was a moderate level of psychological distress among the participants, with "interpersonal difficulties" and "tension with people" the main problems cited. PIDs who were older (p = 0.008) and more experienced (p = 0.002) reported missing a greater number of performances due to injury. There were no other significant relationships between injury and factors, including gender, frequency of dancing in pain, use of warm-up, cool-down, or cross-training. Further prospective studies of PIDs should consider both physical and biopsychosocial elements to generate an appropriate screening process to predict those at risk of injury.

  12. 77 FR 33455 - Bacillus mycoides isolate J; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Potato in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... AGENCY Bacillus mycoides isolate J; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Potato in... the pesticide Bacillus mycoides isolate J to treat up to 2,675 acres of potato to control Potato Virus... Agriculture has requested the Administrator to issue a specific exemption for the use of Bacillus...

  13. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements. (a) Each person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption...

  14. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and... imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption by charitable institutions or distribution...

  15. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements. (a) Each person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption...

  16. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements. (a) Each person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption...

  17. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and maturity requirements. (a) Each person who imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption...

  18. Gene expression regulation of sprout inhibition and water retention genes in potatoes by 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato is the fifth largest agricultural crop in the world and a dietary staple in many cultures. When sprouting, the potato produces the toxin solanine and begins to sweeten, a process that makes the potato undesirable for consumer use. Sprout inhibitors such as 1,4-dimethylnapthalene (DMN) ar...

  19. Transnational Linkages Between the Irish in America and the Irish in Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCready, William C.

    This paper examines the relationship between Irish Americans living in the United States and natives in Ireland. Although there is currently little interest or interaction between Irish Americans and Ireland, relationships can be found. The first part of this paper outlines the historical context of migration from Ireland to the United States.…

  20. The Irish brawn drain: English League clubs and Irish footballers, 1946-1995.

    PubMed

    McGovern, P

    2000-09-01

    This paper draws on world systems and resource dependency theories to show how the changing recruitment practices of English League clubs have deepened the brawn drain from Irish football, thereby compounding its underdevelopment. An analysis of the origins, method of recruitment and destinations of Irish players (North and South) who appeared in the English League between 1946 and 1995 shows that English clubs imported large numbers of Irish players throughout the second half of the twentieth century. However, it was the inclusion of Irish teenagers within the youth policies of the largest clubs in the period after the 1970s that marked a break from the traditional pattern of buyer-supplier relations. Instead of continuing to purchase players who had established reputations within the Irish leagues, English clubs began to hire the most promising schoolboys before they joined Irish sides. As this practice spread, it eventually eliminated a valuable source of income: the selling of players to English clubs. Despite this development it would, however, be inappropriate to view the relationship between the Irish and English football industries as a simple zero sum game as Irish clubs benefit from employing highly trained young players who return home after failing to establish careers in England.

  1. The Irish Sea: Is it eutrophic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowen, R. J.; Tett, P.; Kennington, K.; Mills, D. K.; Shammon, T. M.; Stewart, B. M.; Greenwood, N.; Flanagan, C.; Devlin, M.; Wither, A.

    2008-01-01

    The question of whether the Irish Sea is eutrophic is addressed by reviewing the evidence for anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, elevated phytoplankton production and biomass and undesirable disturbance in the context of the EU and OSPAR definitions of eutrophication. Winter concentrations of dissolved available inorganic phosphate (DAIP), nitrogen (DAIN as nitrate and nitrite) and silicate (Si) in coastal waters and concentrations of DAIP and Si in offshore waters of the Irish Sea are elevated relative to winter Celtic Sea shelf break concentrations (0.5 μM DAIP, 7.7 μM DAIN and 2.7 μM Si). Significant, negative nutrient salinity relationships and analysis of the Isle of Man nutrient time-series indicate that the elevated Irish Sea levels of DAIP and DAIN are the result of anthropogenic enrichment with highest concentrations (≈2.0 μM DAIP, 30 μM DAIN and 17 μM Si) measured in near shore eastern Irish Sea waters. Summer levels of phytoplankton chlorophyll (Chl) range from <0.1 to 11.4 mg m -3 (mean: 3.4 mg m -3) and from <0.1 to 16.4 mg m -3 (mean: 2.2 mg m -3) in coastal and offshore waters of the western Irish Sea, respectively. Offshore eastern Irish Sea summer chlorophyll levels range from 0.3 to 3.8 mg m -3 (mean: 1.8 mg m -3). Higher levels of spring (up to 43.9 mg m -3) and summer (up to 22.7 mg m -3) biomass in Liverpool Bay are attributed to nutrient enrichment. Estimates of spring and summer production in different regions of the Irish Sea are ≤194 g C m -2. The absence of: (a) oxygen depletion in near shore and open waters of the Irish Sea (except the seasonally isolated western Irish Sea bottom water); (b) trends in the frequency of Phaeocystis spp. blooms and occurrence of toxin producing algae; and (c) changes in the dominant life form of pelagic primary producers, point to a lack of undesirable disturbance and hence argue against anthropogenic eutrophication in the Irish Sea. This conclusion is discussed in the context of future trends in

  2. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  3. Irish Speakers in Northern Ireland, and the Good Friday Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craith, M. Nic

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Irish language community in Northern Ireland, and questions the validity of the census results of 1991. Particular focus is on the concept of a mother tongue and its relevance for speakers of Irish in the United Kingdom. Discusses measures to improve the status of Irish as a result of the Good Friday Agreement. (Author/VWL)

  4. 78 FR 14431 - Irish-American Heritage Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8934 of February 28, 2013 Irish-American Heritage Month, 2013 By the... month, we celebrate the Irish-American journey, and we reflect on the ways a nation so small has... around the world. So as we celebrate Irish-American Heritage Month, let us retell those stories of...

  5. 77 FR 13183 - Irish-American Heritage Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8779 of March 1, 2012 Irish-American Heritage Month, 2012 By the President of... journey they and so many others have taken. During Irish-American Heritage Month, we recall their legacy... hereby proclaim March 2012 as Irish- American Heritage Month. I call upon all Americans to observe...

  6. 76 FR 11929 - Irish-American Heritage Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8629 of February 28, 2011 Irish-American Heritage Month, 2011 By the... Month, we honor the contributions Irish Americans have made, and celebrate the nearly 40 million among... communities across our country celebrate Irish-American Heritage Month and St. Patrick's Day, our Nation...

  7. Against the law: Irish women and abortion.

    PubMed

    1995-02-01

    In both the Republic of Ireland and the North of Ireland, it is impossible to obtain a legal abortion unless the life of the mother would otherwise be lost. Thus, an estimated 10-12,000 women travel from Ireland to England each year to have an abortion. These women can receive support from the Irish Women's Abortion Support Group (IWASG) which is made up of volunteer women who are Irish or of Irish descent. The IWASG provides accommodations, emotional and practical support, and information about how to obtain an abortion in the UK. It makes appointments, negotiates fees, and monitors services offered. The group can also provide financial assistance to women in need. IWASG liaises with pro-choice groups in Ireland, such as the underground Women's Information Network (WIN), which has branches in Dublin, Galway, and Cork. WIN provides confidential, nondirective counseling to women in need. Abortion is a very difficult choice for Irish women because of the legal strictures and because of the guilt which often results from government and religious propaganda. The prospect of finding their way around London is often as daunting to the Irish women as the procedure itself, and many of the women travel to England absolutely alone with no one at home even aware of what they are doing. IWASG is seeking new members to help them support these women. For information, write IWASG, 52 Featherstone Street, London ECIY 8RT.

  8. The Irish quaternary fauna project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodman, Peter; Mccarthy, Margaret; Monaghan, Nigel

    Much of Ireland's Pleistocene and Early Holocene mammalian faunas are derived from a series of late 19th/early 20th century cave excavations. In many instances it would appear that the deposits containing these faunal remains were disturbed. This project assessed the chronological range of the mammalian species present in the caves using 14C dating, in particular accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The research has shown that (1) a wide range of mammals colonised Ireland in the period between at least 45 ka and 20 ka, with some elements surviving until close to the Last Glacial Maximum; (2) a more restricted range of species re-colonised Ireland during the Lateglacial period, with evidence for a slightly more temperature fauna being replaced by an Arctic fauna at about 11 ka; (3) certain elements of Ireland's Holocene fauna may have survived through from the Lateglacial into the Holocene; (4) there is a lack of evidence for red deer, Cervus elaphus, being present in the Early Holocene in Ireland; and (5) horse is only documented in the Irish Holocene from 4 ka. The paper also discusses the implications of the Quaternary Fauna Project for the Late Pleistocene of Ireland, the mechanism and period of colonisation of Ireland as well as the introduction of domesticates in the Mid Holocene.

  9. Scientific Travels in the Irish Countryside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    Ireland is one of the most popular destinations for American travelers. The market is enormous: while there are only 3.6 million Irish in the Republic of Ireland and 1.6 million in Northern Ireland, there are 40 million Americans of Irish descent. Almost every person you speak with in Ireland has a cousin in Chicago, an aunt in Boston and a brother in Los Angeles. The author has no Irish relatives at all, but went to Ireland in June 1998 and September 1999 to visit scientific sites. This article describes three of them: The collections of historical apparatus at the Universities in Maynooth and Galway, and the Great Rosse Telescope in Birr. I have added a short coda about geologic sites in Ireland.

  10. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Proctotrupoidea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised checklist of the British and Irish Heloridae and Proctotrupidae (Proctotrupoidea) substantially updates the previous comprehensive checklist, dating from 1978. Country level data (i.e. occurrence in England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and the Isle of Man) is reported where known. New information A total of three Heloridae and 39 Proctotrupidae (including only certainly recorded species) represents a 27% increase in the British list since 1978. Most species are still poorly known and there has been a dearth of taxonomic and faunistic work on the British and Irish fauna. PMID:27226750

  11. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The...

  12. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The...

  13. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN... benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  14. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The...

  15. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN... benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  16. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The...

  17. 7 CFR 947.113 - Area determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.113 Area determinations. Immediate production area, and immediate shipping...

  18. 7 CFR 945.17 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... District. District means each of the geographical divisions of the production area established pursuant...

  19. 7 CFR 945.17 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... District. District means each of the geographical divisions of the production area established pursuant...

  20. 7 CFR 947.113 - Area determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.113 Area determinations. Immediate production area, and immediate shipping...

  1. Field and storage testing Bt potatoes for resistance to potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelichiidae).

    PubMed

    Douches, D S; Pett, W; Santos, F; Coombs, J; Grafius, E; Li, W; Metry, E A; el-Din, T Nasr; Madkour, M

    2004-08-01

    Potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is the most serious insect pest of potatoes worldwide. The introduction of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin gene through genetic engineering offers host plant resistance for the management of potato tuberworm. We report on the field and storage studies to evaluate Bt-cry5 potato lines for resistance to potato tuberworm in Egypt under natural infestations and their agronomic performance in both Egypt and Michigan. From 1997 to 2001, field experiments were conducted at the International Potato Center (CIP) Research Station, Kafr El-Zyat, Egypt, and/or Agricultural Genetic Engineering Institute (AGERI), Giza, Egypt, to evaluate resistance to tuberworm. A total of 27 Bt-transgenic potato lines from six different Bt constructs were evaluated over a 5-yr period. After harvest and evaluation of the agronomic trials, storage evaluation of potato tuberworm damage was done at the CIP Research Station. The 1997 field trial was the first field test of genetically engineered crops in Egypt. Field tests to assess potato tuberworm resistance in Egypt were able to differentiate between the Bt-transgenic lines and the nontransgenic lines/cultivars in 1999, 2000, and 2001. The Bt-cry5-Spunta lines (Spunta-G2, Spunta-G3, and Spunta-6a3) were the most resistant lines in field with 99-100% of tubers free of damage. In the 2001 storage study, these lines were also over 90% free of tuberworm damage after 3 mo. NYL235-4.13, which combines glandular trichomes with the Bt-cry5/gus fusion construct, also had a high percentage of clean tubers in the field studies. In agronomic field trials in Michigan from 1997 to 2001, the Bt-transgenic lines in most instances performed similar to the nontransgenic line in the agronomic trials; however, in Egypt (1998-1999), the yields were less than one-half of those in Michigan. Expression of the Bt-cry5 gene in the potato tuber and foliage will provide the seed producer and grower a tool in which to

  2. Effects of phosphorus contents on the gelatinization and retrogradation of potato starch.

    PubMed

    Karim, A A; Toon, L C; Lee, V P L; Ong, W Y; Fazilah, A; Noda, T

    2007-03-01

    Effects of phosphorus content (510 to 987 ppm) on the gelatinization and retrogradation of 6 potato cultivars (Benimaru, Hokkaikogane, Irish Cobbler, Konafubuki, Sakurafubuki, and Touya) were studied. Pasting properties were analyzed by RVA, thermal properties by DSC, and mechanical properties of the starch gels by TA. Phosphorus was positively correlated with swelling power (r= 0.84) and negatively correlated with solubility (r= 0.83). Phosphorus content showed significant effect on certain pasting properties of potato starch such as peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback. Phosphorus content showed a significant positive correlation with peak viscosity (r= 0.95) and breakdown (r= 0.90). Increasing concentration of phosphorus tends to decrease the setback. Phosphorus content had no influence on thermal properties and mechanical properties of potato starch gel.

  3. Factors Influencing Curricular Reform; An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena; Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. The imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. It is also clear that medical emigration has a…

  4. Temporal Variation in Irish Suicide Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Paul; Reilly, Marie; Salim, Agus; Brennan, Aline; Keeley, Helen S.; Perry, Ivan J.

    2004-01-01

    Using Irish suicide data for the period 1990?1998, the independent effects of month and day adjusting for age, gender, and calendar year effects and distinguishing between holiday and working Mondays were assessed. The male suicide rate was significantly higher on working Mondays (+31%) and Saturdays (+14%), and during April, June, and August…

  5. The Irish Centre for Talented Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilheany, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Conducting potency tests on penicillin, discussing rocket technology with a NASA astronaut, analysing animal bone fragments from medieval times, these are just some of the activities which occupy the time of students at The Irish Centre for Talented Youth. The Centre identifies young students with exceptional academic ability and then provides…

  6. What's Difficult about Chemistry? An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Peter E.; Sheehan, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This semi-longitudinal investigation identified the chemistry topics that the majority of Irish chemistry pupils/students find difficult, from Junior Certificate level (age 15/16 years) right the way through to University level (age 18+). Pupils/students completed a five point, Likert-type questionnaire listing the topics covered in the different…

  7. Irish Educational Studies. Vol. 4 no. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKernan, Jim, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The following papers dealing with education in Ireland are presented: "The Fortunes of Education as a Subject of Study and of Research in Ireland" (John Coolahan); "The Irish Charter Schools: The Grand Design in Principle and Practice" (Kenneth Milne); "Quaker Education in 18th and 19th Century Ireland" (Cyril G.…

  8. Strategic Planning and Accountability in Irish Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleeson, Jim; O Donnabhain, Diarmaid

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the impact of the New Public Management culture on Irish education and calls for a debate in relation to the prevailing bureaucratic model of accountability. The influence of the Lisbon Agenda (2000) on education planning is identified and the 2005/7 Education Strategy Statement is analysed using the relevant OECD framework.…

  9. Classic and Romantic in Irish Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKernan, Jim

    Recent trends in curriculum development in Irish post-primary schools are traced according to two models: the classic-centrist and the romantic-decentralist. The classic model, initiated by agencies external to the school, views curriculum development as a science and focuses on accountability and competency-based teaching and testing. The…

  10. Is Kelvin representative of an "Irish tradition"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Kelvin interacted with many physicists and mathematicians with Irish connections, and these interactions are sketched. A number of suggestions of Irish or Irish-Scottish scientific traditions or networks are reviewed, but it is argued that the large number of interactions may be better explained just by the high quality of physics and mathematics in Ireland and Scotland in the nineteenth century. Kelvin's disapproval of science as carried out in Cambridge and London is discussed, and an attack by some of his followers on science at Oxford is also described. Finally a number of examples of Kelvin's most important work are outlined and some general features are pointed out; these include the willingness to tackle practical and engineering problems, and the ability to attempt to construct major syntheses, where appropriate taking note of religious themes, and drawing conclusions, positive or negative, on religious matters. These features are used to construct a highly tentative characterisation of a grouping of Irish and Scottish scientists centred largely round Kelvin.

  11. Elkton: A new potato variety with resistance to internal heat necrosis and suitable for chipping directly from the field in the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato varieties grown in the southern U.S. are susceptible to a disorder called internal heat necrosis which causes death of flesh inside the potato tuber. We bred a new potato variety, Elkton, which is resistant to internal heat necrosis. Elkton was released by The Agricultural Research Service,...

  12. Processing and cooking effects on the quality of purple-fleshed sweet potato fries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet potato is a major crop produced in Hawaii, however 85% of the food consumed in Hawaii is imported from the U.S. mainland and other sources. Development of value-added food products from Hawaii-grown sweet potatoes is one way to reduce dependence on food imports and improve agriculture by provi...

  13. Potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) ecology and integrated pest management focused on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge to date on biology of the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), is summarized, including geographic distribution, development, migration, agricultural host plants, and the mechanism of injury to host plants. Damage to alfalfa, potato, soybean and snap bean, as well as treatment guide...

  14. 7 CFR 945.23 - Redistricting and reapportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH... importance of new potato production in its relation to existing districts; (3) the equitable...

  15. 7 CFR 945.53 - Shipments for specified purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH...; (c) Livestock feed; (d) Certified seed potatoes; (e) Processing into specified products; and (f)...

  16. Potato Science for the Poor, International Potato Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated potato of world commerce, Solanum tuberosum, is one of the primary crops worldwide, forming a basic food and source of primary income for many societies. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety o...

  17. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Cynipoidea

    PubMed Central

    Forshage, Mattias; Bowdrey, Jeremy; Spooner, Brian M.; van Veen, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The British and Irish checklist of Cynipoidea is revised, considerably updating the last complete checklist published in 1978. Disregarding uncertain identifications, 220 species are now known from Britain and Ireland, comprising 91 Cynipidae (including two established non-natives), 127 Figitidae and two Ibaliidae. New information One replacement name is proposed, Kleidotoma thomsoni Forshage, for the secondary homonym Kleidotoma tetratoma Thomson, 1861 (nec K. tetratoma (Hartig, 1841)). PMID:28325971

  18. 7 CFR 945.15 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED... means a quantity of potatoes in any type of container and which falls within specific weight limits...

  19. 7 CFR 945.15 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED... means a quantity of potatoes in any type of container and which falls within specific weight limits...

  20. 7 CFR 945.15 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED... means a quantity of potatoes in any type of container and which falls within specific weight limits...

  1. 7 CFR 945.15 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED... means a quantity of potatoes in any type of container and which falls within specific weight limits...

  2. Climate change may have limited effect on global risk of potato late blight.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Adam H; Forbes, Gregory A; Hijmans, Robert J; Garrett, Karen A

    2014-12-01

    Weather affects the severity of many plant diseases, and climate change is likely to alter the patterns of crop disease severity. Evaluating possible future patterns can help focus crop breeding and disease management research. We examined the global effect of climate change on potato late blight, the disease that caused the Irish potato famine and still is a common potato disease around the world. We used a metamodel and considered three global climate models for the A2 greenhouse gas emission scenario for three 20-year time-slices: 2000-2019, 2040-2059 and 2080-2099. In addition to global analyses, five regions were evaluated where potato is an important crop: the Andean Highlands, Indo-Gangetic Plain and Himalayan Highlands, Southeast Asian Highlands, Ethiopian Highlands, and Lake Kivu Highlands in Sub-Saharan Africa. We found that the average global risk of potato late blight increases initially, when compared with historic climate data, and then declines as planting dates shift to cooler seasons. Risk in the agro-ecosystems analyzed, varied from a large increase in risk in the Lake Kivu Highlands in Rwanda to decreases in the Southeast Asian Highlands of Indonesia.

  3. Rewiring mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade by positive feedback confers potato blight resistance.

    PubMed

    Yamamizo, Chihiro; Kuchimura, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Akira; Katou, Shinpei; Kawakita, Kazuhito; Jones, Jonathan D G; Doke, Noriyuki; Yoshioka, Hirofumi

    2006-02-01

    Late blight, caused by the notorious pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and during the 1840s caused the Irish potato famine and over one million fatalities. Currently, grown potato cultivars lack adequate blight tolerance. Earlier cultivars bred for resistance used disease resistance genes that confer immunity only to some strains of the pathogen harboring corresponding avirulence gene. Specific resistance gene-mediated immunity and chemical controls are rapidly overcome in the field when new pathogen races arise through mutation, recombination, or migration from elsewhere. A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays a pivotal role in plant innate immunity. Here we show that the transgenic potato plants that carry a constitutively active form of MAPK kinase driven by a pathogen-inducible promoter of potato showed high resistance to early blight pathogen Alternaria solani as well as P. infestans. The pathogen attack provoked defense-related MAPK activation followed by induction of NADPH oxidase gene expression, which is implicated in reactive oxygen species production, and resulted in hypersensitive response-like phenotype. We propose that enhancing disease resistance through altered regulation of plant defense mechanisms should be more durable and publicly acceptable than engineering overexpression of antimicrobial proteins.

  4. The potato psyllid genome project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is a Hemipteran pest of solanaceous plants and limits potato and tomato production by the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Genomic information on the potato psyllid is limited but is vital in developing appropriate management strategi...

  5. Detection of nitrogen deficiency in potatoes using unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) are recognized as potentially important remote-sensing platforms for precision agriculture. We set up a nitrogen rate experiment in 2013 with ‘Ranger Russet’ potatoes by applying four rates of nitrogen fertilizer (112, 224, 337, and 449 kg N/ha) in a randomized...

  6. Recommending soil copper thresholds for potato production in Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rising concern with the application of dairy wastes to agricultural fields is the accumulation of copper in the soil. Copper sulfate from cattle footbaths is washed out of dairy barns and into wastewater lagoons. Potato growers are concerned about this issue, as many of the predominant dairy produ...

  7. Economic implications of alternative potato cropping systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable cropping systems and management practices are needed to improve agricultural viability and rural economic vitality in Maine and the surrounding region. Research is being conducted to 1) identify the constraints to potato system sustainability and 2) develop practices and management strat...

  8. Is Bank Finance the Achilles' Heel of Irish SMEs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Dermot; Flynn, Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to examine the implications of new banking regulations (Basel II) for the Irish SME sector. Training gaps are identified and recommendations to advance social capital networks are provided. Design/methodology/approach: The Irish SME dependence on external (bank) finance and their susceptibility to…

  9. Travellers and Cowboys: Myths of the Irish West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisplinghoff, Gretchen

    The recent Irish film "Into the West" (1992) explores the myth of the West on two continents. Images from television and movies appear as a visual reference point within "Into the West"; the main characters, two young Irish boys, are fascinated with the American West of cowboys and Indians as depicted in countless Hollywood…

  10. Outward-Oriented Economic Development and the Irish Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of the relationship between education and economic development focus on the line of causation running from the former to the latter. The present paper studies how the pattern of Irish development has influenced the structure of the Irish education system. The first section sets out the economic context of late industrialisation within…

  11. Irish in a 3D World: Engaging Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Gene; Devitt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    While the majority of people in Ireland speak English as a first language, the minority Irish language is spoken daily by approximately 3% of the population even though is a compulsory subject in Irish schools. Recent research has shown the language to be in crisis, with consistently declining standards of attainment in schools. This paper…

  12. A Functional-Notional Syllabus for Adult Learners of Irish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David, Comp.; And Others

    The first functional-notional syllabus for adult learners of Irish, written in Irish and English, is presented. The syllabus begins with an introductory section about functional-notional syllabi, their definitions and implications, and the characteristics of this syllabus. The second section provides the general aims and specific behavioral…

  13. Student Voice: An Emerging Discourse in Irish Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Domnall

    2015-01-01

    In positioning student voice within the Irish education policy discourse it is imperative that this emergent and complex concept is explored and theorized in the context of its definition and motivation. Student voice can then be positioned and critiqued as it emerged within Irish education policy primarily following Ireland's ratification of the…

  14. Investment in Edification: Reflections on Irish Education Policy since Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Muiris

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with a historical review of Irish education policy since the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922, this paper focuses on the issue of investment in education through the lens of the "Investment in Education" report. Following this historical review, the author explores how the legacy of the past continues to define the…

  15. The Irish Language in Britain: A Case Study of North West England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craith, Mairead Nic; Leyland, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Sketches presence of Irish language in Britain in nineteenth and twentieth centuries. First, reviews emigration of Irish-speakers from Ireland in nineteenth century. Attention focuses on problems encountered by speakers of Irish in England in last century. Offers a profile of number of people who learn Irish in evening classes in North West of…

  16. A Student's Guide to Irish American Genealogy. Oryx American Family Tree Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Erin

    This book provides a step-by-step guide to genealogical research in the United States and Ireland for Irish Americans. The book also contains information on the history of Ireland and Irish immigration. Chapters include: (1) "Your Irish American Heritage"; (2) "Your Irish Immigrant Ancestors"; (3) "Getting Started";…

  17. Potato genetics, genomics, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Potato has a variety of reproductive uniquenesses besides its clonal propagation by tubers. These traits are controlled by a different kind of genetic control. The reproductive information has been applied to enable interspecific hybridization to enhance valuable traits, such as disease and pest resistances, from the tuber-bearing Solanum gene pool. While progress has been made in potato breeding, many resources have been invested due to the requirements of large populations and long time frame. This is not only due to the general pitfalls in plant breeding, but also due to the complexity of polyploid genetics. Tetraploid genetics is the most prominent aspect associated with potato breeding. Genetic maps and markers have contributed to potato breeding, and genome information further elucidates questions in potato evolution and supports comprehensive potato breeding. Challenges yet remain on recognizing intellectual property rights to breeding and germplasm, and also on regulatory aspects to incorporate modern biotechnology for increasing genetic variation in potato breeding. PMID:25931980

  18. Using remote sensing satellite data and artificial neural network for prediction of potato yield in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhand, Kawsar; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix

    2016-09-01

    Potato is one of the staple foods and cash crops in Bangladesh. It is widely cultivated in all of the districts and ranks second after rice in production. Bangladesh is the fourth largest potato producer in Asia and is among the world's top 15 potato producing countries. The weather condition for potato cultivation is favorable during the sowing, growing and harvesting period. It is a winter crop and is cultivated during the period of November to March. Bangladesh is mainly an agricultural based country with respect to agriculture's contribution to GDP, employment and consumption. Potato is a prominent crop in consideration of production, its internal demand and economic value. Bangladesh has a big economic activities related to potato cultivation and marketing, especially the economic relations among farmers, traders, stockers and cold storage owners. Potato yield prediction before harvest is an important issue for the Government and the stakeholders in managing and controlling the potato market. Advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based satellite data product vegetation health indices VCI (vegetation condition index) and TCI (temperature condition index) are used as predictors for early prediction. Artificial neural network (ANN) is used to develop a prediction model. The simulated result from this model is encouraging and the error of prediction is less than 10%.

  19. USSR Report, Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-03

    peas and barley. (0204 GMT) In Bryansk Oblast potato field work is under way. Field work is under way on sunflower plantations in the Ukraine...part of the country. Haymowing is rapidly gain- ing speed. Stocks of silage are being procured earlier than usual. (1800 GMT) 29 June-1 July...earmarked for agriculture was directed into this branch . During the years of the 10th Five- Year Plan the proportion of gross livestock production within

  20. Solar Orientation of Irish Early Christian Oratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiede, V. R.

    2001-12-01

    The Hiberno-Latin literary metaphor of "Xpistus sol verus" (Christ the True Sun) finds an architectural analogue in the orientation of the single eastern window of Irish monastic stone chapels or oratories. The author's field surveys in Ireland, Hebrides, Orkney and Shetlands revealed that the window of Irish rectangular dry stone oratories framed the rising solar disk on the Feast Days of selected saints of the Celtic Early Christian Church, AD 800-1100. The most frequent target skyline declinations were to sunrise on the Feast Days of St. Patrick (March 17th) and St. Aidan of Lindisfarne (August 31st). During the Early Christian period, St. Patrick's Day coincided with the Vernal Equinox, and heralded the Paschal Full Moon (i.e., Passover crucifixion) and Easter Sunday as proclaimed by Emperor Constantine at the Council of Nicaea (AD 325). St. Aidan of Lindisfarne (d. AD 651) inspired the Irish monks who, at the Synod of Whitby (AD 664), remained loyal to the Jewish 84-year cycle determining Passover and refused to replace it with the new orthodox 19-year computus for Easter adopted by the Roman Catholic Church (AD 527). Hypothetical affiliation between monastic communities whose oratories share common solar orientation, interior length/width ratios (e.g., 4:3 and 3:2) and units of measurement (e.g., Scottish ell, Coptic cubit, or Roman pes) is discussed. Grateful acknowledgement is made to the Michael D. Coe Fund and Augusta Hazard Fund of Yale University for research grant support in 1999.

  1. Arms Transfers to the Irish Republican Army.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    and Policy Sciences 3 • " . %" "i - .% *’ -.. " - ’ .’’" -W%" . ’% G " %,’’ .- "S.*" *’I % ’ %- ABSTRACT 1, - This -ia, describes the arms transfer...from the policy of divestiture added insult to injury. There were sharp increases in the late 󈨀s in both arms manufacturing and in the volume of...through arms transfers to the Irish rebels coincided in time with several relevant changes; (1) the coordination of Eastern bloc arms 45 transfer policies

  2. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Ichneumonidae

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of British and Irish Ichneumonidae is revised, based in large part on the collections of the Natural History Museum, London and the National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh. Distribution records are provided at the country level. New information Of the 2,447 species regarded as valid and certainly identified, 214 are here recorded for the first time from the British Isles. Neorhacodinae is considered to be a separate subfamily rather than a synonym of Tersilochinae. Echthrini is treated as a junior synonym of the tribe Cryptini, not Hemigastrini. Echthrus Gravenhorst and Helcostizus Förster are classified in Cryptini rather than, respectively, Hemigastrini and Phygadeuontini. PMID:27733812

  3. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Braconidae

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Mark R.; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of British and Irish Braconidae is revised, based in large part on the collections of the National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, and the Natural History Museum, London. Distribution records are provided at the country level together with extensive synonymy and bibliography. New information Of the 1,338 species regarded as valid, presumed native and certainly identified, 83 are here recorded for the first time from the British Isles. One new synonym is established (Dyscritus suffolciensis Morley, 1933 = Syntretus splendidus (Marshall, 1887) syn. nov.) PMID:27226759

  4. 76 FR 78610 - Notice of Intent To Reduce the Frequency of Rice and Potato Stocks Surveys and All Associated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... of Rice and Potato Stocks Surveys and All Associated Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics... approved information collections for rice and potato stocks that are currently approved under OMB 0535-0007..., February, April and June) there will be no changes to the surveys or the publications. The Rice...

  5. [Teratogenic effect of potato glycoalkaloids].

    PubMed

    Wang, X G

    1993-02-01

    Potato glycoalkaloids were extracted from potato sprout and then analyzed to determine their purity by using TLC and HPLC methods and compare with pure alpha-Solanine and alpha-Chaconine of Sigma. The result indicated that the purity of potato glycoalkaloids is 78. 31%, which contains 73.64% alpha-Solanine and 4.67% alpha-Chaconine. The LD50 of mice was 44.721 +/- 5.860 4 mg/kg. In order to determine the toxicity and teratogenicity of potato glycoalkaloids, the effect of potato glycoalkaloids on Kunming pregnant mice were studied. The results showed that: (1) potato glycoalkaloids have teratogenic effects on embryos of mice. It could induce neural tube defects (NTDs), and may be an important teratogen of NTDs. (2) potato glycoalkaloids have embryo toxicity. It could cause the death of embryos and result in absorbed and dead fetuses. (3) potato glycoalkaloids could evidently affect the development of embryos and lead to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). An interesting phenomena which just like the clinical manifestation of miscarriage in human being was noticed. If potato glycoalkaloids were given to the pregnant mice on the 5th or 6th day of gestation intraabdominally, vaginal bleeding and abortion would occur, and this has not been reported yet. The animal model of NTDs in this experiments supported our hypothesis that sprouted potato could be a teratogen of NTDs.

  6. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  7. Potato poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/002875.htm Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts To use the sharing features ... Potato plant poisoning occurs when someone eats the green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. ...

  8. All-Irish Primary Schools in the Dublin Area. Report of a Sociological and Spatial Study of All-Irish-Medium Schools in the Greater Dublin Area, with Special Reference to Their Impact on Home and Social Network Use of Irish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riagain, Padraig; O Gliasain, Micheal

    A study investigated the extent to which all-Irish primary schools in the Dublin (Ireland) area: (1) provide opportunities for parents not using Irish at home to send children to an all-Irish school; (2) provide impetus for an increase in Irish use in homes of attending children; (3) increase interaction among Irish-speaking families; (4) are…

  9. The mysterious potato.

    PubMed

    Spoerke, D

    1994-08-01

    Even though it comes from a potentially toxic family and may contain solanine-type alkaloids, the potato has risen from a wild food stuff of South American Indians to one of the world's most useful plants and important food source. Toxicity of the tuber commonly seen today is low, with the sprouts and green skin most often involved in toxic exposures. New cultivars may bring about more disease resistance, new tastes, and possibly a smaller solanine content.

  10. Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Sweet Potato in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E.; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

    2014-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied. PMID:25551388

  11. Primary Metabolism, Phenylpropanoids and Antioxidant Pathways Are Regulated in Potato as a Response to Potato virus Y Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kogovšek, Polona; Pompe-Novak, Maruša; Petek, Marko; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Gruden, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Potato production is one of the most important agricultural sectors, and it is challenged by various detrimental factors, including virus infections. To control losses in potato production, knowledge about the virus—plant interactions is crucial. Here, we investigated the molecular processes in potato plants as a result of Potato virus Y (PVY) infection, the most economically important potato viral pathogen. We performed an integrative study that links changes in the metabolome and gene expression in potato leaves inoculated with the mild PVYN and aggressive PVYNTN isolates, for different times through disease development. At the beginning of infection (1 day post-inoculation), virus-infected plants showed an initial decrease in the concentrations of metabolites connected to sugar and amino-acid metabolism, the TCA cycle, the GABA shunt, ROS scavangers, and phenylpropanoids, relative to the control plants. A pronounced increase in those metabolites was detected at the start of the strong viral multiplication in infected leaves. The alterations in these metabolic pathways were also seen at the gene expression level, as analysed by quantitative PCR. In addition, the systemic response in the metabolome to PVY infection was analysed. Systemic leaves showed a less-pronounced response with fewer metabolites altered, while phenylpropanoid-associated metabolites were strongly accumulated. There was a more rapid onset of accumulation of ROS scavengers in leaves inoculated with PVYN than those inoculated with PVYNTN. This appears to be related to the lower damage observed for leaves of potato infected with the milder PVYN strain, and at least partially explains the differences between the phenotypes observed. PMID:26727123

  12. Primary Metabolism, Phenylpropanoids and Antioxidant Pathways Are Regulated in Potato as a Response to Potato virus Y Infection.

    PubMed

    Kogovšek, Polona; Pompe-Novak, Maruša; Petek, Marko; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Gruden, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Potato production is one of the most important agricultural sectors, and it is challenged by various detrimental factors, including virus infections. To control losses in potato production, knowledge about the virus-plant interactions is crucial. Here, we investigated the molecular processes in potato plants as a result of Potato virus Y (PVY) infection, the most economically important potato viral pathogen. We performed an integrative study that links changes in the metabolome and gene expression in potato leaves inoculated with the mild PVYN and aggressive PVYNTN isolates, for different times through disease development. At the beginning of infection (1 day post-inoculation), virus-infected plants showed an initial decrease in the concentrations of metabolites connected to sugar and amino-acid metabolism, the TCA cycle, the GABA shunt, ROS scavangers, and phenylpropanoids, relative to the control plants. A pronounced increase in those metabolites was detected at the start of the strong viral multiplication in infected leaves. The alterations in these metabolic pathways were also seen at the gene expression level, as analysed by quantitative PCR. In addition, the systemic response in the metabolome to PVY infection was analysed. Systemic leaves showed a less-pronounced response with fewer metabolites altered, while phenylpropanoid-associated metabolites were strongly accumulated. There was a more rapid onset of accumulation of ROS scavengers in leaves inoculated with PVYN than those inoculated with PVYNTN. This appears to be related to the lower damage observed for leaves of potato infected with the milder PVYN strain, and at least partially explains the differences between the phenotypes observed.

  13. 78 FR 38846 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan; Amend the Administrative Committee Structure and Delete the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1207 Potato Research and Promotion Plan... Marketing Service. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposal invites comments on amending the structure....regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Patricia A. Petrella, Marketing Specialist, Promotion...

  14. The contribution of traditional potato breeding to scientific potato improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional potato breeding refers to development of new cultivars from sexual crosses followed by clonal propagation and selection. Nearly all new varieties of potato still emerge from this process free from modern technologies of gene insertion. Conventional breeding remains the most important ...

  15. The naming of Potato virus Y strains infecting potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) strain groups are based on host-response and resistance-gene interactions. The strain groups PVYO, PVYC and PVYN are well-established for the isolates infecting potato in the field. A switch in the emphasis from host response to nucleotide sequence differences in the virus genom...

  16. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - Chalcidoidea and Mymarommatoidea

    PubMed Central

    Dale-Skey, Natalie; Askew, Richard R.; Noyes, John S.; Livermore, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised checklist of the British and Irish Chalcidoidea and Mymarommatoidea substantially updates the previous comprehensive checklist, dating from 1978. Country level data (i.e. occurrence in England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and the Isle of Man) is reported where known. New information A total of 1754 British and Irish Chalcidoidea species represents a 22% increase on the number of British species known in 1978. PMID:27346954

  17. Modelling travel and residence times in the eastern Irish Sea.

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, T; Hartnett, M

    2008-01-01

    The Irish Sea, which lies between 51 degrees N-56 degrees N and 2 degrees 50'W-7 degrees W, provides a sheltered environment to exploit valuable fisheries resource. Anthropogenic activity is a real threat to its water quality. The majority of freshwater input down rivers flows into the eastern Irish Sea. The structure of the water circulation was not well understood during the planning of Sellafield nuclear plant outfall site in the eastern Irish Sea. A three-dimensional primitive equation numerical model was applied to the Irish Sea to simulate both barotropic and baroclinic circulation within the region. High accuracy was achieved with regard to the prediction of both tidal circulation and surface and nearbed water temperatures across the region. The model properly represented the Western Irish Sea Gyre, induced by thermal stratification and not known during planning Sellafield. Passive tracer simulations based on the developed hydrodynamic model were used to deliver residence times of the eastern Irish Sea region for various times of the year as well as travel times from the Sellafield outfall site to various locations within the Irish Sea. The results indicate a strong seasonal variability of travel times from Sellafield to the examined locations. Travel time to the Clyde Sea is the shortest for the autumnal tracer release (90 days); it takes almost a year for the tracer to arrive at the same location if it is released in January. Travel times from Sellafield to Dublin Bay fall within the range of 180-360 days. The average residence time of the entire eastern Irish Sea is around 7 months. The areas surrounding the Isle of Man are initially flushed due to a predominant northward flow; a backwater is formed in Liverpool Bay. Thus, elevated tracer concentrations are predicted in Liverpool Bay in the case of accidental spills at the Sellafield outfall site.

  18. Production of potato minitubers using advanced environmental control technologies developed for growing plants in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britt, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Development of plant growth systems for use in outer space have been modified for use on earth as the backbone of a new system for rapid growth of potato minitubers. The automation of this new biotechnology provides for a fully controllable method of producing pathogen-free nuclear stock potato minitubers from tissue cultured clones of varieties of potato in a biomanufacturing facility. These minitubers are the beginning stage of seed potato production. Because the new system provides for pathogen-free minitubers by the tens-of-millions, rather than by the thousands which are currently produced in advanced seed potato systems, a new-dimension in seed potato development, breeding and multiplication has been achieved. The net advantage to earth-borne agricultural farming systems will be the elimination of several years of seed multiplication from the current system, higher quality potato production, and access to new potato varieties resistant to diseases and insects which will eliminate the need for chemical controls.

  19. The Irish Potato Famine Pathogen Phytophthora infestans Translocates the CRN8 Kinase into Host Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    van Damme, Mireille; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Cakir, Cahid; Schornack, Sebastian; Sklenar, Jan; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2012-01-01

    Phytopathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora infestans, secrete an arsenal of effector proteins that modulate plant innate immunity to enable infection. We describe CRN8, a host-translocated effector of P. infestans that has kinase activity in planta. CRN8 is a modular protein of the CRN effector family. The C-terminus of CRN8 localizes to the host nucleus and triggers cell death when the protein is expressed in planta. Cell death induction by CRN8 is dependent on its localization to the plant nucleus, which requires a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS). The C-terminal sequence of CRN8 has similarity to a serine/threonine RD kinase domain. We demonstrated that CRN8 is a functional RD kinase and that its auto-phosphorylation is dependent on an intact catalytic site. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CRN8 forms a dimer or multimer. Heterologous expression of CRN8 in planta resulted in enhanced virulence by P. infestans. In contrast, in planta expression of the dominant-negative CRN8R469A;D470A resulted in reduced P. infestans infection, further implicating CRN8 in virulence. Overall, our results indicate that similar to animal parasites, plant pathogens also translocate biochemically active kinase effectors inside host cells. PMID:22927814

  20. 76 FR 18001 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... this regulation by contacting Antoinette Carter, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and...; Telephone: (202) 720-2491, Fax: (202) 720-8938, or E-mail: Antoinette.Carter@ams.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY... . Any questions about the compliance guide should be sent to Antoinette Carter at the...

  1. 75 FR 38698 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Relaxation of Handling Regulation for Area No. 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...BusinessGuide ; or by contacting Antoinette Carter, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and...; Telephone: (202) 720-2491, Fax: (202) 720-8938, or E-mail: Antoinette.Carter@ams.usda.gov ....

  2. The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans translocates the CRN8 kinase into host plant cells.

    PubMed

    van Damme, Mireille; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Cakir, Cahid; Schornack, Sebastian; Sklenar, Jan; Jones, Alexandra M E; Kamoun, Sophien

    2012-01-01

    Phytopathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora infestans, secrete an arsenal of effector proteins that modulate plant innate immunity to enable infection. We describe CRN8, a host-translocated effector of P. infestans that has kinase activity in planta. CRN8 is a modular protein of the CRN effector family. The C-terminus of CRN8 localizes to the host nucleus and triggers cell death when the protein is expressed in planta. Cell death induction by CRN8 is dependent on its localization to the plant nucleus, which requires a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS). The C-terminal sequence of CRN8 has similarity to a serine/threonine RD kinase domain. We demonstrated that CRN8 is a functional RD kinase and that its auto-phosphorylation is dependent on an intact catalytic site. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CRN8 forms a dimer or multimer. Heterologous expression of CRN8 in planta resulted in enhanced virulence by P. infestans. In contrast, in planta expression of the dominant-negative CRN8(R469A;D470A) resulted in reduced P. infestans infection, further implicating CRN8 in virulence. Overall, our results indicate that similar to animal parasites, plant pathogens also translocate biochemically active kinase effectors inside host cells.

  3. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  4. Potato Phytonutrient Analysis and Engineering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes have the highest per capita consumption of any vegetable, a fact which emphasizes their potential to be a key dietary source of health-promoting compounds. Only a fraction of the genetic diversity available in potato wild-species has been incorporated into modern cultivars. LCMS analysis of...

  5. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  6. Russet Burbank, no ordinary potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russet Burbank potato variety currently occupies first place in acreage planted in North America and is worth in the United States 1.4 billion dollars annually. It is a sport of the Burbank potato which was selected by Luther Burbank in 1873. The ancestry of Burbank stems from a plant introduc...

  7. 7 CFR 948.387 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... dehydration, chips, shoestrings, starch, and flour. It includes only that preparation of potatoes for market... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO... lot of potatoes grown in Area No. 3 unless such potatoes meet the requirements of paragraphs (a),...

  8. 7 CFR 953.322 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., potatoes for dehydration, chips, shoestrings, starch, and flour. It includes only that preparation of... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN... ship any lot of potatoes produced in the production area unless such potatoes meet the requirements...

  9. 7 CFR 945.341 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., chips, shoestrings, starch, and flour. It includes only that preparation of potatoes for market which... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN.... No person shall handle any lot of potatoes unless such potatoes meet the requirements of...

  10. 7 CFR 948.387 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... dehydration, chips, shoestrings, starch, and flour. It includes only that preparation of potatoes for market... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO... lot of potatoes grown in Area No. 3 unless such potatoes meet the requirements of paragraphs (a),...

  11. 7 CFR 945.341 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., chips, shoestrings, starch, and flour. It includes only that preparation of potatoes for market which... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN.... No person shall handle any lot of potatoes unless such potatoes meet the requirements of...

  12. 7 CFR 945.341 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., chips, shoestrings, starch, and flour. It includes only that preparation of potatoes for market which... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN.... No person shall handle any lot of potatoes unless such potatoes meet the requirements of...

  13. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  14. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  15. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  16. Leafhopper and psyllid pests of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafhoppers and psyllids are important pests of potato worldwide. These insects cause damage to potato by direct feeding or by acting as vectors of potato pathogens. Economically important leafhoppers that attack potato include Empoasca fabae, Macrosteles fascifrons, and Circulifer tenellus. E. faba...

  17. Development of late blight resistant potatoes by cisgene stacking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    stack of late blight R genes. Marker-free transformation is less genotype dependent and less prone to vector backbone integration as compared to marker-assisted transformation. Thereby, this study provides an important tool for the successful deployment of R genes in agriculture and contributes to the production of potentially durable late blight resistant potatoes. PMID:24885731

  18. Potatoes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  19. The antagonism activity of bacteria isolated from potato cultivated soil.

    PubMed

    Mezaache-Aichour, S; Sayah, N; Zerroug, M M; Guechi, A

    2012-01-01

    Soil-borne fungal and bacterial root pathogens can cause serious losses to agricultural crops. Resistant plant varieties are not available for several soil-borne pathogens and chemical control is often insufficiently effective in soil. The enhancement of disease suppressive properties of soils will limit disease development, thus, being of great importance for sustainable agriculture as well as organic farming systems. The aim of this research is to find and identify suppressive soils in the Sétif's areas (potato field located in different regions of Sétif); this allows the selection of the indigenous soil bacteria that are able to develop several mechanisms of action related to biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi affecting potato crops. Among 50 bacterial strains only 14 showed a wide range of antifungal action against the tested phytopathogenic fungi. With a range of inhibition percent from 0 to 92.30% especially Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis with 92% inhibition.

  20. Diet, lifestyle and body weight in Irish children: findings from Irish Universities Nutrition Alliance national surveys.

    PubMed

    Walton, Janette; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J; Flynn, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of public health concern globally. This review reports on levels of overweight and obesity in Irish children and examines some aspects of their diet and lifestyle proposed to promote or protect against increasing body fatness in children. While there is still some debate with regard to the most appropriate cut-off points to use when assessing body fatness in children, approximately one in five Irish children (aged 2-17 years) have been classified as overweight (including obese) according to two generally accepted approaches. Furthermore, comparison with previous data has shown an increase in mean body weight and BMI over time. On examining dietary patterns for Irish children, there was a noticeable transition from a less energy dense diet in pre-school children to a more energy dense diet in older children and teenagers, associated with a change to less favourable dietary intakes for fibre, fat, fruit and vegetables, confectionery and snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages as children got older. A significant proportion of school-aged children and teenagers reported watching more than 2 h television per day (35% on school-days and 65% on week-ends) compared with 13% of pre-school children. For children aged 5-12 years, eating out of the home contributed just 9% of energy intake but food eaten from outside the home was shown to contribute a higher proportion of energy from fat and to be less fibre-dense than food prepared at home. Improvements in dietary lifestyle are needed to control increasing levels of overweight and obesity in children in Ireland.

  1. Discovery of a low-glycaemic index potato and relationship with starch digestion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ek, Kai Lin; Wang, Shujun; Copeland, Les; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2014-02-01

    Potatoes are usually a high-glycaemic index (GI) food. Finding a low-GI potato and developing a screening method for finding low-GI cultivars are both health and agricultural priorities. The aims of the present study were to screen the commonly used and newly introduced cultivars of potatoes, in a bid to discover a low-GI potato, and to describe the relationship between in vitro starch digestibility of cooked potatoes and their in vivo glycaemic response. According to International Standard Organisation (ISO) guidelines, seven different potato cultivars were tested for their GI. In vitro enzymatic starch hydrolysis and chemical analyses, including amylose content analysis, were carried out for each potato cultivar, and correlations with the respective GI values were sought. The potato cultivars had a wide range of GI values (53-103). The Carisma cultivar was classified as low GI and the Nicola cultivar (GI = 69) as medium GI and the other five cultivars were classified as high GI according to ISO guidelines. The GI values were strongly and positively correlated with the percentage of in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in the cooked potatoes, particularly with the hydrolysis percentage at 120 min (r 0·91 and P <0·01). Amylose, dietary fibre and total starch content was not correlated with either in vitro starch digestibility or GI. The findings suggest that low-GI potato cultivars can be identified by screening using a high-throughput in vitro digestion procedure, while chemical composition, including amylose and fibre content, is not indicative.

  2. Biodegradable plastics from potato waste double savings to environment

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R. )

    1990-11-01

    Plastics can be made from starchy food waste. This article describes a method by which these plastics break down into harmless chemicals when exposed to sunlight, water or bacteria. Degradable trash bags and agricultural mulch films can replace some of the millions of pounds of nondegradable plastics used each year. Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory developed that involves enzymatically converting potato waste into glucose, fermenting the glucose to lactic acid using bacteria, and then using the lactic acid to construct fully degradable plastics.

  3. Irish Team Wins SEA & SPACE Super Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    A secondary school team from Ireland has won a trip to Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guyana, and to ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Cerro Paranal, Chile. The trip is the Super-Prize for the Sea & Space Newspaper Competition , organised within the framework of the European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture. ESO PR Photo 33/98 ESO PR Photo 33/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 434 pix - 568k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 1627 pix - 6.7Mb] The presentation of prize certificates to the winning Irish team (right) in Lisbon, on August 31, 1998, by ESO, ESA and EAAE representatives. Stephen Kearney, Cian Wilson (both aged 16 years), Eamonn McKeogh (aged 17 years) together with their teacher, John Daly of Blackrock College in Dublin, prepared their newspaper, Infinitus , on marine and space themes, and came first in the national round of the competition. Together with other students from all over Europe, they were invited to present their winning newspaper to a jury consisting of representatives of the organisers, during a special programme of events at the Gulbenkian Planetarium and EXPO '98 in Lisbon, from 28-31 August, 1998. The Irish team scored highly in all categories of the judging, which included scientific content and originality and creativity of the articles. Their look at Irish contributions to sea and space research also proved popular in a ballot by fellow student competitors. This vote was also taken into account by the judges. The jury was very impressed by the high quality of the national entries and there were several close runners-up. The width and depth was amazing and the variety of ideas and formats presented by the sixteen teams was enormous. A poster competition was organised for younger students, aged 10 to 13 and winning entries at national level are on display at the Oceanophilia Pavilion at EXPO '98. The SEA & SPACE project is a joint initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA) , the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , and the

  4. Gaeilge Gaming: Assessing How Games Can Help Children to Learn Irish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Gene; Devitt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In the 2011 census almost one in three Irish teenagers claimed to be unable to speak Irish (Central Statistics Office, Ireland, 2012), despite the language being taught daily in school. The challenges facing the Irish language in schools are complex and multifaceted. The research reported here attempts to address some of these challenges by…

  5. Engagement with Empires: Irish Catholic Female Religious Teachers in Colonial South Australia 1868-1901

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the roles of Irish Catholic female religious institutes for teachers in the context of the recent debates about education and empire. Nineteenth century colonial South Australia provides an opportunity to examine such institutes, for example the Irish Dominicans from Cabra Dublin, the Irish Mercy Institute from Baggot Street,…

  6. Irish-Language Policy in a Multiethnic State: Competing Discourses on Ethnocultural Membership and Language Ownership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbin, Justin

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how competing discourses about the ownership of the Irish language in an increasingly multiethnic Ireland and the extent to which it is associated with a sense of "Irishness" influence the formulation of recent Irish-language policy at institutional and national levels. As part of a broader study on the language…

  7. Genetic drift and the population history of the Irish travellers.

    PubMed

    Relethford, John H; Crawford, Michael H

    2013-02-01

    The Irish Travellers are an itinerant group in Ireland that has been socially isolated. Two hypotheses have been proposed concerning the genetic origin of the Travellers: (1) they are genetically related to Roma populations in Europe that share a nomadic lifestyle or (2) they are of Irish origin, and genetic differences from the rest of Ireland reflect genetic drift. These hypotheses were tested using data on 33 alleles from 12 red blood cell polymorphism loci. Comparison with other European, Roma, and Indian populations shows that the Travellers are genetically distinct from the Roma and Indian populations and most genetically similar to Ireland, in agreement with earlier genetic analyses of the Travellers. However, the Travellers are still genetically distinct from other Irish populations, which could reflect some external gene flow and/or the action of genetic drift in a small group that was descended from a small number of founders. In order to test the drift hypothesis, we analyzed genetic distances comparing the Travellers to four geographic regions in Ireland. These distances were then compared with adjusted distances that account for differential genetic drift using a method developed by Relethford (Hum Biol 68 (1996) 29-44). The unadjusted distances show the genetic distinctiveness of the Travellers. After adjustment for the expected effects of genetic drift, the Travellers are equidistant from the other Irish samples, showing their Irish origins and population history. The observed genetic differences are thus a reflection of genetic drift, and there is no evidence of any external gene flow.

  8. A contrastive view of Irish language dynamics.

    PubMed

    Giollagáin, Conchúr O

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the linguistic anthropology which underpins the language dynamics of two Gaeltacht (Irish-speaking) areas, Ros Muc in Conamara, Co. Galway and Ráth Cairn in Co. Meath. This research highlights what could be considered a socio-linguistic paradox: the community (Ráth Cairn) which engages more vigorously in language maintenance endeavors, and exhibits a greater awareness of language policy and of linguistic ideology among members of the community, fares less favorably in socio-linguistic terms to the contrasting community (Ros Muc) which has to endure a more challenging socio-economic climate than that of Ráth Cairn. The relative socio-economic success of the Ráth Cairn community appears to be masking a greater malaise of socio-cultural fragility and language endangerment. In contrast, the language obsolescence issues faced by the Ros Muc community, though superficially not as severe, are enmeshed in what would be considered more pressing issues of socio-economic marginalization.

  9. Out-of-School Use of Irish, Motivation and Proficiency in Immersion and Subject-Only Post-Primary Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtagh, Lelia

    2007-01-01

    This study examines out-of-school use of Irish and motivation to learn Irish among final year post-primary students from three different instructional backgrounds: mainstream students studying ordinary and higher level Irish as a subject only and immersion students. Information on motivation and use is linked to student proficiency in Irish.…

  10. Influence of seasonal circulation on flushing of the Irish Sea.

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, T; Hartnett, M; Olbert, A I

    2010-05-01

    We applied a three-dimensional general ocean and coastal circulation model to the Irish Sea in order to determine water renewal time scales in the region. The model was forced with meteorological data for 1995, a year with relatively warm summer and when extensive hydrographic surveys were conducted in the Irish Sea. We investigated intra-annual variability in the rates of net flow through the Irish Sea and carried out several flushing simulations based on conservative tracer transport. The results indicate that the net northward flow of 2.50 km(3)/d is seasonally highly variable and under certain conditions is reversed to southward. The variability in obtained residence times is high; baroclinic effects are significant. Obtained results point at the importance of spatial and temporal consideration for transport of pollutants in the shelf seas. Implications for management are numerous and involve activities such as transport, fishing, use of resources, nature conservation, monitoring, tourism and recreation.

  11. Potato Tuber Callus

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Roy; Varns, Jerry L.; Miller, Karon A.; Talley, Eugene A.

    1976-01-01

    Callus was initiated from explants of tubers of the Norchip cultivar of Solanum tuberosum L. and grown on medium with a single carbon source and without addition of coconut milk, protein hydrolysate, or amino acid. Callus samples were harvested at intervals and compared to mature tubers for which there was good biochemical knowledge. The amino acid spectrum, the glycoalkaloid content, and the properties of the isolated invertase and sucrose synthetase were similar in callus and in tuber. Significantly the level of sucrose synthetase varied with the age of the developing callus just as it did with the age of the developing tuber. Of greater significance, levels of reducing sugars and invertase varied with the age of developing callus and also with time and temperature of storage after the callus has ceased growth. Similar changes occur in intact tubers. Callus and tuber biochemistry differed in the amount of deposited starch and in the absence of potato invertase inhibitor. PMID:16659698

  12. Industrial-type sweet potatoes: a renewable energy source for Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.R.; Smittle, D.A.

    1983-06-01

    Screening sweet potato breeding lines and cultivars for high content of fermentables was more easily accomplished when percent dry weight, rather than percent sugar and starch, was used as the measurement criterion. A regression equation was established to estimate the percent fermentables from dry weight determinations. Percent fermentables and biomass yield can then be used to estimate alcohol-production potential. Considerable variations in alcohol-production potential and biomass yield occurred among genotypes. High biomass yield should be combined with high fermentable carbohydrate content to maximize alcohol-production potential. Many of the high starch-containing industrial-type sweet potatoes meet these requirement better than the table types which were developed for human consumption. Industrial-type sweet potatoes may also be better suited than some other crops for biomass farming if alcohol production becomes a part of Georgia agriculture and if sweet potato production costs can be reduced.

  13. Accumulation and localization of cadmium in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under different soil Cd levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Gu, Lei; Wang, Shuifeng; Li, Yongliang; Dong, Fangli

    2014-06-01

    Phytoavailability and uptake mechanism of Cd in edible plant tissues grown on metal polluted agricultural soils has become a growing concern worldwide. Uptake, transport, accumulation and localization of cadmium in potato organs under different soil Cd levels were investigated using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Results indicated that Cd contents in potato organs increased with increasing soil Cd concentrations, and the order of Cd contents in different organs was leaves > stems/roots > tubers. Root-to-stem Cd translocation coefficients ranged from 0.89 to 1.81. Cd localization in potato tissues suggested that leaves and stems should be the main compartment of Cd storage and uptake. Although low concentrations of Cd migrated from the root to tuber, Cd accumulation in the tuber exceeded the standard for food security. Therefore, the planting of potato plants in farmland containing Cd should be closely evaluated due to its potential to present health risks.

  14. Quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain: Stepwise investigation and the influence of quality standards on losses.

    PubMed

    Willersinn, Christian; Mack, Gabriele; Mouron, Patrik; Keiser, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a stepwise investigation of the quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain. Quantitative data were collected from field trials, from structured interviews with wholesalers, processors and retailers, and from consumer surveys in combination with a 30-day diary study. The "Swiss trade customs for potatoes" pose the basis for the qualitative evaluation of losses. The influences of technological, institutional (business and economy; legislation and policy), and social drivers on the generation of fresh potato and processed potato products losses were assessed. Losses due to quality standards driven by food safety and consumer preferences for certain aesthetic standards have been evaluated too. Across the entire potato value chain, approximately 53-55% of the initial fresh potato production and 41-46% of the initial processing potato production are finally lost. Losses between organic and non-organic supply chains differ from 2% to 5%. From the total initial fresh potato production, 15-24% gets lost during agricultural production, a further 12-24% at wholesalers, 1-3% at retailers, and 15% at private households. In comparison, 5-11% of the initial production gets lost at wholesalers, a further 14-15% during processing, 0% at retailers, and 2% at private households. Losses during agricultural production do not vary much (13-25%) between fresh and processing potatoes. Approximately half of total potato losses occur because potatoes do not meet quality standards. 25-34% of these quality-driven losses are caused by food safety reasons, and the remainder are caused by consumer preferences or suitability for storage. In total, social drivers (e.g., consumer preferences, behavior, or socio-demographical factors) are responsible for two-thirds to three-fourths of all fresh potato losses and 40-45% of all processing potato losses. Technological drivers cause circa one-third of the total processing potato losses. The

  15. Organoleptic damage classification of potatoes with the use of image analysis in production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.; Lewicki, A.

    2014-04-01

    In the agro-food sector security it is required the safety of a healthy food. Therefore, the farms are inspected by the quality standards of production in all sectors of production. Farms must meet the requirements dictated by the legal regulations in force in the European Union. Currently, manufacturers are seeking to make their food products have become unbeatable. This gives you the chance to form their own brand on the market. In addition, they use technologies that can increase the scale of production. Moreover, in the manufacturing process they tend to maintain a high level of quality of their products. Potatoes may be included in this group of agricultural products. Potatoes have become one of the major and popular edible plants. Globally, potatoes are used for consumption at 60%, Poland 40%. This is due to primarily advantages, consumer and nutritional qualities. Potatoes are easy to digest. Medium sized potato bigger than 60 mm in diameter contains only about 60 calories and very little fat. Moreover, it is the source of many vitamins such as vitamin C, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin E, etc. [1]. The parameters of quality consumer form, called organoleptic sensory properties, are evaluated by means of sensory organs by using the point method. The most important are: flavor, flesh color, darkening of the tuber flesh when raw and after cooking. In the production process it is important to adequate, relevant and accurate preparing potatoes for use and sale. Evaluation of the quality of potatoes is determined on the basis of organoleptic quality standards for potatoes. Therefore, there is a need to automate this process. To do this, use the appropriate tools, image analysis and classification models using artificial neural networks that will help assess the quality of potatoes [2, 3, 4].

  16. Genetic fingerprinting of potato varieties from the Northwest Potato Variety Development Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Northwest Potato Variety Development Program using conventional breeding has successfully released more than 40 improved varieties of potato since its inception in 1983. Potato breeders rely primarily on morphological and phenotypic data for selection and breeding of potato cultivars. With the a...

  17. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... largest type used in the words “potato chips.” ... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  18. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... largest type used in the words “potato chips.” ... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  19. Population Structure of the Late Blight Pathogen Phytophthora infestans in a Potato Germplasm Nursery in Two Consecutive Years.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuee; Yin, Junliang; Sun, Jieping; Ma, Hongmei; Ma, Yunfang; Quan, Junli; Shan, Weixing

    2015-06-01

    As the causal agent of late blight on potato, Phytophthora infestans is one of the most destructive plant pathogens worldwide and widely known as the Irish potato famine pathogen. Understanding the genetic structure of P. infestans populations is important both for breeding and deployment of resistant varieties and for development of disease control strategies. Here, we investigate the population genetic structure of P. infestans in a potato germplasm nursery in northwestern China. In total, 279 isolates were recovered from 63 potato varieties or lines in 2010 and 2011, and were genotyped by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and a set of nine simple-sequence repeat markers. Selected isolates were further examined for virulence on a set of differential lines containing each resistance (R) gene (R1 to R11). The overall P. infestans population was characterized as having a low level of genetic diversity and resistance to metalaxyl, and containing a high percentage of individuals that virulent to all 11 R genes. Both A1 and A2 mating types as well as self-fertile P. infestans isolates were present but there was no evidence of sexual reproduction. The low level of genetic differentiation in P. infestans populations is probably due to the action of relatively high levels of migration as supported by analysis of molecular variance (P < 0.01). Migration and asexual reproduction were the predominant mechanisms influencing the P. infestans population structure in the germplasm nursery. Therefore, it is important to ensure the production of pathogen-free potato seed tubers to aid sustainable production of potato in northwestern China.

  20. Resisting Focalisation, Gaining Empathy: Swedish Teenagers Read Irish Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjällström, Eva; Kokkola, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Resisting the will to empathise with a focalised character is assumed to be difficult for young readers, yet empirical evidence on how they actually respond is limited. This paper combines recent insights gleaned from cognitive literary studies with a small-scale empirical study of thirty-five Swedish adolescents reading an Irish short story in…

  1. Introducing Farouk's Process Consultation Group Approach in Irish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Marie; Stringer, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that teacher consultation groups increase teachers' behaviour management skills through discussion and collaborative problem-solving. Unlike the United Kingdom, at the time of this research consultation groups were not widely used in Irish schools. This research introduced Farouk's process consultation approach in three Irish…

  2. Teaching about the Great Irish Famine: A Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Maureen

    2002-01-01

    Provides responses to two articles featured in this issue of the Social Science Docket: (1) "Demythologizing Subject Matter: Teaching Ireland in the Curriculum" (David Cowell); and (2) "Review of the New York State Great Irish Famine Curriculum Guide" (Kevin Sheehan). (CMK)

  3. Irish Educational Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1986-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKernan, Jim, Ed.; And Others

    This document contains 14 papers, written by Irish scholars, that consider educational history, sociology, philosophy, comparisons, curricula, and measurements. Six of the papers address various aspects of the history of education in Ireland. Lorcan Walsh analyzes the theme of nationalism in the Christian Brothers' textbooks, and Aine Hyland…

  4. Bereavement Support in an Acute Hospital: An Irish Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Trish; Foreman, Maeve; Curry, Philip; O'Driscoll, Siobhan; McCormack, Martin

    2008-01-01

    In the first Irish study to examine a hospital-based bereavement care program, 1 year's cohort of bereaved people was surveyed. A response rate of over 40% provided 339 completed questionnaires from bereaved next-of-kin. The findings suggest that a tiered pyramid model of bereavement care (the Beaumont model) may be functional in a number of ways.…

  5. Patterns of Sedentary Behaviours in Irish Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Aine; Heary, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in excessive sedentary behaviour represents a health risk for adolescents. The current study aimed to investigate patterns of sedentary behaviour amongst Irish female adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years old. 314 adolescents completed a questionnaire on their sedentary behaviour habits, health behaviours (physical activity, smoking,…

  6. The Efficacy of Entrepreneurship Education: Perspectives of Irish Graduate Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Mary; Barry, Almar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the views of Irish graduate entrepreneurs on the efficacy of entrepreneurship education in fostering their development as entrepreneurs. It answers three key questions: (a) what was the graduate entrepreneurs' experience of undergraduate entrepreneurship education; (b) what was the graduate entrepreneurs'…

  7. Irish Post-Primary Students' Attitudes towards Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tormey, Roland; Gleeson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The changing ethnic make-up of Irish society has impacted upon schools. Existing, largely qualitative studies have highlighted mixed attitudes towards ethnic minorities. Literature has also focused on the role of the state in articulating a discourse that shapes school-level responses to minorities. This paper critiques the idea of a unitary state…

  8. Neo-Liberalism, Irish Society and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnegan, Fergal

    2008-01-01

    This article offers an overview of recent international scholarship on neo-liberalism in particular the work of the geographer and historian David Harvey and the recent books of the educationalist Henry Giroux. It begins with a brief historical account of neo-liberalism and outlines the main characteristics of the free market era. Irish society…

  9. Towards a Generative Phonology of the Modern Irish Noun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigger, Arndt

    1973-01-01

    Revised version of Komplexe Regelmerkmale in der Morphologie des Irischen'' (Complex Rule Characteristics in Irish Morphology), a paper presented at a meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea, Prague, Czechoslovakia, October 10, 1970; present paper presented at the Dublin Linguistic Circle, January 10, 1971. (DD)

  10. Personal Development in Secondary Education: The Irish Transition Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clerkin, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    Secondary education in Ireland includes an optional Transition Year (TY) between the junior and senior examination cycles, when students are typically about 15 years old. Transition Year is an innovative programme, unique to Irish education, which is intended as a non-academic year devoted to personal and social development in the absence of…

  11. 214. View of grade separation structure at Irish Gap over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    214. View of grade separation structure at Irish Gap over Virginia Route 605. This single span structure, built in 1950, is a good example of a rigid-frame grade separation over a secondary state road. It was constructed of reinforced concrete with a 24 to 48 thick stone veneer. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  12. Irish Educational Studies, Vol. 5, Nos. 1 and 2, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coolahan, John, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Irish Educational Studies" focuses on curriculum and learning issues and includes: (1) "Aesthetic Perspectives in Curriculum Reform" (D. Murphy); (2) "Drama: Less Talk, More Action" (M. Drury); (3)" Out of Tune with Reality: Music and the School in Ireland" (M. O'Suilleabhain); (4)…

  13. The Tale of Red Emmy: An Irish Witch in Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagaman, Gena D.

    The Appalachian "Tale of Red Emmy" presented in the novel "Oral History" by Lee Smith (1983), reveals both an Irish origin and an American transformation. Granny Younger, one of Smith's narrators, tells of a curse visited on four generations of the Cantrell family after Almarine Cantrell chanced upon the witch Red Emmy in the…

  14. Intelligibility and Comprehensibility of American and Irish Englishes in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuura, Hiroko; Chiba, Reiko; Fujieda, Miho

    1999-01-01

    Examined the effect of familiarity with different English accents, investigating Japanese college students' intelligibility and comprehensibility judgements of familiar and unfamiliar English (American and Irish English). Results indicated that familiarity and exposure contributed to higher perceived comprehensibility, but not necessarily to…

  15. The Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Styles of Irish Immigrant Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Helen G.

    2010-01-01

    The research on child developmental outcomes underscores the importance of exploring parenting styles and identifying their multifactorial and intergenerational influences. This descriptive study examined the individual parenting styles of a sample of 82 Irish immigrant mothers and investigated the factors that influenced their individual…

  16. Derivational Morphology of the Early Irish Verbal Noun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Randall Clark

    2012-01-01

    As is well known, the Insular Celtic languages (Irish, Scots Gaelic, Welsh, Breton and the now-extinct Manx and Cornish) utilize a class of verbal abstracts known as "verbal nouns" to perform the functions that are fulfilled in other Indo-European languages by infinitives and supines. Yet in many ways the Celtic verbal noun remains somewhat of an…

  17. Potato Types: Their Characteristics and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents material for a talk and demonstration about the relationship of potato types to their different uses by consumers and processors. Includes background information for the instructor and discussions to accompany classroom exercises. Discusses the history of the potato, potato types and external characteristics, and internal characteristics…

  18. Effects of plastic mulch on potato growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Northern China is a major potato production region, and water-saving measures that can enhance both potato yield and quality play an important role in this region due to general water shortages. Plastic mulch has been used as an effective water-saving measure for potato cultivation in China. This ch...

  19. Liberibacter transmission efficiency among potato psyllid haplotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known on the mechanisms by which the potato psyllid transmits Lso t...

  20. Acoustic Measurement of Potato Cannon Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Potato cannon velocity can be measured with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle, and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. Flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato…

  1. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  2. Reinventing potato at the diploid level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are positioned to revolutionize potato by reconstructing it as a diploid inbred-line based crop. Currently, potato is an asexually propagated cross-pollinated tetraploid crop, for which breeding methodologies have not changed substantially in 100 years. Current methods for creating new potato cul...

  3. Potato psyllid genome and metagenome project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) is a Hemipteran pest of solanaceous plants and limits potato and tomato production by the transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Genomic information on the potato psyllid is limited but is vital in developing appropriate management strategi...

  4. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Millam, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a globally important crop plant producing high yields of nutritionally valuable food in the form of tubers. It has been the focus of substantial study because of its use both as a staple food crop and as a potentially significant source of compounds of interest. This has included the development and application of transgenic technology for introducing novel traits of fundamental and applied interest. This chapter describes a rapid, efficient, and cost-effective system for the routine transformation of this crop plant at rates above 40% efficiency, calculated as the mean number of Southern blot- confirmed independent transgenics per number of internodal explants originally plated. Internodal sections are co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens and subjected to a two-stage callus induction/shoot outgrowth system under kanamycin selection. Shoot regeneration rates are high using the described method, and excised independent shoots rooting from the cut end of the stem after two further subcultures on kanamycin are 95% certain to be transformed. The transgenic status can be confirmed by molecular analysis and the plants grown on for tuber production enabling a wide spectrum of further studies.

  5. Genomic insights into the population structure and history of the Irish Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Edmund; Carmi, Shai; Ennis, Sean; Wilson, James F.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.

    2017-01-01

    The Irish Travellers are a population with a history of nomadism; consanguineous unions are common and they are socially isolated from the surrounding, ‘settled’ Irish people. Low-resolution genetic analysis suggests a common Irish origin between the settled and the Traveller populations. What is not known, however, is the extent of population structure within the Irish Travellers, the time of divergence from the general Irish population, or the extent of autozygosity. Using a sample of 50 Irish Travellers, 143 European Roma, 2232 settled Irish, 2039 British and 6255 European or world-wide individuals, we demonstrate evidence for population substructure within the Irish Traveller population, and estimate a time of divergence before the Great Famine of 1845–1852. We quantify the high levels of autozygosity, which are comparable to levels previously described in Orcadian 1st/2nd cousin offspring, and finally show the Irish Traveller population has no particular genetic links to the European Roma. The levels of autozygosity and distinct Irish origins have implications for disease mapping within Ireland, while the population structure and divergence inform on social history. PMID:28181990

  6. Genomic insights into the population structure and history of the Irish Travellers.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Edmund; Carmi, Shai; Ennis, Sean; Wilson, James F; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L

    2017-02-09

    The Irish Travellers are a population with a history of nomadism; consanguineous unions are common and they are socially isolated from the surrounding, 'settled' Irish people. Low-resolution genetic analysis suggests a common Irish origin between the settled and the Traveller populations. What is not known, however, is the extent of population structure within the Irish Travellers, the time of divergence from the general Irish population, or the extent of autozygosity. Using a sample of 50 Irish Travellers, 143 European Roma, 2232 settled Irish, 2039 British and 6255 European or world-wide individuals, we demonstrate evidence for population substructure within the Irish Traveller population, and estimate a time of divergence before the Great Famine of 1845-1852. We quantify the high levels of autozygosity, which are comparable to levels previously described in Orcadian 1(st)/2(nd) cousin offspring, and finally show the Irish Traveller population has no particular genetic links to the European Roma. The levels of autozygosity and distinct Irish origins have implications for disease mapping within Ireland, while the population structure and divergence inform on social history.

  7. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  8. Potato spindle tuber viroid detection in phloem exudates and guttation fluid of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is a single-stranded, non protein-encoding, covalently-closed circular RNA molecule (359nt) that infects many horticultural and agricultural crops. PSTVd is mechanically transmitted, replicates in the nucleus, and moves cell-to-cell through plasmodesmata. Though i...

  9. A new index to assess nitrogen dynamics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production systems of Bolivia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bolivia is the poorest country in South America with over 80% of the rural population under the poverty line. Agricultural productivity is closely correlated with poverty levels across rural Bolivia. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important crops for food security in Bolivia and th...

  10. Modeling potato root growth and water uptake under water stress conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) growth and yield are sensitive to drought starting at mild stress levels. Accurate simulation of root growth is critical for estimating water and nutrient uptake dynamics of major crops and improving agricultural decision support tools for natural resource management. ...

  11. Adding sweet potato vines improve the quality of rice straw silage.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Ji, Shuren; Wang, Qian; Qin, Mengzhen; Hou, Chen; Shen, Yixin

    2016-08-23

    Rice straw and sweet potato vines are the main by-products of agricultural crops, and their disposal creates problems for the environment in the south of China. In order to establish an easy method for making rice straw silage successfully, experiments were conduct to evaluate fermentation quality and nutritive value of rice straw silages ensiled with or without sweet potato vine. Paddy rice straw (PR) and upland rice straw (UP) were ensiled alone or with sweet potato vines (SP) by a ratio of 1:1 (fresh matter basis), over 3 years. Compared with rice straw silages ensiled alone, the mixed-material silages (PR + SP, UR + SP) showed higher fermentation quality with lower propionic acid content and NH3 -N ratio of total N, and higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of lactic acid and acetic acid, resulting in decrease (P < 0.05) of dry matter loss and higher (P < 0.05) in vitro ruminal dry matter digestion. When the fermentation quality, chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics were considered, ensiling would be an effective way of utilization of rice straw and sweet potato vines in the regions where rice and sweet potato are harvested at same season, and the sweet potato vines have the potential to improve rice straw fermentation quality with low water soluble carbohydrate content in south of China.

  12. Persistence of metalaxyl and mancozeb on potato leaves and their residues in tubers.

    PubMed

    Wani, A Alam; Rewal, H S; Sahoo, Sanjay; Singh, Balwinder; Bhat, J Amad

    2012-01-01

    The persistence of fungicides on two commercial cultivars of potato was determined under field conditions at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab. Initial deposits of mancozeb on potato leaves were found to be 26.9 and 38.7 mg kg(-1), following application of ready mixture of fungicide metalaxyl 8% + mancozeb 64% (Ridomil MZ) at the rate of 1260 and 2520 g a.i. ha(-1), whereas metalaxyl residues were found to be 35.1 and 49.5 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residue level of mancozeb in potato leaves 15 days after application at single and double doze were 19.0 and 27.0 mg kg(-1) showing a loss of 29.6 and 30.3%, whereas the values for metalaxyl at single and double doze were 0.40 and 0.80 mg kg(-1) showing a loss of 98.9 and 98.4%, respectively. Residues of mancozeb and metalaxyl were not detected at 0.04 and 0.02 mg kg(-1) level in potato tubers at harvest (PHI = 53 days) at both the dosages, respectively. The persistence and dissipation of mancozeb with the application of Ridomil MZ followed similar trend as in Indofil M-45. The rate of fungicide dissipation increased with time after application in both the potato cultivars 'Kufri Chandramukhi' and 'Chipsona'. No significant difference was observed on initial deposit, persistence and dissipation of the two molecules between the two potato cultivars.

  13. Potato in the age of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Ewen; Milbourne, Dan; Petti, Carlo; Doyle-Prestwich, Barbara M; Meade, Conor

    2006-05-01

    Biotechnology-based tools are now widely used to enhance and expand the traditional remit of potato in food production. By modifying its functionality, the capacity of the potato to produce, for example, therapeutic or industrial compounds is now a reality, and its ability to resist disease can also be radically improved. Two developments have been crucial to expanding the role of potato: the recent advances in the fields of structural and functional potato genomics and the ability to integrate genes of interest into the potato genome. In this review we discuss how both developments have diversified the remit of this crop.

  14. Explaining Andean Potato Weevils in Relation to Local and Landscape Features: A Facilitated Ecoinformatics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; Ccanto, Raúl; Olivera, Edgar; Scurrah, María; Alcázar, Jesús; Rosenheim, Jay A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pest impact on an agricultural field is jointly influenced by local and landscape features. Rarely, however, are these features studied together. The present study applies a “facilitated ecoinformatics” approach to jointly screen many local and landscape features of suspected importance to Andean potato weevils (Premnotrypes spp.), the most serious pests of potatoes in the high Andes. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated a comprehensive list of predictors of weevil damage, including both local and landscape features deemed important by farmers and researchers. To test their importance, we assembled an observational dataset measuring these features across 138 randomly-selected potato fields in Huancavelica, Peru. Data for local features were generated primarily by participating farmers who were trained to maintain records of their management operations. An information theoretic approach to modeling the data resulted in 131,071 models, the best of which explained 40.2–46.4% of the observed variance in infestations. The best model considering both local and landscape features strongly outperformed the best models considering them in isolation. Multi-model inferences confirmed many, but not all of the expected patterns, and suggested gaps in local knowledge for Andean potato weevils. The most important predictors were the field's perimeter-to-area ratio, the number of nearby potato storage units, the amount of potatoes planted in close proximity to the field, and the number of insecticide treatments made early in the season. Conclusions/Significance Results underscored the need to refine the timing of insecticide applications and to explore adjustments in potato hilling as potential control tactics for Andean weevils. We believe our study illustrates the potential of ecoinformatics research to help streamline IPM learning in agricultural learning collaboratives. PMID:22693551

  15. Trends in cow numbers and culling rate in the Irish cattle population, 2003 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Cows are the main economic production units of Ireland's cattle industry. Therefore, demographic information, including overall numbers and survival rates, are relevant to the Irish agricultural industry. However, few data are available on the demographics of cows within a national population, either in Ireland or elsewhere, despite the recent development of comprehensive national cattle databases in many EU Member States. This study has sought: to determine the rate of cow culling from the national herd; to determine the rate of culling by type (dairy, beef), age, method of exit, date of exit and interval between last calving and exit; to calculate the national cow on-farm mortality rate; and to compare the Irish rates with published data from other countries. This work was conducted using data recorded in the national Cattle Movement Monitoring System (CMMS). Culling refers to the exit of cows from the national herd, as a result of death but regardless of reason, and cow-culling rate was calculated as the number of cow exits (as defined above) each year divided by the number of calf births in the same year. Culling rate was determined by type (dairy or beef), date of birth, method of exit (slaughter or on-farm death), month of exit and interval between last calving and exit. The average cow-culling rate during 2003 to 2006 was 19.6% (21.3% for dairy, 18% for beef). While comparisons must be treated with caution, it concluded that the overall rates of culling in Ireland fell within published internationally accepted norms. The on-farm mortality rate of 3.2-4.1% was similar to that reported in comparable studies. PMID:21851717

  16. 7 CFR 945.13 - Grade and size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... and size. Grade means any one of the officially established grades of potatoes, and size means any one of the officially established sizes of potatoes, as defined and set forth in: (a) The United...

  17. 7 CFR 945.20 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... § 945.20 Establishment and membership. (a) The Idaho-Eastern Oregon Potato Committee is hereby established consisting of eight members, of whom four shall currently be producers of potatoes for the...

  18. 7 CFR 953.322 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., starch, and flour. It includes only that preparation of potatoes for market which involves the... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN... ending July 31 each season, no person shall ship any lot of potatoes produced in the production...

  19. 7 CFR 953.322 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., starch, and flour. It includes only that preparation of potatoes for market which involves the... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN... ending July 31 each season, no person shall ship any lot of potatoes produced in the production...

  20. 7 CFR 948.386 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., starch, and flour. It includes only that preparation of potatoes for market which involves the... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Handling Regulations § 948.386 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of potatoes grown...

  1. 7 CFR 948.386 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., starch, and flour. It includes only that preparation of potatoes for market which involves the... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Handling Regulations § 948.386 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of potatoes grown...

  2. 7 CFR 948.386 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... is not restricted to, potatoes for dehydration, chips, shoestrings, starch, and flour. It includes... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Handling Regulations § 948.386 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of potatoes grown...

  3. 7 CFR 948.386 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... is not restricted to, potatoes for dehydration, chips, shoestrings, starch, and flour. It includes... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Handling Regulations § 948.386 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of potatoes grown...

  4. 7 CFR 953.322 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., starch, and flour. It includes only that preparation of potatoes for market which involves the... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN... ending July 31 each season, no person shall ship any lot of potatoes produced in the production...

  5. 7 CFR 948.386 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., starch, and flour. It includes only that preparation of potatoes for market which involves the... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Handling Regulations § 948.386 Handling regulation. No person shall handle any lot of potatoes grown...

  6. 7 CFR 953.322 - Handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., starch, and flour. It includes only that preparation of potatoes for market which involves the... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN... ending July 31 each season, no person shall ship any lot of potatoes produced in the production...

  7. 7 CFR 945.13 - Grade and size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... and size. Grade means any one of the officially established grades of potatoes, and size means any one of the officially established sizes of potatoes, as defined and set forth in: (a) The United...

  8. 7 CFR 945.20 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... § 945.20 Establishment and membership. (a) The Idaho-Eastern Oregon Potato Committee is hereby established consisting of eight members, of whom four shall currently be producers of potatoes for the...

  9. 7 CFR 945.13 - Grade and size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... and size. Grade means any one of the officially established grades of potatoes, and size means any one of the officially established sizes of potatoes, as defined and set forth in: (a) The United...

  10. 7 CFR 945.25 - Nominations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...-Eastern Oregon Potato Committee, nominations may be made in the manner indicated in this section... or handles potatoes, each such person is entitled to cast only one vote on behalf of himself,...

  11. 7 CFR 945.20 - Establishment and membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... § 945.20 Establishment and membership. (a) The Idaho-Eastern Oregon Potato Committee is hereby established consisting of eight members, of whom four shall currently be producers of potatoes for the...

  12. 7 CFR 945.13 - Grade and size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... and size. Grade means any one of the officially established grades of potatoes, and size means any one of the officially established sizes of potatoes, as defined and set forth in: (a) The United...

  13. The evolution of potato breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cultivars in most regions of the world are tetraploid and clonally propagated. For over a century, the breeding strategy has been phenotypic recurrent selection. However, the polyploid nature of the crop prevents breeders from eliminating deleterious alleles and assembling positive alleles fo...

  14. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  15. Scurvy in the Great Irish Famine: evidence of vitamin C deficiency from a mid-19th century skeletal population.

    PubMed

    Geber, Jonny; Murphy, Eileen

    2012-08-01

    Scurvy has increasingly been recognized in archaeological populations since the 1980s but this study represents the first examination of the paleopathological findings of scurvy in a known famine population. The Great Famine (1845-1852) was a watershed in Irish history and resulted in the death of one million people and the mass emigration of just as many. It was initiated by a blight which completely wiped out the potato-virtually the only source of food for the poor of Ireland. This led to mass starvation and a widespread occurrence of infectious and metabolic diseases. A recent discovery of 970 human skeletons from mass burials dating to the height of the famine in Kilkenny City (1847-1851) provided an opportunity to study the skeletal manifestations of scurvy-a disease that became widespread at this time due to the sudden lack of Vitamin C which had previously almost exclusively been provided by the potato. A three-scale diagnostic reliance approach has been employed as a statistical aid for diagnosing the disease in the population. A biocultural approach was adopted to enable the findings to be contextualized and the etiology and impact of the disease explored. The results indicate that scurvy indirectly influenced famine-induced mortality. A sex and stature bias is evident among adults in which males and taller individuals displayed statistically significantly higher levels of scorbutic lesions. The findings have also suggested that new bone formation at the foramen rotundum is a diagnostic criterion for the paleopathological identification of scurvy, particularly among juveniles.

  16. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  17. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  18. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  19. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  20. 7 CFR 948.9 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.9 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production...

  1. 7 CFR 946.8 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.8 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production...

  2. 7 CFR 947.18 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.18 District. District means each one of the geographical divisions of the production...

  3. 7 CFR 946.8 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.8 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production...

  4. 7 CFR 948.9 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.9 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production...

  5. 7 CFR 947.18 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.18 District. District means each one of the geographical divisions of the production...

  6. Trauma and PTSD rates in an irish psychiatric population

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Fiona E; Hennessy, Eilis; Dooley, Barbara; Kelly, Brendan D; Ryan, Dermot A

    2013-01-01

    Although Western mental health services are increasingly finding themselves concerned with assisting traumatized individuals migrating from other countries, trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are under-detected and undiagnosed in psychiatric populations. This study examined and compared rates of traumatic experiences, frequency of traumatic events, trauma symptomatology levels, rates of torture, rates of PTSD and chart documentation of trauma and PTSD between (a) Irish and migrant service-users and (b) forced migrant and voluntary migrant service-users in Dublin, Ireland. Data were gathered from 178 psychiatric outpatients attending using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Revised Cambodian Version and the SCID-I/P. A substantial number of service-users had experienced at least one lifetime trauma (71.3%), and a high percentage of both the Irish (47.4%) and migrant groups (70.3%) of service-users had experienced two or more events. Overall, analyses comparing rates between Irish, forced migrant and voluntary migrant service-users found that forced migrants displayed more traumatic life events, posttraumatic symptoms, and higher levels of PTSD than their voluntary migrant and Irish counterparts, with over 50% experiencing torture prior to arrival in Ireland. The lifetime rate of PTSD in the overall sample was 15.7% but only 53.57% of cases were documented in patient charts. The results of this study are informative about the nature and extent of the problem of trauma and PTSD among migrant mental health service users as well as highlighting the under-detected levels of trauma among native-born service users. PMID:28228990

  7. Uncovering the glacial history of the Irish continental shelf (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, P.; Benetti, S.; OCofaigh, C.

    2013-12-01

    In 1999 the Irish Government initiated a €32 million survey of its territorial waters known as the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS). The INSS is amongst the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken anywhere in the world and provides high-resolution multibeam, backscatter and seismic data of the seabed around Ireland. These data have been used to provide the first clear evidence for extensive glaciation of the continental shelf west and northwest of Ireland. Streamlined drumlins on the mid to outer shelf record former offshore-directed ice flow towards the shelf edge and show that the ice sheet was grounded in a zone of confluence where ice flowing onto the shelf from northwest Ireland merged with ice flowing across the Malin Shelf from southwest Scotland. The major glacial features on the shelf are well developed nested arcuate moraine systems that mark the position of the ice sheet margin and confirm that the former British Irish Ice Sheet was grounded as far as the shelf edge around 100 km offshore of west Donegal at the last glacial maximum. Distal to the moraines, on the outermost shelf, prominent zones of iceberg plough marks give way to the Barra/Donegal fan and a well developed system of gullies and canyons which incise the continental slope. Since 2008 several scientific cruises have retrieved cores from the shelf and slope to help build a more detailed understanding of glacial events in this region. This presentation will provide an overview of the glacial history of the Irish shelf and will discuss ongoing research programmes that are building on the initial research findings to produce a better understanding of the nature and timing of ice sheet events in this region.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Potato Intensification Drives Insecticide Resistance in the Specialist Herbivore, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    PubMed Central

    Huseth, Anders S.; Petersen, Jessica D.; Poveda, Katja; Szendrei, Zsofia; Nault, Brian A.; Kennedy, George G.; Groves, Russell L.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape-scale intensification of individual crops and pesticide use that is associated with this intensification is an emerging, environmental problem that is expected to have unequal effects on pests with different lifecycles, host ranges, and dispersal abilities. We investigate if intensification of a single crop in an agroecosystem has a direct effect on insecticide resistance in a specialist insect herbivore. Using a major potato pest, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, we measured imidacloprid (neonicotinoid) resistance in populations across a spatiotemporal crop production gradient where potato production has increased in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA. We found that concurrent estimates of area and temporal frequency of potato production better described patterns of imidacloprid resistance among L. decemlineata populations than general measures of agricultural production (% cropland, landscape diversity). This study defines the effects individual crop rotation patterns can have on specialist herbivore insecticide resistance in an agroecosystem context, and how impacts of intensive production can be estimated with general estimates of insecticide use. Our results provide empirical evidence that variation in the intensity of neonicotinoid-treated potato in an agricultural landscape can have unequal impacts on L. decemlineata insecticide insensitivity, a process that can lead to resistance and locally intensive insecticide use. Our study provides a novel approach applicable in other agricultural systems to estimate impacts of crop rotation, increased pesticide dependence, insecticide resistance, and external costs of pest management practices on ecosystem health. PMID:26030877

  9. Point-of-care testing for HIV in an Irish prison setting: results from three major Irish prisons.

    PubMed

    Bannan, Ciaran L; Lynch, Pamela A; Conroy, Emmett P; O'Dea, Siobhan; Surah, Saloni; Betts-Symonds, Graham; Lyons, Fiona E

    2016-10-01

    HIV is more prevalent in the prison population compared to the general population. Prison inmates are at an increased risk of blood-borne infections. Considerable stigma has been documented amongst inmates with HIV infection. In collaboration with the schools, healthcare facilities, prison authorities and inmate Irish Red Cross groups in Wheatfield, Cloverhill and Mountjoy prisons in Dublin, Ireland, the Department of Genito Urinary Medicine and Infectious Diseases at St James' Hospital in Dublin developed a campaign for raising awareness of HIV, educating inmates about HIV and tackling HIV stigma. Following this campaign, large-scale point-of-care testing for HIV was offered over a short period. In total, 741 inmates were screened for HIV. One inmate tested positive for HIV. We experienced a large number of invalid test results, requiring formal laboratory serum testing, and a small number of false positive results. Large-scale point-of-care testing in the Irish prison setting is acceptable and achievable.

  10. Correspondence of Charles Darwin on James Torbitt's project to breed blight-resistance potatoes.

    PubMed

    DeArce, M

    2008-01-01

    The most prolific of Darwin's correspondents from Ireland was James Torbitt, an enterprising grocer and wine merchant of 58 North Street, Belfast. Between February 1876 and March 1882, 141 letters were exchanged on the feasibility and ways of supporting one of Torbitt's commercial projects, the large-scale production and distribution of true potato seeds (Solan um tuberosum) to produce plants resistant to the late blight fungus Phytophthora infestans, the cause of repeated potato crop failures and thus the Irish famines in the nineteenth century. Ninety-three of these letters were exchanged between Torbitt and Darwin, and 48 between Darwin and third parties, seeking or offering help and advice on the project. Torbitt's project required selecting the small proportion of plants in an infested field that survived the infection, and using those as parents to produce seeds. This was a direct application of Darwin's principle of selection. Darwin cautiously lobbied high-ranking civil servants in London to obtain government funding for the project, and also provided his own personal financial support to Torbit.

  11. Emerging diversity in Potato virus Y poses new challenges for the U.S. potato industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently tobacco and potato tuber necrotic strains of Potato virus Y (PVY) were considered to be absent from the U.S., and seed certification programs were able to limit PVY incidence in seed potatoes. PVY has become more problematic in recent years and beginning in 2002, necrotic strains of P...

  12. Organic potato production – seed potato production and participatory variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are vegetatively propagated, thus many pathogens can be transmitted in seed potatoes and affect the subsequent crop. Certified seed potatoes, which are inspected to ensure that pathogen levels are below a specified threshold, provide effective control of most tuber-borne diseases. Organic g...

  13. The role of entanglement concentration on the hydrodynamic properties of potato and sweet potato starches.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Hu, Jian; Zhang, Juanjuan; Du, Xianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The hydrodynamic properties of potato starch and sweet potato starch in dilute and semi-dilute aqueous solutions were studied using a Ubbelohde viscometer, a transmission electron microscope, and steady shear rheological measurements. The results indicated that the potato starch solutions showed a linear shape of the ηred versus c curves. The sweet potato starch solutions presented a non-linear shape with a downturn in dilute solutions, or the concentrations were lower than entanglement concentration (ce). The ce values of the potato and sweet potato starch solutions were 0.43% and 0.54%, respectively. These findings indicated that the impact of the ce value on the network formation of the potato starch solutions was much more significant compared with the impact on the sweet potato starch solutions. The potato and sweet potato starch solutions showed shear thinning behaviour hardly occurs when the concentrations were less than ce, while shear thinning behaviour approached when the concentrations were equal to or greater than ce. Similarly, the potato and sweet potato starch solutions rarely resembled a pseudoplastic state when the concentrations were lower than or equal to ce, while the pseudoplastic behaviour developed when the concentrations were higher than ce.

  14. What is the source of potato psyllids colonizing Washington, Oregon, and Idaho potato fields?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing zebra chip disease in the potato growing regions of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is complicated by confusion about the geographic source of the insect vector (potato psyllid) as it colonizes potato fields in these growing regions. Not knowing the source of the vector makes it difficult fo...

  15. Assessing potato psyllid haplotypes in potato crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc), is a vector of the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) that has been linked to the economically devastating zebra chip disease of potato. To date, four haplotypes of the potato psyllid have been identified and include Central, We...

  16. Training Cubs for the Celtic Tiger: The Volume Production of Technical Graduates in the Irish Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickham, James; Boucher, Gerard W.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the claim that the Irish educational system was one cause of Ireland's rapid economic growth in the 1990s. For decades Irish economic policy has assumed that economic growth depended on foreign direct investment (FDI). During the 1990s, Irish exports largely comprised high-technology manufacturing products; foreign-owned…

  17. 22 CFR 41.57 - International cultural exchange visitors and visitors under the Irish Peace Process Cultural and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... visitors under the Irish Peace Process Cultural and Training Program Act (IPPCTPA). 41.57 Section 41.57... visitors and visitors under the Irish Peace Process Cultural and Training Program Act (IPPCTPA). (a... operation of the Irish Peace Process Cultural and Training Program (IPPCTP) which establishes at a...

  18. An unexpected cause of anaphylaxis: potato.

    PubMed

    Eke Gungor, H; Uytun, S; Murat Sahiner, U; Altuner Torun, Y

    2016-07-01

    Immediate reactions against contact to raw potato has been reported in adults with generally being in the form of an oral contact dermatitis or contact urticaria, but it may also manifest as rhinitis symptoms, wheezing or even anaphylaxis. Cooked or raw potato allergy has been rarely reported in children as some is being immediate and others being late reactions, and it usually results from ingestion. Herein, we report two cases with a background of allergic diseases developed anaphylaxis one with cooked potato and the other one with raw potato.

  19. The carry-through of residues of thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham from potatoes following manufacture into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D J; Thorpe, S A; Reynolds, S L

    1996-01-01

    Potatoes, commercially treated with thiabendazole, tecnazene and chlorpropham, were processed into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps at a crisp factory using standard manufacturing conditions. A multi-residue method based on gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was developed and used to determine pesticide residue levels in the potatoes and potato crisps. Results showed that the residues of all three pesticides were significantly reduced to less than 2% and less than 10% of the maximum theoretical residue carry-through level for potato crisps and jacket potato crisps respectively.

  20. The Social-Interaction Learning Styles of Irish Adult Learners: Some Empirical Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Fathaigh, Mairtin

    An action research project was conducted to understand the learning style profile of Irish adult learners better and to integrate the findings into development seminars for adult education teachers and tutors. The Grasha-Riechmann Student Learning Styles Scale (GRSLSS) was chosen as the research instrument to explore Irish adults' learning styles…

  1. History and National Identity Construction: The Great Famine in Irish and Ukrainian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the narratives on the Famine in Irish and Ukrainian history textbooks and examines to what extent these narratives are colored by a nationalist discourse. It argues that the story of the Famine in Irish history textbooks has changed from nationalist propaganda to a more balanced narrative, and that this change was brought about…

  2. Key Influencing Factors behind Moodle Adoption in Irish Small to Medium Sized Higher Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David; Livadas, Lelia; Miles, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated Irish Small to Medium Sized Educational Institutions (SMSEs) involved in Higher Education (HE) that adopted Moodle, the OSS (Open Source Software) course management system (CMS). As Moodle has only been adopted in the Irish HE sector in the last 5-7 years, this research crucially studied the attitudes of the SMSEs that…

  3. Irish Education for the 21st Century. Michael Enright Commemorative Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Noel, Ed.; Dooney, Triona, Ed.

    The essays in this collection contribute to the ongoing discussion about the state of Irish education on the threshold of a new century. The various contributors examine issues that will be priorities for education planners in Ireland. These essays have been collected as a tribute to Irish educator and politician Michael Enright. The essays are:…

  4. Parity of Provision? Learning Support for English and Mathematics in Irish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surgenor, Paul; Shiel, Gerry

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the differences in learning support provision for English and mathematics in Irish primary schools. Questionnaires were completed by 172 learning support teachers in Irish primary schools, as part of a national assessment of English and mathematics. Few respondents (3%) provide learning support for mathematics only, over…

  5. Prevalence of and Attitudes about Concussion in Irish Schools' Rugby Union Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delahunty, Sinéad E.; Delahunt, Eamonn; Condon, Brian; Toomey, David; Blake, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Youth rugby players represent 45.2% (N?=?69,472) of the Irish rugby union playing population. The risk and consequences of concussion injury are of particular concern in these young athletes, but limited epidemiological data exists. This study investigated annual and lifetime prevalence of concussion in an Irish schoolboy rugby union…

  6. The incidence of cancers among second-generation Irish living in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Harding, S.

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of ovarian, cervical, lung and prostatic cancer was higher in second-generation Irish living in England and Wales than in all other persons in England and Wales. A higher incidence of ovarian cancer was not found in first-generation Irish. Differences in socioeconomic status did not explain these patterns. PMID:9764590

  7. Training and Developing Non-Irish Workers: The Perspectives of Interested Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the challenges facing Irish organisations in the training and development of non-Irish workers. It analyses the importance of fluency in the host country's language and the approach taken by organisations in relation to language training. In-depth semi-structured interviews provide significant insights for the…

  8. "The Next Level": Investigating Teaching and Learning within an Irish Traditional Music Online Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Ailbhe

    2013-01-01

    Online music communities offer a new context and culture for musical participation globally. This article, employing a socio-cultural theoretical lens, examines how the Online Academy of Irish Music (OAIM) functions as a teaching and learning online community for Irish traditional music. Findings from qualitative case study research present…

  9. Minority Language Advertising: A Profile of Two Irish-Language Newspapers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly-Holmes, Helen; Atkinson, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the Irish-language adscape through an analysis of the profile of two Irish-language newspapers, "Foinse," published in the Republic of Ireland, and "La," published in Northern Ireland. The advertising in both papers is analysed in terms of products and services advertised, advertisers represented and…

  10. Applying the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in an Irish Context: Mission Impossible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an Irish study that examines the teaching of large, introductory-level sociology courses at a research-intensive university. The study's aim was to ameliorate some of the problems associated with large classes by applying key lessons from the U.S. literature to an Irish setting. Overall, the initiative was successful;…

  11. Engaging with Leadership Development in Irish Academic Libraries: Some Reflections of the Future Leaders Programme (FLP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Helen; Maxwell, Jane; McCaffrey, Ciara; McMahon, Seamus

    2011-01-01

    Four librarians from Irish university libraries completed the U.K. Future Leaders Programme (FLP) in 2010. In this article they recount their experience and assess the effect of the programme on their professional practice and the value for their institutions. The programme is explored in the context of the Irish higher education environment,…

  12. Defining Moments in Policy Development, Direction, and Implementation in Irish Initial Teacher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Doherty, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of significant OECD documents on the development of Irish education policy, specifically teacher education policy, over the last half century. While other commentators have argued that Irish education has been predominantly influenced by policy developments in the UK, US or Europe, this paper identifies the OECD as a…

  13. 3 CFR 8479 - Proclamation 8479 of March 1, 2010. Irish-American Heritage Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8479 of March 1, 2010. Irish-American Heritage Month, 2010 8479 Proclamation 8479 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8479 of March... documents. When famine ravaged Ireland in the 1840s and 1850s, many Irish men and women sought a...

  14. What Stick Figures Tell Us about Irish Politics: Creating a Critical and Collaborative Learning Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Sharon; Hogan, John; Donnelly, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the interpretation of freehand drawings produced by a small sample of 220 first-year students taking an Irish politics introductory module in response to the question, "What is Irish Politics?" By sidestepping cognitive verbal-processing routes, through employing freehand drawing, we aim to create a critical and…

  15. Reading Attainment in Irish Primary Schools--A Progressive Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, M. O.

    Approximately 4,000 children took part in a study of the reading attainments of children from different social-class backgrounds in Irish primary schools to find out if the progessive reading gap between children from different home backgrounds that has been observed in other countries could also be found in Irish school children. Tests were…

  16. Environmental Fate of Soil Applied Neonicotinoid Insecticides in an Irrigated Potato Agroecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Huseth, Anders S.; Groves, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Since 1995, neonicotinoid insecticides have been a critical component of arthropod management in potato, Solanum tuberosum L. Recent detections of neonicotinoids in groundwater have generated questions about the sources of these contaminants and the relative contribution from commodities in U.S. agriculture. Delivery of neonicotinoids to crops typically occurs as a seed or in-furrow treatment to manage early season insect herbivores. Applied in this way, these insecticides become systemically mobile in the plant and provide control of key pest species. An outcome of this project links these soil insecticide application strategies in crop plants with neonicotinoid contamination of water leaching from the application zone. In 2011 and 2012, our objectives were to document the temporal patterns of neonicotinoid leachate below the planting furrow following common insecticide delivery methods in potato. Leaching loss of thiamethoxam from potato was measured using pan lysimeters from three at-plant treatments and one foliar application treatment. Insecticide concentration in leachate was assessed for six consecutive months using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Findings from this study suggest leaching of neonicotinoids from potato may be greater following crop harvest in comparison to other times during the growing season. Furthermore, this study documented recycling of neonicotinoid insecticides from contaminated groundwater back onto the crop via high capacity irrigation wells. These results document interactions between cultivated potato, different neonicotinoid delivery methods, and the potential for subsurface water contamination via leaching. PMID:24823765

  17. Effector genomics accelerates discovery and functional profiling of potato disease resistance and phytophthora infestans avirulence genes.

    PubMed

    Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A; Rietman, Hendrik; Krenek, Pavel; Champouret, Nicolas; Young, Carolyn; Oh, Sang-Keun; Wang, Miqia; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Vosman, Ben; Visser, Richard G F; Jacobsen, Evert; Govers, Francine; Kamoun, Sophien; Van der Vossen, Edwin A G

    2008-08-06

    Potato is the world's fourth largest food crop yet it continues to endure late blight, a devastating disease caused by the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Breeding broad-spectrum disease resistance (R) genes into potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the best strategy for genetically managing late blight but current approaches are slow and inefficient. We used a repertoire of effector genes predicted computationally from the P. infestans genome to accelerate the identification, functional characterization, and cloning of potentially broad-spectrum R genes. An initial set of 54 effectors containing a signal peptide and a RXLR motif was profiled for activation of innate immunity (avirulence or Avr activity) on wild Solanum species and tentative Avr candidates were identified. The RXLR effector family IpiO induced hypersensitive responses (HR) in S. stoloniferum, S. papita and the more distantly related S. bulbocastanum, the source of the R gene Rpi-blb1. Genetic studies with S. stoloniferum showed cosegregation of resistance to P. infestans and response to IpiO. Transient co-expression of IpiO with Rpi-blb1 in a heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana system identified IpiO as Avr-blb1. A candidate gene approach led to the rapid cloning of S. stoloniferum Rpi-sto1 and S. papita Rpi-pta1, which are functionally equivalent to Rpi-blb1. Our findings indicate that effector genomics enables discovery and functional profiling of late blight R genes and Avr genes at an unprecedented rate and promises to accelerate the engineering of late blight resistant potato varieties.

  18. Effector Genomics Accelerates Discovery and Functional Profiling of Potato Disease Resistance and Phytophthora Infestans Avirulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G. A. A.; Rietman, Hendrik; Krenek, Pavel; Champouret, Nicolas; Young, Carolyn; Oh, Sang-Keun; Wang, Miqia; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Vosman, Ben; Visser, Richard G. F.; Jacobsen, Evert; Govers, Francine; Kamoun, Sophien; Van der Vossen, Edwin A. G.

    2008-01-01

    Potato is the world's fourth largest food crop yet it continues to endure late blight, a devastating disease caused by the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Breeding broad-spectrum disease resistance (R) genes into potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the best strategy for genetically managing late blight but current approaches are slow and inefficient. We used a repertoire of effector genes predicted computationally from the P. infestans genome to accelerate the identification, functional characterization, and cloning of potentially broad-spectrum R genes. An initial set of 54 effectors containing a signal peptide and a RXLR motif was profiled for activation of innate immunity (avirulence or Avr activity) on wild Solanum species and tentative Avr candidates were identified. The RXLR effector family IpiO induced hypersensitive responses (HR) in S. stoloniferum, S. papita and the more distantly related S. bulbocastanum, the source of the R gene Rpi-blb1. Genetic studies with S. stoloniferum showed cosegregation of resistance to P. infestans and response to IpiO. Transient co-expression of IpiO with Rpi-blb1 in a heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana system identified IpiO as Avr-blb1. A candidate gene approach led to the rapid cloning of S. stoloniferum Rpi-sto1 and S. papita Rpi-pta1, which are functionally equivalent to Rpi-blb1. Our findings indicate that effector genomics enables discovery and functional profiling of late blight R genes and Avr genes at an unprecedented rate and promises to accelerate the engineering of late blight resistant potato varieties. PMID:18682852

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Early Reading Development in Two Languages: Comparing Literacy Outcomes in Irish Immersion, English Medium and Gaeltacht Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Christine E.; Lyddy, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Schools in Ireland vary in how they introduce reading in the two official languages, Irish and English. There is particular variability within immersion (Irish medium) schools. Some introduce Irish reading first (IRF) and others English reading first (ERF). This study compared the development of Irish and English skills in children attending…

  20. Electromagnetic wave scattering from vegetation (Potato) and vegetation covered soil moisture for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Keshev

    In the country with limited resources, where the nutrition level of the population has to be maintained under inhospitable situation, the potato has a special value as food. Therefore efforts should be made for improvement and spreading the cultivation of this important crop. It demands an effective program that may provide information about potato growing areas and the growth conditions. Remote sensing has been acknowledged to be a valuable source of spatially comprehensive and temporally repeatable information of crop covered soil moisture, crop growth climatic information etc, which is useful and necessary for agriculture purposes. For this purpose, microwave remote sensing has evolved as an important tool. Since microwave are able to penetrate more deeply into vegetation and underneath ground surface. It is also preferred to the optical frequency band because microwave can work in all type of weather and have a wide signal dynamic range compared optical wavelengths. However interpretation of microwave scattering from agricultural crops requires an understanding the interaction among microwave, vegetative material and the soil. In order to develop useful forward and inverse models for retrieving the vegetation characteristic, it is necessary to know in detail the dielectric properties and plant structure of the vegetation over the range of expected growing conditions. In this paper, a theoretical model based on microwave interaction with potato crop along with examination of biomass of potato crop with the varying underlying soil moisture is studied. For this purpose, X-band (9.5GHz) scatterometer is used for studying the interaction of microwave with potato crop biomass and underlying soil moisture at various sensor parameters (i.e. angular variation and polarization, HH- and VV-). Although there may be a lot of crop parameters (i.e. crop height, leaf area index, etc) which also gives their effect on microwave. All this parameters are interlinked in the crop

  1. DGT estimates cadmium accumulation in wheat and potato from phosphate fertilizer applications.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Angela L; Anderson, Kim A

    2009-09-01

    Cadmium is a common impurity in phosphatic fertilizers and may contribute to soil Cd accumulation. Changes in total and bioavailable Cd burdens to agricultural soils and the potential for plant Cd accumulation resulting from fertilizer input was investigated. Three year field studies were conducted using three dose levels of cadmium-rich, commercial, phosphate fertilizers applied at four agricultural sites. Labile Cd concentrations, measured using the passive sampling device Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (Cd(DGT)), increased with increasing fertilizer application rates. Cd also accumulated in the edible portion of wheat and potato crops grown at the sites, and showed strong positive dose response with fertilizer treatment. Regression models were calculated for each site, year, and for individual crops. Model comparisons indicated that soil physical and chemical parameters in addition to soil Cd fractions, were important determinants of Cd(DGT). Significant factors contributing to Cd(DGT) concentrations were Cd from fertilizer input (Cd(fertilizer)), pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and total recoverable Cd (Cd(total)). Important factors used to determine Cd concentrations in wheat grain (Cd(wheat)) and in potato (Cd(potato)) were as follows: Cd(wheat):Cd(fertilizer), and Cd(DGT); and Cd(potato):Cd(fertilizer), Cd(DGT), % O.M. The effective concentration, C(E), calculated from DGT did not correlate well with Cd(wheat) or with Cd(potato). Direct measurements of Cd(DGT) correlated better with Cd found in edible plant tissue. The modeling approach presented in this study helps to estimate Cd accumulation in plant tissue over multiple years and in distinct agricultural soil systems.

  2. Developing the Nutritional Potential of Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are the most consumed vegetable in the developed world and consumption is increasing in the developing world. Consequently, the phytonutrient content of potato can have a large impact on public health. Moreover, because of the high consumption even modest increases in tuber phytonutrient co...

  3. Potato tuber dormancy and postharvest sprout control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For an indeterminate period of time following harvest, potatoes will not sprout and are physiologically dormant. Dormancy is gradually lost during postharvest storage and the resultant sprouting is detrimental to the nutritional and processing qualities of potatoes. Because of this, sprouting resu...

  4. Molecular characterization of potato leafroll virus, potato virus A, and potato virus X isolates from potatoes in Alaskan cities and villages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercialized potatoes in Alaska are mainly grown in the Matanuska Valley, Tanana Valley and Delta Junction, and are routinely monitored for viruses and pests. In contrast, non-commercial potato production sites occurring throughout Alaska are rarely scrutinized for diseases. In addition, virtually...

  5. Reinventing potato at the diploid level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The outcrossing polyploidy nature of cultivated potato has hindered the use of genomics resources to dissect the genetic basis of agronomically important traits. Reversion to the diploid level allows us to apply powerful tools toward this effort. Parthenogenesis generates diploid cultivated potato, ...

  6. The changing face of Potato virus Y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will help growers, seed certification and regulatory officials, consultants, and other practitioners in the United States understand how and why Potato virus Y (PVY) is affecting the seed potato crop and if left unchecked why it will become a major disease issue for the food sector...

  7. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  8. [The inhibition of potato tubers wound reparation].

    PubMed

    Chalenko, G I; Vasiukova, N I; Gerasimova, N G; Ozeretskovskaia, O l

    2009-01-01

    The multiple washing of the wound surface of potato tubers by water adversely affected the protective properties of wound periderm. Immune inhibitor beta-1,3-beta-1,6 glucan had a property of local effect and inhibited the process of wound healing. The pentasaccharide of xyloglucan caused necrosis of potato tuber tissue and prevented the wound reparation process.

  9. Potato zebra chip disease: a phytopathological tale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato zebra chip (ZC) disease is a relative newcomer to the world of important potato diseases. First reported in Mexico in the 1990s, by 2004-2005 the disease was causing serious economic damage in parts of Texas. ZC is now widespread in the western United States, Mexico, Central America, and wa...

  10. Improved genetic disease resistance solutions for potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Halterman Lab research program is focused on understanding the genetic basis of disease resistance in potato. Several diseases, such as late blight, early blight, potato virus Y, and verticillium wilt, are particularly problematic in Wisconsin. With the exception of early blight, major genes hav...

  11. Ensuring the genetic diversity of potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Opportunities for advances in the potato crop through genetics are great, since potato has many needs for improvement, and many related species with the traits required are available. Genebanks provide a centralized and specialized resource for providing the services of acquisition, classification, ...

  12. Glycoalkaloids and calystegine alkaloids in potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes contain two classes of alkaloids: the glycoalkaloids and the calystegines. The presence of glycoalkaloids in potatoes and their toxicity has been known for more than a century and much has been written about them. Discovery of the nortropane calystegine alkaloids is more recent, and the k...

  13. Multiple Loci are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in Irish wolfhounds.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Ute; Vollmar, Andrea; Häggström, Jens; Thomas, Anne; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a highly prevalent and often lethal disease in Irish wolfhounds. Complex segregation analysis indicated different loci involved in pathogenesis. Linear fixed and mixed models were used for the genome-wide association study. Using 106 DCM cases and 84 controls we identified one SNP significantly associated with DCM on CFA37 and five SNPs suggestively associated with DCM on CFA1, 10, 15, 21 and 17. On CFA37 MOGAT1 and ACSL3 two enzymes of the lipid metabolism were located near the identified SNP.

  14. Soil phosphorus changes impacted by potato cropping management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato crops generally require high amounts of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to reach economically acceptable yields as the low root density of potato plants makes mobilization and acquisition of phosphate a key factor in potato plant growth. In this work, we evaluated soil P changes in 10 potato fields...

  15. Systematics, diversity, genetics, and evolution of wild and cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is the third most important food crop and is grown and consumed worldwide. Indigenous primitive cultivated (landrace) potatoes, and wild potatoes, all classified as Solanum section Petota, are widely used for potato improvement. Members of section Petota are ...

  16. The first report of corky ringspot caused by tobacco rattle virus on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the most important agricultural commodity in Michigan and is grown for table stock, chip processing and for seed. Tubers are either processed or fresh packed immediately following harvest or sent to storage. When tubers (cv. FL1879) were removed from two storages representing two separate ...

  17. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 945.2 - Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Act. 945.2 Section 945.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  19. 7 CFR 945.1 - Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Secretary. 945.1 Section 945.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  20. 7 CFR 945.17 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false District. 945.17 Section 945.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  1. 7 CFR 945.12 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fiscal period. 945.12 Section 945.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  2. 7 CFR 945.3 - Person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Person. 945.3 Section 945.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  3. 7 CFR 953.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 953.81 Section 953.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating...

  4. 7 CFR 945.89 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 945.89 Section 945.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND...

  5. 7 CFR 948.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 948.90 Section 948.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling...

  6. 7 CFR 946.76 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 946.76 Section 946.76 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...

  7. 7 CFR 947.86 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 947.86 Section 947.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU COUNTIES, CALIF., AND IN...

  8. 7 CFR 945.1 - Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Secretary. 945.1 Section 945.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  9. 7 CFR 945.3 - Person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Person. 945.3 Section 945.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  10. 7 CFR 945.12 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period. 945.12 Section 945.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  11. 7 CFR 945.31 - Expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expenses. 945.31 Section 945.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  12. 7 CFR 945.27 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 945.27 Section 945.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  13. 7 CFR 945.28 - Vacancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vacancies. 945.28 Section 945.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  14. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  15. 7 CFR 945.29 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate members. 945.29 Section 945.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 945.17 - District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false District. 945.17 Section 945.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 945.3 - Person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Person. 945.3 Section 945.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  18. 7 CFR 945.24 - Selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection. 945.24 Section 945.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  19. 7 CFR 945.1 - Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretary. 945.1 Section 945.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  20. 7 CFR 945.2 - Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Act. 945.2 Section 945.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  1. 7 CFR 945.2 - Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 945.2 Section 945.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  2. 7 CFR 945.1 - Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Secretary. 945.1 Section 945.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  3. 7 CFR 945.12 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fiscal period. 945.12 Section 945.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  4. 7 CFR 945.26 - Failure to nominate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Failure to nominate. 945.26 Section 945.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  5. 7 CFR 945.22 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Districts. 945.22 Section 945.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  6. 7 CFR 945.2 - Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Act. 945.2 Section 945.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  7. 7 CFR 945.30 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedure. 945.30 Section 945.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  8. 7 CFR 945.21 - Term of office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Term of office. 945.21 Section 945.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  9. 7 CFR 945.32 - Powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Powers. 945.32 Section 945.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  10. 7 CFR 945.3 - Person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Person. 945.3 Section 945.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN...

  11. 7 CFR 946.76 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 946.76 Section 946.76 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  12. 7 CFR 946.76 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 946.76 Section 946.76 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  13. 7 CFR 948.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 948.90 Section 948.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  14. 7 CFR 947.86 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 947.86 Section 947.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC...

  15. 7 CFR 953.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 953.81 Section 953.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 945.89 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 945.89 Section 945.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 945.89 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 945.89 Section 945.89 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 948.90 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 948.90 Section 948.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  19. 7 CFR 953.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 953.81 Section 953.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  20. 7 CFR 947.86 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 947.86 Section 947.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC...