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Sample records for agriculture mango promotion

  1. 76 FR 13530 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order... of two non-voting wholesaler/retailer positions. In accordance with the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order), which is authorized under the Commodity Promotion, Research,...

  2. 76 FR 26946 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and.... SUMMARY: This rule proposes amendment of the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) to... the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (Act). The National Mango Board...

  3. 77 FR 21843 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment... Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) to increase the assessment rate on first... increase is permitted under the Order, which is authorized by the Commodity Promotion, Research,...

  4. 78 FR 8441 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Nominations of Foreign Producers and Election...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Nominations of... provisions of the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) which is authorized under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (Act). DATES: Comments must be received...

  5. 7 CFR 1206.11 - Mangos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mangos. 1206.11 Section 1206.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.11 Mangos. Mangos means...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.11 - Mangos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mangos. 1206.11 Section 1206.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.11 Mangos. Mangos means...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.11 - Mangos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mangos. 1206.11 Section 1206.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.11 Mangos. Mangos means...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.11 - Mangos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mangos. 1206.11 Section 1206.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.11 Mangos. Mangos means...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.11 - Mangos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mangos. 1206.11 Section 1206.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.11 Mangos. Mangos means...

  10. 76 FR 36281 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment AGENCY.../retailer positions. In accordance with the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order), which is authorized under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (Act), a review...

  11. Mango extracts and the mango component mangiferin promote endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Daud, Noor Huda; Aung, Cho Sanda; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Wilkinson, Ashley S; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J; Parat, Marie-Odile

    2010-04-28

    This study tested the hypothesis that mango extracts contain bioactive molecules capable of modulating endothelial cell migration, an essential step in the formation of new blood vessels or angiogenesis. The formation of new blood vessels is an important therapeutic target for diseases such as limb ischemia, coronary infarction or stroke. We examined the effect of mango peel and flesh extracts as well as the individual polyphenolic molecules, mangiferin and quercetin, on bovine aortic cell migration using a modified Boyden chamber assay. Our results show that mangiferin, and extracts rich in mangiferin, increase endothelial cell migration. The dose-effect relationship for various extracts further suggests that this action of mangiferin is modulated by other components present in the extracts. The promigratory effect of mango extracts or mangiferin was unrelated to an effect on cell proliferation, and did not involve a change in the production of matrix metalloprotease-2 or -9 by the endothelial cells. Taken together, these results suggest that mangiferin present in mango extracts may have health promoting effects in diseases related to the impaired formation of new blood vessels.

  12. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  15. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of mangos to the general public and the food...

  16. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1206.17 Section 1206.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.202 - Exemption for organic mangos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exemption for organic mangos. 1206.202 Section 1206... PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Rules and Regulations § 1206.202 Exemption for organic mangos. (a) A first handler who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205) system...

  18. 7 CFR 1206.202 - Exemption for organic mangos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exemption for organic mangos. 1206.202 Section 1206... PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Rules and Regulations § 1206.202 Exemption for organic mangos. (a) A first handler who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205) system...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.202 - Exemption for organic mangos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exemption for organic mangos. 1206.202 Section 1206... PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Rules and Regulations § 1206.202 Exemption for organic mangos. (a) A first handler who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205) system...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.202 - Exemption for organic mangos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exemption for organic mangos. 1206.202 Section 1206... PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Rules and Regulations § 1206.202 Exemption for organic mangos. (a) A first handler who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205) system...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.202 - Exemption for organic mangos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic mangos. 1206.202 Section 1206... PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Rules and Regulations § 1206.202 Exemption for organic mangos. (a) A first handler who operates under an approved National Organic Program (NOP) (7 CFR part 205) system...

  2. Strategies To Promote Agricultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1992

    The purpose of the agricultural literacy effort has been to produce informed citizens able to participate more fully in the establishment of policies that support a highly competitive agricultural industry in this country and abroad. In their article titled, "Position Statement on Agricultural Literacy," Russell, McCracken, and Miller…

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56... Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the United States... subpart. (a) Limitation of origin. The mangoes must have been grown on the island of Guimaras, which...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56... Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the United States... subpart. (a) Limitation of origin. The mangoes must have been grown on the island of Guimaras, which...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56... Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the United States... subpart. (a) Limitation of origin. The mangoes must have been grown on the island of Guimaras, which...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56... Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the United States... subpart. (a) Limitation of origin. The mangoes must have been grown on the island of Guimaras, which...

  7. Use of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria starters to ferment mango juice for promoting its probiotic roles.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xue-Yi; Guo, Li-Qiong; Ye, Zhi-Wei; Qiu, Ling-Yan; Gu, Feng-Wei; Lin, Jun-Fang

    2016-05-18

    Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis were identified from mango fruits by partial 16S rDNA gene sequence. Based on the ability of producing mannitol and diacetyl, Leuconostoc mesenteroides MPL18 and MPL39 were selected within the lactic acid bacteria isolates, and used as mixed starters to ferment mango juice (MJ). Both the autochthonous strains grew well in fermented mango juice (FMJ) and remained viable at 9.81 log cfu mL(-1) during 30 days of storage at 4°C. The content of total sugar of FMJ was lower than that of MJ, while the concentration of mannitol was higher than that of MJ, and the concentration of diacetyl was 3.29 ± 0.12 mg L(-1). Among detected organic acids including citric acid, gallic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid, only citric acid and gallic acid were found in MJ, while all detected organic acids were found in FMJ. The concentration of lactic acid of FMJ was the highest (78.62 ± 13.66 mM) among all detected organic acids. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity of FMJ was higher than that of MJ. Total phenolic compounds were better preserved in FMJ. The acidity and sweetness had a noticeable impact on the overall acceptance of the treated sample.

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-60 - Mangoes from Australia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mangoes from Australia. 319.56-60 Section 319.56-60... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-60 Mangoes from Australia. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States...

  10. 7 CFR 305.21 - Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. 305.21... Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. Mangoes may be treated using schedule T102-a: (a) Fruit... the treatment. (c) Water in the treatment tank must be treated or changed regularly to...

  11. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Huda, A. Nurul; Salmah, M. R. Che; Hassan, A. Abu; Hamdan, A.; Razak, M. N. Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. ‘Sala’ and ‘Chok Anan’. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. PMID:26246439

  12. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators.

    PubMed

    Huda, A Nurul; Salmah, M R Che; Hassan, A Abu; Hamdan, A; Razak, M N Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. 'Sala' and 'Chok Anan'. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors.

  13. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): emergence in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, P N; Jha, D K

    2012-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are the rhizosphere bacteria that can enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms like phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, biological nitrogen fixation, rhizosphere engineering, production of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC), quorum sensing (QS) signal interference and inhibition of biofilm formation, phytohormone production, exhibiting antifungal activity, production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), induction of systemic resistance, promoting beneficial plant-microbe symbioses, interference with pathogen toxin production etc. The potentiality of PGPR in agriculture is steadily increased as it offers an attractive way to replace the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and other supplements. Growth promoting substances are likely to be produced in large quantities by these rhizosphere microorganisms that influence indirectly on the overall morphology of the plants. Recent progress in our understanding on the diversity of PGPR in the rhizosphere along with their colonization ability and mechanism of action should facilitate their application as a reliable component in the management of sustainable agricultural system. The progress to date in using the rhizosphere bacteria in a variety of applications related to agricultural improvement along with their mechanism of action with special reference to plant growth-promoting traits are summarized and discussed in this review.

  14. Effect of mango weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage on mango seed viability in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mulungu, Loth S; Mpinga, Makala; Mwatawala, Maulid W

    2008-02-01

    Studies were conducted at the horticulture unit of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, to assess the incidence and effect of mango weevil, Cryptorhynchus mangiferae (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestation on mango, Mangifera indica L., seed viability. Three polyembryo mango cultivars ('Sindano nyeusi', 'Sindano nyeupe', and 'Dodo') as well as three monoembryo mango cultivars ('Ex-horticulture', 'Tango', and 'Bongwa') were collected and examined for the presence of C. mangiferae. The effect of seed damage on viability was assessed for both naturally and artificially damaged seeds. However, for artificially damaged seeds, the viability was assessed by cutting away 0, 25, 50, or 75% of the cotyledon before planting. In this experiment, only monoembryo mango cultivars were used. All the examined cultivars were infested by C. mangiferae, although at varying levels. Polyembryo mango cultivars were relatively more infested than monoembryo cultivars. Bongwa and Tango were least infested, whereas Sindano nyeusi recorded the highest C. mangiferae incidence. Germination rates of damaged seeds of polyembryonic cultivars differed significantly from the uninfested control, except for Sindano nyeusi. There were no significant differences in germination percentage among the three monoembryo cultivars, and all the cultivars differed significantly from the uninfested control. The germination rates of seeds with 25% of their cotyledons removed did not differ significantly from the undamaged seeds, indicating that monoembryo cultivar seeds can withstand up to 25% damage and germinate successfully.

  15. Automated mango fruit assessment using fuzzy logic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Suzanawati Abu; Kin, Teoh Yeong; Sauddin@Sa'duddin, Suraiya; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Othman, Mahmod; Mansor, Ab Razak; Parnabas, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    In term of value and volume of production, mango is the third most important fruit product next to pineapple and banana. Accurate size assessment of mango fruits during harvesting is vital to ensure that they are classified to the grade accordingly. However, the current practice in mango industry is grading the mango fruit manually using human graders. This method is inconsistent, inefficient and labor intensive. In this project, a new method of automated mango size and grade assessment is developed using RGB fiber optic sensor and fuzzy logic approach. The calculation of maximum, minimum and mean values based on RGB fiber optic sensor and the decision making development using minimum entropy formulation to analyse the data and make the classification for the mango fruit. This proposed method is capable to differentiate three different grades of mango fruit automatically with 77.78% of overall accuracy compared to human graders sorting. This method was found to be helpful for the application in the current agricultural industry.

  16. Promoting Sustainable Agricultural Practices Through Remote Sensing Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driese, K. L.; Sivanpillai, R.

    2007-12-01

    Ever increasing demand for food and fiber calls for farm management strategies such as effective use of chemicals and efficient water use that will maximize productivity while reducing adverse impacts on the environment. Remotely sensed data collected by satellites are a valuable resource for farmers and ranchers for gaining insights about farm and ranch productivity. While researchers in universities and agencies have made tremendous advances, technology transfer to end-users has lagged, preventing the farmers from taking advantage of this valuable resource. To overcome this barrier, the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), a NASA funded program headed by the University of North Dakota, has been working with end-users to promote the use of remote sensing technology for sustainable agricultural practices. We will highlight the UMAC activities in Wyoming aimed at promoting this technology to sugar-beet farmers in the Big Horn Basin. To assist farmers who might not have a computer at home, we provide them to local county Cooperative Extension Offices pre-loaded with relevant imagery. Our targeted outreach activities have resulted in farmers requesting and using new and old Landsat images to identify growth anomalies and trends which have enabled them to develop management zones within their croplands.

  17. Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Strand, Michael R; Snyder, William E

    2010-07-01

    Human activity can degrade ecosystem function by reducing species number (richness) and by skewing the relative abundance of species (evenness). Conservation efforts often focus on restoring or maintaining species number, reflecting the well-known impacts of richness on many ecological processes. In contrast, the ecological effects of disrupted evenness have received far less attention, and developing strategies for restoring evenness remains a conceptual challenge. In farmlands, agricultural pest-management practices often lead to altered food web structure and communities dominated by a few common species, which together contribute to pest outbreaks. Here we show that organic farming methods mitigate this ecological damage by promoting evenness among natural enemies. In field enclosures, very even communities of predator and pathogen biological control agents, typical of organic farms, exerted the strongest pest control and yielded the largest plants. In contrast, pest densities were high and plant biomass was low when enemy evenness was disrupted, as is typical under conventional management. Our results were independent of the numerically dominant predator or pathogen species, and so resulted from evenness itself. Moreover, evenness effects among natural enemy groups were independent and complementary. Our results strengthen the argument that rejuvenation of ecosystem function requires restoration of species evenness, rather than just richness. Organic farming potentially offers a means of returning functional evenness to ecosystems.

  18. Saving Mango Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Winkle, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza,…

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... States. (b) Treatment. The mangoes must be treated for fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera with vapor... for fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables §...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.34 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.37 - Prohibited activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  2. 7 CFR 1206.33 - Vacancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  3. 7 CFR 1206.33 - Vacancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  4. 7 CFR 1206.33 - Vacancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  5. 7 CFR 1206.33 - Vacancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.24 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.24 National Mango Promotion Board...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.32 - Term of office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.32 - Term of office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.34 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.24 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.24 National Mango Promotion Board...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.37 - Prohibited activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.33 - Vacancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.37 - Prohibited activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.37 - Prohibited activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  15. 7 CFR 1206.37 - Prohibited activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  16. 7 CFR 1206.24 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.24 National Mango Promotion Board...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.32 - Term of office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  18. 7 CFR 1206.32 - Term of office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.32 - Term of office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board §...

  20. Antibiotic growth promoters in agriculture: history and mode of action.

    PubMed

    Dibner, J J; Richards, J D

    2005-04-01

    This report will review the history of antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) use in the animal industry, concerns about development of antimicrobial resistance, and response in the European Union and United States to these concerns. A brief description of the history of legislation regarding feed use of antimicrobials in Denmark and the experience of animal producers following the 1998 ban will serve to illustrate the consequences on animal performance and health of withdrawing the approval for this use. The biological basis for antibiotic effects on animal growth efficiency will consider effects on intestinal microbiota and effects on the host animal and will use the germ-free animal to illustrate effects of the conventional microflora. The probability that no single compound will replace all of the functions of antimicrobial growth promoters will be considered, and methods to consolidate and analyze the enlarging database will be discussed.

  1. Plant growth-promoting bacteria as inoculants in agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Rocheli; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health, productivity and soil fertility. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are bacteria that can enhance plant growth and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms; those that establish close associations with plants, such as the endophytes, could be more successful in plant growth promotion. Several important bacterial characteristics, such as biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, and production of siderophores and phytohormones, can be assessed as plant growth promotion (PGP) traits. Bacterial inoculants can contribute to increase agronomic efficiency by reducing production costs and environmental pollution, once the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced or eliminated if the inoculants are efficient. For bacterial inoculants to obtain success in improving plant growth and productivity, several processes involved can influence the efficiency of inoculation, as for example the exudation by plant roots, the bacterial colonization in the roots, and soil health. This review presents an overview of the importance of soil-plant-microbe interactions to the development of efficient inoculants, once PGPB are extensively studied microorganisms, representing a very diverse group of easily accessible beneficial bacteria. PMID:26537605

  2. Plant growth-promoting bacteria as inoculants in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rocheli de; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-12-01

    Plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health, productivity and soil fertility. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are bacteria that can enhance plant growth and protect plants from disease and abiotic stresses through a wide variety of mechanisms; those that establish close associations with plants, such as the endophytes, could be more successful in plant growth promotion. Several important bacterial characteristics, such as biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, and production of siderophores and phytohormones, can be assessed as plant growth promotion (PGP) traits. Bacterial inoculants can contribute to increase agronomic efficiency by reducing production costs and environmental pollution, once the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced or eliminated if the inoculants are efficient. For bacterial inoculants to obtain success in improving plant growth and productivity, several processes involved can influence the efficiency of inoculation, as for example the exudation by plant roots, the bacterial colonization in the roots, and soil health. This review presents an overview of the importance of soil-plant-microbe interactions to the development of efficient inoculants, once PGPB are extensively studied microorganisms, representing a very diverse group of easily accessible beneficial bacteria.

  3. Nursing organizations call for phase-out of agricultural practices that promote antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Rebecca

    2006-02-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is considered a contributing factor to the problem of antibiotic resistance. A majority of antibiotics and related drugs produced in the United States are not used to treat the infirm, but rather are used as feed additives for agricultural animals to promote growth and compensate for stressful and crowded growing conditions. Significant efforts must be made to decrease inappropriate overuse in animals and agriculture. Several leading health and political organizations have begun to address the issue. The American Nurses Association has established policies that call on Congress, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and meat producers to promptly phase out the agricultural practices that promote antibiotic resistance.

  4. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture and the promotion of food and nutrition sovereignty and security in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maluf, Renato Sergio; Burlandy, Luciene; Santarelli, Mariana; Schottz, Vanessa; Speranza, Juliana Simões

    2015-08-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of the nutrition-sensitive agriculture approach in the context of the programs and actions towards promoting food and nutrition sovereignty and security in Brazil. To analyze the links between nutrition and agriculture, this paper presents the conceptual framework related to food and nutrition security, and stresses the correlations among concepts, institutional structures and program design in Brazil. Dominant models of food production and consumption are scrutinized in the light of these relationships. This paper also highlights differences amongst different ways to promote nutrition-sensitive agriculture through food-acquisition programs from family farmers, experiences in agro-ecology and bio-fortification programs. In the closing remarks, the paper draws some lessons learned from the Brazilian experience that highlight the advantages of family farming and rapid food production, distribution and consumption cycles in order to promote access to an affordable, diversified and more adequate diet in nutritional terms.

  5. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A.; Marriott, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity. PMID:27555345

  6. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A.; Marriott, Ray

    2016-08-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.

  7. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A; Marriott, Ray

    2016-08-24

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.

  8. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  9. A Ride Down Mango Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the powerful connections an English teacher and his students made with Sandra Cisneros'"The House on Mango Street." Discusses how the book invites the reader to experience racism, shares the mainstream of the American experience, and deals with growing up. Notes that the book had a powerful impact on students' writing and their desire to…

  10. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peel, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxi...

  11. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  12. Textural properties of mango cultivars during ripening.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shyam Narayan; Jaiswal, Pranita; Narsaiah, Kairam; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Ramesh

    2013-12-01

    Firmness and toughness of fruit, peel and pulp of seven different mango cultivars were studied over a ripening period of ten days to investigate the effects of harvesting stages (early, mid and late) on fruit quality. Parameters were measured at equatorial region of fruits using TA-Hdi Texture Analyzer. The textural characteristics showed a rapid decline in their behaviour until mangoes got ripened and thereafter, the decline became almost constant indicating the completion of ripening. However, the rate of decline in textural properties was found to be cultivar specific. In general, the changes in textural attributes were found to be significantly influenced by ripening period and stage of harvesting, but firmness attributes (peel, fruit and pulp) of early harvested mangoes did not differ significantly from mid harvested mangoes, while peel, fruit and pulp firmness of late harvested mangoes were found to be significantly lower than early and mid harvested mangoes.

  13. Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here.

  14. 7 CFR 1206.73 - Proceedings after termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions... practical, to one or more mango industry organizations in the interest of continuing mango...

  15. 7 CFR 1206.73 - Proceedings after termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions... practical, to one or more mango industry organizations in the interest of continuing mango...

  16. 7 CFR 1206.73 - Proceedings after termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions... practical, to one or more mango industry organizations in the interest of continuing mango...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.73 - Proceedings after termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions... practical, to one or more mango industry organizations in the interest of continuing mango...

  18. 7 CFR 1206.73 - Proceedings after termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions... practical, to one or more mango industry organizations in the interest of continuing mango...

  19. Mangos of Florida, country contribution: Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book chapter presents a review of the historical importance of mango in Florida; geographical distribution of mangos in Florida; statistical data including total and seasonal production, main cultivars and their descriptors; cultural practices (i.e. propagation, fertilization, pruning); pests an...

  20. Study of mango endogenous pectinases as a tool to engineer mango purée consistency.

    PubMed

    Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Shpigelman, Avi; Houben, Ken; ten Geuzendam, Belinda; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using mango endogenous pectinases to change the viscosity of mango purée. Hereto, the structure of pectic polysaccharide and the presence of sufficiently active endogenous enzymes of ripe mango were determined. Pectin of mango flesh had a high molecular weight and was highly methoxylated. Pectin methylesterase showed a negligible activity which is related to the confirmed presence of a pectin methylesterase inhibitor. Pectin contained relatively high amounts of galactose and considerable β-galactosidase (β-Gal) activity was observed. The possibility of stimulating β-Gal activity during processing (temperature/pressure, time) was investigated. β-Gal of mango was rather temperature labile but pressure stable relatively to the temperature and pressure levels used to inactivate destructive enzymes in industry. Creating processing conditions allowing endogenous β-Gal activity did not substantially change the consistency of mango purée.

  1. Multi-country evidence that crop diversification promotes ecological intensification of agriculture.

    PubMed

    Gurr, Geoff M; Lu, Zhongxian; Zheng, Xusong; Xu, Hongxing; Zhu, Pingyang; Chen, Guihua; Yao, Xiaoming; Cheng, Jiaan; Zhu, Zengrong; Catindig, Josie Lynn; Villareal, Sylvia; Van Chien, Ho; Cuong, Le Quoc; Channoo, Chairat; Chengwattana, Nalinee; Lan, La Pham; Hai, Le Huu; Chaiwong, Jintana; Nicol, Helen I; Perovic, David J; Wratten, Steve D; Heong, Kong Luen

    2016-02-22

    Global food security requires increased crop productivity to meet escalating demand(1-3). Current food production systems are heavily dependent on synthetic inputs that threaten the environment and human well-being(2,4,5). Biodiversity, for instance, is key to the provision of ecosystem services such as pest control(6,7), but is eroded in conventional agricultural systems. Yet the conservation and reinstatement of biodiversity is challenging(5,8,9), and it remains unclear whether the promotion of biodiversity can reduce reliance on inputs without penalizing yields on a regional scale. Here we present results from multi-site field studies replicated in Thailand, China and Vietnam over a period of four years, in which we grew nectar-producing plants around rice fields, and monitored levels of pest infestation, insecticide use and yields. Compiling the data from all sites, we report that this inexpensive intervention significantly reduced populations of two key pests, reduced insecticide applications by 70%, increased grain yields by 5% and delivered an economic advantage of 7.5%. Additional field studies showed that predators and parasitoids of the main rice pests, together with detritivores, were more abundant in the presence of nectar-producing plants. We conclude that a simple diversification approach, in this case the growth of nectar-producing plants, can contribute to the ecological intensification of agricultural systems.

  2. Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Agricultural Sustainability-A Review.

    PubMed

    Vejan, Pravin; Abdullah, Rosazlin; Khadiran, Tumirah; Ismail, Salmah; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2016-04-29

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) shows an important role in the sustainable agriculture industry. The increasing demand for crop production with a significant reduction of synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides use is a big challenge nowadays. The use of PGPR has been proven to be an environmentally sound way of increasing crop yields by facilitating plant growth through either a direct or indirect mechanism. The mechanisms of PGPR include regulating hormonal and nutritional balance, inducing resistance against plant pathogens, and solubilizing nutrients for easy uptake by plants. In addition, PGPR show synergistic and antagonistic interactions with microorganisms within the rhizosphere and beyond in bulk soil, which indirectly boosts plant growth rate. There are many bacteria species that act as PGPR, described in the literature as successful for improving plant growth. However, there is a gap between the mode of action (mechanism) of the PGPR for plant growth and the role of the PGPR as biofertilizer-thus the importance of nano-encapsulation technology in improving the efficacy of PGPR. Hence, this review bridges the gap mentioned and summarizes the mechanism of PGPR as a biofertilizer for agricultural sustainability.

  3. 7 CFR 1206.51 - Independent evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Promotion, Research, and...

  4. 7 CFR 1206.51 - Independent evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Promotion, Research, and...

  5. 7 CFR 1206.51 - Independent evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Promotion, Research, and...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.51 - Independent evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Promotion, Research, and...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.51 - Independent evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Promotion, Research, and...

  8. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  9. Phototransformation rates and mechanisms for synthetic hormone growth promoters used in animal agriculture.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shen; Kolodziej, Edward P; Cwiertny, David M

    2012-12-18

    Trenbolone acetate, melengestrol acetate, and zeranol are synthetic hormones extensively used as growth promoters in animal agriculture, yet despite occurrence in water and soil little is known about their environmental fate. Here, we establish the time scales and mechanisms by which these synthetic growth promoters and their metabolites (SGPMs) undergo phototransformation in sunlit surface waters. The families of trenbolone acetate (including 17β-trenbolone, 17α-trenbolone, and trendione) and melengestrol acetate (including melengestrol) readily undergo direct photolysis, exhibiting half-lives between ∼0.25 and 1 h in both natural and simulated sunlight that were largely insensitive to solution variables (e.g., pH, temperature, and cosolutes). Direct photolysis yielded products that not only are more photostable but also maintain their steroidal ring structure and therefore may retain some biological activity. In contrast, zeranol, β-zearalanol, and zearalanone only exhibited reactivity in irradiated solutions of model humic and fulvic acids, and rates of indirect photolysis increased steadily from pH 7 to 9. Use of selective probe and quencher compounds suggest hydroxyl radical and triplet state dissolved organic matter are responsible for zeranol family decay at neutral pH, although singlet oxygen contributes modestly in more alkaline waters. This observed pH-dependence appears to result from photooxidants reacting primarily with the monodeprotonated form of zeranol (pK(a) values of 8.44 and 11.42). This investigation provides the first characterization of the fate of this emerging pollutant class in sunlit surface waters and prioritizes future efforts on the identity, fate, and biological impact of their more persistent phototransformation products.

  10. Management of mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis, using chemical insecticides and Neem oil.

    PubMed

    Adnan, S M; Uddin, M M; Alam, M J; Islam, M S; Kashem, M A; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil.

  11. Adsorption of basic Red 46 using sea mango (Cerbera odollam) based activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Nur Azira Iqlima; Zainudin, Nor Fauziah; Ali, Umi Fazara Md

    2015-05-01

    Sea mango or Cerbera Odollam is another source of carbonaceous material that can be found abundantly in Malaysia. In this research, it is used as a new agricultural source of activated carbon. Sea mango activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH). The sea mango was soaked in KOH at impregnation ratio of 1:1 and followed by carbonization at temperature of 600°C for 1 hour. The sample was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for surface morphology, while Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) was used to study the surface area. The result shown that sea mango activated carbon (SMAC) developed new pores on its surface and the BET surface area measured was 451.87 m2/g. The SMAC performance was then tested for the removal of Basic Red 46 in batch process. The removal of Basic Red 46 (50 mg/L, natural pH, 0.1 g SMAC) was more than 99% in 15 minutes where it reached equilibrium in 30 minutes.

  12. Adsorption of basic Red 46 using sea mango (Cerbera odollam) based activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Azmi, Nur Azira Iqlima; Zainudin, Nor Fauziah; Ali, Umi Fazara Md

    2015-05-15

    Sea mango or Cerbera Odollam is another source of carbonaceous material that can be found abundantly in Malaysia. In this research, it is used as a new agricultural source of activated carbon. Sea mango activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH). The sea mango was soaked in KOH at impregnation ratio of 1:1 and followed by carbonization at temperature of 600°C for 1 hour. The sample was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for surface morphology, while Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) was used to study the surface area. The result shown that sea mango activated carbon (SMAC) developed new pores on its surface and the BET surface area measured was 451.87 m{sup 2}/g. The SMAC performance was then tested for the removal of Basic Red 46 in batch process. The removal of Basic Red 46 (50 mg/L, natural pH, 0.1 g SMAC) was more than 99% in 15 minutes where it reached equilibrium in 30 minutes.

  13. Management of Mango Hopper, Idioscopus clypealis, Using Chemical Insecticides and Neem Oil

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, S. M.; Uddin, M. M.; Alam, M. J.; Islam, M. S.; Kashem, M. A.; Rafii, M. Y.; Latif, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil. PMID:25140344

  14. 7 CFR 1206.61 - Books and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Reports, Books, and Records §...

  15. 7 CFR 1206.2 - Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.2 Board. Board or National...

  16. 7 CFR 1206.75 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.75...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.3 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.3 Conflict of...

  18. 7 CFR 1206.2 - Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.2 Board. Board or National...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.4 - Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.4 Customs. Customs means...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.61 - Books and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Reports, Books, and Records §...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.75 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.75...

  2. 7 CFR 1206.78 - OMB control number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.78 OMB...

  3. 7 CFR 1206.5 - Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.5 Department. Department...

  4. 7 CFR 1206.1 - Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.1 Act. Act means the...

  5. 7 CFR 1206.22 - Terminate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.22 Terminate. Terminate...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.5 - Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.5 Department. Department...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.76 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.76...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.41 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Expenses and Assessments §...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.21 - Suspend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.21 Suspend. Suspend means...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.75 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.75...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.1 - Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.1 Act. Act means the...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.70 - Right of the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.70 Right of...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.15 - Person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.15 Person. Person means...

  15. 7 CFR 1206.3 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.3 Conflict of...

  16. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.21 - Suspend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.21 Suspend. Suspend means...

  18. 7 CFR 1206.21 - Suspend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.21 Suspend. Suspend means...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.77 - Amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.77...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.5 - Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.5 Department. Department...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.78 - OMB control number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.78 OMB...

  2. 7 CFR 1206.76 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.76...

  3. 7 CFR 1206.20 - Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.20 Secretary. Secretary...

  4. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  5. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.22 - Terminate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.22 Terminate. Terminate...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.70 - Right of the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.70 Right of...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Reports, Books, and Records §...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Reports, Books, and Records §...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.15 - Person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.15 Person. Person means...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.1 - Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.1 Act. Act means the...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.22 - Terminate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.22 Terminate. Terminate...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.2 - Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.2 Board. Board or National...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Reports, Books, and Records §...

  15. 7 CFR 1206.1 - Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.1 Act. Act means the...

  16. 7 CFR 1206.5 - Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.5 Department. Department...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.20 - Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.20 Secretary. Secretary...

  18. 7 CFR 1206.61 - Books and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Reports, Books, and Records §...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.70 - Right of the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.70 Right of...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.22 - Terminate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.22 Terminate. Terminate...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.78 - OMB control number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.78 OMB...

  2. 7 CFR 1206.15 - Person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.15 Person. Person means...

  3. 7 CFR 1206.15 - Person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.15 Person. Person means...

  4. 7 CFR 1206.78 - OMB control number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.78 OMB...

  5. 7 CFR 1206.2 - Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.2 Board. Board or National...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.20 - Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.20 Secretary. Secretary...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.70 - Right of the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.70 Right of...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.5 - Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.5 Department. Department...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.76 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.76...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.41 - Financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Expenses and Assessments §...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.21 - Suspend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.21 Suspend. Suspend means...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.3 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.3 Conflict of...

  15. 7 CFR 1206.22 - Terminate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.22 Terminate. Terminate...

  16. 7 CFR 1206.4 - Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.4 Customs. Customs means...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.76 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.76...

  18. 7 CFR 1206.3 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.3 Conflict of...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.62 - Confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Reports, Books, and Records §...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.77 - Amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.77...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  2. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  3. 7 CFR 1206.20 - Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.20 Secretary. Secretary...

  4. 7 CFR 1206.21 - Suspend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.21 Suspend. Suspend means...

  5. 7 CFR 1206.13 - Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.13 Order. Order means an...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.2 - Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.2 Board. Board or National...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.76 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.76...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.4 - Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.4 Customs. Customs means...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.15 - Person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.15 Person. Person means...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.1 - Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.1 Act. Act means the...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.70 - Right of the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.70 Right of...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.77 - Amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.77...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.61 - Books and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Reports, Books, and Records §...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.75 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.75...

  15. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  16. 7 CFR 1206.20 - Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.20 Secretary. Secretary...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.4 - Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.4 Customs. Customs means...

  18. 7 CFR 1206.75 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.75...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.77 - Amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.77...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.77 - Amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.77...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.78 - OMB control number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.78 OMB...

  2. 7 CFR 1206.3 - Conflict of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.3 Conflict of...

  3. Effect of mango weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage on mango seed viability in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Follett, P A; Gabbard, Z

    2000-08-01

    The mango weevil, Cryptorhynchus (= Sternochetus) mangiferae (F.), is a federally quarantined pest that prevents shipment of mangos from Hawaii into the continental United States. Although this monophagous weevil allegedly causes reduced seed germination, damage to the fruit pulp, and premature fruit drop in mangos, there are few studies examining these potential sources of crop loss. We conducted studies to assess the effect of mango weevil infestation on seed viability while making observations on the frequency of pulp feeding. Naturally infested seeds from mature fruit were planted in pots and scored for successful germination. Germination rates for infested seeds were equal to those of uninfested control seeds in a polyembryonic cultivar ('Common'), whereas germination was significantly reduced for infested seeds of a monoembryonic cultivar ('Haden') compared with uninfested control seeds but germination of infested seeds was still > 70%. To assess seed tolerance of damage, seeds were artificially damaged by cutting away 25, 50, or 75% of the cotyledon before planting and scored for germination. None of the damage treatments was significantly different from the undamaged controls, indicating that mango seeds can withstand substantial damage and still germinate successfully. Over the 2-yr period we conducted experiments, only four of 3,602 mango fruits (0.11%) showed evidence of direct feeding damage to the pulp. Results suggest that C. mangiferae is a less serious pest of mangos than previously thought.

  4. 7 CFR 1206.35 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.35 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall...

  5. 7 CFR 1206.50 - Programs, plans, and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Promotion... information, including producer and consumer information, with respect to mangos; and (2) The...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.50 - Programs, plans, and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Promotion... information, including producer and consumer information, with respect to mangos; and (2) The...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.35 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.35 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.35 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.35 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.35 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.35 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.35 - Compensation and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206.35 Compensation and reimbursement. The members of the Board shall...

  11. ESR study of free radicals in mango

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Hussain, Mohammad S.; Morishita, Norio; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2010-01-01

    An electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic study of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mangoes was performed. Mangoes in the fresh state were irradiated with γ-rays, lyophilized and then crushed into a powder. The ESR spectrum of the powder showed a strong main peak at g = 2.004 and a pair of peaks centered at the main peak. The main peak was detected from both flesh and skin specimens. This peak height gradually decreased during storage following irradiation. On the other hand, the side peaks showed a well-defined dose-response relationship even at 9 days post-irradiation. The side peaks therefore provide a useful means to define the irradiation of fresh mangoes.

  12. 78 FR 57467 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Mango, Mangifera indica L., from Australia into the Continental United States: A Pathway-initiated Risk... to read as follows: Sec. 319.56-60 Mangoes from Australia. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be...

  13. Mango fruit peel and flesh extracts affect adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hoang, Van L T; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is associated with many chronic disease states, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and certain cancers, including those of the breast and colon. There is a growing body of evidence that links phytochemicals with the inhibition of adipogenesis and protection against obesity. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are tropical fruits that are rich in a diverse array of bioactive phytochemicals. In this study, methanol extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars; Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride, were assessed for their effects on a 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell line model of adipogenesis. High content imaging was used to assess: lipid droplets per cell, lipid droplet area per cell, lipid droplet integrated intensity, nuclei count and nuclear area per cell. Mango flesh extracts from the three cultivars did not inhibit adipogenesis; peel extracts from both Irwin and Nam Doc Mai, however, did so with the Nam Doc Mai extract most potent at inhibiting adipogenesis. Peel extract from Kensington Pride promoted adipogenesis. The inhibition of adipogenesis by Irwin (100 μg mL(-1)) and Nam Doc Mai peel extracts (50 and 100 μg mL(-1)) was associated with an increase in the average nuclear area per cell; similar effects were seen with resveratrol, suggesting that these extracts may act through pathways similar to resveratrol. These results suggest that differences in the phytochemical composition between mango cultivars may influence their effectiveness in inhibiting adipogenesis, and points to mango fruit peel as a potential source of nutraceuticals.

  14. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  15. Mango: multiple alignment with N gapped oligos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zefeng; Lin, Hao; Li, Ming

    2008-06-01

    Multiple sequence alignment is a classical and challenging task. The problem is NP-hard. The full dynamic programming takes too much time. The progressive alignment heuristics adopted by most state-of-the-art works suffer from the "once a gap, always a gap" phenomenon. Is there a radically new way to do multiple sequence alignment? In this paper, we introduce a novel and orthogonal multiple sequence alignment method, using both multiple optimized spaced seeds and new algorithms to handle these seeds efficiently. Our new algorithm processes information of all sequences as a whole and tries to build the alignment vertically, avoiding problems caused by the popular progressive approaches. Because the optimized spaced seeds have proved significantly more sensitive than the consecutive k-mers, the new approach promises to be more accurate and reliable. To validate our new approach, we have implemented MANGO: Multiple Alignment with N Gapped Oligos. Experiments were carried out on large 16S RNA benchmarks, showing that MANGO compares favorably, in both accuracy and speed, against state-of-the-art multiple sequence alignment methods, including ClustalW 1.83, MUSCLE 3.6, MAFFT 5.861, ProbConsRNA 1.11, Dialign 2.2.1, DIALIGN-T 0.2.1, T-Coffee 4.85, POA 2.0, and Kalign 2.0. We have further demonstrated the scalability of MANGO on very large datasets of repeat elements. MANGO can be downloaded at http://www.bioinfo.org.cn/mango/ and is free for academic usage.

  16. 7 CFR 1206.18 - Research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.18 Research. Research means..., production, product development, or quality of mangos, including research relating to nutritional value,...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.19 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.19 Retailer. Retailer means a person engaged in the business of selling mangos only to consumers....

  18. 7 CFR 1206.18 - Research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.18 Research. Research means..., production, product development, or quality of mangos, including research relating to nutritional value,...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.18 - Research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.18 Research. Research means..., production, product development, or quality of mangos, including research relating to nutritional value,...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.19 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.19 Retailer. Retailer means a person engaged in the business of selling mangos only to consumers....

  1. AgrAbility Project: Promoting Success in Agriculture for People with Disabilities and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The AgrAbility Project offers education and assistance to farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural workers with physical and mental disabilities. The project also eliminates barriers and creates a favorable climate among rural service providers for people with disabilities. Disabilities and conditions covered are listed. Examples of the project's…

  2. [The activity of local health units in agriculture: promotion, prevention, control].

    PubMed

    Angotzi, G; Ariano, E; Quercia, A

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture shows an high proportion of injuries, mostly by machineries and instruments, and the highest proportion between fatal and total injuries. The Conference of Regions has adopted the National Agriculture and Forestry Prevention Plan, in application of the "Pact for health and safety in workplaces". The plan gives priority to actions improving the safety of agricultural machines, specially if more frequently involved in serious and fatal injuries. Goal is to achieve an homogenous intervention standard all over in the country, composed by a mix of information, support and control, addressed to farms and agricultural machines traders. Public prevention organizations of Local Health Units moreover will record homogenously the happen modality of fatal and serious accidents, will collaborate in joining prevention objectives with Rural Develop Plans and in drawing up good practices. At another level in some regions have been developed prevention activities for other risk factors: definition of exposition profiles of pesticides, development of professionally exposed workers formation, control of buildings and cattle breeding, medical and epidemiological periodic survey of employees.

  3. Protecting and Promoting Indigenous Knowledge: Environmental Adult Education and Organic Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Given today's pressing environmental issues, environmental adult educators can help us learn to live more sustainably. One of the models for more sustainable ways of life is organic agriculture, based in a knowledge system that works with nature, not against it. In order to understand this knowledge, we need to frame it in a way that captures all…

  4. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Gidley, Michael J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2013-02-26

    Plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. In mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. In this study, the effects of preparative HPLC fractions of methanol peel extracts from Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride mangoes were evaluated. Fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions contained increasingly more hydrophobic components. High content imaging was used to assess mango peel fraction effects on lipid accumulation, nuclei count and nuclear area in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. For all three mango cultivars, the more hydrophilic peel fractions 1-3 inhibited lipid accumulation with greater potency than the more hydrophobic peel fractions 4. For all three cultivars, the more lipophilic fraction 4 had concentrations that enhanced lipid accumulation greater than fractions 1-3 as assessed by lipid droplet integrated intensity. The potency of this fraction 4 varied significantly between cultivars. Using mass spectrometry, five long chain free fatty acids were detected in fraction 4; these were not present in any other peel extract fractions. Total levels varied between cultivars, with Irwin fraction 4 containing the highest levels of these free fatty acids. Lipophilic components appear to be responsible for the lipid accumulation promoting effects of some mango extracts and are the likely cause of the diverse effects of peel extracts from different mango cultivars on lipid accumulation.

  5. 7 CFR 1206.52 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, information, publications, and product formulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Promotion, Research, and Information § 1206.52 Patents,...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... by Cytosphaera mangiferae, Macrophoma mangiferae, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae... mangiferae, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. (f) The mangoes may be imported in...

  7. Phytochemical, pharmacological and ethnobotanical studies in mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.; Zingiberaceae).

    PubMed

    Jatoi, Shakeel Ahmad; Kikuchi, Akira; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Watanabe, Kazuo N

    2007-06-01

    Curcuma amada Roxb. is an important species known as mango ginger due to its characteristic raw-mango aroma. It has a long history of traditional uses ranging from folk medicine to several culinary preparations. The phytochemical, pharmacological and ethnobotanical studies of C. amada are reviewed. The rhizome is rich in essential oils, and more than 130 chemical constituents with biomedical significance have been isolated from it. Its antibacterial, insecticidal, antifungal and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The conservation of indigenous knowledge by proper documentation is suggested. The chemotaxonomy, allelopathy and genetic diversity of C. amada have not yet been explored, and many such studies are possible. This review was compiled to provide consolidated information covering different aspects of the plant, to provide a basis on which to plan future studies and to promote sustainable use of C. amada.

  8. Sustainable smallholder poultry interventions to promote food security and social, agricultural, and ecological resilience in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Sarah E; Lungu, Luke; Mulambya, Nathan; Daka, Whiteson; McDonald, Erin; Steubing, Emily; Lewis, Tamika; Backel, Katherine; Jange, Jarra; Lucio-Martinez, Benjamin; Lewis, Dale; Travis, Alexander J

    2016-06-01

    In Zambia's Luangwa Valley, highly variable rainfall and lack of education, agricultural inputs, and market access constrain agricultural productivity, trapping smallholder farmers in chronic poverty and food insecurity. Human and animal disease (e.g. HIV and Newcastle Disease, respectively), further threaten the resilience of poor families. To cope with various shocks and stressors, many farmers employ short-term coping strategies that threaten ecosystem resilience. Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) utilizes an agribusiness model to alleviate poverty and food insecurity through conservation farming, market development and value-added food production. COMACO promotes household, agricultural and ecological resilience along two strategic lines: improving recovery from shocks (mitigation) and reducing the risk of shock occurrence. Here we focus on two of COMACO's poultry interventions and present data showing that addressing health and management constraints within the existing village poultry system resulted in significantly improved productivity and profitability. However, once reliable productivity was achieved, farmers preferred to sell chickens rather than eat either the birds or their eggs. Sales of live birds were largely outside the community to avoid price suppression; in contrast, the sale of eggs from community-operated, semi-intensive egg production facilities was invariably within the communities. These facilities resulted in significant increases in both producer income and community consumption of eggs. This intervention therefore has the potential to improve not only producers' economic resilience, but also resilience tied to the food security and physical health of the entire community.

  9. Plant-microbe interactions promoting plant growth and health: perspectives for controlled use of microorganisms in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Berg, Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    Plant-associated microorganisms fulfill important functions for plant growth and health. Direct plant growth promotion by microbes is based on improved nutrient acquisition and hormonal stimulation. Diverse mechanisms are involved in the suppression of plant pathogens, which is often indirectly connected with plant growth. Whereas members of the bacterial genera Azospirillum and Rhizobium are well-studied examples for plant growth promotion, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Stenotrophomonas, and Streptomyces and the fungal genera Ampelomyces, Coniothyrium, and Trichoderma are model organisms to demonstrate influence on plant health. Based on these beneficial plant-microbe interactions, it is possible to develop microbial inoculants for use in agricultural biotechnology. Dependent on their mode of action and effects, these products can be used as biofertilizers, plant strengtheners, phytostimulators, and biopesticides. There is a strong growing market for microbial inoculants worldwide with an annual growth rate of approximately 10%. The use of genomic technologies leads to products with more predictable and consistent effects. The future success of the biological control industry will benefit from interdisciplinary research, e.g., on mass production, formulation, interactions, and signaling with the environment, as well as on innovative business management, product marketing, and education. Altogether, the use of microorganisms and the exploitation of beneficial plant-microbe interactions offer promising and environmentally friendly strategies for conventional and organic agriculture worldwide.

  10. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  11. Growth and Development Symposium: promoting healthier humans through healthier livestock: animal agriculture enters the metagenomics era.

    PubMed

    Frank, D N

    2011-03-01

    The priorities of public health and agricultural sciences intersect through a shared objective to foster better human health. Enhancements in food quality and reductions in the environmental effects of modern agriculture represent 2 distinct paths through which animal sciences can contribute to the cause of public health. Recent developments in the study of human-associated microbial communities (microbiotas), notably in association with disease, indicate that better understanding of the microbial ecology of livestock can contribute to achieving the goals of better foods and a cleaner environment. Culture-independent microbiological technologies now permit comprehensive study of complex microbial communities in their natural environments. Microbiotas associated with both humans and animals provide myriad beneficial services to their hosts that, if lost or diminished, could compromise host health. Dysfunctional microbial communities have been noted in several human conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Examination of the mechanisms by which the human microbiota influences health and disease susceptibility can inform similar studies of host-microbe function in the animal sciences. Insights gained from human studies indicate strategies to raise not only healthier livestock, through selective manipulation of microbial communities, but also healthier humans.

  12. Cytokinins of the Developing Mango Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Shaw

    1983-01-01

    The cytokinin activity has been isolated and identified from extracts of immature mango (Mangifera indica L.) seeds. The structures of zeatin, zeatin riboside, and N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine riboside were confirmed on the basis of their chromatographic behavior and mass spectra of trimethylsilyl derivatives. Both trans and cis isomers of zeatin and zeatin riboside were also identified by the retention times of high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, an unidentified compound appeared to be a cytokinin glucoside. The concentration of cytokinins in the panicle and pulp of mango reached a maximum 5 to 10 days after full bloom and decreased rapidly thereafter. The cytokinin level in the seed remained high until the 28th day after full bloom. The quantity of cytokinins in pulp per fruit increased from the 10th day after full bloom, the maximum being attained around the 50th day after full bloom. Similarly, the amount of cytokinins per seed increased from the 10th day after full bloom, reaching a peak on the 40th day and decreasing gradually thereafter. A high percentage of fruit set in mango was persistently maintained by supplying 6-benzylaminopurine (1.5 × 103 micromolar) onto the panicle at the anthesis stage and by supplying gibberellic acid (7.2 × 102 micromolar) and naphthalene acetamide (3.1 × 10 micromolar) at the young fruit stage. PMID:16662830

  13. Mapping global potential risk of mango sudden decline disease caused by fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), sometimes referred to as mango wilt, is an important disease of mango caused by one of the most significant fungal species causing disease in woody plants, Ceratocystis fimbriata. This species is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Steb...

  14. Roles of Extension Officers to Promote Social Capital in Japanese Agricultural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Kosuke; Uchida, Yukiko; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social capital in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social capital-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social capital (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social capital in local communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social capital in local communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills. PMID:24642575

  15. Roles of extension officers to promote social capital in Japanese agricultural communities.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Kosuke; Uchida, Yukiko; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social capital in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social capital-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social capital (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social capital in local communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social capital in local communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to mango flesh.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Sari; Bassiri-Tehrani, Shirley; Cohen, David E

    2004-03-01

    A 22-year-old white female student presented to the Emergency Department with a 2-day history of patchy pruritic erythema of the face, neck, and arms with periorbital edema. The eruption began as an isolated patch of nasal erythema, with subsequent extension to involve the entire face. Within 2 days, fine pinpoint papules were noted on the face, anterior chest, neck, and upper extremities. Periorbital edema was present without intraoral abnormalities or laryngeal changes. An erythematous, mildly lichenified plaque was noted on the ventral left wrist. The past medical history was significant for two similar, milder episodes of allergic reactions of uncertain etiology occurring within the previous 2 months. The previous eruptions resolved after treatment with oral loratodine and topical fluocinonide cream 0.05%. The patient denied any history of contact urticaria or new household or personal hygiene contactants, although she did report frequent ingestion of peeled mangoes. Her brother had a history of eczematous dermatitis. In the Emergency Department, the patient was administered intravenous diphenhydramine and a single 50 mg dose of oral prednisone. She continued treatment with a 5-day course of prednisone, 50 mg daily, with loratodine, 20 mg daily, and diphenhydramine as needed; however, no symptomatic improvement was seen over 4 days. She was then advised to restart fluocinonide cream twice daily. Patch testing was performed to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard Series utilizing methods of the International Contact Dermatitis research group with Finn chambers. Mango skin and mango flesh harvested 5 mm below the skin surface were also placed in duplicate and tested under Finn chambers. Positive (1+) reactions were noted to nickel and p-tertbutylphenol formaldehyde resin, and bullous reactions were found to mango skin and surface flesh in duplicate (Fig. 1). Complete avoidance of mango led to resolution of the initial eruption. The clinical

  17. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut 'Kent' mango

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A modified atmosphere package (MAP) was designed to optimize the quality and shelf-life of fresh-cut ‘Kent’ mango during exposure to common retail display conditions. Synergism of the MAP system with an antioxidant treatment (calcium ascorbate + citric acid) was also investigated. Mango slices in tr...

  18. Physico-chemical evaluation of the “Casturi” Mango

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mangifera casturi “Casturi” mango is a tropical fruit tree about 10–30 m tall which is endemic to very small area around Banjarmasin in Southern Borneo (Indonesia). The casturi mango is believed to be first introduced to Florida by Richard Campbell in early 2000 as part of the germplasm conservat...

  19. Two new promising cultivars of mango for Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mango cultivars are mostly the result of random selections from open pollinated chance seedlings of indigenous or introduced germplasm. The National Germplasm Repository (genebank) at the Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (SHRS) in Miami, Florida is an important mango germplasm repository an...

  20. Leaf photosynthesis of 'Cat Hoa Loc' mango (Mangifera indica L.) and 'Nam Roi' pummelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck.) in the rainy season.

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh Phong; Le, Van Be; Vo, Van Binh; Nguyen, Van Lam

    2002-01-01

    With an EARS--Plant photosynthesis meter we determined gross photosynthesis (P) of leaves of 'Cat Hoa Loc' mango on 4 years old trees planted in the Fruit Tree Experiment and Production Station, Campus 2, Department of Crop Science, College of Agriculture, Can Tho University in the rainy season of the year 2000. The same experiment was conducted on 'Nam Roi' pummelo on a farm located in the Binh Minh district, Vinh Long province. In the rainy season the calculated gross photosynthesis of 'Cat Hoa Loc' mango leaves at flowering stage was higher than that at the vegetative stage. However, the photosynthetically active radiation and quantum yield of 'Cat Hoa Loc' mango leaves in both stages did not reach the light saturation point when compared with values from estimated equation of photosynthetic light curve. The same holds true for 'Nam Roi' pummelo in the vegetative stage.

  1. Community perspectives on barriers and strategies for promoting locally grown produce from an urban agriculture farm.

    PubMed

    Hu, Alice; Acosta, Angela; McDaniel, Abigail; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Although much is understood about barriers to healthy food consumption in low-income, urban communities, knowledge regarding the crucial next step of building feasible, community-supported approaches to address those barriers remains limited. This qualitative study used in-depth interviews (n = 20), focus groups (n = 2), and participant observations (n = 3) to identify strategies to promote locally grown produce from an urban food security project, Produce From the Park (PFP), an urban farm. Informants included community organization representatives and residents from low-income neighborhoods in a mid-Atlantic city. Informants identified structural and cultural barriers to purchasing healthy food, including price, location, food culture, and lack of interest. Participants proposed a number of strategies, such as distribution through mobile food carts and farm stands, marketing new foods through taste tests and cooking demonstrations, and youth mentorship. Informants also described their perceptions of the local urban farm and suggested ways to increase community buy-in. Strategies mentioned were inexpensive and incorporated cultural norms and local assets. These community perspectives can provide insights for those promoting healthy eating in urban African American communities through urban food security projects.

  2. Characterization of mango (Mangifera indica L.) transcriptome and chloroplast genome.

    PubMed

    Azim, M Kamran; Khan, Ishtaiq A; Zhang, Yong

    2014-05-01

    We characterized mango leaf transcriptome and chloroplast genome using next generation DNA sequencing. The RNA-seq output of mango transcriptome generated >12 million reads (total nucleotides sequenced >1 Gb). De novo transcriptome assembly generated 30,509 unigenes with lengths in the range of 300 to ≥3,000 nt and 67× depth of coverage. Blast searching against nonredundant nucleotide databases and several Viridiplantae genomic datasets annotated 24,593 mango unigenes (80% of total) and identified Citrus sinensis as closest neighbor of mango with 9,141 (37%) matched sequences. The annotation with gene ontology and Clusters of Orthologous Group terms categorized unigene sequences into 57 and 25 classes, respectively. More than 13,500 unigenes were assigned to 293 KEGG pathways. Besides major plant biology related pathways, KEGG based gene annotation pointed out active presence of an array of biochemical pathways involved in (a) biosynthesis of bioactive flavonoids, flavones and flavonols, (b) biosynthesis of terpenoids and lignins and (c) plant hormone signal transduction. The mango transcriptome sequences revealed 235 proteases belonging to five catalytic classes of proteolytic enzymes. The draft genome of mango chloroplast (cp) was obtained by a combination of Sanger and next generation sequencing. The draft mango cp genome size is 151,173 bp with a pair of inverted repeats of 27,093 bp separated by small and large single copy regions, respectively. Out of 139 genes in mango cp genome, 91 found to be protein coding. Sequence analysis revealed cp genome of C. sinensis as closest neighbor of mango. We found 51 short repeats in mango cp genome supposed to be associated with extensive rearrangements. This is the first report of transcriptome and chloroplast genome analysis of any Anacardiaceae family member.

  3. Mango seed weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and premature fruit drop in mangoes.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A

    2002-04-01

    The effect of infestations of mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (F.), on premature fruit drop of mangoes was investigated. Mango fruits ('Haden') of equal size were collected both off the ground and from the tree at four times during the season (June-August). If weevil-infested fruit were more prone to dropping than uninfested fruit, the prediction was that a higher infestation rate would be found in fruit on the ground compared with fruit on the tree. Average fruit weight was used as an indicator of fruit maturity. The seed infestation rate was significantly higher in fruit collected off the ground compared with fruit collected from the tree in 38 g and 79 g (early-season) fruit but not significantly different in 207 g (midseason) and 281 g (late season) fruit. The age distribution of weevils and the number of insects in infested fruits were similar for ground and tree fruits on all dates. Results suggest that mango seed weevil infestation can increase fruit drop during early fruit development.

  4. Silicon: Potential to Promote Direct and Indirect Effects on Plant Defense Against Arthropod Pests in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Olivia L.; Padula, Matthew P.; Zeng, Rensen; Gurr, Geoff M.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon has generally not been considered essential for plant growth, although it is well recognized that many plants, particularly Poaceae, have substantial plant tissue concentrations of this element. Recently, however, the International Plant Nutrition Institute [IPNI] (2015), Georgia, USA has listed it as a “beneficial substance”. This reflects that numerous studies have now established that silicon may alleviate both biotic and abiotic stress. This paper explores the existing knowledge and recent advances in elucidating the role of silicon in plant defense against biotic stress, particularly against arthropod pests in agriculture and attraction of beneficial insects. Silicon confers resistance to herbivores via two described mechanisms: physical and biochemical/molecular. Until recently, studies have mainly centered on two trophic levels; the herbivore and plant. However, several studies now describe tri-trophic effects involving silicon that operate by attracting predators or parasitoids to plants under herbivore attack. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that silicon-treated, arthropod-attacked plants display increased attractiveness to natural enemies, an effect that was reflected in elevated biological control in the field. The reported relationships between soluble silicon and the jasmonic acid (JA) defense pathway, and JA and herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) suggest that soluble silicon may enhance the production of HIPVs. Further, it is feasible that silicon uptake may affect protein expression (or modify proteins structurally) so that they can produce additional, or modify, the HIPV profile of plants. Ultimately, understanding silicon under plant ecological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular contexts will assist in fully elucidating the mechanisms behind silicon and plant response to biotic stress at both the bi- and tri-trophic levels. PMID:27379104

  5. Perspective of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing ACC deaminase in stress agriculture.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Hussain, Sarfraz; Bhatti, Ahmad Saeed

    2007-10-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant growth hormone produced endogenously by almost all plants. It is also produced in soil through a variety of biotic and abiotic mechanisms, and plays a key role in inducing multifarious physiological changes in plants at molecular level. Apart from being a plant growth regulator, ethylene has also been established as a stress hormone. Under stress conditions like those generated by salinity, drought, waterlogging, heavy metals and pathogenicity, the endogenous production of ethylene is accelerated substantially which adversely affects the root growth and consequently the growth of the plant as a whole. Certain plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) contain a vital enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, which regulates ethylene production by metabolizing ACC (an immediate precursor of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants) into alpha-ketobutyrate and ammonia. Inoculation with PGPR containing ACC deaminase activity could be helpful in sustaining plant growth and development under stress conditions by reducing stress-induced ethylene production. Lately, efforts have been made to introduce ACC deaminase genes into plants to regulate ethylene level in the plants for optimum growth, particularly under stressed conditions. In this review, the primary focus is on giving account of all aspects of PGPR containing ACC deaminase regarding alleviation of impact of both biotic and abiotic stresses onto plants and of recent trends in terms of introduction of ACC deaminase genes into plant and microbial species.

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must be addressed in one of the following ways: (1) The mangoes are treated with a broad-spectrum post... orchard of origin is treated with a broad-spectrum fungicide during the growing season and is...

  7. Mangos of Puerto Rico, country contribution: Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: The book chapter presents a review of the historical importance of mango in Puerto Rico; geographical distribution; statistical data including total and seasonal production, main cultivars and their descriptors; cultural practices (i.e. propagation, fertilization, pruning); pests...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Cytosphaera mangiferae, Macrophoma mangiferae, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae must be... preclearance activities and found free of Cytosphaera mangiferae, Macrophoma mangiferae, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. (f) The mangoes may be imported in commercial consignments only....

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Cytosphaera mangiferae, Macrophoma mangiferae, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae must be... preclearance activities and found free of Cytosphaera mangiferae, Macrophoma mangiferae, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. (f) The mangoes may be imported in commercial consignments only....

  10. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  11. Bioactivity of mango flesh and peel extracts on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ [PPARγ] activation and MCF-7 cell proliferation: fraction and fruit variability.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Ashley S; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Shaw, P Nicholas; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Mangos are a source of bioactive compounds with potential health promoting activity. Biological activities associated with mango fractions were assessed in cell-based assays to develop effective extraction and fractionation methodologies and to define sources of variability. Two techniques were developed for extraction and fractionation of mango fruit peel and flesh. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to assess compositional differences between mango fractions in flesh extracts. Many of the extracts were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro. All fractions showed bioactivity in PPAR activation assays, but quantitative responses showed marked fruit-to-fruit variability, highlighting the need to bulk fruit prior to extraction for activity-guided fractionation of bioactive components. This study also suggests that combinations of diverse molecular components may be responsible for cell-level bioactivities from mango fractions, and that purification and activity profiling of individual components may be difficult to relate to whole fruit effects. Practical Application: Although the health benefits of fruits are strongly indicated from studies of diet and disease, it is not known what role individual fruit types can play, particularly for tropical fruits. This study shows that there is a diversity of potentially beneficial bioactivities within the flesh and peel of mango fruit, although fruit-to-fruit variation can be large. The results add to the evidence that the food approach of eating all components of fruits is likely to be more beneficial to health than consuming refined extracts, as the purification process would inevitably remove components with beneficial bioactivities.

  12. 7 CFR 1206.36 - Powers and duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206... strengthen the mango industry's position in the U.S. domestic market; maintain and expand existing...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.36 - Powers and duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206... strengthen the mango industry's position in the U.S. domestic market; maintain and expand existing...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.31 - Nominations and appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206... solicited from all known importers of mangos. The members from each district shall select the nominees...

  15. 7 CFR 1206.31 - Nominations and appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206... solicited from all known importers of mangos. The members from each district shall select the nominees...

  16. 7 CFR 1206.31 - Nominations and appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206... solicited from all known importers of mangos. The members from each district shall select the nominees...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.36 - Powers and duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206... strengthen the mango industry's position in the U.S. domestic market; maintain and expand existing...

  18. 7 CFR 1206.31 - Nominations and appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206... solicited from all known importers of mangos. The members from each district shall select the nominees...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.31 - Nominations and appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206... solicited from all known importers of mangos. The members from each district shall select the nominees...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.36 - Powers and duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206... strengthen the mango industry's position in the U.S. domestic market; maintain and expand existing...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.36 - Powers and duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions National Mango Promotion Board § 1206... strengthen the mango industry's position in the U.S. domestic market; maintain and expand existing...

  2. Inactivation of Aspergillus niger in mango nectar by high-pressure homogenization combined with heat shock.

    PubMed

    Tribst, Alline A L; Franchi, Mark A; Cristianini, Marcelo; de Massaguer, Pilar R

    2009-01-01

    This research evaluated the inactivation of a heat-resistant Aspergillus niger conidia in mango nectar by high-pressure homogenization (HPH) combined with heat shock. A. niger were inoculated in mango nectar (10(6) conidia mL(-1)) and subjected to HPH (300 to 100 MPa) and heat shock (80 degrees C for 5 to 20 min) before or after HPH. Processes were evaluated according to number of decimal reductions reached by each isolated or combined process. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to observe conidia wall after pressure treatment. Pressures below 150 MPa did not inactivate A. niger while pressures of 200 and 300 MPa resulted in 2 and more than 6 log reductions, respectively. D(80 degrees C) of A. niger was determined as 5.03 min. A heat shock of 80 degrees C/15 min, reaching 3 decimal conidia reductions, was applied before or after a 200 MPa pressure treatment to improve the decimal reduction to 5 log cycles. Results indicated that HPH inactivated A. niger in mango nectar at 300 MPa (>6.24 log cycles) and that, with pressure (200 MPa) combined with post heat shock, it was possible to obtain the same decimal reduction, showing a synergistic effect. On the other hand, pre heat shock associated with HPH resulted in an additive effect. The observation of A. niger conidia treated by HPH at 100 and 200 MPa by scanning electron microscopy indicated that HPH promoted intense cell wall damage, which can sensitize the conidia to post heat shock and possibly explain the synergistic effect observed. Practical Application: The results obtained in this paper are relevant to elucidate the mechanism of conidia inactivation in order to develop the application of HPH as an alternative pasteurization process for the fruit nectar industry.

  3. Analysis of copper tolerant rhizobacteria from the industrial belt of Gujarat, western India for plant growth promotion in metal polluted agriculture soils.

    PubMed

    Sharaff, Murali; Kamat, Shalmali; Archana, G

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural sites irrigated for long term with water polluted by industrial effluents containing heavy metals might adversely affect the soil microbial communities and crop yield. Hence it is important to study rhizobacterial communities and their metal tolerance in such affected agricultural fields to restore soil fertility and ecosystem. Present work deals with the study of rhizobacterial communities from plants grown in copper (Cu) contaminated agricultural fields along the industrial zone of Gujarat, India and are compared with communities from a Cu mine site. Microbial communities from rhizosphere soil samples varied in the magnitude of their Cu tolerance index indicating differences in long term pollution effects. Culture dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE) of bacterial communities revealed the diverse composition at the sampling sites and a reduced total diversity due to Cu toxicity. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene diversity of Cu tolerant rhizobacteria revealed the predominance of Enterobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. under Cu stress conditions. Cu tolerant bacterial isolates that were able to promote growth of mung bean plants in vitro under Cu stress were obtained from these samples. Cu tolerant rhizobacterium P36 identified as Enterobacter sp. exhibited multiple plant growth promoting traits and significantly alleviated Cu toxicity to mung bean plants by reducing the accumulation of Cu in plant roots and promoted the plant growth in CuSO4 amended soils.

  4. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mango mealybug, Drosicha mangiferae from Punjab.

    PubMed

    Banta, Geetika; Jindal, Vikas; Mohindru, Bharathi; Sharma, Sachin; Kaur, Jaimeet; Gupta, V K

    2016-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are major pests of a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their high degree of morphological similarity makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. In the present study, four Indian populations of mango mealybug (mango, litchi, guava from Gurdaspur and mango from Jalandhar) were analyzed. The mtCOI region was amplified, cloned, the nucleotide sequences were determined and analysed. All the four species were found to be D. mangiferae. The population from Litchi and Mango from Gurdaspur showed 100% homologus sequence. The population of Guava-Gurdaspur and Mango-Jalandhar showed a single mutation of 'C' instead of 'T' at 18th and 196th position, respectively. Indian populations were compared with populations from Pakistan (21) and Japan (1). The phylogenetic tree resulted in two main clusters. Cluster1 represent all the 4 populations of Punjab, India, 20 of Pakistan (Punjab, Sind, Lahore, Multan, Faisalabad and Karak districts) with homologous sequences. The two population collected from Faisalabad district of Pakistan and Japan made a separate cluster 2 because the gene sequence used in analysis was from the COI-3p region. However, all the other sequence of D. mangiferae samples under study showed a low nucleotide divergence. The homologus mtCO1 sequence of Indian and Pakistan population concluded that the genetic diversity in mealybug population was quite less over a large geographical area.

  5. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Fu, Xiong; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Youngsheng; Zhu, Yong; Yan, Huaifeng; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-06-12

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), also called "the king of fruits", is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC) and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Tainang cultivars, respectively, whereas Xiao Tainang also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, concentrations of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids at 79.15, 64.33, 33.75, 27.19 and 13.62 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) were quantified for Da Tainang, Xiao Tainang and of Jidan cultivars, respectively. Comparatively, a higher level of phenolics and significant antioxidant capacity in mango peel indicated that it might be useful as a functional food and value-added ingredient to promote human health.

  6. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Fu, Xiong; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Youngsheng; Zhu, Yong; Yan, Huaifeng; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), also called “the king of fruits”, is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC) and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Tainang cultivars, respectively, whereas Xiao Tainang also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, concentrations of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids at 79.15, 64.33, 33.75, 27.19 and 13.62 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) were quantified for Da Tainang, Xiao Tainang and of Jidan cultivars, respectively. Comparatively, a higher level of phenolics and significant antioxidant capacity in mango peel indicated that it might be useful as a functional food and value-added ingredient to promote human health. PMID:26075869

  7. Mango seed uses: thermal behaviour of mango seed almond fat and its mixtures with cocoa butter.

    PubMed

    Solís-Fuentes, J A; Durán-de-Bazúa, M C

    2004-03-01

    This paper deals with the physicochemical characterization, including thermal behaviour, by differential scanning calorimetry of mango seed almond fat (MAF), alone and in mixtures with cocoa butter (CB). Results showed that mango almond seeds contain about 5.28-11.26% (dw) of fat. The refraction index is 1.466, the saponification index 189.0 and the iodine index 41.76. Fatty acids found in MAF are oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids (40.81%, 39.07% and 9.29% (w/w), respectively) as well as smaller amounts of linoleic, with arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, and linolenic acids, among others. Calorimetric analysis showed that MAF crystallizes between 14.6 and -24.27 degrees C with a DeltaHc of 56.06 J/g and melts between -17.1 and 53.8 degrees C, with fusion maxima at 18.54 degrees C and 40.0 degrees C for the alpha and beta polymorphic forms. Their fusion enthalpies are 70.12 and 115.7 J/g. The MAF solids content profile is very similar to that of CB, both in stabilized and non-stabilized samples. The mixing compatibility was analyzed using isosolids curves of mixtures of different compositions.

  8. UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

  9. Incidence of chilling injury in fresh-cut 'Kent' mangoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The preferred storage temperature for fresh-cut fruits in terms of visual quality retention is around 5 °C, which is considered to be a chilling temperature for chilling sensitive tropical fruits like mango (Mangifera indica L.). Changes in visual and compositional quality factors, aroma volatile pr...

  10. Irreversible commitment to flowering in two mango cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, the state of Nayarit, Mexico has experienced variations in rainfall distribution and warmer temperatures during the autumn-winter season which have caused erratic flowering of mango. The early-flowering cultivars, such as ‘Ataulfo’, have been less affected than tardy ones such as ‘T...

  11. Anticarcinogenic effects of polyphenolics from mango (Mangifera indica) varieties.

    PubMed

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Bertoldi, Michele C; Krenek, Kimberley; Talcott, Stephen T; Stringheta, Paulo C; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2010-04-14

    Many polyphenolics contained in mango have shown anticancer activity. The objective of this study was to compare the anticancer properties of polyphenolic extracts from several mango varieties (Francis, Kent, Ataulfo, Tommy Atkins, and Haden) in cancer cell lines, including Molt-4 leukemia, A-549 lung, MDA-MB-231 breast, LnCap prostate, and SW-480 colon cancer cells and the noncancer colon cell line CCD-18Co. Cell lines were incubated with Ataulfo and Haden extracts, selected on the basis of their superior antioxidant capacity compared to the other varieties, where SW-480 and MOLT-4 were statistically equally most sensitive to both cultivars followed by MDA-MB-231, A-549, and LnCap in order of decreasing efficacy as determined by cell counting. The efficacy of extracts from all mango varieties in the inhibition of cell growth was tested in SW-480 colon carcinoma cells, where Ataulfo and Haden demonstrated superior efficacy, followed by Kent, Francis, and Tommy Atkins. At 5 mg of GAE/L, Ataulfo inhibited the growth of colon SW-480 cancer cells by approximately 72% while the growth of noncancer colonic myofibroblast CCD-18Co cells was not inhibited. The growth inhibition exerted by Ataulfo and Haden polyphenolics in SW-480 was associated with an increased mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic biomarkers and cell cycle regulators, cell cycle arrest, and a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Overall, polyphenolics from several mango varieties exerted anticancer effects, where compounds from Haden and Ataulfo mango varieties possessed superior chemopreventive activity.

  12. Neoplastic transformation of BALB/3T3 cells and cell cycle of HL-60 cells are inhibited by mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice and mango juice extracts.

    PubMed

    Percival, Susan S; Talcott, Stephen T; Chin, Sherry T; Mallak, Anne C; Lounds-Singleton, Angela; Pettit-Moore, Jennifer

    2006-05-01

    The mango, Mangifera indica L., is a fruit with high levels of phytochemicals, suggesting that it might have chemopreventative properties. In this study, whole mango juice and juice extracts were screened for antioxidant and anticancer activity. Antioxidant activity of the mango juice and juice extracts was measured by 3 standard in vitro methods. The results of the 3 methods were in general agreement, although different radicals were measured in each. Anticancer activity was measured by examining the effect on cell cycle kinetics and the ability to inhibit chemically induced neoplastic transformation of mammalian cell lines. Incubation of HL-60 cells with whole mango juice and mango juice fractions resulted in an inhibition of the cell cycle in the G(0)/G(1) phase. A fraction of the eluted mango juice with low peroxyl radical scavenging ability was most effective in arresting cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase. Whole mango juice was effective in reducing the number of transformed foci in the neoplastic transformation assay in a dose-dependent manner. These techniques provide valuable screening tools for health benefits derived from mango phytochemicals.

  13. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  14. Formation of Land Use Order in Hamamatsu City under the Original Criteria of the Farm Land Exclusion from the Agricultural Promotion Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arita, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Shingo

    While zoning has been practiced to prevent sprawling development and to preserve collective farmland under the Agriculture Promotion Act, The Agricultural Promotion Area (APA) has been reduced in area by the action of the Farm Land Exclusion from the APA (EAPA) aiming at urban-uses. Since the EAPA has a great impact on the regional land use, appropriate criteria application techniques ought to be formulated at the transaction level. However, most local governments seem to have no strategic measure so far. Hamamatsu city, meanwhile, has introduced a unique standard upon which approval of the EAPA aptitude is based in 2003. Since the number of EAPA registration was relatively large in Hamamatsu city owing to the zone bordering on the line of land which a building has erected the officials' willingness to establish an objective standard was high. In this research, we verified the effect of the criteria application over the land use ordering, and made proposals for improvement of the present state through the examination of the EAPA criterion application of Hamamatsu city.

  15. In-Line Sorting of Harumanis Mango Based on External Quality Using Visible Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Firdaus; Ahmad Sa'ad, Fathinul Syahir; Zakaria, Ammar; Md Shakaff, Ali Yeon

    2016-10-27

    The conventional method of grading Harumanis mango is time-consuming, costly and affected by human bias. In this research, an in-line system was developed to classify Harumanis mango using computer vision. The system was able to identify the irregularity of mango shape and its estimated mass. A group of images of mangoes of different size and shape was used as database set. Some important features such as length, height, centroid and parameter were extracted from each image. Fourier descriptor and size-shape parameters were used to describe the mango shape while the disk method was used to estimate the mass of the mango. Four features have been selected by stepwise discriminant analysis which was effective in sorting regular and misshapen mango. The volume from water displacement method was compared with the volume estimated by image processing using paired t-test and Bland-Altman method. The result between both measurements was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The average correct classification for shape classification was 98% for a training set composed of 180 mangoes. The data was validated with another testing set consist of 140 mangoes which have the success rate of 92%. The same set was used for evaluating the performance of mass estimation. The average success rate of the classification for grading based on its mass was 94%. The results indicate that the in-line sorting system using machine vision has a great potential in automatic fruit sorting according to its shape and mass.

  16. In-Line Sorting of Harumanis Mango Based on External Quality Using Visible Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohd Firdaus; Ahmad Sa’ad, Fathinul Syahir; Zakaria, Ammar; Md Shakaff, Ali Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The conventional method of grading Harumanis mango is time-consuming, costly and affected by human bias. In this research, an in-line system was developed to classify Harumanis mango using computer vision. The system was able to identify the irregularity of mango shape and its estimated mass. A group of images of mangoes of different size and shape was used as database set. Some important features such as length, height, centroid and parameter were extracted from each image. Fourier descriptor and size-shape parameters were used to describe the mango shape while the disk method was used to estimate the mass of the mango. Four features have been selected by stepwise discriminant analysis which was effective in sorting regular and misshapen mango. The volume from water displacement method was compared with the volume estimated by image processing using paired t-test and Bland-Altman method. The result between both measurements was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The average correct classification for shape classification was 98% for a training set composed of 180 mangoes. The data was validated with another testing set consist of 140 mangoes which have the success rate of 92%. The same set was used for evaluating the performance of mass estimation. The average success rate of the classification for grading based on its mass was 94%. The results indicate that the in-line sorting system using machine vision has a great potential in automatic fruit sorting according to its shape and mass. PMID:27801799

  17. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, the in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Manthey, John A; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope

    2009-11-25

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit grown worldwide with excellent nutritional value and widely attributed health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peels, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxidants of mango fruit pulp. Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over 1 year to compare the beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, and total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of the fruit pulp and to compare the phenolic profiles of the individual varieties. To minimize ripeness variability, only soft fruit (0.5-1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements. Ascorbic acid ranged from 11 to 134 mg/100 g of pulp puree, and beta-carotene varied from 5 to 30 mg/kg among the five varieties. Total phenolic content ranged from 19.5 to 166.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g of puree. The varieties Tommy Atkins, Kent, Keitt, and Haden had similar total phenolic contents, averaging 31.2+/-7.8 mg GAE/100 g of puree, whereas the variety Ataulfo contained substantially higher values. Similar trends were observed in the DPPH radical scavenging activities among the five varieties. In contrast, the country of origin and harvest dates had far less influence on these parameters. Ataulfo mangoes contained significantly higher amounts of mangiferin and ellagic acid than the other four varieties. Large fruit-to-fruit variations in the concentrations of these compounds occurred within sets of mangoes of the same cultivar with the same harvest location and date.

  18. Promoting pollinating insects in intensive agricultural matrices: field-scale experimental manipulation of hay-meadow mowing regimes and its effects on bees.

    PubMed

    Buri, Pierrick; Humbert, Jean-Yves; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    Bees are a key component of biodiversity as they ensure a crucial ecosystem service: pollination. This ecosystem service is nowadays threatened, because bees suffer from agricultural intensification. Yet, bees rarely benefit from the measures established to promote biodiversity in farmland, such as agri-environment schemes (AES). We experimentally tested if the spatio-temporal modification of mowing regimes within extensively managed hay meadows, a widespread AES, can promote bees. We applied a randomized block design, replicated 12 times across the Swiss lowlands, that consisted of three different mowing treatments: 1) first cut not before 15 June (conventional regime for meadows within Swiss AES); 2) first cut not before 15 June, as treatment 1 but with 15% of area left uncut serving as a refuge; 3) first cut not before 15 July. Bees were collected with pan traps, twice during the vegetation season (before and after mowing). Wild bee abundance and species richness significantly increased in meadows where uncut refuges were left, in comparison to meadows without refuges: there was both an immediate (within year) and cumulative (from one year to the following) positive effect of the uncut refuge treatment. An immediate positive effect of delayed mowing was also evidenced in both wild bees and honey bees. Conventional AES could easily accommodate such a simple management prescription that promotes farmland biodiversity and is likely to enhance pollination services.

  19. Maturity assessment of harumanis mango using thermal camera sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa'ad, F. S. A.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md.; Zakaria, A.; Abdullah, A. H.; Ibrahim, M. F.

    2017-03-01

    The perceived quality of fruits, such as mangoes, is greatly dependent on many parameters such as ripeness, shape, size, and is influenced by other factors such as harvesting time. Unfortunately, a manual fruit grading has several drawbacks such as subjectivity, tediousness and inconsistency. By automating the procedure, as well as developing new classification technique, it may solve these problems. This paper presents the novel work on the using Infrared as a Tool in Quality Monitoring of Harumanis Mangoes. The histogram of infrared image was used to distinguish and classify the level of ripeness of the fruits based on the colour spectrum by week. The approach proposed thermal data was able to achieve 90.5% correct classification.

  20. The peel and pulp of mango fruit: a proteomic samba.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, Elisa; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-12-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted for investigating the proteomes of mango peel and pulp as well their peptidome content (the latter as captured with a C18 resin). The aim of this study was not only to perform the deepest investigation so far of the mango proteome, but also to assess the potential presence of allergens and of peptides endowed with biological activities. The proteins of peel and pulp have been captured under both native and denaturing extraction techniques. A total of 334 unique protein species have been identified in the peel vs. 2855 in the pulp, via capture with CPLLs at different pH values (2.2 and 7.2).

  1. Volatile components from mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Pino, Jorge A; Mesa, Judith; Muñoz, Yamilie; Martí, M Pilar; Marbot, Rolando

    2005-03-23

    The volatile components of 20 mango cultivars were investigated by means of simultaneous distillation-extraction, GC, and GC-MS. Three hundred and seventy-two compounds were identified, of which 180 were found for the first time in mango fruit. The total concentration of volatiles was approximately 18-123 mg/kg of fresh fruit. Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles of all cultivars, the dominant terpenes being delta-3-carene (cvs. Haden, Manga amarilla, Macho, Manga blanca, San Diego, Manzano, Smith, Florida, Keitt, and Kent), limonene (cvs. Delicioso, Super Haden, Ordonez, Filipino, and La Paz), both terpenes (cv. Delicia), terpinolene (cvs. Obispo, Corazon, and Huevo de toro), and alpha-phellandrene (cv. Minin). Other qualitative and quantitative differences among the cultivars could be demonstrated.

  2. Mapping Global Potential Risk of Mango Sudden Decline Disease Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Leonardo S. S.; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Neven, Lisa G.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    The Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), also referred to as Mango Wilt, is an important disease of mango in Brazil, Oman and Pakistan. This fungus is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing), by infected plant material, and the infested soils where it is able to survive for long periods. The best way to avoid losses due to MSD is to prevent its establishment in mango production areas. Our objectives in this study were to: (1) predict the global potential distribution of MSD, (2) identify the mango growing areas that are under potential risk of MSD establishment, and (3) identify climatic factors associated with MSD distribution. Occurrence records were collected from Brazil, Oman and Pakistan where the disease is currently known to occur in mango. We used the correlative maximum entropy based model (MaxEnt) algorithm to assess the global potential distribution of MSD. The MaxEnt model predicted suitable areas in countries where the disease does not already occur in mango, but where mango is grown. Among these areas are the largest mango producers in the world including India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and Mexico. The mean annual temperature, precipitation of coldest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of driest month variables contributed most to the potential distribution of MSD disease. The mango bark beetle vector is known to occur beyond the locations where MSD currently exists and where the model predicted suitable areas, thus showing a high likelihood for disease establishment in areas predicted by our model. Our study is the first to map the potential risk of MSD establishment on a global scale. This information can be used in designing strategies to prevent introduction and establishment of MSD disease, and in preparation of efficient pest risk assessments and monitoring programs. PMID:27415625

  3. 75 FR 52712 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... issuing permits for the importation into the continental United States of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan... weeds via the importation of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan. DATES: Effective Date: August 27,...

  4. 78 FR 34636 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Collection; Importation of Mangoes From the Philippines AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... with the regulations for the importation of mangoes from the Philippines into the United States. DATES... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the importation of mangoes from the Philippines, contact Mr....

  5. 77 FR 71775 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Collection; Importation of Mangoes From India Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant... collection associated with the regulations for the importation of mangoes from India into the continental... coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the importation of mangoes from...

  6. Isolation and partial characterization of mango (Magnifera indica L.) starch: morphological, physicochemical and functional studies.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Aparicio-Saguilán, A; Méndez-Montealvo, G; Solorza-Feria, J; Flores-Huicochea, E

    2005-03-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is a fruit that grows in tropical regions. The aim of this work was to isolate the starch from two varieties of mango highly consumed in Mexico ("criollo" and "manila"), and to evaluate its chemical composition, along with some morphological, physicochemical and functional properties. Mango starch had an amylose content of about 13%, the fat content of "criollo" variety starch (0.1-0.12%), was similar to that of commercial corn starch used as control (0.2%); both mango starches had higher ash amount (0.2-0.4%) than corn starch. Mango starches presented a smaller granule size (10 microm) than corn starch (15 microm), along with an A-type X-ray diffraction pattern with slight tendency to a C-type. All values of water retention capacity (WRC) increased with the temperature. When the temperature increased, solubility and swelling values increased and in general, mango starches had higher values than corn starch. Both mango starches had gelatinization temperatures lower than the control, but "criollo" variety starch presented higher enthalpy values than "manila" variety and corn starches. Overall, it was concluded that due to its morphological, physicochemical and functional properties, mango starches could be a feasible starch source with adequate properties, suitable for using in the food industry.

  7. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut ‘Kent’ mango under common retail display conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A modified atmosphere package (MAP) was designed to optimize the quality and shelf-life of fresh-cut ‘Kent’ mango during exposure to common retail display conditions. The synergism between the MAP system and an antioxidant treatment (calcium ascorbate and citric acid) was also investigated. Mango sl...

  8. Mango fruit aroma volatile production following quarantine hot water treatment and subsequent ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mangos are an important tropical fruit crop worldwide that are appreciated for their attractive peel and flesh colors, juicy texture, sweetness, and unique aroma. Mangos exported to the U.S. receive quarantine hot water treatment (QHWT) at 46.1 °C for 65 to 110 min (depending on fruit shape and size...

  9. First report of mango malformation disease caused by Fusarium pseudocircinatum in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) malformation disease (MMD) is one of the most important diseases affecting this crop worldwide, causing severe economic loss due to reduction of yield. Subsequent to the first report in India in 1891 (3), MMD has spread worldwide to most mango-growing regions. Several spe...

  10. A genetic map and germplasm diversity estimation of Mangifera indica (mango) with SNPs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is often referred to as the “King of Fruits”. As the first steps in developing a mango genomics project, we genotyped 582 individuals comprising six mapping populations with 1054 SNP markers. The resulting consensus map had 20 linkage groups defined by 726 SNP markers with...

  11. Field Note: A Disease Specific Expert System for the Indian Mango Crop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2007-01-01

    Mango ("Mangifera indica") is a popular fruit and an important cash crop of southeast Asia. The mango malformation disease has been responsible for the degraded yield of the crop now for a long time (Kumar and Chakrabarti, 1997). The disease is difficult to cure and often takes the shape of an epidemic. Though much study has been done…

  12. Effect of technological processing on the allergenicity of mangoes (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Dube, Mark; Zunker, Katy; Neidhart, Sybille; Carle, Reinhold; Steinhart, Hans; Paschke, Angelika

    2004-06-16

    In parallel with the rising popularity of exotic fruits in Europe, allergy against mango is of increasing importance. Because mangoes are also consumed as processed products such as chutneys or beverages, the influences of different process conditions on their allergenicity were investigated. Mango purees and nectars were manufactured at small pilot-plant scale, and the allergenic potencies of the resulting intermediate and final products were determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), immunoblotting and inhibitive enzyme allergosorbent tests (EAST-inhibition), using a pool serum of 9 individuals with manifest mango allergy. The mango allergens were shown to be very stable during technological processing. Irrespective of enzymatic matrix decomposition, mechanical tissue disintegration and heating during peeling, mash treatment, and pasteurization, significant loss of allergenicity could not be observed in the extracts of mango purees and nectars derived thereof. These results were confirmed by analogous investigation of commercial mango drinks and nectars. Hence, conventional mango processing into pulp-containing products typical for this species obviously does not allow complete elimination of the allergenic potency.

  13. Fungal pathogen complexes associated with rambutan, longan and mango diseases in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different fungi have been associated with diseased inflorescences, leaves, and fruits of mango, rambutan and longan. During a fungal disease survey conducted between 2008 and 2013 at six orchards of rambutan and longan, and one orchard of mango in Puerto Rico, symptoms such as fruit rot, infloresc...

  14. Identification and characterization of Fusarium mexicanum causing mango malformation disease in México

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herein we summarize the results of fusaria we discovered associated with mango malformation disease (MMD) in México (Otero-Colina et al., 2010). From 2002 to 2009, 142 strains were isolated from symptomatic mango inflorescences and vegetative tissues from various cultivars in eight geographically di...

  15. Integrating High Resolution Water Footprint and GIS for Promoting Water Efficiency in the Agricultural Sector: A Case Study of Plantation Crops in the Jordan Valley.

    PubMed

    Shtull-Trauring, Eliav; Aviani, Ido; Avisar, Dror; Bernstein, Nirit

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the global challenges to water security requires a better understanding of humanity's use of water, especially the agricultural sector that accounts for 70% of global withdrawals. This study combined high resolution-data with a GIS system to analyze the impact of agricultural practices, crop type, and spatial factors such as drainage basins, climate, and soil type on the Water Footprint (WF) of agricultural crops. The area of the study, the northern Lower Jordan Valley, covers 1121 ha in which three main plantation crops are grown: banana (cultivated in open-fields or net-houses), avocado and palm-dates. High-resolution data sources included GIS layers of the cultivated crops and a drainage pipe-system installed in the study area; meteorological data (2000-2013); and crop parameters (yield and irrigation recommendations). First, the study compared the WF of the different crops on the basis of yield and energy produced as well as a comparison to global values and local irrigation recommendations. The results showed that net-house banana has the lowest WF based on all different criteria. However, while palm-dates showed the highest WF for the yield criteria, it had the second lowest WF for energy produced, emphasizing the importance of using multiple parameters for low and high yield crop comparisons. Next, the regional WF of each drainage basin in the study area was calculated, demonstrating the strong influence of the Gray WF, an indication of the amount of freshwater required for pollution assimilation. Finally, the benefits of integrating GIS and WF were demonstrated by computing the effect of adopting net-house cultivation throughout the area of study with a result a reduction of 1.3 MCM irrigation water per year. Integrating the WF methodology and local high-resolution data using GIS can therefore promote and help quantify the benefits of adopting site-appropriate crops and agricultural practices that lower the WF by increasing yield, reducing water

  16. Integrating High Resolution Water Footprint and GIS for Promoting Water Efficiency in the Agricultural Sector: A Case Study of Plantation Crops in the Jordan Valley

    PubMed Central

    Shtull-Trauring, Eliav; Aviani, Ido; Avisar, Dror; Bernstein, Nirit

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the global challenges to water security requires a better understanding of humanity's use of water, especially the agricultural sector that accounts for 70% of global withdrawals. This study combined high resolution-data with a GIS system to analyze the impact of agricultural practices, crop type, and spatial factors such as drainage basins, climate, and soil type on the Water Footprint (WF) of agricultural crops. The area of the study, the northern Lower Jordan Valley, covers 1121 ha in which three main plantation crops are grown: banana (cultivated in open-fields or net-houses), avocado and palm-dates. High-resolution data sources included GIS layers of the cultivated crops and a drainage pipe-system installed in the study area; meteorological data (2000–2013); and crop parameters (yield and irrigation recommendations). First, the study compared the WF of the different crops on the basis of yield and energy produced as well as a comparison to global values and local irrigation recommendations. The results showed that net-house banana has the lowest WF based on all different criteria. However, while palm-dates showed the highest WF for the yield criteria, it had the second lowest WF for energy produced, emphasizing the importance of using multiple parameters for low and high yield crop comparisons. Next, the regional WF of each drainage basin in the study area was calculated, demonstrating the strong influence of the Gray WF, an indication of the amount of freshwater required for pollution assimilation. Finally, the benefits of integrating GIS and WF were demonstrated by computing the effect of adopting net-house cultivation throughout the area of study with a result a reduction of 1.3 MCM irrigation water per year. Integrating the WF methodology and local high-resolution data using GIS can therefore promote and help quantify the benefits of adopting site-appropriate crops and agricultural practices that lower the WF by increasing yield, reducing

  17. Formulations of polymeric biodegradable low-cost foam by melt extrusion to deliver plant growth-promoting bacteria in agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, Paulo Ricardo Franco; Milani, Karina Maria Lima; Mali, Suzana; Santos, Odair José Andrade Pais Dos; de Oliveira, André Luiz Martinez

    2016-08-01

    The extrusion technology of blends formed by compounds with different physicochemical properties often results in new materials that present properties distinctive from its original individual constituents. Here, we report the use of melt extrusion of blends made from low-cost materials to produce a biodegradable foam suitable for use as an inoculant carrier of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). Six formulations were prepared with variable proportions of the raw materials; the resulting physicochemical and structural properties are described, as well as formulation performance in the maintenance of bacterial viability during 120 days of storage. Differences in blend composition influenced foam density, porosity, expansion index, and water absorption. Additionally, differences in the capability of sustaining bacterial viability for long periods of time were more related to the foam composition than to the resulting physicochemical characteristics. Microscopic analyses showed that the inoculant bacteria had firmly attached to the extruded material by forming biofilms. Inoculation assays using maize plants demonstrated that the bacteria attached to the extruded foams could survive in the soil for up to 10 days before maize sowing, without diminishing its ability to promote plant growth. The results presented demonstrate the viability of the new matrix as a biotechnological material for bacterial delivery not only in agriculture but also in other biotechnological applications, according to the selected bacterial strains.

  18. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products and their valuable components: a review.

    PubMed

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Nyam, Kar-Lin; Norulaini, N A N; Sahena, F; Mohd Omar, A K

    2015-09-15

    The large amount of waste produced by the food industries causes serious environmental problems and also results in economic losses if not utilized effectively. Different research reports have revealed that food industry by-products can be good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds. As such, the mango juice industry uses only the edible portions of the mangoes, and a considerable amount of peels and seeds are discarded as industrial waste. These mango by-products come from the tropical or subtropical fruit processing industries. Mango by-products, especially seeds and peels, are considered to be cheap sources of valuable food and nutraceutical ingredients. The main uses of natural food ingredients derived from mango by-products are presented and discussed, and the mainstream sectors of application for these by-products, such as in the food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, are highlighted.

  19. Biological monitoring of chlorinated pesticides among exposed workers of mango orchards: A case study in tropical climate

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, H.; Pangtey, B.S.; Modak, D.P.; Singh, K.P.; Gupta, B.N.; Bharti, R.S.; Srivastava, S.P. )

    1992-02-01

    Organochlorine, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds are widely used pesticides in India for controlling disease carrying vectors and agricultural pests. Organochlorine compounds being persistent and lipophilic in nature, accumulate in the human body through food chain and environmental exposure. Accumulation of DDT, BHC and endosulfan has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders, hypertension and other health related problems. Earlier, the authors have observed respiratory impairment (36.5%) among workers engaged in spraying of organochlorine pesticides on mango trees at Malihabad. In the present investigation, the levels of chlorinated present investigation, the levels of chlorinated pesticides among exposed workers have been monitored to study the distribution pattern in blood and their excretion in urine of human subjects.

  20. 7 CFR 1206.14 - Part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.14 Part. Part means part 1206 which includes the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order and all rules, regulations, and...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.14 - Part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.14 Part. Part means part 1206 which includes the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order and all rules, regulations, and...

  2. 7 CFR 1206.14 - Part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.14 Part. Part means part 1206 which includes the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order and all rules, regulations, and...

  3. 7 CFR 1206.14 - Part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.14 Part. Part means part 1206 which includes the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order and all rules, regulations, and...

  4. 7 CFR 1206.14 - Part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.14 Part. Part means part 1206 which includes the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order and all rules, regulations, and...

  5. Ethephon induced abscission in mango: physiological fruitlet responses

    PubMed Central

    Hagemann, Michael H.; Winterhagen, Patrick; Hegele, Martin; Wünsche, Jens N.

    2015-01-01

    Fruitlet abscission of mango is typically very severe, causing considerable production losses worldwide. Consequently, a detailed physiological and molecular characterization of fruitlet abscission in mango is required to describe the onset and time-dependent course of this process. To identify the underlying key mechanisms of abscission, ethephon, an ethylene releasing substance, was applied at two concentrations (600 and 7200 ppm) during the midseason drop stage of mango. The abscission process is triggered by ethylene diffusing to the abscission zone where it binds to specific receptors and thereby activating several key physiological responses at the cellular level. The treatments reduced significantly the capacity of polar auxin transport through the pedicel at 1 day after treatment and thereafter when compared to untreated pedicels. The transcript levels of the ethylene receptor genes MiETR1 and MiERS1 were significantly upregulated in the pedicel and pericarp at 1, 2, and 3 days after the ethephon application with 7200 ppm, except for MiETR1 in the pedicel, when compared to untreated fruitlet. In contrast, ethephon applications with 600 ppm did not affect expression levels of MiETR1 in the pedicel and of MiERS1 in the pericarp; however, MiETR1 in the pericarp at day 2 and MiERS1 in the pedicel at days 2 and 3 were significantly upregulated over the controls. Moreover, two novel short versions of the MiERS1 were identified and detected more often in the pedicel of treated than untreated fruitlets at all sampling times. Sucrose concentration in the fruitlet pericarp was significantly reduced to the control at 2 days after both ethephon treatments. In conclusion, it is postulated that the ethephon-induced abscission process commences with a reduction of the polar auxin transport capacity in the pedicel, followed by an upregulation of ethylene receptors and finally a decrease of the sucrose concentration in the fruitlets. PMID:26442021

  6. [Mango: agroindustrial aspects, nutritional/functional value and health effects].

    PubMed

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Olivas-Aguirre, Francisco J; Velderrain-Rodriguez, Gustavo R; González-Aguilar, A; de la Rosa, Laura A; López-Díaz, Jose A; Álvarez-Parrilla, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    Objetivo: Revisar y discutir la información más reciente sobre el valor agroindustrial, funcional y nutricional de uno de los frutos de mayor cultivo, exportación y consumo en México: el Mango. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en diversas bases de datos (PubMed, Cochrane, ScienceDirect) y documentos de libre acceso (Google Scholar) sobre Mangifera indica L. Esta información fue posteriormente sub-clasificada en aspectos agroindustriales, nutricionales, funcionales y efectos a la salud. Resultados: Uno de cada veinte mangos consumidos mundialmente, es mexicano. “Ataulfo” es la variedad la de mayor importancia agronómica. El procesamiento mínimo de su pulpa (MP) genera residuos de cáscara (MC) y semilla con alto potencial nutracéutico. MP y MC son buenas fuentes de ascorbato, fructosa, fibra dietarias soluble (MP, almidones y ramnogalacturonanos) e insoluble (MC, ligninas y hemicelulosa) y lípidos funcionales (MP). MP y MC poseen un perfil de compuestos fenólicos (CF) monoméricos (MP) como el acido gálico y el protocatehuico y poliméricos (MC) como la -PGG asociados con efectos anti-obesigénicos, anti-inflamatorios, anti-cancerigenos y anti-diabeticos. Estos beneficios son dependientes de la bioaccesibilidad (liberación de su matriz alimentaria) y destino metabólico (biodisponibilidad) de estos CF. Discusión: El mango resulta una valiosa fuente de compuestos antioxidantes con comprobado beneficio a la salud. Sin embargo, factores como la variedad, temporalidad de cultivos, tratamientos pre y post-cosecha, extracción de bioactivos y algunas barreras fisiológicas pueden modificar su potencial nutracéutico.

  7. The Role of the Beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Mango Wilt.

    PubMed

    Galdino, Tarcísio Visintin da Silva; Ferreira, Dalton de Oliveira; Santana Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Arcanjo, Lucas de Paulo; Queiroz, Elenir Aparecida; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2017-03-03

    The knowledge of the spatiotemporal dynamics of pathogens and their vectors is an important step in determining the pathogen dispersion pattern and the role of vectors in disease dynamics. However, in the case of mango wilt little is known about its spatiotemporal dynamics and the relationship of its vector [the beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing 1914)] to these dynamics. The aim of this work was to determine the spatial-seasonal dynamic of H. mangiferae attacks and mango wilt in mango orchards and to verify the importance of H. mangiferae in the spatiotemporal dynamics of the disease. Two mango orchards were monitored during a period of 3 yr. The plants in these orchards were georeferenced and inspected monthly to quantify the number of plants attacked by beetles and the fungus. In these orchards, the percentage of mango trees attacked by beetles was always higher than the percentage infected by the fungus. The colonization of mango trees by beetles and the fungus occurred by colonization of trees both distant and proximal to previously attacked trees. The new plants attacked by the fungus emerged in places where the beetles had previously begun their attack. This phenomenon led to a large overlap in sites of beetle and fungal occurrence, indicating that establishment by the beetle was followed by establishment by the fungus. This information can be used by farmers to predict disease infection, and to control bark beetle infestation in mango orchards.

  8. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashish S; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, Kishore D; Pinto, Suneeta V

    2010-10-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized 'ice and salt' type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus and Butter Buds were used at levels of 0.2% and 0.05%, respectively. The dietetic low fat ice creams compared well in sensory colour and appearance, flavour, body and texture, and melting quality to that of control ice cream. Incorporation of 2.5% powdered sago and 0.2% Cream Plus as flavour adjunct is recommended in the manufacture of 'low-fat' mango ice cream. The energy values for control and dietetic mango ice cream was 202.8 and 142.9 kcal/100 g, respectively, which represents about 30% reduction in calorie. The cost of ice cream per liter was Rs 39.9, Rs 37.6 and Rs 49.7 for experimental ice creams containing Cream Plus and Butter Bud, and control, respectively.

  9. Potential contribution of mangoes to reduction of vitamin A deficiency in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muoki, Penina N; Makokha, Anselimo O; Onyango, Christine A; Ojijo, Nelson K O

    2009-01-01

    The β-carotene content of fresh and dried mangoes commonly consumed in Kenya was evaluated and converted to retinol equivalent (RE). Mango fruits of varieties Ngowe, Apple, and Tommy Atkins were harvested at mature green, partially ripe, and ripe stages and their β-carotene content analyzed. The stability of β-carotene in sun dried mangoes was also studied over 6 months under usual marketing conditions used in Kenya. The effect of using simple pretreatment methods prior to drying of mango slices on retention of β-carotene was as well evaluated. In amounts acceptable to children and women, fresh and dried mangoes can supply 50% or more of the daily required retinol equivalent for children and women. Stage of ripeness, variety, postharvest holding temperature, method of drying, and storage time of dried mango slices affected β-carotene content and consequently vitamin A value of the fruits. Apple variety grown in Machakos had the highest β-carotene. It exceeded the daily RE requirements by 11.8% and 21.5% for women and children respectively. Fresh or dried mangoes are a significant provitamin A source and should be included in food-based approaches aiming to reduce vitamin A deficiency.

  10. Evaluation of the proximate composition, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial activity of mango seed kernel extracts.

    PubMed

    Mutua, Jane K; Imathiu, Samuel; Owino, Willis

    2017-03-01

    After pulp extraction in fruit processing industry, a significant quantity of mango seed kernels are discarded as solid wastes. These seed kernels can be ideal raw materials for obtaining extracts rich in bioactive compounds with good antioxidant properties. The conversion of these wastes into utilizable food ingredients would help in reducing environmental problems associated with processing waste disposal. In order to determine their potential use, this study evaluated some of the biochemical characteristics and antimicrobial potential of mango seed kernel extracts on medically important human bacterial and fungal pathogens. Four mango varieties (Apple, Ngowe, Kent and Sabine) from Makueni and Embu counties in Kenya were used for this study. The analyzed mango seed kernel powders were found to contain on average, 6.74-9.20% protein content. Apple and Ngowe mango seed kernels had significantly higher fat content of 13.04 and 13.08, respectively, while Sabine from Makueni had the least fat content of 9.84%. The ash, fiber, and carbohydrate contents ranged from 1.78 to 2.87%, 2.64 to 3.71% and 72.86 to 75.92%, respectively. The mean percentage scavenging ability of mango kernel extracts at the concentration of 20 mg/mL was 92.22%. Apple and Sabine mango kernel extracts had significantly high inhibition zones of 1.93 and 1.73 compared to Kent and Ngowe with 1.13 and 1.10, respectively, against E. coli. For C. albicans, the inhibition of Kent mango kernel extract, 1.63, was significantly lower than that of Ngowe, Apple, and Sabine with 2.23, 2.13, and 1.83, respectively. This study demonstrates that mango seed powder is an abundant and cost-effective potential natural antibiotic and antifungal that can be utilized in addressing the challenge of food poisoning and infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms in the food industry.

  11. Population structure and cryptic genetic variation in the mango fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Virgilio, Massimiliano; Delatte, Hélène; Nzogela, Yasinta Beda; Simiand, Christophe; Quilici, Serge; De Meyer, Marc; Mwatawala, Maulid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The fruit fly Ceratitis cosyra is an important agricultural pest negatively affecting the mango crop production throughout Africa and also feeding on a variety of other wild and cultivated hosts. The occurrence of deeply divergent haplotypes, as well as extensive morphological variability, previously suggested possible cryptic speciation within Ceratitis cosyra. Here we provide the first large-scale characterisation of the population structure of Ceratitis cosyra with the main objective of verifying cryptic genetic variation. A total of 348 specimens from 13 populations were genotyped at 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) deviations were observed in 40.4% of locus-population combinations and suggested the occurrence of genetic substructuring within populations. Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC) showed genetic divergence between the vast majority of vouchers from Burundi and Tanzania (plus a few outliers from other African countries) and all other specimens sampled. Individual Bayesian assignments confirmed the existence of two main genotypic groups also occurring in sympatry. These data provided further support to the hypothesis that Ceratitis cosyra might include cryptic species. However, additional integrative taxonomy, possibly combining morphological, ecological and physiological approaches, is required to provide the necessary experimental support to this model. PMID:26798276

  12. Phytochemical extraction, characterisation and comparative distribution across four mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit varieties.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jean T; Monteith, Gregory R; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Shaw, Paul N

    2014-04-15

    In this study we determined the qualitative composition and distribution of phytochemicals in peel and flesh of fruits from four different varieties of mango using mass spectrometry profiling following fractionation of methanol extracts by preparative HPLC. Gallic acid substituted compounds, of diverse core structure, were characteristic of the phytochemicals extracted using this approach. Other principal compounds identified were from the quercetin family, the hydrolysable tannins and fatty acids and their derivatives. This work provides additional information regarding mango fruit phytochemical composition and its potential contribution to human health and nutrition. Compounds present in mango peel and flesh are likely subject to genetic control and this will be the subject of future studies.

  13. A case of renal failure developing in association with African mango consumption

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Gülsüm; Ulusoy, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease continues to represent a significant health problem in all societies. One of the main factors accelerating renal progression is nephrotoxins. The African mango is a plant added to many foods and commonly consumed in West Africa. No toxic effect has to date been shown. Our aim was to discuss the 42-year-old patient who became dialysis-dependent through developing rapid renal progression following 2.5-month African mango use. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first case of chronic renal insufficiency developing in association with African mango consumption. PMID:26131261

  14. A case of renal failure developing in association with African mango consumption.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Gülsüm; Ulusoy, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease continues to represent a significant health problem in all societies. One of the main factors accelerating renal progression is nephrotoxins. The African mango is a plant added to many foods and commonly consumed in West Africa. No toxic effect has to date been shown. Our aim was to discuss the 42-year-old patient who became dialysis-dependent through developing rapid renal progression following 2.5-month African mango use. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first case of chronic renal insufficiency developing in association with African mango consumption.

  15. MANGO: a new approach to multiple sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zefeng; Lin, Hao; Li, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignment is a classical and challenging task for biological sequence analysis. The problem is NP-hard. The full dynamic programming takes too much time. The progressive alignment heuristics adopted by most state of the art multiple sequence alignment programs suffer from the 'once a gap, always a gap' phenomenon. Is there a radically new way to do multiple sequence alignment? This paper introduces a novel and orthogonal multiple sequence alignment method, using multiple optimized spaced seeds and new algorithms to handle these seeds efficiently. Our new algorithm processes information of all sequences as a whole, avoiding problems caused by the popular progressive approaches. Because the optimized spaced seeds are provably significantly more sensitive than the consecutive k-mers, the new approach promises to be more accurate and reliable. To validate our new approach, we have implemented MANGO: Multiple Alignment with N Gapped Oligos. Experiments were carried out on large 16S RNA benchmarks showing that MANGO compares favorably, in both accuracy and speed, against state-of-art multiple sequence alignment methods, including ClustalW 1.83, MUSCLE 3.6, MAFFT 5.861, Prob-ConsRNA 1.11, Dialign 2.2.1, DIALIGN-T 0.2.1, T-Coffee 4.85, POA 2.0 and Kalign 2.0.

  16. Determination of avocado and mango fruit properties by ultrasonic technique.

    PubMed

    Mizrach, A

    2000-03-01

    A nondestructive ultrasonic measurement system was developed for the assessment of some transmission parameters which might have quantitative relations with the maturity, firmness and other quality-related properties of avocado and mango fruits. The system utilizes a set of low-frequency probes arranged to measure the ultrasonic signal transmitted and received over a short distance across the peel. The attenuation of the ultrasonic waves, transmitted through the peel and the attached fruit tissue, changes as a result of the progressive ripening and softening of the fruit during the fruiting season and in the course of storage. The present study quantitatively addressed the linkage between the ultrasonic attenuation and the physiological parameters of the flesh of the fruits. Results were obtained in the time and frequency domain, and the data set was analyzed statistically to identify the relations between the major physiological indices and the ultrasonic parameters. Quantitative relations were developed to describe the linkage between ultrasonic parameters and the maturity, firmness and other quality-related properties in mango and avocado fruits.

  17. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    PubMed

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected.

  18. Resistance in mango against infection by Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Leonardo; Bispo, Wilka Messner Silva; Cacique, Isaías Severino; Moreira, Wiler Ribas; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to characterize and describe host cell responses of stem tissue to mango wilt disease caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata in Brazil. Disease progress was followed, through time, in inoculated stems for two cultivars, 'Ubá' (field resistant) and 'Haden' (field susceptible). Stem sections from inoculated areas were examined using fluorescence light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Tissues from Ubá colonized by C. fimbriata had stronger autofluorescence than those from Haden. The X-ray microanalysis revealed that the tissues of Ubá had higher levels of insoluble sulfur and calcium than those of Haden. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that fungal hyphae, chlamydospores (aleurioconidia), and perithecia-like structures of C. fimbriata were more abundant in Haden relative to Ubá. At the ultrastructural level, pathogen hyphae had grown into the degraded walls of parenchyma, fiber cells, and xylem vessels in the tissue of Haden. However, in Ubá, plant cell walls were rarely degraded and hyphae were often surrounded by dense, amorphous granular materials and hyphae appeared to have died. Taken together, the results of this study characterize the susceptible and resistant basal cell responses of mango stem tissue to infection by C. fimbriata.

  19. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) malformation: a malady of stress ethylene origin.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad W; Rani, Varsha; Shukla, Alok; Bains, Gurdeep; Pant, Ramesh C; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Mango malformation is a major constrain in mango production worldwide causing heavy economic losses depending on cultivar type and susceptibility. The malady has variously been ascribed to be acarological, viral, fungal and physiological in nature. Here, we discuss the ethylene origin nature of malady. There are indications that most of the symptoms of mango malformation resemble with those of caused by ethylene effects. Multiple evidence reports of putative causal agents including Fusarium mangiferae to augment the endogenous pool of 'stress ethylene' are well documented. Therefore, over load of 'stress ethylene' impairs morphology malformed tissue and cyanide derived from ethylene biosynthesis causes necrosis and death of malformed cells. This review covers various factors eliciting 'stress ethylene' formation, role of ethylene in development of malady and regulation of ethylene action to reduce malformation in mango.

  20. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Xia; Fu, Shu-Fang; Bi, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Song; Wu, Ji-Hong

    2013-05-01

    Four principal mango cultivars (Tainong No.1, Irwin, JinHwang and Keitt) grown in southern China were selected, and their physico-chemical and antioxidant properties were characterized and compared. Of all the four cultivars, Tainong No.1 had highest content of total phenols, ρ-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, quercetin, titratable acidity, citric acid, malic acid, fructose, higher antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP) and L(*), lower pH, PPO activity and individual weight. Keitt mangoes showed significantly (p<0.05) higher contents of β-carotene, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, sucrose, total sugar, total soluble solid, catechin, succinic acid and higher PPO activity. JinHwang mangoes exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher individual weight and PPO activity, but had lower content of total phenols, β-carotene and lower antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed the four mango cultivars to be differentiated clearly based on all these physico-chemical and antioxidant properties determined in the study.

  1. Fast Measurement of Soluble Solid Content in Mango Based on Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong

    Mango is a kind of popular tropical fruit, and the soluble solid content is an important in this study visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIR) technique was applied. For sake of investigating the feasibility of using VIS/SWNIR spectroscopy to measure the soluble solid content in mango, and validating the performance of selected sensitive bands, for the calibration set was formed by 135 mango samples, while the remaining 45 mango samples for the prediction set. The combination of partial least squares and backpropagation artificial neural networks (PLS-BP) was used to calculate the prediction model based on raw spectrum data. Based on PLS-BP, the determination coefficient for prediction (Rp) was 0.757 and root mean square and the process is simple and easy to operate. Compared with the Partial least squares (PLS) result, the performance of PLS-BP is better.

  2. 7 CFR 1206.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.9 Importer. Importer means any... United States for sale in the United States, and who is listed as the importer of record for such mangos....

  3. 7 CFR 1206.8 - Foreign producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.8 Foreign producer. Foreign producer means any person: (1) Who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos outside of the...

  4. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos in the United States and who owns,...

  5. 7 CFR 1206.43 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Expenses and Assessments § 1206.43 Exemptions. (a) Any first handler or importer of less than 500,000 pounds of mangos per calendar year...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.9 Importer. Importer means any person importing 500,000 or more pounds of mangos into the United States in a calendar year as...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.42 - Assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Expenses and Assessments § 1206.42... of a cent per pound on all mangos. The assessment rate will be reviewed and may be modified by...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.71 - Referenda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.71 Referenda. (a... Department, have been engaged in the handling or importation of mangos. (b) Subsequent referenda. Every...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.60 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Reports, Books, and Records § 1206.60... limited to the following: (1) Number of pounds of domestic mangos handled; (2) Number of pounds...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.8 - Foreign producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.8 Foreign producer. Foreign producer means any person: (1) Who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos outside of the...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.60 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Reports, Books, and Records § 1206.60... limited to the following: (1) Number of pounds of domestic mangos handled; (2) Number of pounds...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.9 Importer. Importer means any person importing 500,000 or more pounds of mangos into the United States in a calendar year as...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.60 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Reports, Books, and Records § 1206.60... limited to the following: (1) Number of pounds of domestic mangos handled; (2) Number of pounds...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos in the United States and who owns,...

  15. 7 CFR 1206.43 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Expenses and Assessments § 1206.43 Exemptions. (a) Any first handler or importer of less than 500,000 pounds of mangos per calendar year...

  16. 7 CFR 1206.71 - Referenda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.71 Referenda. (a... Department, have been engaged in the handling or importation of mangos. (b) Subsequent referenda. Every...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.72 - Suspension and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.72 Suspension... handling or importation of mangos. (c) If, as a result of a referendum the Department determines that...

  18. 7 CFR 1206.43 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Expenses and Assessments § 1206.43 Exemptions. (a) Any first handler or importer of less than 500,000 pounds of mangos per calendar year...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.42 - Assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Expenses and Assessments § 1206.42... cent per pound on all mangos. The assessment rate will be reviewed and may be modified by the...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.43 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Expenses and Assessments § 1206.43 Exemptions. (a) Any first handler or importer of less than 500,000 pounds of mangos per calendar year...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.72 - Suspension and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.72 Suspension... handling or importation of mangos. (c) If, as a result of a referendum the Department determines that...

  2. 7 CFR 1206.43 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Expenses and Assessments § 1206.43 Exemptions. (a) Any first handler or importer of less than 500,000 pounds of mangos per calendar year...

  3. 7 CFR 1206.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.9 Importer. Importer means any person importing 500,000 or more pounds of mangos into the United States in a calendar year as...

  4. 7 CFR 1206.71 - Referenda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.71 Referenda. (a... Department, have been engaged in the handling or importation of mangos. (b) Subsequent referenda. Every...

  5. 7 CFR 1206.71 - Referenda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.71 Referenda. (a... Department, have been engaged in the handling or importation of mangos. (b) Subsequent referenda. Every...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos in the United States and who owns,...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.8 - Foreign producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.8 Foreign producer. Foreign producer means any person: (1) Who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos outside of the...

  8. 7 CFR 1206.72 - Suspension and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.72 Suspension... handling or importation of mangos. (c) If, as a result of a referendum the Department determines that...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.42 - Assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Expenses and Assessments § 1206.42... cent per pound on all mangos. The assessment rate will be reviewed and may be modified by the...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.71 - Referenda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.71 Referenda. (a... Department, have been engaged in the handling or importation of mangos. (b) Subsequent referenda. Every...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.42 - Assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Expenses and Assessments § 1206.42... of a cent per pound on all mangos. The assessment rate will be reviewed and may be modified by...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.60 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Reports, Books, and Records § 1206.60... limited to the following: (1) Number of pounds of domestic mangos handled; (2) Number of pounds...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.9 Importer. Importer means any person importing 500,000 or more pounds of mangos into the United States in a calendar year as...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.72 - Suspension and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.72 Suspension... handling or importation of mangos. (c) If, as a result of a referendum the Department determines that...

  15. 7 CFR 1206.8 - Foreign producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.8 Foreign producer. Foreign producer means any person: (1) Who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos outside of the...

  16. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos in the United States and who owns,...

  17. 7 CFR 1206.8 - Foreign producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.8 Foreign producer. Foreign producer means any person: (1) Who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos outside of the...

  18. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos in the United States and who owns,...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.72 - Suspension and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Miscellaneous § 1206.72 Suspension... handling or importation of mangos. (c) If, as a result of a referendum the Department determines that...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.60 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Reports, Books, and Records § 1206.60... limited to the following: (1) Number of pounds of domestic mangos handled; (2) Number of pounds...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.42 - Assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions Expenses and Assessments § 1206.42... cent per pound on all mangos. The assessment rate will be reviewed and may be modified by the...

  2. An Agricultural Expansion Strategy for Burundi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-04

    missions. Farmers were able to work continuous plots only in tl. cast of pineapple, strawberries, and pomegranates. However, fruit trees such as the guava ...110 tons Lemons 1,200 tons Pomelos 25 tons Avocados 12,000 tons Mangoes 5,200 tons Guavas 3,200 tons Beef heart 280 tons Medlars 320 tons Total 31,485...is expected to increase. Recently, private promoters and projects set up small fruit-processing units for jam and juices (Fruito). The prime target

  3. Determining Sala mango qualities with the use of RGB images captured by a mobile phone camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, Ommi Kalsom Mardziah; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz

    2015-04-01

    Sala mango (Mangifera indicia) is one of the Malaysia's most popular tropical fruits that are widely marketed within the country. The degrees of ripeness of mangoes have conventionally been evaluated manually on the basis of color parameters, but a simple non-destructive technique using the Samsung Galaxy Note 1 mobile phone camera is introduced to replace the destructive technique. In this research, color parameters in terms of RGB values acquired using the ENVI software system were linked to detect Sala mango quality parameters. The features of mango were extracted from the acquired images and then used to classify of fruit skin color, which relates to the stages of ripening. A multivariate analysis method, multiple linear regression, was employed with the purpose of using RGB color parameters to estimate the pH, soluble solids content (SSC), and firmness. The relationship between these qualities parameters of Sala mango and its mean pixel values in the RGB system is analyzed. Findings show that pH yields the highest accuracy with a correlation coefficient R = 0.913 and root mean square of error RMSE = 0.166 pH. Meanwhile, firmness has R = 0.875 and RMSE = 1.392 kgf, whereas soluble solid content has the lowest accuracy with R = 0.814 and RMSE = 1.218°Brix with the correlation between color parameters. Therefore, this non-invasive method can be used to determine the quality attributes of mangoes.

  4. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of thai mango seed kernel extract.

    PubMed

    Nithitanakool, Saruth; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-08-01

    Three polyphenolic principles, 1,2,3,4,6-penta- O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (PGG), methyl gallate (MG), and gallic acid (GA), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of seed kernels of Thai mango (MSKE) ( MANGIFERA INDICA L. cv. "Fahlun") and quantified using a TLC scanning densitometric method. The MSKE and its isolates were investigated by studying their antioxidant capacities using four different methods, by determining their IN VITRO anti-inflammatory activities, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl (4)). The hepatoprotective effect of MSKE is clearly supported by its polyphenolic nature of the main principle, PGG, which exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  5. Efficacy of extracts of immature mango on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Nery, Patrícia S; Nogueira, Flávia A; Oliveira, Neide J F; Martins, Ernane R; Duarte, Eduardo R

    2012-12-01

    The principal health problem in small ruminants is helminthiasis and the rapid development of nematode resistance to anthelminthics has limited the success of control in several countries, stimulating the search for alternatives. In this study, extracts of immature fruits of the mango Mangifera indica L. var Ubá were evaluated for inhibition of larval development and fecal egg count reduction in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the metabolites identified. Aqueous extracts of immature fruits at 100 mg ml(-1) showed 100 % inhibition of larval development. The LC(90) of the extract was 35.9 mg ml(-1) and the in vivo anthelminthic efficacy at 0.740 g kg(-1) (BW, orally) was 53 %. The identification of larvae showed that 99.8 % were Haemonchus spp. In vitro and in vivo results indicate that this fruit could assist ovine nematode control.

  6. Physical properties of wild mango fruit and nut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehiem, J.; Simonyan, K.

    2012-02-01

    Physical properties of two wild mango varieties were studied at 81.9 and 24.5% moisture (w.b.) for the fruits and nuts, respectively. The shape and size of the fruit are the same while that of nuts differs at P = 0.05. The mass, density and bulk density of the fruits are statistically different at P = 0.05 but the volume is the same. The shape and size, volume and bulk density of the nuts are statistically the same at P = 0.05. The nuts of both varieties are also the same at P = 0.05 in terms of mass and density. The packing factor for both fruits and nut of the two varieties are the same at 0.95. The relevant data obtained for the two varieties would be useful for design and development of machines and equipment for processing and handling operations.

  7. Deciphering the Costs of Reproduction in Mango - Vegetative Growth Matters.

    PubMed

    Capelli, Mathilde; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Irregular fruit production across successive years is a major issue that limits the profitability of most temperate and tropical fruit crops. It is particularly affected by the reciprocal relationships between vegetative and reproductive growth. The concept of the costs of reproduction is defined in terms of losses in the potential future reproductive success caused by current investment in reproduction. This concept, developed in ecology and evolutionary biology, could provide a methodological framework to analyze irregular bearing in fruit crops, especially in relation to the spatial scale at which studies are done. The objective of this study was to investigate the direct effects of reproduction during a growing cycle on reproduction during the following growing cycle and the indirect effects through vegetative growth between these two reproductive events, for four mango cultivars and during two growing cycles. Two spatial scales were considered: the growth unit (GU) and the scaffold branch. Costs of reproduction were detected between two successive reproductive events and between reproduction and vegetative growth. These costs were scale-dependent, generally detected at the GU scale and infrequently at the scaffold branch scale, suggesting partial branch autonomy with respect to processes underlying the effects of reproduction on vegetative growth. In contrast, the relationships between vegetative growth and reproduction were positive at the GU scale and at the scaffold branch scale in most cases, suggesting branch autonomy for the processes, mainly local, underlying flowering and fruiting. The negative effect of reproduction on vegetative growth prevailed over the positive effect of vegetative growth on the subsequent reproduction. The costs of reproduction were also cultivar-dependent. Those revealed at the GU scale were related to the bearing behavior of each cultivar. Our results put forward the crucial role of vegetative growth occurring between two

  8. A Farming Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinkenborg, Verlyn

    1995-01-01

    Growing realization of the economic, social, and environmental costs of conventional agriculture has led many U.S. farmers to embrace and become advocates for agricultural practices that limit the need for pesticides and chemical fertilizers, decrease soil erosion, and improve soil health. Some hope that sustainable agriculture can promote smaller…

  9. 65 FR 10599 - Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-02-28

    ... Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1240 Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information... Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... comments regarding proposed amendments to the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information...

  10. 7 CFR 1260.122 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1260.122 Section 1260.122 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.122 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including...

  11. 7 CFR 1160.111 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1160.111 Section 1160.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.111 Promotion. Promotion means the following activities: (a) Consumer Education,...

  12. 7 CFR 1250.310 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1250.310 Section 1250.310 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.310 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including...

  13. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1150.114 Section 1150.114 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.114 Promotion. Promotion means actions such as paid advertising,...

  14. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1210.312 Section 1210.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means...

  15. Addition of dried 'Ataulfo' mango (Mangifera indica L) by-products as a source of dietary fiber and polyphenols in starch-molded mango snacks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing demand of healthier foods favors the consumption of natural bioactive compounds such as antioxidants and dietary fiber (DF) that confers protection against cardiovascular diseases and other degenerative diseases. On the industrial processing of mango, 35-60 % of this fruit is discarde...

  16. 75 FR 34422 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant... prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the importation of fresh mango fruit... ``Subpart--Fruits and Vegetables'' (7 CFR 319.56-1 through 319.56-50, referred to below as the...

  17. Development of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from the mango (Mangiferaindica) transcriptome for mapping and estimation of genetic diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of resources for genomic studies in Mangifera indica (mango) will allow marker-assisted selection and identification of genetically diverse germplasm, greatly aiding mango breeding programs. We report here a first step in developing such resources, our identification of thousands una...

  18. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Etilogical Agent of Mango Malformation Disease in Mexico, Fusarium mexicanum sp. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary objective of this study was to characterize fusaria associated with the economically devastating mango malformation disease (MMD) in México. One hundred and 42 fusaria were isolated from symptomatic mango inflorescences and vegetative tissues in eight geographically diverse Méxican stat...

  19. 75 FR 31746 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... Collection; Importation of Mangoes from the Philippines AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... with regulations for the importation of mangoes from the Philippines. DATES: We will consider all....gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations for the importation of...

  20. Large-scale confirmatory tests of a phytosanitary irradiation treatment against Sternochetus frigidus (F.) in Philippine mango

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mango pulp weevil, Sternochetus frigidus (F.) is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to the United States and other countries. Previously, a radiation dose of 100 Gy was proposed for phytosanitary treatment of S. frigidus based on dose-response stud...

  1. Effects of nisin-incorporated films on the microbiological and physicochemical quality of minimally processed mangoes.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Silva de Araújo, Hyrla Grazielle; Matos, Patrícia Nogueira; Carnelossi, Marcelo Augusto Guitierrez; Almeida de Castro, Alessandra

    2013-06-17

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of nisin-incorporated cellulose films on the physicochemical and microbiological qualities of minimally processed mangoes. The use of antimicrobial films did not affect the physicochemical characteristics of mangoes and showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Bacillus cereus. The mango slices were inoculated with S. aureus and L. monocytogenes (10(7)CFU/g), and the viable cell numbers remained at 10(5) and 10(6)CFU/g, respectively, after 12days. In samples packed with antimicrobial films, the viable number of L. monocytogenes cells was reduced below the detection level after 4days. After 6days, a reduction of six log units was observed for S. aureus. In conclusion, nisin showed antimicrobial activity in mangoes without interfering with the organoleptic characteristics of the fruit. This result suggests that nisin could potentially be used in active packing to improve the safety of minimally processed mangoes.

  2. Status of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mango-Producing Areas of Arba Minch, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Massebo, Fekadu; Tefera, Zenebe

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera invadens, the Asian fruit fly, was first reported in Kenya in 2003, and it spread fast to most tropical countries in Africa. To our knowledge, there is no detailed data on the fruit damage and status of fruit flies in Arba Minch and elsewhere in Ethiopia. Hence, information on the species composition and pest status of the fruit fly species is urgent to plan management strategies in the area. Fruit flies were captured using male parapheromone-baited traps. Matured mango (Mangifera indica) fruits were collected from randomly selected mango trees and incubated individually in cages (15 by 15 by 15 cm) with sandy soil. B. invadens was the predominant (96%; 952 of 992) captured species and the only fruit fly species emerging from mango fruits incubated in the laboratory. The mean number of adult B. invadens emerging per mango fruit was 35.25, indicating that the species is the most devastating mango fruit fly in the area. The loss due to this species would be serious if no management strategies are implemented. PMID:25612742

  3. Differentially expressed genes implicated in embryo abortion of mango identified by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    He, J H; Ma, F W; Chen, Y Y; Shu, H R

    2012-11-14

    Embryo abortion in mango severely damages mango production worldwide. The mechanisms by which the mango embryos abort have long been an intriguing question. We used subtractive suppression hybridization to investigate the differentially expressed genes involved in this process. We generated 2 cDNA libraries from normal seed and aborted seed embryos of mango cultivar 'Jinhuang'. One thousand five hundred and seventy-two high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained, with 1092 from the normal seed tester library and 480 from the aborted seed tester library. These ESTs were assembled into 783 unigenes, including 147 contigs and 636 singletons in contigs; 297 singletons in gene ontology (GO) indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. Seven candidate genes from different categories were selected for semi-quantitative PCR analysis, and their possible functions in embryo abortion are discussed. These data provide new insight into the genetic regulation of embryo abortion in mango and may aid in further identification of novel genes and their functions.

  4. Optimisation of gellan gum edible coating for ready-to-eat mango (Mangifera indica L.) bars.

    PubMed

    Danalache, Florina; Carvalho, Claudia Y; Alves, Vitor D; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Mata, Paulina

    2016-03-01

    The optimisation of an edible coating based on low acyl (L)/high acyl (H) gellan gum for ready-to-eat mango bars was performed through a central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The independent variables were the concentration of gellan (L/H90/10) and the concentration of Ca(2+) in the coating solution, as well as the storage time after coating application. The response variables studied were the coating thickness, mango bars firmness, syneresis, and colour alterations. Gellan concentration was the independent variable that most influenced the thickness of the coating. Syneresis was quite low for the conditions tested (<1.64%). Similarly, the colour alterations were low during the entire storage time (ΔE<5). Considering the model predictions, 1.0%wt L/H90/10 with addition of 6 mM Ca(2+) could represent the optimal coating formulation for the mango bars. The release of eight volatile compounds from the uncoated and coated mango bars with the selected formulation was analysed by Headspace - Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography during 9 days of refrigerated storage. This work showed that the coating can improve mango bars sensory characteristics (appearance and firmness) and stability in terms of syneresis, colour and volatiles content during storage increasing the commercial value of the final product.

  5. Behavior of beta cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in/on mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M; Jagadish, G K

    2011-08-01

    Residue persistence of beta cyfluthrin and imidacloprid on mango was carried out after giving spray application of the combination formulation, beta cyfluthrin 9% + imidacloprid 21% (Solomon 300 OD) 3 times at the fruit formation stage. The treatments were, untreated control, standard dose of 75 g a.i. ha(-1) and double dose of 150 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residues of beta cyfluthrin on mango fruits were 0.04 and 0.12 mg kg(-1) from treatments at the standard and double doses, respectively. The residues dissipated with the half-life of 2.4 and 2.6 days and persisted for 5 days only. Initial residues of imidacloprid on mango fruits were 0.14 and 0.18 mg kg(-1) from treatments at the standard and double doses, respectively. Imidacloprid residues degraded with the half-life of 3.06 and 4.16 days, respectively and persisted for 10 days. Mature mango fruits at harvest were free from residues of both insecticides. A safe pre-harvest interval of 8 days is recommended for consumption of mango fruits after treatment of the combination formulation.

  6. 7 CFR 1206.18 - Research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research. 1206.18 Section 1206.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.18 Research. Research...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.18 - Research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research. 1206.18 Section 1206.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.18 Research. Research...

  8. Mould and mycotoxin exposure assessment of melon and bush mango seeds, two common soup thickeners consumed in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Sulyok, Michael; Somorin, Yinka; Odutayo, Foluke I; Nwabekee, Stella U; Balogun, Afeez T; Krska, Rudolf

    2016-11-21

    An examination of the mould and fungal metabolite pattern in melon and bush mango seeds locally produced in Nigeria was undertaken in order to understand the mycotoxicological risk posed to consumers of both of these important and commonly consumed soup thickeners. The variation in mycotoxin levels in graded categories of both foodstuffs were also determined. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucorales and Trichoderma were the recovered fungi from the foodstuffs with Aspergillus species dominating (melon=97.8%; bush mango=89.9%). Among the Aspergillus species identified Aspergillus section Flavi dominated (melon: 72%; bush mango: 57%) and A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. parvisclerotigenus and A. tamarii were the recovered species. About 56% and 73% of the A. flavus isolates from melon and bush mango seed samples, respectively were aflatoxigenic. Thirty-four and 59 metabolites including notable mycotoxins were found in the melon and bush mango seeds respectively. Mean aflatoxin levels (μg/kg) in melon (aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)=37.5 and total aflatoxins=142) and bush mango seeds (AFB1=68.1 and total aflatoxins=61.7) were higher than other mycotoxins, suggesting potential higher exposure for consumer populations. Significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of mycotoxins were found in hand-peeled melon and discoloured bush mango seeds than in machine-peeled melon and non-discoloured seeds except for HT-2 and T-2 toxins which occurred conversely. All melon and bush mango seeds exceeded the 2μg/kg AFB1 limit whereas all melon and 55% of bush mango seeds exceeded the 4μg/kg total aflatoxin EU limit adopted in Nigeria. This is the first report of (1) mycotoxin co-occurrence in bush mango seeds, (2) cyclopiazonic acid, HT-2 toxin, moniliformin, mycophenolic acid, T-2 toxin and tenuazonic acid occurrence, and (3) mycotoxin exposure assessment of both foodstuffs.

  9. 7 CFR 1206.101 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... contract carrier), receiving 500,000 or more pounds of mangos from producers in a calendar year and who as owner, agent, or otherwise ships or causes mangos to be shipped as specified in this Order....

  10. 7 CFR 1206.101 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... contract carrier), receiving 500,000 or more pounds of mangos from producers in a calendar year and who as owner, agent, or otherwise ships or causes mangos to be shipped as specified in this Order....

  11. 7 CFR 1206.101 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... contract carrier), receiving 500,000 or more pounds of mangos from producers in a calendar year and who as owner, agent, or otherwise ships or causes mangos to be shipped as specified in this Order....

  12. 7 CFR 1206.101 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... contract carrier), receiving 500,000 or more pounds of mangos from producers in a calendar year and who as owner, agent, or otherwise ships or causes mangos to be shipped as specified in this Order....

  13. Determination of mango fruit from binary image using randomized Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizon, Mohamed; Najihah Yusri, Nurul Ain; Abdul Kadir, Mohd Fadzil; bin Mamat, Abd. Rasid; Abd Aziz, Azim Zaliha; Nanaa, Kutiba

    2015-12-01

    A method of detecting mango fruit from RGB input image is proposed in this research. From the input image, the image is processed to obtain the binary image using the texture analysis and morphological operations (dilation and erosion). Later, the Randomized Hough Transform (RHT) method is used to find the best ellipse fits to each binary region. By using the texture analysis, the system can detect the mango fruit that is partially overlapped with each other and mango fruit that is partially occluded by the leaves. The combination of texture analysis and morphological operator can isolate the partially overlapped fruit and fruit that are partially occluded by leaves. The parameters derived from RHT method was used to calculate the center of the ellipse. The center of the ellipse acts as the gripping point for the fruit picking robot. As the results, the rate of detection was up to 95% for fruit that is partially overlapped and partially covered by leaves.

  14. Comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional extraction of mangiferin from mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tangbin; Wu, Hongfu; Li, Huawen; Jia, Qing; Song, Gang

    2013-10-01

    Mangiferin is the main bioactive component in mango leaves, which possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, and antitumor activities. In the present study, a microwave-assisted extraction method was developed for the extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, microwave power, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 45% ethanol, liquid-to-solid ratio of 30:1 (mL/g), and extraction time of 123 s under microwave irradiation of 474 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 36.10 ± 0.72 mg/g, significantly higher than that of conventional extraction. The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of mango leaves and also indicate that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting mangiferin from plant materials.

  15. Chemical profile of mango (Mangifera indica L.) using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Bruno G; Costa, Helber B; Ventura, José A; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Barroso, Maria E S; Correia, Radigya M; Pimentel, Elisângela F; Pinto, Fernanda E; Endringer, Denise C; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-08-01

    Mangifera indica L., mango fruit, is consumed as a dietary supplement with purported health benefits; it is widely used in the food industry. Herein, the chemical profile of the Ubá mango at four distinct maturation stages was evaluated during the process of growth and maturity using negative-ion mode electrospray ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI(-)FT-ICR MS) and physicochemical characterisation analysis (total titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), TSS/TA ratio, and total polyphenolic content). Primary (organic acids and sugars) and secondary metabolites (polyphenolic compounds) were mostly identified in the third maturation stage, thus indicating the best stage for harvesting and consuming the fruit. In addition, the potential cancer chemoprevention of the secondary metabolites (phenolic extracts obtained from mango samples) was evaluated using the induction of quinone reductase activity, concluding that fruit polyphenols have the potential for cancer chemoprevention.

  16. Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with H-NMR based metabolic profiling.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Hyun; K Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Hee-Su; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2011-05-01

    The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squares-discriminate analysis of (1)H-NMR spectral data of mouse plasma demonstrated that there were clear separations among plasma samples from mice fed with buffer, mango flesh and peel. A loading plot demonstrated that metabolites from mango fruit, such as fructose and aspartate, might stimulate alcohol degradation enzymes. This study suggests that mango flesh and peel could be used as resources for functional foods intended to decrease plasma ethanol level after ethanol uptake.

  17. Abscission of mango fruitlets as influenced by enhanced ethylene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nunez-Elisea, R; Davenport, T L

    1986-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on developing fruitlet explants of two mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars to establish the source and dynamics of ethylene production prior to and during fruitlet abscission. Abscission of all fruits in the samples occurred at approximately 86 and 74 hours postharvest in ;Keitt' and ;Tommy Atkins,' respectively. Increased abscission began 26 hours from harvest and was preceded by enhanced ethylene synthesis. Enhanced ethylene production initiated approximately 48 hours prior to abscission and increased to a maximum near the time of fruitlet abscission. The seed produced the highest amount of ethylene on a per gram fresh weight basis. The pericarp, however, was the main source of ethylene on an absolute basis, since it represented more than 85% of total fruitlet weight. Pedicels containing the abscission zone produced no detectable ethylene prior to or at the moment of abscission. Fumigation of ;Tommy Atkins' fruitlets with 1, 15, or 100 microliters per liter ethylene accelerated abscission by 24 to 36 hours in comparison with unfumigated controls. Diffusion of ethylene from distal fruitlet tissues to the abscission zone triggers the events leading to separation of the fruit from the tree.

  18. 76 FR 314 - Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Opportunity to Participate in the Sorghum Promotion... Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order), as authorized under the Commodity Promotion,...

  19. Custom auroral electrojet indices calculated by using MANGO value-added services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.; Moore, W. B.; King, T. A.

    2009-12-01

    A set of computational routines called MANGO, Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geophysical Observatories, is utilized to calculate customized versions of the auroral electrojet indices, AE, AL, and AU. MANGO is part of an effort to enhance data services available to users of the Heliophysics VxOs, specifically for the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO). The MANGO value-added service package is composed of a set of IDL routines that decompose ground magnetic field observations to isolate secular, diurnal, and disturbance variations of magnetic field disturbance, station-by-station. Each MANGO subroutine has been written in modular fashion to allow "plug and play"-style flexibility and each has been designed to account for failure modes and noisy data so that the programs will run to completion producing as much derived data as possible. The capabilities of the MANGO service package will be demonstrated through their application to the study of auroral electrojet current flow during magnetic substorms. Traditionally, the AE indices are calculated by using data from about twelve ground stations located at northern auroral zone latitudes spread longitudinally around the world. Magnetogram data are corrected for secular variation prior to calculating the standard version of the indices but the data are not corrected for diurnal variations. A custom version of the AE indices will be created by using the MANGO routines including a step to subtract diurnal curves from the magnetic field data at each station. The custom AE indices provide more accurate measures of auroral electrojet activity due to isolation of the sunstorm electrojet magnetic field signiture. The improvements in the accuracy of the custom AE indices over the tradition indices are largest during the northern hemisphere summer when the range of diurnal variation reaches its maximum.

  20. MANGO - A Magnetogram Analysis Service for Enhancement of the Heliophysics Data Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2011-12-01

    The Heliophysics Data Environment Enhancement program supports efforts to integrate data services for conducting research of solar-terrestrial interactions. MANGO, Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geophysical Observatories, is a service that is directed at Heliophysics researchers interested in processing magnetic field data from ground magnetometers. Ground magnetograms are essential for monitoring the response of the magnetosphere to solar wind coupling. For instance, it is difficult to understand how spacecraft particle and field variations fit in context of activity throughout the global magnetospheric system without using ground magnetic field data. The MANGO service package allows one to decompose ground magnetic field variations and estimate the relative contributions from secular, diurnal, ring current, and auroral current systems. The MANGO service package leverages the SPASE metadata registries of the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO) to compile a list of available magnetogram data products. Currently, MANGO provides access to over 900 data products from about 350 ground magnetic field stations located around the globe. The VMO SPASE Granule registry contains ~150,000 files that comprise the MANGO relevant data products. And, the VMO Granule registry count is steadily increasing as more data products are described and ingested. Data selection from the distributed network of stations is naturally aided by using a world map to display the set of observatories. The MANGO web site (http://mango.igpp.ucla.edu), plots stations on a map that have data products, which meet user-defined criteria based on time of observation, station location, time cadence, magnetometer chain, etc. Note that Many of the ground magnetogram and geomagnetic index data products relevant to the MANGO effort are only available from their data providers in formats that allow the data to be packed. The formats used, and there are many types, save time in file retrieval and

  1. Agriculture: Newsroom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  2. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  3. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1216.23 Section 1216.23 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion....

  4. 7 CFR 1280.118 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1280.118 Section 1280.118 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.118 Promotion....

  5. Urban conservation agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables are important sources of vitamins and nutrients for human nutrition. United States Department of Agriculture recommends filling half of the food plates with vegetables in every meal. While it is important in promoting good health, access to fresh vegetables is limited especially in urban ...

  6. Hypercarotenodermia in Zambia: which children turned orange during mango season?

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, S A; Gannon, B M; Kaliwile, C; Chileshe, J

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a public health problem in many countries. The World Health Organization recommends high-dose VA supplements to children aged 6-59 months based on unequivocal evidence that supplements decreased mortality risk. VA supplements were meant as a temporary intervention until more sustainable approaches could be implemented. Fortification of processed foods with preformed VA is a means to improve VA status. The most recent addition of retinyl palmitate to cooking oil in countries that may also fortify margarine and milk will undoubtedly have a positive impact on VA status. However, quantitative measures have not been used to assess the underlying VA status of the groups who have adopted widespread fortification. The addition of preformed VA to otherwise adequate diets in VA may cause excessive total body stores. Monitoring population status will require accurate VA assessment to ensure that hypervitaminosis does not prevail. This perspective describes a cohort of rural Zambian children who have adequate diets in VA, mostly as provitamin A carotenoids; who were given high-dose VA supplements till the age of 5 years; who have access to VA-fortified sugar; and whose mothers had access to VA-fortified sugar throughout pregnancy and lactation. Many of these children turned orange during mango season, and this phenomenon occurred at estimated liver reserve concentrations >1 μmol retinol equivalents/g liver. It will be necessary to continue to monitor VA status, including all sectors of the population that have access to successful interventions, to optimize health with the intent to lower retinol content of fortified foods or better target VA supplementation to areas of most need.

  7. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of economic opportunity costs to promote the adoption of alternative land uses in grain growing agricultural areas: an Australian example.

    PubMed

    Lyle, G; Bryan, B A; Ostendorf, B

    2015-05-15

    Grain growers face many future challenges requiring them to adapt their land uses to changing economic, social and environmental conditions. To understand where to make on ground changes without significant negative financial repercussions, high resolution information on income generation over time is required. We propose a methodology which utilises high resolution yield data collected with precision agriculture (PA) technology, gross margin financial analysis and a temporal standardisation technique to highlight the spatial and temporal consistency of farm income. On three neighbouring farms in Western Australia, we found non-linear relationships between income and area. Spatio-temporal analysis on one farm over varying seasons found that between 37 and 49% (1082-1433ha) of cropping area consistently produced above the selected income thresholds and 43-32% (936-1257ha) regularly produced below selected thresholds. Around 20% of area showed inconsistent temporal variation in income generation. Income estimated from these areas represents the income forgone if a land use change is undertaken (the economic opportunity cost) and the average costs varied spatially from $190±114/ha to $560±108/ha depending on what scenario was chosen. The interaction over space and time showed the clustering of areas with similar values at a resolution where growers make input decisions. This new evidence suggests that farm area could be managed with two strategies: (a) one that maximises grain output using PA management in temporally stable areas which generate moderate to high income returns and (b) one that proposes land use change in low and inconsistent income returning areas where the financial returns from an alternative land use may be comparable. The adoption of these strategies can help growers meet the demand for agricultural output and offer income diversity and adaptive capacity to deal with the future challenges to agricultural production.

  8. Mango butter emulsion gels as cocoa butter equivalents: physical, thermal, and mechanical analyses.

    PubMed

    Sagiri, Sai S; Sharma, Vijeta; Basak, Piyali; Pal, Kunal

    2014-11-26

    The search for cocoa butter equivalents in food and pharmaceutical industries has been gaining importance. In the present study, mango butter was explored as cocoa butter equivalent. Aqueous gelatin solution (20% w/w) containing cocoa butter and mango butter water-in-oil (fat) type emulsion gels were prepared by hot emulsification method. XRD and DSC melting profiles suggested the presence of unstable polymorphic forms (α and β') of fats in the emulsion gels. The crystal size and solid fat content analyses suggested that the presence of aqueous phase might have hindered the transformation of unstable polymorphic forms to stable polymorphic form (β) in the emulsion gels. Fat crystals in the emulsion gels were formed by instantaneous nucleation via either uni- or bidimensional growth (Avrami analysis). The viscoelastic nature of the emulsion gels was evaluated by modified Peleg's analysis (stress relaxation study). Results inferred that the physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of mango butter emulsion gels are comparable to those of cocoa butter emulsion gels. On the basis of preliminary studies, it was suggested that the mango butter emulsion gels may have potential to be used as cocoa butter equivalents.

  9. Evaluation of four protein extraction methods for proteomic analysis of mango peel.

    PubMed

    Liao, D J; Lu, X P; Chen, H S; Lu, Y; Mo, Z Y

    2016-08-30

    The peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a special plant tissue that contains many compounds that interfere with protein extraction. A successful separation with Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) is the key step for proteomic analysis. To evaluate the efficiencies of mango peel protein extraction for 2-DE, four extraction methods were tested: 1) 2-D clean-up kit, 2) trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation, 3) phenol extraction, 4) phenol with methanol/ammonium acetate precipitation. The results showed that the phenol with methanol/ammonium acetate precipitation produced the best quality protein extraction and separation. Proteins were separated in 30-70 and >70 kDa ranges better than with the other methods. Acidic proteins had better resolution with fewer horizontal and vertical streaks. Sixteen proteins were identified by maxtrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/ TOF-MS/MS). The result demonstrated that each of these four methods can be used to prepare mango peel proteins. The phenol with methanol/ ammonium acetate precipitation was the best choice for proteomic analysis of mango peel.

  10. Surface treatments and coatings to maintain fresh cut mango quality in storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings prevent moisture loss and may decrease gas exchange, thereby retaining moisture and flavor of fresh-cut fruit. Previous experiments showed that carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with added maltodextrin maintained visual quality of stored mango slices also treated with calcium ascorbate an...

  11. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of O-Methyltransferase from Mango Fruit (Mangifera indica cv. Alphonso).

    PubMed

    Chidley, Hemangi G; Oak, Pranjali S; Deshpande, Ashish B; Pujari, Keshav H; Giri, Ashok P; Gupta, Vidya S

    2016-05-01

    Flavour of ripe Alphonso mango is invariably dominated by the de novo appearance of lactones and furanones during ripening. Of these, furanones comprising furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) and mesifuran (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone) are of particular importance due to their sweet, fruity caramel-like flavour characters and low odour detection thresholds. We isolated a 1056 bp complete open reading frame of a cDNA encoding S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase from Alphonso mango. The recombinantly expressed enzyme, MiOMTS showed substrate specificity towards furaneol and protocatechuic aldehyde synthesizing mesifuran and vanillin, respectively, in an in vitro assay reaction. A semi-quantitative PCR analysis showed fruit-specific expression of MiOMTS transcripts. Quantitative real-time PCR displayed ripening-related expression pattern of MiOMTS in both pulp and skin of Alphonso mango. Also, early and significantly enhanced accumulation of its transcripts was detected in pulp and skin of ethylene-treated fruits. Ripening-related and fruit-specific expression profile of MiOMTS and substrate specificity towards furaneol is a suggestive of its involvement in the synthesis of mesifuran in Alphonso mango. Moreover, a significant trigger in the expression of MiOMTS transcripts in ethylene-treated fruits point towards the transcriptional regulation of mesifuran biosynthesis by ethylene.

  12. [In vitro and in vivo effects of mango pulp (Mangifera indica cv. Azucar) in colon carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Corrales-Bernal, Andrea; Amparo Urango, Luz; Rojano, Benjamín; Maldonado, Maria Elena

    2014-03-01

    Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica cv. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation.

  13. Adolescent Journeys: Finding Female Authority in "The Rain Catchers" and "The House on Mango Street"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubb, Christina Rose

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the first-person narratives of two adolescent girls in the novels "The Rain Catchers" and "The House on Mango Street". I propose that adolescent girls can use literacy to read the world around them as a text and therefore help them to form their own identities enough to ultimately find authority in telling their own stories.…

  14. Degradation pattern and risk assessment of carbendazim and mancozeb in mango fruits.

    PubMed

    Devi, P Ahila; Paramasivam, M; Prakasam, V

    2015-01-01

    A supervised field trial was conducted at four different agroclimatic locations in India to evaluate the dissipation pattern and risk assessment of carbendazim and mancozeb in mango fruits following foliar application of mixed formulation of carbendazim 12% and mancozeb 63% fungicide (SAAF-75WP) at recommended dose (90 + 472.5) and double the recommended dose (180 + 945 g a.i. ha(-1)). Average initial deposition of carbendazim was in the range of 1.12 to 2.7 and 1.95 to 4.09 mg kg(-1) and for mancozeb in the range of 2.25 to 2.71 and 4.17 to 5.96 mg kg(-1), given at respective doses. Residues of carbendazim and mancozeb were dissipated to the below detectable limit 7 days after spray at recommended dosage in all the locations. The fungicide degradation followed a first order kinetics with half-lives of 1-5 and 1-3 days, for carbendazim and mancozeb, respectively. The TMRC values, calculated from residue data generated from all four locations, were found to be below the MPI in mango fruit, and hence, the fungicide will not cause any adverse effect after consumption of mango fruits. This data could provide guidance for the proper and safe use of this fungicide mixture for managing disease incidence in mango in India.

  15. Isolation and characterization of NBS–LRR resistance gene analogues from mango

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xintao; Yao, Quansheng; Xu, Xuerong; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding site (NBS)–leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene family is a class of R genes in plants. NBS genes play a very important role in disease defence. To further study the variation and homology of mango NBS–LRR genes, 16 resistance gene analogues (RGAs) (GenBank accession number HM446507-22) were isolated from the polymerase chain reaction fragments and sequenced by using two degenerate primer sets. The total nucleotide diversity index Pi was 0.362, and 236 variation sites were found among 16 RGAs. The degree of homology between the RGAs varied from 44.4% to 98.5%. Sixteen RGAs could be translated into amino sequences. The high level of this homology in the protein sequences of the P-loop and kinase-2 of the NBS domain between the RGAs isolated in this study and previously characterized R genes indicated that these cloned sequences belonged to the NBS–LRR gene family. Moreover, these 16 RGAs could be classified into the non-TIR–NBS–LRR gene family because only tryptophan (W) could be claimed as the final residual of the kinase-2 domain of all RGAs isolated here. From our results, we concluded that our mango NBS–LRR genes possessed a high level of variation from the mango genome, which may allow mango to recognize many different pathogenic virulence factors. PMID:26740762

  16. Optimal Ripeness Stage for Processing ‘Kent’ Mangoes into Fresh-cut Slices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The optimal ripeness stage for processing ‘Kent’ mango into a fresh-cut product and marketing it with best quality and maximum shelf life in terms of visual, compositional, and sensory quality was determined. An initial ripeness stage selection was based on whole fruit firmness, which was more relia...

  17. Leaving Mango Street: Speech, Action and the Construction of Narrative in Britton's Spectator Stance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford-Garrett, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to unite "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros with the participant and spectator theories of James Britton and D. W. Harding in the hopes that such a union will provide new insights into each. In particular, this article explores how the speech acts of Esperanza, the novel's protagonist, are indicative of a shifting…

  18. Residues of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos in/on mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi

    2011-01-01

    Mango, the major fruit crop of India is affected by stone weevil, which can cause serious damage to the fruits. Acephate gives good control of mango stone weevil. Residues of acephate and its major metabolite, methamidophos were evaluated on mango fruits following repeated spray applications at the recommended dose (0.75 kg a.i. ha⁻¹) and double the recommended dose (1.5 kg a.i. ha⁻¹). Acephate residues mostly remained on the fruit peel which persisted up to 30 days. Movement of residues to the fruit pulp was detected after 1 day of application, increased to maximum of 0.14 and 0.26 mg kg⁻¹ after 3 days and reached to below detectable level (BDL) after 20 days. Methamidophos, a metabolite of acephate, was detected from 3rd day onwards in both peel and pulp and persisted up to 15 days. The residues (acephate + methamidophos) dissipated with the half-life of 5 days in peel and pulp. A safe pre-harvest interval of 30 days is recommended for consumption of mango fruits following treatment of acephate at the recommended dose of 0.75 kg a.i. ha⁻¹.

  19. Mango Street and Malnourished Readers: Politics and Realities in an "At-Risk" Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, M. Alayne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents results of a literature-response study conducted with at-risk middle school students of Latino, African American, and Caucasian backgrounds. The study was guided by an assumption of students' ability to read and coherently assimilate elements of "The House on Mango Street," by Sandra Cisneros (1984). Although centered in…

  20. Irradiation of mangoes as a postharvest quarantine treatment for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Bustos, María E; Enkerlin, Walther; Reyes, Jesús; Toledo, Jorge

    2004-04-01

    Mangoes infested with third instar larvae were irradiated using Co-60 gamma rays and a dose interval of 2-250 Gy to assess the irradiation dose required to prevent adult emergence of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens), the West Indies fruit fly (A. obliqua), the sapote fruit fly (A. serpentina), and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). Doses of 76.9, 87.3, 91.4 and 112.7 Gy, were estimated to inhibit 99.9968% (probit 9) of adult emergence forA. obliqua, A. serpentina, A. ludens, and C. capitata, respectively. Using mangoes infested with a total of 100,000 larvae of each species, the results obtained in the laboratory were confirmed using a dose of 100 Gy for the Anastrepha species and 150 Gy for C. capitata. No adult emergence was observed for any of the four species compared with approximately 80% emergence in the controls. A dose of 150 Gy is recommended as a generic quarantine treatment against potential infestation of these species in exported mangoes. A minor decrease in the ascorbic acid content was the only adverse effects observed in irradiated mangoes.

  1. Design and develop a nondestructive infrared spectroscopy instrument for assessment of mango (Mangifera indica) quality.

    PubMed

    Izneid, Basem Abu; Fadhel, M I; Al-Kharazi, Tareq; Ali, Malek; Miloud, Souiyah

    2014-11-01

    A portable infrared spectroscopy system has been designed and developed for assessment of quality of mango fruit. This paper describes the design and development of a fruit quality grading device using reflectance mode optical sensor. The experiment was conducted to obtain the best results from the system and the device was correlated according to the measured output. In the experiment, several samples of mango fruits have been monitored for six days to study the relation how fruit quality increases with time as fruit ripens. Between the unripe mango fruit and the ripest one, a range of 3.5 V to 4.2 V was measured by the developed system. The rate of quality increase was calculated as an average of 6.7 mV per day. These results were used to correlate the final hardware and software development of the device. The results demonstrate that, portable near infrared spectroscopy is feasible for evaluating mango quality non-destructively.

  2. Biotechnological advances in mango (Mangifera indica L.) and their future implication in crop improvement: a review.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Hare; Singh, S K

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnology can complement conventional breeding and expedite the mango improvement programmes. Studies involving in vitro culture and selection, micropropagation, embryo rescue, genetic transformation, marker-assisted characterization and DNA fingerprinting, etc. are underway at different centers worldwide. In vitro culture and somatic embryogenesis of several different genotypes have been achieved. The nucellus excised from immature fruitlets is the appropriate explant for induction of embryogenic cultures. High frequency somatic embryogenesis has been achieved in some genotypes; however, some abnormalities can occur during somatic embryo germination. Embryo rescue from young and dropped fruitlets can improve the hybridization success in a limited flowering season. Protocols for protoplast culture and regeneration have also been developed. In vitro selections for antibiotic tolerance and fungal toxin resistance have been very promising for germplasm screening. Genetic transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been reported. Genes that are involved with fruit ripening have been cloned and there have been attempts to deliver these genes into plants. DNA fingerprinting and studies on genetic diversity of mango cultivars and Mangifera species are also being conducted at several research stations. The purpose of this review is to focus upon contemporary information on biotechnological advances made in mango. It also describes some ways of overcoming the problems encountered during in vitro propagation of mango.

  3. Interaction of Aceria mangiferae with Fusarium mangiferae, the causal agent of mango malformation disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study examines the role of the mango bud mite, Aceria mangiferae, in carrying Fusarium mangiferae’s conidia, vectoring them into the penetration sites and assisting fungal penetration and dissemination. Conidia that were exposed to a green fluorescent protein (gfp)-marked isolate of F. mangifer...

  4. A Long-term Ring Current Measure Created by Using the VMO MANGO Service Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.; King, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    A set of computational routines called MANGO (Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geomagnetic Observatories) is utilized to calculate a new measure of magnetic storm activity for the years 1932 to the near present. The MANGO routines are part of an effort to enhance data services available to users of the Heliophysics VxOs, specifically for the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO). The community can utilize MANGO to derive value-added data products and images suitable for publication via the VMO web site. MANGO routines will be demonstrated through their application to study magnetic storms, a field of research that began in 1828 when von Humboldt launched an investigation of observations taken simultaneously from magnetic field stations spread around the Earth. The defining signature of magnetic storms is a worldwide decrease of the horizontal component of the magnetic field caused by fluctuations in the strength of the ring current. In the 1940's, Bartel pushed for deriving an index to measure the strength of magnetic storms. Progress intensified during the International Geophysical Year leading to the definition of the Dst index. The definitive Dst index is calculated at WDC-C2 for Geomagnetism in Kyoto by using a derivation scheme certified by Division V of IAGA. The Dst index time series spans the years 1957 to present with a cadence equal to 1-hr. The new data set we will present is a magnetic storm measure that is similar to the Dst index though it is calculated by using MANGO and a method that differs slightly from the official scheme. The MANGO data service package is based on a set of IDL routines that decompose ground magnetic field observations to isolate secular, diurnal, and disturbance variations of the magnetic field station-by-station. Each MANGO subroutine has been written in modular fashion to allow "plug and play"- style flexibility and each has been designed to account for failure modes and noisy data so that the programs will run to

  5. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  7. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  8. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass...

  9. 7 CFR 1217.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOFTWOOD LUMBER RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action...

  10. 7 CFR 1217.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOFTWOOD LUMBER RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action...

  11. 7 CFR 1217.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOFTWOOD LUMBER RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action...

  12. 7 CFR 987.33 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... establishment of marketing research and development projects, including marketing promotion and paid advertising, designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of dates. The expenses... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  13. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... research, marketing research and development projects, and marketing promotion including paid advertising, designed to assist, improve or promote the marketing, distribution and consumption or efficient production... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  14. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... research, marketing research and development projects, and marketing promotion including paid advertising, designed to assist, improve or promote the marketing, distribution and consumption or efficient production... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  15. 7 CFR 987.33 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... establishment of marketing research and development projects, including marketing promotion and paid advertising, designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of dates. The expenses... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  16. 7 CFR 987.33 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... establishment of marketing research and development projects, including marketing promotion and paid advertising, designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of dates. The expenses... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  17. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... research, marketing research and development projects, and marketing promotion including paid advertising, designed to assist, improve or promote the marketing, distribution and consumption or efficient production... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  18. Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene and hot water quarantine treatment on quality of "Keitt" mangos.

    PubMed

    Ngamchuachit, Panita; Barrett, Diane M; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2014-04-01

    The optimal 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment to slow ripening of whole "Keitt" mangos, either alone or in combination with hot water treatment (HWT) (prior to or post 1-MCP) was identified. USDA-APHIS mandates that HWT can be used for control of fruit flies, but this may affect fruit response to 1-MCP. Mangos were evaluated by repeated measurement of nondestructive firmness, peel color, and ethylene production on the same mango fruits during 2 wk of ripening at 20 °C after treatment. The magnitude of ethylene production increased as a result of both 1-MCP and HWT. With softer mangos (65 N), treatment with 1-MCP alone delayed fruit softening and extended the number of days to full-ripeness (25 N) from 5 d in untreated fruit to 11 d. For these riper fruit, application of 1-MCP prior to HWT extended the days to full-ripeness to 9 d compared with 7 d when 1-MCP was applied after HWT. With firmer mangos (80 N), 1-MCP treatments alone prolonged the days to full-ripeness to 13 d as compared to 11 d for the untreated fruit. There was no significant concentration effect on firmness retention among 1-MCP treatments (0.5, 1.0, or 10.0 μL/L). HWT resulted in a faster rate of fruit softening, taking only 7 d to reach full-ripeness. Combining 1-MCP with HWT reduced the rate of softening compared to HWT alone, resulting in 9 to 11 d to full-ripeness. Application of 1-MCP before HWT showed a greater ability to reduce the rate of fruit softening compared with 1-MCP treatment after HWT.

  19. Chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake of mango residues by sheep.

    PubMed

    Sanon, Hadja Oumou; Kanwe, Augustin B; Millogo, Alain; Ledin, Inger

    2013-02-01

    The chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake by sheep of mango by-products were studied in an experiment with five dietary treatments consisting of mango peels and seed kernels, offered individually or together with urea block and a control. The mango residues were offered with rice straw and the control diet was straw only. Five groups of five male sheep of Djallonké type, 12-18 months old and weighing on average 18.6 kg were allocated randomly to the diets to assess the voluntary feed intake. Apparent digestibility of the same diets was measured using four sheep per diet. The mango residues were low in crude protein, 67 and 70 g/kg dry matter for the peels and the seed kernels, respectively. The content of neutral detergent fiber varied from 306 to 388 g/kg dry matter (DM) for the kernel and the peels, respectively. The kernel had relatively high level of fat (105 g/kg DM) and tannins (29 and 40 g/kg DM of hydrolysable and total tannins, respectively). The highest intake was observed with the diet containing both residues and urea block (741 g/day). The intake of kernels was lower in all diets when offered with the peels than when offered with rice straw alone. Apparent digestibility of the diets containing mango residues was 0.60-0.65. The peels and kernels had high digestibility coefficients (0.74 and 0.70, respectively). Based on the results above, it can be concluded that it would be interesting to test the residues in a growth experiment.

  20. Behavioral pattern of physicochemical constituents of the postharvest mango (Mangifera indica L.) influenced by storage stimuli.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Khairul

    2013-12-15

    An investigation was carried at the laboratory of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh during the period from May, 2010 to September, 2011 to study the behavioral pattern of some physicochemical constituents of the mango pulp. The experiment was comprised of two popular mango cultivars in Bangladesh (viz., Langra and Khirshapat) and six storage stimuli, namely control, paraffin coating, perforated polyethylene cover, unperforated polyethylene cover, hot water (55 +/- 1 degree C) and low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C). The two factors experiment was assigned in randomized complete block design with tree replicates. The varieties had profound variation in terms of most of the characters studied in the laboratory condition. Initially the Langra significantly enriched a greater amount of vitamin C (151.23 mg/100 g) and titratable acidity (4.31%) and these were decreased gradually with the progress of storage period. The Khirshapat showed higher pulp pH (5.83); produced enormous amount of TSS (18.00%) and sugar (TS = 17.62%, RS = 6.51% and NRS = 11.06%) content at 12th day of storage. The pH, TSS, sugar (TS, RS and NRS) content of mango pulp was rapidly increased, whereas vitamin C and titratable acidity decreased drastically from the untreated mangoes. On the other hand, low temperature retarded the changes. The Langra using low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C) exhibited lower diminishing tendency in vitamin C and titratable acidity and also using no treatment slightly increased TSS; enriched enormous amount of sugar (TS, RS and NRS). Therefore, low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C) was found satisfactory for delay ripening and postharvest changes of mango in storage condition.

  1. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

    2012-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

  2. Hot-water phytosanitary treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Ataulfo' mangoes.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Emilio; Rivera, Pedro; Bravo, Bigail; Toledo, Jorge; Caro-Corrales, José; Montoya, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    We determined the thermal death rate constants and mortality curves for the eggs and different instars of Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Wiedemann) submerged in isolation in water at 44, 46, and 48 degrees C and submerged within fruits of Mangifera indica (mango) (L.) in water at 43.1, 44.1, 45.1, and 46.1 degrees C. The first instar was the most tolerant to this treatment, with estimated times for achieving 99.9968% mortality of 103.28, 92.73, and 92.49 min at temperatures of 43.1, 44.1, and 45.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of the study indicate that 'Ataulfo' mangoes weighing < 329 +/- 2.11 g and at risk immature Mediterranean fruit fly infestation should be immersed for 95 min at 46.1-47 degrees C to ensure that the fruit pulp remains at this temperature for 10 min. An efficacy test was conducted that involved treating 730 mangoes, with an average weight of 326 +/- 2.11 g (mean +/- SE) and infested with 84 +/- 1.15 first instars. In this test, none of the 61,720 larvae treated survived. The confirmatory test was performed using commercial equipment in which 1,112 infested mango fruit weighing an average of 329 +/- 2.11 g were treated. Each fruit was previously infested with an average of 59 +/- 0.61 first instars (= 65,825 total larvae) of which none survived. The data collected on mango quality indicate that hot water immersion for 95 min at 46.1-47 degrees C can produce a more uniform fruit-color and positively modify the pH (producing more palatable fruits), but can also produce a loss of firmness and weight (5%). Taking all factors into consideration, we conclude that this treatment is sufficient to meet quarantine restrictions against C. capitata while maintaining market quality at least for 15 d.

  3. Cloning, expression, and purification of recombinant major mango allergen Man i 1 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Che; Wu, Tzee-Chung; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Wen, Hsiao-Wei

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the number of people around the world who suffer from fruit allergies has increased. Mango can induce anaphylaxis, and two major mango allergens have been identified - Man i 1 and Man i 2. Apart from their molecular weights and pI values, no other information about them is known. This work identifies the DNA and amino acid sequences of Man i 1 and constructs an expression system for recombinant Man i 1 (rMan i 1). Firstly, 3' and 5' RACE assays were used to identify the cDNA fragment of Man i 1. Subsequently, the full length of Man i 1 cDNA was inserted into a pET-21a(+) vector, and the inserted plasmid was transformed to Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) to express rMan i 1. The conditions for the expression of rMan i 1, including IPTG concentration, induction temperature, and induction time, were optimized. The highest amount of soluble rMan i 1 was obtained after induction with 0.1 mM IPTG at 16 °C for 20 h. The His-tagged rMan i 1 was purified using Ni-NTA agarose and its identity was verified using an anti-histidine antibody and the serum of a mango-allergic person. Additionally, rMan i 1 was identified as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and shared 86.2% identity in amino acid sequence of GAPDH from wheat. Finally, an E. coli expression system of rMan i 1 was established, with the potential to be used in immunotherapy against mango allergy or the development of assays for detecting the residues of mango allergens.

  4. Mango starch degradation. II. The binding of alpha-amylase and beta-amylase to the starch granule.

    PubMed

    Peroni, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Koike, Claudia; Louro, Ricardo Pereira; Purgatto, Eduardo; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2008-08-27

    During mango ripening, soluble sugars that account for mango sweetening are accumulated through carbon supplied by both photosynthesis and starch degradation. The cultivar Keitt has a characteristic dependence on sugar accumulation during starch degradation, which takes place during ripening, only a few days after detachment from the tree. Most knowledge about starch degradation is based on seeds and leaves currently used as models. However, information about the mango fruit is scarce. This work presents the evaluation of alpha- and beta-amylases in the starch granule surface during fruit development and ripening. Extractable proteins were assayed for amylase activity and detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and correlated to gene expression. The results suggest that both amylases are involved in starch degradation during mango ripening, probably under the dependence of another signal triggered by the detachment from the mother-plant.

  5. Total phenolics, antioxidant activity, and functional properties of 'Tommy Atkins' mango peel and kernel as affected by drying methods.

    PubMed

    Sogi, Dalbir Singh; Siddiq, Muhammad; Greiby, Ibrahim; Dolan, Kirk D

    2013-12-01

    Mango processing produces significant amount of waste (peels and kernels) that can be utilized for the production of value-added ingredients for various food applications. Mango peel and kernel were dried using different techniques, such as freeze drying, hot air, vacuum and infrared. Freeze dried mango waste had higher antioxidant properties than those from other techniques. The ORAC values of peel and kernel varied from 418-776 and 1547-1819 μmol TE/g db. The solubility of freeze dried peel and kernel powder was the highest. The water and oil absorption index of mango waste powders ranged between 1.83-6.05 and 1.66-3.10, respectively. Freeze dried powders had the lowest bulk density values among different techniques tried. The cabinet dried waste powders can be potentially used in food products to enhance their nutritional and antioxidant properties.

  6. Enhancing safety and shelf life of fresh-cut mango by application of edible coatings and microencapsulation technique

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Mango pulp is very perishable and so has a short shelf life, which both marketers and consumers would like to be longer. Manually sliced mango was treated by coating opuntia mucilage-rosemary oil (Mu + RO), 2 g rosemary oil microencapsul (ROM), and 2 g (ROM) plus (Mu + RO); the treated mango pieces were placed in plastic trays, and overwrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 6°C. Changes in the quality parameters and activity of peroxidase (POD) enzyme were evaluated for 9 days of storage period. These treatments retarded loss of ascorbic acid and the drop in sensory acceptability, fewer changes in color, decreasing activity POD enzyme. These also inhibited the decay incidence and slowed microbial growth. The (Mu + RO) treatment was more effective in controlling postharvest quality as compared to the (ROM) treatment, but the data reveal that applying the compound treatment effectively prolongs the quality attributes and extends the storage life of sliced mango fruit. PMID:24936290

  7. Enhancing safety and shelf life of fresh-cut mango by application of edible coatings and microencapsulation technique.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Majid

    2014-05-01

    Mango pulp is very perishable and so has a short shelf life, which both marketers and consumers would like to be longer. Manually sliced mango was treated by coating opuntia mucilage-rosemary oil (Mu + RO), 2 g rosemary oil microencapsul (ROM), and 2 g (ROM) plus (Mu + RO); the treated mango pieces were placed in plastic trays, and overwrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 6°C. Changes in the quality parameters and activity of peroxidase (POD) enzyme were evaluated for 9 days of storage period. These treatments retarded loss of ascorbic acid and the drop in sensory acceptability, fewer changes in color, decreasing activity POD enzyme. These also inhibited the decay incidence and slowed microbial growth. The (Mu + RO) treatment was more effective in controlling postharvest quality as compared to the (ROM) treatment, but the data reveal that applying the compound treatment effectively prolongs the quality attributes and extends the storage life of sliced mango fruit.

  8. Varietal differences in the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) fruits.

    PubMed

    Veda, Supriya; Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, K

    2007-09-19

    Mango and papaya, which are rich sources of beta-carotene, are widely consumed in India. In this study, beta-carotene content and its bioaccessibility were determined in six locally available varieties of mango, namely, Badami, Raspuri, Mallika, Malgoa, Totapuri, and Neelam, and two varieties of papaya, namely, Honey Dew and Surya. Varietal differences were evident in both beta-carotene content and its bioaccessibility in the case of mango. beta-Carotene content in ripe mango ranged from 0.55 +/- 0.03 mg/100 g in the Malgoa variety to 3.21 +/- 0.25 mg/100 g in the Badami variety. Similarly, in the Honey Dew and Surya varieties of papaya, beta-carotene contents were 0.70 +/- 0.10 and 0.74 +/- 0.12 mg/100 g, respectively. Bioaccessibility of beta-carotene ranged from 24.5% in Badami to 39.1% in Raspuri varieties of mango. Considering both the percent bioaccessibility and the inherent beta-carotene content, the amount of bioaccessible beta-carotene was highest in the Mallika variety (0.89 mg/100 g), followed by Badami (0.79 mg/100 g). Because mango and papaya are also consumed as a blend with milk, the influence of the presence of milk on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from these fruits was also examined. Addition of milk generally brought about a significant increase in the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from mango, the increase ranging from 12 to 56%. Bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from the two varieties of papaya examined was similar (31.4-34.3%). Addition of milk increased this bioaccessibility by 19 and 38% in these two varieties. Considering the beta-carotene content of mango and papaya, the latter has to be consumed in amounts roughly 3 times that of mango to derive the same amount of beta-carotene. Thus, this study has indicated that varietal differences exist in the content and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in mango and that the addition of milk is advantageous in deriving this provitamin A from the fruit pulp of mango and papaya.

  9. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  11. Leaf Transcriptome Sequencing for Identifying Genic-SSR Markers and SNP Heterozygosity in Crossbred Mango Variety 'Amrapali' (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Mahato, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Nimisha; Singh, Akshay; Srivastav, Manish; Jaiprakash; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Anand Kumar; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is called "king of fruits" due to its sweetness, richness of taste, diversity, large production volume and a variety of end usage. Despite its huge economic importance genomic resources in mango are scarce and genetics of useful horticultural traits are poorly understood. Here we generated deep coverage leaf RNA sequence data for mango parental varieties 'Neelam', 'Dashehari' and their hybrid 'Amrapali' using next generation sequencing technologies. De-novo sequence assembly generated 27,528, 20,771 and 35,182 transcripts for the three genotypes, respectively. The transcripts were further assembled into a non-redundant set of 70,057 unigenes that were used for SSR and SNP identification and annotation. Total 5,465 SSR loci were identified in 4,912 unigenes with 288 type I SSR (n ≥ 20 bp). One hundred type I SSR markers were randomly selected of which 43 yielded PCR amplicons of expected size in the first round of validation and were designated as validated genic-SSR markers. Further, 22,306 SNPs were identified by aligning high quality sequence reads of the three mango varieties to the reference unigene set, revealing significantly enhanced SNP heterozygosity in the hybrid Amrapali. The present study on leaf RNA sequencing of mango varieties and their hybrid provides useful genomic resource for genetic improvement of mango.

  12. Solar drying of mangoes: preservation of an important source of vitamin A in French-speaking West Africa.

    PubMed

    Rankins, Jenice; Sathe, Shridhar K; Spicer, Maria T

    2008-06-01

    Vitamin A deficiency, which is especially widespread among children younger than age 5 years, is a major barrier to reducing child mortality rates in French-speaking West Africa. A large amount of an indigenous plant source of provitamin A carotenoids are lost to postharvest waste. For example, the postharvest loss of mangoes in the region exceeds an annual total of 100,000 metric tons. In our study, 3.75 metric tons of fresh mangoes were dried using a solar dryer to a final moisture content of 10% to 12%, yielding a total of 360 kg dried mango. The product analysis revealed 4,000+/-500 microg beta carotene/100 g and 3,680+/-150 microg beta carotene/100 g after 2 and 6 months of storage, respectively. Thus, one greenhouse solar dryer is capable of reducing postharvest mango waste by 3.75 tons providing up to 1.15 million retinol activity equivalents of dietary vitamin A. The use of this technology that requires solar energy and manpower has the potential of increasing dietary vitamin A supply by up to 27,000-fold, compared to the currently available vitamin A in the region. Moreover, mango is a fruit that is well-liked by the population in this geographic area increasing the likelihood of its ready acceptance. Reducing postharvest loss of mangoes by using greenhouse model solar dryers is a promising strategy to help combat vitamin A deficiency in French-speaking West Africa.

  13. Quantitative determination of beta-carotene stereoisomers in fresh, dried, and solar-dried mangoes (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Pott, Isabell; Marx, Michaela; Neidhart, Sybille; Mühlbauer, Werner; Carle, Reinhold

    2003-07-30

    A rapid method for quantitative determination of beta-carotene, including cis-isomers, in dried mango has been developed. Applicability of available methods to dried products was limited because of formation of artifacts caused by extraction and preparation. The analytical procedure was based on the extraction of carotenoids from dried mango mesocarp using a mixture of methanol and acetone/hexane, allowing the separation of disturbing fibers. No saponification was required. Furthermore, carotenoid determination by HPLC on a C30 stationary phase was achieved. This method was applied to determine beta-carotene and its stereoisomers in fresh, dried, and solar-dried mango slices of four cultivars. Drying resulted in a complete and partial degradation of xanthophylls and all-trans-beta-carotene, respectively. Isomerization was shown to depend on the drying process. Whereas conventionally dried mangoes were characterized by elevated amounts of 13-cis-beta-carotene, solar-dried mango slices contained additional amounts of the 9-cis-isomer. Calculation of vitamin A values was based on the real amount of the beta-carotene stereoisomers and ranged from 113 to 420 and from 425 to 1010 RE/100 g for fresh and dried mango slices, respectively.

  14. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1218.17 Section 1218.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17...

  15. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1215.16 Section 1215.16 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1221.23 Section 1221.23 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23...

  17. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1209.17 Section 1209.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  18. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1230.22 Section 1230.22 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  19. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1219.22 Section 1219.22 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions §...

  20. 78 FR 39564 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Nominations of Foreign Producers and Election...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Economics Division, Fruit and Vegetable Program, AMS, USDA, 1400 Independence Avenue SW., Room 1406-S, Stop... costs and benefits of available regulatory alternatives and, if regulation is necessary, to select regulatory approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic, environmental, public...

  1. Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

  2. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  3. Dissipation kinetics and risk assessment of thiamethoxam and dimethoate in mango.

    PubMed

    Bhattacherjee, A K; Dikshit, Abhay

    2016-03-01

    Thiamethoxam and dimethoate are two insecticides used to control hoppers and inflorescence midges in mango. Thiamethoxam (0.008 and 0.016%) and dimethoate (0.06 and 0.12%) were sprayed on Dashehari mango trees during the pre-mature stage of fruit (first week of May) to study their dissipation kinetics and risk assessment in mango fruit. Thiamethoxam dissipated in fruit from 1.93 and 3.71 mg kg(-1) after 2 h of spraying to 0.08 and 0.13 mg kg(-1) after 20 days of spraying at single and double doses, respectively. Its residue did not persist beyond 20 days in fruit. Dimethoate dissipated in fruit from 2.81 and 5.34 mg kg(-1) after 2 h of application to 0.12 and 0.19 mg kg(-1) after 10 days of application at single and double doses, respectively. No residue was detected in fruit beyond 10 days after its application. Both ready-to-harvest mature mango fruit and pulp (after 40 days of spraying) were free from any residues of these insecticides at both the concentration levels. The rate of dissipation of these insecticides followed first-order kinetics in fruit with residual half-lives of 4.0 to 4.5 days for thiamethoxam and 2 days for dimethoate. Based on their MRL values of 0.5 and 2.0 mg kg(-1) in mango, pre-harvest intervals of 7 and 11 days, and 6 and 7 days were suggested for thiamethoxam and dimethoate, respectively, after spraying at single and double doses. The theoretical maximum residue contribution (TMRC) values for both the insecticides, calculated for residues corresponding to each sampling date, were found to be below the maximum permissible intake (MPI) values on mango fruit (except for dimethoate double dose up to 3 days); hence, both thiamethoxam and dimethoate could be considered non-hazardous to consumers at the above doses and time intervals.

  4. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  5. Applications of DNA Technologies in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jinggui; Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Chen; Shangguan, Lingfei

    2016-01-01

    With the development of molecular biology, some DNA-based technologies have showed great potentiality in promoting the efficiency of crop breeding program, protecting germplasm resources, improving the quality and outputs of agricultural products, and protecting the eco-environment etc., making their roles in modern agriculture more and more important. To better understand the application of DNA technologies in agriculture, and achieve the goals to promote their utilities in modern agriculture, this paper describes, in some different way, the applications of molecular markers, transgenic engineering and gene's information in agriculture. Some corresponding anticipations for their development prospects are also made. PMID:27499686

  6. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  7. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  8. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  9. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste.

  10. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  11. [Cloning of cDNA fragments related to adventitious root formation from mango cotyledon section].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie-Ning; Huang, Xue-Lin; Zhang, Yi-Shun; Li, Yin; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2004-04-01

    Two cut surfaces of mango cotyledon (distal and proximal cut surfaces) showed different capability of adventitious root formation, only proximal cut surface could be induced to form the roots and the distal cut surface did not. cDNA fragments related to adventitious root formation from the cut sections were isolated with suppressive subtractive hybridization. The forward substracted cDNA library was constructed using the cDNAs of distal (non-rooting) cut surface as driver and the cDNAs of proximal (rooting) cut surface as tester. Six positive clones were obtained by Virtual Northern blots. In this study, the putative up-regulated genes showed by sequence analysis were reported in mango for the first time, the deduced proteins among the positive clones were homologous to transporters, transcriptional regulators and enzymes.

  12. Studies on the key odorants formed by roasting of wild mango seeds (Irvingia gabonensis).

    PubMed

    Tairu, A O; Hofmann, T; Schieberle, P

    2000-06-01

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a concentrate of volatiles obtained by solvent extraction and high vacuum distillation from roasted seeds (180 degrees C; 15 min) of wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis) revealed 32 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 (low odor activity) to 2048 (high odor activity). The identification experiments based on the use of reference odorants revealed methional (cooked potato-like) followed by 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), butan-2,3-dione, pentan-2,3-dione, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine as the key aroma compounds among the 27 odorants identified. All odorants are reported for the first time as components of roasted wild mango seeds.

  13. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references.

  14. Composition by LC-MS/MS of New Carotenoid Esters in Mango and Citrus.

    PubMed

    Petry, Fabiane C; Mercadante, Adriana Z

    2016-11-02

    Interest in the composition of carotenoid esters of fruits is growing because esterification may affect their bioavailability. Thus, the aim was to provide a detailed identification of carotenoid esters in citrus and mango. Orange cv. 'Valencia' and cv. 'Pera' presented 9 free carotenoids, 38 monoesters, and 60 diesters. Violaxanthin and luteoxanthin derivatives were the major ones, followed by antheraxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, and zeinoxanthin esters, many of them reported for the first time in orange pulp. The carotenoid ester composition of tangor cv. 'Murcott', reported for the first time, showed 8 free carotenoids, 34 monoesters, and 33 diesters, with β-cryptoxanthin esters as major compounds, followed by violaxanthin and zeaxanthin esters. In citrus, carotenoids were acylated mainly with capric, lauric, myristic, myristoleic, palmitic, palmitoleic, and oleic acids. In mango, 5 free carotenoids, 2 monoesters, and 19 diesters were identified, from which many violaxanthin and neoxanthin esters were reported for the first time.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Mangiferin from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tang-Bin; Xia, En-Qin; He, Tai-Ping; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Jia, Qing; Li, Hua-Wen

    2014-01-27

    Mangiferin is a xanthone widely distributed in higher plants showing antioxidative, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and analgesic effects. In the present study, an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method was developed for the effective extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 44% ethanol, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 38:1, and extraction for 19.2 min at 60 °C under ultrasound irradiation of 200 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 58.46 ± 1.27 mg/g. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of mango leaves, and also indicated that ultrasonic-assisted extraction is a very useful method for the extraction of mangiferin from plant materials.

  16. Average of lenticels in vallenato mango variety for digital image treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Moreno, Cesar; Mattos Vasquez, Lorenzo; Neira, Oscar L.; Matias, Carmen; Escobar Caro, Luis

    1996-02-01

    By means of capturing the image of a fruit, in this case a mango; the lenticels are used as one of the criteria in determining levels of biological development in this variety of tropical fruit. It has been reported that when the fruit reaches a level of ripeness in its biological development, the lenticels (small marks) separate and disappear in such a way that the superficial density of lenticels changes continually during this process; so that when the level of biological development increases the superficial density of lenticels diminishes. This paper presents an image processing method based on a procedure that automates the process of capture, increase, improvement, definition of surface and also counts the lenticels of the image of the mango by means of binarization.

  17. Antifungal activity of mango peel and seed extracts against clinically pathogenic and food spoilage yeasts.

    PubMed

    Dorta, E; González, M; Lobo, M G; Laich, F

    2015-11-26

    The antioxidant and antifungal (antiyeast) properties of mango (Mangifera indica) peel and seed by-products were investigated. Nine extracts were obtained using three cultivars and two extraction methods. Significant differences between cultivars and extraction methods were detected in their bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. The antifungal property was determined using agar diffusion and broth micro-dilution assays against 18 yeast species of the genera Candida, Dekkera, Hanseniaspora, Lodderomyces, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Schizosaccharomyces, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces. All mango extracts showed antifungal activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values were lower for seed than for peel extracts. MICs and MFCs ranged from values <0.1 to 5 and 5 to >30 mgGAE/mL, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship between antifungal activity, the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation and total phenol content. These properties were associated with high levels of proanthocyanidins, gallates and gallotannins in the extracts.

  18. Transcriptome Dynamics in Mango Fruit Peel Reveals Mechanisms of Chilling Stress.

    PubMed

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Sela, Noa; Feygenberg, Oleg; Zemach, Hanita; Maurer, Dalia; Alkan, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Cold storage is considered the most effective method for prolonging fresh produce storage. However, subtropical fruit is sensitive to cold. Symptoms of chilling injury (CI) in mango include red and black spots that start from discolored lenticels and develop into pitting. The response of 'Keitt' mango fruit to chilling stress was monitored by transcriptomic, physiological, and microscopic analyses. Transcriptomic changes in the mango fruit peel were evaluated during optimal (12°C) and suboptimal (5°C) cold storage. Two days of chilling stress upregulated genes involved in the plant stress response, including those encoding transmembrane receptors, calcium-mediated signal transduction, NADPH oxidase, MAP kinases, and WRKYs, which can lead to cell death. Indeed, cell death was observed around the discolored lenticels after 19 days of cold storage at 5°C. Localized cell death and cuticular opening in the lumen of discolored lenticels were correlated with increased general decay during shelf-life storage, possibly due to fungal penetration. We also observed increased phenolics accumulation around the discolored lenticels, which was correlated with the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids that were probably transported from the resin ducts. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed during CI by both the biochemical malondialdehyde method and a new non-destructive luminescent technology, correlated to upregulation of the α-linolenic acid oxidation pathway. Genes involved in sugar metabolism were also induced, possibly to maintain osmotic balance. This analysis provides an in-depth characterization of mango fruit response to chilling stress and could lead to the development of new tools, treatments and strategies to prolong cold storage of subtropical fruit.

  19. Transcriptome Dynamics in Mango Fruit Peel Reveals Mechanisms of Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Sela, Noa; Feygenberg, Oleg; Zemach, Hanita; Maurer, Dalia; Alkan, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Cold storage is considered the most effective method for prolonging fresh produce storage. However, subtropical fruit is sensitive to cold. Symptoms of chilling injury (CI) in mango include red and black spots that start from discolored lenticels and develop into pitting. The response of ‘Keitt’ mango fruit to chilling stress was monitored by transcriptomic, physiological, and microscopic analyses. Transcriptomic changes in the mango fruit peel were evaluated during optimal (12°C) and suboptimal (5°C) cold storage. Two days of chilling stress upregulated genes involved in the plant stress response, including those encoding transmembrane receptors, calcium-mediated signal transduction, NADPH oxidase, MAP kinases, and WRKYs, which can lead to cell death. Indeed, cell death was observed around the discolored lenticels after 19 days of cold storage at 5°C. Localized cell death and cuticular opening in the lumen of discolored lenticels were correlated with increased general decay during shelf-life storage, possibly due to fungal penetration. We also observed increased phenolics accumulation around the discolored lenticels, which was correlated with the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids that were probably transported from the resin ducts. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed during CI by both the biochemical malondialdehyde method and a new non-destructive luminescent technology, correlated to upregulation of the α-linolenic acid oxidation pathway. Genes involved in sugar metabolism were also induced, possibly to maintain osmotic balance. This analysis provides an in-depth characterization of mango fruit response to chilling stress and could lead to the development of new tools, treatments and strategies to prolong cold storage of subtropical fruit. PMID:27812364

  20. Mango variation in vitamin C and beta carotene with cultivar and country of origin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mangos (Mangifera indica) are a traditional fruit in the Caribbean countries and Southeast Asia, but have been imported in to the U.S. on a large scale only in the last few years. Fruit of cultivars ‘Ataulfo,' ‘Kent,’ ‘Tommy Atkins,’ ‘Keitt,’ and ‘Haden’ were obtained from shipments from Mexico, Pe...

  1. Persistence behavior of imidacloprid and carbosulfan in mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Bhattacherjee, A K

    2013-02-01

    Imidacloprid was sprayed on mango cv. Dashehari at 0.3 mL L(-1) of water during pre-bloom stage with 6-8 cm panicle size (first week of March) to control hopper and carbosulfan was sprayed at 2.0 mL L(-1) of water in the trees of mango hybrid (H-1000) during fruit development stage (first week of May) to control leaf webber. Residues of both the insecticides were analysed in peel, pulp and fruit at different stages of fruit development and maturity. The initial residues of imidacloprid, after 30 days of spraying, were 1.21, 0.56 and 1.77 mg kg(-1) in peel, pulp and whole fruit, respectively. The residues persisted in peel for 60 days and in pulp for 50 days and dissipated with a half-life of 38 days. Mature Dashehari fruits at harvest (after 85 days of spraying) were free from imidacloprid residues. Carbosulfan in mango peel dissipated from 5.30 mg kg(-1) (after 1 h of spraying) to 0.05 mg kg(-1) at the time of harvest (after 45 days of spraying). Carbosulfan residue in pulp was very low (0.08 mg kg(-1)) after 1 h of spraying, which increased gradually to 0.90 mg kg(-1) after 10 days and finally came down to 0.04 mg kg(-1) after 26 days of spraying. The insecticide residue was not detected in the pulp at the time of harvest. The residues persisted in pulp for 26 days and in peel for 45 days and degraded with a half-life of 7 days. The dissipation of both imidacloprid and carbosulfan followed first order rate kinetics in whole fruit (peel + pulp). Therefore, the safe pre-harvest intervals were suggested to be 55 days for imidacloprid and 46 days for carbosulfan before consumption of mango fruits after spraying of these insecticides.

  2. The effect of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on the size and weight of mangos (Mangifera indica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Naqqash, Muhammad Nadir; Saeed, Qamar; Ghouri, Fozia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pollination has a great effect on the yield of fruit trees. Blow flies are considered as an effective pollinator compared to hand pollination in fruit orchards. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of different pollination methods in mango orchards. Methodology: The impact of pollination on quantity and quality of mango yield by blow flies was estimated by using three treatments, i.e., open pollinated trees, trees were covered by a net in the presence of blow flies for pollination, and trees were covered with a net but without insects. Results: The maximum number of flowers was recorded in irregular types of inflorescence, i.e., 434.80 flowers/inflorescence. Fruit setting (bud) was higher in open pollinated mango trees (i.e. 37.00/inflorescence) than enclosed pollination by blow flies (i.e. 22.34/inflorescence). The size of the mango fruit was the highest (5.06 mm) in open pollinated tree than those pollinated by blow flies (3.93 mm) and followed by without any pollinator (3.18 mm) at marble stage. We found that the maximum weight of mango fruit (201.19 g) was in open pollinated trees. Discussion: The results demonstrated that blow flies can be used as effective mango pollinators along with other flies and bees. The blow flies have shown a positive impact on the quality and quantity of mango. This study will be helpful in future and also applicable at farm level to use blow flies as pollinators that are cheap and easy to rear. PMID:27441107

  3. Mango modulates body fat and plasma glucose and lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Edralin A; Li, Wenjia; Peterson, Sandra K; Brown, Angela; Kuvibidila, Solo; Perkins-Veazie, Penny; Clarke, Stephen L; Smith, Brenda J

    2011-11-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been investigated for their role in the prevention of many chronic conditions. Among the fruits, mango provides numerous bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds, which have been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study examined the effects of dietary supplementation of freeze-dried mango pulp, in comparison with the hypolipidaemic drug, fenofibrate, and the hypoglycaemic drug, rosiglitazone, in reducing adiposity and alterations in glucose metabolism and lipid profile in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six treatment groups (eight to nine/group): control (10 % energy from fat); HF (60 % energy from fat); HF+1 or 10 % freeze-dried mango (w/w); HF+fenofibrate (500 mg/kg diet); HF+rosiglitazone (50 mg/kg diet). After 8 weeks of treatment, mice receiving the HF diet had a higher percentage body fat (P = 0·0205) and epididymal fat mass (P = 0·0037) compared with the other treatment groups. Both doses of freeze-dried mango, similar to fenofibrate and rosiglitazone, prevented the increase in epididymal fat mass and the percentage of body fat. Freeze-dried mango supplementation at the 1 % dose improved glucose tolerance as shown by approximately 35 % lower blood glucose area under the curve compared with the HF group. Moreover, freeze-dried mango lowered insulin resistance, as indicated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, to a similar extent as rosiglitazone and modulated NEFA. The present findings demonstrate that incorporation of freeze-dried mango in the diet of mice improved glucose tolerance and lipid profile and reduced adiposity associated with a HF diet.

  4. Valorization of an agro-industrial waste, mango seed, by the extraction and characterization of its cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Henrique, Mariana Alves; Silvério, Hudson Alves; Flauzino Neto, Wilson Pires; Pasquini, Daniel

    2013-05-30

    Mango seeds are lignocellulosic agro-industrial residues available in large quantities in tropical countries and are simply discarded or used as animal feed. They are a natural and renewable resource, and were used to generate new polymeric materials in this work. This new materials can be used as alternatives to fossil resources such as petroleum. This work aimed to extract and characterize cellulose nanocrystals (CN) from mango seed by acid hydrolysis to obtain a material suitable as a reinforcing agent in the manufacturing of nanocomposites. The fibers of mango seeds were ground in mills and purified mainly to remove lignin. The raw mango seed (MS) and the purified mango seed (PMS) were analyzed for chemical composition and characterized by infrared and X-rays. Cellulose nanocrystals from the mango seed (CNM) were isolated by acid hydrolysis at 40 °C for 10 min, with 20 ml of H2SO4 (11.21 M) used for every gram of cellulose. The yield at this step was 22.8%. CNM were needle-shaped, with high crystallinity (90.6%), good thermal stability (around 248 °C), a medium length (L) of 123.4 ± 22.1 nm and a diameter (D) of 4.59 ± 2.22 nm, giving an aspect ratio (L/D) of about 34.1 ± 18.6. The diameter measurements of CNM were also confirmed by Scherrer's equation. This work also aimed to reuse mango seed produced as industrial waste, giving it a useful application and preventing its role as an environmental pollutant.

  5. Describing Quality and Sensory Attributes of 3 Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars at 3 Ripeness Stages Based on Firmness.

    PubMed

    Nassur, Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende; González-Moscoso, Sara; Crisosto, Gayle M; Lima, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2015-09-01

    To determine the ideal ripening stage for consumption of the mango cultivars, "Ataulfo," "Haden," and "Tommy Atkins"; fruits at 3 flesh firmness levels (ripeness stages) were evaluated by a trained panel using descriptive analysis after instrumental measurements were made. After harvest, all fruits were ripened to allow softening and quality and sensory attribute changes. Ripening changes during softening of Ataulfo mangos were expressed by a characteristic increase in the perception of "tropical fruit" and "peach" aromas, an increase in "juiciness," "sweetness," and "tropical fruit" flavor, while "fibrousness," "chewiness," and "sourness" decreased. Similar desirable sensory changes were also detected during softening of Haden mangos; an increase in tropical fruit and peach aromas, sweetness and tropical fruit flavor, and a decrease in chewiness, sourness, and bitterness. Softening of Tommy Atkins mangos was followed by reduced chewiness and sourness and increased peach aroma. Softening of all cultivars was followed by decreased sourness and titratable acidity (TA) and increased soluble solids concentration (SSC) and SSC:TA ratio. The results indicate that mango ripening leads to increased expression of sensory attributes such as tropical fruit and peach aromas, tropical flavor, and sweetness that have been related to improved eating quality and these final changes in sensory quality attributes are specific for each cultivar. For example, Ataulfo and Haden mangos had greater improvement in quality and sensory attributes related to fruit eating quality during ripening-softening than Tommy Atkins. In our consumer test, these quality-sensory attributes expressed during ripening that were perceived by the trained panel were also validated, supporting the need for a controlled ripening protocol in mangos.

  6. 7 CFR 982.64 - Creditable promotion and advertising reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creditable promotion and advertising reports. 982.64 Section 982.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... promotion and advertising reports. Each handler shall file such reports of creditable promotion...

  7. Control of browning of minimally processed mangoes subjected to ultraviolet radiation pulses.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Aline Ellen Duarte; Fonseca, Kelem Silva; da Silva Gomes, Wilny Karen; Monteiro da Silva, Ana Priscila; de Oliveira Silva, Ebenézer; Puschmann, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    The pulsed ultraviolet radiation (UVP) has been used as an alternative strategy for the control of microorganisms in food. However, its application causes the browning of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. In order to control the browning of the 'Tommy Atkins' minimally processed mango and treated with UVP (5.7 J cm(-2)) it was used 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (0.5 μL L(-1)), an ethylene action blocker in separate stages, comprising five treatments: control, UVP (U), 1-MCP + UVP (M + U), UVP + 1-MCP (U + M) e 1-MCP + UVP + 1-MCP (M + U + M). At the 1st, 7th and 14th days of storage at 12 °C, we evaluated the color (L* and b*), electrolyte leakage, polyphenol oxidase, total extractable polyphenols, vitamin C and total antioxidant activity. The 1-MCP, when applied before UVP, prevented the loss of vitamin C and when applied in a double dose, retained the yellow color (b*) of the cubes. However, the 1-MCP reduced lightness (L*) of independent mango cubes whatever applied before and/or after the UVP. Thus, the application of 1-MCP did not control, but intensified the browning of minimally processed mangoes irradiated with UVP.

  8. Novel strategies for capturing health-protective mango phytochemicals in shelf stable food matrices.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Ivette; Grace, Mary H; Yousef, Gad G; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-03-01

    Cost-effective methods for concentration and stabilization of otherwise perishable mango fruit phytoactives into shelf stable high protein ingredients were developed to combat stunting (malnutrition) in rural Africa. Mango juices complexed with sunflower oil and protein-rich legume flours yielded carotenoid-enriched oils and pelleted polyphenol-enriched flour matrices. Carotenoids from juices were concentrated 9-10 times in the fortified sunflower oil. Protein-rich soy and peanut flours captured 2.2-3.2 mg/g polyphenols from the juices. Alternatively, mango juice was sorbed and co-dried with flours, which stably bound the polyphenols, carotenoids, and natural sugars in soy or peanut protein-rich matrices. The concentration of provitamin A carotenoids was almost doubled and total polyphenols were enriched 4-5 times higher in the matrices compared to fresh pureed juice. Both strategies require minimal instrumentation, are compatible with rural village dietary practices; and capture the benefits of otherwise perishable seasonal resources by complexing healthful proteins together with phytoactive compounds.

  9. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of selected varieties of thai mango seed extract.

    PubMed

    Khammuang, Saranyu; Sarnthima, Rakrudee

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of four fresh mango seed extracts from Thai varieties. Total phenol contents determined by the Folin-ciocalteu method revealed the highest values to be in MKE, Chok-a-nan variety (399.8 mgGAE/g extract) and MSE of Nam-dok-mai variety (377.2 mgGAE/g extract). Both extracts showed potent ABTS˙+ radical and DPPH˙ radical scavenging activities with the lower half inhibition concentration (IC50) values than those of the reference compounds; vitamin C, trolox and BHA, respectively. Their antioxidant property of MSE and MKE is strongly correlated with the total phenol contents (r=0.98 and 0.98, respectively). When combined the MSE and MKE of the Fah-lun variety showed the strongest antioxidant activity. All mango seed extracts showed interesting antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria as determined by disc diffusion method. The most sensitive pathogenic strain inhibited by all extracts (especially Kaew variety) was Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. This work suggests potential applications for practical uses of mango seed extracts from Thai varieties, as sources of antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

  10. Production and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulase from Paenibacillus polymyxa using mango peel as substrate.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devendra; Ashfaque, Mohd; Muthukumar, M; Singh, Munna; Garg, Neelima

    2012-01-01

    Mango peel, a solid mango processing waste, comprises 15-20% of total fruit weight. This, being a rich source of lignocelluloses, was used as substrate for carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) production using Paenibacillus polymyxa. Maximum CMCase production (7.814 U mg(-1)) was observed in a medium containing 7% mango peel (w/v) with 1.5% ammonium sulphate (w/v) at 37 degrees C and pH 5.5. Purification to an extent of 28.24 fold was achieved by affinity column chromatography. Bands corresponding to 26.5 and 34.0 kDa molecular sizes were observed on 12% denaturing Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) while of 72 kDa on 10% non-denaturing Native-PAGE, proving its heteromeric multienzyme nature. The enzyme was stable over a range of 20-60 degrees C and pH of 4.0-7.5. Michaelis-Menten equation constant (Km and Vmax) values of purified CMCase were 8.73 mg ml(-1) and 17.805 mM ml(-1) min(-1), respectively.

  11. Fused lobed anther and hooked stigma affect pollination, fertilization and fruit set in mango

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Varsha; Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Shukla, Alok; Tuteja, Narendra; Bains, Gurdeep

    2013-01-01

    Mango malformation is the most threaten disease that limits mango production, worldwide. For a long time, due to its complex nature, the cause and causal agents were strongly disputed. Diverse Fusaria, including Fusarium mangiferae, are known to be associated with the disease. There are indications that augmented level of endogenous ethylene in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses alters the morphology of reproductive organs. Here, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of healthy and malformed reproductive organs of mango cv. Baramasi was performed to compare the functional morphology. The SEM study revealed that anthers of hermaphrodite healthy flowers were bilobed with large number of turgid pollen grains whereas malformed flowers showed fused lobed anthers with scanty deformed pollen grains. Furthermore, the stigma of healthy flowers exhibited a broad landing pad as compared to malformed stigma which showed hooked and pointed tip. All these impaired morphology of male and female reproductive organs lead to failure of sexual reproduction. This is the first evidence to show fused lobed anther with impaired pollen grains and hooked stigma with poor stigmatic receptivity are mainly responsible for restricting the pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Here we suggest that abnormal development of anthers and pistils is due to endogenously produced stress ethylene. Further, added load of cyanide, a byproduct of ethylene biosynthesis, may also contribute to the development of necrosis which lead to desiccation of anther and pistil during hypersensitive response of plants. PMID:23299320

  12. Cytokinins of the Developing Mango Fruit : Isolation, Identification, and Changes in Levels during Maturation.

    PubMed

    Chen, W S

    1983-02-01

    The cytokinin activity has been isolated and identified from extracts of immature mango (Mangifera indica L.) seeds. The structures of zeatin, zeatin riboside, and N(6)-(Delta(2)-isopentenyl)adenine riboside were confirmed on the basis of their chromatographic behavior and mass spectra of trimethylsilyl derivatives. Both trans and cis isomers of zeatin and zeatin riboside were also identified by the retention times of high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, an unidentified compound appeared to be a cytokinin glucoside.The concentration of cytokinins in the panicle and pulp of mango reached a maximum 5 to 10 days after full bloom and decreased rapidly thereafter. The cytokinin level in the seed remained high until the 28th day after full bloom. The quantity of cytokinins in pulp per fruit increased from the 10th day after full bloom, the maximum being attained around the 50th day after full bloom. Similarly, the amount of cytokinins per seed increased from the 10th day after full bloom, reaching a peak on the 40th day and decreasing gradually thereafter.A high percentage of fruit set in mango was persistently maintained by supplying 6-benzylaminopurine (1.5 x 10(3) micromolar) onto the panicle at the anthesis stage and by supplying gibberellic acid (7.2 x 10(2) micromolar) and naphthalene acetamide (3.1 x 10 micromolar) at the young fruit stage.

  13. Natural Enemies of the Frankliniella Complex Species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ataulfo Mango Agroecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Franklin H.; Infante, Francisco; Castillo, Alfredo; Ibarra-Nuñez, Guillermo; Goldarazena, Arturo; Funderburk, Joe E.

    2015-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Ataulfo mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards in Chiapas, Mexico, with the objective of determining the natural enemies of the Frankliniella complex species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Seven species of this genus feed and reproduce in large numbers during the mango flowering. Two representative orchards were selected: the orchard “Tres A” characterized by an intensive use of agrochemicals directed against thrips, and the orchard “La Escondida” that did not spray insecticides. During mango flowering, five inflorescences were randomly collected every 5 d in both orchards, for a total of 18 sampling dates. Results revealed the presence of 18 species of arthropods that were found predating on Frankliniella. There were 11 species in the families Aeolothripidae, Phlaeothripidae, Formicidae, Anthocoridae and Chrysopidae; and seven species of spiders in the families Araneidae, Tetragnathidae, and Uloboridae. Over 88% of predators were anthocorids, including, Paratriphleps sp. (Champion), Orius insidiosus (Say), Orius tristicolor (White), and O. perpunctatus (Reuter). The orchard that did not spray insecticides had a significantly higher number of predators suggesting a negative effect of the insecticides on the abundance of these organisms. PMID:26246440

  14. Bioethanol production from leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) involving naturally isolated and recombinant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Das, Saprativ P; Ravindran, Rajeev; Deka, Deepmoni; Jawed, Mohammad; Das, Debasish; Goyal, Arun

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the usage of dried leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) containing 26.3% (w/w) cellulose, 54.4% (w/w) hemicellulose, and 16.9% (w/w) lignin, as a substrate for bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Candida shehatae. The substrate was subjected to two different pretreatment strategies, namely, wet oxidation and an organosolv process. An ethanol concentration (1.21 g/L) was obtained with Z. mobilis in a shake-flask simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) trial using 1% (w/v) wet oxidation pretreated mango leaves along with mixed enzymatic consortium of Bacillus subtilis cellulase and recombinant hemicellulase (GH43), whereas C. shehatae gave a slightly higher (8%) ethanol titer of 1.31 g/L. Employing 1% (w/v) organosolv pretreated mango leaves and using Z. mobilis and C. shehatae separately in the SSF, the ethanol titers of 1.33 g/L and 1.52 g/L, respectively, were obtained. The SSF experiments performed with 5% (w/v) organosolv-pretreated substrate along with C. shehatae as fermentative organism gave a significantly enhanced ethanol titer value of 8.11 g/L using the shake flask and 12.33 g/L at the bioreactor level. From the bioreactor, 94.4% (v/v) ethanol was recovered by rotary evaporator with 21% purification efficiency.

  15. An overnight chill induces a delayed inhibition of photosynthesis at midday in mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Allen, D J; Ratner, K; Giller, Y E; Gussakovsky, E E; Shahak, Y; Ort, D R

    2000-11-01

    The effect of a cold night on photosynthesis in herbaceous chilling-sensitive crops, like tomato, has been extensively studied and is well characterized. This investigation examined the behaviour of the sub-tropical fruit tree, mango, to enable comparison with these well-studied systems. Unlike tomato, chilling between 5 degrees C and 7 degrees C overnight produced no significant inhibition of light-saturated CO(2) assimilation (A:) during the first hours following rewarming, measured either under controlled environment conditions or in the field. By midday, however, there was a substantial decline in A:, which could not be attributed to photoinhibition of PSII, but rather was associated with an increase in stomatal limitation of A: and lower Rubisco activity. Overnight chilling of tomato can cause severe disruption in the circadian regulation of key photosynthetic enzymes and is considered to be a major factor underlying the dysfunction of photosynthesis in chilling-sensitive herbaceous plants. Examination of the gas exchange of mango leaves maintained under constant conditions for 2 d, demonstrated that large depressions in A: during the subjective night were primarily the result of stomatal closure. Chilling did not disrupt the ability of mango leaves to produce a circadian rhythm in stomatal conductance. Rather, the midday increase in stomatal limitation of A: appeared to be the result of altered guard cell sensitivity to CO(2) following the dark chill.

  16. Image Based Mango Fruit Detection, Localisation and Yield Estimation Using Multiple View Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Madeleine; Bargoti, Suchet; Underwood, James

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel multi-sensor framework to efficiently identify, track, localise and map every piece of fruit in a commercial mango orchard. A multiple viewpoint approach is used to solve the problem of occlusion, thus avoiding the need for labour-intensive field calibration to estimate actual yield. Fruit are detected in images using a state-of-the-art faster R-CNN detector, and pair-wise correspondences are established between images using trajectory data provided by a navigation system. A novel LiDAR component automatically generates image masks for each canopy, allowing each fruit to be associated with the corresponding tree. The tracked fruit are triangulated to locate them in 3D, enabling a number of spatial statistics per tree, row or orchard block. A total of 522 trees and 71,609 mangoes were scanned on a Calypso mango orchard near Bundaberg, Queensland, Australia, with 16 trees counted by hand for validation, both on the tree and after harvest. The results show that single, dual and multi-view methods can all provide precise yield estimates, but only the proposed multi-view approach can do so without calibration, with an error rate of only 1.36% for individual trees. PMID:27854271

  17. Vinegar production from Togolese local variety Mangovi of Mango mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ameyapoh, Y; Leveau, Jean-Yves; Karou, Simplice D; Bouix, M; Sossou, Seyram K; De Souza, C

    2010-02-01

    The present study aimed to access for the physiochemical parameters of vinegar production through Togolese local variety Mangovi of mango Mangifera indica juice fermentation. The juice was fermented successively by Saccharomyces cerevisisae and acetic bacteria. The levels of ethanol and acetic acid in the juice during the production of vinegar were monitored by gas chromatography and titrimetry methods, respectively. The physiological state of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae L2056 was determined by flow cytometry using a dual fluorescent labeling of diacetate carboxy-fluorescein (CFDA) and propidium iodide. The results indicated that 200 mL of mango juice, sugar content 20 Brix, set in alcoholic fermentation with 10(6) yeast cells produced 22.4 g L(-1) ethanol in 72 h. Acetic fermentation transformed 93% of this ethanol to acetic acid in 288 h. Twenty-four hours after the beginning of alcoholic fermentation, 91% of cells were viable, 8.85% were stressed and 0.05% died. After 24 h of acetic fermentation, viable, stressed and dead cells were 45, 12 and 39%, respectively; corresponding to the passage of acetic vinegar level from 0.9 to 2.1 degrees. At the end of the acetic fermentation, dead cells were estimated to 98% at and acetic acid to 4.7 degrees. Using consecutive fermentations is suitable technique for vinegar production from mango juice. The application of the present results may contribute to avoid fruits post harvest losses.

  18. Visible spectroscopy calibration transfer model in determining pH of Sala mangoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, O. K. M.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Aziz, A. A.; Omar, A. F.

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficiency of calibration transfer procedures between three spectrometers involving two Ocean Optics Inc. spectrometers, namely, QE65000 and Jaz, and also, ASD FieldSpec 3 in measuring the pH of Sala mango by visible reflectance spectroscopy. This study evaluates the ability of these spectrometers in measuring the pH of Sala mango by applying similar calibration algorithms through direct calibration transfer. This visible reflectance spectroscopy technique defines a spectrometer as a master instrument and another spectrometer as a slave. The multiple linear regression (MLR) of calibration model generated using the QE65000 spectrometer is transferred to the Jaz spectrometer and vice versa for Set 1. The same technique is applied for Set 2 with QE65000 spectrometer is transferred to the FieldSpec3 spectrometer and vice versa. For Set 1, the result showed that the QE65000 spectrometer established a calibration model with higher accuracy than that of the Jaz spectrometer. In addition, the calibration model developed on Jaz spectrometer successfully predicted the pH of Sala mango, which was measured using QE65000 spectrometer, with a root means square error of prediction RMSEP = 0.092 pH and coefficients of determination R2 = 0.892. Moreover, the best prediction result is obtained for Set 2 when the calibration model developed on QE65000 spectrometer is successfully transferred to FieldSpec 3 with R2 = 0.839 and RMSEP = 0.16 pH.

  19. Determination of the molecular and structural characteristics of okenia, mango, and banana starches.

    PubMed

    Millan-Testa, C E; Mendez-Montealvo, M G; Ottenhof, M-A; Farhat, I A; Bello-Pérez, L A

    2005-02-09

    Starches were isolated from nonconventional sources (banana, mango, and okenia) and their characteristics were examined using polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Banana starch granules were of an ellipsoidal shape with size between approximately 8 and 20 microm; okenia had the smallest granule size, between approximately 2 and 5 microm. The three starches showed the Maltese cross, indicative of an intact granule structure. Okenia and mango starches had the A-type X-ray diffraction pattern, common to native cereal starches, whereas banana starch showed a mixture between A- and B-type pattern. Banana starch had the highest temperature (77.6 degrees C) and enthalpy (23.4 J/g) of gelatinization in excess water conditions; okenia had the lowest temperature (71.2 degrees C) and enthalpy (15 J/g), which may be related to the X-ray diffraction pattern and its small granule size. Both the okenia and mango starches had a higher molar mass and gyration radius than banana starch, which may be related to the differences determined in their crystalline structures.

  20. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics.

  1. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1212.20 Section 1212.20 Agriculture..., PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.20 Promotion. “Promotion” means...

  2. Induction of apoptosis by ethanolic extract of mango peel and comparative analysis of the chemical constitutes of mango peel and flesh.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeonji; Kim, Hana; Mosaddik, Ashik; Gyawali, Rajendra; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Cho, Somi Kim

    2012-07-15

    The underlying mechanisms of the anticancer activity of the ethanolic extract of mango peel (EEMP) and its constituents were investigated. EEMP induced death of human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells through apoptosis, as evidenced by the increased cell population in the sub-G1 phase and the appearance of fragmented nuclei. Treatment of the cells with EEMP also downregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression, resulting in the proteolytic activation of caspase-3, 7, 8, and 9 and the degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein. The major components of mango peel were identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our data suggest that EEMP is an excellent source of quercetin 3-O-galactoside, mangiferin gallate, isomangiferin gallate, quercetin-3-O-arabinopyranoside, and mangiferin along with unsaturated fatty acids oleic acid, linoleic acid, and ethyl linoleate, which may help to prevent cervical cancer and may be a useful agent for the treatment of some other malignancies.

  3. [Identification of an auxin response factor-like protein cDNA from mango cotyledon section].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie-Ning; Huang, Xue-Lin; Huang, Xia; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2004-01-01

    Auxin-responsive elements (AuxRE) interact with a new class of plant-specific transcription factors, auxin response factors (ARFs). Some of ARFs have been shown to repress or activate expression of genes with an AuxRE promotor element. In Arabidopsis, ARFs play important roles in early embryo development and vascular strand formation (ARF5), floral patterning (ARF3) and photo- and gravitropic responses (ARF7). Two cut surfaces (distal and proximal) of mango (Mangifera indica L. var. Zi-Hua) cotyledon showed different patterns of adventitious root formation, with only the proximal cut surface, but not the distal one, could be induced to form the roots. Thus, the mango cotyledon is a good system for studying adventitious root formation. A cDNA fragment homologous to the Arabidopsis auxin response factor-like protein and relates to adventitious root formation from the cut sections were isolated using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). Two cDNA clones, designated as MiARF1 (mango auxin response factor 1 gene, GenBank accession number AY255705) and MiARF2 (mango auxin response factor 2 gene, GenBank accession number is AY300808), were identified by 3'RACE. MiARF1, 3 272bp long, contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 523bp, 5'UTR of 285bp and 3'UTR of 464bp, MiARF2, 1 474bp long, contains an ORF of 981bp, 5' UTR of 285bp and 3'UTR of 208bp. The deduced MiARF1 and MiARF2 are homologues of auxin response factor (ARF) family of transcriptional regulators, and show high similarity to ARF of Arabidopsis in conserved domains. The motifs of MiARF1 EL-WHACAGPL in DBD (DNA binding domain) and GDDPW in IV domain are identical to that of ARF-like protein of Arabidopsis. MiARF2 is identical to MiARF1 in a large part of DBD, but lacks a carboxyl-terminal domain containing conserved motifs III and IV. Virtual Northern blot showed that the expression of MiARF2 was high in rooting tissue of cultured cotyledon sections but low in non-rooting tissue, and the MiARF1 was

  4. [Nondestructive test on predicting sugar content and valid acidity of mango by spectroscopy technology].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jia-jia; He, Yong; Bao, Yi-dan

    2008-12-01

    Mango is a kind of popular tropic fruit in the word, and its quality will affect the health of consumers. Unsaturated acid is an important component in mango. So it is very important and necessary to detect the sugar content and valid acidity in mango fast and non-destructively. Visible and short-wave near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIRS) was applied in the present study to predict sugar content and valid acidity of mango. Because of the non-linear information in spectral data characteristics of the pattern were analyzed by neural network optimized by genetic algorithm (GA-BP). Spectral data were compressed by the partial least squares (PLS). The best number of principal components (PCs) was selected according the accumulative reliabilities (AR). PCs could be used to replace the complex spectral data. After some preprocessing and through full cross validation, 17 principal components presenting important information of spectra were confirmed as the best number of principal components for valid acidity, and 18 PCs as best number of principal components for sugar content. Then, these best principal components were taken as the input of GA-BP neural network. One hundred thirty five samples were randomly collected as modeling, and the remaining 45 as samples to check the forecast results by the model. For the sake of testing the GA-BP model, at the same time we took the BP neural network on the same PCs. The quality of the calibration model was evaluated by the correlation coefficients (R) and standard error of calibration (SECV), and the prediction results were assessed by correlation coefficients (R) and standard error of prediction (SEP). Comparing PLS-BP model with PLS-GA-BP model, the coefficients of determination (R) of 0.788/0.83699 and standard errors of prediction (SEP) of 0.133312/0.109447 were calculated in valid acidity. The sugar content result was calculated by the coefficients of determination (R) = 0.75705/0.85409 and standard errors of

  5. Identification and Characterization of a Unique Fusarium sp. nov. ex Mangifera indica L. Causing Mango Malformation Disease in México

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we characterized fusaria that were associated with mango malformation disease (MMD) in México. From 2002 to 2009, 141 strains were isolated from symptomatic mango inflorescences and vegetative tissues from various cultivars in eight geographically diverse states. Initially, isolates ...

  6. Effect of Resin Ducts and Sap Content on Infestation and Development of Immature Stages of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Four Mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Larissa; Adaime, Ricardo; Birke, Andrea; Velázquez, Olinda; Angeles, Guillermo; Ortega, Fernando; Ruíz, Eliel; Aluja, Martín

    2017-01-10

    We determined the influence of resin ducts, sap content, and fruit physicochemical features of four mango cultivars (Criollo, Manila, Ataulfo, and Tommy Atkins) on their susceptibility to the attack of the two most pestiferous fruit fly species infesting mangoes in Mexico: Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart). We performed three studies: 1) analysis of resin ducts in mango fruit exocarp to determine the density and area occupied by resin ducts in each mango cultivar, 2) assessment of mango physicochemical features including fruit sap content, and 3) a forced infestation trial under field conditions using enclosed fruit-bearing branches to expose mangoes to gravid A. ludens or A. obliqua females. Infestation rates, development time from egg to prepupae and pupae, pupal weight, and percent of adult emergence, were assessed. 'Ataulfo' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars exhibited the highest resin duct density and sap content, the lowest infestation rate, and had a negative effect on immature development and pupal weight. In sharp contrast, 'Manila' and 'Criollo' cultivars, with the lowest resin duct density and sap content, were highly susceptible to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. We conclude that sap content and the number, size, and distribution of resin ducts as well as firmness in mango fruit exocarp are all involved in the resistance of mango to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack.

  7. Effect of Infrared Blanching on Enzyme Activity and Retention of β-Carotene and Vitamin C in Dried Mango.

    PubMed

    Guiamba, Isabel R F; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate infrared (IR) dry blanching in comparison with conventional water blanching prior to hot air drying of mango to inactivate polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) enzymes, and to study its effect on color change and retention of vitamin C and β-carotene. Mango cylinders were blanched under similar temperature-time conditions either by IR heating or by immersion in a water bath during 2 min at 90 °C (high-temperature-short-time-HTST) or for 10 min at 65 °C (low-temperature-long-time-LTLT). After blanching mango was hot air dried at 70 °C. PPO was completely inactivated during the blanching treatments, but AAO had a moderate remaining activity after LTLT treatment (∼30%) and a low remaining activity after HTST treatment (9% to 15%). A higher retention of vitamin C was observed in mango subjected to IR dry blanching, 88.3 ± 1.0% (HTST) and 69.2 ± 2.9% (LTLT), compared with water blanching, 61.4 ± 5.3% (HTST) and 50.7 ± 9.6% (LTLT). All-trans-β-carotene retention was significantly higher in water blanched dried mango, 93.2 ± 5.2% (LTLT) and 91.4 ± 5.1% (HTST), compared with IR dry blanched, 73.6 ± 3.6% (LTLT) and 76.9 ± 2.9% (HTST). Increased levels of 13-cis-β-carotene isomer were detected only in IR dry blanched mango, and the corresponding dried mango also had a slightly darker color. IR blanching of mango prior to drying can improve the retention of vitamin C, but not the retention of carotenoids, which showed to be more dependent on the temperature than the blanching process. A reduction of drying time was observed in LTLT IR-blanching mango.

  8. Physico chemical characterization and the effect of processing on the quality characteristics of Sindura, Mallika and Totapuri mango cultivars.

    PubMed

    Vijayanand, P; Deepu, E; Kulkarni, S G

    2015-02-01

    Mango (Magnifera indica L) is grown in the tropical and sub tropical regions of India. The fruit has a high commercial value depending on the color, flavor and pulp characteristics of the cultivar. Sindura, Mallika and Totapuri cultivars grown in southern Karnataka were investigated for the physical chemical characteristics and the effect of processing on the quality characteristics. Sindura, Mallika and Totapuri mango cultivars had significantly different physico chemical and compositional characteristics. Sindura cultivar had a characteristic red color in the peel with high carotenoid content and slightly lower pulp content. Mallika contained higher pulp content with a pale yellow color in the peel and higher total soluble solids. Totapuri contained slightly lower pulp content than Mallika, lower total soluble solids and lower carotenoids among the cultivars. Sindura and Mallika pulps had significantly higher viscosity than Totapuri. Processing of the pulps resulted in significant decrease of carotenoids irrespective of the cultivar. Sensory quality of canned mango slices showed higher acceptability for Mallika followed by Sindura and Totapuri. Mango nectar prepared from Sindura was highly acceptable followed by Totapuri and Mallika. Processing of these underutilized mango cultivars into puree, nectar, juice beverages and slices, can result in value addition and popularization.

  9. Analysis by RP-HPLC of mangiferin component correlation between medicinal loranthus and their mango host trees.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiejun; Su, Benwei; Li, Jing; Li, Yonghua; Lu, Dong; Zhu, Kaixin; Pei, Hehuan; Zhao, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of mangiferin in medicinal loranthus shrubs and their mango or non-mango host trees. Mangiferin in samples was extracted with a solution of 40% methanol. Analytical determination was conducted by RP-HPLC with ultraviolet detection at 258 nm. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Inertsil ODS-SP column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) by isocratic elution with methanol-0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid (31:69, v/v). Mangiferin contents were 5.04 to 18.95 mg/g in mango trees and 0.44 to 3.72 mg/g in medicinal loranthus parasitized on mango host trees. Mangiferin could not be detected in non-mango trees and their loranthus shrubs. This study indicated that host trees could affect the quality of medicinal loranthus by transporting host-inherent components into loranthus.

  10. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  11. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  12. A Pseudomonas syringae diversity survey reveals a differentiated phylotype of the pathovar syringae associated with the mango host and mangotoxin production.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A; Carrión, Víctor J; Murillo, Jesús; Arrebola, Eva; Arnold, Dawn L; Cazorla, Francisco M; de Vicente, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, the causal agent of bacterial apical necrosis (BAN) in mango crops, has been isolated in different mango-producing areas worldwide. An extensive collection of 87 P. syringae pv. syringae strains isolated from mango trees affected by BAN from different countries, but mainly from Southern Spain, were initially examined by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) to analyze the genetic diversity with an epidemiological aim. rep-PCR was powerful in assessing intrapathovar distribution and also allowing clustering of the P. syringae pv. syringae strains isolated from mango, depending on the isolation area. A clear pattern of clustering was observed for all the P. syringae pv. syringae strains isolated from mango distinct from strains from other hosts, including strains for the same geographical regions as the mango isolates. For this reason, a representative group of 51 P. syringae pv. syringae strains isolated from mango and other hosts, as well as some P. syringae strains from other pathovars, were further characterized to determine their possible genetic, phenotypic, and phylogenetic relationships. Similar to the rep-PCR results, the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) and catabolic diversity analysis using the Biolog GN2 profile grouped 90% of the mango isolates together in a unique cluster. Interestingly, the majority of P. syringae pv. syringae strains isolated from mango produced mangotoxin. The analysis of the phylogenetic distribution using the multilocus sequence typing analysis strongly supports the existence of a differentiated phylotype of the pathovar syringae mainly associated with the mango host and characterized by the mangotoxin production.

  13. Mango polyphenolics suppressed tumor growth in breast cancer xenografts in mice: role of the PI3K/AKT pathway and associated microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Nivedita; Kim, Hyemee; Krenek, Kimberly; Talcott, Stephen T; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2015-08-01

    The cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of mango polyphenolics including gallic acid and gallotannins have been demonstrated in numerous types of cancers. We hypothesized that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway and the expression of related miRNAs are involved in the chemotherapeutic activities of mango polyphenolics in a mouse xenograft model for breast cancer. The objectives of this research were to determine the tumor-cytotoxic activities of mango polyphenolics and the underlying molecular mechanisms involving posttranscriptional targets in BT474 breast cancer cells and xenografts in mice. In vitro findings showed cytotoxic effects of mango polyphenolics in BT474 breast cancer cells within a concentration range of 2.5 to 20 mg/L gallic acid equivalents. Mango polyphenolics suppressed the expression of PI3K, AKT, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA, and pAKT, AKT, pPI3K (p85), VEGF and nuclear factor-kappa B protein levels. The involvement of miR-126 was verified by using antagomiR for miR-126, where mango reversed the effect of the antagomiR of miR-126. In vivo, the intake of mango polyphenolics decreased the tumor volume by 73% in BT474 xenograft-bearing mice compared with the control group. In addition, mango reduced the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (p65), pAKT, pPI3K, mammalian target of rapamycin, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, and VEGF protein in athymic nude mice. A screening for miRNA expression changes confirmed that mango polyphenolics modulated the expression of cancer-associated miRNAs including miR-126 in the xenografted tumors. In summary, mango polyphenolics have a chemotherapeutic potential against breast cancer that at least in part is mediated through the PI3K/AKT pathway and miR-126.

  14. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Monique; Bernard, Linda; Jobin, Michele; Milot, Sylvain; Gagnon, Marcel

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p ⪕ 0,001) the level of respiration and significantly (p ⪕ 0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed.

  15. Role of ethrel in causation of floral malformation in mango cv. Amrapali: A scanning electron microscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Archana; Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Singh, C P; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Bains, Gurdeep

    2015-01-01

    Floral malformation is a main constraint to reduce fruit yield in mango plants. Recently, we report on the role of putrescine in normalizing the functional morphology of mango flower by reducing various adverse effects of ethylene. Here, ethrel, an ethylene releasing compound, was exogenously applied to mango plant cv Amrapali to evaluate the response of flower development under high level of ethylene. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study showed that ethrel treated flowers were observed to progressively be deformed and remain unbloom. The flower buds were not distinguishable and flower parts such as petals, sepals, anther and stigma were not properly developed. The stamen showed fused anther lobes and carpel depicted curved style with pointed stigma. The findings of present study suggest the involvement of ethylene to abort the functional morphology of flower and thereby development of malformation. PMID:25751309

  16. Biocontrol of Postharvest Anthracnose of Mango Fruit with Debaryomyces Nepalensis and Effects on Storage Quality and Postharvest Physiology.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shanshan; Wan, Bin; Feng, Shuhan; Shao, Yuanzhi

    2015-11-01

    Anthracnose is presently recognized as one of the most important postharvest disease of mango worldwide. To control the disease, chemical fungicides for a long time was widely used among fruit farmers, but recently found that pathogen had developed increasingly resistance to it. With people's growing desire of healthy and green food, finding new and environmentally friendly biological control approach was very necessary. In this paper, we provided a kind of new antagonistic yeast which enriched the strain resources and the efficacy of Debaryomyces nepalensis against postharvest anthracnose of mango fruit and the influence on quality parameters were investigated. The results showed that the decay incidence and lesion diameter of postharvest anthracnose of mango treated by D. nepalensis were significantly reduced compared with the control fruit stored at 25 °C for 30 d or at 15 °C for 40 d, and the higher concentration of D. nepalensis was, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol was. Study also found that 1 h was the best treatment duration and antagonistic yeast inoculated earlier had good biocontrol effect on anthracnose. Meanwhile, treatment by D. nepalensis could significantly reduce postharvest anthracnose of mango, delay the decrease in firmness, TSS, TA, and ascorbic acid value, and do not impair surface color during postharvest storage. Moreover, the increase in MDA (malondialdehyde) content and increase in cell membrane permeability of fruit treated by D. nepalensis was highly inhibited. The results suggested D. nepalensis treatment could not only maintain storage quality of mango fruit, but also decrease the decay incidence to anthracnose disease. All these results indicated that D. nepalensis has great potential for development of commercial formulations to control postharvest pathogens of mango fruit.

  17. 7 CFR 1280.118 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... information and public relations with emphasis on new marketing strategies, to present a favorable image of U... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Promotion. 1280.118 Section 1280.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  18. 7 CFR 1280.118 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... information and public relations with emphasis on new marketing strategies, to present a favorable image of U... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion. 1280.118 Section 1280.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  19. 7 CFR 1280.118 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... information and public relations with emphasis on new marketing strategies, to present a favorable image of U... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion. 1280.118 Section 1280.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  20. 7 CFR 1280.118 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... information and public relations with emphasis on new marketing strategies, to present a favorable image of U... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion. 1280.118 Section 1280.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...