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Sample records for agriculture minerals oil

  1. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  2. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fattyacids,sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices such as seeding rate (SR), planting date (PD), and row-type (RT: single- and twin-rows) may alter seed nutrition in soybean. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of SR and PD on soybean seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and mineral...

  3. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, H. Arnold; Abbas, Hamed K.; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K.; Reddy, Krishna N.

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effects of management practices on soybean seed composition is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date (PD) and seeding rate (SR) on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and seed minerals (B, P, and Fe) in soybean grown in two row-types (RTs) on the Mississippi Delta region of the Midsouth USA. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, USA, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown in 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows in 102 cm centers at SRs of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m-2. The results showed that in May and June planting, protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but at the highest SRs (40 and 50 seeds m-2), the concentrations remained constant or declined. Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were the least responsive to SR increases. Early planting resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. The changes in seed constituents could be due to changes in environmental factors (drought and temperature), and nutrient accumulation in seeds and leaves. The increase of stachyose sugar in 2010 may be due to a drier year and high temperature in 2010 compared to 2009; suggesting the possible role of stachyose as an environmental stress compound. Our research demonstrated that PD, SR, and RT altered some seed constituents, but the level of alteration in each year dependent on environmental factors such as drought and temperature. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering agronomic practices to select for soybean seed nutritional qualities under drought and high heat conditions. PMID:25741347

  4. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA.

    PubMed

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, H Arnold; Abbas, Hamed K; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K; Reddy, Krishna N

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effects of management practices on soybean seed composition is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date (PD) and seeding rate (SR) on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and seed minerals (B, P, and Fe) in soybean grown in two row-types (RTs) on the Mississippi Delta region of the Midsouth USA. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, USA, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown in 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows in 102 cm centers at SRs of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m(-2). The results showed that in May and June planting, protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but at the highest SRs (40 and 50 seeds m(-2)), the concentrations remained constant or declined. Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were the least responsive to SR increases. Early planting resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. The changes in seed constituents could be due to changes in environmental factors (drought and temperature), and nutrient accumulation in seeds and leaves. The increase of stachyose sugar in 2010 may be due to a drier year and high temperature in 2010 compared to 2009; suggesting the possible role of stachyose as an environmental stress compound. Our research demonstrated that PD, SR, and RT altered some seed constituents, but the level of alteration in each year dependent on environmental factors such as drought and temperature. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering agronomic practices to select for soybean seed nutritional qualities under drought and high heat conditions.

  5. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  6. Culture systems: mineral oil overlay.

    PubMed

    Morbeck, Dean E; Leonard, Phoebe H

    2012-01-01

    Mineral oil overlay microdrop is commonly used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures. Though mineral oil appears homogeneous, it is an undefined product that can vary in quality. Here, we describe the history, chemistry, processing, and optimal use of mineral oil for IVF and embryo culture.

  7. [MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION MINERAL (OIL) MOTOR OIL].

    PubMed

    Homenko, L A; Nogina, T M

    2015-01-01

    In a review information is presented about composition of mineral motor oils and their negative impact on the environment and the ability of microorganisms, in particular actinobacteria, to assimilate hydrocarbon oil components. The role of bacteria is described in the process of cleaning up polluted environments motor oils and the prospect of their use in biotechnology, environmental clean-up of these pollutants.

  8. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  9. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  10. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  11. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  12. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3620 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ultraviolet absorbance shall be determined by the procedure described for application to mineral oil under... the greatest importance that all glassware be scrupulously cleaned to remove all organic matter such... tetrafluoroethylene polymer stopcocks. Reservoir. 500-milliliter capacity, equipped with a 24/40 standard taper...

  14. In situ treatability of mineral oil in soils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, K.

    1998-06-01

    Mineral oil dielectric fluid (MODF) has replaced PCB oil as the insulating medium in electrical transformers. Although eliminating PCBs has reduced the environmental impact resulting from transformer leaks, soil contaminated with mineral oil still often requires remediation. This project presents the results of laboratory application of seven biological treatment regimes to soil contaminated with mineral oil. The results demonstrate the expected extent of mineral oil biodegradation, change in chemical composition of the mineral oil, rate of biodegradation, and key engineering requirements associated with the process.

  15. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1996-02-01

    The lubricating properties of mineral oils, and contaminants which affect those properties, are discussed. A contaminant is any material not in the original fresh oil, whether it is generated within the system or ingested. 5 refs.

  16. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    PubMed

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  17. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    EPA Science Inventory

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  18. AFM study of mineral wettability with reservoir oils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K; Dao, E; Mohanty, K K

    2005-09-01

    Wettability plays a key role in determining fluid distributions and consequently the multiphase flow and transport in petroleum reservoirs. Many crude oils have polar organic components that collect at oil-water interfaces and can adsorb onto the mineral surface if the brine film breaks, rendering the medium oil-wet or mixed-wet. Mica and silica surfaces have been aged with brine and crude oils to induce oil component adsorption. Bulk oil is eventually replaced by water in these experiments by washing with common solvents without ever drying the mineral surface. The organic deposit on the mineral surface is studied by atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode under water. Drying the surface during the removal of bulk oil induces artifacts; it is essential to keep the surface wet at all times before atomic force microscopy or contact angle measurement. As the mean thickness of the organic deposit increases, the oil-water contact angle increases. The organic deposits left behind after extraction of oil by common aromatic solvents used in core studies, such as toluene and decalin, are thinner than those left behind by non-aromatic solvents, such as cyclohexane. The force of adhesion with a probe sphere for minerals aged with just the asphaltene fraction is similar to that of the whole oil. The force of adhesion for the minerals aged with just the resin fraction is the highest of all SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes) fractions.

  19. Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Dowall, J.

    1969-01-01

    Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

  20. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1995-05-01

    The physical and chemical properties of mineral oils that affect lubrication are reviewed. Recognition of these properties is useful for designing lubrication systems, diagnostics, friction and wear problems, and selecting appropriate test methods.

  1. Effect of vegetable oil (Brazil nut oil) and mineral oil (liquid petrolatum) on dental biofilm control.

    PubMed

    Filogônio, Cíntia de Fátima Buldrini; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarim; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello; Penido, Cláudia Valéria de Sousa Resende; Cruz, Roberval de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Dental biofilm control represents a basic procedure to prevent caries and the occurrence of periodontal diseases. Currently, toothbrushes and dentifrices are used almost universally, and the employment of good oral hygiene allows for appropriate biofilm removal by both mechanical and chemical control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding vegetable or mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice in dental biofilm control. A comparison using the Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S) was performed in 30 individuals who were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (G1) received a commercially available dentifrice; the composition of this dentifrice was modified by addition of mineral oil (Nujol®) for group 2 (G2) or a vegetable oil (Alpha Care®) for group 3 (G3) at 10% of the total volume, respectively. The two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) was used to test the effect of group (G1, G2 and G3) or time (baseline, 45 days and 90 days) on the OHI-S index scores. Statistical analysis revealed a significant reduction in the OHI-S at day 90 in G2 (p < 0.05) and G3 (p < 0.0001) in comparison to G1. Therefore, the addition of a vegetable or a mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice improved dental biofilm control, suggesting that these oils may aid in the prevention and/or control of caries and periodontal disease.

  2. Enhanced oil-mineral aggregation with modified bentonite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Zhou, Yanbo; Wang, Xiaoqian; Zwicker, Thomas; Lu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The application of modified-bentonite-enhanced oil dispersion in water and oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation was studied in the laboratory. The effect of modification on the surface properties of bentonite was characterized. The hydrophobicity and surface electric properties of bentonite were significantly improved by attaching cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide to its surface. The results showed that surface properties of bentonite played an important role in OMA formation. Spherical droplets of OMAs were formed with natural bentonite and elongated solid OMAs and flake OMAs were formed with modified bentonite as observed by fluorescence microscopy. The effects of shaking time, oil concentration and mineral content were also studied. It was suggested that oil concentration and mineral content were critical factors and OMA formed rapidly with both types of bentonite. Modified bentonite had better performance on OMA formation than hydrophilic natural bentonite.

  3. GEMAS: Mineral magnetic properties of European agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzina, Dilyara; Kosareva, Lina; Fattakhova, Leysan; Fabian, Karl; Nourgaliev, Danis; Reimann, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    The GEMAS survey of European agricultural soil provides a unique opportunity to create the first comprehensive overview of mineral magnetic properties in agricultural soil on a continental scale. Samples from the upper 20 cm were taken in large agricultural fields (Ap-sample) at a density of 1 site/2500 km2. After air drying and sieving to < 2 mm, low (460 Hz), and high frequency (4600 Hz) magnetic susceptibility k was measured on 2500 samples using a Bartington MS2B sensor to obtain frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility kfd. Hysteresis properties are determined using a J coercivity spectrometer, built in the paleomagnetic laboratory of Kazan University, providing for each sample a modified hysteresis loop, backfield curve, acquisition curve of isothermal remanent magnetization, and a viscous IRM decay spectrum. Each measurement set is obtained in a single run from zero field up to 1.5 T and back to -1.5 T, taking approximately 15 minutes. This allows to measure a wide range of magnetic parameters for large sample collections. Because the GEMAS geochemical atlas provides a comprehensive set of geochemical measurements characterizing the individual soil samples, the new data allow to study magnetic parameters in relation to chemical and geological parameters. The results show a clear large scale spatial distribution with e.g. broad distinct lows of k over sandy sediments of the last glaciation in central northern Europe and other sedimentary basins. More localized positive k anomalies occur near young volcanism, or old basalts exposed on the surface. On the other hand, frequency dependence of k displays a much more scattered behavior, indicating either high noise level, or large local variability. Clearly distinguishable, small-scale patterns in the randomized data set indicate that the latter is more likely. This indicates that local influences on soil magnetic properties, including anthropogenic effects, may be easier detected by frequency dependence

  4. 25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 Section 213.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and...

  5. 25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 Section 213.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and...

  6. Vegetable oil as an agricultural fuel for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.L.; Auld, D.L.; Thomas, V.M.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.; Bettis, B.L.

    1981-02-01

    Five million barrels of liquid fuel are needed annually for the continued production of agricultural commoditiese on the 12.7 million cultivated acres in the Pacific Northwest Region. Because most energy intensive operations in the agricultural industry are done by diesel engines, the technology to produce a substitute for diesel must be developed and vegetable oil appears to hold great promise as an alternative fuel. The vegetable oils potential as an alternative liquid fuel in the region is described. Rapidly rising fuel costs could make this new fuel not only economically feasible but necessary to ensure the region's continued agriculture production.

  7. Petroleum mineral oil refining and evaluation of cancer hazard.

    PubMed

    Mackerer, Carl R; Griffis, Larry C; Grabowski Jr, John S; Reitman, Fred A

    2003-11-01

    Petroleum base oils (petroleum mineral oils) are manufactured from crude oils by vacuum distillation to produce several distillates and a residual oil that are then further refined. Aromatics including alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are undesirable constituents of base oils because they are deleterious to product performance and are potentially carcinogenic. In modern base oil refining, aromatics are reduced by solvent extraction, catalytic hydrotreating, or hydrocracking. Chronic exposure to poorly refined base oils has the potential to cause skin cancer. A chronic mouse dermal bioassay has been the standard test for estimating carcinogenic potential of mineral oils. The level of alkylated 3-7-ring PAC in raw streams from the vacuum tower must be greatly reduced to render the base oil noncarcinogenic. The processes that can reduce PAC levels are known, but the operating conditions for the processing units (e.g., temperature, pressure, catalyst type, residence time in the unit, unit engineering design, etc.) needed to achieve adequate PAC reduction are refinery specific. Chronic dermal bioassays provide information about whether conditions applied can make a noncarcinogenic oil, but cannot be used to monitor current production for quality control or for conducting research or developing new processes since this test takes at least 78 weeks to conduct. Three short-term, non-animal assays all involving extraction of oil with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been validated for predicting potential carcinogenic activity of petroleum base oils: a modified Ames assay of a DMSO extract, a gravimetric assay (IP 346) for wt. percent of oil extracted into DMSO, and a GC-FID assay measuring 3-7-ring PAC content in a DMSO extract of oil, expressed as percent of the oil. Extraction with DMSO concentrates PAC in a manner that mimics the extraction method used in the solvent refining of noncarcinogenic oils. The three assays are described, data demonstrating the

  8. Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

  9. Removal of emulsified food and mineral oils from wastewater using surfactant modified barley straw.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Shariff; Ang, Ha-Ming; Wang, Shaobin

    2009-12-01

    Barley straw, an agricultural waste, was chemically modified and evaluated for the removal of emulsified oils from aqueous solution. The chemical modification was performed using NaOH and a cationic surfactant, hexadecylpyridinium chloride monohydrate (CPC). The surface textural and chemical properties of the surfactant modified barley straw (BMBS) were characterized by N(2) adsorption, FT-IR, SEM and water soluble mineral content. The adsorption tests were carried out in batch adsorption system for removal of standard mineral oil (SMO) and canola oil (CO) from water. For both emulsified oils in wastewater, adsorption was found to be strongly related with solution pH. The isotherm study indicated that emulsified oil adsorption on BMBS could be fitted well with the Langmuir model other than Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity for CO and SMO at 25 degrees C determined from the Langmuir isotherm is 613.3 and 584.2 mg g(-1), respectively. Desorption tests in water solution show that oil is strongly bonded with adsorbent and desorption is only about 1-2% in 24 h.

  10. Development of mineral oil free offset printing ink using vegetable oil esters.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ananda Sankar; Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Mondal, Rabindranath; Ghosh, Santinath

    2007-01-01

    Until the middle of this century, fats and oils are the major raw material source for paints, coating and lubricating applications. These markets are completely taken over by petroleum based stocks due to their abundance and versatility. However, recent public awareness to use environmentally acceptable products that minimize pollution, are compatible to human health and readily biodegradable created opportunities for vegetable oils for application in paints and printing inks. The formulation of vegetable oil methyl ester based 'green' offset printing ink that reduces the volatile organic compounds (VOC) has been discussed in the present study. Methyl esters of rapeseed, soybean, rice bran and palm oil have been prepared and their physical properties have been measured and compared with standard petroleum feed stock. Varnishes were prepared with these esters and their properties are also compared with that of the petroleum based products. Rheological properties of the inks are also evaluated and compared with standard printing ink using petroleum based solvent. In general performance of the ester-based printing inks are comparable with that of the mineral oil based product. On the basis of tack stability and gloss, ester based inks are much superior than the mineral oil based products. In conclusion, a new non-volatile diluent for printing ink has been developed. The diluent is made from common vegetable oils like rapeseed, soybean, rice bran and palm oil, a renewable source that is environmental friendly. Vegetable oil esters offer a cost effective solution for mineral oil based printing ink to meet VOCs regulations.

  11. Nanofluid enhancement of mineral oil and thermal properties instrument design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilborn, Eli

    There are two purposes of this research, to design and build a heat transfer cell that could accurately calculate heat transport coefficients of various fluids and to determine if the increased heat transfer capabilities of nanofluids can be applied to cooling transformers by using the heat transfer cell to measure the enhancement. The design and construction of a heat transfer cell that could accurately calculate heat transport coefficients of various fluids was successful. A heat transfer cell was built and tested on several fluids to confirm the accuracy of the design and the experiments. Three fluids were successfully tested overall for their thermal conductivity values, and one fluid was tested for its convection coefficients in the heat transfer cells. Values for the thermal conductivity and the convection coefficients were obtained during this experiment that agreed with commonly accepted values for the testing fluids. The average value for the thermal conductivities for mineral oil of the first design in the ¼" diameter cell is 0.15W/ m2c', and agrees well with the commonly accepted values of mineral oils. The value commonly accepted value of thermal conductivity for mineral oil is 0.14W/m2c' at 25°C, the first heat transfer cell yielded a thermal conductivity value of approximately 0.16W/m2 c' at roughly 25C. The heat transfer cell was also used to calculated convection coefficients of mineral oil, and values were obtained within the limits for natural convection according to Incropera, contributing more to the validity of the results from this heat transfer cell. A second heat transfer cell was designed to determine the thermal conductivities of more thermally sensitive fluids, offering a wider range of materials that can be tested. The second design places the thermocouples directly at their assumed position of the wire and the wall temperatures for calculation purposes, yielding more accurate results and can therefore more accurately calculate the

  12. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Medverec Knežević, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipović, Renata; Grgić, Ivanka; Cvitković, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this.

  13. Osage oil: Mineral law, murder, mayhem, and manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, R.

    1995-12-31

    The greatest of the 20th century Osage chiefs, Fred Lookout, feared what the rich oil bonanza under tribal lands would do to his people. He forsaw that oil wealth could turn into a curse as well as a blessing, and it was both. The story of Osage oil is a case history in the failure of law, the failure of Indian policy and the struggle for survival of the indomitable spirit of a great Native people force to deal with both the curse and the blessing of black gold. This article examines law and policy as seen in Osage oil regulation, outlining the legal controls of the land and mineral regulatory system and briefly exploring the breakdowns of the system.

  14. Chemical dispersion of oil with mineral fines in a low temperature environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weizhi; Zheng, Ying; Lee, Kenneth

    2013-07-15

    The increasing risks of potential oil spills in the arctic regions, which are characterized by low temperatures, are a big challenge. The traditional dispersant method has shown limited effectiveness in oil cleanup. This work studied the role of mineral fines in the formation of oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs) at low temperature (0-4 °C) environment. The loading amount of minerals and dispersant with different dispersant and oil types were investigated under a full factorial design. The shapes and sizes of OMAs were analyzed. Results showed that the behavior of OMA formation differs when dispersant and mineral fines are used individually or together. Both the experimental and microscopic results also showed the existence of optimal dispersant to oil ratios and mineral to oil ratios. In general, poor oil removal performance was observed for more viscous oil. Corexit 9500 performed better than Corexit 9527 with various oils, in terms of oil dispersion and OMA formation.

  15. Insertional hypermutation in mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Gero; Metzner, Mirjam; Beck-Engeser, Gabriele; Kan, Ada; Ahrends, Tomasz; Eilat, Dan; Huppi, Konrad; Wabl, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    Unless stimulated by a chronic inflammatory agent, such as mineral oil, plasma cell tumors are rare in young BALB/c mice. This raises the questions: What do inflammatory tissues provide to promote mutagenesis? And what is the nature of mutagenesis? We determined that mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas produce large amounts of endogenous retroelements--ecotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus and intracisternal A particles. Therefore, plasmacytoma formation might occur, in part, by de novo insertion of these retroelements, induced or helped by the inflammation. We recovered up to ten de novo insertions in a single plasmacytoma, mostly in genes with common retroviral integration sites. Additional integrations accompany tumor evolution from a solid tumor through several generations in cell culture. The high frequency of de novo integrations into cancer genes suggests that endogenous retroelements are coresponsible for plasmacytoma formation and progression in BALB/c mice.

  16. Rapid analytical procedure for determination of mineral oils in edible oil by GC-FID.

    PubMed

    Wrona, Magdalena; Pezo, Davinson; Nerin, Cristina

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for the determination of mineral oils in edible oil has been fully developed. The procedure consists of using a sulphuric acid-impregnated silica gel (SAISG) glass column to eliminate the fat matter. A chemical combustion of the fatty acids takes place, while the mineral oils are not affected by the sulphuric acid. The column is eluted with hexane using a vacuum pump and the final extract is concentrated and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionisation detector (FID). The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification limit (LOQ) in hexane were 0.07 and 0.21 μg g(-1) respectively and the LOQ in vegetable oil was 1 μg g(-1). Only a few minutes were necessary for sample treatment to have a clean extract. The efficiency of the process, measured through the recoveries from spiked samples of edible oil was higher than 95%. The procedure has been applied to determine mineral oil in olive oil from the retailed market.

  17. A review on the extensive skin benefits of mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, A V; Lombard, K J

    2012-12-01

    This review was initially prepared in 2011 before Professor Johann Wiechers tragically passed away. It has been updated and is being published in his memory. It discusses the importance of mineral oil and its benefits to skin. Its source, structure, properties and efficacy are discussed. Mineral oil has been shown to improve skin softness and barrier function better than some other emollients using the gas-bearing dynamometer and standard water vapour transmission testing as well as in vivo studies showing its effects on suppressing transepidermal water loss (TEWL). It has also been subjected to the rigour of the newer in vivo confocal microscopic measurements now used for testing the performance of moisturizers by following the swelling characteristics of the stratum corneum and been found favourable compared with many vegetable oils. Its introduction as a cosmetic oil was in the late 1800s, and still today, it is used as one of the main components of moisturizers, a true testament to its cost to efficacy window. Naturally, it has physical effects on the stratum corneum, but it is expected that these will translate into biological effects simply through its mechanism of hydrating and occluding the stratum corneum from which many benefits are derived.

  18. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS... Minerals other than oil and gas. Unreserved, unwithdrawn, and unallotted lands which have not been...

  19. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS... Minerals other than oil and gas. Unreserved, unwithdrawn, and unallotted lands which have not been...

  20. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS... Minerals other than oil and gas. Unreserved, unwithdrawn, and unallotted lands which have not been...

  1. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS... Minerals other than oil and gas. Unreserved, unwithdrawn, and unallotted lands which have not been...

  2. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS... Minerals other than oil and gas. Unreserved, unwithdrawn, and unallotted lands which have not been...

  3. Influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    SciTech Connect

    Rolek, R.J.; Cusano, C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased. 19 references.

  4. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis.

  5. Determination of water in NIST reference material for mineral oils

    PubMed

    Cedergren; Nordmark

    2000-07-15

    The accuracy of the reference concentrations of moisture in electrical insulating oil RM 8506 and lubricating oil RM 8507 (both of mineral type) and specified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as containing 39.7 and 76.8 ppm (w/w) water, respectively, has recently been the subject of debate in this journal. To shed some further light on this controversy, we report in this correspondence results for these oils obtained by two additional methods, one based on specially designed reagents for diaphragm-free Karl Fischer (KF) coulometry and the other based on the concept of stripping at elevated temperature/continuous KF coulometry. A positive interference effect was shown to take place for RM 8506 when the direct coulometric method was used. If the results are corrected for this, the values including six different procedures varied in the range 13.5-15.6 ppm (w/w). For RM 8507, all values were between 42.5 and 47.2 ppm (w/w), which means that the values recommended by NIST for both reference oils using volumetric titration are about twice as high as those obtained with the other techniques. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is presented.

  6. Comparative Study on Accelerated Thermal Ageing of Vegetable Insulating Oil-paperboard and Mineral Oil-paperboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Yang, Jun; Wang, Xuan; Fang, Fu-Xin; Kong, Hai-Yang; Qian, Hang

    2016-05-01

    To comparatively study the insulation ageing life of vegetable insulating oil-paperboard and mineral oil-paperboard, we conducted accelerated thermal ageing experiments at 170°C. Then according to the temperature rise of vegetable insulating oil transformer, we conducted accelerated thermal ageing experiments at 150°C for vegetable insulating oil-paperboard and at 140°C for mineral oil-paperboard. The appearance, polymerization degree, and SEM microstructure of the paperboard after different ageing experiments were comparative analyzed. The results show that after the oil-paperboard system is accelerated ageing for 1 000 h at 170°C, that is equivalent to 20 years natural ageing, the structure of paperboard in vegetable insulating oil is damaged severely, which indicates that the lifetime of transformer are in the late stage; while the structure of paperboard in mineral oil maintain complete, and the polymerization degree is still above 500, which indicate that the lifetime of transformer are in the middle stage. The accelerated ageing rate of the vegetable insulating oil-paperboard system at 150°C is slower than that of the mineral oil-paperboard system, which indicates that the lifetime of the vegetable insulating oil-paperboard is longer than that of the mineral oil-paperboard.

  7. Cross-correlations between crude oil and agricultural commodity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate cross-correlations between crude oil and agricultural commodity markets. Based on a popular statistical test proposed by Podobnik et al. (2009), we find that the linear return cross-correlations are significant at larger lag lengths and the volatility cross-correlations are highly significant at all of the lag lengths under consideration. Using a detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), we find that the return cross-correlations are persistent for corn and soybean and anti-persistent for oat and soybean. The volatility cross-correlations are strongly persistent. Using a nonlinear cross-correlation measure, our results show that cross-correlations are relatively weak but they are significant for smaller time scales. For larger time scales, the cross-correlations are not significant. The reason may be that information transmission from crude oil market to agriculture markets can complete within a certain period of time. Finally, based on multifractal extension of DCCA, we find that the cross-correlations are multifractal and high oil prices partly contribute to food crisis during the period of 2006-mid-2008.

  8. Effects of weathering on the dispersion of crude oil through oil-mineral aggregation.

    PubMed

    Gustitus, Sarah A; John, Gerald F; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2017-06-01

    Crude oil that is inadvertently spilled in the marine environment can interact with suspended sediment to form oil-mineral aggregates (OMA). Researchers have identified OMA formation as a natural method of oil dispersion, and have sought ways to enhance this process for oil spill remediation. Currently there is a lack of understanding of how the weathering of oil will affect the formation of OMA due to a lack of published data on this relationship. Based on literature, we identified two conflicting hypotheses: OMA formation 1) increases with weathering as a result of increased asphaltene and polar compound content; or 2) decreases with weathering as a result of increased viscosity. While it is indeed true that the viscosity and the relative amount of polar compounds will increase with weathering, their net effects on OMA formation is unclear. Controlled laboratory experiments were carried out to systematically test these two conflicting hypotheses. Experimental results using light, intermediate, and heavy crude oils, each at five weathering stages, show a decrease in OMA formation as oil weathers.

  9. Cavitation pitting and erosion of Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The authors are currently carrying out a study of the cavitation erosion of different bearing metals and alloys in mineral oils were studied. The variations of weight loss, the pit diameter and depth due to cavitation erosion on Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water are presented.

  10. Effectiveness of various organometallics as antiwear additives in mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with 1045 steel contacting 302 stainless steel and lubricated with various organometallics in mineral oil. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to determine the element present in the wear contact zone. The results indicate that there are organometallics which are as effective an antiwear additives as the commonly used zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate. These include dimethyl cadmium, triphenyl lead thiomethoxide, and triphenyl tin chloride. The additives were examined in concentrations to 1 weight percent. With dimethyl cadmium at concentrations of 0.5 weight percent and above, cadmium was detected in the contact zone. Coincident with the detection of cadmium, a marked decrease in the friction coefficient was observed. All additives examined reduced friction, but only the aforementioned reduced wear to a level comparable to that observed with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.

  11. 25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section 212.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.43 Royalty...

  12. 25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section 212.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.43 Royalty...

  13. 77 FR 9962 - Information Collection; Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection; Prospecting for Minerals Other Than Oil, Gas... paperwork requirements in the regulations under Prospecting for Minerals Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on...: 30 CFR Part 580, Prospecting for Minerals Other than Oil, Gas, and Sulphur on the Outer...

  14. Mineral oil barrier sequential polymer treatment for recycled paper products in food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Uttam C.; Fragouli, Despina; Bayer, Ilker S.; Mele, Elisa; Conchione, Chiara; Cingolani, Roberto; Moret, Sabrina; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-01-01

    Recycled cellulosic paperboards may include mineral oils after the recycle process, which together with their poor water resistance limit their use as food packaging materials. In this work, we demonstrate that a proper functionalization of the recycled paper with two successive polymer treatments, imposes a mineral oil migration barrier and simultaneously renders it waterproof and grease resistant, making it an ideal material for food contact. The first poly (methyl methacrylate) treatment penetrates the paper network and creates a protective layer around every fiber, permitting thus the transformation of the paperboard to a hydrophobic material throughout its thickness, reducing at the same time the mineral oil migration. Subsequently, the second layer with a cyclic olefin copolymer fills the open pores of the surface, and reduces the mineral oil hydrocarbons migration at levels below those proposed by the BMEL. Online liquid chromatography-gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection quantitatively demonstrate that this dual functional treatment prevents the migration of both saturated (mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons) and aromatic hydrocarbon (mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons) mineral oils from the recycled paperboard to a dry food simulant.

  15. Electrical properties of dispersions of graphene in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, O. R.

    2014-02-03

    Dispersions of graphene in mineral oil have been prepared and electrical conductivity and permittivity have been measured. The direct current (DC) conductivity of the dispersions depends on the surface characteristics of the graphene platelets and followed a percolation model with a percolation threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 wt. %. The difference in DC conductivities can be attributed to different states of aggregation of the graphene platelets and to the inter-particle electron transfer, which is affected by the surface radicals. The frequency-dependent conductivity (σ(ω)) and permittivity (ε(ω)) were also measured. The conductivity of dispersions with particle contents much greater than the percolation threshold remains constant and equal to the DC conductivity at low frequencies ω with and followed a power-law σ(ω)∝ ω{sup s} dependence at very high frequencies with s≈0.9. For dispersions with graphene concentration near the percolation threshold, a third regime was displayed at intermediate frequencies indicative of interfacial polarization consistent with Maxwell-Wagner effect typically observed in mixtures of two (or more) phases with very distinct electrical and dielectric properties.

  16. An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alstadt, Kristin N.; Katti, Dinesh R.; Katti, Kalpana S.

    2012-04-01

    Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals.

  17. An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale.

    PubMed

    Alstadt, Kristin N; Katti, Dinesh R; Katti, Kalpana S

    2012-04-01

    Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals.

  18. Mineral-Coated Polymer Membranes with Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity for Effective Oil/Water Separation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000 L m−2 h−1), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140 kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation. PMID:24072204

  19. Mineral-coated polymer membranes with superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity for effective oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-09-27

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing the membranes with underwater superoleophobicity. Under the drive of either gravity or external pressure, the hybrid membranes separate a range of oil/water mixtures effectively with high water flux (>2000 L m(-2) h(-1)), perfect oil/water separation efficiency (>99%), high oil breakthrough pressure (>140 kPa) and low oil fouling. The oil/water mixtures include not only free mixtures but also oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, the mineral-coated membrane enables an efficient and energy-saving separation for various oil/water mixtures, showing attractive potential for practical oil/water separation.

  20. Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

  1. Particle size analysis of dispersed oil and oil-mineral aggregates with an automated ultraviolet epi-fluorescence microscopy system.

    PubMed

    Ma, X; Cogswell, A; Li, Z; Lee, K

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes recent advances in microscopic analysis for quantitative measurement of oil droplets. Integration of a microscope with bright-field and ultraviolet epi-fluorescence illumination (excitation wavelengths 340-380 nm; emission wavelengths 400-430 nm) fitted with a computer-controlled motorized stage, a high resolution digital camera, and new image-analysis software, enables automatic acquisition of multiple images and facilitates efficient counting and sizing of oil droplets. Laboratory experiments were conducted with this system to investigate the size distribution of chemically dispersed oil droplets and oil-mineral aggregates in baffled flasks that have been developed for testing chemical dispersant effectiveness. Image acquisition and data processing methods were developed to illustrate the size distribution of chemically dispersed oil droplets, as a function of energy dissipation rate in the baffled flasks, and the time-dependent change of the morphology and size distribution of oil-mineral aggregates. As a quantitative analytical tool, epifluorescence microscopy shows promise for application in research on oil spill response technologies, such as evaluating the effectiveness of chemical dispersant and characterizing the natural interaction between oil and mineral fines and other suspended particulate matters.

  2. [Quantitative analysis of content and spectrum of altered mineral in the oil and gas microseepage area].

    PubMed

    Li, Qian-qian; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Xing; Ni, Guo-Qiang

    2013-12-01

    With the Yulin Prefecture in China as the research area and the mineral compositions and reflectance spectra of 119 samples collected in the research area as research data, the present paper analyzes the correlation between the carbonate content of surface altered minerals caused by oil and gas microseepage and such charactersitic parameters of depth, width of its spectral absorption peak, establishes and evaluates a method for determining carbonate content, and proposes a new method for characterizing the degree of oil and gas microseepage by using the carbonate content. Research results show that this method is not only suitable for characterizing the oil and gas microseepage degree of carbonates, but also suitable for studying the oil and gas micro-seepage degree of other types of altered minerals. Therefore, the method can provide reference for studying oil and gas exploration technology by using spectral information of hyperspectral remote sensing.

  3. The use of chlorate, nitrate, and perchlorate to promote crude oil mineralization in salt marsh sediments.

    PubMed

    Brundrett, Maeghan; Horita, Juske; Anderson, Todd; Pardue, John; Reible, Danny; Jackson, W Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Due to the high volume of crude oil released by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the salt marshes along the gulf coast were contaminated with crude oil. Biodegradation of crude oil in salt marshes is primarily limited by oxygen availability due to the high organic carbon content of the soil, high flux rate of S(2-), and saturated conditions. Chlorate, nitrate, and perchlorate were evaluated for use as electron acceptors in comparison to oxygen by comparing oil transformation and mineralization in mesocosms consisting of oiled salt marsh sediment from an area impacted by the BP Horizon oil spill. Mineralization rates were determined by measuring CO2 production and δ (13)C of the produced CO2 and compared to transformation evaluated by measuring the alkane/hopane ratios over a 4-month period. Total alkane/hopane ratios decreased (~55-70 %) for all treatments in the following relative order: aerated ≈ chlorate > nitrate > perchlorate. Total CO2 produced was similar between treatments ranging from 550-700 mg CO2-C. The δ (13)C-CO2 values generally ranged between the indigenous carbon and oil values (-17 and -27‰, respectively). Oil mineralization was greatest for the aerated treatments and least for the perchlorate amended. Our results indicate that chlorate has a similar potential as oxygen to support oil mineralization in contaminated salt marshes, but nitrate and perchlorate were less effective. The use of chlorate as a means to promote oil mineralization in situ may be a promising means to remediate contaminated salt marshes while preventing unwanted secondary impacts related to nutrient management as in the case of nitrate amendments.

  4. Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of chlorinated paraffin (CP) and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) concentration in polar and non-polar base fluids on boundary lubrication properties was investigated. The non-polar fluid was a solvent refined low sulfur heavy paraffinic mineral oil (150N oil); and the polar fl...

  5. 77 FR 18263 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral... Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of the availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral... Significant Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEM for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related...

  6. 77 FR 802 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations..., Interior. ACTION: Notice of the availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals..., 2011, for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities that were proposed on the Gulf...

  7. 25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section 215.23a Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.23a Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions...

  8. 76 FR 38673 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities...

  9. 76 FR 16632 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region. SUMMARY: The Bureau...), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf...

  10. 76 FR 11809 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities...

  11. 76 FR 54782 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... Availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities...

  12. 75 FR 67994 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... and Enforcement Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the... for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Ocean Energy... following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf of Mexico. FOR FURTHER...

  13. The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

  14. The impact of crude-oil price volatility on agricultural employment in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-12-31

    This study focuses on the impact of fluctuations in the price of crude oil on agricultural employment in the United States. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between agricultural employment and crude oil price volatility is established using Granger causality. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impacts of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in agricultural employment are exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in agricultural employment and the volatility of the price of crude oil, the percentage changes in expected net farm income, realized technological innovation, and the wage rate is examined.

  15. Evacuation of sand from the equine intestine with mineral oil, with and without psyllium.

    PubMed

    Hotwagner, K; Iben, C

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the evacuation of sand from the equine intestine after a double treatment with psyllium and mineral oil or mineral oil only. A crossover study was conducted. Twelve healthy horses were fed 1 kg sand once a day for 5 days. Subsequently, these horses were divided into two groups: A and B. From day 6-10, both groups were treated with 2 l of mineral oil once a day and group B received an additional 0.5 kg of psyllium twice a day. The trial was repeated after 2 weeks with treatment crossover of groups A and B. The horses were housed sand free and 1.8 kg hay/100 kg body weight was offered to meet the maintenance energy requirement. Prior to the sand administration, faeces were collected from each horse for 3 days and the crude ash was determined to establish a baseline output of ash. There was no difference between the baseline crude ash output of the first and second treatment. From day 6-10, faeces were collected daily and the fresh weight and the dry matter and the crude ash contents were determined. For administration, sand or psyllium was mixed with 1 l of Irish mash (concentrate mixed with water), respectively, and mineral oil was administered via a nasogastric tube. All horses showed higher crude ash excretion when treated with psyllium and mineral oil compared with the mineral oil administration only. On the second, third and fourth day of the treatment, the difference was significant. Faeces crude ash weight corrected for baseline crude ash output while treated with psyllium plus oil and oil solely, reached a mean of 51.0 (SD 20.5) and 26.1 (SD 17.7) % of the administered sand mass, respectively. The results of this trial show that the ash output differed highly between the horses. Nevertheless, all horses showed a higher total ash output within the 5 days treatment period when the psyllium semen and mineral oil were used for the treatment than when treated with mineral oil solely.

  16. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment.

  17. Ex situ bioremediation of mineral oil in soils: Land treatment and composting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, K.

    1998-06-01

    Mineral oil dielectric fluid (MODF) has replaced PCB oil as the insulating medium in electrical transformers. Although eliminating PCBs has reduced the environmental impact resulting from transformer leaks, soil contaminated with mineral oil still often requires remediation. This study evaluated the feasibility of ex situ biotreatment by land farming and composting for Southern Company Services/Georgia Power. Research results indicate that composting does not enhance the biodegradation of mineral oil compared to land treatment. Furthermore, while land treatment does degrade mineral oil, the process takes nearly a year and may not meet regulatory limits. Because the environmental impact of MODF spills into soil is not well understood, states regulate this fluid similarly to petroleum fuel oil for cleanup purposes. This has led to costly remedial efforts, with utilities excavating contaminated media and disposing it in landfills. However, landfills are becoming increasingly regulated, and their use leaves future liability issues unresolved. Southern Company Services/Georgia Power and EPRI sought to explore the effectiveness of ex situ treatment technologies of land farming and composting to decontaminate soil for on-site reuse.

  18. Microbial surfactant-enhanced mineral oil recovery under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bordoloi, N K; Konwar, B K

    2008-05-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to recover incremental oil from a reservoir being beyond primary and secondary recovery operations. Effort has been made to isolate and characterize natural biosurfactant produced by bacterial isolates collected from various oil fields of ONGC in Assam. Production of biosurfactant has been considered to be an effective major index for the purpose of enhanced oil recovery. On the basis of the index, four promising bacterial isolates: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC7815), P. aeruginosa (MTCC7814), P. aeruginosa (MTCC7812) and P. aeruginosa (MTCC8165) were selected for subsequent testing. Biosurfactant produced by the promising bacterial isolates have been found to be effective in the recovery of crude oil from saturated column under laboratory conditions. Two bacterial strains: P. aeruginosa (MTCC7815) and P. aeruginosa (MTCC7812) have been found to be the highest producer of biosurfactant. Tensiometer studies revealed that biosurfactants produced by these bacterial strains could reduce the surface tension (sigma) of the growth medium from 68 to 30 mN m(-1) after 96 h of growth. The bacterial biosurfactants were found to be functionally stable at varying pH (2.5-11) conditions and temperature of 100 degrees C. The treatment of biosurfactant containing, cell free culture broth in crude oil saturated sand pack column could release about 15% more crude oil at 90 degrees C than at room temperature and 10% more than at 70 degrees C under laboratory condition.

  19. Laboratory investigation of the effects of mineral size and concentration on the formation of oil-mineral aggregates.

    PubMed

    Ajijolaiya, Lukman O; Hill, Paul S; Khelifa, Ali; Islam, Rafiqul M; Lee, Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    Controlled laboratory studies of the formation of oil-mineral aggregates (OMA) in seawater demonstrate that sediment concentration and sediment size are key variables for determining the quantity of oil droplets stabilised by OMA formation. Experiments with a single sediment size and a range of sediment concentrations show that as sediment concentration increases, the quantity of oil trapped in OMA increases abruptly. In experiments with a single sediment concentration and a range of sediment sizes, the quantity of oil trapped in OMA decreases as sediment size increases. These results provide direct support to the hypothesis that there is a critical sediment concentration for OMA formation. Below this concentration, stabilisation of oil droplets by OMA decreases rapidly, while above this concentration, stabilisation is extensive. The results also support simple geometric models of OMA formation that predict that the critical sediment mass concentration increases linearly with sediment particle diameter. These results will help to place quantitative constraint on predictions of where and when OMA formation will be a factor in the natural dispersal of oil accidentally spilled into the ocean.

  20. Mineral content prediction for unconventional oil and gas reservoirs based on logging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maojin, Tan; Youlong, Zou; Guoyue

    2012-09-01

    Coal bed methane and shale oil &gas are both important unconventional oil and gas resources, whose reservoirs are typical non-linear with complex and various mineral components, and the logging data interpretation model are difficult to establish for calculate the mineral contents, and the empirical formula cannot be constructed due to various mineral. The radial basis function (RBF) network analysis is a new method developed in recent years; the technique can generate smooth continuous function of several variables to approximate the unknown forward model. Firstly, the basic principles of the RBF is discussed including net construct and base function, and the network training is given in detail the adjacent clustering algorithm specific process. Multi-mineral content for coal bed methane and shale oil &gas, using the RBF interpolation method to achieve a number of well logging data to predict the mineral component contents; then, for coal-bed methane reservoir parameters prediction, the RBF method is used to realized some mineral contents calculation such as ash, volatile matter, carbon content, which achieves a mapping from various logging data to multimineral. To shale gas reservoirs, the RBF method can be used to predict the clay content, quartz content, feldspar content, carbonate content and pyrite content. Various tests in coalbed and gas shale show the method is effective and applicable for mineral component contents prediction

  1. Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.

    PubMed

    Willing, A

    2001-04-01

    The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchf

  2. A Monte Carlo analysis of health risks from PCB-contaminated mineral oil transformer fires.

    PubMed

    Eschenroeder, A Q; Faeder, E J

    1988-06-01

    The objective of this study is the estimation of health hazards due to the inhalation of combustion products from accidental mineral oil transformer fires. Calculations of production, dispersion, and subsequent human intake of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) provide us with exposure estimates. PCDFs are believed to be the principal toxic products of the pyrolysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) sometimes found as contaminants in transformer mineral oil. Cancer burdens and birth defect hazard indices are estimated from population data and exposure statistics. Monte Carlo-derived variational factors emphasize the statistics of uncertainty in the estimates of risk parameters. Community health issues are addressed and risks are found to be insignificant.

  3. Voltammetric Determination of Dinonyl Diphenylamine and Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Mineral and Synthetic Oil

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yaling; Qian, Xuzheng; Hua, Meng; Cheng, Bingxue; Chen, Wu; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A method is reported for the determination of diphenylamine and butylated hydroxytoluene in mineral and synthetic oil. The procedure used differential pulse voltammetry with a glassy carbon electrode. This method was then used for determining these antioxidants in supporting electrolyte consisting of dilute sulfuric acid and sodium dodecyl sulfonate in ethanol. Anodic peaks were obtained for both analytes. Oxidation peaks at 250 mV were observed from a mixture of butylated hydroxytoluene and dinonyl diphenylamine, allowing their simultaneous determination. This approach was successfully used for the determination of dinonyl diphenylamine and butylated hydroxytoluene in fortified mineral and synthetic oils with good accuracy and precision. PMID:27365537

  4. Voltammetric Determination of Dinonyl Diphenylamine and Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Mineral and Synthetic Oil.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yaling; Qian, Xuzheng; Hua, Meng; Cheng, Bingxue; Chen, Wu; Li, Jian

    2016-07-02

    A method is reported for the determination of diphenylamine and butylated hydroxytoluene in mineral and synthetic oil. The procedure used differential pulse voltammetry with a glassy carbon electrode. This method was then used for determining these antioxidants in supporting electrolyte consisting of dilute sulfuric acid and sodium dodecyl sulfonate in ethanol. Anodic peaks were obtained for both analytes. Oxidation peaks at 250 mV were observed from a mixture of butylated hydroxytoluene and dinonyl diphenylamine, allowing their simultaneous determination. This approach was successfully used for the determination of dinonyl diphenylamine and butylated hydroxytoluene in fortified mineral and synthetic oils with good accuracy and precision.

  5. Monitoring crude oil mineralization in salt marshes: Use of stable carbon isotope ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, A.W.; Pardue, J.H.; Araujo, R.

    1996-04-01

    In laboratory microcosms using salt marsh soils and in field trials, it was possible to monitor and quantify crude oil mineralization by measuring changes in CO{sub 2} {delta}{sup 13}C signatures and the rate of CO{sub 2} production. These values are easy to obtain and can be combined with simple isotope mass balance equations to determine the rate of mineralization from both the crude oil and indigenous carbon pool. Hydrocarbon degradation was confirmed by simultaneous decreases in alkane-, isoprenoid-, and PAH-hopane ratios. Additionally, the pseudo-first-order rate constants of alkane degradation (0.087 day{sup -1}) and CO{sub 2} production (0.082 day{sup -1}) from oil predicted by the {delta}{sup 13}C signatures were statistically indistinguishable. The addition of inorganic nitrogen and phosphate increased the rate of mineralization of crude oil in aerated microcosms but had no clear effect on in situ studies. This procedure appears to offer a means of definitively quantifying crude oil mineralization in a sensitive, inexpensive, and simple manner in environments with appropriate background {delta}{sup 13}C signatures. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  7. Toxic myopathy induced by industrial minerals oils: clinical and histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Rossi, B; Siciliano, G; Giraldi, C; Angelini, C; Marchetti, A; Paggiaro, P L

    1986-12-01

    We report a case of subacute myopathy in a 47 years old man engaged on boiler maintenance at an oil-fired thermoelectric power station. The occupational history highlighted heavy exposure to inhalation of ash derived from mineral oil combustion and containing several elements, metals and metalloids, including vanadium and nickel. The presenting symptoms, clinical course and muscle histopathology suggest that exposure to toxic agents probably played an important part in the causation of the myopathy.

  8. Characterization of an isoproturon mineralizing bacterial culture enriched from a French agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sabir; Sørensen, Sebastian R; Devers-Lamrani, Marion; El-Sebai, Talaat; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2009-11-01

    The phenylurea herbicide isoproturon, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (IPU), was found to be rapidly mineralized by a bacterial culture isolated from an agricultural soil regularly exposed to IPU. Molecular analysis of the bacterial culture by DNA fingerprinting, cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that it consisted of six different members among whom the dominant was related to Sphingomonas sp. Six bacterial strains belonging to genera Ancylobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Methylobacterium, Variovorax and Agrobacterium were isolated from the IPU-degrading culture. None of these were able to degrade IPU in pure culture and only the intact culture sustained the ability to mineralize IPU. The composition of the culture appeared stable suggesting that yet unknown interactions are involved in the IPU mineralization. IPU degradation involved the transitory accumulation of three known IPU metabolites 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1-methylurea, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, and 4-isopropylaniline and their further degradation. Thus, it indicates a metabolic pathway initiated by two successive N-demethylations, followed by cleavage of the urea side chain. This culture did not degrade other structurally related phenylurea herbicides. The degrading activity of the bacterial culture was deeply influenced by the pH, being completely inhibited at pH 5.5 and optimal at pH 7.5.

  9. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of mineral oil and extraction method of characteristic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Liping; Liu, Xianyong; Xu, Xiaoxuan; Xu, Jingjun

    2005-02-01

    To realize the on-line fluorescence monitoring of mineral oil pollution in water, three-dimensional spectral characteristic of oil-water intermixtures must be studied and the characteristic must be extracted. Using excitation wavelength, fluorescence wavelength and fluorescence intensity as three-dimensional system of coordinate, through sampling and surface fitting, three-dimensional fluorogram is gotten, which can provide gist for oil discrimination when presented in contour chart (finger-print map of oils). But there is little difference between characteristics of three-dimensional fluorogram because of the similarity of constituent and structure of similar oils. Therefore this paper introduces quantitative analysis method-characteristic parameter method which starts with analyzing statistical characteristic of three-dimensional fluorogram. Using RFPC fluorescence spectrometer (Shimadzu, Japan), three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of diesel oil, machine oil, gasoline oil, crude oil are measured and parameterized. The result shows that as a quantitative classified discrimination method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, the parameter of characteristic parameter method possesses definiteness for three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, and it is applicable, available when used in oil discrimination.

  10. Microbial degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons on organoclay minerals.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-11-01

    The role of organoclays in hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clays used for this study were Na-montmorillonite and saponite. These two clays were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organoclays which were used in this study. The study indicated that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as Na-montmorillonite produced an organomontmorillonite that was inhibitory to biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Extensive hydrophobic interaction between the organic phase of the organoclay and the crude oil hydrocarbons is suggested to render the hydrocarbons unavailable for biodegradation. However, untreated Na-montmorillonite was stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbons and is believed to have done so because of its high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients making it easy for the microbes to access the nutrients. This study indicates that unlike unmodified montmorillonites, organomontmorillonite may not serve any useful purpose in the bioremediation of crude oil spill sites where hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation is desired within a rapid time period.

  11. 78 FR 12085 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

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    2013-02-21

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of the Availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral... were prepared during the period October 1, 2012, through December 31, 2012, for oil, gas, and...

  12. 78 FR 47746 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

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  13. 78 FR 72096 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

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    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of the availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral... were prepared during the period July 1, 2013, through September 30, 2013, for oil, gas, and...

  14. 77 FR 74213 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of the availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral... were prepared during the period July 1, 2012, through September 30, 2012, for oil, gas, and...

  15. Development of new mineral oil-based antifoams containing size-controlled hydrophobic silica particles for gloss paints.

    PubMed

    Jo, Kiyokazu; Ishizuka, Motoyoshi; Shimabayashi, Katsuomi; Ando, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Water-based architectural paints commonly contain either mineral oil-based or silicone-based antifoams. Mineral oil-based antifoams generally reduce the gloss of paint films; thus, silicone-based antifoams are mainly used in the field of architectural paints. The relationship between the antifoaming performance and the particle size of hydrophobic silica for mineral oil-based antifoams was investigated and a novel mineral oil-based antifoam that provided a glossy surface to the paint films equivalent to the surface obtained with silicone-based antifoams and with excellent antifoaming performance compared to silicone-based antifoams was developed. The novel mineral oil-based antifoam exhibits better performance than silicon-based antifoam, and thus the former is a perfect alternative to the latter for use in architectural paints.

  16. [The nurse on a remote mineral, gas or oil extraction site].

    PubMed

    Roch, Stéphane; Guillou, Damien; Lefort, Hugues

    2016-11-01

    On mineral, gas or oil extraction sites, medical care is often provided in uncommon conditions by doctors or paramedical staff. Caregivers must fulfil certain requirements, but must also possess the necessary human, technical, physical and psychological qualities to be able to provide high quality care throughout their mission on a remote site.

  17. Erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in distilled water, ordinary tap water and a viscous mineral oil are presented. The mean depth of penetration for the mineral oil was about 40 percent of that for water at the end of a 40 min test. The mean depth of penetration and its rate did not differ significantly for distilled and tap water. The mean depth of penetration rate for both distilled and tap water increased to a maximum and then decreased with test duration, while that for mineral oil had a maximum during the initial period. The ratio h/2a of the pit depth h to the pit diameter 2a varied from 0.04 to 0.13 in water and from 0.06 to 0.20 in mineral oil. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the pits are initially formed over the grain boundaries and precipitates while the surface grains are deformed under cavitation attack.

  18. An empirical method to estimate the viscosity of mineral oil by means of ultrasonic attenuation.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyeong; Gottlieb, Emanuel; Augenstein, Donald; Brown, Gregor; Tittmann, Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an empirical method for measuring the viscosity of mineral oil. In a built-in pipeline application, conventional ultrasonic methods using shear reflectance or rheological and acoustical phenomena may fail because of attenuated shear wave propagation and an unpredictable spreading loss caused by protective housings and comparable main flows. The empirical method utilizing longitudinal waves eliminates the unknown spreading loss from attenuation measurements on the object fluid by removing the normalized spreading loss per focal length with the measurement of a reference fluid of a known acoustic absorption coefficient. The ultrasonic attenuation of fresh water as the reference fluid and mineral oil as the object fluid were measured along with the sound speed and effective frequency. The empirical equation for the spreading loss in the reference fluid is determined by high-order polynomial fitting. To estimate the shear viscosity of the mineral oil, a linear fit is applied to the total loss difference between the two fluids, whose slope (the absorption coefficient) is combined with an assumed shear-to-volume viscosity relation. The empirical method predicted the viscosities of two types of the mineral oil with a maximum statistical uncertainty of 8.8% and a maximum systematic error of 12.5% compared with directly measured viscosity using a glass-type viscometer. The validity of this method was examined by comparison with the results from theoretical far-field spreading.

  19. The Flux of Select NSAIDs through Silicone Membranes from Mineral Oil

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Paul S.; Sloan, Kenneth B.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the experimental log maximum fluxes of n = 9 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) through silicone membranes from the lipid mineral oil (experimental (Exp.) log JMPMO) and correlate those Exp. log JMPMO values with their experimental log maximum fluxes through human skin in vivo from mineral oil (Exp. log JMHMO). The correlation was only fair (r2 = 0.647) for n = 9 but improved dramatically if Nabumetone was removed from the correlation (n = 8, r2 = 0.858). Non-linear regression of the n = 8 Exp. log JMPMO values as the dependent variable against their log solubilities in mineral oil (log SMO) and in pH 7.4 or 1.0 buffers (log S7.4 or S1.0, respectively), and their molecular weights as independent variables in the Roberts–Sloan (RS) equation gave a new set of coefficients for the independent variables in RS. Those coefficients have been used to calculate log JMPMO values which have been correlated with the Exp. log JMPMO values to give r2 = 0.911 if log S7.4 and r2 = 0.896 if log S1.0 were used as aqueous phases. Thus, silicone membranes appear to be good surrogates for predicting flux through human skin if the vehicle is a lipid such as mineral oil. PMID:24991867

  20. The Flux of Select NSAIDs through Silicone Membranes from Mineral Oil.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Paul S; Sloan, Kenneth B

    2014-07-02

    Here we report the experimental log maximum fluxes of n = 9 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) through silicone membranes from the lipid mineral oil (experimental (Exp.) log JMPMO) and correlate those Exp. log JMPMO values with their experimental log maximum fluxes through human skin in vivo from mineral oil (Exp. log JMHMO). The correlation was only fair (r2 = 0.647) for n = 9 but improved dramatically if Nabumetone was removed from the correlation (n = 8, r2 = 0.858). Non-linear regression of the n = 8 Exp. log JMPMO values as the dependent variable against their log solubilities in mineral oil (log SMO) and in pH 7.4 or 1.0 buffers (log S7.4 or S1.0, respectively), and their molecular weights as independent variables in the Roberts-Sloan (RS) equation gave a new set of coefficients for the independent variables in RS. Those coefficients have been used to calculate log JMPMO values which have been correlated with the Exp. log JMPMO values to give r2 = 0.911 if log S7.4 and r2 = 0.896 if log S1.0 were used as aqueous phases. Thus, silicone membranes appear to be good surrogates for predicting flux through human skin if the vehicle is a lipid such as mineral oil.

  1. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( < 0.05) in the diet containing soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease or the basal diet, with all other diets being intermediate. The ATTD of Ca, S, and P was greater ( < 0.05) for pigs fed diets containing soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, or tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( < 0.05) in diets containing palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease, and the ATTD of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in the diet containing soybean oil was also greater ( < 0.05) than in the diet containing choice white grease. In conclusion, supplementation of a basal diet with tallow, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that

  2. 78 FR 27422 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

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    2010-11-04

    ... Enforcement Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of... Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Notice of the Availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral... mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf of Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  5. Investigation on the mineral contents of capers (Capparis spp.) seed oils growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M Musa

    2008-09-01

    Minor and major mineral contents of seed oils of Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss.) Heywood and Capparis spinosa var. spinosa used as pickling products in Turkey were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The seed oils contained Al, P, Na, Mg, Fe, and Ca, in addition to fatty acids. The highest mineral concentrations measured were 14.91-118.81 mg/kg Al, 1,489.34-11,523.74 mg/kg P, 505.78-4,489.51 mg/kg Na, 102.15-1,655.33 mg/kg Mg, 78.83-298.14 mg/kg Fe, and 1.04-76.39 mg/kg Ca. The heavy metal concentrations were less than the limit of detection in all oil samples. The results may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information.

  6. Enhancing Bioaerosol Sampling by Andersen Impactors Using Mineral-Oil-Spread Agar Plate

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Wei, Kai; Wu, Yan; Shen, Fangxia; Chen, Qi; Li, Mingzhen; Yao, Maosheng

    2013-01-01

    As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 µL) onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mineral-oil-spread agar plates in collecting indoor and outdoor bacterial and fungal aerosols. The effects of sampling times (5, 10 and 20 min) were also studied using the BioStage impactor when sampling environmental bioaerosols as well as aerosolized Bacillus subtilis (G+) and Escherichia coli (G-). In addition, particle bounce reduction by mineral-oil-plate was also investigated using an optical particle counter (OPC). Experimental results revealed that use of mineral-oil-spread agar plate can substantially enhance culturable bioaerosol recoveries by Andersen type impactors (p-values<0.05). The recovery enhancement was shown to depend on bioaerosol size, type, sampling time and environment. In general, more enhancements (extra 20%) were observed for last stage of the Andersen six-stage samplers compared to the BioStage impactor for 10 min sampling. When sampling aerosolized B. subtilis, E. coli and environmental aerosols, the enhancement was shown to increase with increasing sampling time, ranging from 50% increase at 5 min to ∼100% at 20 min. OPC results indicated that use of mineral oil can effectively reduce the particle bounce with an average of 66% for 10 min sampling. Our work suggests that enhancements for fungal aerosols were primarily attributed to the reduced impaction stress, while for bacterial aerosols reduced impaction, desiccation and particle bounce played major roles. The developed technology can readily enhance the agar-based techniques including those high

  7. Enhancing bioaerosol sampling by Andersen impactors using mineral-oil-spread agar plate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Wei, Kai; Wu, Yan; Shen, Fangxia; Chen, Qi; Li, Mingzhen; Yao, Maosheng

    2013-01-01

    As a bioaerosol sampling standard, Andersen type impactor is widely used since its invention in 1950s, including the investigation of the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001. However, its related problems such as impaction and desiccation stress as well as particle bounce have not been solved. Here, we improved its biological collection efficiencies by plating a mineral oil layer (100 µL) onto the agar plate. An Andersen six-stage sampler and a BioStage impactor were tested with mineral-oil-spread agar plates in collecting indoor and outdoor bacterial and fungal aerosols. The effects of sampling times (5, 10 and 20 min) were also studied using the BioStage impactor when sampling environmental bioaerosols as well as aerosolized Bacillus subtilis (G+) and Escherichia coli (G-). In addition, particle bounce reduction by mineral-oil-plate was also investigated using an optical particle counter (OPC). Experimental results revealed that use of mineral-oil-spread agar plate can substantially enhance culturable bioaerosol recoveries by Andersen type impactors (p-values<0.05). The recovery enhancement was shown to depend on bioaerosol size, type, sampling time and environment. In general, more enhancements (extra 20%) were observed for last stage of the Andersen six-stage samplers compared to the BioStage impactor for 10 min sampling. When sampling aerosolized B. subtilis, E. coli and environmental aerosols, the enhancement was shown to increase with increasing sampling time, ranging from 50% increase at 5 min to ∼100% at 20 min. OPC results indicated that use of mineral oil can effectively reduce the particle bounce with an average of 66% for 10 min sampling. Our work suggests that enhancements for fungal aerosols were primarily attributed to the reduced impaction stress, while for bacterial aerosols reduced impaction, desiccation and particle bounce played major roles. The developed technology can readily enhance the agar-based techniques including those high

  8. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND MINERAL FINES ON CRUDE OIL DISPERSION IN A WAVE TANK UNDER BREAKING WAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the ...

  9. Primary biodegradability of mineral base oils in relation to their chemical and physical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Haus, F; German, J; Junter, G A

    2001-11-01

    The primary biodegradability of 32 mineral base (i.e., unformulated) oils of paraffinic nature was evaluated using the CEC L-33-A-93 test. These oils were refinery products obtained by varying manufacturing processes. Biodegradation percentages ranged between 15% and 75%, i.e., below the commonly accepted standards for environmentally-compatible lubricants. Biodegradability values were compared to the overall chemical composition and main physical properties of base oils. Biodegradability decreased with increasing levels of aromatic and/or polar compounds in the tested oils. For most oils, the biodegradation percentage increased with the viscosity index, but was a decreasing function of the kinematic viscosity (KV), the pour point, the flash point (FP) and the refractive index (RI). Linear relationships between biodegradability and FP or RI values were observed. These results show that, beside chemical features such as the contents in polar and aromatic compounds, simple physical magnitudes such as KV and RI, commonly used to characterize lubricant properties, may be useful parameters for predicting the biodegradability of mineral base oils.

  10. Phase and sedimentation behavior of oil (octane) dispersions in the presence of model mineral aggregates.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anju; Sender, Maximilian; Fields, Sarah; Bothun, Geoffrey D

    2014-10-15

    Adsorption of suspended particles to the interface of surfactant-dispersed oil droplets can alter emulsion phase and sedimentation behavior. This work examines the effects of model mineral aggregates (silica nanoparticle aggregates or SNAs) on the behavior of oil (octane)-water emulsions prepared using sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (DOSS). Experiments were conducted at different SNA hydrophobicities in deionized and synthetic seawater (SSW), and at 0.5mM and 2.5mM DOSS. SNAs were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), and the emulsions were examined by optical and cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. In deionized water, oil-in-water emulsions were formed with DOSS and the SNAs did not adhere to the droplets or alter emulsion behavior. In SSW, water-in-oil emulsions were formed with DOSS and SNA-DOSS binding through cation bridging led to phase inversion to oil-in-water emulsions. Droplet oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs) were observed for hydrophilic SNAs, while hydrophobic SNAs yielded quickly sedimenting agglomerated OMAs.

  11. Iron utilization and liver mineral concentrations in rats fed safflower oil, flaxseed oil, olive oil, or beef tallow in combination with different concentrations of dietary iron.

    PubMed

    Shotton, Andrea D; Droke, Elizabeth A

    2004-03-01

    Diets with a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., linoleic acid) have decreased iron absorption and utilization compared with diets containing a higher proportion of the saturated fatty acid stearic acid (e.g., beef tallow). However, less is known regarding the influence of other polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids, along with higher dietary iron, on iron absorption and utilization. The present study was conducted to compare the effects of dietary fat sources known to vary in (n-3), (n-6), and (n-9) fatty acids on iron utilization and liver mineral concentrations. Male weanling rats were fed a diet containing 10, 35, or 100 microg/g iron in combination with safflower oil, flaxseed oil, olive oil, or beef tallow for 8 wk. Indicators of iron status, iron utilization, and liver iron concentrations were unaffected by an interaction between the fat source and iron concentration. Plasma copper was the only variable affected by an interaction between the fat source and dietary iron. Findings of this study demonstrate that flaxseed oil and olive oil may alter tissue minerals and affect iron utilization. Further studies should be conducted to establish the effect of varying (n-3), (n-6), and (n-9) fatty acids on trace mineral status and iron utilization.

  12. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  13. Developments in CO2 mineral carbonation of oil shale ash.

    PubMed

    Uibu, M; Velts, O; Kuusik, R

    2010-02-15

    Solid waste and atmospheric emissions originating from power production are serious problems worldwide. In the Republic of Estonia, the energy sector is predominantly based on combustion of a low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel: Estonian oil shale. Depending on the combustion technology, oil shale ash contains 10-25% free lime. To transport the ash to wet open-air deposits, a hydraulic system is used in which 10(7)-10(8) cubic meters of Ca(2+)-ion-saturated alkaline water (pH level 12-13) is recycled between the plant and sedimentation ponds. The goals of the current work were to design an ash-water suspension carbonation process in a continuous mode laboratory-scale plant and to search for potential means of intensifying the water neutralization process. The carbonation process was optimized by cascading reactor columns in which the pH progressed from alkaline to almost neutral. The amount of CO(2) captured from flue gases can reach 1-1.2 million ton at the 2007 production level of the SC Narva Power Plants. Laboratory-scale neutralization experiments were carried out to compare two reactor designs. Sedimentation of PCC particles of rhombohedral crystalline structure was demonstrated and their main characteristics were determined. A new method providing 50x greater specific intensity is also discussed.

  14. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-10-30

    Significant surfactant loss by adsorption or precipitation on reservoir minerals can cause chemical flooding processes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. This project is aimed towards an understanding of the role of reservoir minerals and their dissolved species in chemical loss by precipitation or adsorption of surfactants/polymers in enhanced oil recovery. Emphasis will be on the type and nature of different minerals in the oil reservoirs. Macroscopic adsorption, precipitation, wettability and nanoscopic orientation/conformation studies for aggregates of various surfactant/polymer mixtures on reservoir rocks systems is planned for exploring the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals proposed in this study: sandstone, limestone, gypsum, kaolinite and pyrite, have been characterized to obtain their particle size distribution and surface area, which will be used in the analysis of adsorption and wettability data. The effect of surfactant mixing ratio on the adsorption of mixture of C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} Gemini surfactant (synthesized during last period) and sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) has been studied. It was discovered that even trace amounts of Gemini in the mixture is sufficient to force significant adsorption of DM. DM adsorption on silica increased from relatively negligible levels to very high levels. It is clear form analysis of the results that desired adsorption of either surfactant component in the mixtures can be obtained by controlling the mixing ratio, the total mixture concentration, pH etc. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of Gemini/DM mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. With increasing total surfactant adsorption, the silica mineral

  15. Influence of edaphic factors on the mineralization of neem oil coated urea in four Indian soils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Devakumar, C; Kumar, Dinesh; Panneerselvam, P; Kakkar, Garima; Arivalagan, T

    2008-11-12

    The utility of neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss) oil coated urea as a value-added nitrogenous fertilizer has been now widely accepted by Indian farmers and the fertilizer industry. In the present study, the expeller grade (EG) and hexane-extracted (HE) neem oils, the two most common commercial grades, were used to prepare neem oil coated urea (NOCU) of various oil doses, for which mineralization rates were assessed in four soils at three incubation temperatures (20, 27, and 35 degrees C). Neem oil dose-dependent conservation of ammonium N was observed in NOCU treatments in all of the soils. However, a longer incubation period and a higher soil temperature caused depletion of ammonium N. Overall, the nitrification in NOCU treatment averaged 56.6% against 77.3% for prilled urea in four soils. NOCU prepared from EG neem oil was consistently superior to that derived from hexane-extracted oil. The performance of NOCUs was best in coarse-textured soil and poorest in sodic soil. The nitrification rate (NR) of the NOCUs in the soils followed the order sodic > fine-textured > medium-textured > coarse-textured. The influence of edaphic factors on NR of NOCUs has been highlighted. The utility of the present study in predicting the performance of NOCU in diverse Indian soils was highlighted through the use of algorithms for computation of the optimum neem oil dose that would cause maximum inhibition of nitrification in any soil.

  16. Leveraging Agriculture to Break Nigeria’s Oil Curse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    AVAILABILITY STATEMENT For Example: Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; Distribution is unlimited. Reference: DOD Directive 5230.24...he complained, “I call petroleum the devil’s excrement. It brings trouble…waste, corruption, consumption, our public services fall apart. And debt ...a debt we shall have for years.” 2 As the 1980s and 1990s progressed, Alfonso’s quote turned out to be prescient, and the “oil curse” was born

  17. The impact of tropical forest logging and oil palm agriculture on the soil microbiome.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Binu M; Edwards, David P; Mendes, Lucas William; Kim, Mincheol; Dong, Ke; Kim, Hyoki; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    Selective logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture are rapidly altering tropical forests. However, functional responses of the soil microbiome to these land-use changes are poorly understood. Using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we compared composition and functional attributes of soil biota between unlogged, once-logged and twice-logged rainforest, and areas converted to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo. Although there was no significant effect of logging history, we found a significant difference between the taxonomic and functional composition of both primary and logged forests and oil palm. Oil palm had greater abundances of genes associated with DNA, RNA, protein metabolism and other core metabolic functions, but conversely, lower abundance of genes associated with secondary metabolism and cell-cell interactions, indicating less importance of antagonism or mutualism in the more oligotrophic oil palm environment. Overall, these results show a striking difference in taxonomic composition and functional gene diversity of soil microorganisms between oil palm and forest, but no significant difference between primary forest and forest areas with differing logging history. This reinforces the view that logged forest retains most features and functions of the original soil community. However, networks based on strong correlations between taxonomy and functions showed that network complexity is unexpectedly increased due to both logging and oil palm agriculture, which suggests a pervasive effect of both land-use changes on the interaction of soil microbes.

  18. Mineral elements and essential oil contents of Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit

    PubMed Central

    Nikbin, Mohammad; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Valizadeh, Jafar; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Davarimanesh, Amene

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit. is one of the species of genus Scutellaria, within the family of the Lamiaceae, that is used for immune system stimulation and antibacterial effects in traditional medicine in Iran. The aims of this study were to analyze essential oils and mineral element contents of leaves of S. luteo-caerulea in flowering stage of development. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of S. luteo-caerulea and were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Moreover, microwave digestion with atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used for the mineral elements assay. Results: Ninety-seven constituents were detected. Between them, the major components were trans-caryophyllene (25.4%), D-germacrene (7.9%), and linalool (7.4%). Determination of mineral elements showed that the highest minerals were Ca2+ (65.14±1.95 µg/ml) and K+ (64.67±3.10 µg/ml). Conclusion: Presence of different essential oils and rich sources of Ca2+ and K+ candidate this plant as an auxiliary medication in different diseases, but more complementary researches are needed about its potency and side effects. PMID:25050316

  19. Mineral oil in human tissues, Part I: concentrations and molecular mass distributions.

    PubMed

    Barp, Laura; Kornauth, Christoph; Wuerger, Tanja; Rudas, Margaretha; Biedermann, Maurus; Reiner, Angelika; Concin, Nicole; Grob, Koni

    2014-10-01

    Of 37 subjects aged 25-91 y (mean 67 y), mineral oil hydrocarbons were measured in subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), spleen, liver and lung, for some of them also in kidney, heart and brain. No mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) were detected. The mean concentration of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) in the mesenteric lymph nodes was 223 mg/kg, in liver 131 mg/kg, in fat tissue 130 mg/kg, in spleen 93 mg/kg and in lung 12 mg/kg. They were clearly lower in kidney, heart and brain. The maxima, found in MLN and spleen, were 1390 and 1400 mg/kg, respectively. For a quarter of the subjects a total amount of MOSH in the body above 5 g was calculated. The MOSH composition in the fat tissue and the MLN appeared virtually identical and varied little between the subjects. It was centered on the n-alkanes C23-C24, ranged from C16 to C35 and included hydrocarbons of plant origin. The MOSH in spleen and liver had almost the same composition for a given subject, but varied somewhat between subjects. They were centered between C25 and C27, ranged from C18 to beyond C45 and were without hydrocarbons of plant origin. Part of the MOSH seem to be strongly accumulated, resulting in far higher concentrations in human tissues related to exposure than observed in shorter term animal experiments. The composition of the accumulated MOSH does not support that Class I mineral oils, sometimes termed "food grade", are less accumulated in the human body than Class II and III oils, which questions the present classification.

  20. Estrogenic Activity of Mineral Oil Aromatic Hydrocarbons Used in Printing Inks

    PubMed Central

    Tarnow, Patrick; Hutzler, Christoph; Grabiger, Stefan; Schön, Karsten; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The majority of printing inks are based on mineral oils (MOs) which contain complex mixtures of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Consumer exposure to these oils occurs either through direct skin contacts or, more frequently, as a result of MO migration into the contents of food packaging that was made from recycled newspaper. Despite this ubiquitous and frequent exposure little is known about the potential toxicological effects, particularly with regard to the aromatic MO fractions. From a toxicological point of view the huge amount of alkylated and unsubstituted compounds therein is reason for concern as they can harbor genotoxicants as well as potential endocrine disruptors. The aim of this study was to assess both the genotoxic and estrogenic potential of MOs used in printing inks. Mineral oils with various aromatic hydrocarbon contents were tested using a battery of in vitro assays selected to address various endpoints such as estrogen-dependent cell proliferation, activation of estrogen receptor α or transcriptional induction of estrogenic target genes. In addition, the comet assay has been applied to test for genotoxicity. Out of 15 MOs tested, 10 were found to potentially act as xenoestrogens. For most of the oils the effects were clearly triggered by constituents of the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction. From 5 oils tested in the comet assay, 2 showed slight genotoxicity. Altogether it appears that MOs used in printing inks are potential endocrine disruptors and should thus be assessed carefully to what extent they might contribute to the total estrogenic burden in humans. PMID:26771904

  1. Estrogenic Activity of Mineral Oil Aromatic Hydrocarbons Used in Printing Inks.

    PubMed

    Tarnow, Patrick; Hutzler, Christoph; Grabiger, Stefan; Schön, Karsten; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The majority of printing inks are based on mineral oils (MOs) which contain complex mixtures of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Consumer exposure to these oils occurs either through direct skin contacts or, more frequently, as a result of MO migration into the contents of food packaging that was made from recycled newspaper. Despite this ubiquitous and frequent exposure little is known about the potential toxicological effects, particularly with regard to the aromatic MO fractions. From a toxicological point of view the huge amount of alkylated and unsubstituted compounds therein is reason for concern as they can harbor genotoxicants as well as potential endocrine disruptors. The aim of this study was to assess both the genotoxic and estrogenic potential of MOs used in printing inks. Mineral oils with various aromatic hydrocarbon contents were tested using a battery of in vitro assays selected to address various endpoints such as estrogen-dependent cell proliferation, activation of estrogen receptor α or transcriptional induction of estrogenic target genes. In addition, the comet assay has been applied to test for genotoxicity. Out of 15 MOs tested, 10 were found to potentially act as xenoestrogens. For most of the oils the effects were clearly triggered by constituents of the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction. From 5 oils tested in the comet assay, 2 showed slight genotoxicity. Altogether it appears that MOs used in printing inks are potential endocrine disruptors and should thus be assessed carefully to what extent they might contribute to the total estrogenic burden in humans.

  2. Responses of soil fungi to logging and oil palm agriculture in Southeast Asian tropical forests.

    PubMed

    McGuire, K L; D'Angelo, H; Brearley, F Q; Gedallovich, S M; Babar, N; Yang, N; Gillikin, C M; Gradoville, R; Bateman, C; Turner, B L; Mansor, P; Leff, J W; Fierer, N

    2015-05-01

    Human land use alters soil microbial composition and function in a variety of systems, although few comparable studies have been done in tropical forests and tropical agricultural production areas. Logging and the expansion of oil palm agriculture are two of the most significant drivers of tropical deforestation, and the latter is most prevalent in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to compare soil fungal communities from three sites in Malaysia that represent three of the most dominant land-use types in the Southeast Asia tropics: a primary forest, a regenerating forest that had been selectively logged 50 years previously, and a 25-year-old oil palm plantation. Soil cores were collected from three replicate plots at each site, and fungal communities were sequenced using the Illumina platform. Extracellular enzyme assays were assessed as a proxy for soil microbial function. We found that fungal communities were distinct across all sites, although fungal composition in the regenerating forest was more similar to the primary forest than either forest community was to the oil palm site. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are important associates of the dominant Dipterocarpaceae tree family in this region, were compositionally distinct across forests, but were nearly absent from oil palm soils. Extracellular enzyme assays indicated that the soil ecosystem in oil palm plantations experienced altered nutrient cycling dynamics, but there were few differences between regenerating and primary forest soils. Together, these results show that logging and the replacement of primary forest with oil palm plantations alter fungal community and function, although forests regenerating from logging had more similarities with primary forests in terms of fungal composition and nutrient cycling potential. Since oil palm agriculture is currently the mostly rapidly expanding equatorial crop and logging is pervasive across tropical ecosystems, these findings may have broad applicability.

  3. Persistent Effects of Oil Palm Plantation Agriculture on Freshwater Stream Function in Indonesian Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L.; Ratnasari, D.

    2012-12-01

    Conversion of forests to agricultural land uses alters freshwater stream ecosystems by changing flows of physical, chemical, and biological stream inputs. In contrast with annual agricultural crops, oil palm agribusiness may have distinctive effects on stream function because these plantations replace existing land cover with 1,000-20,000 ha tree-like monocultures that have 20-30 year rotation cycles. From 2008 to 2012 in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), we measured water temperature, metabolism, and sediment and nutrient loads in four streams draining watersheds dominated (> ~70%) by intact and logged forests, agroforests and agricultural fallows, and young (< 3 y) and mature (> 10 y) oil palm plantations. We find that mean daily stream temperature was elevated 12% at the mature and 8% at the young oil palm site compared to the forest stream (25.5 ± 0.3°C). No clear relationship emerged between land cover type and ecosystem respiration (ER, g O2 m-2 d-1) or gross primary production (GPP, g O2 m-2 d-1). Yet GPP:ER ratios were 600% and 650% greater at young and mature oil palm watersheds, respectively, than the forested watershed (0.020 ± 0.005). Sediment loads (t d-1) across measured water yields (m d-1) were higher in the young oil palm stream compared to all other streams. Total phosphorous, total dissolved phosphorous, and total nitrogen loads for measured water yields were elevated in the agroforest and young oil palm sites compared to the forest site. Our results indicate that oil palm plantation land use alters tropical stream temperature, metabolism, nutrient loads, and sediment loads; moreover, these conditions appear to persist for ≥ 15 years. We discuss the implications of these findings for local human communities and ecosystems.

  4. Crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal via clay-microbe-oil interactions: Effect of acid activated clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Fialips, Claire I

    2017-03-09

    Acid treatment of clay minerals is known to modify their properties such as increase their surface area and surface acidity, making them suitable as catalysts in many chemical processes. However, the role of these surface properties during biodegradation processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is only known for mild acid (0.5 M Hydrochloric acid) treated clays. Four different clay minerals were used for this study: a montmorillonite, a saponite, a palygorskite and a kaolinite. They were treated with 3 M hydrochloric acid to produce acid activated clay minerals. The role of the acid activated montmorillonite, saponite, palygorskite and kaolinite in comparison with the unmodified clay minerals in the removal of PAHs during biodegradation was investigated in microcosm experiments. The microcosm experiments contained micro-organisms, oil, and clays in aqueous medium with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community predominantly composed of Alcanivorax spp. Obtained results indicated that acid activated clays and unmodified kaolinite did not enhance the biodegradation of the PAHs whereas unmodified montmorillonite, palygorskite and saponite enhanced their biodegradation. In addition, unmodified palygorskite adsorbed the PAHs significantly due to its unique channel structure.

  5. Bioremediating oil spills in nutrient poor ocean waters using fertilized clay mineral flakes: some experimental constraints.

    PubMed

    Warr, Laurence N; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J; Basirico, Laura M; Olson, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity.

  6. Bioremediating Oil Spills in Nutrient Poor Ocean Waters Using Fertilized Clay Mineral Flakes: Some Experimental Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Warr, Laurence N.; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J.; Basirico, Laura M.; Olson, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity. PMID:23864952

  7. Wetting and Interfacial Tension Dynamics of Oil-Nanofluids-Surface Minerals System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, L.; Li, C.; Darnault, C. J. G.; Korte, C.; Ladner, D.; Daigle, H.

    2015-12-01

    Among the techniques used in enhanced oil recovery (EOR), chemical injection involves the injection of surfactants to increase the oil mobility and decrease the interfacial tension (IFT). With the nanotechnology revolution, the use of nanoparticles has shown unique opportunities in petroleum engineering due to their physico-chemical properties. Our research examines the potential application of nanoparticles as a means of EOR by studying the influence of silicon oxide nanoparticles on the wettability and IFT of oil-nanofluids-surface systems. Batch studies were conducted to assess the stability of the nanoparticle suspensions of different concentrations (0, 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 wt. %) in different reservoir conditions with and without the addition of surfactants (i.e. 5% brine, and Tween 20 at 0.5 and 2 cmc). Testing of oil-nanofluids and oil-nanofluids-minerals interactions was performed using crude oils from West Texas (light, API 40), Prudhoe Bay (medium, API 28), and Lloydminster (heavy, API 20). The dynamic behavior of IFT was measured using a pendant drop method. Results for 5% brine-nanoparticle systems indicated that 0.001 and 0.01 wt.% of nanoparticles contributed to a significant decrease of IFT for West Texas and Prudhoe Bay oils, while the highest decrease of IFT for Lloydminster was reported with 0.1 wt.% nanoparticles. IFT decrease was also enhanced by surfactant, and the addition of nanoparticles at 0.001 wt.% to surfactant resulted in significant decrease of IFT in most of the tested oil-nanofluid systems. The sessile drop method was used to measure the dynamic behavior of the contact angle of these oil droplets on minerals surface made of thin sections from Berea and Boise sandstone cores through a wetting test. Different nanofluid and surfactant concentrations were tested for the optimization of changes in wettability, which is a critical phase in assessing the behavior of nanofluids for optimal EOR with the selected crude oils.

  8. Computational Studies on Interaction between Air Bubbles and Hydrophobic Mineral Particles Covered by Nonpolar Oil.

    PubMed

    Song; Lopez-Valdivieso

    1999-04-01

    Computations based on the extended DLVO theory are carried out on the potential energies of interactions between air bubbles and talc particles covered by nonpolar oil. It is shown that the major role of nonpolar oil in this system is to greatly increase the depth of the primary energy valley, giving rise to a much stronger bubble-particle aggregate that can support greater aggregate-rupture force fields from turbulent flows. Also, due to nonpolar oil involvement, the energy barrier between bubbles and mineral particles sharply collapses down and further separates, indicative of a greater probability of attachment of mineral particles to air bubbles. A linear relationship is found between the primary energy valley and the contact angles of oil or bubbles, and thus a simple and approximate formula is presented to evaluate the depth of the primary energy valley. In addition, it is found that the primary energy valley and the energy barrier are directly proportional to the effective particle radius, but the barrier location is independent of the effective particle radius. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. [Exposure to mineral oils at worksites and novel solutions for polymer protective materials in selected personal protective equipment].

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Irzmańska, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of workers to health hazards due to contact with mineral oils occurs primarily in the chemical, petrochemical, machine-building, metallurgic and car industries. Under worksite conditions, the respiratory system and the skin are the primary routes of entry of mineral oils into the human body. Long-term exposure of the skin to oily substances may lead not only to irritation and allergic lesions. The studies conducted in this area have confirmed a significant increase in the incidence of skin cancers in persons chronically exposed to mineral oils. Protection of workers' health at worksites associated with the risk of contact with mineral oils requires, in addition to collective protective and organizational solutions, personal protective equipment with appropriate protection and utility parameters confirmed by laboratory tests. The essential preventive measures include protection of the human skin by means of appropriate protective clothing and gloves, which provide an effective barrier against a wide spectrum of chemical compounds present in mineral oils. Knowledge of polymer materials is the prerequisite for designing more and more effective and functional protective clothing and gloves. Studies aimed at obtaining higher levels of skin protection against varied toxic substances, including mineral oils, have been conducted, among others, to develop modern glove and clothing materials ensuring resistance to oils. The rapid progress of nanotechnology and the use of nanoadditives in polymer materials has made it possible to undertake works aimed at developing modern polymer nanostructures designed for construction of oil-resistant protective clothing and gloves. In this review paper the authors have presented the current knowledge of polymer materials, from traditional ones to polymer nanostructures, used in personal equipment protecting against mineral oils.

  10. Seawater/Saline Agriculture for Energy, Warming, Water, Rainfall, Land, Food and Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The combination of the incipient demise of cheap oil and increasing evidence of Global Warming due to anthropogenic fossil carbon release has reinvigorated the need for and efforts on Renewable energy sources, especially for transportation applications. Biomass/Bio-diesel appears to have many benefits compared to Hydrogen, the only other major renewable transportation fuel candidate. Biomass Production is currently limited by available arable land and fresh water. Halophyte Plants and seawater irrigation proffer a wholly new biomass production mantra using wastelands and very plentiful seawater. Such an approach addresses many-to-most of the major emerging Societal Problems including Land, Water, Food, Warming and Energy. For many reasons, including seawater agriculture, portions of the Sahara appear to be viable candidates for future Biomass Production. The apparent nonlinearity between vegetation cover and atmospheric conditions over North Africa necessitates serious coupled boundary layer Meteorology and Global Circulation Modeling to ensure that this form of Terra Forming is Favorable and to avoid adverse Unintended Consequences.

  11. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2005-04-30

    The aim of this project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on critical solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems were conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this period, the adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) has been studied. The effects of solution pH, surfactant mixing ratio and different salts on surfactant adsorption on alumina have been investigated in detail. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption of the mixtures were determined under relevant conditions to identify the nano-structure of the adsorbed layers. Solution properties of C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na/DM mixtures were also studied to identify surfactant interactions that affect the mixed aggregate formation in solution. Adsorption of SDS on gypsum and limestone suggested stronger surfactant/mineral interaction than on alumina, due to the precipitation of surfactant by dissolved calcium ions. The effects of different salts such as sodium nitrate, sodium sulfite and sodium chloride on DM adsorption on alumina have also been determined. As surfactant hemimicelles at interface and micelles in solution have drastic effects on oil recovery processes, their microstructures in

  12. The utilization natural mineral in the process of palm oil glycerolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujdalipah, Siti

    2015-09-01

    The reaction of glycerolysis currently has weakness, which uses a catalyst with a high price and performed at a high temperature. Indonesia is rich in minerals that have the potential to be used as a catalyst. Besides that, the solvent allows the glycerolysis reaction done in a low temperature so that it can maintain the quality of product. The purpose of this research is to study the influence of a type of solvent and a type of natural mineral to the chemistry and physical characteristic of palm oil glycerolysis product. The research activity consists of four steps. The first is the analysis of chemistry characteristics of palm oil. The second is the process of palm oil as the effect of a type of solvent and a type of natural mineral factors. The third is the analysis of chemistry and physical characteristics of glycerolysis product. The last is the analysis of data. Based on the analysis variant at α=0.05, it shows that type of solvent and type of natural mineral doesnot influence significantly to the ability of glycerolysis product in decreasing the water surface tension and to the free glycerol content. The best product is able to decrease the water surface tension from 44.933 dyne/cm to 29.00 dyne/cm. It contains the free glycerol content of 1.30%, 1-monoglyceride content of 43.10%, acid number of 0.146 mg KOH/g sample, and it has simillar fatty acid composition with the raw material.

  13. Mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duman, Erman; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2014-01-01

    The mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey were established by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Capparis spinosa var. spinosa (2010) and Capparis ovata var. canescens variety (2009) were determined to be rich in terms of mineral matter as 19,514.60 and 16,995.92 ppm as a total, respectively. C. spinosa var. spinosa collected from Muğla-Milas region (2009) had the highest amount of Ca with 1,010.67 ppm in C. spinosa species and in C. ovata species. C. ovata var. canescens collected from Ankara-Beypazarı (2010) region had the highest amount of Ca with 833.92 ppm Ca amount in C. spinosa var. spinosa, inermis, herbaceae seeds decreased in 2010. C. spinosa var. inermis collected from Antalya-Serik (2010) in C. spinosa species had rich amount of Ca with 123.78 ppm and C. ovata var. palaestina seed oils collected from Mardin-Savur region (2009) had rich amount of Ca with 253.71 ppm in C. ovata species. The oil of C. spinosa var. herbaceae variety collected from Mardin-Midyat region (2010) was determined to have the highest major mineral matter (Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P) with 1,424.37 ppm in C. spinosa species. It was also determined that as a result, caper seed and oils were found to be important sources of nutrients and essential elements.

  14. Ion adsorption-induced wetting transition in oil-water-mineral systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Bera, Bijoyendra; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2015-11-01

    The relative wettability of a rock substrate to oil and water is a central issue in many technological applications, especially in the field of enhanced oil recovery. We here consider a salty water droplet deposited on a mica substrate inside an oil bath. By adding specific ions to the water phase, a wetting transition can be induced. The water solution completely wet the mica substrate if it only contains monovalent cations (K+, Na+) . However, when divalent (Ca2+ , Mg2+) cations are added to the water phase, a finite contact angle (around 10o) can be observed. We explain this phenomenon in the scope of a Poisson-Boltzmann model. The absorption of divalent ions at the mica interface generates a positive surface charge, and induces an attractive interaction to the negatively charged oil-water interface, which triggers the transition. We also observe that different cations can be arranged in an Hofmeister-like sequence, based on their effectiveness in changing the wettability of the mineral substrate. Finally, we show that adding small amounts of a polar surfactant to the oil phase synergistically enhances the wetting transition.

  15. Mineral oil and aliphatic alcohols: toxicity and analysis of synergistic effects on German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Sims, S R; O'Brien, T E

    2011-10-01

    Two mineral oils and 12 linear primary alcohols were studied, alone and in combination, to determine their contact toxicity to adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). The more toxic oil, PD23 (LD50 = 1.45 mg per cockroach) was used for combination studies. Alcohols with carbon chain lengths of C3 and C8 through C12 were the most toxic, with LD50 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 mg. C1 (methanol) and C14 (1-tetradecanol) were least toxic, with LD50 values of 2.35 and 1.75 mg, respectively. Eight of the 12 combinations of a nonlethal dose of PD23 oil with an LD10 dose of alcohol produced significantly greater mortality than predicted under the assumption of additive effects. A sample of five synergistic oil + alcohol combinations, covering most of the alcohol carbon chain length range over which synergy occurred, was further studied by calculating LD50 values for three fixed mixture ratios (80:20, 50:50, and 20:80) of each combination. Results were analyzed using both graphical techniques (isobole analysis) and by nonlinear regression. At least one, but not necessarily all, of the three fixed ratio combinations of each oil + alcohol pairing indicated synergy. The conclusions drawn from the isobole and regression analyses were consistent.

  16. Mineral-petrographic features of hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Tevlinsko-Russkinskoe oil deposit (Western Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitdikova, Elina; Izotov, Victor

    2010-05-01

    The Tevlinsko-Russkinskoe oil field is located in the central part of the West Siberian lowland. It concerns a group of multistory deposits and is one of the perspective deposits in the West Siberian oil and gas province. The young Sortym formation and the Jurassic sediments offer the best prospects. Layers are consisted of sand-clay deposits of Mesozoic-Cainozoic sedimentary cover and rocks of the pre-Jurassic basement. Core material of base drill holes of the Tevlinsko-Russkinskoe oil field was studied in order to obtain detailed lithological and mineralogical characteristics of rocks features. These drill holes found out main productive horizons. Sandstones of productive horizons of Jurassic petroliferous complex are of a homogeneous and monotonous structure. In the studied samples of core material massive structures prevail. Mineral composite of clastic component of sandstones is polymictic and it is represented by quartz, orthoclase, microcline, plagioclases, biotite, strongly changed dark-coloured minerals, fragments of effusive rocks and quartzite of different degrees of recrystallization. Cluster formation - grains accretion into separated quartzite-like parts - is typical for these rocks. Process of cluster formation is accompanied by change of sandstone structure. This results in reservoir quality alteration and extension of porosity and permeability properties. In the studied rocks-reservoirs of Jurassic oil complex processes of cluster formation were lasting during period of diagenesis and were followed by repartition of cement mass. We carried out electron microscopic research of reservoirs structure to analyze void space structure. Electron microscopic studies were spent on the scanning electron microscope of XL-30 system (Phillips company). The conducted research testifies that reservoirs can be considered a mesoporous-nanoporous medium. Its' studying is of a great importance for realization of questions of Tevlinsko-Russkinskoe oil field working out.

  17. Robust and sensitive analysis of methanol and ethanol from cellulose degradation in mineral oils.

    PubMed

    Jalbert, Jocelyn; Duchesne, Steve; Rodriguez-Celis, Esperanza; Tétreault, Pierre; Collin, Pascal

    2012-09-21

    Methanol and ethanol have been identified as oil-soluble by-products generated by the aging of oil-impregnated cellulosic insulation materials of power transformers. Their presence provides useful information for diagnostics and end-of-life transformer estimation. Despite their value as cellulose degradation indicators, their sensitive and accurate determination is challenged by the complex oil matrix. To overcome this constraint, we present a simple, fast and direct procedure for their simultaneous determination in mineral insulating oil samples. The procedure uses a static headspace sampler coupled with a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometer. The selected method parameters permitted adequate separation of these two compounds from the complex oil matrix and quantification at ng g(-1) concentrations. An original internal standard procedure was developed, in which ethanol-d6 was added to all studied samples and blanks, with adequate resolution between the internal standard and its isotopomer ethanol. The method was validated in terms of accuracy and reproducibility for both analytes. The method detection limit, 4 ng g(-1) for methanol and ethanol, is well below the value (μg g(-1)) achieved by a standardized method for methanol determination in crude oil. During method validation studies, a relative error of approximately 6% was obtained for both methanol and ethanol with excellent reproducibility, average %RSD, below 2%. An experiment control chart, constructed to evaluate long-term reproducibility, indicate an overall good reproducibility (%RSD<3%) for 1000 ng g(-1) control solutions. The applicability of the method to the direct analysis of trace methanol and ethanol in oil from field transformer samples was successfully demonstrated. This analytical method is of high relevance to the electrical utilities as it allows indirectly assessment of the level of deterioration of the critical cellulose, an inaccessible part of a power transformer.

  18. Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2008-09-20

    Chemical EOR can be an effective method for increasing oil recovery and reducing the amount of produced water; however, reservoir fluids are chemically complex and may react adversely to the polymers and surfactants injected into the reservoir. While a major goal is to alter rock wettability and interfacial tension between oil and water, rock-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions must be understood and controlled to minimize reagent loss, maximize recovery and mitigate costly failures. The overall objective of this project was to elucidate the mechanisms of interactions between polymers/surfactants and the mineral surfaces responsible for determining the chemical loss due to adsorption and precipitation in EOR processes. The role of dissolved inorganic species that are dependent on the mineralogy is investigated with respect to their effects on adsorption. Adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension are studied with the aim to control chemical losses, the ultimate goal being to devise schemes to develop guidelines for surfactant and polymer selection in EOR. The adsorption behavior of mixed polymer/surfactant and surfactant/surfactant systems on typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) was correlated to their molecular structures, intermolecular interactions and the solution conditions such as pH and/or salinity. Predictive models as well as general guidelines for the use of polymer/surfactant surfactant/surfactant system in EOR have been developed The following tasks have been completed under the scope of the project: (1) Mineral characterization, in terms of SEM, BET, size, surface charge, and point zero charge. (2) Study of the interactions among typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) and surfactants and/or polymers in terms of adsorption properties that include both macroscopic (adsorption density, wettability) and microscopic (orientation

  19. Long-term effects of mineral versus organic fertilizers on activity and structure of the methanotrophic community in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Seghers, Dave; Top, Eva M; Reheul, Dirk; Bulcke, Robert; Boeckx, Pascal; Verstraete, Willy; Siciliano, Steven D

    2003-10-01

    Agricultural practices, such as mineral nitrogen fertilization, have an impact on the soil's ability to oxidize methane, but little is known about the shifts in the methanotrophic community composition associated with these practices. Therefore, the long-term effect of both mineral (NH4NO3) and organic (manure and GFT-compost) fertilizer applications on the soil methanotrophic community activity and structure were investigated. Both high and low affinity methane oxidation rates were lower in the soil treated with mineral fertilizer compared to the other soils. An enhanced nitrate concentration was observed in the mineral fertilized soil but nitrate did not show a direct affect on the high affinity methane oxidation. In contrast, the low affinity methane oxidation was slowed down by increased nitrate concentrations, which suggests a direct effect of nitrate on low affinity methane oxidation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments specific for methanotrophs revealed a distinct community between the mineral and organic fertilized soils as extra Type I methanotrophic bands (phylotypes) became visible in the organic fertilized soils. These phylotypes were not visible in the patterns of the added organic fertilizers suggesting an indirect effect of the organic fertilizers on the methanotrophic community. Additionally, a molecular analysis was performed after the low affinity methane oxidation test. The enhanced methane concentrations used in the test enriched certain low affinity methanotrophs in the organic fertilized soils but not in the mineral fertilized soil. Supporting the molecular and functional observations, fatty acids characteristic for methanotrophs were less abundant in the soil treated with mineral fertilizer compared to the soil treated with compost. In conclusion, the function and molecular and chemical composition of the methanotrophic community are all altered in soil fertilized with mineral fertilizer.

  20. Identification of the mineral phases responsible for cementation of Lurgi spent oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Huntington, G.; Brown, T.

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mineralogical character of the cements that are responsible for the increased strength of the spent oil shale. Several techniques to identify the nature of the cementing agents have been used in this study. X-ray diffraction was used to identify mineral dissolution and formation; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the cementing agents; energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) was used to provide information on the elemental composition of both the bulk material and the cementing agents; and differential thermal analyses and thermogravimetric analyses were used to document the presence of suspected minerals that may be involved in formation of the cementing material.

  1. Characterization of Clay Minerals and Kerogen in Alberta Oil Sands Geological End Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Limin

    The high degree of variability of oil sands ores can be attributed to a mixture of different geological end members, i.e., estuarine sand, estuarine clay, marine sand and marine clay. This study focused on the mineralogy, especially of clay minerals, and toluene insoluble organic matter, referred to as kerogen, in different oil sands end members. Clays and kerogens will likely have a significant impact on solvent recovery from the gangue following non-aqueous bitumen extraction. The bitumen-free solids were subjected to mineralogical and geochemical analysis. Kerogens were isolated and analyzed by various characterization methods. The types of clays were identified in oriented samples by X-ray diffraction analysis. The nitrogen to carbon ratio in the isolated kerogens is found to be higher than in bitumen. There are more type III kerogens in estuarine samples and more type II kerogens in marine samples.

  2. Gloves against mineral oils and mechanical hazards: composites of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber latex

    PubMed Central

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M.; Malesa, Monika; Borkowska, Urszula; Oleksy, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to permeation of noxious chemical substances should be accompanied by resistance to mechanical factors because the glove material may be torn, cut or punctured in the workplace. This study reports on glove materials, protecting against mineral oils and mechanical hazards, made of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The obtained materials were characterized by a very high resistance of the produced materials to oil permeation (breakthrough time > 480 min). The mechanical properties, and especially tear resistance, of the studied materials were improved after the addition of modified bentonite (nanofiller) to the XNBR latex mixture. The nanocomposite meets the requirements in terms of parameters characterizing tear, abrasion, cut and puncture resistance. Therefore, the developed material may be used for the production of multifunctional protective gloves. PMID:26757889

  3. Improvement of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons determination in edible oil by liquid-liquid-gas chromatography with dual detection.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Mariosimone; Barp, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Sciarrone, Danilo; Purcaro, Giorgia; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Mineral oils, which are mainly composed of saturated hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons, are widespread food contaminants. Liquid chromatography coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection represents the method of choice to determine these two families. However, despite the high selectivity of this technique, the presence of olefins (particularly squalene and its isomers) in some samples as in olive oils, does not allow the correct quantification of the mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons fraction, requiring additional off-line tools to eliminate them. In the present research, a novel on-line liquid chromatography coupled to gas chromatography method is described for the determination of hydrocarbon contamination in edible oils. Two different liquid chromatography columns, namely a silica one (to retain the bulk of the matrix) and a silver-ion one (which better retains the olefins), were coupled in series to obtain the mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons hump free of interfering peaks. Furthermore, the use of a simultaneous dual detection, flame ionization detector and triple quadrupole mass spectrometer allowed us not only to quantify the mineral oil contamination, but also to evaluate the presence of specific markers (i.e. hopanes) to confirm the petrogenic origin of the contamination.

  4. Erosion of phosphor bronze under cavitation attack in a mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental investigations on erosion of a copper alloy, phosphor bronze, under cavitation attack in a viscous mineral oil are presented. The details of pit formation and erosion were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The mean depth of penetration, the variations in surface roughness, and the changes in erosion pit size were studied. Cavitation pits formed initially over the grain boundaries while the surface grains were plastically deformed. Erosion of surface grains occurred largely by ductile fracture involving microcracking and removal in layers. The ratio h/a of the depth h to half width a of cavitation pits increased with test duration from 0.047 to 0.55.

  5. Cod liver oil consumption at different periods of life and bone mineral density in old age.

    PubMed

    Eysteinsdottir, Tinna; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Thorsdottir, Inga; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Harris, Tamara; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2015-07-01

    Cod liver oil is a traditional source of vitamin D in Iceland, and regular intake is recommended partly for the sake of bone health. However, the association between lifelong consumption of cod liver oil and bone mineral density (BMD) in old age is unclear. The present study attempted to assess the associations between intake of cod liver oil in adolescence, midlife, and old age, and hip BMD in old age, as well as associations between cod liver oil intake in old age and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration. Participants of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (age 66-96 years; n 4798), reported retrospectively cod liver oil intake during adolescence and midlife, as well as the one now in old age, using a validated FFQ. BMD of femoral neck and trochanteric region was measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography, and serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured by means of a direct, competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay. Associations were assessed using linear regression models. No significant association was seen between retrospective cod liver oil intake and hip BMD in old age. Current intake of aged men was also not associated with hip BMD, while aged women with daily intakes had z-scores on average 0.1 higher, compared with those with an intake of < once/week. Although significant, this difference is small, and its clinical relevance is questionable. Intake of aged participants was positively associated with serum 25(OH)D: individuals with intakes of < once/week, one to six time(s)/week and daily intake had concentrations of approximately 40, 50 and 60 nmol/l respectively (P for trend < 0.001).

  6. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSOPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2004-04-30

    The aim of the project is to delineate the role of mineralogy of reservoir rocks in determining interactions between reservoir minerals and externally added reagents (surfactants/polymers) and its effect on the solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension in systems relevant to reservoir conditions. Previous studies have suggested that significant surfactant loss by precipitation or adsorption on reservoir minerals can cause chemical schemes to be less than satisfactory for enhanced oil recovery. Both macroscopic adsorption, wettability and microscopic orientation and conformation studies for various surfactant/polymer mixtures/reservoir rocks systems will be conducted to explore the cause of chemical loss by means of precipitation or adsorption, and the effect of rock mineralogy on the chemical loss. During this reporting period, the minerals used have been characterized, for particle size distribution and surface area. Also a series of novel cationic Gemini surfactants: butane-1,4-bis(quaternary ammonium chloride), has been synthesized. The solution and adsorption behavior of individual surfactants, the highly surface-active Gemini surfactant C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12}, the sugar-based nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and their mixture has been studied. DM alone shows low adsorption on silica because of the lack of any electrostatic attraction between the surfactant and the silica particle. On the other hand, the cationic Gemini adsorbs markedly on the oppositely charged silica surface. Marked synergism has been observed in the case of DM/C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} mixture adsorption on silica. Adsorption of DM from the mixtures increases dramatically in both the rising part and the plateau regions. Adsorption of the cationic Gemini C{sub 12}-C{sub 4}-C{sub 12} from the mixture on the other hand increases in the rising part, but decreases in the plateau regions due to the

  7. Characterization and discrimination of evolving mineral and plant oil slicks based on L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Espeseth, Martine M.; Holt, Benjamin; Brekke, Camilla; Skrunes, Stine

    2016-10-01

    Evolution of the damping ratio for Bragg wavenumbers in the range 32-43 rad/m is evaluated for oil slicks of different composition released in the open ocean and allowed to develop naturally. The study uses quad-polarimetric L-band airborne synthetic aperture radar data acquired over three mineral oil emulsion releases of different, known oil-to-water ratio, and a near-coincident release of 2-ethylhexyl oleate that served as a biogenic look-alike. The experiment occurred during the 2015 Norwegian oil-on-water exercise in the North Sea during a period of relatively high winds ( 12 m/s). NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) was used to repeatedly image the slicks over a period of eight hours, capturing the slicks' early development and providing a time series from which to track the evolution of the slicks' size, position, and radiometric characteristics. Particular emphasis is given in this analysis to identification of zones of higher damping ratio within the slicks (zoning) as potential indicators of thicker oil, and to comparison of the evolution of emulsion and plant oil damping ratios. It was found that all mineral oil slicks initially exhibited zoning apparent in VV, HH, and HV intensities, and that the areas of higher damping ratio persisted the longest for the highest oil content emulsion (80% oil by volume). In contrast, zoning was not unambiguously evident for plant oil at any time from 44 minutes to 8.5 hours after release.

  8. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  9. Nutrient and toxic element soil concentrations during repeated mineral and compost fertilization treatments in a Mediterranean agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Saviello, Giovanni; Alfani, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Agricultural soils of semi-arid Mediterranean areas are often subjected to depletion of their chemical, physical, and biological properties. In this context, organic fertilization, in addition to providing nutrients for a longer time in respect to mineral fertilization, improves many other characteristics related to soil fertility. Moreover, the combined use of organic and mineral fertilizers may promote a more sustainable crop production. However, a concern on the long-term use of organic fertilizers arises in relation to the possible accumulation of toxic elements in soil and their transfer to human beings. For this reason, a long-term study on nutrient and toxic element total concentrations and availabilities during fertilization treatments was carried out. In particular, mineral NPK fertilized soils, soils amended with biowaste compost, soils amended with biowaste compost plus mineral nitrogen, and unfertilized soils were analyzed for 11 chemical elements. The results highlighted that temporal variations in total and bioavailable concentrations of both nutrients and toxic elements, occurring also in unfertilized soils, are wider than those related to fertilization treatments. Anyway, soil amendments with biowaste compost, alone or in combination with mineral fertilizers, reduce Cu bioavailability but improve K, Fe, Mn, and Zn availabilities, excluding at the same time a long-term accumulation in soil. Total and bioavailable toxic element concentrations (apart from available Cd) do not vary in relation to fertilization treatments.

  10. Isolation from agricultural soil and characterization of a Sphingomonas sp. able to mineralize the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, S R; Ronen, Z; Aamand, J

    2001-12-01

    A soil bacterium (designated strain SRS2) able to metabolize the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (IPU), was isolated from a previously IPU-treated agricultural soil. Based on a partial analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the cellular fatty acids, the strain was identified as a Sphingomonas sp. within the alpha-subdivision of the proteobacteria. Strain SRS2 was able to mineralize IPU when provided as a source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Supplementing the medium with a mixture of amino acids considerably enhanced IPU mineralization. Mineralization of IPU was accompanied by transient accumulation of the metabolites 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1-methylurea, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, and 4-isopropyl-aniline identified by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, thus indicating a metabolic pathway initiated by two successive N-demethylations, followed by cleavage of the urea side chain and finally by mineralization of the phenyl structure. Strain SRS2 also transformed the dimethylurea-substituted herbicides diuron and chlorotoluron, giving rise to as-yet-unidentified products. In addition, no degradation of the methoxy-methylurea-substituted herbicide linuron was observed. This report is the first characterization of a pure bacterial culture able to mineralize IPU.

  11. Isolation from Agricultural Soil and Characterization of a Sphingomonas sp. Able To Mineralize the Phenylurea Herbicide Isoproturon

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Sebastian R.; Ronen, Zeev; Aamand, Jens

    2001-01-01

    A soil bacterium (designated strain SRS2) able to metabolize the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (IPU), was isolated from a previously IPU-treated agricultural soil. Based on a partial analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the cellular fatty acids, the strain was identified as a Sphingomonas sp. within the α-subdivision of the proteobacteria. Strain SRS2 was able to mineralize IPU when provided as a source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Supplementing the medium with a mixture of amino acids considerably enhanced IPU mineralization. Mineralization of IPU was accompanied by transient accumulation of the metabolites 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1-methylurea, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, and 4-isopropyl-aniline identified by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, thus indicating a metabolic pathway initiated by two successive N-demethylations, followed by cleavage of the urea side chain and finally by mineralization of the phenyl structure. Strain SRS2 also transformed the dimethylurea-substituted herbicides diuron and chlorotoluron, giving rise to as-yet-unidentified products. In addition, no degradation of the methoxy-methylurea-substituted herbicide linuron was observed. This report is the first characterization of a pure bacterial culture able to mineralize IPU. PMID:11722885

  12. Mineral oil in human tissues, part II: characterization of the accumulated hydrocarbons by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Barp, Laura; Kornauth, Christoph; Würger, Tanja; Rudas, Margaretha; Reiner, Angelika; Concin, Nicole; Grob, Koni

    2015-02-15

    Mineral oil hydrocarbons are by far the largest contaminant in the human body. Their composition differs from that in the mineral oils humans are exposed to, and varies also between different tissues of the same individual. Using the presently best technique for characterizing the composition of mineral oil hydrocarbons, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), the hydrocarbons in human tissues were compared to those of various mineral oils. This provided information about the strongly accumulated species and might give hints on the flow path through the human body. The selectivity of accumulation is probably also of interest for the risk assessment of synthetic hydrocarbons (polyolefins). GC×GC grouped the MOSH into classes of n-alkanes, paraffins with a low degree of branching, multibranched paraffins and naphthenes (alkylated cyclic hydrocarbons) with 1-4 rings. Metabolic elimination was observed for constituents of all these classes, but was selective within each class. The MOSH in the subcutaneous abdominal fat tissues and the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) had almost the same composition and included the distinct signals observed in mineral oil, though in reduced amounts relative to the cloud of unresolved hydrocarbons. The MOSH in the liver and the spleen were different from those in the MLN and fat tissue, but again with largely identical composition for a given individual. Virtually all constituents forming distinct signals were eliminated, leaving an unresolved residue of highly isomerized hydrocarbons.

  13. Effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on crude oil dispersion in a wave tank under breaking waves.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengkai; Kepkay, Paul; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Boufadel, Michel C; Venosa, Albert D

    2007-07-01

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the formation of oil-mineral-aggregates (OMAs) in natural seawater. Results of ultraviolet spectrofluorometry and gas chromatography flame ionized detection analysis indicated that dispersants and mineral fines, alone and in combination, enhanced the dispersion of oil into the water column. Measurements taken with a laser in situ scattering and transmissometer (LISST-100X) showed that the presence of mineral fines increased the total concentration of the suspended particles from 4 to 10microl l(-1), whereas the presence of dispersants decreased the particle size (mass mean diameter) of OMAs from 50 to 10microm. Observation with an epifluorescence microscope indicated that the presence of dispersants, mineral fines, or both in combination significantly increased the number of particles dispersed into the water.

  14. Development of a manual method for the determination of mineral oil in foods and paperboard.

    PubMed

    Fiselier, Katell; Grundböck, Florian; Schön, Karsten; Kappenstein, Oliver; Pfaff, Karla; Hutzler, Christoph; Luch, Andreas; Grob, Koni

    2013-01-04

    So far the majority of the measurements of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) were obtained from on-line high performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (on-line HPLC-GC-FID). Since this technique is not available in many laboratories, an alternative method with more easily available tools has been developed. Preseparation on a small conventional liquid chromatographic column was optimized to achieve robust separation between the MOSH and the MOAH, but also to keep out the wax esters from the MOAH fraction. This was achieved by mixing a small portion of silica gel with silver nitrate into highly activated silica gel and by adding toluene into the eluent for the MOAH. Toluene was also added to the MOSH fraction to facilitate reconcentration and to serve as a keeper preventing loss of volatiles during solvent evaporation. A 50 μl volume was injected on-column into GC-FID to achieve a detection limit for MOSH and MOAH below 1 mg/kg in most foods.

  15. Thermally induced formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans from Aroclor 1254-contaminated mineral oil.

    PubMed Central

    Narang, R S; Swami, K; Stein, V; Smith, R; O'Keefe, P; Aldous, K; Hilker, D; Eadon, G; Vernoy, C; Narang, A S

    1989-01-01

    Numerous laboratory simulations and real-world events have demonstrated the thermal conversion of neat or high concentration of PCBs into the much more toxic PCDFs. Since millions of mineral oil transformers currently in service contain PCB concentrations in the 50 to 5000 ppm range, the thermal behavior of dilute PCB solutions is of practical and regulatory significance. In this work, neat Aroclor 1254 and 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 in mineral oil were subjected to pyrolysis and combustion under a range of experimental conditions to define parameters resulting in maximal PCDF yields. The dependence of PCDF yield on Aroclor 1254 concentrations was then investigated in the 5000 to 50 ppm range. Combustion experiments demonstrated that PCDF yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram PCB were independent of concentration range, confirming that the process is kinetically first order in PCB. Much lower yields of PCDF were observed in the open tube pyrolysis experiments, as compared to combustion experiments and to earlier and concurrent sealed tube experiments. Slightly improved yields were observed in the pyrolysis experiments at lower concentrations, suggesting the existence of a PCB or PCDF destruction process of higher than first order kinetics. In all cases, yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram mixture were sharply and monotonically lower as concentrations decreased between neat or 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 and 50 ppm Aroclor 1254. PMID:2495933

  16. [Bioremediation of mineral oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils with two plant species].

    PubMed

    Song, Y; Xu, H; Ren, L

    2001-02-01

    With alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and paddy rice as test plants, and with pollutant level, specific bacteria, fungi and organic fertilizer as control factors, the bioremediation of mineral oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils with two plant species was conducted. The results showed that the degradation rate of mineral oil was promoted by fertilization in alfalfa soil, but not in paddy rice soil. The degradation rate of total PAHs (11 PAH listed in USEPA) was increased by fertilization both in alfalfa and in paddy rice soil, and the promotion effect of fertilizer was better in paddy rice soil than in alfalfa soil. The fertilization rate was positively related to the rhizospheric indigenous fungi and bacteria's CFU in alfalfa soil, but only to the indigenous bacteria's CFU in paddy rice soil. The fungi and bacteria's CFU in both test soils had no positive relation with the amount of specific bacteria and fungi spiked. The degradation rate of 3-ring PAHs was enhanced in both alfalfa and paddy rice soil by fertilization, and the effect was stronger in paddy rice soil than in alfalfa soil. However, fertilization had no positive effect on the degradation of 4-ring PAHs.

  17. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tangolar, Serpil Gök; Ozoğul, Yeşim; Tangolar, Semih; Torun, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    The grape seeds of seven grape cultivars (Alphonse Lavallée, Muscat of Hamburg, Alicante Bouschet, Razaki, Narince, Oküzgözü and Horoz karasi) and two rootstocks (Salt creek and Cosmo 2) were evaluated in terms of quality properties including protein, oil, moisture, ash, fatty acid composition and mineral contents. The oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 10.45% (Razaki) to 16.73% (Salt creek). Saturated fatty acid values were less than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all genotypes. Among the identified fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the predominant fatty acid and followed by oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) in all varieties. The results of mineral analysis showed that all varieties contained considerable amount of macro and micro elements. These grape seeds could be used as a food supplement to improve the nutritive value of the human diet.

  18. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for characterizing mineral oils in foods and distinguishing them from synthetic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

    2015-01-02

    Many foods are contaminated by hydrocarbons of mineral oil or synthetic origin. High performance liquid chromatography on-line coupled with gas chromatography and flame ionization detection (HPLC-GC-FID) is a powerful tool for the quantitative determination, but it would often be desirable to obtain more information about the type of hydrocarbons in order to identify the source of the contamination and specify pertinent legislation. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is shown to produce plots distinguishing mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) from polymer oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH) and characterizing the degree of raffination of a mineral oil. The first dimension separation occurred on a phenyl methyl polysiloxane, the second on a dimethyl polysiloxane. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used for identification, FID for quantitative determination. This shows the substantial advances in chromatography to characterize complex hydrocarbon mixtures even as contaminants in food.

  19. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2005-10-30

    In this project, fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanism of the interactions between polymer/surfactant and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of chemical molecular structure on critical solid/liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and surface tension in mineral/surfactant systems were investigated. The final aim is to build a guideline to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interface. During this period, the adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) was studied. Along with these adsorption studies, changes in mineral wettability due to the adsorption were determined under relevant conditions. pH was found to play a critical role in controlling total adsorption and mineral wettability. Previous studies have suggested significant surfactant loss by adsorption at neutral pH. But at certain pH, bilayer was found at lower adsorption density, which is beneficial for enhanced oil recovery. Analytical ultracentrifuge technique was successfully employed to study the micellization of DM/C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na mixtures. Compositional changes of the aggregates in solution were observed when two species were mixed. Surfactant mixture micellization affects the conformation and orientation of adsorption layer at mineral/water interface and thus the wettability and as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes. Three surfactants C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}, AOT and SLE3 and one polymer were selected into three different binary combinations. Equilibrium surface tension measurement revealed complexation of polymer/surfactant under different conditions. Except for one combination of SLE3/ PVCAP, complexation was observed. It is to be noted that such complexation is relevant to both interfacial

  20. Production and characterization of rhamnolipid using palm oil agricultural refinery waste.

    PubMed

    Radzuan, Mohd Nazren; Banat, Ibrahim M; Winterburn, James

    2017-02-01

    In this research we assess the feasibility of using palm oil agricultural refinery waste as a carbon source for the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant through fermentation. The production and characterization of rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 grown on palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) under batch fermentation were investigated. Results show that P. aeruginosa PAO1 can grow and produce 0.43gL(-1) of rhamnolipid using PFAD as the sole carbon source. Identification of the biosurfactant product using mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of monorhamnolipid and dirhamnolipid. The rhamnolipid produced from PFAD were able to reduce surface tension to 29mNm(-1) with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) 420mgL(-1) and emulsify kerosene and sunflower oil, with an emulsion index up to 30%. Results demonstrate that PFAD could be used as a low-cost substrate for rhamnolipid production, utilizing and transforming it into a value added biosurfactant product.

  1. Investigation of sorption interactions between organic and mineral phases of processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Blanche, M. S.; Bowen, J. M.

    1987-11-01

    Minerals and organic compounds representative of oil shale processing wastes were analyzed for potential sorption interactions. The analysis consisted of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry, and laser Raman spectroscopy. Montmorillonite clay was used as a representative of the smectites found in raw and spent shales, and hematite was used as a representative of iron oxide found in spent shales. Benzene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, and pyridine were used as representatives of oil shale process organic wastes. In addition, isopropylamine and dimethyl methylphosphonate, a pesticide model, were studied. A preparation methods comparison study was performed and established the validity of the solid state KBr sample preparation technique upon FTIR spectral quality. The results of this study illustrate the utility of fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis to establish and describe the potential for sorption interactions between inorganic and organic phases of oil shale processing wastes. Experimentation with the laser remain system shows promise for significant contributions in this field of research. 43 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Effect of extrusion ratio on paraffinic mineral oil lubricant in cold forward extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafis, S. M.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Imaduddin Helmi, W. N.; Syahrullail, S.

    2012-06-01

    A finite element (FE) analysis is made for steady-state two-dimensional forward extrusion with three different extrusion ratio values. Predicting extrusion force of aluminum billet extruded with palm oil lubricant will definitely be helpful in deciding the right extrusion ratio. Hence, the finite element method was applied to investigate the influence of extrusion ratio on palm oil lubricant. The extrusion ratios evaluated were 1.5, 2, and 3. The reference of the study was in accordance to the experiment results of 0.1 mg paraffinic mineral oil grade 95 (Pr95) with kinematic viscosity of 90.12 mm2/s at 40 °C for the extrusion ratio of 3. The result was found to be reliable once the FE model was validated by the established work. The extrusion force for each extrusion ratio was described and evaluated. The FE analysis also accounts for plasticity material flow and equivalent plastic strains in the deformation region. The analysis agreed that the extrusion ratio of 1.5 reduced the extrusion force compared to the extrusion ratio of 2 and 3. This was confirmed by the plotted equivalent plastic strain deformation which shows that the high value of equivalent plastic strain near the extrusion die surface was decreased. As a result, the extrusion force becomes greater with the increasing of extrusion ratio.

  3. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    PubMed

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions.

  4. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) and herbicide mineralization potential in groundwater affected by agricultural land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Spliid, Henrik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-10-01

    Diffuse groundwater pollution from agricultural land use may impact the microbial groundwater community, which was investigated as Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using EcoPlate™. Water was sampled from seven piezometers and a spring in a small agricultural catchment with diffuse herbicide and nitrate pollution. Based on the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson's diversity indices the diversity in the microbial communities was high. The response from the EcoPlates™ showed which substrates support groundwater bacteria, and all 31 carbon sources were utilized by organisms from at least one water sample. However, only nine carbon sources were utilized by all water samples: D-Mannitol, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, putrescine, D-galacturonic acid, itaconic acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, tween 40, tween 80, and L-asparagine. In all water samples the microorganisms preferred D-mannitol, D-galacturonic acid, tween 40, and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid as substrates, whereas none preferred 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, α-D-lactose, D,L-α-glycerol phosphate, α-ketobutyric acid, L-threonine and glycyl-L-glutamic acid. Principal Component Analysis of the CLPP's clustered the most agriculturally affected groundwater samples, indicating that the agricultural land use affects the groundwater microbial communities. Furthermore, the ability to mineralize atrazine and isoproturon, which have been used in the catchment, was also associated with this cluster.

  5. Geodynamical model of oil-gas and mineral deposits using RS&GIS Western Uzbekistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, I.

    2006-05-01

    This paper deals with the application of complex study of Remote Sensing images and deep Lithospheric structures to the knowledge of spatial interrelation between regional lineaments and oil-gas and mineral deposits in Uzbekistan. Deciphering of structural units of Uzbekistan territory using space ASTER images allows us to reveal regional, deeprooted lineament, extending in latitudinal direction over Uzbekistan territory and neighboring countries. Thus lineament could penetrate the Earth up to deep Lithosphere layers, inheriting a position of old fault-lineament systems which origin related to Paleocene tectonic processes. The most extended latitudinal lineament is the "Transregional lineament of Central Asia" located within 42-44N zone. It stretches for more than 2000km from Sultan-Uvais mountains (Karakalpakstan), through Kyzylkums and Nurata mountains (Uzbekistan), Turkestan-Alay and Atbashi-Inychek mountains (Kyrgyzstan), to Chinese border with possible extension along the Chinese Tien-Shan. The main objective is to associate the surface «indicators» as geological, geophysical and tectonic base of data using RS&GIS with the purpose toidentify the occurrence special geoobjects of economic interest. Additionally, it will be possible to evaluate geospatial distributions of these altered zones related to morphological structures using Digital Elevation Modelling/DEM/ products of ASTER images. RS&GIS methods were used to determine the interrelations of the volcanic and granitic rocks distribution-mineralization-alteration with the faults-lineaments, circular structures. The alteration zones, the tectonic lines and the Circular structures related to the cones and calderas determined these methods and checked by group truth studies may be target areas to explore for some new oil-gas and ore deposits. As a result, our investigations envelops more then 10 deposits in Western Uzbekistan.In conclusion, it is necessary to note that such structures are well-known in the

  6. Mineral oil certified reference materials for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls from the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ)

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Yoshie; Matsuo, Mayumi; Ishikawa, Keiichiro; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Otsuka, Satoko; Tsuda, Yoko; Yarita, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Four mineral oil certified reference materials (CRMs), NMIJ CRM 7902-a, CRM 7903-a, CRM 7904-a, and CRM 7905-a, have been issued by the National Metrology Institute of Japan, which is part of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST), for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The raw materials for the CRMs were an insulation oil (CRM 7902-a and CRM 7903-a) and a fuel oil (CRM7904-a and CRM 7905-a). A solution of PCB3, PCB8, and technical PCB products, comprising four types of Kaneclor, was added to the oil matrices. The total PCB concentrations in the PCB-fortified oils (CRM 7902-a and CRM 7904-a) are approximately 6 mg kg−1. In addition, the mineral oils which were not fortified with PCBs were also distributed as CRMs (CRM 7903-a and CRM 7905-a). Characterization of these CRMs was conducted by the NMIJ/AIST, where the mineral oils and the PCB solution were analyzed using multiple analytical methods such as dimethylsulfoxide extraction, normal-phase liquid chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and chromatography using sulfoxide-bonded silica; and/or various capillary columns for gas chromatography, and two ionization modes for mass spectrometry. The target compounds in the mineral oils and those in the PCB solution were determined by one of the primary methods of measurement, isotope dilution–mass spectrometry (ID-MS). Certified values have been provided for 11 PCB congeners (PCB3, 8, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180, 194, and 206) in the CRMs. These CRMs have information values for PCB homologue concentrations determined by using a Japanese official method for determination of PCBs in wastes and densities determined with an oscillational density meter. Because oil samples having arbitrary PCB concentrations between respective property values of the PCB-fortified and nonfortified CRMs can be prepared by gravimetric mixing of the CRM pairs, these CRMs can be

  7. Influence of seasonal variability of lower Mississippi River discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity on oil-mineral aggregate formation.

    PubMed

    Danchuk, Samantha; Willson, Clinton S

    2011-07-01

    Under certain conditions, oil droplets that have separated from the main oil slick may become coated by suspended sediments forming oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs). The formation of these aggregates depends on suspended particulate characteristics, temperature, salinity, mixing energy, droplet size and number, and oil properties. The OMAs do not re-coalesce with the slick and tend not to adhere to surfaces, potentially evading surface cleanup measures, enhancing opportunity for biodegradation and reducing shoreline oiling. Potential OMA formation was quantified during four distinct states of the Lower Mississippi River during a typical year using empirical relationships from laboratory and field studies for three common oils and different combinations of discharge, temperature, suspended sediments, and salinity. The largest potential OMA formation for the two lighter oils, up to 36% of the total release volume, was in the winter and spring, when high sediment availability promotes formation. For the denser, high-viscosity oil, the peak potential OMA formation, 9% of the release volume, occurred in the summer, when the salinity was higher. These results provide some evidence that, depending on environmental and spill characteristics, the formation of OMAs could be an important, but unaccounted for, process in the fate and transport of oils released in the Lower Mississippi River and should be included in oil spill dispersion models and post-spill site assessment and remediation actions.

  8. Gastric preloads of corn oil and mineral oil produce different patterns of increases of c-Fos-like immunoreacitve cells in the brain of 9-12 day-old rats.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Sara; Schroeder, Mariana; Malkesman, Oz; Torregrossa, Ann Marie; Smith, Gerard P; Weller, Aron

    2007-02-23

    Equivolumetric gastric preloads of corn oil and mineral oil administered to rats on postnatal day 12 (P12) inhibited intake equally during a 30-min test of independent ingestion (II), but preloads of corn oil inhibited intake significantly more than preloads of mineral oil on P15 and P18 [Weller, A., Gispan, I.H., Armony-Sivan, R., Ritter, R.C., Smith, G.P., 1997. Preloads of corn oil inhibit independent ingestion on postnatal day 15 in rats. Physiol. Behav. 62, 871-874]. It is possible that the equivalent inhibition of intake by the oil preloads on P12 resulted from the failure of the preabsorptive sensory properties of the preloads to be discriminated by peripheral or central sensory mechanisms. To investigate this possibility, we administered equivolumetric gastric preloads of 25% corn oil and 25% mineral oil to pups on P9-12 and counted the number of c-Fos-like immunoreactive (CFLI) cells in central sites that are activated by food intake and postingestive preabsortive mechanisms in adult rats and in pups on P10-11. The major result was that preloads of 25% corn oil and 25% mineral oil that produced equivalent inhibition of II intake produced differential increases of CFLI cells in the forebrain and hindbrain. Specifically, preloads of corn oil increased the number of CFLI cells in the caudal Nucleus Tractus Solitarius significantly more than preloads of mineral oil. Furthermore, preloads of corn oil increased the number of CFLI cells in the Paraventricular and Supraoptic nuclei, but preloads of mineral oil did not. This differential pattern of increases of CFLI cells is evidence that the brain discriminates the preabsorptive sensory properties of preloads of corn oil and mineral oil on P9-12.

  9. Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect

    Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

    1998-04-30

    Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

  10. Cavitation Erosion of Copper, Brass, Aluminum and Titanium Alloys in Mineral Oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The variations of the mean depth of penetration, the mean depth rate of penetration, MDRP, the pit diameter 2a and depth h due to cavitation attack on Al 6061-T6, Cu, brass of composition Cu-35Zn-3Pb and Ti-5A1-2.5Sn are presented. The experiments are conducted in a mineral oil of viscosity 110 CS using a magnetostrictive oscillator of 20 kHz frequency. Based on MDRP on the materials, it is found that Ti-5Al-2.5Sn exhibits cavitation erosion resistance which is two orders of magnitude higher than the other three materials. The values of h/a are the largest for copper and decreased with brass, titanium, and aluminum. Scanning electron microscope studies show that extensive slip and cross slip occurred on the surface prior to pitting and erosion. Twinning is also observed on copper and brass.

  11. Influence of mineral oil and additives on microhardness and surface chemistry of magnesium oxide (001) surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Shigaki, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted with cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved into specimens along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in laboratory air, in nitrogen gas, or in degassed mineral oil with and without an additive while not exposing specimen surface to any other environment. The various additives examined contained sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, or oleic acid. The sulfur-containing additive exhibited the highest hardness and smallest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation; the chlorine-containing additive exhibited the lowest hardness and largest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation. Hydrocarbon and chloride (MgCl2) films formed on the magnesium oxide surface. A chloride film was responsible for the lowest measured hardness.

  12. MINERAL-SURFACTANT INTERACTIONS FOR MINIMUM REAGENTS PRECIPITATION AND ADSORPTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2006-04-30

    During this reporting period, further fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanism of the interactions between surfactants and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of pH and mixing ratio on the chemical loss by adsorption were investigated. Some preliminary modeling work has been done towards the aim of developing a guide book to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interfaces. The study of adsorption of mixed system of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside (DM) and dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na) was continued during this period. Based on the adsorption results, the effects of pH and mixing ratio on reagent loss were quantitatively evaluated. Adsorption of dodecyl maltoside showed a maximum at certain mixing ratio at low pH (3{approx}5), while adsorption of dodecyl maltoside steadily decreased with the increase in C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na. Analytical ultracentrifuge technique was employed to study the micellization of DM/C{sub 12}SO{sub 3}Na mixtures. Compositional changes of the aggregates were observed the mixing ratio of the components. Surfactant mixture micellization affects the conformation and orientation of adsorption layer at mineral/water interface and thus the wettability and as a result, the oil release efficiency of the chemical flooding processes. A preliminary term, Reagent Loss Index (RLI), has been proposed to represent the adsorption of all the surfactants in a standardized framework for the development of the models. Previously reported adsorption data have been analyzed using the theoretical framework for the preparation of a guidebook to help optimization of chemical combinations and selection of reagent scheme for enhanced oil recovery.

  13. Liquid Organic Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture: Nutrient Uptake of Organic versus Mineral Fertilizers in Citrus Trees.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Bermejo, Almudena; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots). Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content (fructose, glucose and sucrose) mainly in summer flush leaves. Liquid organic fertilization also resulted in an increase of soil organic matter content. Animal-based fertilizer, due to intrinsic composition, increased total tree biomass and carbohydrate leaves content, and led to lower soil nitrate concentration and higher P and Mg exchangeable in soil extract compared to vegetal-based fertilizer. Therefore, liquid organic fertilizers could be used as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilization in drip irrigated citrus trees.

  14. Liquid Organic Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture: Nutrient Uptake of Organic versus Mineral Fertilizers in Citrus Trees

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Bermejo, Almudena; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots). Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content (fructose, glucose and sucrose) mainly in summer flush leaves. Liquid organic fertilization also resulted in an increase of soil organic matter content. Animal-based fertilizer, due to intrinsic composition, increased total tree biomass and carbohydrate leaves content, and led to lower soil nitrate concentration and higher P and Mg exchangeable in soil extract compared to vegetal-based fertilizer. Therefore, liquid organic fertilizers could be used as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilization in drip irrigated citrus trees. PMID:27764099

  15. Influence of mineral, olive or sunflower oils on male reproductive parameters in vitro--the wild rodent Calomys laucha.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, T F; Varela, A S; Silva, E F; Vilela, J; Hartmann, A; Jardim, R D; Colares, E P; Corcini, C D

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of oils on male reproductive parameters in Calomys laucha. Twenty-four animals were distributed into four groups and given the following substances by gavage: water, mineral oil, olive oil and sunflower oil. After 10 days of gavage, the animals were euthanised and the semen was collected from them for assessing acrosome integrity and carrying out in vitro penetration (IVP) test. Acrosome was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) for the vehicles in relation to control. In vitro penetration was reduced in all vehicles in relation to control, but only sunflower oil had statistically lower levels of reduction (P < 0.05). Oily vehicles are able to influence in vitro reproductive tests negatively, interfering in reproductive toxicological studies.

  16. Optical modeling of agricultural fields and rough-textured rock and mineral surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suits, G. H.; Vincent, R. K.; Horwitz, H. M.; Erickson, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Review was made of past models for describing the reflectance and/or emittance properties of agricultural/forestry and geological targets in an effort to select the best theoretical models. An extension of the six parameter Allen-Gayle-Richardson model was chosen as the agricultural plant canopy model. The model is used to predict the bidirectional reflectance of a field crop from known laboratory spectra of crop components and approximate plant geometry. The selected geological model is based on Mie theory and radiative transfer equations, and will assess the effect of textural variations of the spectral emittance of natural rock surfaces.

  17. Seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals concentration as affected by foliar K-glyphosate application in soybean cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies showed that glyphosate (Gly) may chelate cation nutrients, including potassium (K), which might affect the nutritional status of soybean seed. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals) as influenced by foliar applications ...

  18. Theoretical investigation of isotope exchange reaction in tritium-contaminated mineral oil in vacuum pump.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Xie, Yun; Du, Liang; Li, Weiyi; Tan, Zhaoyi

    2015-04-28

    The mechanism of the isotope exchange reaction between molecular tritium and several typical organic molecules in vacuum pump mineral oil has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT), and the reaction rates are determined by conventional transition state theory (TST). The tritium-hydrogen isotope exchange reaction can proceed with two different mechanisms, the direct T-H exchange mechanism and the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism. In the direct exchange mechanism, the titrated product is obtained through one-step via a four-membered ring hydrogen migration transition state. In the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism, the T-H exchange could be accomplished by the hydrogenation of the unsaturated bond with tritium followed by the dehydrogenation of HT. Isotope exchange between hydrogen and tritium is selective, and oil containing molecules with OH and COOH groups can more easily exchange hydrogen for tritium. For aldehydes and ketones, the ability of T-H isotope exchange can be determined by the hydrogenation of T2 or the dehydrogenation of HT. The molecules containing one type of hydrogen provide a single product, while the molecules containing different types of hydrogens provide competitive products. The rate constants are presented to quantitatively estimate the selectivity of the products.

  19. [Biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons and dynamics of microbe growth in soils contaminated with mineral oil].

    PubMed

    Song, Xue-ying; Song, Yu-fang; Sun, Tie-heng; Zhou, Qi-xing

    2004-05-01

    Some bacteria and fungi selected from brown soil contaminated with petroleum were taken as test microbes. Degradation of mineral oil, by different combinations of microbes and the correlation between the degradation rate and microbial growth were studied. The bacteria and fungi were inoculated to a liquid substrate spiked with 1000 milligrams diesel-oil per liter. The temperature of rocking-bed was controlled at 25 to 30 centigrade and the experiment continued for 100 days. From 0 to 60 hours it was sampled continuously to monitor the dynamic of microbial growth, and sampled termly from 5 to 100 days to study the growth of microbes and the dynamic of degradation rate. At the same time, the suspension of 0 to 20 centimeters of topsoil of the meadow umber was taken as soil microbial control, and the culture without microbes as blank control. Results showed that degradation effect of the introduced microbes were superior to that of the indigenous microbes in short term (about 20 days), while the advantage of indigenous microbes got stronger and stronger, and the predominance maintained until the experiment was stopped. At the end of the experiment the degradation rate in the treatment of indigenous microbes reached 79.24%, which was above the results of other 3 treatments, and the difference was significant.

  20. Greenhouse gas fluxes of drained organic and flooded mineral agricultural soils in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drained organic soils for agriculture represent less than 1% of the area used for crops in the United States (US). However, emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from microbial oxidation of drained organic soils offsets almost half of the contributions that carbon sequestration of other cropping systems ...

  1. Quantitative analysis of alteration mineral content and characteristic spectra of Hyperion image at oil and gas microseepage area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Na; Chen, Xiaomei; Li, Qianqian

    2015-08-01

    With Sanhu region of Qaidam Basin as the test area and the mineral compositions and hyperspectral remote sensing images as test data, the present paper sets up the quantitative relationships between clay and carbonate of altered minerals caused by oil and gas microseepage and the characteristic parameters from hyperspectral remote sensing image. To get the quantitative relationships between these characteristic parameters and contents, the statistical regression method is used after the spectral characteristics extraction from Hyperion image. The research results show the contents of clay and carbonate have a high degree fitting with the depth of spectral absorption peak, while there are low correlations between other characteristic parameters and the contents. This conclusion provides references for using the hyperspectral remote sensing information to explore the oil and gas direct and lessening or even getting rid of the groundwork, and provides a statistical basis for inversing the surface mineral contents with the hyperspectral remote sensing image.

  2. A note on the use of the CEC L-33-A-93 test to predict the potential biodegradation of mineral oil based lubricants in soil.

    PubMed

    Battersby, N S; Morgan, P

    1997-10-01

    The biodegradabilities of five unformulated mineral oils (brightstock, 150 SN base oil, white oil and two gas oils) were determined in the CEC L-33-A-93 test and during 20 weeks incubation in nutrient-supplemented soil microcosms. Biodegradation in both studies was measured as the loss of extractable hydrocarbon ('primary' biodegradation). There was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) rectilinear relationship between the extents of biodegradation in both test systems. The results indicate that the CEC method could be used as a relatively simple, quick and inexpensive test for assessing the potential biodegradation of mineral oil based lubricants in soil.

  3. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine

  4. Effects of land use on fresh waters: Agriculture, forestry, mineral exploitation, urbanisation

    SciTech Connect

    Solbe, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This book offers a broad consideration of the effects of land use on fresh waters above and below ground. Experts address a wide range of issues in relation to the four major uses of land. Taken from an international conference held at the University of Stirling in 1985, coverage includes sewerage and waste-water treatment, long-term contamination of aquifers below cities, mineral exploitation, use of water in food production, wood production and more. Remedies and areas requiring further study are outlined.

  5. Calibration of Mineralization Degree for Dynamic Pure-water Measurement in Horizontal Oil-water Two-phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weihang; Li, Lei; Kong, Lingfu; Liu, Xingbin

    2016-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity measurement in the process of calculating water content of oil-water two-phase flow of production profile logging in horizontal wells, a six-group local-conductance probe (SGLCP) is proposed to measure dynamic pure-water electrical conductivity in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow. The structures of conductance sensors which include the SGLCP and ring-shaped conductance probe (RSCP) are analyzed by using the finite-element method (FEM). In the process of simulation, the electric field distribution generated by the SGLCP and RSCP are investigated, and the responses of the measuring electrodes are calculated under the different values of the water resistivity. The static experiments of the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. Results of simulation and experiments demonstrate a nice linearity between the SGLCP and RSCP under different mineralization degrees. The SGLCP has also a good adaptability to stratified flow, stratified flow with mixing at the interface and dispersion of oil in water and water flow. The validity and feasibility of pure-water electrical conductivity measurement with the designed SGLCP under different mineralization degrees are verified by experimental results.

  6. Oil cakes - a by-product of agriculture industry as a fortificant in bakery products.

    PubMed

    Behera, Satyabadi; Indumathi, K; Mahadevamma, S; Sudha, M L

    2013-11-01

    Groundnut cake (GNC) and soybean cake (SBC) by-product of agriculture industry had protein and protein digestibility in the range of 42.7-50.5 and 71.3-76.8%, respectively. Polyphenols present in GNC and SBC were cholorogenic acid, syringic acid and p-coumaric acid. The number of bands separated in soybean meal was greater than the bands observed in GNC flour as seen in SDS-PAGE pattern, respectively. SEM of groundnut flour showed distension of protein bodies due to roasting of the oil cakes. The water absorption of wheat flour GNC blends decreased from 59.2 to 57.3% and increased in wheat flour SBC blends from 59.2 to 68.3% with an increase in oil cake from 0 to 20%. With increase in either GNC or SBC, the biscuits became harder. Addition of glycerol monostearate and sodium stearoyl lactylate in combination with 20% blend of GNC/SBC decreased the breaking strength values and increased the sensory parameters of the biscuits. Nutritionally rich biscuits were thus prepared by incorporating GNC/SBC.

  7. Fingerprinting aliphatic hydrocarbon pollutants over agricultural lands surrounding Tehran oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Javad; Hashemi, Seyed Hossein; Khoshbakht, Korros; Deihimfard, Reza

    2016-11-01

    The analysis of aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are composed of n-alkanes as well as branched and cyclic alkanes, can be used to distinguish between the sources of hydrocarbon contamination. In this study, the concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons, soil pH, and organic matter in agricultural soils located south of Tehran were monitored. Eighty-three soil samples were taken from two depth ranges of 0-30 and 30-60 cm. The results showed that aliphatic compounds ranged from 0.22-68.11 mg kg(-1) at the top to 0.33-53.18 mg kg(-1) at subsoil. The amount of hydrocarbons increases from the northern parts toward the south, and hydrocarbon pollutants originated from both petroleum and non-petroleum sources. Higher concentrations of aliphatic compounds in the southern parts indicated that, aside from the practice of irrigating with untreated wastewater, leakage from oil refinery storage tanks possibly contributed to soil pollution. The results also showed that several sources have polluted the agricultural soils. It is necessary to develop a new local pollution criterion as a diagnostic index that includes not only hydrocarbons but also other parameters such as heavy metal content in both soil and untreated wastewater, surface runoff, and other irrigation water resources to determine the exact origin of pollution.

  8. Water and sediment quality in a tropical swamp used for agricultural and oil refining activities.

    PubMed

    Norville, Wendy; Banjoo, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    The Godineau Swamp in Trinidad receives anthropogenic input from agricultural and oil refining activities, sewage and domestic waste. This study was conducted in order to provide a comprehensive baseline dataset for the swamp, to assess water and sediment quality in the swamp, and to identify hotspots and possible sources of pollutants to the swamp. Ten sampling stations were established in the swamp during April/May and July 2002. Water quality parameters monitored included physicochemical measurements (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and salinity), total suspended solids, and nutrients (ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and total phosphorus). Sediments were analyzed for hydrocarbons, heavy metals and total organic carbon. Temperatures and pH of water in the swamp were ambient; dissolved oxygen was low in many instances (<3 mg/L). In the dry season, there was saltwater intrusion along the Oropuche River up to the most easterly station. Levels of ammonia and phosphorus concentrations were suggestive of periodic inputs of agricultural and domestic wastes. Hydrocarbons concentrations in sediment were above ambient levels and suggestive of contamination from industrial activities. Sediments from the Godineau River contained elevated nutrients, hydrocarbons, metals and TOC compared with other stations. The results of this study indicate some degree of pollution of the Godineau swamp, which prompts the need for the implementation of measures beneficial for wise use of the swamp.

  9. Elimination of PBBs in rats. Effect of mineral oil and/or feed restriction

    SciTech Connect

    Polin, D.; Bursian, S.J.; Underwood, M.S.; Wiggers, P.A.; Biondo, N.; Su, I.; Braselton, W.E.; Render, J.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Rats were fed polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) at 0.1 to 100.0 ppm for 14 d and then treated to hasten the removal of PBBs with 0, 5, or 10% mineral oil (MO) and/or 0, 15, 30, or 45% feed restriction (FR) for 21 d. PBB body burdens were determined at d 14 and expressed on a log-log basis by Y = 0.91x + 2.179 (r2 = 0.974), where x = log of PBB concentration in diet (ppm) and Y = log of PBB body burden (micrograms). After 21 d withdrawal, body burdens were expressed by the equation Y = 0.787x + 2.218 (r2 = 0.95). The most effective withdrawal treatment was 10% MO + 45% FR producing a reduction of body burdens inversely related to prior body burdens (69% at 0.1 ppm to 23% at 100 ppm). Body weights and fat content were significantly (p less than or equal to .05) reduced by feed restriction, with fat content only 39% of controls at 21 d off. Mortality averaged 0, 13.6, and 35.8% for rats fed 0, 5, or 10% MO, and 25, 15, 8.6, and 3.7% for rats feed restricted at 0, 15, 30, and 45%, respectively. Histopathology of the dead and moribund rats indicated that the clinical signs were not characteristic of PBB toxicity. In a second experiment, safflower oil at 3.5% or excess vitamins prevented the mortality and clinical signs associated with MO during withdrawal from 100 ppm PBBs. Based on these data and those in the literature, PBBs interfere with vitamin utilization.

  10. The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Burns, Kathryn A; Heyward, Andrew J

    2004-05-01

    Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 microg l(-1) total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 microg l(-1) THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 microg l(-1) and 37 microg l(-1) THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 microg l(-1).

  11. Microbial biomass and carbon mineralization in agricultural soils as affected by pesticide addition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anjani; Nayak, A K; Shukla, Arvind K; Panda, B B; Raja, R; Shahid, Mohammad; Tripathi, Rahul; Mohanty, Sangita; Rath, P C

    2012-04-01

    A laboratory study was conducted with four pesticides, viz. a fungicide (carbendazim), two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and cartap hydrochloride) and an herbicide (pretilachlor) applied to a sandy clay loam soil at a field rate to determine their effect on microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and carbon mineralization (C(min)). The MBC content of soil increased with time up to 30 days in cartap hydrochloride as well as chlorpyrifos treated soil. Thereafter, it decreased and reached close to the initial level by 90th day. However, in carbendazim treated soil, the MBC showed a decreasing trend up to 45 days and subsequently increased up to 90 days. In pretilachlor treated soil, MBC increased through the first 15 days, and thereafter decreased to the initial level. Application of carbendazim, chlorpyrifos and cartap hydrochloride decreased C(min) for the first 30 days and then increased afterwards, while pretilachlor treated soil showed an increasing trend.

  12. Quantitative characterization of crude oils and fuels in mineral substrates using reflectance spectroscopy: Implications for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafutto, Rebecca Del'Papa Moreira; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto de

    2016-08-01

    The near and shortwave infrared spectral reflectance properties of several mineral substrates impregnated with crude oils (°APIs 19.2, 27.5 and 43.2), diesel, gasoline and ethanol were measured and assembled in a spectral library. These data were examined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression. Unique and characteristic absorption features were identified in the mixtures, besides variations of the spectral signatures related to the compositional difference of the crude oils and fuels. These features were used for qualitative and quantitative determination of the contaminant impregnated in the substrates. Specific wavelengths, where key absorption bands occur, were used for the individual characterization of oils and fuels. The intensity of these features can be correlated to the abundance of the contaminant in the mixtures. Grain size and composition of the impregnated substrate directly influence the variation of the spectral signatures. PCA models applied to the spectral library proved able to differentiate the type and density of the hydrocarbons. The calibration models generated by PLS are robust, of high quality and can also be used to predict the concentration of oils and fuels in mixtures with mineral substrates. Such data and models are employable as a reference for classifying unknown samples of contaminated substrates. The results of this study have important implications for onshore exploration and environmental monitoring of oil and fuels leaks using proximal and far range multispectral, hyperspectral and ultraespectral remote sensing.

  13. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on mineralization and mobility of nonylphenol and sodium dodecyl sulfate in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillotte, Julia; Marschner, Bernd; Stumpe, Britta

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the major scientific research fields in this decade. One of the most wide-spread nanomaterials are carbon based nanoparticles (CNPs) which are increasingly be used in industry. Several studies shows that CNPs are interacting with other chemical compounds and organic pollutants in the environment. It is assumed that the interactions between CNPs and organic pollutants are affected by solution and aggregate behavior. Based on the knowledge of the behavior of CNPs and organic pollutants in aquatic systems the interactions of CNPs and organic pollutants in agricultural soils have to be studied. As organic pollutants two environmental substances, nonylphenol (NP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were selected as model substances. They occur frequently in aqueous systems and also show different solubility behavior. As CNP representatives, two different multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were selected. They differed either in length or outer diameter. Conclusions therefrom are to be closed the influence of length and diameter of the sorption capacity of different organic pollutants. In addition, two agricultural soils (sandy and silty soil) and one forest soil (sandy soil) were chosen. Mineralization and sorption experiments were conducted to provide information about the degradation of organic pollutants in presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in soils. To analyze the CNPs mineralization potential, peroxidase activity was measured. Further extraction experiments were conducted to detect the extractable part of organic pollutants. The results show that the surface area of the MWNT has a significant impact on the sorption behav-ior of NP and SDS in soils. The sorption of NP and SDS is much higher than without MWNT. However, the properties of the organic pollutants (different water solubility and hydrophobicity) are equally important and should be noted. The degradation of both pollutants is influenced by MWNT. Due to the strong sorption of

  14. Tribological study of a highly hydrolytically stable phenylboronic acid ester containing benzothiazolyl in mineral oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhipeng; Li, Xiufeng; Zhang, Yawen; Ren, Tianhui; Zhao, Yidong; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van der Heide, E.

    2014-07-01

    A novel long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester containing heterocyclic compound, bis (1-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio) propan-2-yl)-4-dodecylphenylboronic acid ester (DBBMT), was synthesized and characterized. The hydrolytic stability of the DBBMT was evaluated and the results show that DBBMT is of outstanding hydrolytic stability compared with normal borate esters, which indicates that the designed molecular structure, by introducing benzene ring to conjugate with the electron-deficient boron and the benzothiazole as a hinder group, is effective on obtaining a hydrolytically stable long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester. The tribological properties of DBBMT and ZDDP in mineral base oil were evaluated using a four-ball tribometer, which suggests that the DBBMT possesses comprehensive tribological properties and could be a potential candidate for the replacement of ZDDP. Furthermore, in order to understand the tribological behaviors, the worn surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results indicate that the elements S, B, O and Fe perform complicated tribochemical reactions to form the compact tribological film composed of B2O3, FeS, Fe3O4 and FeSO4.

  15. Determination of the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Kumi; Ogimoto, Mami

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants; a survey was also conducted of commercial lubricants. Hydrocarbons in lubricants were separated from the matrix components of lubricants using a silica gel solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) and a refractive index detector (RID) was used to estimate carbon numbers and the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons, which supplemented the results obtained by NPLC/ELSD. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected in 12 lubricants specified for use for incidental food contact, but were detected in 13 out of 22 lubricants non-specified for incidental food contact at a ratio up to 18%. They were also detected in 10 out of 12 lubricants collected at food factories at a ratio up to 13%. The centre carbon numbers of hydrocarbons in commercial lubricants were estimated to be between C16 and C50.

  16. Characterization of erosion of metallic materials under cavitation attack in a mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Cavitation erosion and erosion rates of eight metallic materials representing three crystal structures were studied. The erosion experiments were conducted with a 20-kHz ultrasonic magnetostrictive oscillator in a viscous mineral oil. The erosion rates of the metals with an fcc matrix were 10 to 100 times higher than that of an hop-matrix titanium alloy. The erosion rates of iron and molybdenum, with bcc matrices, were higher than that of the titanium alloy but lower than those of those of the fcc materials. Studies with scanning electron microscopy indicated that the cavitation pits were initially formed at the grain boundaries and precipitates and that the pits formed at the junction of grain boundaries grew faster than the others. Transcrystalline craters formed by cavitation attack over the surface of grains and roughened the surfaces by multiple slip and twinning. Surface roughness measurements showed that the pits that formed over the grain boundaries deepened faster than pits. Computer analysis revealed that a geometric expression describes the nondimensional erosion curves during the time period 0.5 t (sub 0) t 2.5 t (sub 0), where t (sub 0) is the incubation period. The fcc metals had very short incubation periods; the titanium alloy had the longest incubation period.

  17. Characterization of erosion of metallic materials under cavitation attack in a mineral oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Cavitation erosion and erosion rates of eight metallic materials representing three crystal structures were studied using a 20-kHz ultrasonic magnetostrictive oscillator in viscous mineral oil. The erosion rates of the metals with an fcc matrix were 10 to 100 times higher than that of an hcp-matrix titanium alloy. The erosion rates of iron and molybdenum, with bcc matrices, were higher than that of the titanium alloy but lower than those of the fcc metals. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the cavitation pits are initially formed at the grain boundaries and precipitates and that the pits that formed at the triple points grew faster than the others. Transcrystalline craters formed by cavitation attack over the surface of grains and roughened the surfaces by multiple slip and twinning. Surface roughness measurements show that the pits that formed over the grain boundaries deepended faster than other pits. Computer analysis revealed that a geometric expression describes the nondimensional erosion curves during the time period 0.5 t(0) t 2.5 t(0), where t(0) is the incubation period. The fcc metals had very short incubation periods; the titanium alloy had the longest incubation period.

  18. Evaluation of the lubrication properties of biodegradable fluids and their potential to replace mineral oil in heavily loaded hydrostatic transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, D.G.; Hinrichs, J.

    1997-12-31

    Increasing public interest in the environmental impact of technical machinery has led to the development of new hydraulic fluids. In case of leakage these fluids pose less of an environmental threat than mineral oil, because they degrade faster and are less toxic or non-toxic. The following paper describes methods and results of laboratory tests with these new, so called biodegradable fluids, in a hydrostatic transmission on a flywheel testing under high load conditions.

  19. Effect of dietary supplementation of essential oils mixture on performance, eggshell quality, hatchability, and mineral excretion in quail breeders.

    PubMed

    Olgun, Osman; Yıldız, Alp Önder

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of six different levels (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) of phytogenic feed additive containing a mixture essential oils from thyme, black cumin, fennel, anise and rosemary on performance, eggshell quality, reproductive traits, and mineral excretion in quail breeders. In this trial, a total of 60 male and 120 female quails, 91 days old, were randomly distributed in six experimental groups. During the 60-day experiment period, birds were fed with six treatment diets. Performances, eggshell qualities, hatchability, and mineral excretion data were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the different dietary levels of essential oil mixture had no significant effect on performance parameters, damaged eggs, eggshell weight, fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability of set eggs, and lead and boron excretion. On the other hand, 50 mg/kg supplementation of essential oil mixture (EOM) significantly improved egg-breaking strength and eggshell thickness, and ash, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and cadmium excretion was significantly depressed in quail breeders supplemented with the two higher doses (400 or 600 mg/kg) of EOM. These results concluded that supplementing diets with EOM improved egg-breaking strength and decreased excretion of minerals in breeder quails.

  20. Study of scintillation, fluorescence and scattering in mineral oil for the MiniBooNE neutrino detector

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Bruce C.; Brice, Stephen; Hawker, Eric; Maza, Shannon; Meyer, Hans-Otto; Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Tayloe, Rex; Tanaka, Hirohisa A.; Toptygin, Dmitri; /Fermilab /Western Illinois U. /Indiana U. /Princeton U. /Johns Hopkins U.

    2004-11-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector at Fermilab (FNAL) is filled with 250,000 gallons of pure mineral oil. The principal signal for MiniBooNE is light observed in a prompt Cherenkov cone. Scattering and fluorescence modify our detection of this light. Scintillation is also created by ionization in the oil. Studies of fluorescence of this oil have been carried out over a wide spectrum of exciting light and time resolved fluorescence with a narrower range of excitation. Polarized scattering measurements have been carried out at longer wavelengths. Time resolved and spectrally resolved scintillation has been studied with a 200 MeV Proton beam at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Results of these studies will be reported.

  1. [Study on the concentration of mineral oil in water by online intelligent detection based on fluorescence spectrum].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuan-he; Liu, Qing-song; Ivieng, Lei; Liu, Han-chen; Liu, Qian; Li, Cun-xia

    2015-02-01

    In order to monitor the oil pollution of water real time and accurately for the environmental protection, an intelligent online detection system for the mineral oil in water is put forward in the present paper, based on the technology of ultraviolet fluorescence and internet of things (IOT). For this system, the resolution can be improved by using the higher precision asymmetric Czemy-Turner monochromator; the impact of light fluctuations on the results of exploration can be corrected by a bunch reference light; the optical system deviation caused by the instrument vibration can be reduced by optical fiber transmission; the coupling efficiency of fiber and output signal can be increased by a special fiber beam; the real-time measurement, data processing and remote control can be achieved by the control module and wireless communication module. This system has characteristics of high integration, high precision and good stability etc. The concentration of the unknown sample can be accurately calculated by the methods of parallel algorithms of chemometric metrology and the calculation errors caused by different components can be reduced by the theory of chemical correction factor analysis. The fluorescence spectra of three kinds of sample solution, diesel, engine and crude oil in preparative concentration of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg x L(-1) were measured by this system respectively. The absorption wavelengths of the above-mentioned three oils were measured to be 256, 365 and 397 nm by a grating spectrometer; their absorbances were measured to be 0.028, 0.036 and 0.041 by fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. Their fluorescence emission wavelengths are 355, 419 and 457 nm respectively. Finally the concentration detection limits of the mineral oil in water of diesel, engine and crude oil were obtained, i.e., 0.03, 0.04 and 0.06 mg x L(-1) respectively. Their relative errors are 2.1%, 1.0% and 2.8% respectively.

  2. Effects of packaging, mineral oil coating, and storage time on biogenic amine levels and internal quality of eggs.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, T C; Assis, D C S; Menezes, L D M; Oliveira, D D; Lima, A L; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effects of mineral oil application on eggshells and the use of plastic packages with lids on the physical-chemical and microbiological quality and biogenic amine contents of eggs stored under refrigeration for up to 125 d. A total of 1,920 eggs from 46-wk-old Hyline W36 laying hens were randomly distributed into 4 groups soon after classification: (i) 480 eggs were stored in pulp carton tray packages; (ii) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids; (iii) 480 eggs were stored in carton packages after the application of mineral oil; and (iv) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids after the application of mineral oil. The internal quality was measured by Haugh units, by the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms, by the most probable number of total and thermal-tolerant coliforms, by the counts of molds and yeasts, by the analysis of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp., and by the levels of biogenic amines in the egg yolk and albumen. The application of mineral oil to the eggshell resulted in higher Haugh unit values throughout storage, and the use of plastic packages altered the internal quality. The application of mineral oil and the use of packaging had no effects on the microbiological and biogenic amine results. Microbiological analyses showed the absence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, thermal-tolerant coliforms, and fungi. However, the highest counts of mesophilic (1.1 × 10(7) cfu/g) and psychrotrophic (6.7 × 10(7) cfu/g) microorganisms were recorded. The highest values of biogenic amines detected and quantified were putrescine (2.38 mg/kg) and cadaverine (7.27 mg/kg) in the egg yolk and putrescine (1.95 mg/kg), cadaverine (2.83 mg/kg), and phenylethylamine (2.57 mg/kg) in the albumen. Despite these results, the biogenic amine levels recorded were considered low and would not be harmful to consumer health.

  3. Comparison of methods for the measurement of mist and vapor from light mineral oil-based metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Andrew T

    2003-11-01

    The measurement of oil mist derived from metalworking fluids formulated with light mineral oils can be highly inaccurate when using traditional filter sampling. This is due to evaporation of oil from the filter. In this work the practicability of an alternative approach measuring total oil mist and vapor was investigated. Combinations of inhalable particle samplers with backup sorbent vapor traps and standard vapor sampling on pumped and diffusive sorbent tubes were evaluated with gravimetric, infrared spectroscopic, and gas chromatographic analytical methods against the performance requirements of European Standard EN 482. An artificial aerosol was used to compare the methods against a reference method of filter sampler in series with three impingers. Multi-orifice samplers were used with standard 8-mm diameter charcoal tubes at 2 L/min without any signs of channelling or significant breakthrough, as were conical inhalable samplers with XAD-2 tubes at 1 L/min. Most combinations of samplers had a bias of less than 3 percent, but solitary pumped charcoal tubes underestimated total oil by 13 percent. Diffusive sampling was affected by impaction of mist particles and condensation of oil vapor. Gravimetric analysis of filters revealed significant potential sample loss during storage, with 4 percent being lost after one day when stored at room temperature and 2 percent when refrigerated. Samples left overnight in the balance room to equilibrate lost 24 percent. Infrared spectroscopy gave more precise results for vapor than gas chromatography (p = 0.002). Gas chromatography was less susceptible to bias from contaminating solvent vapors than infrared spectroscopy, but was still vulnerable to petroleum distillates. Under the specific test conditions (one oil type and mist particle size), all combinations of methods examined complied with the requirements of European Standard EN 484. Total airborne oil can be measured accurately; however, care must be taken to avoid

  4. IMPACTS OF IRON, NUTRIENTS, AND MINERAL FINES ON ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF CANOLA OIL IN FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors affecting anaerobic biodegradation kinetics of canola oil in freshwater sediments were investigated. An optimum dose of ferric hydroxide (10.5 g Fe(III)·kg-1 sediment) was found to stimulate anaerobic biodegradation of canola oil (18.6 g oil kg-1). ...

  5. In-place oil shale resources in the saline-mineral and saline-leached intervals, Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Dietrich, John D.

    2014-01-01

    A recent U.S. Geological Survey analysis of the Green River Formation of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado shows that about 920 and 352 billion barrels of oil are potentially recoverable from oil shale resources using oil-yield cutoffs of 15 and 25 gallons per ton (GPT), respectively. This represents most of the high-grade oil shale in the United States. Much of this rich oil shale is found in the dolomitic Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation and is associated with the saline minerals nahcolite and halite, or in the interval where these minerals have been leached by groundwater. The remaining high-grade resource is located primarily in the underlying illitic Garden Gulch Member of the Green River Formation. Of the 352 billion barrels of potentially recoverable oil resources in high-grade (≥25 GPT) oil shale, the relative proportions present in the illitic interval, non-saline R-2 zone, saline-mineral interval, leached interval (excluding leached Mahogany zone), and Mahogany zone were 3.1, 4.5, 36.6, 23.9, and 29.9 percent of the total, respectively. Only 2 percent of high-grade oil shale is present in marginal areas where saline minerals were never deposited.

  6. Cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral status in near-isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) lines expressing fuzzy/linted and fuzzless/linted seed phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an important crop in the world and is a major source of oil for human consumption and cotton meal for livestock. Cottonseed composition constituents (protein, oil, and minerals) determine the quality of seeds. Therefore, maintaining optimum levels of cottonseed constituents is critical. Ph...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-PHASE AND MULTI-COMPONENT FLOW MODEL WITH REACTION IN POROUS MEDIA FOR RISK ASSESSMENT ON SOIL CONTAMINATION DUE TO MINERAL OIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Yasuhide; Nishiwaki, Junko; Hara, Junko; Kawabe, Yoshishige; Sugai, Yuichi; Komai, Takeshi

    In late years, soil contamination due to mineral oil in vacant lots of oil factory and oil field has become obvious. Measure for soil contamina tion and risk assessment are neces sary for sustainable development of industrial activity. Especially, in addition to contaminated sites, various exposure paths for human body such as well water, soil and farm crop are supposed. So it is very important to comprehend the transport phenomena of contaminated material under the environments of soil and ground water. In this study, mineral oil as c ontaminated material consisting of mu lti-component such as aliphatic and aromatic series was modeled. Then numerical mode l for transport phenomena in surface soil and aquifer was constructed. On the basis of modeling for mineral oil, our numerical model consists of three-phase (oil, water and gas) forty three-component. This numerical model becomes base program for risk assessment system on soil contamination due to mineral oil. Using this numerical model, we carried out some numerical simulation for a laboratory-scale experiment on oil-water multi-phase flow. Relative permeability that dominate flow behavior in multi-phase condition was formulated and the validity of the numerical model developed in this study was considered.

  8. The interactions of squalene, alkanes and other mineral oils with model membranes; effects on membrane heterogeneity and function.

    PubMed

    Richens, Joanna L; Lane, Jordan S; Mather, Melissa L; O'Shea, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) offer many favourable facets as an artificial membrane system but the influence of any residual oil that remains in the bilayer following preparation is ill-defined. In this study the fluorescent membrane probes di-8-butyl-amino-naphthyl-ethylene-pyridinium-propyl-sulfonate (Di-8-ANEPPS) and Fluoresceinphosphatidylethanolamine (FPE) were used to help understand the nature of the phospholipid-oil interaction and to examine any structural and functional consequences of such interactions on membrane bilayer properties. Concentration-dependent modifications of the membrane dipole potential were found to occur in phospholipid vesicles exposed to a variety of different oils. Incorporation of oil into the lipid bilayer was shown to have no significant effect on the movement of fatty acids across the lipid bilayer. Changes in membrane heterogeneity were, however, demonstrated with increased microdomain formation being visible in the bilayer following exposure to mineral oil, pentadecane and squalene. As it is important that artificial systems provide an accurate representation of the membrane environment, careful consideration should be taken prior to the application of DIBs in studies of membrane structure and organisation.

  9. Multiple regression modelling of mineral base oil biodegradability based on their physical properties and overall chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Haus, Frédérique; Boissel, Olivier; Junter, Guy Alain

    2003-02-01

    A set of 38 mineral base oils was characterized by a number of chemical (i.e., overall chemical composition) and physical parameters used routinely in industry. Their primary biodegradability was evaluated using the CEC L-33-A-93 test. Multiple (stepwise) linear regression (MLR) analyses were performed to describe the relationships between the biodegradability values and the chemical or physical properties of oils. Chemical, physical, and both types of parameters were successively used as independent variables. Using chemical descriptors as variables, a four-variable model equation was obtained that explained only 68.2% (adjusted R-squared statistic=68.2%) of the variability in biodegradability. The fitting was improved by using either the physical or the whole parameters as variables. MLR analyses led to three-descriptor model equations involving kinematic viscosity (as log), Noack volatility (as log) and either the viscosity index (pure physical model) or the paraffinic carbon percentage (mixed chemical-physical model). These two models displayed very similar adjusted R-squared statistics, of approximately 91%. Their predicting ability was verified using 25 additional base oils or oil blends. For 80% of oils on a total of 63, the absolute percentage error on biodegradability predicted by either model was lower than 20%. Kinematic viscosity was by far the most influential parameter in the two models.

  10. Effect of dietary mineral sources and oil content on calcium utilization and kidney calcification in female Fischer rats fed low-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Shizuko; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Kajiwara, Tomoko; Azami, Shoji; Kitano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of dietary mineral source and oil intake on kidney calcification in 4-wk-old female Fischer rats after consuming the AIN-76 purified diet (AIN-76). A modified AIN-76 mineral mixture was used, although the original calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (P) molar ratio remained unchanged. Rats were fed the modified diets for a period of 40 d before their kidneys were removed on the last day. Ca balance tests were performed on days 31 to 36 and biochemical analysis of urine was also studied. Kidney Ca, P, and magnesium (Mg) in the standard diet group (20% protein and 5% oil) were not affected by the mineral source. Kidney Ca, P, and Mg in the low-protein (10% protein) diet group, were found to be influenced by the dietary oil content and mineral source. In particular, the different mineral sources differentially increased kidney mineral accumulation. Pathological examination of the kidney showed that the degree of kidney calcification was proportional to the dietary oil content in the 10% dietary protein group, reflecting the calcium content of the kidney. The information gathered on mineral sources in this study will help future researchers studying the influence of dietary Ca/P molar ratios, and histological changes in the kidney.

  11. Central Pacific Minerals and Southern Pacific Petroleum detail oil shale activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    These two affiliated companies have their major assets in Queensland. Brief summaries are given of the activities of the Rundle, Condor, and Yaamba oil shale projects and brief descriptions are given of the resources found in the Stuart, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Lowmead, and Duaringa oil shale deposits of Queensland. The companies also have, or are planning, oil shale projects in the US, Luxembourg, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany, and these are briefly described.

  12. Comparison of two different multidimensional liquid-gas chromatography interfaces for determination of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons in foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Zoccali, Mariosimone; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Barp, Laura; Moret, Sabrina; Conte, Lanfranco; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    This investigation focused on direct comparison of two popular multidimensional liquid-gas chromatography (LC-GC) systems, the Y-interface (retention gap approach) and the syringe-based interface (programmed temperature vaporizer approach). Such transfer devices are structurally very different, and could potentially have a substantial effect on the outcome of a specific application. In this work the application was a topic of much current interest, determination of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbon (MOSH) contamination of a series of food products (rice, pasta, icing sugar, olive oil); the final results were then compared. The two LC-GC methods developed were validated for linearity over the calibration range, analyte discrimination, precision, accuracy, and limits of detection and quantification. No significant differences were found between the two approaches.

  13. Efficacy and Safety of a Mineral Oil-Based Head Lice Shampoo: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Luise; Eertmans, Frank; Wolf, Doerte; Rossel, Bart; Adriaens, Els

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to increased resistance and safety concerns with insecticide-based pediculicides, there is growing demand for head lice treatments with a physical mode of action. Certain mineral oils kill lice by blocking spiracles or by disrupting the epicuticular wax layer. The present study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based shampoo. Methods This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, monocentric study (EudraCT registration no. 2014-002918-23) was performed from October 2014—June 2015 in Germany. A mineral oil shampoo (Mosquito® Med Läuse Shampoo 10 in Germany, Paranix or Silcap shampoo elsewhere), registered as medical device, was compared to a conventional, locally reimbursed, pyrethroid-based pediculicide (Goldgeist® Forte solution). In total, 107 patients (>1 year) with confirmed head lice infestation were included (test arm: n = 53; control arm: n = 54). All subjects received two applications of either test or control product at day 0 and day 7, according to the instructions for use. Efficacy and safety was evaluated directly, 1h and 24h after first application, before and after second treatment, and at day 10. The main objective was demonstrating a cure rate for the test product, being superior to 70% at day 10. Results Cure rates at day 10 (corrected for re-infestation) for the test product (96.1%) and control (94%) significantly exceeded the pre-defined target (70%) (p < 0.001, 2-sided, 1-sample, chi-square test) with confirmed non-inferiority for the test product. Over all visits, cure rates were consistently higher for the test product, whereas more initially-cured subjects remained lice-free until end of study (78%; control: 60%). Both products were safe and well tolerated, offering good esthetical effects. Conclusion This study showed that substance-based medical devices (including the tested mineral oil shampoo) can be safe and effective alternatives for insecticide-based pediculicides, with less risk for

  14. ATOMISTIC MODELING OF OIL SHALE KEROGENS AND ASPHALTENES ALONG WITH THEIR INTERACTIONS WITH THE INORGANIC MINERAL MATRIX

    SciTech Connect

    Facelli, Julio; Pugmire, Ronald; Pimienta, Ian

    2011-03-31

    The goal of this project is to obtain and validate three dimensional atomistic models for the organic matter in both oil shales and oil sands. In the case of oil shales the modeling was completed for kerogen, the insoluble portion of the organic matter; for oil sands it was for asphaltenes, a class of molecules found in crude oil. The three dimensional models discussed in this report were developed starting from existing literature two dimensional models. The models developed included one kerogen, based on experimental data on a kerogen isolated from a Green River oil shale, and a set of six representative asphaltenes. Subsequently, the interactions between these organic models and an inorganic matrix was explored in order to gain insight into the chemical nature of this interaction, which could provide vital information in developing efficient methods to remove the organic material from inorganic mineral substrate. The inorganic substrate used to model the interaction was illite, an aluminum silicate oxide clay. In order to obtain the feedback necessary to validate the models, it is necessary to be able to calculate different observable quantities and to show that these observables both reproduce the results of experimental measurements on actual samples as well as that the observables are sensitive to structural differences between models. The observables that were calculated using the models include 13C NMR spectra, the IR vibrational spectra, and the atomic pair wise distribution function; these were chosen as they are among the methods for which both experimental and calculated values can be readily obtained. Where available, comparison was made to experiment results. Finally, molecular dynamic simulations of pyrolysis were completed on the models to gain an understanding into the nature of the decomposition of these materials when heated.

  15. Impact of exposure of crude oil and dispersant (COREXIT® EC 9500A) on denitrification and organic matter mineralization in a Louisiana salt marsh sediment.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rujie; Yu, Kewei

    2014-08-01

    In response to the 2010 oil spill from the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico, this experiment aims to study the ecological impact of the crude oil and dispersant (COREXIT® EC 9500A) in a coastal salt marsh ecosystem. The marsh sediment was incubated under an anaerobic condition with exposure to the crude oil or/and dispersant. The experiments were conducted in two continuous phases of nitrate addition to study denitrification potential using acetylene blockage technique and organic matter mineralization potential indicated by CO2 production in the sediment. Results show that the oil slightly (with no statistical significance p>0.05) increased both the denitrification and organic matter mineralization activities, likely due to oil components serving as additional organic matter. In contrast, the dispersant significantly (p<0.05) inhibited denitrification, but stimulated organic matter mineralization activities in the sediment due to unknown mechanisms. As a consequence, redox potentials (Eh) were much lower in the dispersant treated systems. The ecological impacts from the dispersant exposure may come from two fronts. First, loss of organic matter from the coastal marsh will threaten the long-term stability of the ecosystem, and the decrease in denitrification activity will weaken the N removal efficiency. Secondly, more reducing conditions developed by the dispersant exposure will likely preserve the oil in the ecosystem for an extended period of time due to weaker oil biodegradation under anaerobic conditions.

  16. Influence of spray equipment and water volume on coverage of citrus and control of citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Hemiptera: Coccidae) with mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Chueca, P; Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Moltó, E

    2009-02-01

    A trial was conducted in a commercial Citrus sinensis L. variety 'Washington' navel orange orchard to compare the coverage and efficacy against citricola scale Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) of 45.5 liters/ha of an nC24 agricultural mineral oil treatment applied by two different methods: a conventional air blast sprayer and a rotary atomizer. Three water volumes (2,340, 4,680, and 7,020 liters/ha) were applied with the air blast sprayer to determine the optimal spray volume for that equipment. A single volume (2,340 liters/ha) was applied with the rotary atomizer to compare its effectiveness with that of the air blast sprayer at this same volume. Results demonstrated that all treatments reduced citricola scale densities. Moreover, all treatments conducted with the air blast sprayer provided significantly greater coverage and significantly reduced citricola scale densities compared with the treatment made with the rotary atomizer. Larger water volume applications with the air blast sprayer did not significantly reduce citricola scale densities, although significantly better coverage was attained in the interior of the tree when spraying with 4,680 and 7,020 liters/ha. As a consequence, this study demonstrated that the increased coverage obtained by applying higher water volume with the air blast sprayer was not required for an optimal treatment in August, when the citricola scale population consisted of nymphs inhabiting the outside leaves of the tree.

  17. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... substances other than gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, coal, asphaltum and allied substances, oil... deducting forwarding charges to the point of sale; and for copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten, a royalty...

  18. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... substances other than gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, coal, asphaltum and allied substances, oil... deducting forwarding charges to the point of sale; and for copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten, a royalty...

  19. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... substances other than gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, coal, asphaltum and allied substances, oil... deducting forwarding charges to the point of sale; and for copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten, a royalty...

  20. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... substances other than gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, coal, asphaltum and allied substances, oil... deducting forwarding charges to the point of sale; and for copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten, a royalty...

  1. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... substances other than gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, coal, asphaltum and allied substances, oil... deducting forwarding charges to the point of sale; and for copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten, a royalty...

  2. Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages - Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgeson, Harold C.; Knox, Annette M.; Owens, Christine E.; Shock, Everett L.

    1993-07-01

    The hypothesis that although the presence of carboxylic acids and carboxylate anions in oil field waters is commonly attributed to the thermal maturation of kerogen or bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons during water-washing of petroleum in relatively shallow reservoirs, they may have also been produced in deeper reservoirs by the hydrolysis of hydrocarbons in petroleum at the oil-water interface is tested. Calculations were carried out to determine the distribution of species with the minimum Gibbs free energy in overpressured oil field waters in the Texas Gulf Coast assuming metastable equilibrium among calcite, albite, and a representative spectrum of organic and inorganic aqueous species at reservoir temperatures and pressures. The hypothesis that homogeneous equilibrium obtains among carboxylate and carbonate species in oil field waters is confirmed.

  3. Hydrocarbon mineralization potentials and microbial populations in marine sediments following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Subtidal study number 1b. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Braddock, J.F.; Rasley, B.T.; Yeager, T.R.; Lindstrom, J.E.; Brown, E.J.

    1992-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the authors measured numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading microoganisms and hydrocarbon mineralization potentials of microorganisms in oiled and unoiled surface sediments from the shore through 100 m depth offshore. The authors found both temporal and spatial variations in numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms with significant higher values at the oiled sites than at reference sites. The microbial data indicate mobilization between 1989 and 1990 of oil from the intertidal to surface sediments at 20, 40 and 100 m depths offshore.

  4. Artemisia arborescens L essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for potential agricultural application: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Lai, Francesco; Wissing, Sylvia A; Müller, Rainer H; Fadda, Anna M

    2006-01-03

    The aim of this study was to formulate a new delivery system for ecological pesticides by the incorporation of Artemisia arborescens L essential oil into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Two different SLN formulations were prepared following the high-pressure homogenization technique using Compritol 888 ATO as lipid and Poloxamer 188 or Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. The SLN formulation particle size was determined using Photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and laser diffraction analysis (LD). The change of particle charge was studied by zeta potential (ZP) measurements, while the melting and recrystallization behavior was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release studies of the essential oil were performed at 35 degrees C. Data showed a high physical stability for both formulations at various storage temperatures during 2 months of investigation. In particular, average diameter of Artemisia arborescens L essential oil-loaded SLN did not vary during storage and increased slightly after spraying the SLN dispersions. In vitro release experiments showed that SLN were able to reduce the rapid evaporation of essential oil if compared with the reference emulsions. Therefore, obtained results showed that the studied SLN formulations are suitable carriers in agriculture.

  5. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of employees in transformer and generator production exposed to electromagnetic fields and mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Skyberg, K; Hansteen, I L; Vistnes, A I

    2001-04-01

    The objective was to study the risk of cytogenetic damage among high voltage laboratory workers exposed to electromagnetic fields and mineral oil. This is a cross sectional study of 24 exposed and 24 matched controls in a Norwegian transformer factory. The exposure group included employees in the high voltage laboratory and in the generator soldering department. Electric and magnetic fields and oil mist and vapor were measured. Blood samples were analyzed for chromosomal aberrations in cultured lymphocytes. In addition to conventional cultures, the lymphocytes were also treated with hydroxyurea and caffeine. This procedure inhibits DNA synthesis and repair in vitro, revealing in vivo genotoxic lesions that are repaired during conventional culturing. In conventional cultures, the exposure group and the controls showed similar values for all cytogenetic parameters. In the DNA synthesis- and repair-inhibited cultures, generator welders showed no differences compared to controls. Among high voltage laboratory testers, compared to the controls, the median number of chromatid breaks was doubled (5 vs. 2.5 per 50 cells; P<0.05) the median number of chromosome breaks was 2 vs. 0.5 (P>0.05) and the median number of aberrant cells was 5 vs. 3.5 (P<0.05). Further analysis of the inhibited culture data from this and a previous study indicated that years of exposure and smoking increase the risk of aberrations. We conclude that there was no increase in cytogenetic damage among exposed workers compared to controls in the conventional lymphocyte assay. In inhibited cultures, however, there were indications that electromagnetic fields in combination with mineral oil exposure may produce chromosomal aberrations.

  6. The adsorption and release of sulfur in mineral and organic soils of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, C J; Adkinson, A; Eimers, M C; Watmough, S A

    2010-01-01

    Mineral soil and fibric peat from acid-sensitive western boreal catchments in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Alberta, Canada were evaluated for their ability to adsorb and release SO(4)(2-). Laboratory batch studies indicated that SO(4)(2-) adsorption in mineral soil from both the A and B horizons exhibits a limited response to elevated SO(4)(2-) concentrations, with the slope of initial mass isotherms <0.2 for all soils, likely due to low iron and aluminum oxide content. Although S retention is the dominant process in peat soils in the region, drought simulations in the lab using fibric peat collected from a poor fen exhibited as much as a five-fold increase in SO(4)(2-) concentration after drying and rewetting. Given the limited SO(4)(2-) adsorption capacity of mineral soils and the potential drought-induced S release from peatlands in this region where increased S deposition is expected, further investigation of acidification impacts is warranted.

  7. Trace element mineral transformations associated with hydration and recarbonation of retorted oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essington, M. E.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the influence of hydration and recarbonation on the solidphase distribution of trace elements in retorted oil shale. The oil shale samples were retorted by the Paraho direct heating process and equilibrated with deionized—distilled water under controlled carbon dioxide conditions. A sequential extraction technique was then used to fractionate trace elements into soluble, KNO3-extractable (easily exchangeable), H2O-extractable (easily adsorbed), NaOh-extractable (organic), EDTA-extractable (carbonate), HNO3-extractable (sulfide), and residual (nonextractable silicate) phases. The chemical fractions present in retorted oil shale and hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale were compared to identify trace element mineralogical changes that may occur in retorted oil shale disposal environments. Trace elements examined in this study were found to reside predominantly in the HNO3-extractable and residual fractions. Hydration of retorted oil shale resulted in a shift in the majority of trace elements from residual to extractable forms. Cobalt, nickel, and zinc extractabilities were not significantly influenced by hydration, whereas antimony increased in the residual fraction. Subjecting retorted oil shale to atmospheric (0.033%) and 10% CO2(g) levels over a nine-month equilibration period resulted in partial and full recarbonation, respectively. As the influence of recarbonation increased, trace elements reverted to residual forms. Vanadium, choromium, copper, zinc, antimony, and molybdenum in the 10% CO2(g) recarbonated material were more resistant to sequential extraction than in retorted oil shale, whereas strontium, barium, and manganese were less resistant to sequential extraction. The extractabilities of cobalt, nickel, and lead were not affected by recarbonation. Recarbonation did not result in a predicted increase in EDTA-extractable trace elements. In general, the amounts of trace elements extracted by EDTA (and

  8. Formation of carbonaceous nano-layers under high interfacial pressures during lubrication with mineral and bio-based oils

    SciTech Connect

    Baltrus, John P.

    2014-01-01

    In order to better protect steel surfaces against wear under high loads, understanding of chemical reactions between lubricants and metal at high interfacial pressures and elevated temperatures needs to be improved. Solutions at 5 to 20 wt. % of zinc di-2-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in inhibited paraffinic mineral oil (IPMO) and inhibited soy bean oil (ISBO) were compared on a Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) at 200 MPa. Microscopy of wear tracks after 10 seconds tribotesting showed much smoother surface profiles than those of unworn areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with Ar-ion sputtering demonstrated that additive solutions in ISBO formed 2–3 times thicker carbon-containing nano-layers compared to IPMO. The amounts of Cl, S or P were unexpectedly low and detectable only on the top surface with less than 5 nm penetration. CP blends in IPMO formed more inorganic chlorides than those in ISBO. It can be concluded that base oils are primarily responsible for the thickness of carbonaceous nano-layers during early stages of severe boundary lubrication, while CP or ZDDP additive contributions are important, but less significant.

  9. Rapid assessment of ecosystem services provided by two mineral extraction sites restored for nature conservation in an agricultural landscape in eastern England.

    PubMed

    Blaen, Phillip J; Jia, Li; Peh, Kelvin S-H; Field, Rob H; Balmford, Andrew; MacDonald, Michael A; Bradbury, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing recognition that mineral sites restored for nature conservation can enhance local biodiversity, the wider societal benefits provided by this type of restoration relative to alternative options are not well understood. This study addresses this research gap by quantifying differences in ecosystem services provision under two common mineral site after-uses: nature conservation and agriculture. Using a combination of site-specific primary field data, benefits transfer and modelling, we show that for our sites restoration for nature conservation provides a more diverse array of ecosystem services than would be delivered under an agricultural restoration scenario. We also explore the effects of addressing different conservation targets, which we find alter the provision of ecosystem services on a service-specific basis. Highly species-focused intervention areas are associated with increased carbon storage and livestock grazing provision, whereas non-intervention areas are important for carbon sequestration, fishing, recreation and flood risk mitigation. The results of this study highlight the wider societal importance of restored mineral sites and may help conservation managers and planners to develop future restoration strategies that provide benefits for both biodiversity and human well-being.

  10. Rapid Assessment of Ecosystem Services Provided by Two Mineral Extraction Sites Restored for Nature Conservation in an Agricultural Landscape in Eastern England

    PubMed Central

    Blaen, Phillip J.; Jia, Li; Peh, Kelvin S.-H.; Field, Rob H.; Balmford, Andrew; MacDonald, Michael A.; Bradbury, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing recognition that mineral sites restored for nature conservation can enhance local biodiversity, the wider societal benefits provided by this type of restoration relative to alternative options are not well understood. This study addresses this research gap by quantifying differences in ecosystem services provision under two common mineral site after-uses: nature conservation and agriculture. Using a combination of site-specific primary field data, benefits transfer and modelling, we show that for our sites restoration for nature conservation provides a more diverse array of ecosystem services than would be delivered under an agricultural restoration scenario. We also explore the effects of addressing different conservation targets, which we find alter the provision of ecosystem services on a service-specific basis. Highly species-focused intervention areas are associated with increased carbon storage and livestock grazing provision, whereas non-intervention areas are important for carbon sequestration, fishing, recreation and flood risk mitigation. The results of this study highlight the wider societal importance of restored mineral sites and may help conservation managers and planners to develop future restoration strategies that provide benefits for both biodiversity and human well-being. PMID:25894293

  11. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sold from the lease. (3) For geothermal resources, the royalty rate shall be 10 percent of the amount or value of steam, or any other form of heat or energy derived from production of geothermal... Section 211.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING...

  12. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sold from the lease. (3) For geothermal resources, the royalty rate shall be 10 percent of the amount or value of steam, or any other form of heat or energy derived from production of geothermal... Section 211.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING...

  13. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sold from the lease. (3) For geothermal resources, the royalty rate shall be 10 percent of the amount or value of steam, or any other form of heat or energy derived from production of geothermal... Section 211.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING...

  14. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sold from the lease. (3) For geothermal resources, the royalty rate shall be 10 percent of the amount or value of steam, or any other form of heat or energy derived from production of geothermal... Section 211.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING...

  15. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sold from the lease. (3) For geothermal resources, the royalty rate shall be 10 percent of the amount or value of steam, or any other form of heat or energy derived from production of geothermal... Section 211.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING...

  16. Plan for Management of Mineral Assess on Native Tribal Lands and for Formation of a Fully Integrated Natural Gas and Oil Exploration and Production Company

    SciTech Connect

    Blechner, Michael H.; Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    This report describes a plan for Native American tribes to assume responsibility for and operation of tribal mineral resources using the Osage Tribe as an example. Under this plan, the tribal council select and employ a qualified Director to assume responsibility for management of their mineral reservations. The procurement process should begin with an application for contracting to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Under this plan, the Director will develop strategies to increase income by money management and increasing exploitation of natural gas, oil, and other minerals.

  17. Salinity impact on yield, water use, mineral and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental study was carried out to determine the effects of salinity on water consumption, plant height, fresh and seed yields, biomass production, ion accumulation and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was conducted with a ...

  18. Comparison of Extreme Pressure Additive Treat Rates in Soybean and Mineral Oils Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, it is considered that, under boundary lubrication conditions, the reduction in friction and wear is mostly dependent on Extreme Pressure (EP) additives, rather than the basestock. However, several studies indicate that vegetable oils also contribute to the lubricity under this regime...

  19. Cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral status in near-isogenic Gossypium hirsutum cotton lines expressing fuzzy/linted and fuzzless/linted seed phenotypes under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Stetina, Salliana R.; Turley, Rickie B.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton is an important crop in the world and is a major source of oil for human consumption and cotton meal for livestock. Cottonseed nutrition (seed composition: protein, oil, and minerals) determines the quality of seeds. Therefore, maintaining optimum levels of cottonseed nutrition is critical. Physiological and genetic mechanisms controlling the levels of these constituents in cottonseed are still largely unknown. Our previous research conducted under greenhouse conditions showed that seed and leaf nutrition differed between fuzzless and fuzzy seed isolines. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the seed fuzz phenotype (trait) effects on seed protein, oil, N, C, S, and minerals in five sets of near-isogenic mutant cotton lines for seed fuzz in a 2-year experiment under field condition to evaluate the stability of the effect of the trait on seed nutrition. The isolines (genotypes) in each set differ for the seed fuzz trait (fuzzless/linted seed line, N lines, and fuzzy/linted seed line, F lines). Results showed that seed protein was higher in the fuzzy genotype in all sets, but seed oil was higher in fuzzless genotype in all sets. The concentrations of seed Ca and C were higher in all fuzzless genotypes, but N, S, B, Fe, and Zn were higher in most of the fuzzy genotypes. Generally, minerals were higher in leaves of F lines, suggesting the translocation of minerals from leaves to seeds was limited. The research demonstrated that fiber development could be involved in cottonseed composition. This may be due to the involvement of fiber development in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the mobility of nutrients from leaves (source) to seed (sink). This information is beneficial to breeders to consider fuzzless cottonseed for potential protein and oil use and select for higher oil or higher protein content, and to physiologists to further understand the mobility of minerals to increase the quality of cottonseed nutrition for food and feed

  20. Cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral status in near-isogenic Gossypium hirsutum cotton lines expressing fuzzy/linted and fuzzless/linted seed phenotypes under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Stetina, Salliana R; Turley, Rickie B

    2015-01-01

    Cotton is an important crop in the world and is a major source of oil for human consumption and cotton meal for livestock. Cottonseed nutrition (seed composition: protein, oil, and minerals) determines the quality of seeds. Therefore, maintaining optimum levels of cottonseed nutrition is critical. Physiological and genetic mechanisms controlling the levels of these constituents in cottonseed are still largely unknown. Our previous research conducted under greenhouse conditions showed that seed and leaf nutrition differed between fuzzless and fuzzy seed isolines. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the seed fuzz phenotype (trait) effects on seed protein, oil, N, C, S, and minerals in five sets of near-isogenic mutant cotton lines for seed fuzz in a 2-year experiment under field condition to evaluate the stability of the effect of the trait on seed nutrition. The isolines (genotypes) in each set differ for the seed fuzz trait (fuzzless/linted seed line, N lines, and fuzzy/linted seed line, F lines). Results showed that seed protein was higher in the fuzzy genotype in all sets, but seed oil was higher in fuzzless genotype in all sets. The concentrations of seed Ca and C were higher in all fuzzless genotypes, but N, S, B, Fe, and Zn were higher in most of the fuzzy genotypes. Generally, minerals were higher in leaves of F lines, suggesting the translocation of minerals from leaves to seeds was limited. The research demonstrated that fiber development could be involved in cottonseed composition. This may be due to the involvement of fiber development in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the mobility of nutrients from leaves (source) to seed (sink). This information is beneficial to breeders to consider fuzzless cottonseed for potential protein and oil use and select for higher oil or higher protein content, and to physiologists to further understand the mobility of minerals to increase the quality of cottonseed nutrition for food and feed.

  1. Characterization of uranium surfaces machined with aqueous propylene glycol-borax or perchloroethylene-mineral oil coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, S.S.; Bennett, R.K. Jr.; Dillon, J.J.; Richards, H.L.; Seals, R.D.; Byrd, V.R.

    1986-12-31

    The use of perchloroethylene (perc) as an ingredient in coolants for machining enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been discontinued because of environmental concerns. A new coolant was substituted in December 1985, which consists of an aqueous solution of propylene glycol with borax (sodium tetraborate) added as a nuclear poison and with a nitrite added as a corrosion inhibitor. Uranium surfaces machined using the two coolants were compared with respects to residual contamination, corrosion or corrosion potential, and with the aqueous propylene glycol-borax coolant was found to be better than that of enriched uranium machined with the perc-mineral oil coolant. The boron residues on the final-finished parts machined with the borax-containing coolant were not sufficient to cause problems in further processing. All evidence indicated that the enriched uranium surfaces machined with the borax-containing coolant will be as satisfactory as those machined with the perc coolant.

  2. Mineral oil content in sediments and soils: comparability, traceability and a certified reference material for quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Becker, Roland; Buge, Hans-Gerhard; Bremser, Wolfram; Nehls, Irene

    2006-06-01

    The performance of twelve laboratories with previously established proficiency in the determination of the mineral oil content in a fresh water sediment is described. The summation parameter total petrol hydrocarbon (TPH) is defined according to ISO 16703:2004 with regard to the sample preparation to be applied, the flame ionisation detection (FID) and the boiling range of C10-C40 to be integrated. Comprehensive tests of homogeneity and stability have been carried out on the candidate material using appropriate models. The outcome of the study served as the basis for the certification of the candidate reference material as ERM-CC015a. The certified mass fraction is 1,820+/-130 mg kg(-1) and traceability was established by using an appropriate calibration standard certified for the mass fraction of C10-C40. The interlaboratory scatter of measurement results in this exercise can largely be explained by the variability of the individual calibrations based on this common calibration standard.

  3. High-quality genomic DNA extraction from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples deparaffinized using mineral oil

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jianghai; Kennedy, Stephen H.; Svarovsky, Therese; Rogers, Jeffrey; Kemnitz, Joseph W.; Xu, Anlong; Zondervan, Krina T.

    2009-01-01

    Extracting DNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue remains a challenge, despite numerous attempts to develop a more effective method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) success rates with DNA extracted using current methods remain low. We extracted DNA from 140 long-term archived FFPE samples using a simple but effective deparaffinization method, removing the wax with mineral oil, and a commercially available DNA extraction kit. DNA quality was subsequently tested in a genotyping experiment with 14 microsatellite markers. High-quality DNA was obtained with a mean PCR success rate of 97% (range: 88–100%) across markers. The results suggested that DNA extracted using this novel method is likely to be suitable for genetic studies involving DNA fragments <200 bp. PMID:19698695

  4. Theory and application of landfarming to remediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil-contaminated sediments; beneficial reuse.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, J; Rulkens, W H; Sims, R C; Rijtema, P E; Zweers, A J

    2007-01-01

    When applying landfarming for the remediation of contaminated soil and sediment, a fraction of the soil-bound contaminant is rapidly degraded; however, a residual concentration may remain, which slowly degrades. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mineral oil can be described using a multi-compartment model and first-order kinetics, in which three degradable fractions are distinguished; (1) rapid, (2) slowly, and (3) very slowly degradable. Using this model populated with data from long-term experiments (initiated in 1990), it is shown that time frames from years to decades can be necessary to clean the soil or sediment to obtain a target below regulatory guidelines. In passive landfarms without active management, three principal potentially limiting factors can be identified: (1) availability of appropriate microorganisms, (2) supply of oxygen for the biodegradation process, and (3) bioavailability of the pollutants to the microorganisms. Bioavailable PAHs and mineral oil are readily biodegradable contaminants under aerobic conditions, and presence and activity of microorganisms are not problems. The other two factors can be limiting and are theoretically described. Using these descriptions, which are in agreement with field experiments of 10 to 15 yr, it is shown if and when optimization of the biodegradation process is an option. Because a long time period is necessary to degrade the slowly and very slowly degradable fractions, passive landfarming should be combined with beneficial use of the land area. Examples include the development of natural environments, use in constructions, growing of biomass for energy production, including biofuels, and use as cover for landfills.

  5. Migration kinetics of mineral oil hydrocarbons from recycled paperboard to dry food: monitoring of two real cases.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, R; Biedermann, M; Grob, K; Garbini, D; Barbanera, M; Braschi, I

    2013-01-01

    Mineral oil hydrocarbons present in printing inks and recycled paper migrate from paper-based food packaging to foods primarily through the gas phase. Migration from two commercial products packed in recycled paperboard, i.e. muesli and egg pasta, was monitored up to the end of their shelf life (1 year) to study the influence of time, storage conditions, food packaging structure and temperature. Mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOSH and MOAH, respectively), and diisopropyl naphthalenes (DIPN) were monitored using online HPLC-GC/FID. Storage conditions were: free standing, shelved, and packed in transport boxes of corrugated board, to represent domestic, supermarket and warehouse storage, respectively. Migration to food whose packs were kept in transport boxes was the highest, especially after prolonged storage, followed by shelved and free-standing packs. Tested temperatures were representative of refrigeration, room temperature, storage in summer months and accelerated migration testing. Migration was strongly influenced by temperature: for egg pasta directly packed in paperboard, around 30 mg kg⁻¹ of MOSH migrated in 8 months at 20°C, but in only 1 week at 40°C. Muesli was contained into an internal polyethylene bag, which firstly adsorbed hydrocarbons and later released them partly towards the food. Differently, the external polypropylene bag, containing pasta and recycled paper tray, strongly limited the migration towards the atmosphere and gave rise to the highest level of food contamination. Tests at increased temperatures not only accelerated migration, but also widened the migration of hydrocarbons to higher molecular masses, highlighting thus a difficult interpretation of data from accelerated simulation.

  6. Migration of mineral oil, photoinitiators and plasticisers from recycled paperboard into dry foods: a study under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Ingenhoff, Jan-Erik; Zurfluh, Michael; Richter, Lydia; Simat, Thomas; Harling, Antje; Altkofer, Werner; Helling, Rüdiger; Grob, Koni

    2013-01-01

    Migration from recycled paperboard was monitored after 2, 4 and 9 months of storage for six test foods industrially packed in five configurations, four with internal plastic films. After 9 months, the migration of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons into foods directly packed in the paperboard amounted to 30-52 mg/kg, which corresponded to 65%-80% of those of a volatility up to that of the n-alkane C₂₄ in the paperboard. The concentration of the migrated aromatic hydrocarbons in the foods ranged from 5.5 to 9.4 mg/kg. More than half of this migration occurred in the first 2 months. Differences between the foods amounted to mostly less than a factor of 2 and seemed to be related to porosity or permeability more than fat content. Nine photoinitiators were detected in the paperboard, of which eight migrated into the packed food at up to 24%. Several plasticisers were present in the recycled paperboard, but only butyl phthalates showed significant migration. After 9 months, up to 40% of diisobutyl phthalate and 20% of dibutyl phthalate migrated into the food with direct contact. The internal polyethylene film hardly slowed migration, but the film and the tray absorbed approximately three times more mineral oil than the food, despite constituting merely 4% of the mass of the pack. Oriented polypropylene strongly slowed migration: The highest migration of saturated hydrocarbons measured after 9 months (2.3 mg/kg) corresponded to only 3% of the content in the paperboard and included migrated polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons. Coating of polypropylene with an acrylate further slowed the migration, but the migration from the paperboard was still detectable in four of the six samples. Polyethylene terephthalate was a tight barrier.

  7. Value-added utilization of oil palm ash: a superior recycling of the industrial agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2009-12-30

    Concern about environmental protection has increased over the years from a global viewpoint. To date, the infiltration of oil palm ash into the groundwater tables and aquifer systems which poses a potential risk and significant hazards towards the public health and ecosystems, remain an intricate challenge for the 21st century. With the revolution of biomass reutilization strategy, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of oil palm ash industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of oil palm ash in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy.

  8. Soybean seed protein oil fatty acids sugars and minerals as affected by seeding rates and row spacing in the Midsouth USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the effects of seeding rates (SDR) and row spacing (RS) on soybean seed composition is almost non-existent. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of SDR and RS on soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals using two soybean cultivars, P 93M90 (ear...

  9. Oil and development: The case of agriculture in Nigeria and Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Bachrach, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis explores the relationship between the oil-boom of the 1970s and development outcomes and the prospects in two African OPEC states. The theoretical framework is provided by the political-economy literatures, both domestic and international. The research is carried out as a limited comparative study with a loosely constructed (before-during-after) interrupted time-series design. Algeria's greater success in managing it soil economy suggests further evidence supporting the promise of a mixed political-economy state model. State and societal complexions are identified, with a primarily qualitative methodology, to explain Nigerian and Algerian development outcomes on the heels of the oil decade.

  10. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 1. Degradation rates using tropical marine microbes.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A; Negri, Andrew

    2004-05-01

    Vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be more biodegradable than mineral-derived lubricants (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested in tropical conditions. In this laboratory study, the degradation rates of 2-stroke, 4-stroke and hydraulic VDLs were compared with their MDL counterparts in the presence of mangrove and coral reef microbial communities. While MDLs were comprised largely of unresolved saturated and some aromatic hydrocarbons, their VDL counterparts contained, potentially more degradable, fatty acid methyl esters. Degradation of some VDL was observed by day 7, with the 2-stroke VDL markedly consumed by mangrove microorganisms and the hydraulic VDL degraded by both microorganism communities after this short period. All of the VDL groups were significantly more degraded than the comparable MDLs mineral oil lubricants over 14 days in the presence of either mangrove or coral reef microbial communities. In general the mangrove-sourced microorganisms more efficiently degraded the lubricants than reef-sourced microorganisms.

  11. Mineral-Surfactant Interaction for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    P. Somasundaran

    2006-09-30

    In this project, fundamental studies were conducted to understand the mechanisms of the interactions between polymers/surfactants and minerals with the aim of minimizing chemical loss by adsorption. The effects of structures of the surface active molecules on critical solid/liquid interfacial properties such as adsorption, wettability and surface tension in mineral/surfactant systems were investigated. The final aim is to build a guideline to design optimal polymer/surfactant formula based on the understanding of adsorption and orientation of surfactants and their aggregates at solid/liquid interfaces. During this period, the wettability of alumina was tested using two-phase extraction at different pHs. The results were explained using the adsorption data obtain previously. It was found that the wettability is determined by both the nano-structure of the hemimicelles and the surface coverage. It was found that pH plays a critical role in controlling the total adsorption and the mineral wettability. At pH 4, the alumina surface remains hydrophilic in the surfactant concentration range tested because of the low surface coverage, even though hemimicelles are formed. Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on alumina and silica, the component minerals reservoir rocks, was conducted at different pHs. The adsorption of SDS on silica is negligible, while the adsorption on alumina is high due to the different charge of the latter. Tests of adsorption of a modified polymer S-19703-35HT on alumina were also conducted at different pHs. Adsorption density decreases with pH. The results suggest that alkaline pH range is more cost-effective for a SDS/polymer system because of the low adsorption density. A new term, reagent loss index (RLI), was used to analyze the adsorption data for different surfactants and minerals. It was shown that the chemical loss is very high in the case of SDS on gypsum and limestone, while it is low in the case of silica. The mixed Dodecyl maltoside

  12. Comparative toxicokinetics of low-viscosity mineral oil in Fischer 344 rats, Sprague-Dawley rats, and humans--implications for an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI).

    PubMed

    Boogaard, Peter J; Goyak, Katy O; Biles, Robert W; van Stee, Leo L P; Miller, Matthew S; Miller, Mary Jo

    2012-06-01

    Oral repeated-dose studies with low-viscosity mineral oils showed distinct species and strain differences, which are hypothesized to be due to differences in bioavailability, with Fischer 344 rats being more susceptible than Sprague-Dawley rats or dogs. Sensitive analytical methodology was developed for accurate measurement of low levels of mineral hydrocarbons and applied in single-dose toxicokinetics studies in rats and humans. Fischer 344 rats showed a 4-fold higher AUC(0-∞) and consistently higher blood and liver concentrations were found than Sprague-Dawley rats. Hepatic mineral hydrocarbon concentration tracked the blood concentration in both strains, indicating that blood concentrations can serve as functional surrogate measure for hepatic concentrations. In human volunteers receiving 1mg/kg body weight of low-viscosity white oil, all blood concentrations of mineral hydrocarbons were below the detection limit. Comparison with threshold blood concentrations associated with NOAELs in both rat strains, indicate that the margin-of-exposure is at least 37-fold. Using an internal dose metric rather than applied dose reduces the uncertainty around the temporary ADI considerably since it intrinsically accounts for intra- and inter-species differences. The current data support replacement of the temporary ADI of 0.01 mg/kg/day by a (permanent) ADI of at least 1.0mg/kg/day for low- and medium-viscosity mineral oils.

  13. Thermal conductivity and electrical properties of hybrid SiO2-graphene naphthenic mineral oil nanofluid as potential transformer oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Soo Hui; Rashmi, W.; Khalid, M.; Gupta, T. C. S. M.; Nabipoor, M.; Taghi Hajibeigy, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid SiO2-graphene nanoparticles were synthesised by sol gel centrifugation technique under four different pH levels ranging from 9 to 12. Stability, thermal conductivity, viscosity and electrical conductivity of hybrid SiO2-graphene and pure graphene dispersed in naphthenic oil were investigated. Nanofluids were synthesied at three different nanoparticle concentrations (0.01, 0.04 and 0.08 wt%) while the temperature was varied from 20 °C to 100 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer show successful coating of SiO2 on graphene surface. The growth units and size distribution of SiO2 nanoparticles increased with pH level. Moreover, the presence of SiO2 improved the dispersion behaviour of the nanofluid as confirmed by visual observation and UV–Vis studies. Zeta potential measurements show the hybrid nanofluids at pH 11 are most stable due to its optimum amount and size of SiO2 coated on graphene surface while at pH 12 shows least stability due to precipitation. The presence of SiO2 on graphene further enhanced the thermal conductivity by 80% at pH 9. Also, the viscosity of hybrid nanofluids was higher than pure graphene based nanofluids due to increase in density and particle size. Moreover, the addition of hybrid SiO2-graphene nanoparticles significantly reduced the electrical conductivity enhancement of base fluid from 557% to 97%.

  14. Models for skin tumour risks in workers exposed to mineral oils.

    PubMed Central

    Järvholm, B.; Easton, D.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between skin tumours in man and exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons has been studied in lathe operators exposed to cutting oils. Seven cases of scrotal cancer and 13 cases of senile keratosis and keratoacanthoma were observed. The risk varied as the 1.6th power of duration of exposure for cancer on the scrotum and the 2.4th power for tumours on the hand and forearms. These results accord well with experiments on animals. There was some evidence of an increasing trend in risk with increasing age at first exposure. PMID:2257210

  15. Thermal Aging Characteristics of Insulation Paper in Mineral Oil under Overloaded Operating Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Katsunori; Oe, Etsuo; Yamagata, Naoki; Miyahara, Hideyuki

    A sudden capacity increase in demand during the summer peak, or in contingencies such as malfunctioning transformers, may cause overload for normal transformers. In this paper, on the basis of examples of overloaded transformer operation in distributing substations, thermal aging testing in oil was carried out under various overload patterns, such as short time overload and long time overload, but with the winding insulation paper's life loss kept constant. From the results, various characteristics such as mean degree of polymerization and productions of furfural and (CO2+CO), and their effects on the life loss of the insulation paper were obtained.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Isoproturon-Mineralizing Sphingomonas sp. SRS2, Isolated from an Agricultural Field in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 was the first described pure strain that is capable of mineralizing the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon and some of its related compounds. This strain has been studied thoroughly and shows potential for bioremediation purposes. We present the draft genome sequence of this bacterium, which will aid future studies. PMID:26021936

  17. Does logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture alter functional diversity in a biodiversity hotspot?

    PubMed

    Edwards, F A; Edwards, D P; Larsen, T H; Hsu, W W; Benedick, S; Chung, A; Vun Khen, C; Wilcove, D S; Hamer, K C

    2014-04-01

    Forests in Southeast Asia are rapidly being logged and converted to oil palm. These changes in land-use are known to affect species diversity but consequences for the functional diversity of species assemblages are poorly understood. Environmental filtering of species with similar traits could lead to disproportionate reductions in trait diversity in degraded habitats. Here, we focus on dung beetles, which play a key role in ecosystem processes such as nutrient recycling and seed dispersal. We use morphological and behavioural traits to calculate a variety of functional diversity measures across a gradient of disturbance from primary forest through intensively logged forest to oil palm. Logging caused significant shifts in community composition but had very little effect on functional diversity, even after a repeated timber harvest. These data provide evidence for functional redundancy of dung beetles within primary forest and emphasize the high value of logged forests as refugia for biodiversity. In contrast, conversion of forest to oil palm greatly reduced taxonomic and functional diversity, with a marked decrease in the abundance of nocturnal foragers, a higher proportion of species with small body sizes and the complete loss of telecoprid species (dung-rollers), all indicating a decrease in the functional capacity of dung beetles within plantations. These changes also highlight the vulnerability of community functioning within logged forests in the event of further environmental degradation.

  18. Does logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture alter functional diversity in a biodiversity hotspot?

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, F A; Edwards, D P; Larsen, T H; Hsu, W W; Benedick, S; Chung, A; Vun Khen, C; Wilcove, D S; Hamer, K C

    2014-01-01

    Forests in Southeast Asia are rapidly being logged and converted to oil palm. These changes in land-use are known to affect species diversity but consequences for the functional diversity of species assemblages are poorly understood. Environmental filtering of species with similar traits could lead to disproportionate reductions in trait diversity in degraded habitats. Here, we focus on dung beetles, which play a key role in ecosystem processes such as nutrient recycling and seed dispersal. We use morphological and behavioural traits to calculate a variety of functional diversity measures across a gradient of disturbance from primary forest through intensively logged forest to oil palm. Logging caused significant shifts in community composition but had very little effect on functional diversity, even after a repeated timber harvest. These data provide evidence for functional redundancy of dung beetles within primary forest and emphasize the high value of logged forests as refugia for biodiversity. In contrast, conversion of forest to oil palm greatly reduced taxonomic and functional diversity, with a marked decrease in the abundance of nocturnal foragers, a higher proportion of species with small body sizes and the complete loss of telecoprid species (dung-rollers), all indicating a decrease in the functional capacity of dung beetles within plantations. These changes also highlight the vulnerability of community functioning within logged forests in the event of further environmental degradation. PMID:25821399

  19. Soil quality assessment for peat-mineral mix cover soil used in oil sands reclamation.

    PubMed

    Ojekanmi, A A; Chang, S X

    2014-09-01

    A soil quality (SQ) assessment and rating framework that is quantitative, iterative, and adaptable, with justifiable weighting for quality scores, is required for evaluating site-specific SQ at land reclamation sites. Such a framework needs to identify the minimum dataset that reflects the current knowledge regarding relationships between SQ indicators and relevant measures of ecosystem performance. Our objective was to develop nonlinear scoring functions for assessing the impact on SQ of peat-mineral mix (PMM) used as a cover soil at land reclamation sites. Soil functional indicators affected by PMM were extracted from existing databases and correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC). Based on defined objectives for SQ assessment, indicators with significant correlation ( < 0.05) to SOC were selected, normalized, and fitted to sigmoid functions using nonlinear regression procedure to establish SQ functions (SQFs) that can analyze changes in field capacity, permanent wilting point, soil nitrogen, and cation exchange capacity of PMM using SOC as input parameter. Application of the SQFs to an independent dataset produced ratings with mean differences similar to the treatment effects of mixing three levels of peat and mineral soil. These results show that derived ratings and weighing factors using SOC reflect the relationship between PMM treatment and other SQ indicators. Applying the developed SQFs to a long-term soil monitoring dataset shows that an increase or decrease in SOC from 10 to 20 g kg causes a significant change in SQ. This identifies the need for further nutrient and moisture management of PMM to support long-term SQ development in land reclamation.

  20. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A; Cavanagh, Joanne

    2004-05-01

    An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg(-1) and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg(-1), the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant > or =2 mg kg(-1). There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia.

  1. Mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) in female Fischer 344 rats; accumulation of wax components; implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Barp, Laura; Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni; Blas-Y-Estrada, Florence; Nygaard, Unni C; Alexander, Jan; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to three MOSH mixtures: oils largely below and above C25 (S-C25 and L-C25) and a 1:1 mixture of L-C25 with a wax; doses of 400, 1000 and 4000mg/kg feed were administered during 120days. MOSH were determined by on-line HPLC-GC-FID in liver, spleen, adipose tissue and the carcass. The composition of the hydrocarbons accumulated in the tissues was further analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC). MOSH in the mass range of C26-30 were more strongly accumulated than those between C20-25, which does not support the present classification of MOSH differentiating at n-C25 for risk assessment. Compared to the total of the MOSH, n-alkanes and n-alkyl monocyclic naphthenes were generally enriched in adipose tissue. In liver and spleen, n-alkanes up to C25 were eliminated, but strongly accumulated at around C30. Based on this profile, poor solubility and the melting points, it is hypothesized that crystallization protects these wax components against metabolism and elimination. In the liver, relative retention of n-alkanes decreased again beyond C30, accentuated at high exposure, suggesting reduced absorption. Compared to the animal data, accumulation of n-alkanes from food sources, such as apples, into human tissues seems low, perhaps because of low absorption due to their presence in crystalline form. A series of dominant isoalkanes, accumulated in all tissues analyzed, was characterized, though without proposing a structure. Implications on present regulation of white mineral oil products are discussed.

  2. Mineral vs. Organic Amendments: Microbial Community Structure, Activity and Abundance of Agriculturally Relevant Microbes Are Driven by Long-Term Fertilization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Francioli, Davide; Schulz, Elke; Lentendu, Guillaume; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Reitz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Soil management is fundamental to all agricultural systems and fertilization practices have contributed substantially to the impressive increases in food production. Despite the pivotal role of soil microorganisms in agro-ecosystems, we still have a limited understanding of the complex response of the soil microbiota to organic and mineral fertilization in the very long-term. Here, we report the effects of different fertilization regimes (mineral, organic and combined mineral and organic fertilization), carried out for more than a century, on the structure and activity of the soil microbiome. Organic matter content, nutrient concentrations, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly increased by mineral, and even more strongly by organic fertilization. Pyrosequencing revealed significant differences between the structures of bacterial and fungal soil communities associated to each fertilization regime. Organic fertilization increased bacterial diversity, and stimulated microbial groups (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Zygomycota) that are known to prefer nutrient-rich environments, and that are involved in the degradation of complex organic compounds. In contrast, soils not receiving manure harbored distinct microbial communities enriched in oligotrophic organisms adapted to nutrient-limited environments, as Acidobacteria. The fertilization regime also affected the relative abundances of plant beneficial and detrimental microbial taxa, which may influence productivity and stability of the agroecosystem. As expected, the activity of microbial exoenzymes involved in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous mineralization were enhanced by both types of fertilization. However, in contrast to comparable studies, the highest chitinase and phosphatase activities were observed in the solely mineral fertilized soil. Interestingly, these two enzymes showed also a particular high biomass-specific activities and a strong negative relation with soil pH. As many soil parameters

  3. The surprisingly small but increasing role of international agricultural trade on the European Union’s dependence on mineral phosphorus fertiliser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesme, Thomas; Roques, Solène; Metson, Geneviève S.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is subject to global management challenges due to its importance to both food security and water quality. The European Union (EU) has promoted policies to limit fertiliser over-application and protect water quality for more than 20 years, helping to reduce European P use. Over this time period, the EU has, however, become more reliant on imported agricultural products. These imported products require fertiliser to be used in distant countries to grow crops that will ultimately feed European people and livestock. As such, these imports represent a displacement of European P demand, possibly allowing Europe to decrease its apparent P footprint by moving P use to locations outside the EU. We investigated the effect of EU imports on the European P fertiliser footprint to better understand whether the EU’s decrease in fertiliser use over time resulted from P demand being ‘outsourced’ to other countries or whether it truly represented a decline in P demand. To do this, we quantified the ‘virtual P flow’ defined as the amount of mineral P fertiliser applied to agricultural soils in non-EU countries to support agricultural product imports to the EU. We found that the EU imported a virtual P flow of 0.55 Tg P/yr in 1995 that, surprisingly, decreased to 0.50 Tg P/yr in 2009. These results were contrary to our hypothesis that trade increases would be used to help the EU reduce its domestic P fertiliser use by outsourcing its P footprint abroad. Still, the contribution of virtual P flows to the total P footprint of the EU has increased by 40% from 1995 to 2009 due to a dramatic decrease in domestic P fertiliser use in Europe: in 1995, virtual P was equivalent to 32% of the P used as fertiliser domestically to support domestic consumption but jumped to 53% in 2009. Soybean and palm tree products from South America and South East Asia contributed most to the virtual P flow. These results demonstrate that, although policies in the EU have successfully

  4. Effects of Ricinus communis, Brassica nigra and mineral oil Kemesol on some biochemical aspects of larvae stage of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Khatter, Najat A; Abuldahb, Faten F

    2010-04-01

    The third instars larvae of Spodotera littoralis were topically treated with two plant oils, Ricinus communis and Brassica nigra and one mineral oil, Kemesol 95% dissolved in petroleum ether and acetone at concentrations of 0.8, 1.6, 2.0, 3.0 & 4 %. The results revealed that the mean values of the total haemolymph and fat body protein was reduced in larvae treated with B. nigra and Kemesol 95%. A significant decrease was observed in haemolymph and fat body protein contents in larvae treated with all tested compound, the remarked decrease was noticed at the highest dose (4%) in both two solvents.

  5. Effect of pyrochar and hydrochar amendments on the mineralization of the herbicide isoproturon in an agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Eibisch, Nina; Schroll, Reiner; Fuß, Roland

    2015-09-01

    Carbon (C)-rich, solid products from pyrolysis (pyrochars) and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC, hydrochars) are expected to reduce the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of pesticides as side effect of soil addition. To compare effects of different feedstocks (digestate, miscanthus, woodchips) and production processes (pyrolysis at 750°C, HTC at 200°C and 250°C), (14)C-labeled isoproturon (IPU) was applied at 0.75 kg ha(-)(1) to loamy sand amended either with 0.5% or 5% pyrochars or hydrochars, which was then incubated for 50d. Mineralization of IPU was measured as (14)C-CO2 released from soil-char composites. Pore-water and methanol extractable (14)C-IPU was quantified as well as non-extractable (14)C-residues (NER). Furthermore, C mineralization of pyrochars, hydrochars and feedstocks was studied to assess the relationship between IPU bioaccessibility and char decomposability. In pure soil, 8.1% of applied IPU was mineralized after 50d. This was reduced more strongly in pyrochar treatments (81 ± 6% reduction) than in hydrochar treatments (56 ± 25% reduction). Different feedstocks had no significantly different effect when 5% char was added, but their effect was significant and dependent on the production process in 0.5% amendments. Pesticide binding can occur by surface sorption as well as by diffusion and subsequent occlusion in micropores. The latter can be expected to result in high amounts of NER, as it was observed in the pyrochar treatments. Hydrochars were less stable than pyrochars and contained lower amounts of NER. Thus, in hydrochar amended soils, better accessibility of IPU to microbial degradation may be a result of full char decomposition within decades ensuring controlled pesticide degradation.

  6. Efficient hydrogen sulfide adsorbents obtained by pyrolysis of sewage sludge derived fertilizer modified with spent mineral oil.

    PubMed

    Bagreev, Andrey; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2004-01-01

    Terrene, sewage sludge derived granulated fertilizer, was impregnated with spent mineral oil and then pyrolyzed at 600, 800, and 950 degrees C. Materials obtained were characterized from the point of view of the pore structure and surface chemistry. Then the H2S breakthrough capacitywas measured using a lab designed test. The results showed that the new adsorbents over perform by 30% materials obtained by simple thermal treatment of Terrene and by 230% virgin coconut shell based activated carbon. The surface reaction products were evaluated using thermal analysis. On the surface of new adsorbents hydrogen sulfide is oxidized mainly to elemental sulfur which is then deposited within the pore system. The breakthrough occurs when all small pores available to promote catalytic oxidation (caused by the inorganic sludge component) are filled with sulfur. An increase in pyrolysis temperature leads to an improvement in the performance of materials as hydrogen sulfide adsorbents. This is caused likely by changes in an inorganic phase and inorganic/carbonaceous phase interactions during pyrolysis.

  7. Desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by selective oil agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Ayhan, F.D.

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a mixture containing subbituminous coal, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, pH, bridging liquid type and concentration, and depressant type and amount, were investigated. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of various depressants (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, FeCl3, corn starch, wheat starch) in the agglomeration medium has a positive effect on the reduction of ash and total sulfur content of agglomerates. It was found that an agglomerate product containing 3.03% total sulfur and 25.01% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 56.71% was obtained from a feed that contained 7% total sulfur and 43.58% ash when FeCl{sub 3} was used in the agglomeration medium.

  8. On-line coupled high performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography for the analysis of contamination by mineral oil. Part 1: method of analysis.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

    2012-09-14

    For the analysis of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), on-line coupled high performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (HPLC-GC-FID) offers important advantages: it separates MOSH and MOAH in robust manner, enables direct injection of large aliquots of raw extracts (resulting in a low detection limit), avoids contamination of the sample during preparation and is fully automated. This review starts with an overview of the technology, particularly the fundamentals of introducing large volumes of solvent into GC, and their implementation into various transfer techniques. The main part deals with the concepts of MOSH and MOAH analysis, with a thorough discussion of the choices made. It is followed by a description of the method. Finally auxiliary tools are summarized to remove interfering components, enrich the sample in case of a high fat content and obtain additional information about the MOSH and MOAH composition.

  9. Characterization of mineral phases of agricultural soil samples of Colombian coffee using Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Humberto Bustos; Lozano, Dagoberto Oyola; Martínez, Yebrayl Antonio Rojas; Pinilla, Marlene Rivera; Alcázar, German Antonio Pérez

    2012-03-01

    Soil chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectrometry (MS) of 57Fe were used to characterize mineral phases of samples taken from the productive layer (horizon A) of agricultural coffee soil from Tolima (Colombia). Chemical analysis shows the chemical and textural parameters of samples from two different regions of Tolima, i.e., Ibagué and Santa Isabel. By XRD phases like illite (I), andesine (A) and quartz (Q) in both samples were identified. The quantity of these phases is different for the two samples. The MS spectra taken at room temperature were adjusted by using five doublets, three of them associated to Fe + 3 type sites and the other two to Fe + 2 type sites. According to their isomer shift and quadrupole splitting the presence of phases like illite (detected by DRX), nontronite and biotite (not detected by XRD) can be postulated.

  10. 26 CFR 1.613-4 - Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas. 1.613-4 Section 1.613-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-4 Gross income from the property in...

  11. 26 CFR 1.613-4 - Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas. 1.613-4 Section 1.613-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-4 Gross income from the property in...

  12. 26 CFR 1.613-4 - Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas. 1.613-4 Section 1.613-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-4 Gross income from the property in...

  13. 26 CFR 1.613-4 - Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas. 1.613-4 Section 1.613-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-4 Gross income from the property in...

  14. Afghanistans Oil, Gas, and Minerals Industries: $488 Million in U.S. Efforts Show Limited Progress Overall, and Challenges Prevent Further Investment and Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Development Program (SGDP), we focused our audit solely on the Sheberghan Gas Generation Activity (SGGA), the off-budget portion of USAID’s hydrocarbon ...Industries Page 31 various departments of the hydrocarbon regulator. However, the contractor for USAID’s Sheberghan Gas Generation Activity (SGGA...Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction SIGAR 16-11 Audit Report Afghanistan’s Oil, Gas, and Minerals Industries

  15. The thickening additives for mineral and synthetic oils based on the copolymers of alkyl acrylates or methacrylates and butyl vinyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraskina, Evgeniya V.; Moikin, Alexey A.; Semenycheva, Ludmila L.

    2014-05-01

    A new method for synthesizing of the copolymers of acrylic and methacrylic acid esters with butyl vinyl ether in an excess of low-boiling monomer, which has proven effective for a number of alkyl methacrylates was proposed. Tests of thickening efficiency of the obtained copolymers were carried out. The resistance to mechanical degradation of the mineral, semi synthetic and synthetic base oils doped with the copolymers was evaluated.

  16. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts for re-use in agriculture obtained by different extraction techniques: phenolic, volatile, and mineral compounds.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, Rosario; Zalacain, Amaya; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2014-11-12

    Vine-shoots are an important waste in all viticulture areas that should be re-used with innovative applications. The aim of this work was to produce Airén waste vine-shoot aqueous extracts by four solid-liquid extraction techniques such as conventional solid-liquid extraction (CSLE), solid-liquid dynamic extraction (SLDE-Naviglio), microwave extraction (ME), and pressurized solvent extraction (PSE). Their chemical composition was studied in terms of phenolic, volatile, and mineral compounds. The highest concentrated extracts corresponded to CSLE and SLDE-Naviglio, independent of the conditions tested. The CSLE extracts had the highest flavanols, phenolic acids, and stilbenes contents. The volatile composition, quantified for first time in this work, shows that furanic compounds were the most abundant. All extracts showed an interesting mineral content, which may be assimilated by plants. These results show the agricultural potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as grape biostimulants and/or foliar fertilizer.

  17. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid determination of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cardboard and paper intended for food contact.

    PubMed

    Moret, Sabrina; Sander, Maren; Purcaro, Giorgia; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-10-15

    Packaging can represent a primary source of food contamination with mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), especially when recycled cardboard or mineral oil based printing inks are used. A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, followed by on-line LC-GC analysis, has been optimized for rapid mineral oil determination in cardboard and paper samples. The proposed method involves extraction with hexane (2 cycles) at 60°C for 5 min, and allows for the processing of up to 6 samples in parallel with minimal sample manipulation and solvent consumption. It gave good repeatability (coefficient of variation lower than 5%) and practically quantitative extraction yield (less than 2% of the total contamination found in a third separate cycle). The method was applied to different cardboards and paper materials intended for food contact. Results obtained were similar to those obtained by applying classical solvent extraction with hexane/ethanol 1:1 (v/v) as described by Lorenzini et al. [20].

  18. Deparaffinization with mineral oil: a simple procedure for extraction of high-quality DNA from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples.

    PubMed

    Heikal, Nahla; Nussenzveig, Roberto H; Agarwal, Archana M

    2014-09-01

    Extracting DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival samples remains difficult. Successful polymerase chain reactions (PCR) with DNA extracted from FFPE samples is still very low. We extracted DNA from 12 recent and old archival FFPE bone marrow trephine biopsies by use of a simple protocol on the basis of deparaffinization with molecular biology-grade mineral oil followed by DNA extraction with the Qiagen FFPE kit. Comparison of this deparaffinization method with standard protocols, for example, xylene or Hemo-D with subsequent rehydration using graded ethanols, was investigated. The quality and quantity of extracted DNA were tested by a combination of ultraviolet spectroscopy, analysis on a Caliper LabChip GX, and real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melt analysis. Highest quality PCR-amplifiable DNA was obtained by deparaffinization with mineral oil, whereas more variable results were obtained for the other 2 deparaffinization procedures. This result was confirmed by real-time PCR and high-resolution melt analysis. Besides improvements in the quality of extracted DNA, use of mineral oil for deparaffinization has the added benefit of decreased time (20 vs. 75 min) and a significant reduction of hands-on labor (1 step vs. multiple hands-on centrifugation and decanting steps).

  19. Determination of the composition of the organic matter chemically stabilized by agricultural soil clay minerals: Spectroscopy and Density Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oufqir, Sofia; Bloom, Paul; Toner, Brandy; Hatcher, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The interactions between soil organic matter and clay minerals are considered important processes because of their ability to sequester C in soil for long periods of time, and hence control C in the global C cycle when present. However, differing results have been reported regarding the composition of the soil organic matter - aromatic fractions versus aliphatic fractions - associated with clay minerals. To clarify this critical issue and better understand the C sequestration process in soils, we aimed to determine the nature of the chemically bound natural organic matter on clay surfaces, and to probe the speciation and spatial distribution of C in the soil clay nanoparticles using direct spectroscopic measurements namely solid-state CP-MAS and DP-MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). We tested the hypotheses that peptides and polysaccharides are stabilized by the smectite-illite clay while the lipids and black carbon are a separate phase; and that they are evenly distributed on clay surfaces. A soil clay fraction (5.5% organic C) was isolated from the surface of a prairie soil (Mollisol) in southwestern Minnesota, characterized by a pH 6.0, 32.5% clay content, and 3.7% organic carbon, using a sonication-sedimentation-siphoning process in distilled water. Then was subjected to density separation combined with low energy ultrasonic dispersion to separate the free organic and black C (light fraction) from the chemically bound C (heavy fraction). The XRD results indicated a dominance of interstratified smectite-illite clays in soil. The 13C-NMR spectra of the soil clay fraction suggested that polysaccharides and polypeptides are the prevailing components of the organic matter associated with the mineral clay, with only a minor component of aromatic C. The light fraction has strong alkyl C-H bands characteristic of fatty acids plus strong C-O bands characteristic of polysaccharides, including

  20. Hydrothermal systematics, alteration, and mineralization in the Grant Canyon, Bacon Flat, and Blackburn Oil Fields, Nevada - Intriguing Parallels with Carlin-Type gold deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Nevada's three known thermally active oil reservoirs-Blackburn, Bacon Flat, and Grand Canyon-share a surprisingly long list of essential attributes with the Carlin-type, low-grade, sediment-hosted gold deposits, particularly those of the Alligator Ridge mining district. Like these rich precious-metal ore bodies, the three fields (1) are hosted by Paleozoic carbonate and calcareous silici-clastic strata; (2) occur in structural or structural/stratigraphic traps sealed beneath shales or hydrothermally argillized and silicified tuffs and epiclastic debris, (3) have undergone intense fracturing and brecciation, as well as massive hydrothermal decalcification as major porosity-creating processes; (4) occupy rocks partly altered to or veined by the secondary-mineral assemblage quartz-kaolin-barite-pyrite-marcasite; (5) have a direct geothermal connection; (6) are enriched in the elements arsenic, antimony, mercury, thallium, and even contain significant traces of gold-up 50 ppb in altered Mississippian Chainmain Shale in the Blackburn field. Moreover, measured temperatures, as well as late-stage, fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures (T[sub h]) at the fields-all in the range 100-135[degrees]C-fall within the fluid-inclusion T[sub h] span of 90-165[degrees]C recorded for multiple Alligator Ridge deposits. Fracture-controlled live oil and oil-bearing fluid inclusions in some of the Alligator Ridge ores provide further evidence of genetic similarities with the oil reservoirs. The authors suggest that the three oil fields could represent either weakly mineralized analogs of the gold deposits or an incipient phase in their evolution ultimately leading to ore mineralization.

  1. Genetically biodiverse potato cultivars grown on a suitable agricultural soil under compost amendment or mineral fertilization: yield, quality, genetic and epigenetic variations, soil properties.

    PubMed

    Cicatelli, Angela; Baldantoni, Daniela; Iovieno, Paola; Carotenuto, Maurizio; Alfani, Anna; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

    2014-09-15

    The use of compost for soil amendment is a promising agricultural practice environmentally and economically viable. In the framework of a wide research project designed to evaluate the effects of soil amendment with municipal solid waste compost in comparison with traditional mineral fertilization practices, 54 different cultivars (Cvs) of potatoes were AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) molecularly fingerprinted. The seven most genetically biodiverse potato Cvs were used to establish an experimental field in southern Italy. The field area was divided into two portions fertilized with compost (20 Mg ha(-1)) or with ammonium sulphate (200 kg ha(-1)). No significant differences in productivity, organoleptic characteristics and element concentrations were observed between the potato tubers obtained with both kinds of soil fertilization, while the tubers grown on compost amended soil showed, on average, higher K concentrations with respect to those grown on mineral fertilised soil. cDNA-AFLP (complementary DNA-AFLP) and MSAP (methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism) analyses were carried out on both leaves and tubers of one selected Cv to estimate if any transcriptome alterations or epigenetic modifications were induced by the two kinds of fertilization, however no variations were detected. Chemical and biological soil qualities (i.e., microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis, alkaline and acid phosphatase) were assessed on soil samples at the start of the experiment and at the end of potato crop cycle. No significant differences in soil pH and limited ones, in the available fraction of some trace elements, were observed; while conductivity was much higher for the compost amended portion of the experimental field. Microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis and acid phosphatase activities were significantly increased by compost amendment, in comparison with mineral fertilization. Finally, a sensory panel of potato Cvs detected no significant differences among

  2. Calculation of the release of total organic matter and total mineral using the hydrodynamic equations applied to palm oil mill effluent treatment by cascaded anaerobic ponds.

    PubMed

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment processes to remove organic matter from palm oil mill effluent (POME) have been used widely in Malaysia. Still the amounts of total organic and total mineral released from POME that may cause degradation of the receiving environment need to be verified. This paper proposes the use of the hydrodynamic equations to estimate performance of the cascaded anaerobic ponds (CAP) and to calculate amounts of total organic matter and total mineral released from POME. The CAP efficiencies to remove biochemical oxygen demands, chemical oxygen demands, total solids and volatile solids (VS) as high as 94.5, 93.6, 96.3 and 98.2 %, respectively, are estimated. The amounts of total organic matter and total mineral as high as 538 kg VS/day and 895 kg FS/day, respectively, released from POME to the receiving water are calculated. The implication of the proposed hydrodynamic equations contributes to more versatile environmental assessment techniques, sometimes replacing laboratory analysis.

  3. From plantation agriculture to oil storage: economic development and social transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines two separate concepts of development. At the macrolevel, development is viewed as an advance in the organization of production and the extension of capitalist relations of production. At the community level, it is viewed as a process leading to qualitative change in a people's say of life. Focusing on a rural coastal valley and bay ecosystem in St. Lucia, a Windward Island in the Lesser Antilles, this research distinguished three separate stages in this ecosystem's economic development and examines the consequences of these economic transitions on a single rural village and group of fisherman living within it. The economic stages described begin with the terminal era of sugar cane cultivation, followed by the rationalization of commercial agriculture under translational control and the introduction of bananas, and concludes with the breaking up of the valley plantation and the introduction of a petroleum transshipment terminal. Each of these enterprises defined the valley's resources differently and each had a distinct organization of production. The relationship between hillside households and these enterprises varied accordingly. Households went from being an essential part of the productive process to being marginalized by it. Fishermen also became excluded from this environment. For these rural St. Lucians, large-scale economic development has not lead to qualitative improvement in their lives.

  4. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  5. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  6. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  7. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  8. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral... AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall extend to each National Forest Wilderness for the period specified in the...

  9. Amending the Mineral Leasing Act to provide for leasing of certain lands for oil and gas purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, July 7, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The report addresses S. 1170 a bill to amend the Mineral Leasing Act to provide for leasing of certain lands for oil and gas purposes. Leasing would be authorized for the Naval Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado and Utah. The proposed legislative text and background and need for the legislation is given.

  10. Protective effect of fish oil on changes in the activities of membrane-bound ATPases and mineral status in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamala; Kalaiselvi, Palaniswamy

    2010-12-01

    The present study evaluated the protective effect of fish oil in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. The results of the present study indicate that the IPH administration decreases the activities of membrane-bound ATPases compared to control animals. Fish oil pretreatment brought about significant increase in the activity of these membrane-bound ATPases in IPH (isoproterenol hydrochloride)-treated animals. Significant increase in serum potassium level with concomitant decrease in the values of sodium, magnesium, and calcium were observed in IPH-treated rats compared to control rats, fish oil pretreatment reversed these changes to near normal. Significant elevation of sodium and calcium levels with concomitant decrease in the levels of potassium and magnesium were observed in the myocardial tissue of IPH-administered rats compared to control rats, fish oil pretreatment followed by IPH administration brought these levels to near normal. The levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in both serum and tissue were increased in IPH-treated rats compared with control rats, whereas pretreatment with fish oil in IPH-treated rats maintained near-normal LPO levels. The results of the present study reveals that the pretreatment of fish maintains the activities of membrane-bound ATPases and the mineral levels at near normal by the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  11. Effects of nutritional supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals and fish oil on antioxidant status and psychosocial stress in smokers: an open trial.

    PubMed

    Nitta, H; Kinoyama, M; Watanabe, A; Shirao, K; Kihara, H; Arai, M

    2007-12-01

    Nutritional supplement foods containing antioxidant vitamins and minerals and fish oil (mainly docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, C22:6n-3), referred to as capsules, were administered to seven smokers every day for 34 days. Concentrations of antioxidant vitamins and minerals in serum, activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma and the concentration of 8-isoprostane (8-epi-prostaglandin F(2) alpha) in the urine showed an increase or a tendency to increase after the end of administration. The frequency of subjects showing poor state of psychological health evidenced by a total score of 8 points or more on the General Health Questionnaire (30-item edition) scale was 42.9%, although there was a significant decrease to 14.3% upon completion of administration of the capsules. These biochemical and psychological changes were mostly returned to the basal level one month after the end of administration of the capsules. The results suggest that administration of antioxidant vitamins and minerals and fish oil to smokers resulted in an increase in antioxidant capacity. Effectiveness in alleviating psychosocial stress likely to be attributable to DHA was also observed.

  12. Functionalized Vegetable Oils for Utilization as Polymer Building Blocks: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Agriculture Project Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Carde, T.

    2001-09-12

    Vegetable oils such as soybean oil will be converted to novel polymers using hydroformylation and other catalytic processes. These polymers can be used in the construction, automotive, packaging, and electronic sectors.

  13. A method for calculating a land-use change carbon footprint (LUC-CFP) for agricultural commodities - applications to Brazilian beef and soy, Indonesian palm oil.

    PubMed

    Persson, U Martin; Henders, Sabine; Cederberg, Christel

    2014-11-01

    The world's agricultural system has come under increasing scrutiny recently as an important driver of global climate change, creating a demand for indicators that estimate the climatic impacts of agricultural commodities. Such carbon footprints, however, have in most cases excluded emissions from land-use change and the proposed methodologies for including this significant emissions source suffer from different shortcomings. Here, we propose a new methodology for calculating land-use change carbon footprints for agricultural commodities and illustrate this methodology by applying it to three of the most prominent agricultural commodities driving tropical deforestation: Brazilian beef and soybeans, and Indonesian palm oil. We estimate land-use change carbon footprints in 2010 to be 66 tCO2 /t meat (carcass weight) for Brazilian beef, 0.89 tCO2 /t for Brazilian soybeans, and 7.5 tCO2 /t for Indonesian palm oil, using a 10 year amortization period. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is its flexibility: it can be applied in a tiered approach, using detailed data where it is available while still allowing for estimation of footprints for a broad set of countries and agricultural commodities; it can be applied at different scales, estimating both national and subnational footprints; it can be adopted to account both for direct (proximate) and indirect drivers of land-use change. It is argued that with an increasing commercialization and globalization of the drivers of land-use change, the proposed carbon footprint methodology could help leverage the power needed to alter environmentally destructive land-use practices within the global agricultural system by providing a tool for assessing the environmental impacts of production, thereby informing consumers about the impacts of consumption and incentivizing producers to become more environmentally responsible.

  14. Ammonium accumulation and use of mineral oil overlay do not alter imprinting establishment at three key imprinted genes in mouse oocytes grown and matured in a long-term follicle culture.

    PubMed

    Anckaert, Ellen; Adriaenssens, Tom; Romero, Sergio; Smitz, Johan

    2009-10-01

    Imprinted genes are differentially methylated during gametogenesis to allow parent-of-origin-specific monoallelic expression. Follicle culture under oil overlay has been associated with altered imprinting establishment in mouse oocytes. We previously demonstrated normal imprinting establishment at four key imprinted genes in mouse oocytes grown and matured in a long-term in vitro follicle culture system without oil overlay. Ammonium (300 microM) has been linked to aberrant imprinting in in vitro preimplantation embryo culture. Compared to culture without oil, mineral oil overlay during follicle culture led to a dramatic increase in ammonia levels in culture medium: mean ammonia levels were, respectively, 39 and 290 microM at Day 4 of culture, 73 and 465 microM at Day 8, and 101 and 725 microM at Day 12 (P < 0.0001). Mineral oil overlay and high ammonia levels (comparable to the follicle culture system for which aberrant imprinting was previously described) during follicle culture did not affect follicle survival, metaphase II (MII) rate, or MII oocyte diameter. Bisulphite sequencing revealed that high levels of ammonia and mineral oil overlay during follicle culture did not alter the methylation status of differentially methylated regions of three key imprinted genes (Snrpn, Igf2r, and H19) in MII oocytes. In the current culture setup, ammonium accumulation and mineral oil overlay during follicle culture do not induce aberrant imprinting establishment at the studied regulatory sequences in mouse oocytes.

  15. Effects of the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi on sorption, mineralization, and bound-residue formation of 4-nonylphenol in an agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Shan, Jun; Wang, Yongfeng; Wang, Lianhong; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Ji, Rong

    2014-06-01

    Effects of earthworms on fate of nonylphenol (NP) are obscure. Using (14)C-4-NP111 as a representative, we studied the fate of 4-NP in an agricultural soil with or without the earthworm Metaphire guillelmi and in fresh cast of the earthworm. Sorption of 4-NP on the cast (Kd 1564) was significantly higher than on the parent soil (Kd 1474). Mineralization of 4-NP was significantly lower in the cast (13.2%) and the soil with earthworms (10.4%) than in the earthworm-free soil (16.0%). One nitro metabolite of 4-NP111 (2-nitro-4-NP111) was identified in the soil and cast, and the presence of the earthworm significantly decreased its amounts. The presence of earthworm also significantly decreased formation of bound residues of 4-NP in the soil. Our results demonstrate that earthworms could significantly change the fate of 4-NP, underlining that earthworm effects should be considered when evaluating behavior and risk of 4-NP in soil.

  16. Saturated and aromatic mineral oil hydrocarbons from paperboard food packaging: estimation of long-term migration from contents in the paperboard and data on boxes from the market.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, R; Fiselier, K; Biedermann, M; Barbanera, M; Braschi, I; Grob, K

    2010-12-01

    In the absence of a functional barrier, mineral oil hydrocarbons from printing inks and recycled fibres tend to migrate from paper-based food-packaging materials through the gas phase into dry food. Concentrations easily far exceed the limit derived from the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Since the estimation of long-term migration into the food by testing at 40°C for 10 days is difficult, it seems preferable (and easier) to use the mineral oil content in the paperboard. Evaporation experiments showed that hydrocarbons eluted up to about n-C₂₄ are sufficiently volatile for relevant migration into dry food: in worst-case situations, about 80% migrate into the packed food. The extraction of the paperboard was optimised to give good recovery of the relevant hydrocarbons, but to discriminate against those of high molecular mass which tend to disturb gas chromatographic analysis in on-line coupled normal phase HPLC-GC-FID. Even though some of the relevant hydrocarbons had already evaporated, the average concentration of < C₂₄ mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) in the paperboard boxes of 102 products from the Swiss and Italian market was 626 mg kg⁻¹. Nearly 15% of investigated boxes still contained more than 1000 mg kg⁻¹ < C₂₄ MOSH up to over 3000 mg kg⁻¹ (maximum = 3500 mg kg⁻¹). This amount of MOSH in the board have the potential of contaminating the packed food at a level exceeding the limit, derived from the JECFA ADI, hundreds of times.

  17. Some higher N-substituted 1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-diones and 5,5-diphenylhydantoins, their synthesis and corrosion preventive properties in mineral oil medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, Serkan; Yıldırım, Ayhan; Çetin, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Some five membered heterocyclic compounds were synthesized by the reaction of 2,4-thiazolidinedione or 5,5-diphenylhydantoin potassium salts with 2-chloro-N-alkylacetamides and alkyl-2-chloroacetates. The structure confirmations of the synthesized compounds were performed by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra. The inhibitory effectiveness of the compounds were evaluated against the corrosion of steel strip immersed in water containing paraffin based mineral oil medium in accordance to standard test method. Surface characterization studies of the metal coupons used were performed by SEM analysis and also by the contact angle measurements using the Sessile-Drop method. In addition the 3D image of the metal surface was obtained using optical profilometer. The test results and surface characterization studies showed that all synthesized compounds are excellent corrosion inhibitors in such a water in oil emulsion system.

  18. Emissions of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from agricultural diesel engine fueled with degummed, deacidified mixed crude palm oil blends.

    PubMed

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Tekasakul, Surajit; Tekasakul, Perapong; Prateepchaikul, Gumpon; Jindapetch, Naret; Furuuchi, Masami; Hata, Mitsuhiko

    2013-04-01

    Mixed crude palm oil (MCPO), the mixture of palm fiber oil and palm kernel oil, has become of great interest as a renewable energy source. It can be easily extracted from whole dried palm fruits. In the present work, the degummed, deacidified MCPO was blended in petroleum diesel at portions of 30% and 40% by volume and then tested in agricultural diesel engines for long-term usage. The particulates from the exhaust of the engines were collected every 500 hr using a four-stage cascade air sampler. The 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameters for the first three stages were 10, 2.5 and 1 microm, while the last stage collected all particles smaller than 1 microm. Sixteen particle bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the size distribution of particulate matter was in the accumulation mode and the pattern of total PAHs associated with fine-particles (< 1 microm) showed a dominance of larger molecular weight PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings), especially pyrene. The mass median diameter, PM and total PAH concentrations decreased when increasing the palm oil content, but increased when the running hours of the engine were increased. In addition, Commercial petroleum diesel (PB0) gave the highest value of carcinogenic potency equivalent (BaP(eq)) for all particle size ranges. As the palm oil was increased, the BaP(eq) decreased gradually. Therefore the degummed-deacidified MCPO blends are recommended for diesel substitute.

  19. Varying Response of the Concentration and Yield of Soybean Seed Mineral Elements, Carbohydrates, Organic Acids, Amino Acids, Protein, and Oil to Phosphorus Starvation and CO2 Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shardendu K.; Barnaby, Jinyoung Y.; Reddy, Vangimalla R.; Sicher, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (e.g., mg g-1 seed) and total yield (e.g., g plant-1) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at either sufficient (0.50 mM P, control) or deficient (0.10 and 0.01 mM, P-stress) levels of P under aCO2 and eCO2 (400 and 800 μmol mol-1, respectively). Both the concentration and yield of 36 out of 38 seed components responded to P treatment and on average 25 and 11 components increased and decreased, respectively, in response to P starvation. Concentrations of carbohydrates (e.g., glucose, sugar alcohols), organic acids (e.g., succinate, glycerate) and amino acids increased while oil, and several minerals declined under P deficiency. However, the yield of the majority of seed components declined except several amino acids (e.g., phenylalanine, serine) under P deficiency. The concentration-based relationship between seed protein and oil was negative (r2 = 0.96), whereas yield-based relationship was positive (r2 = 0.99) across treatments. The CO2 treatment also altered the concentration of 28 out of 38 seed components, of which 23 showed decreasing (e.g., sucrose, glucose, citrate, aconitate, several minerals, and amino acids) while C, iron, Mn, glycerate, and oil showed increasing trends at eCO2. Despite a decreased concentration, yields of the majority of seed components were increased in response to eCO2, which was attributable to the increased seed production especially near sufficient P nutrition. The P × CO2 interactions for the concentration of amino acids and the yield of several components were due to the lack of their response to eCO2 under control or the severe P starvation, respectively. Thus, P deficiency primarily reduced the concentration of oil and mineral elements but enhanced a majority of other components. However, seed components yield

  20. Varying Response of the Concentration and Yield of Soybean Seed Mineral Elements, Carbohydrates, Organic Acids, Amino Acids, Protein, and Oil to Phosphorus Starvation and CO2 Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shardendu K; Barnaby, Jinyoung Y; Reddy, Vangimalla R; Sicher, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (e.g., mg g(-1) seed) and total yield (e.g., g plant(-1)) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at either sufficient (0.50 mM P, control) or deficient (0.10 and 0.01 mM, P-stress) levels of P under aCO2 and eCO2 (400 and 800 μmol mol(-1), respectively). Both the concentration and yield of 36 out of 38 seed components responded to P treatment and on average 25 and 11 components increased and decreased, respectively, in response to P starvation. Concentrations of carbohydrates (e.g., glucose, sugar alcohols), organic acids (e.g., succinate, glycerate) and amino acids increased while oil, and several minerals declined under P deficiency. However, the yield of the majority of seed components declined except several amino acids (e.g., phenylalanine, serine) under P deficiency. The concentration-based relationship between seed protein and oil was negative (r(2) = 0.96), whereas yield-based relationship was positive (r(2) = 0.99) across treatments. The CO2 treatment also altered the concentration of 28 out of 38 seed components, of which 23 showed decreasing (e.g., sucrose, glucose, citrate, aconitate, several minerals, and amino acids) while C, iron, Mn, glycerate, and oil showed increasing trends at eCO2. Despite a decreased concentration, yields of the majority of seed components were increased in response to eCO2, which was attributable to the increased seed production especially near sufficient P nutrition. The P × CO2 interactions for the concentration of amino acids and the yield of several components were due to the lack of their response to eCO2 under control or the severe P starvation, respectively. Thus, P deficiency primarily reduced the concentration of oil and mineral elements but enhanced a majority of other components. However, seed

  1. Simultaneous determination of five common additives in insulating mineral oils by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and coulometric detection.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Sarzanini, Corrado; Rivoira, Luca; Tumiatti, Vander; Maina, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    Dielectric mineral oils are used to impregnate power transformers and large electrical apparatus, acting as both liquid insulation and heat dissipation media. Antioxidants and passivators are frequently added to mineral oils to enhance oxidation stability and reduce the electrostatic charging tendency, respectively. Since existing standard test methods only allow analysis of individual additives, new approaches are needed for the detection of mixtures. For the first time we investigate and discuss the performance of analytical methods, which require or do not require extraction as sample pretreatment, for the simultaneous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography determination of passivators (benzotriazole, Irgamet(®) 39) and antioxidants (N-phenyl-1-naphtylamine, 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol), chosen for their presence in marketed oils. Quick easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe and solid phase extractions were evaluated as sample pretreatments. Direct sample-injection was also studied. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry and direct-current coulometry detection were explored. As less prone to additive concentrations variability, the direct-injection high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and coulometric detection method was validated through comparison with Standard Method IEC 60666 and through an ASTM interlaboratory proficiency test. Obtained detection limits are (mg kg(-1) ): benzotriazole (2.8), Irgamet(®) 39 (13.8), N-phenyl-1-naphtylamine (11.9), 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (13.1), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (10.2). Simultaneous determination of selected additives was possible both in unused and used oils, with good precision and accuracy.

  2. Linking carbon stock change from land-use change to consumption of agricultural products: A review with Indonesian palm oil as a case study.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Wicke, Birka; Verstegen, Judith; Faaij, André; Junginger, Martin

    2016-12-15

    Numerous analyses have been performed to quantitatively link carbon stock change caused by land-use change (CSC-LUC) to consumption of agricultural products, but results differ significantly, even for studies focussing on the same region or product. This is due to the different focuses and interpretations of the links between direct drivers and underlying causes of CSC-LUC, which can be translated into differences in key functions, i.e. specific methods, algorithms and parameters embedded in the analysis. Using the example of Indonesian palm oil production (often associated with CSC-LUC), this paper carries out a meta-analysis of 12 existing studies, determines the different settings for the key functions embedded in consumption-based CSC-LUC studies and discussed their implications for policymaking. It identifies the underlying reasons of adopting different settings within the eight key functions and their advantages and trade-offs. Examples are the way of determining how deforestation is linked to oil palm, and the inclusion of non-agriculture and non-productive drivers in the accounting to weight their roles in CSC-LUC in comparison to palm oil consumption. Following that, the quantitative results from the selected studies were processed and harmonised in terms of unit, allocation mechanism, allocation key and amortisation period. This resulting in ranges of 0.1-3.8 and -0.1-15.7 tCO2/t crude palm oil for historical and projection studies, respectively. It was observed that CSC-LUC allocated to palm oil is typically lower when propagating effects and non-agricultural or non-productive drivers were accounted for. Values also greatly differ when marginal and average allocation mechanisms were employed. Conclusively, individual analyses only answer part of the question about CSC-LUC drivers and have their own strengths and weaknesses. Since the context can be very different, using quantitative results from a single study for accounting purposes in policymaking is

  3. Environmental fate of the herbicide MCPA in agricultural soils amended with fresh and aged de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste.

    PubMed

    Peña, David; López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Albarrán, Ángel; Becerra, Daniel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Olive oil agrifood industry generates large amounts of waste whose recycling as organic amendment represents an alternative to their disposal. The impact of de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DW) on the fate of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in Mediterranean agricultural soils was evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of the transformation of organic matter from this waste under field conditions was assessed. Four Mediterranean agricultural soils were selected and amended in laboratory with fresh DW and field-aged DW (DW and ADW treatments, respectively). Adsorption capacity increased by factors between 1.18 and 3.59, for the DW-amended soils, and by factor of 4.93, for ADW-amended soil, with respect to unamended soils, when 5% amendment was applied. The DW amendment had inhibitory effect on dehydrogenase activity and slowed herbicide dissipation, whereas the opposite effect was observed in ADW treatments. In the field-amended soil, the amount of MCPA leached was significantly reduced from 56.9% for unamended soil to 15.9% at the 5% rate. However, leaching losses of MCPA increased in the laboratory-amended soils, because of their high water-soluble organic carbon values which could enhance MCPA mobility, especially in the acidic soils. Therefore, the application of DW as organic amendment in Mediterranean agricultural soils could be an important management strategy to reduce MCPA leaching, especially if the organic matter had been previously transformed by ageing processes.

  4. Minerals Management Service: Strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    This plan addresses the management of the mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in an environmentally sound and safe manner and the timely collection, verification, and distribution of mineral revenues from Federal and Indian lands. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) manages the Nation`s natural gas, oil and other mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and collects, accounts for, and disburses revenues from offshore federal mineral leases and from onshore mineral leases on Federal and Indian lands.

  5. Rapid and sensitive solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography for the analysis of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in cardboard and dried foods.

    PubMed

    Moret, Sabrina; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2012-06-22

    A rapid off-line solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (SPE-LVI-GC-FID) method, based on the use of silver silica gel and low solvent consumption, was developed for mineral oil saturated hydrocarbon (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbon (MOAH) determination in cardboard and dried foods packaged in cardboard. The SPE method was validated using LVI with a conventional on-column injector and the retention gap technique (which allowed to inject up to 50 μL of the sample). Detector response was linear over all the concentration range tested (0.5-250 μg/mL), recoveries were practically quantitative, repeatability was good (coefficients of variation lower than 7%) and limit of quantification adequate to quantify the envisioned limit of 0.15 mg/kg proposed in Germany for MOAH analysis in food samples packaged in recycled cardboard. Rapid heating of the GC oven allowed to increase sample throughput (3-4 samples per hour) and to enhance sensitivity. The proposed method was used for MOSH and MOAH determination in selected food samples usually commercialised in cardboard packaging. The most contaminated was a tea sample (102.2 and 7.9 mg/kg of MOSH and MOAH below n-C25, respectively), followed by a rice and a sugar powder sample, all packaged in recycled cardboard.

  6. [Mineral elements analysis of Momordica charantiap seeds by ICP-AES and fatty acid profile identification of seed oil by GC-MS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-ru; Deng, Ze-yuan; Fan, Ya-wei; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhi-han

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, a special kind of Momordica charantia seeds produced in Hai Nan was selected and analyzed. Firstly, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the mineral elements. It was clear that the contents of K, Mg and P are the highest in the seeds; Cr and Zn takes up to 5.65% and 45.45% high, especially, which are rare in plant foods. These minerals, especially Cr and Zn might have a complex effect on those proteins or polysaccharides and form a stronger anticipation of hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and cholesterol. Secondly, seed oil was extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction with a yield ratio of 36.89, and the fatty acids were treated by methylation in alkaline process and purified by thin-layer chromatography, then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) identification. The saturated fatty acids (SFA) take up 36.712, and mainly are stearic acid; monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) is only 3.33% which is dominantly linoleic acid (LA); Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) accounted for 59.96%, and the alpha-eleostearic acid takes up 54.26% as the main fatty acids in all. The plentiful alpha-eleostearic acid leads to strong effects of inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, lowering blood fat, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and preventing cardiovascular diseases, and so on. Knowing clearly the mineral elements distribution and identifying the composition of fatty acid, especially the main fatty acids in the oil, are both of great guiding importance to further exploit the clinical and edible value in Momordica charantiap seeds.

  7. On-line coupled high performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography for the analysis of contamination by mineral oil. Part 2: migration from paperboard into dry foods: interpretation of chromatograms.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

    2012-09-14

    Mineral oil hydrocarbons are complex as well as varying mixtures and produce correspondingly complex chromatograms (on-line HPLC-GC-FID as described in Part 1): mostly humps of unresolved components are obtained, sometimes with sharp peaks on top. Chromatograms may also contain peaks of hydrocarbons from other sources which need to be subtracted from the mineral oil components. The review focuses on the interpretation and integration of chromatograms related to food contamination by mineral oil from paperboard boxes (off-set printing inks and recycled fibers), if possible distinguishing between various sources of mineral oil. Typical chromatograms are shown for relevant components and interferences as well as food samples encountered on the market. Details are pointed out which may provide relevant information. Integration is shown for examples of paperboard packaging materials as well as various foods. Finally the uncertainty of the analysis and limit of quantitation are discussed for specific examples. They primarily result from the interpretation of the chromatogram, manually placing the baseline and cuts for taking off extraneous components. Without previous enrichment, the limit of quantitation is between around 0.1 mg/kg for foods with a low fat content and 2.5 mg/kg for fats and oils. The measurement uncertainty can be kept clearly below 20% for most samples.

  8. [Microbial communities of the discharge zone of oil- and gas-bearing fluids in low-mineral Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    Lomakina, A V; Pogodaeva, T V; Morozov, I V; Zemskaya, T I

    2014-01-01

    At the site of natural ingress of oil microbial diversity in the Central Baikal bottom sediments differing in the chemical composition of pore waters was studied by molecular biological techniques. The sediments saturated with oil and methane were found to contain members of 10 bacterial and 2 archaeal phyla. The oxidized sediment layer contained methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, which had a specific structure of the pmoA gene and clustered together with uncultured methanotrophs from cold ecosystems. The upper sediment layer contained also oil-oxidizing bacteria and the alkB genes most colsely related to those of Rhodococcus. The microbial community of reduced sediments exhibited lower diversity and was represented mostly by the organisms involved in hydrocarbon biodegradation.

  9. The use of mineral oil during in vitro maturation, fertilization, and embryo culture does not impair the developmental competence of pig oocytes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Cristina A; Nohalez, Alicia; Cuello, Cristina; Vazquez, Juan M; Roca, Jordi; Martinez, Emilio A; Gil, Maria A

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of mineral oil (MO) overlay during maturation, fertilization, and embryo culture on the timing of nuclear maturation, the progesterone concentrations in the maturation medium, and the subsequent developmental competence of the oocyte. The results from experiment 1 showed that under the typical humidity of laboratory incubators (95%-97%), the culture media osmolality increased in the absence of oil overlay. For this reason, in experiment 2, maturation, fertilization, and embryo culture media were incubated with either an oil cover (MO group) or a microenvironment system for maximum humidity (HM group). Under these conditions, the media osmolality was maintained below 300 mOsm/kg. A portion of oocytes (n = 1414; four replicates) was removed from the maturation medium at 4- to 6-hour intervals to evaluate the nuclear maturation stage. The corresponding medium was used for progesterone measurement. The remaining oocytes were inseminated with frozen-thawed ejaculated sperm and cultured for 12 hours (n = 305) or 7 days (n = 619) to assess fertilization and embryo development parameters, respectively. The progesterone concentration of the maturation medium of the MO group was lower than 1.5 ng/mL at each time point evaluated. The values obtained at 12 hours of maturation and at the end of maturation were 20 and 55 times lower than those of the HM group, respectively. However, compared with the HM group, oil overlay did not delay oocyte progression to metaphase I and II and did not influence normal fertilization, cleavage, blastocyst formation, and total cell number in blastocysts. In conclusion, despite its pronounced impact on progesterone concentration, the use of MO did not affect the time course of oocyte maturation or oocyte developmental competence.

  10. Effect of sprouting and roasting processes on some physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of soybean seed and oils.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2014-07-01

    Free fatty acid contents of sprouted soybean oil were found between 1.26% (Adasoy) and 4.20% (Nazlıcan and Türksoy). Peroxide values (PV) of sprouted soybean oils were found between 1.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 3.85meq/kg (A3935), while peroxide values of roasted seed oils were determined between 2.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 4.03meq/kg (Nova). Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were found as major fatty acids of soybean genotypes. Oleic acid contents of samples were found between 19.07% (roasted Adasoy) and 35.31% (roasted A3935), linoleic contents of oils ranged between 42.17% (roasted Nazlican) and 54.76% (sprouted A3127). Macro and micro element contents of sprouted, oven roasted and raw (untreated) soybean seeds were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. The potassium contents of soybean seeds ranged between 16,375mg/kg (raw Adasoy) and 20,357mg/kg (sprouted A3127, while phosphorus contents of seeds varied from 5427mg/kg (oven roasted Türksoy) to 7759mg/kg (sprouted Nova). The micro element contents of samples were found to be different depending on the processing procedures and soybean genotypes.

  11. Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid and efficient extraction of superficial and total mineral oil contamination from dry foods.

    PubMed

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Sander, Maren; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2014-08-15

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) represents a powerful technique which can be conveniently used for rapid extraction of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) from dry foods with a low fat content, such as semolina pasta, rice, and other cereals. Two different PLE methods, one for rapid determination of superficial contamination mainly from the packaging, the other for efficient extraction of total contamination from different sources, have been developed and optimised. The two methods presented good performance characteristics in terms of repeatability (relative standard deviation lower than 5%) and recoveries (higher than 95%). To show their potentiality, the two methods have been applied in combination on semolina pasta and rice packaged in direct contact with recycled cardboard. In the case of semolina pasta it was possible to discriminate between superficial contamination coming from the packaging, and pre-existing contamination (firmly enclosed into the matrix).

  12. Impacts of Horticultural Mineral Oils and Two Insecticide Practices on Population Fluctuation of Diaphorina citri and Spread of Huanglongbing in a Citrus Orchard in Sarawak

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Stephen Chan Teck; Abang, Fatimah; Beattie, Andrew; Kueh, Roland Jui Heng; Wong, Sing King

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of the incidence and spread of the citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB) in relation to the vector Diaphorina citri population fluctuation were studied from January 1999 to December 2001 seasons in a 0.8 ha citrus orchard at Jemukan (1° 33′N, 110° 41′E), Southwest Sarawak in Malaysia. In relation to insecticide and horticultural mineral oils (HMOs) use, levels of HLB infection rose quite rapidly over the next 3 years in the unsprayed control and less rapidly in the other treatments such as imidacloprid, nC24HMO, and triazophos/cypermethrin/chlorpyrifos. Levels of HLB as determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were 42.2%, 9.4%, 11.4%, and 22.7%, respectively. The effects of nC24HMO and conventional pesticides on the citrus psyllid population and parasitoids in citrus orchard were also determined. PMID:22629178

  13. Manitoba oil activity review, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Annual review is presented of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included.

  14. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation...

  15. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation...

  16. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation...

  17. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation...

  18. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation...

  19. Accumulation of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) in female Fischer 344 rats: Comparison with human data and consequences for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Barp, Laura; Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni; Blas-Y-Estrada, Florence; Nygaard, Unni C; Alexander, Jan; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Female Fischer 344 rats were orally exposed to a mixture of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) of broad molecular mass range at doses of 40, 400 and 4000mg/kg feed. Amounts and compositions of the MOSH were analyzed in liver, spleen, adipose tissue and the carcass after exposure during 30, 60, 90 and 120d as well as after 90d exposure followed by 30d depuration. At 40mg/kg in the feed, after 30d of exposure, 10.9% of the ingested MOSH were recovered from the animal body; after 90d plus 30d depuration it was 3.9%. In liver and spleen, the maximum retention in terms of molecular mass (simulated distillation) was at n-C29; in adipose tissue and carcass it was at n-C15/16. The differentiation between MOSH below and above n-C25 (Class I versus Class II and III oils), used for present regulation, is not supported by the present data on accumulation; structural characteristics seem more pertinent than molecular mass. Concentrations in the tissues increased far less than proportionally with the dose, rendering linear extrapolation to low doses questionable. No steady state was reached after 120d. In fact, comparing with the concentrations in human tissues at the estimated exposure, extrapolation from animal experiments seems to grossly underestimate human internal exposure. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) was used to characterize the MOSH residues in the tissues with the aim of identifying the most strongly accumulated types. In the liver and spleen, the highly branched hydrocarbons dominated, whereas in the adipose tissue it was the n-alkanes and species with main n-alkyl moieties. Strong MOSH accumulation is not of concern per se, but the safety at the high concentrations in human tissues needs to be re-evaluated, possibly taking into account also end points other than granuloma formation.

  20. 30 CFR 202.100 - Royalty on oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty on oil. 202.100 Section 202.100 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Federal and Indian Oil § 202.100 Royalty on oil. (a) Royalties due on oil production from leases...

  1. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition

    PubMed Central

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Ochoa, Julio J.; Llamas-Elvira, José M.; López-Frías, Magdalena; Planells, Elena; Ramirez-Tortosa, MCarmen; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar L.; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L.

    2017-01-01

    During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA)-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD) preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals. PMID:28241421

  2. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition.

    PubMed

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Ochoa, Julio J; Llamas-Elvira, José M; López-Frías, Magdalena; Planells, Elena; Ramirez-Tortosa, MCarmen; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar L; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L

    2017-02-22

    During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA)-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD) preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F₂-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F₂-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals.

  3. 30 CFR 281.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 281.8 Section 281.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.8 Rights to minerals. (a)...

  4. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate...

  5. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate...

  6. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate...

  7. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate...

  8. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate...

  9. 1996 annual report on Alaska's mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Jill L.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifteenth annual report that has been prepared in response to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. Current Alaskan mineral projects and events that occurred during 1995 are summarized. For the purpose of this document, the term 'minerals' encompasses both energy resources (oil and gas, coal and peat, uranium, and geothermal) and nonfuel-mineral resources (metallic and industrial minerals).

  10. Drop impact experiment as a model experiment to investigate the role of oil-in-water emulsions in controlling the drop size distribution of an agricultural spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernay, Clara; Ramos, Laurence; Ligoure, Christian; Douzals, Jean-Paul; Goyal, Rajesh; Castaing, Jean-Christophe

    2014-11-01

    Agricultural spraying involves atomizing a liquid stream through a hydraulic nozzle forming a liquid sheet, which is then destabilized into droplets. Solution adjuvants as dilute oil-in-water emulsions are known to influence the spray drop size distribution. To elucidate the mechanisms causing the changes on the drop size distribution, we investigate the influence of emulsions on the destabilization mechanisms of liquid sheets. Model laboratory experiments based on the collision of a liquid drop on a small target are used to produce and visualize liquid sheets. With emulsion, the sheet is destabilized by the nucleation of holes in the sheet that perforate it during its expansion. The physico-chemical parameters of the emulsion, such as the concentration and the emulsion drop size distribution, are varied to rationalize their influence on the destabilization mechanisms. The results obtained with the drop impact experiments are compared to the measurement of the spray drop size distribution. The very good correlation between the number of nucleation events and the volume fraction of small drops in the spray suggests that experiments on liquid sheet are appropriate model experiments to gain an understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the spray drop size distribution.

  11. Characterization of excipient and tableting factors that influence folic acid dissolution, friability, and breaking strength of oil- and water-soluble multivitamin with minerals tablets.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianping; Hoag, Stephen W

    2003-11-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize the formulation and processing factors that influence folic acid dissolution from oil- and water-soluble multivitamin with minerals tablet formulations for direct compression. The following parameters were studied: bulk filler solubility, soluble to insoluble bulk filler ratio, triturating agent (preblending carrier) solubility, disintegrant usage, compression pressure, and folic acid particle size. Folic acid particle size was determined by using light microscopy, and surface area was measured by using BET adsorption. The tablets were compressed on an instrumented Stokes B2 tablet press, and the friability, weight variation, and dissolution were measured according to USP methods, along with tablet breaking strength. In summary, we found the following factors to be critical to folic acid dissolution: bulk filler solubility (soluble fillers, such as maltose, increase folic acid dissolution); disintegrant amount (levels less than 0.4% (w/w) are ineffectual, whereas levels greater than 1.2% (w/w) did not further increase dissolution); and compression force (generally, maltose produce harder tablets). In addition, folic acid dissolution was less affected by changes in compaction pressure when a "super" disintegrant and maltose, as a bulk filler, were used. It was determined that the trituration agent did not play a significant role in folic acid dissolution. In the range of parameters studied, statistical analysis found no significant interactions between the parameters studied, which means they act independently in an additive manner. The results also show that no one factor is completely responsible for dissolution failure. Thus, it is the combination of formulation factors and processing conditions that collectively add up to produce dissolution failure; however, the use of a disintegrant and a soluble filler such as maltose can make a formulation more robust to the inevitable changes that can occur during commercial

  12. Total and available soil trace element concentrations in two Mediterranean agricultural systems treated with municipal waste compost or conventional mineral fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Leone, Anna; Iovieno, Paola; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2010-08-01

    The temporal dynamics of some trace elements in two different types of Mediterranean soils were studied in order to evaluate the possible long-term contamination following compost amendments. Total and available (DTPA-extractable) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined. The study was carried out on two agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), a Sandy Loam Calcaric Cambisol (SG) and a Clay Gleyc Luvisol (CO), during 3 years of organic amendment with compost. The compost, produced from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and urban yard trimmings, in accordance with the Italian law for agricultural use, was applied at annually rates of 15, 30, and 45 t ha(-1) (on dry weight basis). Wide variations in total and available Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were observed over time, but appeared to be in many cases unrelated to the treatments, occurring also in control plots. After 3 years of compost application the amended SG soil showed the highest and significant increase in total Cd and Zn concentrations; in addition, the available Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations increased in accordance with the compost rates. The CO soil, characterized by a higher clay content, lower organic matter content and lower cation exchange capacity, exhibited a lower increase in available metal fractions. Our findings show that compost amendment affects more the available than the total metal concentrations in the two types of soils studied and thus it is important into legislation that metal "bioavailability" may be considered in defining threshold metal values.

  13. 7 CFR 985.11 - Salable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salable oil. 985.11 Section 985.11 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.11 Salable oil. Salable oil means that oil which is free to be handled....

  14. 7 CFR 985.11 - Salable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salable oil. 985.11 Section 985.11 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.11 Salable oil. Salable oil means that oil which is free to be handled....

  15. 7 CFR 985.11 - Salable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salable oil. 985.11 Section 985.11 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.11 Salable oil. Salable oil means that oil which is free to be handled....

  16. 7 CFR 985.11 - Salable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salable oil. 985.11 Section 985.11 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.11 Salable oil. Salable oil means that oil which is free to be handled....

  17. 7 CFR 985.11 - Salable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salable oil. 985.11 Section 985.11 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.11 Salable oil. Salable oil means that oil which is free to be handled....

  18. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) of the... marketplace, provide definitions for olive oil and olive-pomace oil, promote truth in labeling, and provide...

  19. USSR Report Agriculture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-06

    simultaneous freeing of production resources for the achievement of other social goals of public development involves improving the structure of the food...in agriculture it becomes possible to free about 2 million hectares of arable land for the purpose of cultivating other crops, about 200,000 persons...insufficient application of mineral fertilizers. The structural changes in agriculture proposed by us, based on the freeing of 2 million hectares of

  20. 43 CFR 3501.10 - What types of mineral use authorizations can I get under these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Leasing of Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale-General § 3501.10 What types of mineral use authorizations can I get under these rules? BLM...

  1. 43 CFR 3501.10 - What types of mineral use authorizations can I get under these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Leasing of Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale-General § 3501.10 What types of mineral use authorizations can I get under these rules? BLM...

  2. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  3. 30 CFR 256.80 - Leases of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leases of other minerals. 256.80 Section 256.80 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Section 6 Leases § 256.80 Leases of other minerals....

  4. 30 CFR 581.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 581.8 Section 581.8 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 581.8 Rights to minerals....

  5. 30 CFR 581.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 581.8 Section 581.8 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 581.8 Rights to minerals....

  6. 30 CFR 581.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 581.8 Section 581.8 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 581.8 Rights to minerals....

  7. 30 CFR 281.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 281.8 Section 281.8 Mineral... OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.8 Rights to minerals. (a) Unless otherwise specified in the leasing notice, a lease for OCS...

  8. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.22 Approval of minerals agreements. (a)...

  9. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.22 Approval of minerals agreements. (a)...

  10. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.22 Approval of minerals agreements. (a)...

  11. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.33 Assignment of minerals agreements....

  12. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.33 Assignment of minerals agreements....

  13. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.33 Assignment of minerals agreements....

  14. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.22 Approval of minerals agreements. (a)...

  15. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.22 Approval of minerals agreements. (a)...

  16. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.33 Assignment of minerals agreements....

  17. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.33 Assignment of minerals agreements....

  18. The Association between Trunk Body Composition and Spinal Bone Mineral Density in Korean Males versus Females: a Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eun Kyoung; Park, Hee Won; Baek, Sora; Lim, Jae Young

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was proposed to identify the association of trunk body composition with spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean male and female farmers. A total of 523 Korean farmers (259 males, 44 premenopausal females, and 220 postmenopausal females) were recruited. Computed tomography scans were acquired at the mid-L4 vertebral level, and total trunk muscle mass (TMM, cm³), back muscle mass (BMM), and abdominal wall muscle mass (AMM), total trunk fat mass (TFM), visceral fat mass (VFM), and subcutaneous fat mass (SFM) were assessed. Spinal BMD (g/cm²) was estimated from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the L4 level. In terms of muscle mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all the components of the trunk muscle mass (r = 0.171-0.360; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in female farmers, while only with AMM (r = 0.181; P < 0.01) in male farmers. In terms of fat mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all components of the trunk fat mass (r = 0.142-0.424; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in male and premenopausal female farmers, while only with VFM (r = 0.132; P < 0.05) in postmenopausal females. Adjusted multivariate regression analysis showed that AMM in male and post-menopausal female farmers was closely associated with spinal BMD. There may be positive associations between trunk muscle and fat mass and spinal BMD with sexual dimorphism, and abdominal wall muscle mass was an explanatory variable closely related to spinal BMD in Korean farmers. Registered at the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, http://cris.nih.go.kr), number KCT0000829.

  19. Investigation of OMA formation and the effect of minerals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiping; Khatibi, Mona; Zheng, Ying; Lee, Kenneth; Li, Zhengkai; Mullin, Joseph V

    2010-09-01

    Oil-mineral-aggregates (OMA) have been shown to be effective in oil spills cleanup. Experimental work was carried out to study the effects of physical-chemical properties of natural minerals and chemically modified minerals on OMA formation and oil removal. The results showed that the hydrophobicity, particle sizes and specific surface of minerals played an important role in OMA formation. Appropriate hydrophobicity of minerals can enhance the formation of OMA. The surface property of minerals can also influence the shape of OMA. Spherical mineral-oil aggregates were frequently formed with hydrophilic minerals while irregular shaped OMA were observed with hydrophobic minerals. The sizes of OMA also increased when the minerals changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The effects of dispersant and mixing energy were also carefully studied. The results showed that dispersant were a dominant factor. When dispersant was applied, effects of other factors became minimal.

  20. Mineral facilities of Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  1. 7 CFR 985.58 - Exempt oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempt oil. 985.58 Section 985.58 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.58 Exempt oil. Oil held by a producer or handler on the effective date of this subpart shall not...

  2. 7 CFR 985.58 - Exempt oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exempt oil. 985.58 Section 985.58 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.58 Exempt oil. Oil held by a producer or handler on the effective date of this subpart shall not...

  3. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  4. 7 CFR 985.58 - Exempt oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exempt oil. 985.58 Section 985.58 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.58 Exempt oil. Oil held by a producer or handler on the effective date of this subpart shall not...

  5. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  6. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  7. 7 CFR 985.58 - Exempt oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exempt oil. 985.58 Section 985.58 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.58 Exempt oil. Oil held by a producer or handler on the effective date of this subpart shall not...

  8. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  9. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  10. 7 CFR 985.58 - Exempt oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exempt oil. 985.58 Section 985.58 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.58 Exempt oil. Oil held by a producer or handler on the effective date of this subpart shall not...

  11. Contributions to Economic Geology, 1913: Part II - Mineral Fuels - Oil and Gas in the Western Part of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lupton, Charles T.

    1915-01-01

    High-grade paraffin oil is reported to have been discovered in the western part of the Olympic Peninsula, Wash., as early as 1881. Since then attempts to obtain oil or gas in commercial quantities by drilling have been made from time to time in different localities in this region, but without success. Within the past few years interest has been aroused in oil seeps near the mouth of Hoh River and in gas vents in other parts of the field to such an extent that many persons have been attracted to this country to search for oil and gas. As a result of this interest and on account of the fact that efforts had been made to lease tracts of land for this purpose in the Queniult Indian Reservation, an examination of this region was made by the United States Geological Survey at the request of the Office of Indian Affairs. The results of the investigation, which are enumerated below and which are discussed in detail throughout this report, suggest that certain parts of the field are worthy of careful consideration by oil operators. The following summary includes the most important facts regarding the area examined: High-grade paraffin oil issues from two seeps near the mouth of Hoh River, and at other localities oil-saturated sandy clay ('smell mud' of the Indians) is exposed. Natural gas containing about 95 per cent methane escapes from a conical mound just north of the mouth of Queniult River and also from an inverted cone-shaped water-filled depression on Hoh River a short distance west of Spruce post office. Other minor gas vents are also known in this field and are described in detail in this report. Three wells - one in the reservation about 1 mile north and slightly west from Taholah, another near the mouth of Hoh River, and the third about 1 mile south of Forks - are being drilled for oil and gas. So far as drilling has progressed none of these wells have encountered oil in paying quantities, but all of them have struck small amounts of gas. A study of the structure

  12. Microwave assisted saponification (MAS) followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC) for high-throughput and high-sensitivity determination of mineral oil in different cereal-based foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-04-01

    A high throughput, high-sensitivity procedure, involving simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction (MAS) and unsaponifiable extraction, followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC), has been optimised for rapid and efficient extraction and analytical determination of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cereal-based products of different composition. MAS has the advantage of eliminating fat before LC-GC analysis, allowing an increase in the amount of sample extract injected, and hence in sensitivity. The proposed method gave practically quantitative recoveries and good repeatability. Among the different cereal-based products analysed (dry semolina and egg pasta, bread, biscuits, and cakes), egg pasta packed in direct contact with recycled paperboard had on average the highest total MOSH level (15.9 mg kg(-1)), followed by cakes (10.4 mg kg(-1)) and bread (7.5 mg kg(-1)). About 50% of the pasta and bread samples and 20% of the biscuits and cake samples had detectable MOAH amounts. The highest concentrations were found in an egg pasta in direct contact with recycled paperboard (3.6 mg kg(-1)) and in a milk bread (3.6 mg kg(-1)).

  13. 7 CFR 29.2286 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil. 29.2286 Section 29.2286 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2286 Oil....

  14. 7 CFR 29.2286 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil. 29.2286 Section 29.2286 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2286 Oil....

  15. 7 CFR 29.2538 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil. 29.2538 Section 29.2538 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2538 Oil. A soft, semifluid constituent...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2538 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil. 29.2538 Section 29.2538 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2538 Oil. A soft, semifluid constituent...

  17. 7 CFR 29.1041 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil. 29.1041 Section 29.1041 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1041 Oil. A soft, semifluid constituent of tobacco. (See Elements of Quality Chart.)...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2286 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil. 29.2286 Section 29.2286 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2286 Oil....

  19. 7 CFR 29.1041 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil. 29.1041 Section 29.1041 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1041 Oil. A soft, semifluid constituent of tobacco. (See Elements of Quality Chart.)...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1041 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil. 29.1041 Section 29.1041 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1041 Oil. A soft, semifluid constituent of tobacco. (See Elements of Quality Chart.)...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2286 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil. 29.2286 Section 29.2286 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2286 Oil....

  2. 7 CFR 29.2286 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil. 29.2286 Section 29.2286 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2286 Oil....

  3. 7 CFR 29.2538 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil. 29.2538 Section 29.2538 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2538 Oil. A soft, semifluid constituent...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1041 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil. 29.1041 Section 29.1041 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1041 Oil. A soft, semifluid constituent of tobacco. (See Elements of Quality Chart.)...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2538 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil. 29.2538 Section 29.2538 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2538 Oil. A soft, semifluid constituent...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1041 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil. 29.1041 Section 29.1041 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1041 Oil. A soft, semifluid constituent of tobacco. (See Elements of Quality Chart.)...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2538 - Oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil. 29.2538 Section 29.2538 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2538 Oil. A soft, semifluid constituent...

  8. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    DOEpatents

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  9. Occupational exposure to mineral oil metalworking fluid (MWFs) mist: Development of new methodologies for mist sampling and analysis. Results from an inter-laboratory comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanh Huynh, C.; Herrera, H.; Parrat, J.; Wolf, R.; Perret, V.

    2009-02-01

    Metalworking Fluids (MWFs) are largely used in the sector of undercutting, a large professional activity in Switzerland, in particular in the fine mechanic and watch making industry. France proposes a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 1 mg.m-3 of aerosol. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) sets its value at 5 mg.m-3 but a proposal to lower the standard ("intended changes") to 0.2 mg.m-3 of aerosol is pending since 2001. However, it has not become a recognized threshold limit value for exposure. Since 2003, the new Swiss PEL (MAK) recommendations would be 0.2 mg.m-3 of aerosol (oil with boiling point > 350°C without additives) and/or 20 mg.m-3 of oil aerosol + vapour for medium or light oil. To evaluate evaporative losses of sampled oil, the German "Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit" (BGIA) recommends the use of a XAD-2 cartridge behind the filter. The method seems to work perfectly for MWFs in a clean occupational atmosphere free from interference of light vapour cleaning solvent such as White Spirit. But, in real situation, machine shop atmosphere contaminated with traces of White Spirit, the BGIA method failed to estimate the MWFs levels (over-estimation). In this paper, we propose a new approach meant to measure both oil vapours and aerosols. Five inter-laboratory comparisons are discussed, based on the production of oil mist in an experimental chamber under controlled conditions.

  10. Effect of daily cod liver oil and a multivitamin-mineral supplement with selenium on upper respiratory tract pediatric visits by young, inner-city, Latino children: randomized pediatric sites.

    PubMed

    Linday, Linda A; Shindledecker, Richard D; Tapia-Mendoza, Juan; Dolitsky, Jay N

    2004-11-01

    We studied the effect of daily supplementation with lemon-flavored cod liver oil and a children's multivitamin-mineral supplement containing selenium on the number of pediatric visits by young, inner-city, Latino children from late autumn of 2002 through early spring of 2003. Two private pediatric offices with similar demographics, located 1.1 miles apart in upper Manhattan, New York City, were randomized to a supplementation site and a medical records control site. Ninety-four children (47 at each site), 6 months to 5 years of age, were enrolled. The mean age of the supplementation group was 2.03 years (SD, +/- 1.04 years); that of the control group was 2.08 years (SD, +/- 1.10 years). Children > or = 1 year of age in the supplementation group received 1 teaspoon of lemon-flavored cod liver oil per day and one half-tablet of a children's multivitamin-mineral; the starting dose was halved for children < 1 year of age. The supplements were given from enrollment through May 1, 2003. The primary outcome measure was the number of upper respiratory tract pediatric visits during the follow-up/supplementation period. The supplementation group had a statistically significant decrease in the mean number of upper respiratory tract visits over time (p = .042; r = 0.893; y = 0.602 - 0.002x); the medical records control group had no change in this parameter (p = .999; r = 0.0006; y = 0.259 + 1.43 x 10(-6)x). The supplements were well tolerated; per parental report, 70% of children completed the 5- to 6-month course of cod liver oil. Use of these nutritional supplements was acceptable to the inner-city Latino families and their young children, and was associated with a decrease in upper respiratory tract pediatric visits over time; this approach therefore deserves further research and attention.

  11. Minerals: the resource gap

    SciTech Connect

    Velocci, T.

    1980-10-01

    US imports of important non-fuel minerals may have contributed to a false sense of security that could have serious economic and defense consequences. Imports account for over 90 percent of the chromite, manganese ore, and cobalt, and 90 percent of the platinum group metals. The primary sources for many of these minerals are the Soviet Union and Africa, a price and supply vulnerability which rivals Middle East oil and of which the American public is unaware. The Soviet shift to a net minerals importer will intensify competition for minerals and could lead to confrontation. The decline in US mineral production is blamed on escalating costs, largely from regulations, that prevent plant and equipment modernization and land withdrawal policies. A strategic stockpile planned for over 90 materials was established in 1939 for defense purposes, but eratic goals and planning as well as economic changes have kept the plan from being implemented. The first steps of an appropriate policy would promote domestic minerals production and open up Federal lands for exploration and development. (DCK)

  12. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  13. Minerals Management Service: Annual performance plan for fiscal year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    The mission is to manage the mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in an environmentally sound and safe manner and to timely collect, verify, and distribute mineral revenues from Federal and Indian lands. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) manages the Nation`s natural gas, oil and other mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and collects, accounts for, and disburses revenues from offshore federal mineral leases and from onshore mineral leases on federal and Indian lands.

  14. Minerals Management Service: Annual performance plan for fiscal year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Minerals Management Service manages the Nation`s natural gas, oil, and other mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and collects, accounts for, and disburses revenues from offshore Federal mineral leases and from onshore mineral leases on Federal and Indian lands.

  15. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  16. 26 CFR 1.613-4 - Gross income from the property in the case of minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... commercial practice, it is sufficiently similar in chemical, mineralogical, or physical characteristics to... to industrial or commercial specifications and by consideration of chemical and physical data... income which is attributable to the extraction of the ores or minerals from the ground and...

  17. Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orewa, S. I.

    The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East) and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest) of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil palm farmers were randomly selected from each zone for the study. The study tried to identify the size of oil palm cultivated, types of food and cash crops planted and the proportion consumed and sold and the sufficiency of labour for various farm activities. The study showed that the average oil palm farm size at Ekuku-Agbor zone was smaller (about 1.57 ha) and more fragmented while for Mosogar zone it was 2.28 ha. However a greater percentage (over 65%) of the farms at both locations were within 0.01-2.00 ha farm size range which could be said to be relatively small. The study revealed that among other factors the farmers desire to ensure adequate family food needs which equates to food security and some cash to meet regular family financial needs necessitated their intercropping of the oil palm farms. Others include the need to maximize the returns from the use of labour which they considered a major limiting factor in farm maintenance and to take advantage of the relative high unit price of cassava and its products that prevailed then by cultivating on any available land space including the palm plantations and thereby increasing their farm income.

  18. 77 FR 56179 - Lyon & Mineral Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Lyon & Mineral Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lyon & Mineral Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Yerington, Nevada....

  19. 77 FR 48495 - Lyon & Mineral Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Lyon & Mineral Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lyon & Mineral Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Yerington, Nevada....

  20. Measurement of νμ-induced charged-current neutral pion production cross sections on mineral oil at Evϵ0.5–2.0 GeV

    DOE PAGES

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; ...

    2011-03-23

    Using a custom 3-Cerenkov ring fitter, we report cross sections for νμ-induced charged-current single π⁰ production on mineral oil (CH₂) from a sample of 5810 candidate events with 57% signal purity over an energy range of 0.5–2.0 GeV. This includes measurements of the absolute total cross section as a function of neutrino energy, and flux-averaged differential cross sections measured in terms of Q², μ⁻ kinematics, and π⁰ kinematics. The sample yields a flux-averaged total cross section of (9.2±0.3stat±1.5syst)×10⁻³⁹ cm²/CH² at mean neutrino energy of 0.965 GeV.

  1. Agriculture: Newsroom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  2. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  3. 30 CFR 1202.100 - Royalty on oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Royalty on oil. 1202.100 Section 1202.100... REVENUE ROYALTIES Federal and Indian Oil § 1202.100 Royalty on oil. (a) Royalties due on oil production... title multiplied by the royalty rate in the lease. (b)(1) All oil (except oil unavoidably lost or...

  4. 30 CFR 1202.100 - Royalty on oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Royalty on oil. 1202.100 Section 1202.100... REVENUE ROYALTIES Federal and Indian Oil § 1202.100 Royalty on oil. (a) Royalties due on oil production... title multiplied by the royalty rate in the lease. (b)(1) All oil (except oil unavoidably lost or...

  5. 30 CFR 1202.100 - Royalty on oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Royalty on oil. 1202.100 Section 1202.100... Resources Revenue ROYALTIES Federal and Indian Oil § 1202.100 Royalty on oil. (a) Royalties due on oil... of this title multiplied by the royalty rate in the lease. (b)(1) All oil (except oil...

  6. 30 CFR 1202.100 - Royalty on oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Royalty on oil. 1202.100 Section 1202.100... REVENUE ROYALTIES Federal and Indian Oil § 1202.100 Royalty on oil. (a) Royalties due on oil production... title multiplied by the royalty rate in the lease. (b)(1) All oil (except oil unavoidably lost or...

  7. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Mineral Resource Management Plan. Potential Exploration, Development, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources; Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    seasonal patterns. However, very limited portions of San Antonio Creek are supported by groundwater inflows; therefore, these segments would not be...characterized as intermittent. All other stream segments are intermittent as noted in the comment. RMD-46 The region of influence evaluated for water...water resources would therefore not appreciably differ bctween the alternat;ves in regard to the geograp !hic locations of oil and gas development. RMD

  8. Review of the Pyrolysis Platform for Producing Bio-oil and Biochar: Technology, Logistics, and Potential Impacts on Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Water Quality, Soil Quality, and Agricultural Productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrolysis is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and robust thermochemical technology for transforming biomass into bio-oil, biochar, and syngas. The robust nature of the pyrolysis technology, which allows considerable flexibility in both the type and quality of the biomass feedstock, combined with a ...

  9. A survey of the castor oil content, seed weight and seed-coat colour on the United States Department of Agriculture germplasm collection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor bean is an important non-edible oilseed crop that can potentially be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Cultivars with a high percentage of oil content in seeds are preferred for biodiesel production. There are 1033 accessions in the USDA castor bean germplasm collection. The range o...

  10. [Components of oil sludge and their influence on pyrolysis behaviors].

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Nie, Yong-Feng

    2008-07-01

    Based on property analysis of oil sludge and its main components (mineral oil and minerals), pyrolysis process and releasing behavior of non-condensed gas of oil sludge and its main components were studied by thermogravimetric analysis-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) and tubular resistance furnace, respectively. The results indicated that, (1) Oil sludge was characterized as relatively high heating value (15 422.41 kJ/kg), higher mineral content (61.57%) mainly composed of quartz. Mineral oil component had good thermal conversion property and adhered close with mineral in oil sludge. (2) Pyrolysis process of oil sludge included 5 stages: water volatilization and gas desorption (50-180 degrees C), light oil volatilization (180-370 degrees C), heavy oil pyrolysis (370-500 degrees C), semi-coke charring (500-600 degrees C) and mineral decomposition (higher than 600 degrees C). (3) Minerals influenced oil pyrolysis by surface function and enhancing heating conductivity, meanwhile minor elements in mineral oil could bring mineral decomposition temperature down. (4) Minerals affected the releasing behavior of non-condensed gas from mineral oil pyrolysis and resulted in lower total production and higher H2 production.

  11. 43 CFR 3900.61 - Federal minerals where the surface is owned or administered by other Federal agencies, by state...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Oil Shale Management-Introduction § 3900.61 Federal minerals where the surface is owned...

  12. 43 CFR 3900.61 - Federal minerals where the surface is owned or administered by other Federal agencies, by state...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Oil Shale Management-Introduction § 3900.61 Federal minerals where the surface is owned...

  13. 43 CFR 3900.61 - Federal minerals where the surface is owned or administered by other Federal agencies, by state...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Oil Shale Management-Introduction § 3900.61 Federal minerals where the surface is owned...

  14. Proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of Brebra (Millettia ferruginea) seed flour as well as physicochemical characterization of its seed oil.

    PubMed

    Andualem, Berhanu; Gessesse, Amare

    2014-01-01

    Still there is no scientific report about the proximate analysis of seeds and characteristics of oil produced from brebra seed. Objective of this study was to determine proximate and antinutritional characteristics of seeds as well as the physicochemical characteristics of brebra seed oil. Crude oil, protein, fiber, ash, moisture and carbohydrate content of brebra were 48.5 ± 0.99%, 29.7 ± 0.23%, 2.41 ± 0.12%, 3.24 ± 0%, 4.24 ± 0.04% and11.92 ± 0.2%, respectively. Seed has concentrated energy (6.0298 Kcal/gm). The respective tannin, oxalate and phytic acid value were 84.3 ± 0.89 mg/100 gm, 20.97 ± 0.36 mg/100 gm and 291.62 ± 0.87 mg/100 gm, respectively. Cyanide was not detected in the sample. Seed contains high concentration of phosphorus (1062.1 ± 0.3 mg/100 g), potassium (281 ± 0.1 mg/100 g), magnesium (112.38 ± 0.1 mg/g), sodium (93.26 ± 0.1 mg/g) and calcium (61.55 ± 0.01 mg/g). The oil was analyzed for specific gravity at 20°C, viscosity at 40°C, refractive index at 40°C, acid value, saponification value, iodine value, peroxide value and ester value. Their respective values were 0.942, 40.59 mm(2)/s, 1.473, 0.39 mg KOH/g, 174.95 mg KOH/g, 104.48 gI2/100 g, 6.88 and 174.56 mg KOH/g. Unsaturated fatty acids accounts (80.7%), of which 48.2% and 27.7% were linolcic and linolenic, respectively, which make suitable for production of biodiesel. Seed has higher nutrient composition, low antinutritional elements and high calorie value compared to some legumes.

  15. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  16. Mineral of the month: aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, Valentin V.

    2005-01-01

    Natural aggregates, consisting of crushed stone, and sand and gravel, are a major contributor to economic health, and have an amazing variety of uses. Aggregates are among the most abundant mineral resources and are major basic raw materials used by construction, agriculture and other industries that employ complex chemical and metallurgical processes.

  17. Process for producing lubricating oils and white oils

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, G.L.; Hu, W.C.

    1982-04-20

    The preparation of high quality, e.g., high viscosity index, base lubricating oils and white oils, particularly food grade white mineral oils, of suitable viscosity in high yield from a mineral oil distillate of suitable lubricating oil viscosity comprises contacting the distillate with hydrogen in four catalytic stages. The first reaction stage employs hydrocracking conditions. Subsequent reaction stages employ hydrogenation conditions. The second reaction stage, preferably employs a sulfur-resistant hydrogenation catalyst and produces a product suitable as a high quality lubricating oil base stock. The third reaction stage preferably employs a sulfur-resistant hydrogenation catalyst to obtain further aromatic saturation. The final stage employs a selective hydrogenation catalyst, optionally activated with a halogen, and produces a product suitable as a white oil, preferably a food grade white oil.

  18. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  19. MEKC determination of vanadium from mineral ore and crude petroleum oil samples using precapillary chelation with bis(salicylaldehyde)tetramethyl-ethylenediimine.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Muhammad Aslam; Kandhro, Abdul Jabbar; Khuhawar, Muhammad Yar; Arain, Rafee

    2009-09-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the separation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Fe(II), Pd(II), Th(IV), V(IV), and determination of Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and V(IV) by MEKC after chelation with bis(salicylaldehyde)tetramethylethylenediimine (H(2)SA(2)Ten). Uncoated fused silica capillary was used with an applied voltage of 30 kV with photo-diode array detection at 228 nm. SDS was added as micellar medium at pH 8.2 with sodium tetraborate buffer (0.1 M). Linear calibrations were established within 0.015-1000 microg/mL of each element with LOD within 5-67 ng/mL. The method was applied for the determination of vanadium from crude oil and ore samples in the range 0.34-2.40 and 114.2-720.7 microg/g with RSD 1.7-3.8 and 0.98-2.30% (n = 3), respectively. Fe, Ni, and Co present in crude oil and ore samples were also determined with RSD 1.3-2.8, 1.1-4.1, and 1.2-3.5% (n = 3), respectively. The results were compared with that of supplier's specifications and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Method was evaluated by standard addition technique.

  20. 43 CFR 9269.3-3 - Minerals management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Technical Services § 9269.3-3 Minerals management. (a) Oil and gas leasing. (b) Geothermal resources leasing. (c) Outer... oil, gas and coal. (f) Minerals materials disposal. (g) Multiple use mining. (h) Mining claims...

  1. 36 CFR 292.18 - Mineral resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral resources. 292.18 Section 292.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.18 Mineral resources. (a)...

  2. 36 CFR 292.18 - Mineral resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral resources. 292.18 Section 292.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.18 Mineral resources. (a)...

  3. Mineral resource of the month: Phosphate rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    As a mineral resource, “phosphate rock” is defined as unprocessed ore and processed concentrates that contain some form of apatite, a group of calcium phosphate minerals that is the primary source for phosphorus in phosphate fertilizers, which are vital to agriculture.

  4. 30 CFR 281.12 - Request for OCS mineral information and interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Request for OCS mineral information and interest. 281.12 Section 281.12 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF...

  5. 30 CFR 201.100 - Responsibilities of the Associate Director for Minerals Revenue Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities of the Associate Director for Minerals Revenue Management. 201.100 Section 201.100 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT GENERAL Oil and Gas, Onshore §...

  6. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Research Coordinating Unit.

    TO ASSIST THOSE WHO MAKE DECISIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, RECENT RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IS SUMMARIZED. A 1963 STUDY TREATS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS, PLANS, AND ASPIRATIONS. STUDIES ON POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION CONCERN GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICIAN PROGRAMS, JUSTIFICATION…

  8. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  9. 30 CFR 556.80 - Leases of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leases of other minerals. 556.80 Section 556.80 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Section 6 Leases § 556.80 Leases of other...

  10. 43 CFR 9269.3-3 - Minerals management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minerals management. 9269.3-3 Section 9269... § 9269.3-3 Minerals management. (a) Oil and gas leasing. (b) Geothermal resources leasing. (c) Outer... for a hearing with respect to such violation pursuant to part 4 of this title. (e) Minerals other...

  11. 30 CFR 556.80 - Leases of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leases of other minerals. 556.80 Section 556.80 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Section 6 Leases § 556.80 Leases of other...

  12. 43 CFR 9269.3-3 - Minerals management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minerals management. 9269.3-3 Section 9269... § 9269.3-3 Minerals management. (a) Oil and gas leasing. (b) Geothermal resources leasing. (c) Outer... for a hearing with respect to such violation pursuant to part 4 of this title. (e) Minerals other...

  13. 30 CFR 556.80 - Leases of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leases of other minerals. 556.80 Section 556.80 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Section 6 Leases § 556.80 Leases of other...

  14. 43 CFR 9269.3-3 - Minerals management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minerals management. 9269.3-3 Section 9269... § 9269.3-3 Minerals management. (a) Oil and gas leasing. (b) Geothermal resources leasing. (c) Outer... for a hearing with respect to such violation pursuant to part 4 of this title. (e) Minerals other...

  15. Destabilization of emulsions by natural minerals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Songhu; Tong, Man; Wu, Gaoming

    2011-09-15

    This study developed a novel method to destabilize emulsions and recycle oils, particularly for emulsified wastewater treatment. Natural minerals were used as demulsifying agents, two kinds of emulsions collected from medical and steel industry were treated. The addition of natural minerals, including artificial zeolite, natural zeolite, diatomite, bentonite and natural soil, could effectively destabilize both emulsions at pH 1 and 60 °C. Over 90% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be removed after treatment. Medical emulsion can be even destabilized by artificial zeolite at ambient temperature. The mechanism for emulsion destabilization by minerals was suggested as the decreased electrostatic repulsion at low pH, the enhanced gathering of oil microdroplets at elevated temperature, and the further decreased surface potential by the addition of minerals. Both flocculation and coalescence were enhanced by the addition of minerals at low pH and elevated temperature.

  16. Self-healing polymers---The importance of choosing an adequate healing monomer, and the olefin metathesis polymerization of agricultural oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldin, Timothy C.

    Modern society's immense and ill-fated reliance on petrochemical-based polymeric materials will likely necessitate a shift in polymer production paradigms in the near future. The work presented herein attempts to address this issue via a two-pronged approach. First, efforts to improve the duration of composite materials by incorporation of a self-healing function are discussed, the fruitful application of which can potentially reduce or eliminate the massive carbon footprints associated with the repair/replacement of damaged materials. And second, polymeric materials derived predominately from natural and renewable feedstock---namely vegetable oils---are developed. Early microcapsule-based self-healing materials utilized dicyclopentadiene-filled microcapsules and Grubbs' olefin metathesis catalyst to initiate the healing mechanism. However, the patent-protected catalyst, made from the precious metal ruthenium and sometimes costly ligands, will likely never be inexpensive and therefore limit large-scale applications. Hence, clever approaches to reduce the healing catalyst loading in self-healing polymers are of great interest. To this end, our efforts have revolved around solving the problem of the relatively inefficient use of Grubbs' catalyst during the healing mechanism. Given that the mismatch of the olefin metathesis polymerization and Grubbs' catalyst dissolution (in monomer) kinetics is a known cause of this inefficient use of the catalyst, we attempted to tune the "latency" (i.e. pot life) of the olefin metathesis polymerization to ensure more complete dissolution of catalyst in monomer. In an alternative approach to improving efficient catalyst dissolution, we developed a simple model to predict relative dissolution rates of Grubbs' catalyst in a small library of healing monomers. This model was shown experimentally to be able to aid in the selection of, for example, reactive monomer additives that can yield impressive improvements in catalyst dissolution

  17. Agricultural Energy Practices. Agriculture Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with agricultural energy practices. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy use and conservation of resources in the production of agricultural products. Some topics covered are basic uses of direct energy in…

  18. Agriculture Education. Agricultural Metal Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural metal working. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) oxyacetylene welding, (2) arc welding, (3) sheet metal, (4) blueprint reading for welders and (5) job…

  19. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  20. Measurement of the νμ Charged Current π+ to Quasi-Elastic Cross Section Ratio on Mineral Oil in a 0.8 GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    Charged current single pion production (CCπ+) and charged current quasi-elastic scattering (CCQE) are the most abundant interaction types for neutrinos at energies around 1 GeV, a region of great interest to oscillation experiments. The cross-sections for these processes, however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation presents a measurement of the ratio of CCπ+ to CCQE cross-sections for muon neutrinos on mineral oil (CH2) in the MiniBooNE experiment. The measurement is presented here both with and without corrections for hadronic re-interactions in the target nucleus and is given as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV < Eν < 2.4 GeV. With more than 46,000 CCπ+ events collected in MiniBooNE, and with a fractional uncertainty of roughly 11% in the region of highest statistics, this measurement represents a dramatic improvement in statistics and precision over previous CCπ+ and CCQE measurements.

  1. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  2. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  3. Agricultural Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  4. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste.

  5. Oil emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, J. W.

    1985-08-27

    Emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids in mineral oil are disclosed. These emulsions are stabilized by a polydimethylsiloxane-polybutadiene copolymer or a polydimethylsiloxane-hydrogenated polybutadiene copplymer. The emulsions are an effective foam suppressant for organic liquids, especially crude petroleum.

  6. Mineral-Based Amendments for Remediation

    PubMed Central

    O’Day, Peggy A.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Amending soils with mineral-based materials to immobilize contaminants is both old and new. Although mineral amendments have been used for decades in agriculture, new applications with a variety of natural and reprocessed materials are emerging. By sequestering contaminants in or on solid phases and reducing their ability to partition into water or air, amendments can reduce the risk of exposure to humans or biota. A variety of mineral types are commonly used to amend contaminated soils, with different modes of molecular-scale sequestration. Regulatory, social, and economic factors also influence decisions to employ mineral amendments as a treatment technology. PMID:22203887

  7. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  8. Microbiological Production of Surfactant from Agricultural Residuals for IOR Application

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, Greg Alan; Bruhn, Debby Fox; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Noah, Karl Scott; Thompson, David Neal

    2002-04-01

    Utilization of surfactants for improved oil recovery (IOR) is an accepted technique with high potential. However, technology application is frequently limited by cost. Biosurfactants (surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms) are not widely utilized in the petroleum industry due to high production costs associated with use of expensive substrates and inefficient product recovery methods. The economics of biosurfactant production could be significantly impacted through use of media optimization and application of inexpensive carbon substrates such as agricultural process residuals. Utilization of biosurfactants produced from agricultural residuals may 1) result in an economic advantage for surfactant production and technology application, and 2) convert a substantial agricultural waste stream to a value-added product for IOR. A biosurfactant with high potential for use is surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis. Reported here is the production and potential IOR utilization of surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 21332) from starch-based media. Production of surfactants from microbiological growth media based on simple sugars, chemically pure starch medium, simulated liquid and solid potato-process effluent media, a commercially prepared potato starch in mineral salts, and process effluent from a potato processor is discussed. Additionally, the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments on starchy feedstocks is discussed.

  9. Mineral bioprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  10. Oils and cancer.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, P E

    1997-05-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between mineral oil exposure and cancer is reviewed. The review is restricted to occupations involving substantial dermal and inhalational exposure and for which an epidemiologic literature exists: metal machining, print press operating, and cotton and jute spinning. Mineral oils are complex mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons, naphthenics, and aromatics, the relative distribution of which depends on the source of the oil and the method of refinement. End-use products contain a variety of additives, and contamination by other agents generally occurs during use. Suspect agents include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (particularly benz[a]pyrene), nitrosamines, chlorinated paraffins, long-chain aliphatics, sulfur, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine, and formaldehyde. The heterogeneity of this exposure makes epidemiologic study difficult and meta-analysis inappropriate. Nonetheless, several associations emerge from the literature with varying degrees of support. There is clear evidence that early formulations of mineral oils used in cotton and jute spinning and in metal machining were carcinogenic to the skin. Associations of mineral oil exposure with laryngeal and rectal cancer have received some support in the literature, particularly with respect to straight oils. Evidence is suggestive that grinding operations (which can entail either mineral oil-based or ethanolamine-based fluids) are associated with excess risk of cancer of the esophagus, stomach, and pancreas. A number of bladder cancer case-control studies have noted an association with work as a machinist. There is limited evidence of an association with cancer of the colon, prostate, and sinonasal region. Several studies of printers have yielded positive findings for lung cancer, whereas studies in metal machinists have been generally negative. The PAH and nitrosamine content of current formulations is lower than in the past and the implications of these changes in

  11. An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Blends with Diesel in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, B.; Bose, P. K.; Panua, R. S.

    2012-07-01

    Continuous effort to reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides from internal combustion engines, have promoted research for alternative fuels. Vegetable oils, because of their agricultural origin and due to less carbon content compared to mineral diesel are producing less CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. It also reduces import of petroleum products. In the present contribution, experiments were conducted using Jatropha oil blends with diesel to study the effect on performance and emissions characteristics of a existing diesel engine. In this study viscosity of Jatropha oil was reduced by blending with diesel. A single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed, water cooled, diesel engine was used. The results show that for lower blend concentrations various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, smoke opacity, CO2, and NO x emissions are acceptable compared to that of mineral diesel. But, it was observed that for higher blend concentrations, performance and emissions were much inferior compared to diesel.

  12. Evaporites, petroleum and mineral resources

    SciTech Connect

    Melvin, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This book illustrates the expanding knowledge of evaporites as important reservoir seals, fluid aquitards, ore-hosting sediments, and economically viable sediments in their own right. Researchers, oil and gas professionals, minerals resource professionals, environmental specialists and others within geology and the other earth sciences shall utilize the information within this book in their understanding of the many recent discoveries and concepts involved in the field of evaporite sedimentology.

  13. 43 CFR 3583.2 - Consent of Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consent of Secretary of Agriculture. 3583... Agriculture. Any mineral lease for lands subject to this subpart shall be issued only with the consent of the Secretary of Agriculture and subject to such conditions as he/she may prescribe after he/she finds that...

  14. 43 CFR 3583.2 - Consent of Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consent of Secretary of Agriculture. 3583... Agriculture. Any mineral lease for lands subject to this subpart shall be issued only with the consent of the Secretary of Agriculture and subject to such conditions as he/she may prescribe after he/she finds that...

  15. 43 CFR 3583.2 - Consent of Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consent of Secretary of Agriculture. 3583... Agriculture. Any mineral lease for lands subject to this subpart shall be issued only with the consent of the Secretary of Agriculture and subject to such conditions as he/she may prescribe after he/she finds that...

  16. 43 CFR 3583.2 - Consent of Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Consent of Secretary of Agriculture. 3583... Agriculture. Any mineral lease for lands subject to this subpart shall be issued only with the consent of the Secretary of Agriculture and subject to such conditions as he/she may prescribe after he/she finds that...

  17. The impact of mining activities on agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghatelyan, A.; Sahakyan, L.

    2009-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess environmental status of the territory of the city of Kapan and neighboring agricultural farms with an emphasis on the impact of the tailing repository and operation of the Kapan copper plant on soil, water and plant pollution. The region has long been known for its abundant copper and polymetallic deposits with vein- and stockwork-type mineralization. Moreover, historically Kapan was the miners' city and a powerful copper mining and dressing plant has been operating there since 1846. The performed geochemical survey and a sanitary-hygienic assessment of pollution of the Kapan's soils have indicated high contents of Cu, Pb, Ni, Mo and As vs. the background and Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MAC). The assessment of pollution levels of surface water, including natural and industrial streams, has indicated that unlike natural stream waters, mining waters from the adit and industrial stream waters were high in a number of toxic (Cd, As, Hg) and ore (Cu, Zn) elements. Activation of most chemical elements and particularly of heavy metals in water environment rapidly brings to pollution of environmental components (soils, plants, etc.), and as a result heavy metals enter the human organism via trophic chains. So, in the frame of the research eco-toxicological studies were performed on accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Sn, Mo), including high toxic elements (As, Hg, Pb, Cd) in agricultural soils and in the basic assortment of agricultural crops. The research covered agricultural lands within the bounds of the city and private plots in neighboring villages. Wholly, 24 vegetable, melon field, cereal (corn), oil-bearing (sunflower) species adding spicy herbs and fruits were studied. It should be stressed that agricultural crops growing on the study sites are used provide food products not only by the population of this particular city and neighboring villages, but of other cities, too. It means that the average number of

  18. 30 CFR 581.12 - Request for OCS mineral information and interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Request for OCS mineral information and interest. 581.12 Section 581.12 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  19. 30 CFR 581.12 - Request for OCS mineral information and interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Request for OCS mineral information and interest. 581.12 Section 581.12 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  20. 30 CFR 1218.53 - Recoupment of overpayments on Indian mineral leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recoupment of overpayments on Indian mineral leases. 1218.53 Section 1218.53 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Oil and Gas, General § 1218.53 Recoupment of overpayments on Indian mineral leases....

  1. 30 CFR 281.12 - Request for OCS mineral information and interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Request for OCS mineral information and interest. 281.12 Section 281.12 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN...

  2. 30 CFR 1218.53 - Recoupment of overpayments on Indian mineral leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recoupment of overpayments on Indian mineral leases. 1218.53 Section 1218.53 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Oil and Gas, General § 1218.53 Recoupment of overpayments on Indian mineral leases....

  3. 30 CFR 1218.53 - Recoupment of overpayments on Indian mineral leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recoupment of overpayments on Indian mineral leases. 1218.53 Section 1218.53 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... CREDITS AND INCENTIVES Oil and Gas, General § 1218.53 Recoupment of overpayments on Indian mineral...

  4. 30 CFR 1218.53 - Recoupment of overpayments on Indian mineral leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recoupment of overpayments on Indian mineral leases. 1218.53 Section 1218.53 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Oil and Gas, General § 1218.53 Recoupment of overpayments on Indian mineral leases....

  5. 30 CFR 581.12 - Request for OCS mineral information and interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Request for OCS mineral information and interest. 581.12 Section 581.12 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  6. 25 CFR 225.28 - Approval of amendments to minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Approval of amendments to minerals agreements. 225.28 Section 225.28 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.28 Approval of amendments...

  7. 25 CFR 225.28 - Approval of amendments to minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of amendments to minerals agreements. 225.28 Section 225.28 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.28 Approval of amendments...

  8. 25 CFR 225.40 - Government employees cannot acquire minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government employees cannot acquire minerals agreements. 225.40 Section 225.40 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.40...

  9. 25 CFR 225.36 - Minerals agreement cancellation; Bureau of Indian Affairs notice of noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minerals agreement cancellation; Bureau of Indian Affairs notice of noncompliance. 225.36 Section 225.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals...

  10. 25 CFR 225.28 - Approval of amendments to minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Approval of amendments to minerals agreements. 225.28 Section 225.28 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.28 Approval of amendments...

  11. 25 CFR 225.40 - Government employees cannot acquire minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government employees cannot acquire minerals agreements. 225.40 Section 225.40 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.40...

  12. 25 CFR 225.36 - Minerals agreement cancellation; Bureau of Indian Affairs notice of noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minerals agreement cancellation; Bureau of Indian Affairs notice of noncompliance. 225.36 Section 225.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals...

  13. 25 CFR 225.36 - Minerals agreement cancellation; Bureau of Indian Affairs notice of noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minerals agreement cancellation; Bureau of Indian Affairs notice of noncompliance. 225.36 Section 225.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals...

  14. 25 CFR 225.40 - Government employees cannot acquire minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government employees cannot acquire minerals agreements. 225.40 Section 225.40 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.40...

  15. 25 CFR 225.36 - Minerals agreement cancellation; Bureau of Indian Affairs notice of noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minerals agreement cancellation; Bureau of Indian Affairs notice of noncompliance. 225.36 Section 225.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals...

  16. 25 CFR 225.40 - Government employees cannot acquire minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Government employees cannot acquire minerals agreements. 225.40 Section 225.40 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.40...

  17. 25 CFR 225.40 - Government employees cannot acquire minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Government employees cannot acquire minerals agreements. 225.40 Section 225.40 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.40...

  18. 25 CFR 225.28 - Approval of amendments to minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Approval of amendments to minerals agreements. 225.28 Section 225.28 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.28 Approval of amendments...

  19. 25 CFR 225.28 - Approval of amendments to minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Approval of amendments to minerals agreements. 225.28 Section 225.28 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.28 Approval of amendments...

  20. 25 CFR 225.36 - Minerals agreement cancellation; Bureau of Indian Affairs notice of noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minerals agreement cancellation; Bureau of Indian Affairs notice of noncompliance. 225.36 Section 225.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals...

  1. [Clinical experimental test and equilibrimetric measurements of the therapeutic action of a homeopathic drug consisting of ambra, cocculus, Conium and mineral oil in the diagnosis of vertigo and nausea].

    PubMed

    Claussen, C F; Bergmann, J; Bertora, G; Claussen, E

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a study by means of a modern neurotological technique for investigating the action and the site of action of an antivertiginous drug. The sensory motor tests are able to discriminate the sites of the lesions in the equilibrium regulating system, i.e., peripheral vestibular system, lower brainstem regulating system, upper brainstem nystagmus generating system and supratentorial system. Acoustic brainstem evoked potentials add information. A sample of 40 vertigo and nausea patients was treated by a combined drug, containing cocculus D4 210 mg, conium D3 30 mg, ambra D6 30 mg, mineral oil D8 30 mg (Vertigo-heel). The patients received 3 tablets 3 times per day during 14 days. An initial investigation was performed just before starting the treatment. A second directly followed the therapy. By subjective self-rating 57.5% of the patients reported on an improvement after the intake of Vertigoheel. Statistical evaluations showed that the different vertigo and nausea symptoms as well as the trigger mechanisms of vertigo and nausea (i.e. getting up, turning the head or gazing aside), highly significantly improved due to the therapy. The objective sensory motor tests showed a highly significant improvement in the monaural caloric butterfly chart as well as in the vestibulospinal head and body sway. The site of the action of Vertigoheel is in the brainstem and the Medulla oblongata, especially the middle longitudinal fascicle (MLF). The localisation in this area can be stressed by the investigation with acoustically brainstem evoked potentials (ABEP).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  3. Agricultural Biodiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postance, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The extinction of farm animals and crops is rarely brought up during discussions of endangered species and biodiversity; however, the loss of diversity in crops and livestock threatens the sustainability of agriculture. Presents three activities: (1) "The Colors of Diversity"; (2) "Biodiversity among Animals"; and (3) "Heirloom Plants." Discusses…

  4. 75 FR 21648 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial... Part 253, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities.'' DATES: Submit written comments... collection of information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 253, Oil Spill...

  5. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  6. Effects of agricultural intensification in the tropics on soil carbon losses and soil fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forest conversion to agricultural land leads to strong decrease of soil organic carbon (SOC). Nonetheless, the impacts of SOC losses on soil fertility remain unclear. We quantified SOC losses in forest, oil palm plantations, extensive rubber plantations and rubber monocultures on Sumatra Island (Indonesia). Furthermore, we assessed the response of biological (basal respiration, microbial biomass, acid phosphatase) and chemical fertility indicators (light fraction of OM, DOC, total N, available P) to SOC losses. We used a new approach based on (non-)linear regressions between SOC losses and the indicators, normalized to natural ecosystem values, to assess the sensitivity or resistance of fertility indicators to SOC losses. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and intensive rubber plantations were strongly reduced: up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber (41%). The negative impact of land-use changes on all measured indicators increased in the following sequence: extensive rubber < rubber < oil palm. Basal respiration, microbial biomass and nutrients were comparatively resistant to SOC losses, whereas the light fraction of OM was lost faster than the SOC. The resistance of the microbial activity to SOC losses is an indication that microbial-mediated soil functions sustain SOC losses. However, responses of basal respiration and microbial biomass to SOC losses were non-linear. Below 2.7% C content, the relationship was reversed. The basal respiration decreased faster than the SOC, resulting in a stronger drop of microbial activity under oil palm compared to rubber, despite small difference in C content. We conclude that the new approach allows a quantitative assessment of the sensitivity and threshold of various soil functions to land-use changes and consequently, can be used to assess their resistance to agricultural intensification. Therefore, this method is appropriate to evaluate the environmental impacts

  7. 26 CFR 1.614-8 - Elections with respect to separate operating mineral interests for taxable years beginning after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mineral interests for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1963, in the case of oil and gas wells. 1... separate operating mineral interests for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1963, in the case of oil and gas wells. (a) Election to treat separate operating mineral interests as separate...

  8. Long-term improvement of agricultural vegetation by floodwater spreading in the Gareh Bygone Plain, Iran. In the pursuit of human security, is artificial recharge of groundwater more lucrative than selling oil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbah, Sayyed Hamid; Mohammadnia, Mehrdad; Kowsar, Sayyed Ahang

    2016-03-01

    In southern Iran's Gareh Bygone Plain, water-supply qanats in four mixed farming communities were desiccated by over-pumping of illegal dug wells throughout the area. Emergency situations developed, resulting in city-ward migration. Since 1983, 193 million m3 of water has been supplied to those communities by floodwater spreading (FWS) to facilitate spate irrigation of sandy rangeland (2,034 ha) and artificial recharge of groundwater (ARG), of which 76 % has recharged the aquifer. This resulted in a reverse migration of the population. The irrigated area in the 2010-2011 growing season increased 13.2 fold when compared to the pre-FWS period, and year-round forage for about 700 sheep has been provided since 1991. The ARG is a logical alternative to building large dams in Iran; 420,000 km2 of coarse-grained alluvium provides capacity to store 5,000 km3 of water, representing more than ten times the annual precipitation of the whole country. As the equivalent cost for building dams to accommodate that volume is estimated at US12.5 × 1012, the potential value of the alluvium may be realized. ARG on the recharge areas of 33,000 of the desiccated qanats eventually could rejuvenate them. As agricultural commodities absorb 19 % of the monetary value of Iran's imports, and ARG activities could supply the water to produce them, alluvium is even more valuable than oil, which provides foreign exchange. More importantly, ARG on 140,000 km2 of the alluvium could strengthen the capacity to adapt to droughts and reduce the number and impact of water-related emergency situations.

  9. 21 CFR 178.3620 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... extract in a 10-millimeter cell in the range from 260-350 mµ, inclusive, compared to the solvent control... hole bored in the center to closely fit the stem of the chromatographic tube. Suction flask. 250... surface of contained liquid to be evaporated. Spectrophotometric cells. Fused quartz cells, optical...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3620 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cell in the range from 260-350 mµ, inclusive, compared to the solvent control. If the absorbance so... closely fit the stem of the chromatographic tube. Suction flask. 250-milliliter or 500-milliliter filter... evaporated. Spectrophotometric cells. Fused quartz cells, optical path length in the range of...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3620 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... extract in a 10-millimeter cell in the range from 260-350 mµ, inclusive, compared to the solvent control... hole bored in the center to closely fit the stem of the chromatographic tube. Suction flask. 250... surface of contained liquid to be evaporated. Spectrophotometric cells. Fused quartz cells, optical...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3620 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... extract in a 10-millimeter cell in the range from 260-350 mµ, inclusive, compared to the solvent control... hole bored in the center to closely fit the stem of the chromatographic tube. Suction flask. 250... surface of contained liquid to be evaporated. Spectrophotometric cells. Fused quartz cells, optical...

  13. 43 CFR 3905.10 - Oil shale lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oil shale lease exchanges. 3905.10 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Lease Exchanges § 3905.10 Oil shale lease exchanges. To facilitate the recovery of oil shale, the BLM may...

  14. 43 CFR 3905.10 - Oil shale lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oil shale lease exchanges. 3905.10 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Lease Exchanges § 3905.10 Oil shale lease exchanges. To facilitate the recovery of oil shale, the BLM may...

  15. 43 CFR 3162.7-2 - Measurement of oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement of oil. 3162.7-2 Section 3162... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS Requirements for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.7-2 Measurement of oil. All oil production shall...

  16. 30 CFR 208.5 - Notice of royalty oil sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of royalty oil sale. 208.5 Section 208.5... OF FEDERAL ROYALTY OIL General Provisions § 208.5 Notice of royalty oil sale. If the Secretary decides to take royalty oil in kind for sale to eligible refiners, MMS will issue a “Notice...

  17. 43 CFR 3905.10 - Oil shale lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oil shale lease exchanges. 3905.10 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Lease Exchanges § 3905.10 Oil shale lease exchanges. To facilitate the recovery of oil shale, the BLM may...

  18. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  19. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  20. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...