Science.gov

Sample records for agriculture natural resources

  1. Critical Thinking for Natural Resource, Agricultural, and Environmental Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Courtney; Burbach, Mark E.; Matkin, Gina S.; Flores, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Future decision makers in natural resource fields will be required to make judgments on issues that lack clear solutions and with information complicated by ethical challenges. Therefore, natural resource, environmental, and agricultural professionals must possess the ability to think critically about the consequences of policy, economic systems,…

  2. Agriculture/Natural Resources Environmental Technician Task List. Occupational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    This publication contains a worker task list and supplementary information for occupations in the agriculture and natural resources cluster of occupations. The task list were generated through the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process and/or by analysis by a panel of experts. Tasks are listed in 10 categories: (1) performing investigative…

  3. Renewable Natural Resources/Agriculture Curriculum. Secondary and Postsecondary Articulated Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum is designed to be a handbook for courses in renewable natural resources/agriculture in Alaska. It details the competencies, developed through a survey of renewable natural resources/agriculture employers in Alaska, that such occupations require. The handbook is organized in six sections. Section I introduces the…

  4. Agricultural Machinery 01.0301 for Agribusiness, Natural Resources and Environmental Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, John; And Others

    The document presents unit plans which offer lists of experiences and competencies to be learned in the area of agricultural machinery for agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental occupations. The units include: (1) safety; (2) agricultural service center; (3) component parts--bearings, gears, pulleys, clutches, and others; (4) metal…

  5. Revising and Updating the Natural Resources and Aquaculture Components of the Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggren, Frederick W.

    Materials, including curriculum units, are provided for the natural resources and aquaculture components of the vocational agriculture curriculum. Aquaculture is a new component, added because of increased recognition of the opportunities offered by Connecticut's rich shoreline resources. A brochure and flyer on the aquaculture program follow a…

  6. Science Education in Two-Year Colleges: Agriculture and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckwith, Miriam M.

    Agricultural and natural resources education in two-year colleges is examined as revealed by a study of science education that involved: (1) a review of the literature, (2) an examination of 175 college catalogs and class schedules from colleges nationwide, and (3) a survey of 1,275 science teachers. Part I of the study report discusses…

  7. Theme--Achieving 2020. Goal 3: All Students Are Conversationally Literate in Agriculture, Food, Fiber, and Natural Resource Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Cary, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Nine theme articles focus on the need for students to be conversationally literate about agriculture, food, fiber, and natural resources systems. Discusses the definition of conversational literacy, the human and institutional resources needed, and exemplary models for promoting literacy. (JOW)

  8. UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES FOR STUDENTS IN AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES, PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    REPORTED ARE THE PROCEEDINGS OF A 1966 CONFERENCE WHICH DEALT WITH UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS FOR STUDENTS IN AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES. THE 167 EDUCATORS (MOSTLY DEANS AND DIRECTORS OF RESIDENT INSTRUCTION) WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE CONFERENCE REPRESENTED AGRICULTURE, RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES, THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, AND…

  9. Applied Climate Education and Training for Agricultural and Natural Resource Management in India, Indonesia, Zimbabwe and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, D. A.; Clewett, J. F.; Selvaraju, R.; Birch, C.

    2006-01-01

    In parts of the world, including many developing countries, climate variability impacts negatively on agricultural production and natural resource management. Workshops in applied climatology were held in Australia, India, Indonesia and Zimbabwe between 1999 and 2002 to provide farmers and agricultural and meteorological staff a better…

  10. Relationship between humanity and plant natural resources – in the context of food and agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture, the domestication, culture, and management of plants and animals, has led to profound social changes in human evolution and development; it can be considered as the basis for civilization. Roughly 12,000 years ago agriculture appeared independently in several parts of the world. A natur...

  11. Agriculture and Community Development Interface. Joint Meeting of the Southern Region State Leaders for Agriculture and Natural Resources and Community Resource Development Proceedings (October 8-11, 1989, Williamsburg, Virginia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Paul D., Ed.; Campbell, Raymond, Ed.

    This document is a summary of remarks presented at a joint meeting of Agriculture and Natural Resources and Community Resource Development state leaders in 1989. The focus of the meeting was economic viability, rural extension and education, water quality, waste management, biotechnology, low-input sustainable agriculture (LISA), and rural…

  12. Riverine Threat Indices to Assess Watershed Condition and Identify Primary Management Capacity of Agriculture Natural Resource Management Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fore, Jeffrey D.; Sowa, Scott P.; Galat, David L.; Annis, Gust M.; Diamond, David D.; Rewa, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Managers can improve conservation of lotic systems over large geographies if they have tools to assess total watershed conditions for individual stream segments and can identify segments where conservation practices are most likely to be successful (i.e., primary management capacity). The goal of this research was to develop a suite of threat indices to help agriculture resource management agencies select and prioritize watersheds across Missouri River basin in which to implement agriculture conservation practices. We quantified watershed percentages or densities of 17 threat metrics that represent major sources of ecological stress to stream communities into five threat indices: agriculture, urban, point-source pollution, infrastructure, and all non-agriculture threats. We identified stream segments where agriculture management agencies had primary management capacity. Agriculture watershed condition differed by ecoregion and considerable local variation was observed among stream segments in ecoregions of high agriculture threats. Stream segments with high non-agriculture threats were most concentrated near urban areas, but showed high local variability. 60 % of stream segments in the basin were classified as under U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) primary management capacity and most segments were in regions of high agricultural threats. NRCS primary management capacity was locally variable which highlights the importance of assessing total watershed condition for multiple threats. Our threat indices can be used by agriculture resource management agencies to prioritize conservation actions and investments based on: (a) relative severity of all threats, (b) relative severity of agricultural threats, and (c) and degree of primary management capacity.

  13. Riverine threat indices to assess watershed condition and identify primary management capacity of agriculture natural resource management agencies.

    PubMed

    Fore, Jeffrey D; Sowa, Scott P; Galat, David L; Annis, Gust M; Diamond, David D; Rewa, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Managers can improve conservation of lotic systems over large geographies if they have tools to assess total watershed conditions for individual stream segments and can identify segments where conservation practices are most likely to be successful (i.e., primary management capacity). The goal of this research was to develop a suite of threat indices to help agriculture resource management agencies select and prioritize watersheds across Missouri River basin in which to implement agriculture conservation practices. We quantified watershed percentages or densities of 17 threat metrics that represent major sources of ecological stress to stream communities into five threat indices: agriculture, urban, point-source pollution, infrastructure, and all non-agriculture threats. We identified stream segments where agriculture management agencies had primary management capacity. Agriculture watershed condition differed by ecoregion and considerable local variation was observed among stream segments in ecoregions of high agriculture threats. Stream segments with high non-agriculture threats were most concentrated near urban areas, but showed high local variability. 60 % of stream segments in the basin were classified as under U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) primary management capacity and most segments were in regions of high agricultural threats. NRCS primary management capacity was locally variable which highlights the importance of assessing total watershed condition for multiple threats. Our threat indices can be used by agriculture resource management agencies to prioritize conservation actions and investments based on: (a) relative severity of all threats, (b) relative severity of agricultural threats, and (c) and degree of primary management capacity. PMID:24390081

  14. An Assessment of Agriculture and Natural Resource Extension Program Needs on American Indian Reservations in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Loretta; Emm, Staci; Hill, George

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a needs assessment involving American Indians and outreach professionals on reservations in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and Washington. The survey featured 36 questions about agricultural and natural resource issues that may pose challenges on reservation lands. A comparison between reservation residents and…

  15. Reentry Orientation and Alumni Networking in U.S. Colleges and Universities with Agriculture and Natural Resources Programs. Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsberger, Paul E.

    This report presents results of a survey of U.S. postsecondary institutions with agriculture and natural resources programs, concerning institutional support for reentry orientation and alumni networking programs. Reentry orientation" involves programs that help international students become aware of the adjustment aspects of returning home, and…

  16. Nebraska Vocational Agribusiness Curriculum for City Schools. Production Agriculture. Natural Resources. A Curriculum Guide. 11th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Designed for use with high school juniors, this agribusiness curriculum for city schools contains thirty-two units of instruction in the areas of production agriculture and natural resources. Among the units included are (1) Livestock Selection, (2) Animal Digestion, (3) Livestock Diseases, (4) Soil Conservation Practices, (5) Fertilizers, (6)…

  17. Agriculture and natural resources in a changing world - the role of irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, T.; Havlík, P.; Schneider, U. A.; Kindermann, G.; Obersteiner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Fertile land and fresh water constitute two of the most fundamental resources for food production. These resources are affected by environmental, political, economic, and technical developments. Regional impacts may transmit to the world through increased trade. With a global forest and agricultural sector model, we quantify the impacts of increased demand for food due to population growth and economic development on potential land and water use. In particular, we investigate producer adaptation regarding crop and irrigation choice, agricultural market adjustments, and changes in the values of land and water. Against the background of resource sustainability and food security topics, this study integrates the spatial and operational heterogeneity of irrigation management into a global land use model. It represents a first large scale assessment of agricultural water use under explicit consideration of alternative irrigation options in their particular biophysical, economic, and technical context, accounting for international trade, motivation-based farming, and quantified aggregated impacts on land scarcity, water scarcity, and food supply. The inclusion of technical and economic aspects of irrigation choice into an integrated land use modeling framework provides new insights into the interdisciplinary trade-offs between determinants of global land use change. Agricultural responses to population and economic growth include considerable increases in irrigated area and agricultural water use, but reductions in the average water intensity. Different irrigation systems are preferred under different exogenous biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Negligence of these adaptations would bias the burden of development on land and water scarcity. Without technical progress in agriculture, predicted population and income levels for 2030 would require substantial price adjustments for land, water, and food to equilibrate supply and demand.

  18. Effectiveness of a Science Agricultural Summer Experience (SASE) in Recruiting Students to Natural Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Edward; Lindline, Jennifer; Petronis, Michael S.; Pilotti, Maura

    2012-12-01

    The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects an increase in Natural Resource Management (NRM) jobs within the next 10 years due to baby-boomer retirements and a 12% increase in demand for these occupations. Despite this trend, college enrollment in NRM disciplines has declined. Even more critical is the fact that the soon-to-be-majority Hispanic population is underrepresented in NRM disciplines. The goal of the present study was to determine if an in-residence, two-week, summer science program for underrepresented minorities would not only increase interest in science, actual science knowledge, and perceived science knowledge, but also have an overall impact on underrepresented minority students' decisions to attend college, major in a scientific discipline and pursue a career in science. During a four-year period, 76 high school students participated in a Science Agricultural Summer Experience (SASE) in Northern New Mexico. A pre/post science-knowledge exam and satisfaction survey were administered to participants. We demonstrate that participants improved significantly ( p < .05) in all areas measured. In particular, comfort with science field and lab activities, science knowledge and perceived science knowledge were enhanced after exposure to the program. Students not only found science exciting and approachable after participation, but also exhibited increased interest in pursuing a degree and career in science. Of the 76 SASE participants within graduation age ( n = 44), all graduated from high school; and 86% enrolled in college. These findings suggest that the implemented SASE initiative was effective in recruiting and increasing the confidence and abilities of underrepresented minority students in science.

  19. Investigating the Environmental Effects of Agriculture Practices on Natural Resources: Scientific Contributions of the U.S. Geological Survey to Enhance the Management of Agricultural Landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) enhances and protects the quality of life in the United States by advancing scientific knowledge to facilitate effective management of hydrologic, biologic, and geologic resources. Results of selected USGS research and monitoring projects in agricultural landscapes are presented in this Fact Sheet. Significant environmental and social issues associated with agricultural production include changes in the hydrologic cycle; introduction of toxic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens; reduction and alteration of wildlife habitats; and invasive species. Understanding environmental consequences of agricultural production is critical to minimize unintended environmental consequences. The preservation and enhancement of our natural resources can be achieved by measuring the success of improved management practices and by adjusting conservation policies as needed to ensure long-term protection.

  20. Global impacts of conversions from natural to agricultural ecosystems on water resources: Quantity versus quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, B.R.; Jolly, I.; Sophocleous, M.; Zhang, L.

    2007-01-01

    [1] Past land use changes have greatly impacted global water resources, with often opposing effects on water quantity and quality. Increases in rain-fed cropland (460%) and pastureland (560%) during the past 300 years from forest and grasslands decreased evapotranspiration and increased recharge (two orders of magnitude) and streamflow (one order of magnitude). However, increased water quantity degraded water quality by mobilization of salts, salinization caused by shallow water tables, and fertilizer leaching into underlying aquifers that discharge to streams. Since the 1950s, irrigated agriculture has expanded globally by 174%, accounting for ???90% of global freshwater consumption. Irrigation based on surface water reduced streamflow and raised water tables resulting in waterlogging in many areas (China, India, and United States). Marked increases in groundwater-fed irrigation in the last few decades in these areas has lowered water tables (???1 m/yr) and reduced streamflow. Degradation of water quality in irrigated areas has resulted from processes similar to those in rain-fed agriculture: salt mobilization, salinization in waterlogged areas, and fertilizer leaching. Strategies for remediating water resource problems related to agriculture often have opposing effects on water quantity and quality. Long time lags (decades to centuries) between land use changes and system response (e.g., recharge, streamflow, and water quality), particularly in semiarid regions, mean that the full impact of land use changes has not been realized in many areas and remediation to reverse impacts will also take a long time. Future land use changes should consider potential impacts on water resources, particularly trade-offs between water, salt, and nutrient balances, to develop sustainable water resources to meet human and ecosystem needs. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Effectiveness of a Science Agricultural Summer Experience (SASE) in Recruiting Students to Natural Resources Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Edward; Lindline, Jennifer; Petronis, Michael S.; Pilotti, Maura

    2012-01-01

    The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects an increase in Natural Resource Management (NRM) jobs within the next 10 years due to baby-boomer retirements and a 12% increase in demand for these occupations. Despite this trend, college enrollment in NRM disciplines has declined. Even more critical is the fact that the soon-to-be-majority Hispanic…

  2. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  3. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J. C.; Stephens, J. C.; Chung, Serena; Brady, M. P.; Evans, R. D.; Kruger, C. E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, M. L.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; Rajagopalan, K.; Harrison, John; Tague, C. L.; Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman; Chen, Yong; Guenther, Alex B.; Leung, F. Y.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Perleberg, A. B.; Yoder, J.; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, S.; Chandrasekharan, B.; Malek, K.; Mullis, T.; Miller, C.; Nergui, T.; Poinsatte, J.; Reyes, J.; Zhu, J.; Choate, J. S.; Jiang, X.; Nelson, R.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Yorgey, G. G.; Johnson, Kristen; Chinnayakanhalli, K. J.; Hamlet, A. F.; Nijssen, B.; Walden, Von

    2015-04-01

    As managers of agricultural and natural resources are confronted with uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (land, air, water, economics, etc). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and "usability" of EaSMs. BioEarth is a current research initiative with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region that explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a "bottom-up" approach, upscaling a catchment-scale model to basin and regional scales, as opposed to the "top-down" approach of downscaling global models utilized by most other EaSM efforts. This paper describes the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.

  4. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; Brady, Michael P.; Evans, R. David; Kruger, Chad E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, Mingliang; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; et al

    2014-04-24

    Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region thatmore » explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.« less

  5. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; Brady, Michael P.; Evans, R. David; Kruger, Chad E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, Mingliang; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; Rajagopalan, Kirti; Harrison, John A.; Tague, Christina L.; Kalyanaraman, Ananth; Chen, Yong; Guenther, Alex; Leung, Fok-Yan; Leung, L. Ruby; Perleberg, Andrew B.; Yoder, Jonathan; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, Sarah; Chandrasekharan, Bhagyam; Malek, Keyvan; Mullis, Tristan; Miller, Cody; Nergui, Tsengel; Poinsatte, Justin; Reyes, Julian; Zhu, Jun; Choate, Janet S.; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Nelson, Roger; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Yorgey, Georgine G.; Johnson, Kristen; Chinnayakanahalli, Kiran J.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Nijssen, Bart; Walden, Von

    2014-04-24

    Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region that explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.

  6. Remote sensing applications in African agriculture and natural resources: Highlighting and managing the stress of increasing population pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amissah-Arthur, Abigail; Balstad Miller, Roberta

    Given current population trends and projections in sub-Saharan Africa, it is anticipated that substantial intensification of agricultural cropland is certain within the next decades. In the absence of adoption of improved technologies poor rural populations in this region will continue to degrade and mine the natural resources to ensure their survival. All these actions will have far-reaching implications for environmental quality and human health. However, only through the integration of environment and development concerns with greater attention to these link can we achieve the goal of fulfilling the basic needs, improved living standards for all, better protected and managed eco-systems and a safer, more prosperous future. The paper reviews case studies and provides examples of the integration, analysis, and visualization of information from remotely sensed, biophysical and socioeconomic information to assess the present situation hindering agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies show the interactions between socio-economic and environmental factors that can help governments and policy-makers assess the scope of the problems, examine alternatives and decide on a course of action. Sound decisions depend on accurate information, yet most African countries face severe competing demands for the financial and human commitments necessary to staff an information system equal to its policy-making requirements. The role of international data centers is reviewed in terms of their abilities to develop and maintain information systems that bring together available accumulated knowledge and data. This permits comparative studies, which make it possible to develop a better understanding of the relationships among demographic dynamics, technology, cultural behavioral norms, and land resources and hence better decision making for sustainable development.

  7. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

  8. Professional Manpower and Bachelor's and Graduate Enrollment and Degrees in Agriculture and Natural Resources: Projections to 1980 for the United States and Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottman, Roy M.; Geyer, Richard E.

    The comprehensive study, based on 1970 census data and other recent information from a variety of sources, provides assessment of trends and a projection of future States as well as the State of Ohio. Besides meeting the primary end objective of providing a basis for projecting enrollment needs in agriculture and natural resources in the College…

  9. Boundary work for sustainable development: Natural resource management at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

    PubMed

    Clark, William C; Tomich, Thomas P; van Noordwijk, Meine; Guston, David; Catacutan, Delia; Dickson, Nancy M; McNie, Elizabeth

    2016-04-26

    Previous research on the determinants of effectiveness in knowledge systems seeking to support sustainable development has highlighted the importance of "boundary work" through which research communities organize their relations with new science, other sources of knowledge, and the worlds of action and policymaking. A growing body of scholarship postulates specific attributes of boundary work that promote used and useful research. These propositions, however, are largely based on the experience of a few industrialized countries. We report here on an effort to evaluate their relevance for efforts to harness science in support of sustainability in the developing world. We carried out a multicountry comparative analysis of natural resource management programs conducted under the auspices of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. We discovered six distinctive kinds of boundary work contributing to the successes of those programs-a greater variety than has been documented in previous studies. We argue that these different kinds of boundary work can be understood as a dual response to the different uses for which the results of specific research programs are intended, and the different sources of knowledge drawn on by those programs. We show that these distinctive kinds of boundary work require distinctive strategies to organize them effectively. Especially important are arrangements regarding participation of stakeholders, accountability in governance, and the use of "boundary objects." We conclude that improving the ability of research programs to produce useful knowledge for sustainable development will require both greater and differentiated support for multiple forms of boundary work. PMID:21844351

  10. Agriculture, Forestry and Rangeland Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulton, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery for providing information on agriculture, forestry, and rangeland resources is described. The use of the ERTS-1 system for stratification and sampling estimates of relatively small areas is discussed. Examples of maps to improve resource definition for land use planning, resource allocation, and resource development are provided. Inventories of various crops, as determined by photointerpretation of ERTS imagery are submitted in tabular form.

  11. Agricultural and forest resource surveys from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    An overview is presented on the use of spaceborne remote sensors as aid to agriculture and forestry for soil mapping, crop yield predictions, acreage determinations, damage assessment, and numerous other benefits. Some results obtained by ERTS 1 are discussed in terms of the significance of information derived and the potential use of these data for better management of our natural resources.

  12. A Natural Resources Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, George B.

    1977-01-01

    Three years of instruction in natural resources management (NRM) are offered at Louisa County High School, Mineral, Virginia, with 30 acres of land for use as outdoor classrooms. Instructional areas are grouped under forestry; crops and soils; and surveying, air, water, recreation, and general. Two years of basic agriculture science and mechanics…

  13. Natural Resources Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Irene Braden

    This bibliography presents a modern definition of the conceptual framework from which to view natural resources, and affords access to information which examines resources from the social scientists point of view. It presents five broad divisions of activity or variables which include (1) Natural and Human Resources, (2) Epistomological and…

  14. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education.

    PubMed

    Parker, Joyce E; Wagner, David J

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency's educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students' critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. PMID:27587851

  15. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Joyce E.; Wagner, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency’s educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students’ critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. PMID:27587851

  16. Measuring natural resource scarcity

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, R.; Smith, T.R.

    1984-10-01

    Conclusions concerning trends in natural resource scarcity may depend critically on the choice of scarcity index. Unfortunately, the prevalence of vertical integration in natural resource industries has hindered the use of some otherwise desirable scarcity measures. In this paper duality theory is used to derive an econometric procedure for estimating one such measure, the shadow price of the resource in situ. Empirical results for the Canadian metal mining industry indicate that resource scarcity as measured by this shadow price has decreased substantially over time. 23 refernces, 1 table.

  17. 7 CFR 2.61 - Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2.61 Section 2.61 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment §...

  18. American Indian Systems for Natural Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintana, Jorge O.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the philosophy and general principles of "primitive" indigenous production technologies and natural resource management systems in North and South America. Discusses indigenous practices that promote sustainable production in gathering, hunting and fishing, minerals extraction, and agriculture. (SV)

  19. Graduates of Higher Education in the Food and Agricultural Sciences: An Analysis of Supply/Demand Relationships. Volume I--Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Kyle Jane, Ed.; Stanton, Marge, Ed.

    Information on the current and projected supply of and demand for graduates of higher education in the food and agricultural sciences is presented, based on federal data bases. The supply data are aggregated by 11 educational clusters, and employment demand data are aggregated by eight occupational clusters. Analysis reveals imbalances in the…

  20. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this report, but are planned to be included in the hydrology

  1. Natural Resources Education Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eldon C.

    This notebook was developed cooperatively by the United States Soil Conservation Service and Iowa State University to be used by teachers in providing instruction regarding certain aspects of natural resources. It includes four sections which provide: (1) an instructional plan about the conservation provisions of the 1985 Food Security Act; (2) an…

  2. Instructional Resources in Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drawbaugh, Charles C.

    1971-01-01

    The question raised from the study is this. "Why not give consideration to the establishment of Regional Instructional Resource Centers with staff to promote and coordinate productional activities, to manage reproductional processes, and to advertise and distribute instructional resources more widely and, thereby, elevate this important…

  3. Inservice Workshops on New and Emerging Agriculture/Natural Resources Occupation Instructional Materials. Final Report, January 1, 1980-June 30, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leising, J.; Wilkins, Russell

    This document contains the final report and appendixes from a project to develop resources for use by community college agricultural education instructors in better utilizing computer technology in instruction and to provide inservice workshops to make the instructors aware of available hard- and software. The four-page narrative lists objectives,…

  4. Agricultural Resources: Program Planning Guide: Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Carl; And Others

    The program planning guide for agricultural resources was written to assist Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations (ABAO) teachers in enriching existing programs and/or to provide the basis for expansion of offerings to include additional materials for the cluster areas of forests, recreation, soil, wildlife, and other agricultural…

  5. Career Preparation in Agricultural Resources: A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Householder, Larry

    This curriculum guide in agricultural resources is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes eight occupational subgroups: fish, forestry, mining area restoration, outdoor recreation, soil, range, water, and wildlife. It is…

  6. Challenges in Renewable Natural Resources: A Guide to Alternative Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Robert

    First presented at a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) conference on renewable resources, this material includes information and discussion on critical issues, policies, and future alternatives for natural resources in the United States. (CO)

  7. UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION IN RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES, AN ASSESSMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    REPORTED ARE THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE PANEL ON NATURAL RESOURCE SCIENCE OF THE COMMISSION ON EDUCATION IN AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS, MANAGERS, AND OTHER PERSONS PROFESSIONALLY ENGAGED IN DEVELOPING, MANAGING, AND PROTECTING THE RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES OF THE UNITED STATES. THE…

  8. 7 CFR 654.18 - Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility... Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.18 Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility. The Natural Resources Conservation Service will assist the sponsor(s) in developing a watershed or...

  9. 7 CFR 654.18 - Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility... Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.18 Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility. The Natural Resources Conservation Service will assist the sponsor(s) in developing a watershed or...

  10. 7 CFR 654.18 - Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility... Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.18 Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility. The Natural Resources Conservation Service will assist the sponsor(s) in developing a watershed or...

  11. 7 CFR 654.18 - Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility... Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.18 Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility. The Natural Resources Conservation Service will assist the sponsor(s) in developing a watershed or...

  12. 7 CFR 654.18 - Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility... Federal Financially-Assisted Projects § 654.18 Natural Resources Conservation Service responsibility. The Natural Resources Conservation Service will assist the sponsor(s) in developing a watershed or...

  13. Contaminant Removal From Natural Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Geiger, Cheri L. (Inventor); Reinhart, Debra (Inventor); Fillpek, Laura B. (Inventor); Coon, Christina (Inventor); Devor, Robert (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles is used to remediate contaminated natural resources, such as groundwater and soil. In a preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion removes heavy metals, such as lead (pb), from contaminated natural resources. In another preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion is a bimetallic emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles doped with a catalytic metal to remediate halogenated aromatic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), from natural resources.

  14. Afghanistan's energy and natural resources

    SciTech Connect

    Balcome-Rawding, R.; Porter, K.C.

    1989-10-01

    This study provides a resource perspective from which to better plan the necessary steps toward the viable reconstruction and economic development of post war Afghanistan. The vast availability of natural resources affords the opportunity to formulate a framework upon which Afghanistan can grow and prosper in the future. The paper includes the following sections: Historical Overview: Thwarted Opportunities; Natural Resources: A Survey of Possibilities; The Future: Post War Rehabilitation and Reconstruction; and Conclusions: Future Energy Sources.

  15. 7 CFR 2.59 - Deputy Under Secretaries for Natural Resources and Environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretaries for Natural Resources and Environment. 2.59 Section 2.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Under Secretary for Natural Resources...

  16. Evaluation of Natural Resource Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a frame for evaluation of natural resource interventions, which necessarily involves both human and natural systems. Two-system evaluands require us to adapt evaluation methods for comparison and attribution and to address differences in time and space occurring across the systems as well as potentially very different values…

  17. Discovery of natural resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guild, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Mankind will continue to need ores of more or less the types and grades used today to supply its needs for new mineral raw materials, at least until fusion or some other relatively cheap, inexhaustible energy source is developed. Most deposits being mined today were exposed at the surface or found by relatively simple geophysical or other prospecting techniques, but many of these will be depleted in the foreseeable future. The discovery of deeper or less obvious deposits to replace them will require the conjunction of science and technology to deduce the laws that governed the concentration of elements into ores and to detect and evaluate the evidence of their whereabouts. Great theoretical advances are being made to explain the origins of ore deposits and understand the general reasons for their localization. These advances have unquestionable value for exploration. Even a large deposit is, however, very small, and, with few exceptions, it was formed under conditions that have long since ceased to exist. The explorationist must suppress a great deal of "noise" to read and interpret correctly the "signals" that can define targets and guide the drilling required to find it. Is enough being done to ensure the long-term availability of mineral raw materials? The answer is probably no, in view of the expanding consumption and the difficulty of finding new deposits, but ingenuity, persistence, and continued development of new methods and tools to add to those already at hand should put off the day of "doing without" for many years. The possibility of resource exhaustion, especially in view of the long and increasing lead time needed to carry out basic field and laboratory studies in geology, geophysics, and geochemistry and to synthesize and analyze the information gained from them counsels against any letting down of our guard, however (17). Research and exploration by government, academia, and industry must be supported and encouraged; we cannot wait until an eleventh

  18. Recouple: Natural Resource Strategies for Rural Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret G.

    This source book provides guidance and technical assistance material on utilizing forest, agricultural, and scenic and wildlife resources for rural economic development. The document focuses on the uniqueness of existing rural resources for new enterprise opportunities. Natural resource-based economic development strategies are a means to…

  19. Career Education: Agribusiness and Natural Resources Occupations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S.

    Intended for teachers, counselors, and administrators, this booklet is designed to provide a brief description of the agribusiness and natural resources occupations cluster. Agribusiness is a blending of agriculture and business and is composed of two groups of occupations known as farm and nonfarm. Agribusiness and natural resources occupations…

  20. Data access and interchange in agronomic and natural resources management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Challenges related to agriculture and natural resource management have never been greater. Comprehensive agronomic and natural resources data relevant to climate change, food security, bioenergy, and sustainable water supply are rare and in demand. Data used for policy development must be rigorous...

  1. Are natural resources bad for health?

    PubMed

    El Anshasy, Amany A; Katsaiti, Marina-Selini

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine whether economic dependence on various natural resources is associated with lower investment in health, after controlling for countries' geographical and historical fixed effects, corruption, autocratic regimes, income levels, and initial health status. Employing panel data for 118 countries for the period 1990-2008, we find no compelling evidence in support of a negative effect of resources on healthcare spending and outcomes. On the contrary, higher dependence on agricultural exports is associated with higher healthcare spending, higher life expectancy, and lower diabetes rates. Similarly, healthcare spending increases with higher mineral intensity. Finally, more hydrocarbon resource rents are associated with less diabetes and obesity rates. There is however evidence that public health provision relative to the size of the economy declines with greater hydrocarbon resource-intensity; the magnitude of this effect is less severe in non-democratic countries. PMID:25603320

  2. Evaluation of Resources of Agricultural Lands Using Fuzzy Indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With ever increasing demands on agriculture, it is essential that we be able to adequately evaluate agriculture land resources. Recently, efforts have been undertaken to develop methods and tools for the purpose of evaluating agricultural land resources. However, to be successful, assessments need...

  3. Preparing Technicians for the Twenty-First Century in Agriculture, Agribusiness, and Natural Resources. Summary Report of a Conference (Columbus, Ohio, April 15-16, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokma, Arnold L., Ed.; Barrick, Kirby, Ed.

    This report contains summaries of various portions of a conference dealing with preparing technicians for various agricultural occupations as well as the texts of several papers presented at the conference. The keynote address, "Technology for the 21st Century" by John A. Conrads, is presented together with the following reaction panel papers:…

  4. Indicators for assessing changes in natural resources in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The sustainability of the natural-resource base is being seriously threatened in many developing countries by local efforts to meet basic needs for food, fiber, and fuelwood. This paper suggests eight illustrative indicators for assessing the impact of A.I.D. agricultural and forestry projects on natural resources: soil-productivity maintenance, land use and management, vegetative cover and plant health, agroforestry and fuelwood supply, rangeland conditions and trends, water supply, environmental quality, and accelerated general degradation processes. Appendices cover procedures, data items, and costs for natural resource inventories in the United States; Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with digitized map information; costs of soil surveys, digitized maps, and GISs; estimated costs for remote sensing of natural resources; and a U.S. Department of Agriculture water erosion prediction project being developed to replace the universal soil loss equation. Includes a 5-page bibliography.

  5. 7 CFR 2.59 - Deputy Under Secretaries for Natural Resources and Environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretaries for Natural Resources and... Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment § 2.59 Deputy Under Secretaries for Natural... the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment to the Deputy Under Secretaries for...

  6. 7 CFR 2.59 - Deputy Under Secretaries for Natural Resources and Environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretaries for Natural Resources and... Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment § 2.59 Deputy Under Secretaries for Natural... the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment to the Deputy Under Secretaries for...

  7. 7 CFR 2.59 - Deputy Under Secretaries for Natural Resources and Environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretaries for Natural Resources and... Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment § 2.59 Deputy Under Secretaries for Natural... the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment to the Deputy Under Secretaries for...

  8. 7 CFR 2.59 - Deputy Under Secretaries for Natural Resources and Environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deputy Under Secretaries for Natural Resources and... Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment § 2.59 Deputy Under Secretaries for Natural... the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment to the Deputy Under Secretaries for...

  9. 76 FR 57100 - Natural Resource Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... Natural Resource Plan AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Issuance of Record of Decision...) for the Natural Resource Plan (NRP). The notice of availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Natural Resource Plan was published in the Federal Register on July 15, 2011. The...

  10. 25 CFR 162.201 - Must agricultural land be managed in accordance with a tribe's agricultural resource management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tribe's agricultural resource management plan? 162.201 Section 162.201 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... Must agricultural land be managed in accordance with a tribe's agricultural resource management plan... and objectives in any agricultural resource management plan developed by the tribe, or by us in...

  11. Natural Resources and Spatial Spillovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batbold, Dulguun

    Regions going through a natural resource boom tend to have higher average incomes and employment relative to the rest of the country. For policy analysis, a question that often needs to be answered is to what extent the economic growth in the extraction region spills over to neighboring areas. This thesis develops a detailed methodology for analyzing the economic effects of geographically localized shocks within the framework of a parsimonious spatial general equilibrium model, including various methods for estimating key parameters. This model-based approach is being offered as a complementary tool for applied researchers conducting economic impact analysis. Existing empirical methods such as input-output analysis or difference-in-difference estimation techniques are often not optimal for analyzing spatially correlated data, and this model-based methodology can be used to overcome their limitations. Another important advantage of this methodology is that it is computationally tractable and has a relatively low data requirement, which can make a particularly big difference in studying developing countries where data quality and availability can often be an insurmountable challenge. Following the exposition of the methodology, this thesis presents two separate applications, one involving a developed nation and the other a developing one. In the first case, the methodology is applied to analyze the economic impact of the shale energy boom that's been occurring in and around Bakken counties in western North Dakota and eastern Montana over the past decade. In the second case, the methodology is used to analyze the economic impact of the Oyu Tolgoi copper-gold mining project in the Southern Gobi region of Mongolia. A common conclusion that is drawn from the two applications mentioned above is that economic booms fueled by natural resource extracting industries are largely local and have limited spillover effects on neighboring regions.

  12. 75 FR 29969 - Information Collection; Volunteer Application for Natural Resources Agencies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... the following natural resource agencies are included: Department of Agriculture: U.S. Forest Service... Forest Service Information Collection; Volunteer Application for Natural Resources Agencies AGENCY... Application for Natural Resources Agencies. DATES: Comments must be received in writing on or before July...

  13. Theme: Land Laboratories--Urban Settings, Liability, Natural Resources Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, David, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "With a Little Imagination"; "From Fallow to Fertile"; "Operating a School Enterprise in Agriculture"; "Using a Nontraditional Greenhouse to Enhance Lab Instruction"; "Risk Management for Liability in Operating Land Laboratories"; "Working Land and Water Laboratory for Natural Resources"; "Dreams Becoming Realities"; "Small Scale Land…

  14. Resource Guide to Educational Materials about Agriculture. A Project of Agriculture in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of the Secretary.

    Designed to help teachers bring more information about agriculture into their classrooms, this resource guide provides a listing of materials relating to agriculture available from private and public sources. It describes materials available from more than 300 organizations and publishers who responded to a request regarding materials they were…

  15. Resource Guide to Educational Materials about Agriculture. A Project of Agriculture in the Classroom. 1996 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of the Secretary.

    This resource guide provides a list of materials available from public and private sources on agriculture and related issues. More than 300 organizations and publishers were asked what materials they were producing that could help regular K-12 classroom teachers incorporate more information about agriculture into their instruction. This guide is…

  16. Are there any natural resources?

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter G

    2004-03-01

    Local and regional environments have for many centuries been seen as, or as being composed of, ''natural resources,'' which have generally been considered fully available for human use, irrespective of any use to which other species, purposefully or not, might put them. The global environment has more recently, though less routinely, been seen in this way. I examine full-human-use arguments in three widely credited philosophical traditions: the Judeo-Christian-liberal, the Aristotelian-Cartesian-rationalist, and the utilitarian or neoclassical economic. I find each tradition's full-human-use argument unsatisfactory. I then discuss, and ultimately recommend, an alternative, an all-species-use argument based on Albert Schweitzer's much admired but seldom adopted reverence-for-life ethic. I find revealed by this alternative argument a previously unnamed good, one worthy of honor, protection, and enlargement; I call this good ''the commonwealth of life.'' In conclusion, I consider important implications of accepting commonwealth-of-life reasoning, including foundational changes in ethics. PMID:16859376

  17. Managing for Phosphorus and Other Resources in Globalized Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, G. K.; Mueller, N. D.; Bennett, E.; Brauman, K. A.; Gerber, J. S.; Metson, G. S.; West, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural trade has an important effect on the distribution of resource use among regions. Trade is particularly important for understanding human impacts on the phosphorus (P) cycle, as mineral P reserves are geopolitically concentrated. Yet, P use is only one component of the broader agro-environmental dimensions of globalized agriculture. Understanding complex interactions among multiple components of land use and resource management in trade networks is needed. We fuse comprehensive global agricultural datasets illustrating key facets of land use and management with bilateral trade statistics to explore phosphorus-use efficiency in relation to other agro-environmental indicators. Our findings illustrate tradeoffs among phosphorus-use efficiency, nitrogen-use efficiency, crop-water productivity, and overall crop yields embodied within trade networks. Disparities in the land-use intensity of different exporting countries reflect the types of commodities produced, the degree of export-orientation, and the biophysical context of production. Phosphorus inefficiencies could compound other problems, such as water scarcity, but our findings also reveal places with relatively high efficiency across multiple indicators—offering insight on how overall resource management can be balanced for export production. Using the prevailing agricultural systems of key exporting regions as a backdrop, we highlight opportunities to leverage agricultural efficiencies embodied in global trade networks to conserve multiple resources.

  18. SPATIALLY-BALANCED SAMPLING OF NATURAL RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial distribution of a natural resource is an important consideration in designing an efficient survey or monitoring program for the resource. Generally, sample sites that are spatially-balanced, that is, more or less evenly dispersed over the extent of the resource, will ...

  19. Introduction to Natural Resources: Advanced Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan

    This guide, which is designed for use with student and teacher guides to a 10-unit secondary-level course in natural resources, contains a series of student supplements and advanced assignment and job sheets that provide students with additional opportunities to explore the following areas of natural resources and conservation education: outdoor…

  20. Sampling for natural resource monitoring: Book review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling for Natural Resource Monitoring provides a comprehensive introduction to natural resource sampling design for students, scientists and managers. The emphasis on cost analysis and optimization throughout the book is perhaps one of its greatest strengths. The explanations of two-phase and seq...

  1. Indian Natural Resource, Science and Engineering Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oros, Tia

    1993-01-01

    The Indian Natural Resource, Science, and Engineering Program at California State University, Humboldt, offers a wide variety of courses related to working in natural-resource fields in indigenous communities and provides academic and personal support services to American Indian students in such fields. A program participant is profiled. (SV)

  2. Introduction to Natural Resources. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hehn, Darold; Newport, Bob

    This color-coded teacher's guide contains curriculum materials designed to help students develop an awareness of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources and to identify occupations in the area of natural resources. The guide contains nine units, each of which includes some or all of the following basic components: objective sheet, suggested…

  3. Natural Resources Management: Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvalson, Brian

    The document presents a course outline for the study of natural resources management by junior and senior year high school students. Basic information and practical experiences are offered to the student in the classroom and through several field trips in order to acquire more knowledge in various areas of natural resources and their management.…

  4. Resolving Conflicts between Agriculture and the Natural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tanentzap, Andrew J.; Lamb, Anthony; Walker, Susan; Farmer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture dominates the planet. Yet it has many environmental costs that are unsustainable, especially as global food demand rises. Here, we evaluate ways in which different parts of the world are succeeding in their attempts to resolve conflict between agriculture and wild nature. We envision that coordinated global action in conserving land most sensitive to agricultural activities and policies that internalise the environmental costs of agriculture are needed to deliver a more sustainable future. PMID:26351851

  5. NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium. Volume 1-A: Agriculture, environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A number of papers dealing with the practical application of imagery obtained from remote sensors on LANDSAT satellites, the Skylab Earth resources experiment package, and aircraft to problems in agriculture and the environment were presented. Some of the more important topics that were covered included: range management and resources, environmental monitoring and management, crop growth and inventory, land management, multispectral band scanners, forest management, mapping, marshlands, strip mining, water quality and pollution, ecology.

  6. Earth observation for regional scale environmental and natural resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernknopf, R.; Brookshire, D.; Faulkner, S.; Chivoiu, B.; Bridge, B.; Broadbent, C.

    2013-12-01

    Earth observations (EO) provide critical information to natural resource assessment. Three examples are presented: conserving potable groundwater in intense agricultural regions, maximizing ecosystem service benefits at regional scales from afforestation investment and management, and enabling integrated natural and behavioral sciences for resource management and policy analysis. In each of these cases EO of different resolutions are used in different ways to help in the classification, characterization, and availability of natural resources and ecosystem services. To inform decisions, each example includes a spatiotemporal economic model to optimize the net societal benefits of resource development and exploitation. 1) EO is used for monitoring land use in intensively cultivated agricultural regions. Archival imagery is coupled to a hydrogeological process model to evaluate the tradeoff between agrochemical use and retention of potable groundwater. EO is used to couple individual producers and regional resource managers using information from markets and natural systems to aid in the objective of maximizing agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality. The contribution of EO is input to a nitrate loading and transport model to estimate the cumulative impact on groundwater at specified distances from specific sites (wells) for 35 Iowa counties and two aquifers. 2) Land use/land cover (LULC) derived from EO is used to compare biological carbon sequestration alternatives and their provisioning of ecosystem services. EO is used to target land attributes that are more or less desirable for enhancing ecosystem services in two parishes in Louisiana. Ecological production functions are coupled with value data to maximize the expected return on investment in carbon sequestration and other ancillary ecosystem services while minimizing the risk. 3) Environmental and natural resources management decisions employ probabilistic estimates of yet-to-find or yet

  7. Agricultural Resources Materials for Agricultural Education Programs. Core Agricultural Education Curriculum, Central Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Office of Agricultural Communications and Education.

    This curriculum guide contains four units with relevant problem areas and is intended as a source unit for agricultural education. These problem areas have been selected as suggested areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for secondary students enrolled in an agricultural education program. Each problem area includes some or all of the…

  8. Land Resources for Crop Production. Agricultural Economic Report Number 572.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hexem, Roger; Krupa, Kenneth S.

    About 35 million acres not being cultivated have high potential for crop use and 117 million more have medium potential, according to the 1982 National Resources Inventory (NRI) conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA committees evaluated the economic potential for converting land based on physical characteristics of the soil; size…

  9. AgBase: a functional genomics resource for agriculture

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Fiona M; Wang, Nan; Magee, G Bryce; Nanduri, Bindu; Lawrence, Mark L; Camon, Evelyn B; Barrell, Daniel G; Hill, David P; Dolan, Mary E; Williams, W Paul; Luthe, Dawn S; Bridges, Susan M; Burgess, Shane C

    2006-01-01

    Background Many agricultural species and their pathogens have sequenced genomes and more are in progress. Agricultural species provide food, fiber, xenotransplant tissues, biopharmaceuticals and biomedical models. Moreover, many agricultural microorganisms are human zoonoses. However, systems biology from functional genomics data is hindered in agricultural species because agricultural genome sequences have relatively poor structural and functional annotation and agricultural research communities are smaller with limited funding compared to many model organism communities. Description To facilitate systems biology in these traditionally agricultural species we have established "AgBase", a curated, web-accessible, public resource for structural and functional annotation of agricultural genomes. The AgBase database includes a suite of computational tools to use GO annotations. We use standardized nomenclature following the Human Genome Organization Gene Nomenclature guidelines and are currently functionally annotating chicken, cow and sheep gene products using the Gene Ontology (GO). The computational tools we have developed accept and batch process data derived from different public databases (with different accession codes), return all existing GO annotations, provide a list of products without GO annotation, identify potential orthologs, model functional genomics data using GO and assist proteomics analysis of ESTs and EST assemblies. Our journal database helps prevent redundant manual GO curation. We encourage and publicly acknowledge GO annotations from researchers and provide a service for researchers interested in GO and analysis of functional genomics data. Conclusion The AgBase database is the first database dedicated to functional genomics and systems biology analysis for agriculturally important species and their pathogens. We use experimental data to improve structural annotation of genomes and to functionally characterize gene products. AgBase is also

  10. Investigation on Reservoir Operation of Agricultural Water Resources Management for Drought Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Investigation on Reservoir Operation of Agricultural Water Resources Management for Drought Mitigation Chung-Lien Cheng, Wen-Ping Tsai, Fi-John Chang* Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Da-An District, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC.Corresponding author: Fi-John Chang (changfj@ntu.edu.tw) AbstractIn Taiwan, the population growth and economic development has led to considerable and increasing demands for natural water resources in the last decades. Under such condition, water shortage problems have frequently occurred in northern Taiwan in recent years such that water is usually transferred from irrigation sectors to public sectors during drought periods. Facing the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and the problems of increasing water shortages, it is a primary and critical issue to simultaneously satisfy multiple water uses through adequate reservoir operations for sustainable water resources management. Therefore, we intend to build an intelligent reservoir operation system for the assessment of agricultural water resources management strategy in response to food security during drought periods. This study first uses the grey system to forecast the agricultural water demand during February and April for assessing future agricultural water demands. In the second part, we build an intelligent water resources system by using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II), an optimization tool, for searching the water allocation series based on different water demand scenarios created from the first part to optimize the water supply operation for different water sectors. The results can be a reference guide for adequate agricultural water resources management during drought periods. Keywords: Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II); Grey System; Optimization; Agricultural Water Resources Management.

  11. The natural resources inventory system ASVT project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, A. T.

    1979-01-01

    The hardware/software and the associated procedures for a natural resource inventory and information system based on the use of LANDSAT-acquired multispectral scanner digital data is described. The system is designed to derive land cover/vegetation information from LANDSAT data and geographically reference this information for the production of various types of maps and for the compilation of acreage by land cover/vegetation category. The system also provides for data base building so that the LANDSAT-derived information can be related to information digitized from other sources (e.g., soils maps) in a geographic context in order to address specific applications. These applications include agricultural crop production estimation, erosion hazard-reforestation need assessment, whitetail deer habitat assessment, and site selection. The system is tested in demonstration areas located in the state of Mississippi, and the results of these application demonstrations are presented. A cost-efficiency comparison of producing land cover/vegetation maps and statistics with this system versus the use of small-scale aerial photography is made.

  12. Negotiation Training Courses for Natural Resource Professionals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkardt, Nina; Swann, M. Earlene; Walters, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    FORT's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch (PASA) has been conducting and publishing research on multi-party natural resource negotiation since the 1980s. This research has led to the development of basic and advanced negotiation training courses. Each course is two-and-a-half days. Both courses are a mix of lecture, hands-on training, and discussion. Please join us and other natural resource professionals facing similar problems and share your experiences. Come prepared to candidly discuss examples of successes to embrace, stalemates to recognize, and pitfalls to avoid in natural resource negotiations.

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart G of... - Development and Implementation of Natural Resource Management Guide

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... classifications for agricultural land protection; and o. Coastal Zone Management Areas. 6. The Administrator shall... Management Guide B Exhibit B to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Implementation of Natural Resource Management Guide 1. The State Director shall complete the natural...

  14. Analysis of historic agricultural irrigation data from the Natural Resources Conservation Service monitoring and evaluation for Grand Valley, Lower Gunnison Basin, and McElmo Creek Basin, western Colorado, 1985 to 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, John W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum, began a study to evaluate the Natural Resources Conservation Service evaluation data to (1) document the methods of the evaluation, and (2) analyze and summarize the data collected during the evaluation.

  15. Project CHOICE: #26. A Career Education Unit for Junior High School. Careers in Conservation of the Environment and Natural Resources. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Cluster; Science and Engineering Occupations Cluster).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This junior high teaching unit on careers in conservation of the environment and natural resources is one in a series of career guidebooks developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking classroom experiences with the world of work. The unit…

  16. Literature review of the remote sensing of natural resources. [bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fears, C. B. (Editor); Inglis, M. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of 596 documents related to remote sensors or the remote sensing of natural resources by satellite, aircraft, or ground-based stations are presented. Topics covered include general theory, geology and hydrology, agriculture and forestry, marine sciences, urban land use, and instrumentation. Recent documents not yet cited in any of the seven information sources used for the compilation are summarized. An author/key word index is provided.

  17. Resource Guide to Educational Materials about Agriculture: A Project of Agriculture in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Agriculture in the Classroom Program.

    Over 200 print and audiovisual materials which promote understanding of the importance of agriculture are described in this resource guide for teachers. Items which have been developed specifically for classroom use are described in addition to a large number of general informational materials which could be adapted according to classroom needs.…

  18. Rota Cultural and Natural Resources Study Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Sablan, Gregorio Kilili Camacho [D-MP-At Large

    2011-03-16

    03/07/2012 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. The Montana Natural Resource Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Stimson, J.R. )

    1991-06-01

    The Montana Natural Resource Information System (NRIS) is a program created by the legislature to make sources of data and information on Montana's natural resource easily and readily accessible. The program serves business and industry, state and federal agencies, and private citizens by providing a clearinghouse and referral service to link data users with the best sources of information. In addition, NRIS helps coordinate among agencies and organizations that collect, manage, or use the same types of natural resource information to prevent duplication of effort and promote information sharing. The NRIS program consist of the following components: Natural Heritage Program, a computer-assisted inventory of Montana's biological resources emphasizing the locations of rare or endangered plant and animal species and biological communites; Water Information System, a program for locating all kinds of water resource information including data on surface water, groundwater, water quality, riparian areas, water rights, and climate data; Geographic Information System, which provides technical assistance for statewide GIS projects and to agencies developing in-house GIS capability and coordinates GIS data standards and sharing throughout the state; and Natural Resource Index, a geographical and subject area indexing system for existing data sources (published and unpublished sources).

  20. Water Resources and Sustainable Agriculture in 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrar, G.

    2008-05-01

    Global agriculture faces some unique challenges and opportunities for the rest of this century. The need for food, feed and fiber will continues to grow as the world population continue to increase in the future. Agricultural ecosystems are also expected to be the source of a significant portion of renewable energy and fuels around the world, without further compromising the integrity of the natural resources base. How can agriculture continue to provide these services to meet the growing needs of world population while sustaining the integrity of agricultural ecosystems and natural resources, the very foundation it depends on? In the last century, scientific discoveries and technological innovations in agriculture resulted in significant increase in food, feed and fiber production globally, while the total amount of water, energy, fertilizers and other input used to achieve this growth remained the same or even decreased significantly in some parts of the world. Scientific and technical advances in understanding global and regional water and energy cycles, water resources management, soil and water conservation practices, weather prediction, plant breeding and biotechnology, and information and communication technologies contributed to this tremendous achievement. The projected increase in global population, urbanization, and changing lifestyles will continue the pressure on both agriculture and other managed and natural ecosystems to provide necessary goods and services for the rest of this century. To meet these challenges, we must obtain the requisite scientific and technical advances in the functioning of Earth's water, energy, carbon and biogeochemical cycles. We also need to apply the knowledge we gain and technologies we develop in assessing Earth's ecosystems' conditions, and their management and stewardship. In agricultural ecosystems, management of soil and water quality and quantity together with development of new varieties of plants based on advances

  1. Nature's Trust: A Paradigm for Natural Resources Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M. C.; Whitelaw, E.; Doppelt, B.; Burchell, A.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change uncertainty puts a premium on all remaining natural resources. Farmland, air, water, wetlands, wildlife, soils, mineral resources and forests must be protected to ensure that Americans - present citizens and future generations - have the fundamental survival resources they need in a future that holds many unknowns. Moreover, in light of the need to manage resources given climate and particle forcing, government must mitigate dangerous carbon loading of the atmosphere. Confronting climate change and protecting natural resources requires a clear sense of government obligation that is inherent to sovereignty, not a matter of political choice. Our government representatives can and must reframe government's discretion into a trustee obligation to protect Nature and ensure natural resource stewardship. Drawing upon enduring legal principles and court decisions, government can be characterized as a trustee of the natural resources essential to human survival. A trust is a fundamental type of ownership whereby one manages property for the benefit of another. Viewed as a trust, the environment consists of a portfolio of quantified natural assets that government manages. As beneficiaries, citizens hold a common property interest in defined, bounded assets that make up Nature's Trust. Such trust principles form the bedrock of statutory law. Trustees have a fiduciary obligation to protect trust assets and may not allow destruction of property they manage. This session will provide a policy frame for current scientific efforts to address climate change and natural resources loss. Under the Nature's Trust frame, U.S. government leaders and agencies at every level inherit a strict fiduciary obligation to protect our collective natural resources, including our water and the atmosphere, as assets in the trust. Their fiduciary standard of care consists of a proportionate responsibility, which ties directly to "Nature's Mandate" as defined by current climate

  2. Agricultural Impacts on Water Resources: Recommendations for Successful Applied Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmel, D.

    2014-12-01

    We, as water resource professionals, are faced with a truly monumental challenge - that is feeding the world's growing population and ensuring it has an adequate supply of clean water. As researchers and educators it is good for us to regularly remember that our research and outreach efforts are critical to people around the world, many of whom are desperate for solutions to water quality and supply problems and their impacts on food supply, land management, and ecosystem protection. In this presentation, recommendations for successful applied research on agricultural impacts on water resources will be provided. The benefits of building multidisciplinary teams will be illustrated with examples related to the development and world-wide application of the ALMANAC, SWAT, and EPIC/APEX models. The value of non-traditional partnerships will be shown by the Soil Health Partnership, a coalition of agricultural producers, chemical and seed companies, and environmental advocacy groups. The results of empowering decision-makers with useful data will be illustrated with examples related to bacteria source and transport data and the MANAGE database, which contains runoff nitrogen and phosphorus data for cultivated, pasture, and forest land uses. The benefits of focusing on sustainable solutions will be shown through examples of soil testing, fertilizers application, on-farm profit analysis, and soil health assessment. And the value of welcoming criticism will be illustrated by the development of a framework to estimate and publish uncertainty in measured discharge and water quality data. The good news for researchers is that the agricultural industry is faced with profitability concerns and the need to wisely utilize soil and water resources, and simultaneously state and federal agencies crave sound-science to improve decision making, policy, and regulation. Thus, the audience for and beneficiaries of agricultural research are ready and hungry for applied research results.

  3. Conjunctive use of water resources for sustainable irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay

    2014-11-01

    The continuous increase in global population and simultaneous decrease in good quality water resources emphasizes the need of using surface water and groundwater resources conjunctively for irrigation. The conjunctive use allows the utilization of poor quality water, which cannot be used as such for the crop production due to its harmful effect on soil and crop health. This paper presents an overview on issues and methods of the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater resources for sustainable irrigated agriculture. The background of the conjunctive water use and its applications for the management of poor quality water and management of rising watertable are presented. The management of conjunctive water use through the computer-based models is also covered in this review. The advantages and disadvantages of the approach have been described. Conclusions are provided based on this review which could be useful for all the stakeholders.

  4. Climate change, uncertainty, and natural resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Koneff, M.D.; Heglund, P.J.; Knutson, M.G.; Seamans, M.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Morton, J.M.; Jones, M.T.; Boomer, G.S.; Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and its associated uncertainties are of concern to natural resource managers. Although aspects of climate change may be novel (e.g., system change and nonstationarity), natural resource managers have long dealt with uncertainties and have developed corresponding approaches to decision-making. Adaptive resource management is an application of structured decision-making for recurrent decision problems with uncertainty, focusing on management objectives, and the reduction of uncertainty over time. We identified 4 types of uncertainty that characterize problems in natural resource management. We examined ways in which climate change is expected to exacerbate these uncertainties, as well as potential approaches to dealing with them. As a case study, we examined North American waterfowl harvest management and considered problems anticipated to result from climate change and potential solutions. Despite challenges expected to accompany the use of adaptive resource management to address problems associated with climate change, we conclude that adaptive resource management approaches will be the methods of choice for managers trying to deal with the uncertainties of climate change. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  5. Natural Resources and Rural Poverty: An Overview. Rural Development, Poverty, and Natural Resources Workshop Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elo, Irma T.; Beale, Calvin L.

    Natural resource and poverty relationships are regionally specific and are associated with particular segments of the nation's population, but have no overall direct causal tie. Although employment in natural-resource-based industries in rural areas accounts for only 16% of all rural employment nationally, these industries continue to make…

  6. Target lifetimes in natural resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    1991-12-01

    The relative degree of success of any intelligence gathering mission is a function of a number of limiting factors. Sensor design (resolution and sensitivity), platform stability, image interpreter skills, and the certainty about where to look both in the target area and in the resultant data are critical. These factors are either under the control of or are a part of the observer. Equally critical is the absolute time available to gain a position of vantage and to collect the emitted or reflected electromagnetic radiation associated with the target of interest. This is in part a function of how long the target is in a position to be observed. Target lifetime is that period of time during which data about a target may be collected. It is the time during which a target may be observed without statistically significant changes occurring in its character or location. In military intelligence, priority targets include such categories as weapon systems, troop numbers and strengths, staging areas, transportation systems, and obstacles to movement. In collecting data about natural resources, some interest in similar subjects is shared but others are added because the interest is in very complex ecosystems composed of a large number of targets. Some natural resource target lifetimes are identical to targets of military interest. Others are significantly different and range from those extremely brief, such as the few seconds required for a fire to ignite, up to 6000 years for the position of a Bristlecone pine tree. A critical evaluation of natural resource target attributes reveals both strong similarities and great differences between military targets of interest and those important in resource management. It appears that intelligence gathering efforts in natural resource management can build upon knowledge and principles about target lifetimes from military sources. However, mission planners must determine and consider the various lifetimes of targets unique in the area

  7. Exploring Agribusiness and Natural Resources. Competency Based Education Curriculum. Student Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Layle D.

    This competency-based prevocational exploration curriculum in agribusiness and natural resources is divided into the following eight areas: agricultural business (sales); animal science (health and grooming); horticulture (grafting and budding); agricultural products (grading eggs); plant science (germination); soil science (soil acidity and…

  8. Natural Resource Information System. Remote Sensing Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leachtenauer, J.; And Others

    A major design objective of the Natural Resource Information System entailed the use of remote sensing data as an input to the system. Potential applications of remote sensing data were therefore reviewed and available imagery interpreted to provide input to a demonstration data base. A literature review was conducted to determine the types and…

  9. Natural Resource Information for Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herfindahl, Orris C.

    This study is concerned with the problem of collecting information on natural resources. It analyses the cost of effectiveness of various kinds of surveys and related techniques (for example, aerial photography, geological and soil studies, and forest surveys) under various conditions, distinguishing between "time-bound" information and…

  10. Service-Learning and Natural Resource Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Peter; Bruyere, Brett L.; Beh, Adam

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted in a service-learning protected-areas management class at Colorado State University, Warner College of Natural Resources. The research questions addressed for this paper were "What are the leadership skills needed in today's culture of protected-area management?" and "Can service-learning nurture such…

  11. Rota Cultural and Natural Resources Study Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Sablan, Gregorio Kilili Camacho [D-MP-At Large

    2013-02-13

    07/31/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-93. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. AgBase: a functional genomics resource for agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many agricultural species and their pathogens have sequenced genomes and more are in progress. However, systems biology from functional genomics data is hindered in agricultural species because agricultural genome sequences have relatively poor structural and functional annotation and agricultural ...

  13. Current remote sensing in natural resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    2003-08-01

    Natural resource management agencies continue to be one of the heavy users of remote sensing data. From the earliest days of aerial photography, managers have depended upon broad area coverage in various levels of resolution for information needed to conserve and preserve the Earth's resource base. The USDA Forest Service is one agency that has been an active user of remote sensing data since the days when foresters began using aerial photographs to analyze timber crops. To this day, the use of data acquired by aerial reconnaissance is an important part of the tools used to gather information. Last year, in April of 2002, the Forest Service, Remote Sensing Applications Cener with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, sponsored The Ninth Biennial Remote Sensing Applications Conference in San Diego, California. Presentations at that conference demonstrate that airborne reconnaissance techniques continue to be of importance to managers of our natural resources. This paper is an overview of papers presented at the conference with emphasis upon applications that either use or have the potential to use airborne reconnaissance in data collection. Primary areas of interest include data collection for natural resource management and for law enforcement purposes on public lands an other remote, inaccessible back country areas.

  14. Natural Resource Monitoring of Rheum tanguticum by Multilevel Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Caixiang; Song, Jingyuan; Suo, Fengmei; Li, Xiwen; Li, Ying; Yu, Hua; Xu, Xiaolan; Luo, Kun; Li, Qiushi; Xin, Tianyi; Guan, Meng; Xu, Xiuhai; Miki, Eiji; Takeda, Osami; Chen, Shilin

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing has been extensively applied in agriculture for its objectiveness and promptness. However, few applications are available for monitoring natural medicinal plants. In the paper, a multilevel monitoring system, which includes satellite and aerial remote sensing, as well as ground investigation, was initially proposed to monitor natural Rheum tanguticum resource in Baihe Pasture, Zoige County, Sichuan Province. The amount of R. tanguticum from images is M = S*ρ and S is vegetation coverage obtained by satellite imaging, whereas ρ is R. tanguticum density obtained by low-altitude imaging. Only the R. tanguticum which coverages exceeded 1 m2 could be recognized from the remote sensing image because of the 0.1 m resolution of the remote sensing image (called effective resource at that moment), and the results of ground investigation represented the amounts of R. tanguticum resource in all sizes (called the future resource). The data in paper showed that the present available amount of R. tanguticum accounted for 4% to 5% of the total quantity. The quantity information and the population structure of R. tanguticum in the Baihe Pasture were initially confirmed by this system. It is feasible to monitor the quantitative distribution for natural medicinal plants with scattered distribution. PMID:25101134

  15. 25 CFR 166.311 - Is an Indian agricultural resource management plan required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is an Indian agricultural resource management plan... WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management Management Plans and Environmental Compliance § 166.311 Is an Indian agricultural resource management plan required? (a) Indian agricultural land...

  16. Development and application of fuzzy indicator for assessment of agricultural land resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With ever increasing demands on agriculture, it is essential that we be able to adequately evaluate agriculture land resources. Recently, efforts have been undertaken to develop methods and tools for the purpose of evaluating agricultural land resources. However, to be successful, assessments need...

  17. Control of Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution by Natural Wetland Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...

  18. Citizens' preferences for the conservation of agricultural genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Pouta, Eija; Tienhaara, Annika; Ahtiainen, Heini

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of conservation policies for agricultural genetic resources (AgGR) requires information on the use and non-use values of plant varieties and animal breeds, as well as on the preferences for in situ and ex situ conservation. We conducted a choice experiment to estimate citizens' willingness to pay (WTP) for AgGR conservation programmes in Finland, and used a latent class model to identify heterogeneity in preferences among respondent groups. The findings indicate that citizens have a high interest in the conservation of native breeds and varieties, but also reveal the presence of preference heterogeneity. Five respondent groups could be identified based on latent class modeling: one implying lexicographic preferences, two with reasoned choices, one indicating uncertain support and one with a preference for the current status of conservation. The results emphasize the importance of in situ conservation of native cattle breeds and plant varieties in developing conservation policies. PMID:25566324

  19. 77 FR 1913 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Meeting..., Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, Post Office Box 2890, Washington, DC...

  20. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    SciTech Connect

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory

  1. Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-04-01

    Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by differences in natural enemy interactions across landscapes, rather than by the effectiveness of individual natural enemy guilds. In a field exclusion experiment, pest control by flying insect enemies increased with landscape complexity. However, so did antagonistic interactions between flying insects and birds, which were neutral in simple landscapes and increasingly negative in complex landscapes. Negative natural enemy interactions thus constrained pest control in complex landscapes. These results show that, by altering natural enemy interactions, landscape complexity can provide ecosystem services as well as disservices. Careful handling of the tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity, and societal concerns is thus crucial and depends on our ability to predict the functional consequences of landscape-scale changes in trophic interactions. PMID:23513216

  2. Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Emily A.; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-01-01

    Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by differences in natural enemy interactions across landscapes, rather than by the effectiveness of individual natural enemy guilds. In a field exclusion experiment, pest control by flying insect enemies increased with landscape complexity. However, so did antagonistic interactions between flying insects and birds, which were neutral in simple landscapes and increasingly negative in complex landscapes. Negative natural enemy interactions thus constrained pest control in complex landscapes. These results show that, by altering natural enemy interactions, landscape complexity can provide ecosystem services as well as disservices. Careful handling of the tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity, and societal concerns is thus crucial and depends on our ability to predict the functional consequences of landscape-scale changes in trophic interactions. PMID:23513216

  3. Siberian Platform: Geology and Natural Bitumen Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Richard F.; Freeman, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: The Siberian platform is located between the Yenisey River on the west and the Lena River on the south and east. The Siberian platform is vast in size and inhospitable in its climate. This report is concerned principally with the setting, formation, and potential volumes of natural bitumen. In this report the volumes of maltha and asphalt referred to in the Russian literature are combined to represent natural bitumen. The generation of hydrocarbons and formation of hydrocarbon accumulations are discussed. The sedimentary basins of the Platform are described in terms of the Klemme basin classification system and the conditions controlling formation of natural bitumen. Estimates of in-place bitumen resources are reviewed and evaluated. If the bitumen volume estimate is confined to parts of identified deposits where field observations have verified rock and bitumen grades values, the bitumen resource amounts to about 62 billion barrels of oil in-place. However, estimates of an order of magnitude larger can be obtained if additional speculative and unverified rock volumes and grade measures are included.

  4. Geologic studies of deep natural gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T. S., (Edited By); Kuuskraa, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, the USGS estimated a mean resource of 114 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered technically recoverable natural gas in plays deeper than 15,000 feet/4,572 meters in onshore regions of the United States. This volume summarizes major conclusions of ongoing work. Chapters A and B address the areal extent of drilling and distribution of deep basins in the U.S. Chapter C summarizes distribution of deep sedimentary basins and potential for deep gas in the former Soviet Union. Chapters D and E are geochemical papers addressing source-rock issues and deep gas generation. Chapter F develops a probabilistic method for subdividing gas resources into depth slices, and chapter G analyzes the relative uncertainty of estimates of deep gas in plays in the Gulf Coast Region. Chapter H evaluates the mechanism of hydrogenation of deep, high-rank spent kerogen by water, with subsequent generation of methane-rich HC gas.

  5. The alignment of agricultural and nature conservation policies in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ian; Hauck, Jennifer; Bonn, Aletta

    2015-08-01

    Europe is a region of relatively high population density and productive agriculture subject to substantial government intervention under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Many habitats and species of high conservation interest have been created by the maintenance of agricultural practices over long periods. These practices are often no longer profitable, and nature conservation initiatives require government support to cover the cost for them to be continued. The CAP has been reformed both to reduce production of agricultural commodities at costs in excess of world prices and to establish incentives for landholders to adopt voluntary conservation measures. A separate nature conservation policy has established an extensive series of protected sites (Natura 2000) that has, as yet, failed to halt the loss of biodiversity. Additional broader scale approaches have been advocated for conservation in the wider landscape matrix, including the alignment of agricultural and nature conservation policies, which remains a challenge. Possibilities for alignment include further shifting of funds from general support for farmers toward targeted payments for biodiversity goals at larger scales and adoption of an ecosystem approach. The European response to the competing demands for land resources may offer lessons globally as demands on rural land increase. PMID:25998969

  6. Sustainability of natural attenuation of nitrate in agricultural aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Christopher T.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Increased concentrations of nitrate in groundwater in agricultural areas, coinciding with increased use of chemical and organic fertilizers, have raised concern because of risks to environmental and human health. At some sites, these problems are mitigated by natural attenuation of nitrate as a result of microbially mediated reactions. Results from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research under the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program show that reactions of dissolved nitrate with solid aquifer minerals and organic carbon help lower nitrate concentrations in groundwater beneath agricultural fields. However, increased fluxes of nitrate cause ongoing depletion of the finite pool of solid reactants. Consumption of the solid reactants diminishes the capacity of the aquifer to remove nitrate, calling into question the long-term sustainability of these natural attenuation processes.

  7. Resources and Biological Activities of Natural Polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Li, An-Na; Li, Sha; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Chen, Yu-Ming; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative stress imposed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in many chronic and degenerative diseases. As an important category of phytochemicals, phenolic compounds universally exist in plants, and have been considered to have high antioxidant ability and free radical scavenging capacity, with the mechanism of inhibiting the enzymes responsible for ROS production and reducing highly oxidized ROS. Therefore, phenolic compounds have attracted increasing attention as potential agents for preventing and treating many oxidative stress-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, ageing, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes current knowledge of natural polyphenols, including resource, bioactivities, bioavailability and potential toxicity. PMID:25533011

  8. Natural resources inventory system ASVT project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, A. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. One of the main advantages, both cost-wise and time-wise, of the natural resource inventory system involved the use of LANDSAT-acquired digital data for the land cover information component; thereby, eliminating the need to digitize such dynamic information from a map or aerial photo base. It was thought that the utility and the cost of information as derived from LANDSAT data for the various applications justified the operational use of data generated by LANDSAT.

  9. Climate adaptation strategy for natural resources released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy, released on 26 March by the Obama administration, calls for a series of measures to help public and private decision makers better address the effects of climate change on living natural resources. The measures include conserving habitat to support healthy fish, wildlife, and plant populations and ecosystem functions; managing species and habitats to protect ecosystem functions and provide sustainable commercial, subsistence, recreational, and cultural use; increasing knowledge and information about effects on and responses of fish, wildlife, and plants; and reducing nonclimate stressors to help fish, wildlife, plants, and ecosystems adapt.

  10. Organizing phenological data resources to inform natural resource conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Kellermann, Jherime L.; Posthumus, Erin E.; Denny, Ellen G.; Guertin, Patricia; Marsh, Lee; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the timing of plant and animal life cycle events, in response to climate change, are already happening across the globe. The impacts of these changes may affect biodiversity via disruption to mutualisms, trophic mismatches, invasions and population declines. To understand the nature, causes and consequences of changed, varied or static phenologies, new data resources and tools are being developed across the globe. The USA National Phenology Network is developing a long-term, multi-taxa phenological database, together with a customizable infrastructure, to support conservation and management needs. We present current and potential applications of the infrastructure, across scales and user groups. The approaches described here are congruent with recent trends towards multi-agency, large-scale research and action.

  11. Health Shocks and Natural Resource Management: Evidence from Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Damon, Maria; Zivin, Joshua Graff; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2014-01-01

    Poverty and altered planning horizons brought on by the HIV/AIDS epidemic can change individual discount rates, altering incentives to conserve natural resources. Using longitudinal household survey data from western Kenya, we estimate the effects of health status on investments in soil quality, as indicated by households’ agricultural land fallowing decisions. We first show that this effect is theoretically ambiguous: while health improvements lower discount rates and thus increase incentives to conserve natural resources, they also increase labor productivity and make it more likely that households can engage in labor-intensive resource extraction activities. We find that household size and composition are predictors of whether the effect of health improvements on discount rates dominates the productivity effect, or vice-versa. Since households with more and younger members are better able to reallocate labor to cope with productivity shocks, the discount rate effect dominates for these households and health improvements lead to greater levels of conservation. In smaller families with less substitutable labor, the productivity effect dominates and health improvements lead to greater environmental degradation PMID:25558117

  12. [Variation characteristics of agricultural heat resource and its effect on agriculture in Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Qian, Jin-xia; Zhang, Jian-xin; Li, Na; Han, Pu

    2015-03-01

    Based on the data of the daily mean air temperature and the minimum soil surface temperature of 70 meteorological stations in Shanxi Province from 1970 to 2012, the heat indices of agricultu-ral resources including accumulated temperatures above 0 °C and 10 °C , the average temperature in July and the annual frost-free duration were calculated. Their variation trends and mutation were analyzed by using linear regression and accumulated anomaly methods. The effect of agricultural heat resource on crop producing area was analyzed. The results showed that the accumulated temperatures for above 0 °C and 10 °C had increased significantly at a rate of about 64.8 and 57.9 °C . d . (10 a) -1, respectively (P<0.001). The average temperature in July and the annual frost-free duration had significantly increased at a rate of about 0.3 °C. (10 a)-1 and 5.9 d . (10 a)-1, respectively. The increasing ranges of heat resource indices had different spatial distribution patterns in Shanxi Province. The accumulated temperatures were greater in the west than that in the east. The average temperature in July was greater in middle and north than that in the south. The annual frost-free duration was greater in the middle than that in the south and north. The accumulated temperatures above 0 °C and 10 °C showed a clear mutation in 1996, so were the average temperature in July in 1993 and the annual frost-free duration in 1997. Compared to the time before mutation, the accumulated temperatures above 0 °C and 10 °C increased by 219.4 °C . d and 196.7 °C . d, respectively, the average temperature in July by 0.8 °C and the annual frost-free duration by 15 d. As a result, hot crop cultivable area and warm crop cultivable area were expanded northward, while the mild crop cultivable area, cool crop cultivable area, cold crop cultivable area and alpine plants area were shrunk. The maximum expansion was of the warm crop cultivable area (by 175.7%). The maximum shrinkage was of the

  13. Natural resources management: Issues and lessons from Rwanda. Occasional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, S.T.

    1990-04-01

    Rwanda is an exception among low-income developing countries in that it has given high priority to environmental and natural resource management (NRM) issues. The paper describes A.I.D.'s support for these efforts and explores the possibility of integrating them into agricultural and rural development programs in Rwanda and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Major findings include: Government support is a prerequisite to developing the long-term strategies needed to address specific NRM issues; Developing appropriate NRM technologies is a complex undertaking requiring site-specific applied research; Donors should appreciate the difficulty host countries face in balancing NRM with development, conservation, and equity objectives; USAID/Rwanda assistance has covered a wide range of NRM activities, many of them complementary to those of other donors, some part of a coordinated multi-donor effort; and The Mission's program includes several innovative and potentially replicable approaches, including the promotion of ecotourism in conjunction with wildlife conservation and park management, and agroforestry and fish farming to conserve soil and water resources while increasing farm productivity. Since such activities often require costly investments and yield their ecological and economic benefits only in the long term, a broader framework than simple cost-benefit analysis might be needed in attempting to incorporate them into USAID/Rwanda's agricultural and rural development portfolio.

  14. Human Resource Development for Modernizing the Agricultural Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.; Alex, Gary E.

    2008-01-01

    Greater commercialization of agricultural systems and increasing trade liberalization dictate the need for better capacity on the part of the agriculture workforce in the 21st century. Global changes in the roles of the public and private sectors and the dramatic advancements in technology have also strongly affected agricultural workforce…

  15. The nexus between integrated natural resources management and integrated water resources management in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twomlow, Stephen; Love, David; Walker, Sue

    The low productivity of smallholder farming systems and enterprises in the drier areas of the developing world can be attributed mainly to the limited resources of farming households and the application of inappropriate skills and practices that can lead to the degradation of the natural resource base. This lack of development, particularly in southern Africa, is of growing concern from both an agricultural and environmental perspective. To address this lack of progress, two development paradigms that improve land and water productivity have evolved, somewhat independently, from different scientific constituencies. One championed by the International Agricultural Research constituency is Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM), whilst the second championed predominantly by Environmental and Civil Engineering constituencies is Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). As a result of similar objectives of working towards the millennium development goals of improved food security and environmental sustainability, there exists a nexus between the constituencies of the two paradigms, particularly in terms of appreciating the lessons learned. In this paper lessons are drawn from past INRM research that may have particular relevance to IWRM scientists as they re-direct their focus from blue water issues to green water issues, and vice-versa. Case studies are drawn from the management of water quality for irrigation, green water productivity and a convergence of INRM and IWRM in the management of gold panning in southern Zimbabwe. One point that is abundantly clear from both constituencies is that ‘one-size-fits-all’ or silver bullet solutions that are generally applicable for the enhancement of blue water management/formal irrigation simply do not exist for the smallholder rainfed systems.

  16. 10 CFR 960.4-2-8-1 - Natural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Natural resources. 960.4-2-8-1 Section 960.4-2-8-1 Energy... REPOSITORY Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4-2-8-1 Natural resources. (a) Qualifying condition. This site shall..., scarcity, and technology—the natural resources, including ground water suitable for crop irrigation...

  17. 10 CFR 960.4-2-8-1 - Natural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Natural resources. 960.4-2-8-1 Section 960.4-2-8-1 Energy... REPOSITORY Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4-2-8-1 Natural resources. (a) Qualifying condition. This site shall..., scarcity, and technology—the natural resources, including ground water suitable for crop irrigation...

  18. 10 CFR 960.4-2-8-1 - Natural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural resources. 960.4-2-8-1 Section 960.4-2-8-1 Energy... REPOSITORY Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4-2-8-1 Natural resources. (a) Qualifying condition. This site shall..., scarcity, and technology—the natural resources, including ground water suitable for crop irrigation...

  19. 10 CFR 960.4-2-8-1 - Natural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Natural resources. 960.4-2-8-1 Section 960.4-2-8-1 Energy... REPOSITORY Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4-2-8-1 Natural resources. (a) Qualifying condition. This site shall..., scarcity, and technology—the natural resources, including ground water suitable for crop irrigation...

  20. Rapid assessment methods of resilience for natural and agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Torrico, Juan C; Janssens, Marc J J

    2010-12-01

    The resilience, ecological function and quality of both agricultural and natural systems were evaluated in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Rain Forest of Rio de Janeiro through Rapid Assessment Methods. For this goal new indicators were proposed, such as eco-volume, eco-height, bio-volume, volume efficiency, and resilience index. The following agricultural and natural systems have been compared according: (i) vegetables (leaf, fruit and mixed); (ii) citrus; (iii) ecological system; (iv) cattle, (v) silvo-pastoral system, (vi) forest fragment and (vii) forest in regeneration stage (1, 2 and 3 years old). An alternative measure (index) of resilience was proposed by considering the actual bio-volume as a function of the potential eco-volume. The objectives and hypotheses were fulfilled; it is shown that there does exist a high positive correlation between resilience index, biomass, energy efficiency and biodiversity. Cattle and vegetable systems have lowest resilience, whilst ecological and silvo-pastoral systems have greatest resilience. This new approach offers a rapid, though valuable assessment tool for ecological studies, agricultural development and landscape planning, particularly in tropical countries. PMID:21152779

  1. 25 CFR 161.200 - Is an Indian agricultural resource management plan required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is an Indian agricultural resource management plan... WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS General Provisions § 161.200 Is an Indian agricultural resource management plan required? (a) Yes, Navajo Partitioned Lands must be managed in accordance with...

  2. Forest, Land, and Water: Understanding Our Natural Resources. Natural Resources Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Dennis; And Others

    This curriculum consists of a Teacher's Guide and a series of 12 instructional modules, that are centered around concepts important in the study of national resource science. The modules are designed to supplement textbooks with activities for students in primary and middle grades (K-8). The titles of the modules are: (1) Natural History of a…

  3. Our Natural Resources: Basic Research Needs in Forestry and Renewable Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Task Force on Basic Research in Forestry and Renewable Natural Resources.

    This report examines basic research needs in forestry and renewable natural resources and determines benefits to be gained from greater investments in basic research. It was prepared by a group of 17 research scientists, each an accomplished investigator in one or more fields. Each contributor reflected on research needs within his own discipline…

  4. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  5. Review of dynamic optimization methods in renewable natural resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, the applications of dynamic optimization procedures in natural resource management have proliferated. A systematic review of these applications is given in terms of a number of optimization methodologies and natural resource systems. The applicability of the methods to renewable natural resource systems are compared in terms of system complexity, system size, and precision of the optimal solutions. Recommendations are made concerning the appropriate methods for certain kinds of biological resource problems.

  6. Fields of dreams: Agriculture, economy and nature in Midwest United States biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillon, Sean Thomas

    This work explores the social and ecological dimensions of recent biofuel production increases in the United States (US), focusing on the case of Iowa. Biofuels are proposed to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change, improve US energy security, and support rural economies. Little research has examined how increased US Midwestern biofuels production will change social and ecological outcomes at farm and regional levels or interact with broader governance processes at the nexus of agriculture, energy and environment. These broad questions guide my research: (1) How does biofuel production reconfigure agricultural practice and landscapes in Iowa? (2) What are the costs, benefits and risks of increased biofuels production as seen by farmers and rural residents, and how do these factors influence farmer decisions about agriculture and conservation practice? (3) How and with what effects are biofuels initiatives constituted as a form of environmental governance through scientific knowledge and practice and political economic dynamics? To address these questions, this research integrates both qualitative and quantitative methods, drawing on a political ecological approach complemented by agroecological analysis and theoretical insights from geographical analyses of nature-society relations. Quantitative analysis focuses on changing land use patterns in agriculture and conservation practice in Iowa. Qualitative methods include extensive interviews, participant observation, and policy and document analyses. Fieldwork focused on Northeastern Iowa to understand regional changes in agricultural and conservation practice, the renegotiated position of farmers in agriculture and biofuel production, and biofuel industry development. I find that biofuel production presents significant social and ecological challenges for rural places of production. Longstanding, unequal political economic relations in industrialized agriculture limit rural economic benefits

  7. Inventory and analysis of natural vegetation and related resources from space and high altitude photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulton, C. E.; Faulkner, D. P.; Johnson, J. R.; Mouat, D. A.; Schrumpf, B. J.

    1971-01-01

    A high altitude photomosaic resource map of Site 29 was produced which provided an opportunity to test photo interpretation accuracy of natural vegetation resource features when mapped at a small (1:133,400) scale. Helicopter reconnaissance over 144 previously selected test points revealed a highly adequate level of photo interpretation accuracy. In general, the reasons for errors could be accounted for. The same photomosaic resource map enabled construction of interpretive land use overlays. Based on features of the landscape, including natural vegetation types, judgements for land use suitability were made and have been presented for two types of potential land use. These two, agriculture and urbanization, represent potential land use conflicts.

  8. Natural Resource Economics. Teacher's Guide to World Resources. Comprehensive Coursework on the Global Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Sarah A.

    This teacher's guide presents teaching suggestions and presentation materials about natural resources as economic assets contributing to national economic productivity. The term "natural resource accounting" or "green accounting" is introduced for valuing natural resources as capital in economic systems. The lesson is divided into five parts and…

  9. Lost in Transition: Secondary School Students' Understanding of Landscapes and Natural Resource Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Tarnya; Beilin, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, a study titled "Living in the landscapes of the 21st century" was conducted in 11 high schools in metropolitan and rural Victoria. The research team investigated Year 10 students' conceptions of landscapes in order to explore their understandings of natural resource management (NRM), including agriculture, food, land and water management.…

  10. Does Interdisciplinarity Exist behind the Facade of Traditional Disciplines? A Study of Natural Resource Management Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pharo, Emma; Bridle, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that interdisciplinarity is being explicitly taught behind the facade of traditional disciplines. We interviewed 14 academics (seven geographers and seven agricultural scientists) about their teaching in the inherently interdisciplinary field of natural resource management. Our teachers were generally well informed…

  11. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart G of... - Development and Implementation of Natural Resource Management Guide

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Development and Implementation of Natural Resource... Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart G of Part 1940—Development and... as that described in paragraph 1 of this exhibit for the development of the original guide....

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart G of... - Development and Implementation of Natural Resource Management Guide

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Development and Implementation of Natural Resource... Environmental Program Pt. 1940, Subpt. G, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart G of Part 1940—Development and... as that described in paragraph 1 of this exhibit for the development of the original guide....

  13. Natural Resource Dependence, Rural Development, and Rural Poverty. Rural Development Research Report Number 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deavers, Kenneth L.; Brown, David L.

    Rural areas' population growth, location, level of economic activity and social well-being depend less on natural resource endowments than on such factors as transportation, communication, labor force characteristics, and urbanization. General causes of the 1970's urban-to-rural migration included fewer changes in the structure of agriculture,…

  14. Agribusiness/Natural Resources Exploration. Practical Arts. Instructor's Manual. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeton, Martha; And Others

    This instructor's manual consists of materials for use in introducing middle and junior high school students to job requirements and career opportunities in the areas of agribusiness and natural resource exploration. Included in the first part of the manual are a program master sequence, a listing of various agricultural and mining occupations…

  15. Environment, Land Use, and Natural Resources in Rural New York: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

    Participants at the First Statewide Legislative Symposium on Rural Development discussed environmental, land use, and natural resource problems and opportunities in rural areas of New York state. Identified as major assets were scenic beauty, diversified land use and economy, abundance and high quality of water, soil base for agriculture and…

  16. Quarterly literature review of the remote sensing of natural resources, third quarter 1976. [bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts related to remote sensing instrumentation and techniques, and to the remote sensing of natural resources are presented by the Technology Application Center at the University of New Mexico. Areas of interest included theory, general surveys, and miscellaneous studies; geology and hydrology; agriculture and forestry; marine sciences; and urban and land use. An alphabetically arranged Author/Key Word index is provided.

  17. Eco-informatics and natural resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Borning, A.; Delcambre, L.; Bowker, G.; Frame, M.; Schnase, J.; Sonntag, W.; Fulop, J.; Hert, C.; Hovy, E.; Jones, J.; Landis, E.; Schweik, C.; Brandt, L.; Gregg, V.; Spengler, S.

    2006-01-01

    This project highlight reports on the 2004 workshop [1], as well as follow-up activities in 2005 and 2006, regarding how informatics tools can help manage natural resources and decide policy. The workshop was sponsored jointly by sponsored by the NSF, NBII, NASA, and EPA, and attended by practitioners from government and non-government agencies, and university researchers from the computer, social, and ecological sciences. The workshop presented the significant information technology (IT) problems that resource managers face when integrating ecological or environmental information to make decisions. These IT problems fall into five categories: data presentation, data gaps, tools, indicators, and policy making and implementation. To alleviate such problems, we recommend informatics research in four IT areas, as defined in this abstract and our final report: modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. Additionally, we recommend that funding agencies provide infrastructure and some changes in funding habits to assure cycles of innovation in the domain were addressed. Follow-on activities to the workshop subsequent to dg.o 2005 included: an invited talk presenting workshop results at DILS 2005, publication of the workshop final report by the NBII [1], and a poster at the NBII All Hands Meeting (Oct. 2005). We also expect a special issue of the JIIS to appear in 2006 that addresses some of these questions. As we go to press, no solicitation by funding agencies has as yet been published, but various NASA and NBII, and NSF cyber-infrastructure and DG research efforts now underway address the above issues.

  18. Natural resource protection on buffer lands: integrating resource evaluation and economics

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Environmental managers are faced with the wise management, sustainability, and stewardship of their land for natural resource values. This task requires the integration of ecological evaluation with economics. Using the Department of Energy (DOE) as a case study, we examine the why, who, what, where, when, and how questions about assessment and natural resource protection of buffer lands. We suggest that managers evaluate natural resources for a variety of reasons that revolve around land use, remediation/restoration, protection of natural environments, and natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). While DOE is the manager of its lands, and thus its natural resources, a range of natural resource trustees and public officials have co-responsibility. We distinguish four types of natural resource evaluations: (1) the resources themselves (to the ecosystem), (2) the value of specific resources to people (e.g. hunting/fishing/bird-watching/herbal medicines), (3) the value of ecological resources to services for communities (e.g. clean air/water), and (4) the value of the intact ecosystems (e.g. forests or estuaries). Resource evaluations should occur initially to provide information about the status of those resources, and continued evaluation is required to provide trends data. Additional natural resource evaluation is required before, during and immediately following changes in land use, and remediation or restoration. Afterwards, additional monitoring and evaluations are required to evaluate the effects of the land use change or the efficacy of remediation/restoration. There are a wide range of economic methods available to evaluate natural resources, but the methods chosen depend upon the nature of the resource being evaluated, the purpose of the evaluation, and the needs of the agencies, natural resource trustees, public officials, and the public. We discuss the uses, and the advantages and disadvantages of different evaluation methods for natural resources. PMID

  19. Natural resource protection on buffer lands: integrating resource evaluation and economics.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Environmental managers are faced with the wise management, sustainability, and stewardship of their land for natural resource values. This task requires the integration of ecological evaluation with economics. Using the Department of Energy (DOE) as a case study, we examine the why, who, what, where, when, and how questions about assessment and natural resource protection of buffer lands. We suggest that managers evaluate natural resources for a variety of reasons that revolve around land use, remediation/restoration, protection of natural environments, and natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). While DOE is the manager of its lands, and thus its natural resources, a range of natural resource trustees and public officials have co-responsibility. We distinguish four types of natural resource evaluations: (1) the resources themselves (to the ecosystem), (2) the value of specific resources to people (e.g. hunting/fishing/bird-watching/herbal medicines), (3) the value of ecological resources to services for communities (e.g. clean air/water), and (4) the value of the intact ecosystems (e.g. forests or estuaries). Resource evaluations should occur initially to provide information about the status of those resources, and continued evaluation is required to provide trends data. Additional natural resource evaluation is required before, during and immediately following changes in land use, and remediation or restoration. Afterwards, additional monitoring and evaluations are required to evaluate the effects of the land use change or the efficacy of remediation/restoration. There are a wide range of economic methods available to evaluate natural resources, but the methods chosen depend upon the nature of the resource being evaluated, the purpose of the evaluation, and the needs of the agencies, natural resource trustees, public officials, and the public. We discuss the uses, and the advantages and disadvantages of different evaluation methods for natural resources. PMID

  20. Nutrient Attenuation Under Natural Conditions in Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage ditches are common practice in agricultural landscapes with poorly drained soils. Even though high concentrations of nutrients and other agricultural chemicals have been reportedly associated with agricultural drainage ditches, processes affecting nutrient transport in these ditches are not...

  1. Mud Bugs: Supply, Demand, and Natural Resources in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Louisiana's land, coast, and inland waterways are home to many natural resources such as seafood, petroleum, natural gas, and timber--and freshwater crawfish, or "mudbugs" as the locals like to call them. These natural resources are vital to Louisiana's economy. The author describes a unit of study on economics in which a teacher taught and…

  2. Poaching risks in community-based natural resource management.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Jessica S; Roloff, Gary J; Gore, Meredith L

    2013-02-01

    Poaching can disrupt wildlife-management efforts in community-based natural resource management systems. Monitoring, estimating, and acquiring data on poaching is difficult. We used local-stakeholder knowledge and poaching records to rank and map the risk of poaching incidents in 2 areas where natural resources are managed by community members in Caprivi, Namibia. We mapped local stakeholder perceptions of the risk of poaching, risk of wildlife damage to livelihoods, and wildlife distribution and compared these maps with spatially explicit records of poaching events. Recorded poaching events and stakeholder perceptions of where poaching occurred were not spatially correlated. However, the locations of documented poaching events were spatially correlated with areas that stakeholders perceived wildlife as a threat to their livelihoods. This result suggests poaching occurred in response to wildlife damage occurred. Local stakeholders thought that wildlife populations were at high risk of being poached and that poaching occurred where there was abundant wildlife. These findings suggest stakeholders were concerned about wildlife resources in their community and indicate a need for integrated and continued monitoring of poaching activities and further interventions at the wildlife-agricultural interface. Involving stakeholders in the assessment of poaching risks promotes their participation in local conservation efforts, a central tenet of community-based management. We considered stakeholders poaching informants, rather than suspects, and our technique was spatially explicit. Different strategies to reduce poaching are likely needed in different areas. For example, interventions that reduce human-wildlife conflict may be required in residential areas, and increased and targeted patrolling may be required in more remote areas. Stakeholder-generated maps of human-wildlife interactions may be a valuable enforcement and intervention support tool. PMID:23163302

  3. Educator's Guide to Program Development in Natural Resources: Program Development Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Jon; Maine, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Distinguishes between natural resource programs and natural resource projects and provides a project planning outline. Addresses critical elements and concerns in the development of natural resource programs. (DDR)

  4. The Nature of Effective Human Resource Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Don, Daniel; Kleiner, Brian H.

    1991-01-01

    The general structure of the human resource planning function in organizations and the responsibilities at each level of management are discussed. A framework for constructing and implementing a human resource planning system is outlined, and several approaches for human resource forecasting are examined. (MSE)

  5. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  6. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  7. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  8. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  9. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  10. Optimal stochastic control in natural resource management: Framework and examples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    1982-01-01

    A framework is presented for the application of optimal control methods to natural resource problems. An expression of the optimal control problem appropriate for renewable natural resources is given and its application to Markovian systems is presented in some detail. Three general approaches are outlined for determining optimal control of infinite time horizon systems and three examples from the natural resource literature are used for illustration.

  11. Classification systems for natural resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleckner, Richard L.

    1981-01-01

    Resource managers employ various types of resource classification systems in their management activities such as inventory, mapping, and data analysis. Classification is the ordering or arranging of objects into groups or sets on the basis of their relationships, and as such, provide the resource managers with a structure for organizing their needed information. In addition of conforming to certain logical principles, resource classifications should be flexible, widely applicable to a variety of environmental conditions, and useable with minimal training. The process of classification may be approached from the bottom up (aggregation) or the top down (subdivision) or a combination of both, depending on the purpose of the classification. Most resource classification systems in use today focus on a single resource and are used for a single, limited purpose. However, resource managers now must employ the concept of multiple use in their management activities. What they need is an integrated, ecologically based approach to resource classification which would fulfill multiple-use mandates. In an effort to achieve resource-data compatibility and data sharing among Federal agencies, and interagency agreement has been signed by five Federal agencies to coordinate and cooperate in the area of resource classification and inventory.

  12. Natural resources as an area of the law

    SciTech Connect

    Getches, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Increased commercial activity and legislative intervention have focused greater attention on the legal issues surrounding the discovery, development, regulation, use, and protection of natural resources. Anyone who wants to use or affect natural resources faces regulatory challenges. Non-profit organizations have forced the government to be more responsible, but have also increased the legal activity in technically complex areas. Law schools are responding by moving natural resources from specialty courses to a respected part of the curriculum. Several law foundations are promoting legal scholarship in the field with symposia which examine, interpret, and criticize natural resources law. 54 references. (DCK)

  13. Climatic, biological, and strategic effects of nuclear war. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment of the Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, September 12, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A panel of experts, including Carl Sagan, Jay Gould, and Edward Teller, testified along with climate and atmospheric science experts from the Soviet Union on the long-term effects of a nuclear war. The scientists warned that such an event could repeat the biological and climatic disruption that ended the age of dinosaurs 65 million years ago. The purpose of the hearing was to inform committee members about the nature and outcome of a nuclear winter. The scientists also described international research programs designed to ascertain these long-term effects. They pointed out that, while the effects of a single explosion are well known, little is known of overlapping effects from multiple explosions. Two appendices with additional material submitted for the record and additional questions and answers follows the testimony.

  14. Supervised Occupational Experience Record Book for Agricultural Resource Conservation, Environmental Management and Forestry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickles, Tom

    The record book was designed to meet the occupational experience recordkeeping requirements of vocational agriculture students enrolled in forestry, environmental management, or agriculture resource conservation programs in Ohio. It provides guidelines and forms for recording on-the-job, in-the-school lab, and occupational experience project data.…

  15. Labor Resources in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Four Corners Agricultural and Development Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    One of five reports developed to summarize research efforts conducted as part of an Agricultural-Forestry Development Project, this report presents the results of an inventory of human resources used in the agricultural and forestry industries in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Explored are such aspects of labor as: (1) employment…

  16. EX SITU PRESERVATION OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US National Plant Germplasm System, (NPGS) a group within the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, is comprised of over 20 field stations spread throughout the US and is responsible for the preservation and distribution of genetic resources important for ...

  17. Agricultural Safety and Health: A Resource Guide. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 40. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joy, Comp.

    This guide lists resource materials that address agricultural occupational injuries and diseases and their prevention. Many of the entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agricultural Library and include journal articles, books, government reports, training materials, and audiovisual materials. The first section…

  18. A Survey of Human Resource Management and Qualification Levels in Hungarian Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berde, Csaba; Piros, Marta

    2006-01-01

    The question of quality and value of human resources have been at the forefront of Hungarian agriculture for the past few years. The decreasing number of agricultural employees in Hungary in the last decade (1990-2000) is a result of the crisis caused by the change of the socio-economic system rather than economic and technological development.…

  19. Exploring Resource Sharing between Secondary School Teachers of Agriculture and Science Departments Nationally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dormody, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 372 secondary agriculture teachers received 274 responses showing a majority of agriculture and science departments share resources, although at low levels. Many more predicted future sharing. Equipment and supplies were most often shared, instructional services least often. (SK)

  20. Quantifying Total and Sustainable Agricultural Biomass Resources in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of biomass is considered the next major advance in biorenewable fuels, energy, and products. Wholesale conversion to biomass utilization could result in removal of current crop residues from agricultural fields or even implementation of different crops and cropping strategies (i.e., swit...

  1. Spatially balanced survey designs for natural resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological resource monitoring programs typically require the use of a probability survey design to select locations or entities to be physically sampled in the field. The ecological resource of interest, the target population, occurs over a spatial domain and the sample selecte...

  2. Natural resource management activities at the Savannah River Site. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) reviews the environmental consequences of ongoing natural resource management activities on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Appendix A contains the Natural Resources Management Plant (NRMP). While several SRS organizations have primary responsibilities for different elements of the plan, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) is responsible for most elements. Of the river scenarios defined in 1985, the High-Intensity Management alternative established the upper bound of environmental consequences; it represents a more intense level of resource management than that being performed under current resource management activities. This alternative established compliance mechanisms for several natural resource-related requirements and maximum practical timber harvesting. Similarly, the Low-Intensity Management alternative established the lower bound of environmental consequences and represents a less intense level of resource management than that being performed under current resource management activities. This alternative also established compliance mechanisms, but defined a passively managed natural area. The Proposed Action of this EA describes the current level of multiple-natural resource management. This EA reviews the proposed action, and the high and low intensity alternative scenarios.

  3. Technical assessment of synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from agriculture residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guohui; Feng, Fei; Xiao, Jun; Shen, Laihong

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents thermodynamic evaluations of the agriculture residual-to-SNG process by thermochemical conversion, which mainly consists of the interconnected fluidized beds, hot gas cleaning, fluidized bed methanation reactor and Selexol absorption unit. The process was modeled using Aspen Plus software. The process performances, i.e., CH4 content in SNG, higher heating value and yield of SNG, exergy efficiencies with and without heat recovery, unit power consumption, were evaluated firstly. The results indicate that when the other parameters remain unchanged, the steam-to-biomass ratio at carbon boundary point is the optimal value for the process. Improving the preheating temperatures of air and gasifying agent is beneficial for the SNG yield and exergy efficiencies. Due to the effects of CO2 removal efficiency, there are two optimization objectives for the SNG production process: (I) to maximize CH4 content in SNG, or (II) to maximize SNG yield. Further, the comparison among different feedstocks indicates that the decreasing order of SNG yield is: corn stalk > wheat straw > rice straw. The evaluation on the potential of agriculture-based SNG shows that the potential annual production of agriculture residual-based SNG could be between 555×108 ˜ 611×108 m3 with utilization of 100% of the available unexplored resources. The agriculture residual-based SNG could play a significant role on solving the big shortfall of China's natural gas supply in future.

  4. Natural resource workshop: Public/private partnership for sustainable use of natural resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    As part of an effort to shape Federal policy for environmentally sound, sustainable economic development, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy sponsored a workshop in Boise, Idaho on February 1--2, 1995. The Boise Idaho workshop focused on the sustainable use of natural resources, a topic of considerable interest in Idaho. The workshop gave representatives from industry, academia, research, the public, and local and state government an opportunity to provide input to lawmakers and policymakers for establishing a National Environmental Technology Strategy to be issued by Earth Day, 1995.

  5. 75 FR 8917 - Notice of a Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of a Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of a meeting..., Natural Resources Conservation Service, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Room 6165 South...

  6. Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Strand, Michael R; Snyder, William E

    2010-07-01

    Human activity can degrade ecosystem function by reducing species number (richness) and by skewing the relative abundance of species (evenness). Conservation efforts often focus on restoring or maintaining species number, reflecting the well-known impacts of richness on many ecological processes. In contrast, the ecological effects of disrupted evenness have received far less attention, and developing strategies for restoring evenness remains a conceptual challenge. In farmlands, agricultural pest-management practices often lead to altered food web structure and communities dominated by a few common species, which together contribute to pest outbreaks. Here we show that organic farming methods mitigate this ecological damage by promoting evenness among natural enemies. In field enclosures, very even communities of predator and pathogen biological control agents, typical of organic farms, exerted the strongest pest control and yielded the largest plants. In contrast, pest densities were high and plant biomass was low when enemy evenness was disrupted, as is typical under conventional management. Our results were independent of the numerically dominant predator or pathogen species, and so resulted from evenness itself. Moreover, evenness effects among natural enemy groups were independent and complementary. Our results strengthen the argument that rejuvenation of ecosystem function requires restoration of species evenness, rather than just richness. Organic farming potentially offers a means of returning functional evenness to ecosystems. PMID:20596021

  7. Making Meaning and Using Natural Resources: Education and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stables, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A natural resource is not given, but depends on human knowledge for its exploitation. Thus a "unit of resource" is, to a significant degree, a "unit of meaning", and education is potentially important not only for the use of resources but also for their creation. The paper draws on poststructuralism to confirm the intuition that it would be…

  8. Natural resource response guide: Marine mammals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Natural Resource Response Guides were developed for use by responders to oil and hazardous materials spills to determine the seasonal presence and activities of potential resources at risk and then to evaluate the probability and types of expected impacts to these resources. The set includes guides for Marine Fish, Marine Birds, Marine Mammals, and Marine Shellfish.

  9. Will Natural Resources Professionals Volunteer to Teach Youth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sanford S.; Finley, James C.; San Julian, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    A unique approach to volunteer marketing research involved a mail survey with natural resources professionals from across Pennsylvania. Previous work identified this group as a source of potential volunteers for the 4-H youth natural resources program. The results give insights into those most likely to volunteer to teach youth through 4-H…

  10. Using STELLA Simulation Models to Teach Natural Resource Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissanayake, Sahan T. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how graphical simulation models created using STELLA software can be used to present natural resource systems in an intuitive way in undergraduate natural resource economics classes based on his experiences at a leading research university, a state university, and a leading liberal arts college in the United…

  11. Barriers and Perceptions of Natural Resource Careers by Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Nia A.; Jacobson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Using a framework based on social cognitive career theory, we conducted 38 interviews and four focus groups with college students to identify motivations and barriers faced by underrepresented groups to natural resource careers. Interviews revealed career satisfaction as the most important goal for both natural resource and a comparison of liberal…

  12. The Carbon Cycle: Teaching Youth about Natural Resource Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The carbon cycle was used as a conceptual construct for organizing the curriculum for a youth summer camp on natural resource use and sustainability. Several studies have indicated the importance of non-traditional youth education settings for science education and understanding responsible natural resource use. The Sixth Grade Forestry Tour, a…

  13. 43 CFR 423.29 - Natural and cultural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or part thereof except with proper authorization under 43 CFR part 429. (e) You must not walk on... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Natural and cultural resources. 423.29... of Conduct § 423.29 Natural and cultural resources. (a) You must not destroy, injure, deface,...

  14. 43 CFR 423.29 - Natural and cultural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or part thereof except with proper authorization under 43 CFR part 429. (e) You must not walk on... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Natural and cultural resources. 423.29... of Conduct § 423.29 Natural and cultural resources. (a) You must not destroy, injure, deface,...

  15. Texas Natural Resources Information System. File Description Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interagency Council on Natural Resources and the Environment, Austin, TX. Texas Natural Resources Information System.

    Descriptions are given for the 164 computerized files that comprise the Texas Natural Resources Information System (TNRIS). The system provides natural resources information to federal, state, regional, and local and private entities. File descriptions are organized under the following data and information content areas: (1) base data, (2)…

  16. Natural Resources: There Is a Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    You'll gain plenty of weather resources from this month's issue (temperature concepts, weather instruments, the water cycle/evaporation). You can use that information with these outdoor seasonal connections.

  17. Interpretation of Cultural and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Douglas M.; Cable, Ted T.; Beck, Larry

    This postsecondary-level textbook prepares the student for a career in interpretation, defined as the translation of historic, cultural, or natural phenomena to increase audience understanding and enjoyment. The mission of interpretation consists of developing an informed and experienced citizenry in our natural and cultural heritage. The term…

  18. Enriching the Description of Learning Resources on Disaster Risk Reduction in the Agricultural Domain: An Ontological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschocke, Thomas; Villagrán de León, Juan Carlos; Beniest, Jan

    The collection, compilation and dissemination of relevant information and knowledge about the risk of natural disasters is a critical element in the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 for disaster risk reduction. Knowledge, innovation and education are needed not only to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels, but also to mainstream disaster risk reduction especially in weather and climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture. Describing learning resources about these topics with semantic metadata enhances their availability and further facilitates the search and retrieval process by using richer annotations based on ontologies. This paper reports about ongoing work concerning the creation of a domain ontology based on AGROVOC as well as the UN/ISDR and related terminology on disaster risk reduction for the description of associated learning resources in the agricultural domain.

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation Physical Characteristics and Natural Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, P.D.; Hughes, J.F.

    2006-09-19

    The topography, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions (Fig. 1). The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR. The ORR, encompassing 33,114 acres (13,401 ha) of federally owned land and three Department of Energy (DOE) installations, is located in Roane and Anderson Counties in east Tennessee, mostly within the corporate limits of the city of Oak Ridge and southwest of the population center of Oak Ridge. The ORR is bordered on the north and east by the population center of the city of Oak Ridge and on the south and west by the Clinch River/Melton Hill Lake impoundment. All areas of the ORR are relatively pristine when compared with the surrounding region, especially in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province (Fig. 2). From the air, the ORR is clearly a large and nearly continuous island of forest within a landscape that is fragmented by urban development and agriculture. Satellite imagery from 2006 was used to develop a land-use/land-cover cover map of the ORR and surrounding lands (Fig. 3). Following the acquisition of the land comprising the ORR in the early 1940s, much of the Reservation served as a buffer for the three primary facilities: the X-10 nuclear research facility (now known as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL]), the first uranium enrichment facility or Y-12 (now known as the Y-12 National Security Complex [Y-12 Complex]), and a gaseous diffusion enrichment facility (now known as the East Tennessee Technology Park [ETTP]). Over the past 60 years, this relatively undisturbed area has evolved into a rich and diverse eastern deciduous forest ecosystem of streams and reservoirs, hardwood forests, and extensive upland mixed forests. The combination of a large land area with complex physical characteristics

  20. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security.

    PubMed

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-04-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant's growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  1. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China’s food security

    PubMed Central

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant’s growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  2. Climate change impacts utilizing regional models for agriculture, hydrology and natural ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, M.; Asrar, G. R.; El-Askary, H. M.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Medvigy, D.; Prasad, A. K.; Smith, E.; Stack, D. H.; Tremback, C.; Walko, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change impacts the entire Earth but with crucial and often catastrophic impacts at local and regional levels. Extreme phenomena such as fires, dust storms, droughts and other natural hazards present immediate risks and challenges. Such phenomena will become more extreme as climate change and anthropogenic activities accelerate in the future. We describe a major project funded by NIFA (Grant # 2011-67004-30224), under the joint NSF-DOE-USDA Earth System Models (EaSM) program, to investigate the impacts of climate variability and change on the agricultural and natural (i.e. rangeland) ecosystems in the Southwest USA using a combination of historical and present observations together with climate, and ecosystem models, both in hind-cast and forecast modes. The applicability of the methodology to other regions is relevant (for similar geographic regions as well as other parts of the world with different agriculture and ecosystems) and should advance the state of knowledge for regional impacts of climate change. A combination of multi-model global climate projections from the decadal predictability simulations, to downscale dynamically these projections using three regional climate models, combined with remote sensing MODIS and other data, in order to obtain high-resolution climate data that can be used with hydrological and ecosystem models for impacts analysis, is described in this presentation. Such analysis is needed to assess the future risks and potential impacts of projected changes on these natural and managed ecosystems. The results from our analysis can be used by scientists to assist extended communities to determine agricultural coping strategies, and is, therefore, of interest to wide communities of stakeholders. In future work we will be including surface hydrologic modeling and water resources, extend modeling to higher resolutions and include significantly more crops and geographical regions with different weather and climate conditions

  3. Water resource management for sustainable agriculture in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Rajan; Kaushal, Mohinder; Kaur, Samanpreet; Farmaha, Bhupinder

    2009-01-01

    The state of Punjab comprising 1.5% area of the country has been contributing 40-50% rice and 60-65% wheat to the central pool since last three decades. During last 35 years The area under foodgrains has increased from 39,200 sq km ha to 63,400 sq km and the production of rice and wheat has increased from 0.18 to 0.32 kg/m2 and 0.22 to 0.43 kg/m2 respectively. This change in cropping pattern has increased irrigation water requirement tremendously and the irrigated area has increased from 71 to 95% in the state. Also the number of tube wells has increased from 0.192 to 1.165 million in the last 35 years. The excessive indiscriminate exploitation of ground water has created a declining water table situation in the state. The problem is most critical in central Punjab. The average rate of decline over the last few years has been 55 cm per year. The worst affected districts are Moga, Sangrur, Nawanshahar, Ludhiana and Jalandhar. This has resulted in extra power consumption, affects the socio-economic conditions of the small farmers, destroy the ecological balance and adversely affect the sustainable agricultural production and economy of the state. Therefore, in this paper attempt has been made to analyse the problem of declining water table, possible factors responsible for this and suggest suitable strategies for arresting declining water table for sustainable agriculture in Punjab. The strategies include shift of cropping pattern, delay in paddy transplantation, precision irrigation and rainwater harvesting for artificial groundwater recharge. PMID:19934512

  4. Functional Classification of Natural Resources for Valuing Natural Resources in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H.; Lee, W.; Kwak, H.

    2013-12-01

    The ecosystem services concept emphasizes not only regulating services, but also supporting, provisioning, and cultural/social services according to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA). While the spatial and quantifying of ecosystem services is becoming increasingly recognized for natural resources conservation, however, due to methodological challenges, ecosystem services quantification is rarely considered in Republic of Korea (ROK). This study matches appropriate indicators, data and mapping for describing respective states, quantification and ecosystem valuation. The results were analyzed with statistical and GIS-based techniques. We classified the ecosystem services function based on reference to the literature, interviews and a modified approach compared to the MA, the Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB). For quantifying values, we subdivided land cover types using ecological features and normalized numerical information of provisioning services, regulating services and cultural services. Resulting hotspots of ecosystem services are related to landscape features and land cover types in ROK. The mapping results show hotspots of ecosystem services where high level of ecosystem services is distributed - around Baekdudaegan protected area (Gangwon, Gyeongbuk Province, Chungbuk, Jeonam Province). n addition, the results of our study show that ecosystem services function - especially, fostering water resources, erosion control, air quality and pollution control in terrestrial ecosystems - can contribute to planning management policy for ecosystem based management at regional scale.

  5. Markov decision processes in natural resources management: Observability and uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The breadth and complexity of stochastic decision processes in natural resources presents a challenge to analysts who need to understand and use these approaches. The objective of this paper is to describe a class of decision processes that are germane to natural resources conservation and management, namely Markov decision processes, and to discuss applications and computing algorithms under different conditions of observability and uncertainty. A number of important similarities are developed in the framing and evaluation of different decision processes, which can be useful in their applications in natural resources management. The challenges attendant to partial observability are highlighted, and possible approaches for dealing with it are discussed.

  6. Markov decision processes in natural resources management: observability and uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.

    2015-01-01

    The breadth and complexity of stochastic decision processes in natural resources presents a challenge to analysts who need to understand and use these approaches. The objective of this paper is to describe a class of decision processes that are germane to natural resources conservation and management, namely Markov decision processes, and to discuss applications and computing algorithms under different conditions of observability and uncertainty. A number of important similarities are developed in the framing and evaluation of different decision processes, which can be useful in their applications in natural resources management. The challenges attendant to partial observability are highlighted, and possible approaches for dealing with it are discussed.

  7. Temporal dynamics influenced by global change: bee community phenology in urban, agricultural, and natural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Leong, Misha; Ponisio, Lauren C; Kremen, Claire; Thorp, Robbin W; Roderick, George K

    2016-03-01

    Urbanization and agricultural intensification of landscapes are important drivers of global change, which in turn have direct impacts on local ecological communities leading to shifts in species distributions and interactions. Here, we illustrate how human-altered landscapes, with novel ornamental and crop plant communities, result not only in changes to local community diversity of floral-dependent species, but also in shifts in seasonal abundance of bee pollinators. Three years of data on the spatio-temporal distributions of 91 bee species show that seasonal patterns of abundance and species richness in human-altered landscapes varied significantly less compared to natural habitats in which floral resources are relatively scarce in the dry summer months. These findings demonstrate that anthropogenic environmental changes in urban and agricultural systems, here mediated through changes in plant resources and water inputs, can alter the temporal dynamics of pollinators that depend on them. Changes in phenology of interactions can be an important, though frequently overlooked, mechanism of global change. PMID:26663622

  8. Harvesting and replenishment policies for renewable natural resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The current paper links the optimal intertemporal use of renewable natural resources to the harvesting activities of various economic agents. Previous contributions cite market forces as a causative factor inducing the extirpation of renewable natural resources. The analysis given here discusses investment in the stock of renewable resources and cites important examples of this activity. By introducing joint harvesting and replenishment strategies into a model of renewable resource use, the analysis adds descriptive reality and relevance to positive and normative discussions of renewable natural resource use. A high price for the yield or a high discount rate tend to diminish the size of the optimum stationary stock of the resource with a non-replenishment harvesting strategy. Optimal non-replenishment harvesting strategies for renewable natural resources will exhaustion or extirpation of the resource if the price of the yield or the discount rate are sufficiently large. However, the availability of a replenishment technology and the use of replenishment activities tends to buffer the resource against exhaustion or extirpation.

  9. 2006 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Agricultural and Natural Resources Technology. (Program CIP: 01.0003 - Agricultural and Natural Resources)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Aaron; Chaney, David; Cole, Ted; Sumrall, Billy; White, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  10. Global warming, population growth, and natural resources for food production.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, D

    1991-01-01

    Destruction of forests and the considerable burning of fossil fuels is directly causing the level of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases including methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere to rise. Population growth in the US and the world indirectly contributes to this global warming. This has led the majority of scientists interested in weather and climate to predict that the planet's temperature will increase from 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. These forecasted climactic changes will most likely strongly affect crop production. Specifically these scientists expect the potential changes in temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide, and pests to decrease food production in North America. The degree of changes hinges on each crop and its environmental needs. If farmers begin using improved agricultural technology, the fall in crop yields can be somewhat counterbalanced. Even without global warming, however, agriculture in North America must embrace sensible ecological resource management practices such as conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. These sustainable agricultural practices would serve agriculture, farmers, the environment, and society. Agriculturalists, farmers, and society are already interested in sustainable agriculture. Still scientists must conduct more research on the multiple effects of potential global climate change on many different crops under various environmental conditions and on new technologies that farmers might use in agricultural production. We must cut down our consumption of fossil fuel, reduce deforestation, erase poverty, and protect our soil, water, and biological resources. The most important action we need to take, however, is to check population growth. PMID:12344889

  11. Conventional natural gas resource potential, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.

    2004-01-01

    An estimate of total natural gas resource potential of northern Alaska can be obtained by summing known gas reserves in oil and gas fields (35 TCF), mean estimates of undiscovered nonassociated (61 TCF) and associated (12 TCF) gas resources in NPRA, and mean estimates of undiscovered nonassociated (4 TCF) and associated (5 TCF) gas resources in the 1002 area of ANWR; this yields a total of 117 TCF. When estimates of undiscovered gas resources for non-Federal lands are released in 2005, that total will increase by a non-trivial amount. Thus, the conventional natural gas resource potential of onshore and State offshore areas totals well over 100 TCF. The inclusion of the MMS mean estimate (96 TCF) for undiscovered gas resources in the Beaufort and Chukchi planning areas of the Federal offshore extends that total above 200 TCF.

  12. Refocusing Natural Resource Management: A Multidisciplinary Road to Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkson, Jim; Harrison, Autumn-Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Examines a capstone class at Virginia Tech that focuses on the role science and scientists play in the process of natural resource management. Connects such curricula with the development of scientific literacy. (Contains 36 references.) (DDR)

  13. 75 FR 77821 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative... agreements with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) through either the Agricultural Water... Agricultural Water Enhancement Program Legislative Authority The Agricultural Water Enhancement Program...

  14. Agricultural area impacts within a natural area: Cades cove, a case history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratton, Susan Power; Mathews, Raymond C.; White, Peter S.

    1980-09-01

    Agricultural management in Cades Cove, an historic district in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, has affected natural resources both within the district and in the adjoining natural areas. Aquatic impacts of haying and cattle grazing included increases in water temperatures, turbidity, nutrient loading, and bacterial counts and decreases in benthic macroinvertebrate density and fish biomass. Wildlife populations, including groundhogs, wild turkeys, and white-tailed deer, have increased in the open fields and around the periphery of the historic district. Intensive deer foraging has removed deciduous seedlings and saplings from woodlots, lowering species diversity and favoring coniferous reproduction. Cades Cove has limestone habitats unique in the park, and both deer browse and cattle grazing may have disturbed populations of rare plant species. Effects on water quality are detectable at a campground 15 stream km from the agricultural area, and the effects of deer foraging extend about 1 km beyond the open fields. Since “historic landscape” preservation is presently a goal of the park, managing for open vistas in Cades Cove will require some sort of continuing disturbance. Conversion of cattle pastures to hayfields would reduce aquatic impacts but the deer herd might increase as a result of reduced competition for forage. Retarding old field succession would increase populations of native plant species dependent on sunlight, but would require government-funded mowing. Other options are discussed. Completely eliminating the effects of the historic district on adjoining areas may be impossible, at least under present economic constraints.

  15. [Association study between water quality of Chaohu Lake and resources input in agriculture of basin].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Hong

    2012-09-01

    In order to discuss the association between the water quality of Chaohu Lake and the resources input in agriculture of the basin, factors that may affect the lake eutrophication are chosen, such as surplus fertilizer, irrigated area with saved water, agricultural films, water and soil loss control and so on. The methods of correlation analysis and stepwise regression are used. Furthermore, a new method, combined with the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method, calculating the surplus fertilizer is designed. The results indicate that among various resources input in agriculture of the basin the surplus fertilizer, irrigated area with saved water and agricultural films have a great influence on Chaohu Lake eutrophication. And one year's lag phase between the water quality of Chaohu Lake and the surplus fertilizer is confirmed. Therefore, it is necessary to raise the utilization efficiency of fertilizer, to improve the irrigation way and to decrease the agricultural water consumption in order to conserve resources and to reduce the influence of agricultural production on the water quality of Chaohu Lake. PMID:23243852

  16. Natural resources management in an era of global change

    SciTech Connect

    Sommers, W.T.

    1993-12-31

    The international science community has issued a series of predictions of global atmospheric change that, if they verify, will have heretofore unexperienced impact on our forests. Convincing the public and their natural resource managers to respond to these effects must be high on the agenda of the science community. Mitigative and adapative responses we examine and propose, however, should stem from an understanding of the evolving role of the natural resource manager and how that role might be affected by global change.

  17. Involving Students in Natural Resource Decision-Making Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Peter; Ellsworth, Judith

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Coordinated Resource Management (CRM) in the Classroom project, in which Wyoming high school students work on an authentic natural resource problem, using a decision-making process based on consensus to reach agreement on solutions to the problem. Notes implementation issues of professional development and support, and considers…

  18. VALUATION OF NATURAL RESOURCE IMPROVEMENTS IN THE ADIRONDACKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The benefits of improving natural resources in the Adirondacks are estimated to be between $336 million and $1.1 billion per year (2003$), according to a new study by Resources for the Future. The five-year study, supported by an EPA grant, estimates New Yorkers willingness-to-...

  19. Outdoor Education Manual for the Nature-Resource Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Elizabeth; Green, Richard

    Written as a guide for outdoor education, this teacher's manual outlines the use of the nature-resource center in Nashville, Tennessee, as a resource for curriculum enrichment. The first part of the manual provides general information for basic understanding of the center. Included in this part of the manual are an introduction to the center,…

  20. The state of human dimensions capacity for natural resource management: needs, knowledge, and resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Leong, Kirsten M.; Milley, Brad J.; Clarke, Melinda M.; Teel, Tara L.; Chase, Mark A.; Dietsch, Alia M.

    2013-01-01

    The social sciences have become increasingly important in understanding natural resource management contexts and audiences, and are essential in design and delivery of effective and durable management strategies. Yet many agencies and organizations do not have the necessary resource management. We draw on the textbook definition of HD: how and why people value natural resources, what benefits people seek and derive from those resources, and how people affect and are affected by those resources and their management (Decker, Brown, and Seimer 2001). Clearly articulating how HD information can be used and integrated into natural resource management planning and decision-making is an important challenge faced by the HD field. To address this challenge, we formed a collaborative team to explore the issue of HD capacity-building for natural resource organizations and to advance the HD field. We define HD capacity as activities, efforts, and resources that enhance the ability of HD researchers and practitioners and natural managers and decision-makers to understand and address the social aspects of conservation. Specifically, we sought to examine current barriers to integration of HD into natural resource management, knowledge needed to improve HD capacity, and existing HD tools, resources, and training opportunities. We conducted a needs assessment of HD experts and practitioners, developed a framework for considering HD activities that can contribute both directly and indirectly throughout any phase of an adaptive management cycle, and held a workshop to review preliminary findings and gather additional input through breakout group discussions. This paper provides highlights from our collaborative initiative to help frame and inform future HD capacity-building efforts and natural resource organizations and also provides a list of existing human dimensions tools and resources.

  1. Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Irrigated Agriculture in the Central Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, J.; Young, C. A.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural productivity is strongly dependent on the availability of water, necessitating accurate projections of water resources, the allocation of water resources across competing sectors, and the effects of insufficient water resources on crops to assess the impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity. To explore the interface of water and agriculture in California's Central Valley, the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model was coupled to the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) water resources model, deployed over the region, and run using both historical and future climate scenarios. This coupling brings water supply constraints to DSSAT and sophisticated agricultural water use, management, and diagnostics to WEAP. A 30-year simulation of WEAP-DSSAT forced using a spatially interpolated observational dataset was run from 1980-2009. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Surface Resistance and Evapotranspiration (MOD16) and Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) data were used to evaluate WEAP-DSSAT evapotranspiration calculations. Overall WEAP-DSSAT reasonably captures the seasonal cycle of observed evapotranspiration, but some catchments contain significant biases. Future climate scenarios were constructed by adjusting the spatially interpolated observational dataset with North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program differences between future (2050-2069) and historical (1980-1999) regional climate model simulations of precipitation and temperature. Generally, within the Central Valley temperatures warm by approximately 2°C, precipitation remains constant, and crop water use efficiency increases. The overall impacts of future climate on irrigated agricultural yields varies across the Central Valley and is highly dependent on crop, water resources demand assumptions, and agricultural management.

  2. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Yearbook (IUCN) 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    Presented is the annual report of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) for the year 1972. This organization, founded in 1948, aims at maintaining and enhancing the diversity of the biosphere by promoting rational management of the earth's resources. The union is dedicated to maintaining the highest…

  3. Human/Nature Discourse in Environmental Science Education Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    It is argued that the view of nature and the relationship between human beings and nature that each of us holds impacts our decisions, actions, and notions of environmental responsibility and consciousness. In this study, I investigate the discursive patterns of selected environmental science classroom resources produced by three disparate…

  4. On Teaching the Nature of Science: Perspectives and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radloff, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I present a critical review of the recent book, "On Teaching the Nature of Science: Perspectives and Resources," written by Douglas Allchin (2013). This publication presents an in-depth examination of the nature of science construct, as well as instruction for educators about how to teach it effectively utilizing…

  5. Group decision-making techniques for natural resource management applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coughlan, Beth A.K.; Armour, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    This report is an introduction to decision analysis and problem-solving techniques for professionals in natural resource management. Although these managers are often called upon to make complex decisions, their training in the natural sciences seldom provides exposure to the decision-making tools developed in management science. Our purpose is to being to fill this gap. We present a general analysis of the pitfalls of group problem solving, and suggestions for improved interactions followed by the specific techniques. Selected techniques are illustrated. The material is easy to understand and apply without previous training or excessive study and is applicable to natural resource management issues.

  6. Natural resources accounting: A tool for water resources management in Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambira, Wame L.

    Natural Resource Accounting (NRA) has become an important environmental/natural resources management tool in recent years. It provides information on stocks of a resource available at a particular point in time and what activities the resource is being used for. The conventional System of National Income Accounts (SNA) normally does not capture the cost of depletion, degradation or pollution of natural resources. This encourages unsustainable use of natural resources since the costs are not reflected when assessing the country’s economic performance or development progress. NRA is thus an attempt to integrate environmental issues into the conventional national accounts. The water sector is one sector that could greatly benefit from this natural resource management tool. Botswana has adopted NRA as a natural resource management tool and has so far developed accounts for minerals, livestock and water. The focus of this paper is on Water Accounting (WA) in relation to Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). IWRM is concerned with coordinated development and management of water in order to maximise economic and social welfare without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. WA helps fill data gaps since it provides the required information for IWRM to be achieved. The aim of this paper therefore is to evaluate the Water Accounts of Botswana Report of 2006 to determine the extent to which it can contribute to integrated water resources management. The paper is based on literature review and the results show that: the available water stocks vary depending on rainfall patterns, well fields are over utilised, there has been growth in consumption, and more than 80% of the waste water produced is not being put to use. These results calls for changes in policies, role of institutions and practices pertaining to water resources management which is what IWRM is all about hence the paper concludes that indeed WA can contribute to the realisation of IWRM.

  7. Tourism's Impacts on Natural Resources: A Positive Case from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Chunyan; Xue, Qifu

    2006-10-01

    Tourism development may result in negative impacts on natural resources owing to overuse and mismanagement. However, tourism may also play positive roles in natural resource conservation, which has rarely been verified in practice, although some researchers have demonstrated this in theory. In this article, taking the Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve as a case study area, we conducted an analysis for the environmental impacts from tourism development based on social survey and interpretation of remote sensing images. The results show that the natural environment was not degraded and some indicators are even improving because all the residents have participated in tourism and given up farming and hunting. It is concluded that it is possible to use tourism as a way to balance natural resource conservation and economic development under the preconditions of making effective policies to encourage and help local people participate in tourism business and to benefit from it.

  8. PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGES AND THE RESOURCES THAT REQUIRE RESTORATION

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The public and health professionals are interested in restoring degraded ecosystem to provide goods and services. This study examined public perceptions in coastal New York and New Jersey about who is responsible for restoration of resources, which resources should be restored, by whom, and do they know the meaning of natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). More than 98% felt that resources should be restored; more (40%) thought the government should restore them, rather than the responsible party (23%). The highest rated resources were endangered wildlife, fish, mammals, and clams/crabs. Only 2% of respondents knew what NRDA meant. These data indicate that people felt strongly that resources should be restored and varied in who should restore them, suggesting that governmental agencies must clarify the relationship between chemical discharges, resource injury, NRDA, and restoration of those resources to produce clean air and water, fish and wildlife, and recreational opportunities. PMID:20711934

  9. Water Resources and Agricultural Water Use in the North China Plain: Current Status and Management Options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serious water deficits with deteriorating environmental quality are threatening agricultural sustainability in the North China Plain (NCP). This paper addresses spatial and temporal availability of water resources in the NCP, and identifies the effects of soil management, irrigation and crop genetic...

  10. A Study to Determine Competencies Needed in Selected Job Titles in Agricultural Resources Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Douglas D.; And Others

    The report is a composite, compilation, and analysis of data collected from selected job titles (soil conservation technician, civil engineering technician, dairy herd improvement supervisor, and lay food inspector) in agricultural resources occupations. The study was conducted to obtain a comprehensive analysis of the occupations and the…

  11. The Common Market Concept: Using Community Based Resources in New Ways to Deliver Innovative Agriculture Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Jim; Fischer, Larry

    The cooperative agricultural programs described in this report were undertaken by John Wood Community College (JWCC) as part of a "common market" instructional delivery system, which utilizes existing community resources through contractual agreements with area schools, businesses, and government agencies. The report first provides a rationale for…

  12. Kids, Crops, & Critters in the Classroom: An Agricultural Literacy Resource Guide for Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Farm Bureau, Bloomington.

    This resource guide provides teachers of grades K-3 with ideas and materials to integrate agricultural concepts into classroom activities. The guide is organized into six categories: math, science, language arts, social studies, fine arts, and health/nutrition/safety. Each of the categories contains 10 lessons organized in the following topic…

  13. Kids, Crops, & Critters in the Classroom: An Agricultural Literacy Resource Guide for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Farm Bureau, Bloomington.

    This resource guide provides teachers of grades 4-6 with ideas and materials to integrate agricultural concepts into classroom activities. The guide is organized into six categories: math, science, language arts, social studies, fine arts, and health/nutrition/safety. Each category contains 10 lessons organized in the following topic order:…

  14. Food and Environment. A Teachers' Resource Guide to California Valley Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Railton, Esther, Comp.

    Presented is a compilation of teaching resources prepared by teachers enrolled in a graduate-level environmental education course at California State University, Hayward. The emphasis of these materials is upon agriculture and related environmental practices in California's San Joaquin Valley. Following a description of course logistics are six…

  15. Agricultural injuries in Central India: nature, magnitude, and economic impact.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, P S; Gite, L P; Dubey, A K; Kot, L S

    2002-02-01

    A study was carried out in Madhya Pradesh (Central India) to collect data on injury-causing agricultural incidents during the period 1995-1999. The overall incidence rate was 1.25/1000 workers/year. About 9.2% of the incidents were fatal, and most of the fatal incidents were due to tractors and snakebites (42.9% each). About 77.6% of all incidents were due to farm machinery, 11.8% were due to hand tools, and the remaining 10.6% were due to other sources like snakes, wells, etc. Data on 1,911 incidents reported in 10 leading newspapers published during the five-year period (1995-1999) from different regions of the state were also collected and analyzed, which indicated that only major or roadside agricultural incidents were reported in newspapers. Based on the survey data, it was estimated that in the year 2000 there would have been about 17,480 agricultural incidents in Madhya Pradesh, causing death to about 2,050 workers and injuries to about 16,770 workers, including amputations of limbs, burns, cuts, etc. Total monetary loss due to agricultural injuries in the state of Madhya Pradesh has been estimated as US $27 million/year. PMID:12002378

  16. Utilizing Natural Cognitive Tendencies to Enhance Agricultural Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Alexa J.; Rhodes, Emily B.; Irani, Tracy A.; Roberts, T. Grady; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel

    2011-01-01

    The influences of cognitive styles have been the focus of research on problems in education for quite some time (Witkin, Moore, Goodenough, & Cox, 1977). In fact, agricultural educators are rapidly increasing the amount of research and education focused on understanding and utilizing cognitive function in an attempt to improve educational…

  17. UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS RESOURCES: AN OVERVIEW COVERING THE RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers natural gas from the following unconventional sources: western tight sands, Devonian shale, coal deposits, geopressured aquifers, and landfills. This report covers the resource base, potential production levels, and associated environmental aspects. Over the pa...

  18. Natural Resource Management at Four Social Scales: Psychological Type Matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Helen; Hobbs, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Understanding organisation at different social scales is crucial to learning how social processes play a role in sustainable natural resource management. Research has neglected the potential role that individual personality plays in decision making in natural resource management. In the past two decades natural resource management across rural Australia has increasingly come under the direct influence of voluntary participatory groups, such as Catchment Management Authorities. The greater complexity of relationships among all stakeholders is a serious management challenge when attempting to align their differing aspirations and values at four social institutional scales—local, regional, state and national. This is an exploratory study on the psychological composition of groups of stakeholders at the four social scales in natural resource management in Australia. This article uses the theory of temperaments and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®) to investigate the distribution of personality types. The distribution of personality types in decision-making roles in natural resource management was markedly different from the Australian Archive sample. Trends in personality were found across social scales with Stabilizer temperament more common at the local scale and Theorist temperament more common at the national scale. Greater similarity was found at the state and national scales. Two temperaments comprised between 76 and 90% of participants at the local and regional scales, the common temperament type was Stabilizer. The dissimilarity was Improviser (40%) at the local scale and Theorist (29%) at the regional scale. Implications for increasing participation and bridging the gap between community and government are discussed.

  19. 77 FR 25499 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Natural Resource Damages Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Natural Resource Damages Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental... Interior's Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration Fund, which can be used to restore... as reimbursement of the Department of the Interior's remaining unpaid past natural resource...

  20. Natural Resources. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile. Forest Industry Worker. Resource Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This competency analysis profile lists 155 competencies that have been identified by employers as core competencies for inclusion in programs to train forest industry and resource conservation workers. The core competencies are organized into 10 units dealing the following: general safety precautions, natural resource industry operations, soil…

  1. Stable isotope and groundwater flow dynamics of agricultural irrigation recharge into groundwater resources of the Central Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M.L.; Criss, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Intensive agricultural irrigation and overdraft of groundwater in the Central Valley of California profoundly affect the regional quality and availability of shallow groundwater resources. In the natural state, the {delta}{sup 18}O values of groundwater were relatively homogeneous (mostly -7.0 {+-} 0.5{per_thousand}), reflecting local meteoric recharge that slowly (1-3m/yr) flowed toward the valley axis. Today, on the west side of the valley, the isotope distribution is dominated by high {sup 18}O enclosures formed by recharge of evaporated irrigation waters, while the east side has bands of low {sup 18}O groundwater indicating induced recharge from rivers draining the Sierra Nevada mountains. Changes in {delta}{sup 18}O values caused by the agricultural recharge strongly correlate with elevated nitrate concentrations (5 to >100 mg/L) that form pervasive, non-point source pollutants. Small, west-side cities dependent solely on groundwater resources have experienced increases of >1.0 mg/L per year of nitrate for 10-30 years. The resultant high nitrates threaten the economical use of the groundwater for domestic purposes, and have forced some well shut-downs. Furthermore, since >80% of modern recharge is now derived from agricultural irrigation, and because modern recharge rates are {approximately}10 times those of the natural state, agricultural land retirement by urbanization will severely curtail the current safe-yields and promote overdraft pumping. Such overdrafting has occurred in the Sacramento metropolitan area for {approximately}40 years, creating cones of depression {approximately}25m deep. Today, groundwater withdrawal in Sacramento is approximately matched by infiltration of low {sup 18}O water (-11.0{per_thousand}) away from the Sacramento and American Rivers, which is estimated to occur at 100-300m/year from the sharp {sup 18}O gradients in our groundwater isotope map.

  2. Agroforestry Practices Promote Biodiversity and Natural Resource Diversity in Atlantic Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Seeta A; Roddy, Adam B; Williams, Nicholas E; Kramer, Daniel B; Stevens, Kara; Allison, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forest conversion to pasture, which drives greenhouse gas emissions, soil degradation, and biodiversity loss, remains a pressing socio-ecological challenge. This problem has spurred increased interest in the potential of small-scale agroforestry systems to couple sustainable agriculture with biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. In addition to providing natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems have the potential to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. Yet, the nature of these relationships remains equivocal. To better understand how different land use strategies impact ecosystem services, we characterized the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity), and soil quality within pasture, agroforests, and secondary forests, three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region's first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast, pasture reduced

  3. Exploitation, conservation, preservation: A geographic perspective on natural resource use

    SciTech Connect

    Cutter, S.L.; Renwick, H.L.; Renwick, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    The authors of this college textbook deliberately chose the title words ''exploitation,'' ''conservation,'' and ''preservation'' to clearly illustrate that people may have very different views of natural resources. The authors state that they have attempted to include a wide range of opinions and interpretations of natural resource issues, and they have achieved this goal remarkable well. Part one (five chapters) examines the economic, ecological, political, and other factors involved in making decisions about resource use. Part two (ten chapters) consists of relatively traditional coverage of the various resources. Part three has a chapter on various models of the future that were prepared by various individuals and organizations. Then there is an epilogue in which each author views the future.

  4. [Plea for a spatialization of demographic growth. Geographic distribution of the population and management of natural resources in the Sahel].

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, D

    1994-05-01

    The Sahel is characterized by low productivity and unequal distribution of the population and of natural resources. Demographic growth is accompanied by a spatial unequal redistribution of the population, essentially caused by migratory movements. Geographic distribution of the population still follows that of natural resources, especially water which determines agricultural activities. Researchers must remember different spatial levels in the analysis for the interventions most effective on the ground. One fundamental question that is still avoided is: In what Sahelian towns will the 43 million citizens still be living in 2020? Another question is: What pattern of rural supplying of people will there be for the future? Research between natural resource needs of a growing population (3.1%/year) and the need for better management of these resources assumes great importance for sustainable development in the Sahel. Actions aiming to intensify agricultural production and preservation of natural resources are more and more reaffirmed by those tending to reduce the demand in these resources thanks to the control of demographic growth in the Sahel. But the reach of these actions will remain limited so long as they will not be trimmed to different spatial scales. Natural resources are unequally distributed to the Sahel. On the strictly demographic plan, the geographic distribution of the population and its evolution linked to the migratory fluxes constitute some variable keys that one will not know how to continue to escape in the construction of true sustainable development in the Sahel. PMID:12288132

  5. Natural Resource Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    green, T.

    2011-08-15

    This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. This update to the 2003 plan continues to build on successes and efforts to better understand the ecosystems and natural resources found on the BNL site. The plan establishes the basis for managing the varied natural resources located on the 5,265 acre BNL site, setting goals and actions to achieve those goals. The planning of this document is based on the knowledge and expertise gained over the past 10 years by the Natural Resources management staff at BNL in concert with local natural resource agencies including the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Long Island Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission, The Nature Conservancy, and others. The development of this plan is an attempt at sound ecological management that not only benefits BNL's ecosystems but also benefits the greater Pine Barrens habitats in which BNL is situated. This plan applies equally to the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve). Any difference in management between the larger BNL area and the Upton Reserve are noted in the text. The purpose of the Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) is to provide management guidance, promote stewardship of the natural resources found at BNL, and to sustainably integrate their protection with pursuit of the Laboratory's mission. The philosophy or guiding principles of the NRMP are stewardship, sustainability, adaptive ecosystem management, compliance, integration with other plans and requirements, and the incorporation of community involvement, where applicable. The NRMP is periodically reviewed and updated, typically every five years. This review and update was delayed to develop documents associated with a new third party facility, the Long Island Solar Farm. This two hundred acre facility will result in

  6. 30 CFR 1201.100 - Responsibilities of the Director for Office of Natural Resources Revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Natural Resources Revenue. 1201.100 Section 1201.100 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE GENERAL Oil and Gas, Onshore § 1201.100 Responsibilities of the Director for Office of Natural Resources Revenue. The Director is responsible for...

  7. 30 CFR 1201.100 - Responsibilities of the Director for Office of Natural Resources Revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Natural Resources Revenue. 1201.100 Section 1201.100 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE GENERAL Oil and Gas, Onshore § 1201.100 Responsibilities of the Director for Office of Natural Resources Revenue. The Director is responsible for...

  8. 30 CFR 1201.100 - Responsibilities of the Director for Office of Natural Resources Revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Natural Resources Revenue. 1201.100 Section 1201.100 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE GENERAL Oil and Gas, Onshore § 1201.100 Responsibilities of the Director for Office of Natural Resources Revenue. The Director is responsible for...

  9. Assessment finds more natural gas resources but less oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    The latest report on undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources outside the United States estimates that there are more undiscovered and technically recoverable natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs) but less oil than had previously been thought. The 18 April report, issued by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of its World Petroleum Resource Project, estimates that there are 5606 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, compared with 4669 trillion cubic feet in the previous assessment, in 2000, and 167 billion barrels of NGLs compared with an earlier 207 billion barrels. The assessment also estimates that there are 565 billion barrels of oil compared with an earlier 649 billion. About 75% of those resources outside the United States are located in four regions: South America and the Caribbean, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, and the Arctic provinces portion of North America, according to the new assessment.

  10. Implementation of the natural resource damage assessment rule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    Regulations have been promulgated by the Department of Interior (DOI) which provide an administrative process whereby natural resource trustees may establish the type and extent of injury and evaluate the damages to natural resources. These regulations provide an optional mechanism for Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDAs), with four major components. A workshop was held to develop recommendations for DOE-OR regarding implementation of the DOI NRDA regulations at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The attendants were divided into three working groups to consider (1) administrative/legal requirements, (2) ecological assessments, and (3) the NRDA/economic evaluation process. This report supplies an overview of the DOI NRDA regulations as well as summaries of the consensus of each of the three working groups.

  11. Natural Resource Damages Settlement Projects at the Fernald Preserve - 12316

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Jane; Schneider, Tom; Hertel, Bill; Homer, John

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of two ecological restoration projects at the Fernald Preserve that are funded through a CERCLA natural resource damage settlement. The Paddys Run Tributary Project involves creation of vernal pool wetland habitat with adjacent forest restoration. The Triangle Area Project is a mesic tall-grass prairie establishment, similar to other efforts at the Fernald Preserve. The goal of the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees is to establish habitat for Ambystomatid salamander species, as well as grassland birds. Planning and implementation of on-property ecological restoration projects is one component of compensation for natural resource injury. As with the rest of the Fernald Preserve, ecological restoration has helped turn a DOE liability into a community asset. (authors)

  12. Threshold concepts: implications for the management of natural resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Gross, John

    2014-01-01

    Threshold concepts can have broad relevance in natural resource management. However, the concept of ecological thresholds has not been widely incorporated or adopted in management goals. This largely stems from the uncertainty revolving around threshold levels and the post hoc analyses that have generally been used to identify them. Natural resource managers have a need for new tools and approaches that will help them assess the existence and detection of conditions that demand management actions. Recognition of additional threshold concepts include: utility thresholds (which are based on human values about ecological systems) and decision thresholds (which reflect management objectives and values and include ecological knowledge about a system) as well as ecological thresholds. All of these concepts provide a framework for considering the use of threshold concepts in natural resource decision making.

  13. Workshops for Developing Competency of Instructors in New and Expanding Areas of Curriculum in Agribusiness and Natural Resources. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Board for Vocational Education, Jackson.

    During the summer of 1973, two workshops were held to increase the competency of agriculture teachers in Mississippi in new and emerging areas of agribusiness and natural resources. One workshop focused on planning programs in the new areas of the pesticide industry, agribusiness economics, agribusiness management, environmental protection, rural…

  14. Introducing Participatory Curriculum Development in China's Higher Education: The Case of Community-Based Natural Resource Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubo, Qi; Xiuli, Xu; Ting, Zuo; Xiaoyun, Li; Keke, Chen; Xiaowei, Gao; Miao, Ji; Lin, Liu; Miankui, Mao; Jingsong, Li; Yiching, Song; Zhipu, Long; Min, Lu; Juanwen, Yuan; Vernooy, Ronnie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and reflects on a novel course developed at China Agricultural University to introduce Community-Based Natural Resource Management at the postgraduate level. This course, part of a larger educational renewal initiative addressing the current reform of China's higher education system, was developed through a participatory…

  15. NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    SciTech Connect

    GREEN,T.ET AL.

    2003-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is located near the geographic center of Long Island, New York. The Laboratory is situated on 5,265 acres of land composed of Pine Barrens habitat with a central area developed for Laboratory work. In the mid-1990s BNL began developing a wildlife management program. This program was guided by the Wildlife Management Plan (WMP), which was reviewed and approved by various state and federal agencies in September 1999. The WMP primarily addressed concerns with the protection of New York State threatened, endangered, or species of concern, as well as deer populations, invasive species management, and the revegetation of the area surrounding the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The WMP provided a strong and sound basis for wildlife management and established a basis for forward motion and the development of this document, the Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP), which will guide the natural resource management program for BNL. The body of this plan establishes the management goals and actions necessary for managing the natural resources at BNL. The appendices provide specific management requirements for threatened and endangered amphibians and fish (Appendices A and B respectively), lists of actions in tabular format (Appendix C), and regulatory drivers for the Natural Resource Program (Appendix D). The purpose of the Natural Resource Management Plan is to provide management guidance, promote stewardship of the natural resources found at BNL, and to integrate their protection with pursuit of the Laboratory's mission. The philosophy or guiding principles of the NRMP are stewardship, adaptive ecosystem management, compliance, integration with other plans and requirements, and incorporation of community involvement, where applicable.

  16. Value of information and natural resources decision-making

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    Though the potential for information to measurably improve management has been highlighted for several decades, in recent years the “value of information” has surfaced with increasing frequency in natural resources. However, the use of this phrase belies the fact that many in natural resources have only a limited understanding about what it actually means, how to measure it, and what to do with it. We introduce and describe several forms of the value of information in a context of the management of renewable natural resources. The value of information is discussed in terms of a potential gain in value with the addition of new information, as well as a loss in value associated with the absence of information. Value metrics are developed for uncertainty about resource status as well as resource processes and responses to management. We provide a common notation for the metrics of value, and discuss linkages of the value of information to strategic approaches such as adaptive resources management and partially observable decision processes.

  17. Agriculture and resource availability in a changing world: The role of irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Timm; HavlíK, Petr; Schneider, Uwe A.; Schmid, Erwin; Kindermann, Georg; Obersteiner, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Fertile land and freshwater constitute two of the most fundamental resources for food production. These resources are affected by environmental, political, economic, and technical developments. Regional impacts may transmit to the world through increased trade. With a global forest and agricultural sector model, we quantify the impacts of increased demand for food due to population growth and economic development on potential land and water use until 2030. In particular, we investigate producer adaptation regarding crop and irrigation choice, agricultural market adjustments, and changes in the values of land and water. In the context of resource sustainability and food security, this study accounts for the spatial and operational heterogeneity of irrigation management to globally assess agricultural land and water use. Agricultural responses to population and economic growth include considerable increases in irrigated area and water use but reductions in the average water intensity. Different irrigation systems are preferred under different exogenous biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Negligence of these adaptations would bias the burden of development on land and water scarcity. Without technical progress, substantial price adjustments for land, water, and food would be required to equilibrate supply and demand.

  18. Natural resource valuation: A primer on concepts and techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-07-01

    Natural resource valuation has always had a fundamental role in the practice of cost-benefit analysis of health, safety, and environmental issues. Today, this role is becoming all the more apparent in the conduct of natural resource damage assessments (NRDA) and cost-benefit analyses of environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) activities. As such, environmental professionals are more interested in how natural resource values are affected by ER and WM activities. This professional interest extends to the use of NRDA values as measures of liability and legal causes of action under such environmental status as the Clean Water Act (CWA); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, as amended); and the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990. Also, environmental professionals are paying closer attention to NRDA values in cost-benefit analyses of risk and pollution-abatement standards, and in meeting environmental and safety standards - for achievable (ALARA). This handbook reviews natural resource valuation techniques that may be applied to resources at DOE sites within the foregoing contexts.

  19. Resolving disputes over science in natural resource agency decisionmaking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruell, Emily; Burkardt, Nina; Clark, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    Natural resource agencies make decisions involving public resources in which the public, by definition, have a stake. These resources are often finite. Thus, different viewpoints, interests, or beliefs may conflict when parties are perceived to be interdependent or one party is perceived to block or oppose other parties' use of a scarce resource. These confl icts may occur regard less of whether there are any real differences between the parties or whether one party's actions actually affect the other (Thomas 1992; Robbins 1994; Appelbaum et al. 1999). Conflicts are defined here as "a process of social interaction involving a struggle over claims to resources, power and status, beliefs, and other preferences and desires" (Appelbaum et al. 1999, 63). Such conflicts can occur at multiple stages or levels of decisionmaking and can be embedded within other conflicts.

  20. Connecticut Vocational Agriculture Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational Services.

    Designed for use in the Connecticut Regional Vocational Agriculture Centers, this curriculum provides exploratory and specialization units for four major areas of agriculture. These are Agriculture Mechanics, Animal Science, Natural Resources, and Plant Science. The exploratory units are required for grades 9 and 10, while the specialization units…

  1. Lessons from the natural resources damage assessment workshop, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.K.; Burgess, C.

    1994-12-31

    The report provides an updated summary of the law, regulations and practice of natural resource damage assessment. The original source of much of this material was a set of presentations by W. Michael Hanemann, K. E. McConnell and V. Kerry Smith at N.C. State University as part of a program organized by J. E. Easley Jr. to highlight emerging resource issues of interest to state policy-makers. It was part of the Resource and Environmental Economics Program`s activities. In this overview, their comments have been supplemented by materials taken from papers written by each author. This summary draws with attribution from other published and unpublished materials.

  2. [Status and future of natural resource for Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-jing; Guo, Juan; Tang, Jin-fu; Ma, Xiao-hui; Ma, Ying; Dai, Zhu-bo; Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-05-01

    For thousands of years, the natural resource for Chinese materiamedica has been the foundation of the traditional Chinese medicine industry, which provides abundant medicine for human. In recent years, increasing demands and irrational exploitation led to a lot of problems such as rapid decrease of traditional Chinese herbs reserves, low quality of medicine and dismishing traditional cultures. These restricted the development of the traditional Chinese medicine. To solve these problems, scientists have done much work on investigating traditional Chinese medicine resources, exploring the metabolic pathway of bioactive ingredients, cultivating new varieties, and carrying out synthetic biology. These studies provided a theoretical basis for sustainable utilizationand future developmentof traditional Chinese medicine resources. PMID:26390642

  3. Comparison of natural resource issues on tropical pacific ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helweg, D.A.; Jacobi, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    The natural resources issues on tropical Pacific ranges are compared. If active management plan is in place, FWS may exempt those spp. from critical Habitat Prevention and control or invasive species essential. Wetlands are low-hanging fruit for restoration, but birds present mgmt. challenge. Marine sites may offer less potential for precise mgmt. of natural resources than terrestrial sites such as, lack of knowledge, observational limits, ecosystem complexity, mobile biota. It has been suggested that the tremendus public interest in helping with conservation activities - volunteer opportunities may offset staffing shortfalls.

  4. Natural resources policy and law: Trends and directions

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonnell, L.J.; Bates, S.F.

    1993-11-01

    The book explores past, present, and future directions in natural resource environmental law and policy, with a special emphasis on new laws and important legal cases of the past decade and their implications for the future. Its ten chapters, each written by a leading expert in the field, consider both specific concerns and broad themes, including topics such as history and evolution of natural resources law and policy, laws governing mining and minerals, oil and gas, and public lands, and relationship between environmentalism and environmental law, and future directions of the field.

  5. Do Cows Belong in Nature? The Cultural Basis of Agriculture in Sweden and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Katarina; Head, Lesley; Stenseke, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Within the now extensive recent literature on cultures of nature, agriculture has received less attention than might have been expected given its threshold role in transforming human relations with the earth and with plants and animals. The concept and practice of agriculture can be understood as central to the emergence and maintenance of the…

  6. Conservation planning in agricultural landscapes: hotspots of conflict between agriculture and nature

    PubMed Central

    Shackelford, Gorm E; Steward, Peter R; German, Richard N; Sait, Steven M; Benton, Tim G

    2015-01-01

    Aim Conservation conflict takes place where food production imposes a cost on wildlife conservation and vice versa. Where does conservation impose the maximum cost on production, by opposing the intensification and expansion of farmland? Where does conservation confer the maximum benefit on wildlife, by buffering and connecting protected areas with a habitable and permeable matrix of crop and non-crop habitat? Our aim was to map the costs and benefits of conservation versus production and thus to propose a conceptual framework for systematic conservation planning in agricultural landscapes. Location World-wide. Methods To quantify these costs and benefits, we used a geographic information system to sample the cropland of the world and map the proportion of non-crop habitat surrounding the cropland, the number of threatened vertebrates with potential to live in or move through the matrix and the yield gap of the cropland. We defined the potential for different types of conservation conflict in terms of interactions between habitat and yield (potential for expansion, intensification, both or neither). We used spatial scan statistics to find ‘hotspots’ of conservation conflict. Results All of the ‘hottest’ hotspots of conservation conflict were in sub-Saharan Africa, which could have impacts on sustainable intensification in this region. Main conclusions Systematic conservation planning could and should be used to identify hotspots of conservation conflict in agricultural landscapes, at multiple scales. The debate between ‘land sharing’ (extensive agriculture that is wildlife friendly) and ‘land sparing’ (intensive agriculture that is less wildlife friendly but also less extensive) could be resolved if sharing and sparing were used as different types of tool for resolving different types of conservation conflict (buffering and connecting protected areas by maintaining matrix quality, in different types of matrix). Therefore, both sharing and sparing

  7. Natural Resource Extraction, Armed Violence, and Environmental Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Liam; Bonds, Eric; Clark, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this article is to demonstrate that environmental sociologists cannot fully explain the relationship between humans and the natural world without theorizing a link between natural resource extraction, armed violence, and environmental degradation. The authors begin by arguing that armed violence is one of several overlapping mechanisms that provide powerful actors with the means to (a) prevail over others in conflicts over natural resources and (b) ensure that natural resources critical to industrial production and state power continue to be extracted and sold in sufficient quantities to promote capital accumulation, state power, and ecological unequal exchange. The authors then identify 10 minerals that are critical to the functioning of the U.S. economy and/or military and demonstrate that the extraction of these minerals often involves the use of armed violence. They further demonstrate that armed violence is associated with the activities of the world’s three largest mining companies, with African mines that receive World Bank funding, and with petroleum and rainforest timber extraction. The authors conclude that the natural resource base on which industrial societies stand is constructed in large part through the use and threatened use of armed violence. As a result, armed violence plays a critical role in fostering environmental degradation and ecological unequal exchange. PMID:21909231

  8. Fuelwood, agro-forestry, and natural resource management: the development significance of land tenure and other resource management/utilization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brokensha, D.; Castro, A.P.; Kundu, M.; Hewlett, B.

    1984-04-01

    Using a systems approach and focusing on the social context, the study examines natural resource management in relation to fuelwood production and agroforestry. An initial section describing the use and interlinkage of the concepts of ecozone and ecosystem is followed by a discussion of problem ecozones, human use of ecozones, agricultural ecosystems, resource competition, uses of trees and forest products, and tree planting. Rural resource management strategies at the household, community, local, and state levels are discussed in the context of political economy, land tenure and rights, tenancy and sharecropping, group or public landholding, and acquisition and transfer of land.

  9. Coupled planning of water resources and agricultural landuse based on an inexact-stochastic programming model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Cong; Huang, Guohe; Tan, Qian; Cai, Yanpeng

    2014-03-01

    Water resources are fundamental for support of regional development. Effective planning can facilitate sustainable management of water resources to balance socioeconomic development and water conservation. In this research, coupled planning of water resources and agricultural land use was undertaken through the development of an inexact-stochastic programming approach. Such an inexact modeling approach was the integration of interval linear programming and chance-constraint programming methods. It was employed to successfully tackle uncertainty in the form of interval numbers and probabilistic distributions existing in water resource systems. Then it was applied to a typical regional water resource system for demonstrating its applicability and validity through generating efficient system solutions. Based on the process of modeling formulation and result analysis, the developed model could be used for helping identify optimal water resource utilization patterns and the corresponding agricultural land-use schemes in three sub-regions. Furthermore, a number of decision alternatives were generated under multiple water-supply conditions, which could help decision makers identify desired management policies.

  10. A decomposition approach for optimal management of groundwater resources and irrigated agriculture in arid coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Schütze, Niels; Heck, Vera

    2013-04-01

    For ensuring an optimal sustainable water resources management in arid coastal environments, we develop a new simulation based integrated water management system. It aims at achieving best possible solutions for groundwater withdrawals for agricultural and municipal water use including saline water management together with a substantial increase of the water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture. To achieve a robust and fast operation of the management system, it unites process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques for managing both, water quality and water quantity of a strongly coupled groundwater-agriculture system. However, such systems are characterized by a large number of decision variables if abstraction schemes, cropping patterns and cultivated acreages are optimised simultaneously for multiple years. Therefore, we apply the principle of decomposition to separate the original large optimisation problem into smaller, independent optimisation problems which finally allow for a faster and more reliable solution. At first, within an inner optimisation loop, cropping patterns and cultivated acreages are optimised to achieve a most profitable agricultural production for a given amount of water. Thereby, the behaviour of farms is described by crop-water-production functions which can be derived analytically. Secondly, within an outer optimisation loop, a simulation based optimisation is performed to find optimal groundwater abstraction pattern by coupling an evolutionary optimisation algorithm with an artificial neural network for modelling the aquifer response, inclusive the seawater interface. We demonstrate the decomposition approach by an exemplary application of the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. We show the effectiveness of our methodology for the evaluation

  11. Multi-objective optimisation for a sustainable groundwater resources and agricultural management in arid coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Heck, Vera; Schütze, Niels

    2014-05-01

    The scarcity of freshwater in coastal arid regions, coupled with an ongoing population growth, makes optimal water management crucial. Excessive use of groundwater for irrigation in agriculture puts those regions at risk of saltwater intrusion which limits the agricultural opportunities. To solve these problems, a simulation based integrated water management system has been developed to ensure a long-term profitable and sustainable water resources and agricultural management. Within the system, a groundwater module, assessing the water resources availability, and an agricultural module, controlling irrigation and cultivation, are connected in an optimisation module, optimising the water management. To reduce the computational complexity of the optimisation procedure, surrogate models are applied which describe the behaviour of the groundwater and agriculture process models regarding the most relevant variables for management. Furthermore, the optimisation problem is decomposed into a two-step optimisation. An analytical inner optimisation estimates irrigation practices and crop patterns, while an outer evolutionary optimisation algorithm determines the overall water abstraction scenarios, based on results of the inner optimisation. By these two features, consequent surrogate model application and decomposition of optimisation, the computational complexity of the optimisation problem is reduced considerably, allowing the consideration of specific regional and temporal aspects in the management tool. The methodology is demonstrated by an exemplary application of the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. Due to contradicting objectives like profit-oriented agriculture vs. aquifer sustainability, multi-objective optimisation is performed. Optimisation runs for different simulation periods and management strategies show that a

  12. Local participation in natural resource monitoring: a characterization of approaches.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Finn; Burgess, Neil D; Balmford, Andrew; Donald, Paul F; Funder, Mikkel; Jones, Julia P G; Alviola, Philip; Balete, Danilo S; Blomley, Tom; Brashares, Justin; Child, Brian; Enghoff, Martin; Fjeldså, Jon; Holt, Sune; Hübertz, Hanne; Jensen, Arne E; Jensen, Per M; Massao, John; Mendoza, Marlynn M; Ngaga, Yonika; Poulsen, Michael K; Rueda, Ricardo; Sam, Moses; Skielboe, Thomas; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Topp-Jørgensen, Elmer; Yonten, Deki

    2009-02-01

    The monitoring of trends in the status of species or habitats is routine in developed countries, where it is funded by the state or large nongovernmental organizations and often involves large numbers of skilled amateur volunteers. Far less monitoring of natural resources takes place in developing countries, where state agencies have small budgets, there are fewer skilled professionals or amateurs, and socioeconomic conditions prevent development of a culture of volunteerism. The resulting lack of knowledge about trends in species and habitats presents a serious challenge for detecting, understanding, and reversing declines in natural resource values. International environmental agreements require signatories undertake systematic monitoring of their natural resources, but no system exists to guide the development and expansion of monitoring schemes. To help develop such a protocol, we suggest a typology of monitoring categories, defined by their degree of local participation, ranging from no local involvement with monitoring undertaken by professional researchers to an entirely local effort with monitoring undertaken by local people. We assessed the strengths and weaknesses of each monitoring category and the potential of each to be sustainable in developed or developing countries. Locally based monitoring is particularly relevant in developing countries, where it can lead to rapid decisions to solve the key threats affecting natural resources, can empower local communities to better manage their resources, and can refine sustainable-use strategies to improve local livelihoods. Nevertheless, we recognize that the accuracy and precision of the monitoring undertaken by local communities in different situations needs further study and field protocols need to be further developed to get the best from the unrealized potential of this approach. A challenge to conservation biologists is to identify and establish the monitoring system most relevant to a particular

  13. Psychosocial resources, aging, and natural killer cell terminal maturity.

    PubMed

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Al-Attar, Ahmad; Lutz, Charles T

    2012-12-01

    Psychosocial factors may influence aspects of immunological aging. The present study tested the hypothesis that psychosocial resources correlate with the expression of the cell surface maker CD57 on natural killer (NK) immune cells. CD57 is a marker of terminal maturation and senescence in this cell subset. The study further tested the relative contribution of specific resources in the social, psychological, financial, and status-skill domains, given the potential differential value of different resources for younger and older adults, and the contribution of relative versus absolute resources. Younger (n = 38) and older (n = 34) women completed measures of relative and absolute resources and had blood drawn. Examined both between groups and within the older women, older age and fewer total relative resources were associated with more CD57 expression on NK cells. One SD in resources was the equivalent of 5 years of aging among the older women. Among the specific resource types, a preponderance of financial resources, both relative and absolute, was associated with less CD57 expression on NK cells, and these relationships did not significantly vary between younger and older women. There was no evidence that depressive symptoms mediated the effects of resources on CD57 expression on NK cells. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that the sense that one has substantial resources, particularly with regard to finances and possessions, may retard age-associated aspects of the microenvironment in which NK cells develop and mature, independent of effects on distress, and this process may begin in younger adulthood. PMID:22708535

  14. Natural resource validation: A primer on concepts and techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-07-01

    Natural resource valuation has always had a fundamental role in the practice of cost-benefit analysis of health, safety, and environmental issues. The authors provide an objective overview of resource valuation techniques and describe their potential role in environmental restoration/waste management (ER/WM) activities at federal facilities. This handbook considers five general classes of valuation techniques: (1) market-based techniques, which rely on historical information on market prices and transactions to determine resource values; (2) nonmarket techniques that rely on indirect estimates of resource values; (3) nonmarket techniques that are based on direct estimates of resource values; (4) cross-cutting valuation techniques, which combine elements of one or more of these methods; and (5) ecological valuation techniques used in the emerging field of ecological economics. The various valuation techniques under consideration are described by highlighting their applicability in environmental management and regulation. The handbook also addresses key unresolved issues in the application of valuation techniques generally, including discounting future values, incorporating environmental equity concerns, and concerns over the uncertainties in the measurement of natural resource values and environmental risk.

  15. A Natural Resource Program: Its Benefits and Shortcomings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Using natural resources data from a system developed by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, an Extension program to educate public officials who make land use decisions was conducted in a series of workshops over three years. Program effectiveness is evaluated and positive and negative results are noted. (MF)

  16. Natural Resources. Environmental Education Instructional Unit. Final Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Science Education.

    This unit on natural resources is one in a series of three prepared for use in the classroom. An interdisciplinary approach encompassing mathematics, science, and social studies is utilized in these environmental units. This material is designed for middle grades and above. Many of the activities are open-ended with each activity in this unit…

  17. Natural Resource Information System. Volume I. Overall Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeing Computer Services, Inc., Seattle, WA.

    Recognizing the need for the development of a computer based information system which would handle remote sensing as well as conventional mapping data, the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Bureau of Land Management contracted with Boeing Computer Services for the design and construction of a prototype Natural Resource Information System. The…

  18. CEAP – A New Paradigm for Natural Resources Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropland CEAP (Conservation Effects Assessment Project) was initiated in 2003 to provide a scientific basis for a national assessment of conservation practices by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). This paper introduces a series of manuscripts that provide a comprehensive overview of...

  19. Microcomputer Programs for Agribusiness and Natural Resources Education. A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This bibliography describes 38 materials available for computer-assisted instruction in agribusiness and natural resources education. The materials are suitable for use by regular, disadvantaged, and handicapped students and by students whose facility in English is limited. Materials are useful for developing tests, testing, reviewing, and…

  20. Mineral Expert Discusses Global Scramble for Natural Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-11-01

    With the global population boom and more people growing into affluence, there is increasing demand, desire, and competition for minerals, said Vince Mathews during a talk about the global scramble for natural resources on 30 October at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in Denver, Colo.

  1. Report of the Action Committee on Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dils, R. E.; And Others

    This report deals primarily with education in the biological sciences as a part of the training of the natural resource specialist and secondarily with the mathematics and physical science aspects of his training. The first part of the report presents the rationale for the proposed program. The proposal calls for a two-year core program. The first…

  2. Helping Rural Communities Manage Growth and Protect Natural Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, C. Benjamin; Westa, Susan P.; Broderick, Stephen H.

    2007-01-01

    A learning needs assessment survey was conducted by the Green Valley Institute in the Quinebaug Shetucket National Heritage Corridor in Connecticut and Massachusetts. This survey was designed to assess educational interests, perceived knowledge, and importance relating to land use, community planning and design, and natural resources. Findings…

  3. Annotated selected references on natural resources investigations, Collier County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    A data base for future natural resources investigations in Collier County, Fla., was initiated by compiling a selected annotated bibliography. This report provides references and annotations for selected reports released between 1950 and 1978. The references are presented by subject material as follows: biologic, ecologic, geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic. (USGS)

  4. Environmental/Natural Resources Technologies. State Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershaw, Isaac; Mazak, Sara A.; Spence, Janet G.

    This document, which lists the environmental and natural resources technology competencies identified by representatives from businesses and industries as well as secondary and postsecondary educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from…

  5. Agribusiness and Natural Resource Education. [10 Curriculum Guides].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    The packet of 10 curriculum guides, intended to aid in planning and developing materials for the introduction of agribusiness and natural resource education, can be used in statewide educational programs. The guides are appropriate for all levels from elementary to vocational schools and community colleges, although emphasis is on the secondary…

  6. Agribusiness and Natural Resources Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Applied Tech., Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program course standards (curriculum frameworks and student performance standards) for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary and postsecondary level as part of the agribusiness and natural resources education component of Florida's…

  7. Natural resource damages: A legal, economic and policy overview

    SciTech Connect

    Connaughton, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Natural resource damages liability is a major development in environmental law. Government authorities are increasingly seeking damage claims for injury to natural resources, invoking the natural resource damages (NRD) provisions of the federal Superfund statute and the Oil Pollution Act. The number of Claims asserted is increasing, and the amounts sought range to hundreds of millions of dollars, with some claims exceeding $1 billion. Some assert that the federal NRD program is an awakening sleeping giant that could threaten to rival the Superfund cleanup program in cost and the potential for imposing far-reaching liabilities on a wide range of businesses as well as the federal government. Lawyers, economists, and other experts on NRD have become fully engaged in comprehensive analyses of the legal, economic and policy issues presented by NRD claims, including a full review of the NRD litigating record. Many critics find that existing NRD law and practice is flawed; produces excessive liability claims, skewed incentives and economic waste; and urgently needs reform. Changes have been recommended to improve the law and refocus the NRD program on achieving cost-effective restoration of injured natural resources. These analytical endeavors are especially timely because Congress is currently considering significant changes in NRD law. This overview will provide a brief background summary of the NRD program and highlight some of the central legal and scientific issues facing government policy makers and litigants in NRD cases.

  8. Natural Resources and Forest Ecology. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This program guide identifies primary considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a natural resources and forest ecology program. Program content is presented first. A curriculum framework specifies the exact course title, course number, levels of instruction, major course content, laboratory activities, special notes, major…

  9. Remote sensing of natural resources: Quarterly literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A quarterly review of technical literature concerning remote sensing techniques is presented. The format contains indexed and abstracted materials with emphasis on data gathering techniques performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft, or ground-based stations. Remote sensor applications including the remote sensing of natural resources are presented.

  10. Agribusiness & Natural Resources Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains agribusiness and natural resources education courses standards for 43 exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level in Florida. Each program courses standard is composed of two parts. The first part, the curriculum framework, includes four major…

  11. INSTITUTING A VOCATIONAL MAJOR IN NATURAL RESOURCES AT SHASTA COLLEGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROOKS, WALTER L.; DUBOSE, DAVID C.

    TWO FACTORS LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A TERMINAL PROGRAM TO PREPARE STUDENTS FOR EMPLOYMENT IN OCCUPATIONS RELATED TO THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES--(1) THE CONSISTENTLY LARGE NUMBERS OF STUDENTS WHO ENROLLED IN TRANSFER PROGRAMS IN THESE FIELDS BUT WHO DID NOT CONTINUE BEYOND THE JUNIOR COLLEGE, AND (2) THE LOCATION OF THE COLLEGE…

  12. Planning a Natural Resource Program for a Local Ag Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmot, Lee; Tulloch, Rodney

    1975-01-01

    On-the-job training with the U. S. Forest Service provides teachers in Kentucky with first hand knowledge of the competencies they will need to pass on to those of their students who are planning on natural resource, recreation, and forestry-related occupations. (SA)

  13. Online Astronomy Resources from the American Museum of Natural History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Robert

    2010-02-01

    The American Museum of Natural History, one of the world's largest natural history museums, is the locus of a rich array of scientific research, exhibition and educational resources through its Department of Astrophysics, its Rose Center for Earth and Space and its Hall of Meteorites. For the past decade, the Museum's National Center for Science Literacy, Education and Technology has leveraged these assets to create a panoply of web-based resources for students, teachers and the general public. This session will review several of these resources, including the Digital Universe (a three-dimensional mapping of the Universe); The Solar System (an online graduate course for K-12 teachers); multimedia highlighting searches for exoplanets and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays; Journey to the Stars (a DVD version of the current planetarium show); and the astronomy section of Ology (a website for children ages 7 and up). A copy of the Journey to the Stars DVD will be provided to all attendees. )

  14. Adaptive management of natural resources-framework and issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management, an approach for simultaneously managing and learning about natural resources, has been around for several decades. Interest in adaptive decision making has grown steadily over that time, and by now many in natural resources conservation claim that adaptive management is the approach they use in meeting their resource management responsibilities. Yet there remains considerable ambiguity about what adaptive management actually is, and how it is to be implemented by practitioners. The objective of this paper is to present a framework and conditions for adaptive decision making, and discuss some important challenges in its application. Adaptive management is described as a two-phase process of deliberative and iterative phases, which are implemented sequentially over the timeframe of an application. Key elements, processes, and issues in adaptive decision making are highlighted in terms of this framework. Special emphasis is given to the question of geographic scale, the difficulties presented by non-stationarity, and organizational challenges in implementing adaptive management. ?? 2010.

  15. Intensification through diversified resource use: the human ecology of a successful agricultural industry in Indonesian Borneo

    SciTech Connect

    Vondal, P.J.

    1987-03-01

    The success of an agricultural industry in commercial duck egg production in the swamplands of South Kalimantan (Borneo) is examined through the utilization of a human ecology framework. Seasonality of resource availability and human population growth are identified as two major constraints to production faced by farmers. Population increases in the urban sectors of southeastern Borneo also present economic opportunities for farmers because of the growing demand for poultry products. Farmers have responded by developing an intensification strategy in egg production based on the use of diversified resources for duck feed. The long-term consequences of these and other innovations in duck farming are discussed; and diversity-stability theory is examined for its applicability to this case of agricultural development and for rural development theory and practice.

  16. Evaluation of thematic mapper data for natural resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, R.H.; Waltz, F.A.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center evaluated the utility of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) date for natural resource assessment, emphasizing manual interpretation and digital classification of the data for U.S. Department of the Interior applications. Substantially more information was derived from TM data than from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data. Greater resolution of TM data aided in locating roads, small stock ponds, and many other land features that could be used as landmarks. The improved spatial resolution of TM data also permitted more efficient visual interpretations of land use, better identification of resource types, and improved assessment of ecological status of natural vegetation. TM data also provided a new source of spectral information that was useful for natural resource assessment. New mid-infrared spectral bands, TM band 5 and band 7, aided in distinguishing water resources, wetland vegetation resources, and other important terrain features. The added information was useful for both manual interpretation and digital data classification of vegetation resources and land features. Results from the analyses of both TM and TM simulator (TMS) spectral data suggest that the coefficient of variation for major land cover types is generally less for TM data than for MSS data taken from the same area. This reduction in variance should contribute to an improved multispectral analysis, contributing new information about vegetation in natural ecosystems. Although the amount of new information in TM bands 5 and 7 is mall, it is unique in that the same information cannot be derived from four-band Landsat MSS spectral data.

  17. Improving Agricultural Water Resources Management Using Ground-based Infrared Thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghvaeian, S.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the largest user of freshwater resources in arid/semi-arid parts of the world. Meeting rapidly growing demands in food, feed, fiber, and fuel while minimizing environmental pollution under a changing climate requires significant improvements in agricultural water management and irrigation scheduling. Although recent advances in remote sensing techniques and hydrological modeling has provided valuable information on agricultural water resources and their management, real improvements will only occur if farmers, the decision makers on the ground, are provided with simple, affordable, and practical tools to schedule irrigation events. This presentation reviews efforts in developing methods based on ground-based infrared thermometry and thermography for day-to-day management of irrigation systems. The results of research studies conducted in Colorado and Oklahoma show that ground-based remote sensing methods can be used effectively in quantifying water stress and consequently triggering irrigation events. Crop water use estimates based on stress indices have also showed to be in good agreement with estimates based on other methods (e.g. surface energy balance, root zone soil water balance, etc.). Major challenges toward the adoption of this approach by agricultural producers include the reduced accuracy under cloudy and humid conditions and its inability to forecast irrigation date, which is a critical knowledge since many irrigators need to decide about irrigations a few days in advance.

  18. Neolithic agriculture, freshwater resources and rapid environmental changes on the lower Yangtze, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jungan; Taylor, David; Atahan, Pia; Zhang, Xinrong; Wu, Guoxuan; Dodson, John; Zheng, Hongbo; Itzstein-Davey, Freea

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of sedimentary evidence in the form of spores, pollen, freshwater algae, dinoflagellate cysts, phytoliths and charcoal from AMS 14C-dated, Holocene-aged sequences provide an excellent opportunity to examine the responses of Neolithic agriculturalists in the lower Yangtze to changing environments. Evidence from two sites close to the southern margin of the Yangtze delta and separated by what is now Hangzhou Bay attests the critical importance to early attempts at food production of access to freshwater resources. More readily, if episodically, available freshwater resources during the early to mid-Holocene on the Hangjiahu plain may have encouraged an early reliance on rice-based agriculture, which in turn facilitated the accumulation of agricultural surpluses and cultural diversification. Cultural change was relatively attenuated and human population pressures possibly lower on the Ningshao plain, seemingly because of much more profound environmental impacts of variations in local hydrological conditions, and because predominantly saline conditions, associated with rising relative sea level, hampered the early development of irrigated agriculture. The evidence, although largely dating to the early and middle parts of the Holocene, provides a timely warning of the complexity of vulnerability to climate change-induced processes of agriculture, and indeed human activities more generally, on megadeltas in Asia.

  19. Scaling laws for the distribution of natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blenkinsop, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    If scaling laws can be established for the distribution of natural resources, they would have important economic consequences. For example, they can be used to estimate total resources, they can dictate exploration strategies, and they can also point to processes by which natural resources form. A scaling law for the spatial distribution of natural resources can be proposed as: M(r) ~ r-D where M(r) is the mass of resource within a circle of radius r. If the mass of individual occurrences of resources is unity, this law describes the Mass Dimension D of the resource, commonly analysed by the number-in-circle method. In this case D is simply interpreted as a measure of the clustering of the resource distribution. Space filling or random distributions have D = 2: lower values indicate a decrease in density with distance. If the mass of resource varies at each occurrence (as typical in nature), then M(r) ~ r-D is a general scaling law, with an exponent that is referred to here as the Mass-Radius scaling exponent. This exponent can have values greater than 2. Mass Dimensions and Mass-Radius scaling exponents have been determined in this study for Archean gold deposits in Zimbabwe, direct use of geothermal energy in Oregon, geothermal energy use in New Zealand and conventional and unconventional gas production in Pennsylvania. Mass Dimensions vary between 0.4 and 2, reflecting the variable clustering of the data sets. The highest values are from conventional gas production, while unconventional gas production and geothermal energy have lower values. In general Mass Dimensions and Mass-Radius scaling exponents are similar in any data sets. An interesting consequence is that an approximate value for the Mass-Radius scaling exponent can be given by the Mass Dimension. It is commonly hard to measure the Mass-Radius scaling exponent because accurate data for mass is difficult to obtain. The similarity of the two exponents suggests that substituting the Mass Dimension for the

  20. Optimal integrated management of groundwater resources and irrigated agriculture in arid coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, J.; Schütze, N.; Heck, V.

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater systems in arid coastal regions are particularly at risk due to limited potential for groundwater replenishment and increasing water demand, caused by a continuously growing population. For ensuring a sustainable management of those regions, we developed a new simulation-based integrated water management system. The management system unites process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques for managing both water quality and water quantity of a strongly coupled groundwater-agriculture system. Due to the large number of decision variables, a decomposition approach is applied to separate the original large optimisation problem into smaller, independent optimisation problems which finally allow for faster and more reliable solutions. It consists of an analytical inner optimisation loop to achieve a most profitable agricultural production for a given amount of water and an outer simulation-based optimisation loop to find the optimal groundwater abstraction pattern. Thereby, the behaviour of farms is described by crop-water-production functions and the aquifer response, including the seawater interface, is simulated by an artificial neural network. The methodology is applied exemplarily for the south Batinah re-gion/Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. Due to contradicting objectives like profit-oriented agriculture vs aquifer sustainability, a multi-objective optimisation is performed which can provide sustainable solutions for water and agricultural management over long-term periods at farm and regional scales in respect of water resources, environment, and socio-economic development.

  1. Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture within the United States is varied and produces a large value ($200 billion in 2002) of production across a wide range of plant and animal production systems. Because of this diversity, changes in climate will likely impact agriculture throughout the United States. Climate affects crop, ...

  2. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) Yearbook, 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    This yearbook covers the period from January 1975 to May 1976. It reviews the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources' (IUCN) conservation strategy for the coming years, important international conservation treaties, IUCN organizational reforms, and the financial report for 1975. Conservation discussions include…

  3. Learning with Nature and Learning from Others: Nature as Setting and Resource for Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacQuarrie, Sarah; Nugent, Clare; Warden, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Nature-based learning is an increasingly popular type of early childhood education. Despite this, children's experiences--in particular, their form and function within different settings and how they are viewed by practitioners--are relatively unknown. Accordingly, the use of nature as a setting and a resource for learning was researched. A…

  4. Assessment strategy for land-use impacts on natural resources

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, R.; Dale, V.H.; King, A.W.

    1995-06-01

    An assessment strategy for land-use impacts on natural resources on DoD/DOE lands is being developed under the DoD Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. The {open_quotes}strawman{close_quotes} for the assessment strategy includes an integration of spatially-explicit environmental data from Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with computer models which simulate changes in land-cover in response to land-use impacts. The computer models will also simulate susceptibility of selected species to changes in habitat suitability and landscape patterns. The interpretation of the modelling results will be performed with a risk assessment framework. Such a framework will allow for the comparison of numerous, proposed land-use scenarios to be considered during the planning process for ecosystem management. The development of a single methodology which can be applied to many sites will allow for inter-site comparisons and regional assessments. A standard approach will also help prioritize the collection and maintenance of natural resource information about the DoD and DOE lands. This {open_quotes}strawman{close_quotes} will be refined based on needs identified by DoD and DOE land managers, and the sensitivity of the results to the varying resolution of resource information. This assessment strategy supports the concurrent objectives associated with the mission and use of the site and the conservation of its natural resources.

  5. Natural resource economic implications of geothermal area use

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, d'E Charles

    1993-01-28

    Large-scale use of geothermal energy is likely to result in depletion of natural resources that support both biodiversity and other human uses. Most of the problems could be averted with competent planning and adherence to agreed conditions, but they commonly develop because they are not perceived to be directly geothermal in origin and hence are not taken into account adequately. Some of the implications of such issues are discussed below, with particular reference to countries where all or most resources are held under traditional principals of custom ownership.

  6. On teaching the nature of science: perspectives and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radloff, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, I present a critical review of the recent book, On Teaching the Nature of Science: Perspectives and Resources, written by Douglas Allchin (2013). This publication presents an in-depth examination of the nature of science construct, as well as instruction for educators about how to teach it effectively utilizing historical case studies as vehicles for knowledge. Although several themes in the book merit further attention, a central issue present across all chapters is the largely masculine, monocultural nature of science presented, which is common to a multitude of scientific publications. In this review, I illustrate how culture and gender in science is not addressed throughout the book. I also discuss where we can build on the work of the author to integrate more aspects of gender and culture in teaching the nature of science.

  7. On teaching the nature of science: perspectives and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radloff, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I present a critical review of the recent book, On Teaching the Nature of Science: Perspectives and Resources, written by Douglas Allchin (2013). This publication presents an in-depth examination of the nature of science construct, as well as instruction for educators about how to teach it effectively utilizing historical case studies as vehicles for knowledge. Although several themes in the book merit further attention, a central issue present across all chapters is the largely masculine, monocultural nature of science presented, which is common to a multitude of scientific publications. In this review, I illustrate how culture and gender in science is not addressed throughout the book. I also discuss where we can build on the work of the author to integrate more aspects of gender and culture in teaching the nature of science.

  8. 75 FR 4525 - Notice of Proposed Changes to the National Handbook of Conservation Practices for the Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Proposed Changes to the National Handbook of Conservation Practices for the Natural Resources Conservation Service AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service..., National Agricultural Engineer, Conservation Engineering Division, Department of Agriculture,...

  9. Agricultural Research Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quality Review Office of Technology Transfer National Program Research Areas Animal Production and Protection Crop Production and Protection Natural Resources and Sustainable Agricultural Systems Nutrition, Food Safety, and Quality Overseas ...

  10. Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J.

    1994-11-30

    This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

  11. Use of behavioral endpoints in natural resource damage assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, J.; Marr, J.

    1994-12-31

    Behavioral effects caused by exposure to hazardous substances can play an important role in Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) cases. Behavioral avoidance has been recognized as a natural resource injury in the Department of Interior`s NRDA regulations. Behavioral avoidance may be particularly important as an NRDA endpoint because it can occur at exposure concentrations substantially less than lethal concentrations, and can result in the effective loss of aquatic habitat. For example, in a recent NRDA case, laboratory testing demonstrated behavioral avoidance at copper concentrations of 1.2 {micro}g/l and 6 {micro}g/l for rainbow and brown trout, respectively. Other behavioral effects may have similar adverse effects on populations in the wild and may merit inclusion in NRDA injury and restoration studies.

  12. Natural resources and people. Conceptual issues in interdisciplinary research

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, K.A.; Bennett, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors of this book provide an assessment of research on human interactions with natural resource systems. Following an evaluation of long-term trends and the political and institutional settings, they assess the strengths and weaknesses of approaches designed to lead to a more holistic and interdisciplinary understanding. The social sciences, impact and risk assessment, and system theory are considered in detail. The book concludes with a review of the limitations and barriers posed by disciplinary specialization and institutional fragmentation and outlines new approaches for better integration concepts and date. Throughout the book, the authors pay attention to the interaction between theory and practice by including case studies and detailed examples involving specific natural resource systems.

  13. [The natural therapeutic resources of Russia: the topical problems].

    PubMed

    Adilov, V B; L'vova, N V; Morozova, E Yu

    2016-01-01

    Mineral water, therapeutic peloids, favorable landscape and climatic conditions make up the main basis for the creation and development of the health resort business. Mineral water and therapeutic peloids are mineral resources, their prospecting, discovery, exploration and stock assessment of the responsibility of the Geological Survey of the country while the exploration and practical exploitation of the natural medicinal resources is the prerogative of the users of subsurface resources. At present, there are over 1200 deposits of mineral waters as well as more than 260 sources of therapeutic peloids at the territory of the Russian Federation; the include almost all hydrochemical species and types known and exploited in the world's practice The overall picture of the distribution of the potential and developed deposits of mineral waters and therapeutic peloids of the territory of this country is highly non-uniform and depends on the extent of the economic development of different regions, their geographical and climatic conditions as well as the state and availability of the spa and health resort infrastructure. The natural therapeutic resources, territories suitable for the organization and realization of health promoting activities, setting up new spa and health resort facilities are highly vulnerable to any external impact. We possess the scientifically grounded and practice-proven methods for the search, prospecting, practical development, and medical utilization of various natural therapeutic resources as well as technologies for their conservation, restoration, and protection from damages and overexploitation. The rational use and development of the territories promising for the extension of health resort business imply the necessity of the systemic approach in a consistent stage by stage manner based of the reliable prognoses. PMID:27500681

  14. Effects of agricultural intensification on ability of natural enemies to control aphids

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zi-Hua; Hui, Cang; He, Da-Han; Li, Bai-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural intensification through increasing fertilization input and cropland expansion has caused rapid loss of semi-natural habitats and the subsequent loss of natural enemies of agricultural pests. It is however extremely difficult to disentangle the effects of agricultural intensification on arthropod communities at multiple spatial scales. Based on a two-year study of seventeen 1500 m-radius sites, we analyzed the relative importance of nitrogen input and cropland expansion on cereal aphids and their natural enemies. Both the input of nitrogen fertilizer and cropland expansion benefited cereal aphids more than primary parasitoids and leaf-dwelling predators, while suppressing ground-dwelling predators, leading to an disturbance of the interspecific relationship. The responses of natural enemies to cropland expansion were asymmetric and species-specific, with an increase of primary parasitism but a decline of predator/pest ratio with the increasing nitrogen input. As such, agricultural intensification (increasing nitrogen fertilizer and cropland expansion) can destabilize the interspecific relationship and lead to biodiversity loss. To this end, sustainable pest management needs to balance the benefit and cost of agricultural intensification and restore biocontrol service through proliferating the role of natural enemies at multiple scales. PMID:25620737

  15. 77 FR 67329 - Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment... collection associated with the Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) of 1978. DATES: We will... Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) Program Manager, Natural Resources Analysis Group, Economic...

  16. HazLit: a unique resource for natural hazards information.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2007-01-01

    The "Online Updates" column generally focuses on bibliographic databases that may be licensed from commercial vendors or are available free of charge from a federal government agency. HazLit is featured because it is a unique and comprehensive resource of the literature of natural disasters. This column provides background information on HazLit and offers some searching basics, as well as highlights special information found at the Web site that hosts the database. PMID:17915632

  17. Management of natural resources through automatic cartographic inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rey, P. A.; Gourinard, Y.; Cambou, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant correspondence codes relating ERTS imagery to ground truth from vegetation and geology maps have been established. The use of color equidensity and color composite methods for selecting zones of equal densitometric value on ERTS imagery was perfected. Primary interest of temporal color composite is stressed. A chain of transfer operations from ERTS imagery to the automatic mapping of natural resources was developed.

  18. Real Income, Poverty, Resources. Rural Development, Poverty, and Natural Resources Working Paper Series, Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Irving; And Others

    This paper reports progress on the development of improved measures of income and poverty by accounting for differences in living costs between regions, and on the tracing of relationships between natural resources and income; a reviewer's comments conclude the contents of this workshop collection. The overview describes how a measure of income…

  19. Ecology of plant and free-living nematodes in natural and agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Neher, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    Nematodes are aquatic organisms that depend on thin water films to live and move within existing pathways of soil pores of 25-100 mum diameter. Soil nematodes can be a tool for testing ecological hypotheses and understanding biological mechanisms in soil because of their central role in the soil food web and linkage to ecological processes. Ecological succession is one of the most tested community ecology concepts, and a variety of nematode community indices have been proposed for purposes of environmental monitoring. In contrast, theories of biogeography, colonization, optimal foraging, and niche partitioning by nematodes are poorly understood. Ecological hypotheses related to strategies of coexistence of nematode species sharing the same resource have potential uses for more effective biological control and use of organic amendments to foster disease suppression. Essential research is needed on nematodes in natural and agricultural soils to synchronize nutrient release and availability relative to plant needs, to test ecological hypotheses, to apply optimal foraging and niche partitioning strategies for more effective biological control, to blend organic amendments to foster disease suppression, to monitor environmental and restoration status, and to develop better predictive models for land-use decisions. PMID:20455699

  20. 75 FR 44214 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Air Quality Task Force (AAQTF) will meet to...

  1. Review: Computer-based models for managing the water-resource problems of irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay

    2015-09-01

    Irrigation is essential for achieving food security to the burgeoning global population but unplanned and injudicious expansion of irrigated areas causes waterlogging and salinization problems. Under this backdrop, groundwater resources management is a critical issue for fulfilling the increasing water demand for agricultural, industrial, and domestic uses. Various simulation and optimization approaches were used to solve the groundwater management problems. This paper presents a review of the individual and combined applications of simulation and optimization modeling for the management of groundwater-resource problems associated with irrigated agriculture. The study revealed that the combined use of simulation-optimization modeling is very suitable for achieving an optimal solution for groundwater-resource problems, even with a large number of variables. Independent model tools were used to solve the problems of uncertainty analysis and parameter estimation in groundwater modelling studies. Artificial neural networks were used to minimize the problem of computational complexity. The incorporation of socioeconomic aspects into the groundwater management modeling would be an important development in future studies.

  2. Easing food waste could reduce pressure on natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    Calls to reduce food waste and enhance agricultural water efficiency were among the points raised during the 27 August opening session of World Water Week in Stockholm, Sweden. “More than one fourth of all the water we use worldwide is taken to grow over one billion tons of food that nobody eats. That water, together with the billions of dollars spent to grow, ship, package, and purchase the food, is sent down the drain,” said Torgny Holmgren, executive director of the Stockholm International Water Institute, which organizes World Water Week. “Reducing the waste of food is the smartest and most direct route to relieve pressure on water and land resources. It's an opportunity we cannot afford to overlook,” he added.

  3. 43 CFR 11.22 - Sampling of potentially injured natural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... resources. 11.22 Section 11.22 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 11.22 Sampling of potentially injured natural resources... of this part to proceed with an assessment, field sampling of natural resources should be limited...

  4. 43 CFR 11.22 - Sampling of potentially injured natural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... resources. 11.22 Section 11.22 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 11.22 Sampling of potentially injured natural resources... of this part to proceed with an assessment, field sampling of natural resources should be limited...

  5. 30 CFR 1201.100 - Responsibilities of the Director for Office of Natural Resources Revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Natural Resources Revenue. 1201.100 Section 1201.100 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue GENERAL Oil and Gas, Onshore § 1201.100 Responsibilities of the Director for Office of Natural Resources Revenue. The Director...

  6. 43 CFR 11.22 - Sampling of potentially injured natural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... resources. 11.22 Section 11.22 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 11.22 Sampling of potentially injured natural resources... of this part to proceed with an assessment, field sampling of natural resources should be limited...

  7. Motivational Strategies and Utilisation of Internet Resources as Determinants of Research Productivity of Lecturers in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajegbomogun, Fredrick Olatunji; Popoola, Sunday Olarenwaju

    2013-01-01

    This study examined motivational strategies and utilisation of Internet resources as determinants of research productivity of lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. One thousand, one hundred and thirty two (1,132) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. Eight hundred…

  8. Sourcebook: gaining access to US government information on the environment and natural resources

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, F.M. Jr.; O'Hara, L.

    1984-11-01

    This publication is designed to acquaint the reader with the broad range of services and publications that are offered by the US government and that provide information about the environment and natural resources. These sources of information include referral services, public-information offices, computerized data banks, information-analysis centers, and publication-distribution systems as well as published sources like bibliographies, abstract and index journals, reports, handbooks, and atlases. The subject matter covered by this sourcebook includes air pollution, meteorology, water resources and quality, fisheries, aquaculture, marine science, solid and hazardous waste treatment, land use, soil science, population and demography, anthropology, architecture, geography, urban studies, health, biology, agriculture, forestry, habitat, wildlife, geology, minerals, and related sciences and technologies.

  9. Phenology research for natural resource management in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enquist, Carolyn A. F.; Kellermann, Jherime L.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.

    2014-05-01

    Natural resource professionals in the United States recognize that climate-induced changes in phenology can substantially affect resource management. This is reflected in national climate change response plans recently released by major resource agencies. However, managers on-the-ground are often unclear about how to use phenological information to inform their management practices. Until recently, this was at least partially due to the lack of broad-based, standardized phenology data collection across taxa and geographic regions. Such efforts are now underway, albeit in very early stages. Nonetheless, a major hurdle still exists: phenology-linked climate change research has focused more on describing broad ecological changes rather than making direct connections to local to regional management concerns. To help researchers better design relevant research for use in conservation and management decision-making processes, we describe phenology-related research topics that facilitate "actionable" science. Examples include research on evolution and phenotypic plasticity related to vulnerability, the demographic consequences of trophic mismatch, the role of invasive species, and building robust ecological forecast models. Such efforts will increase phenology literacy among on-the-ground resource managers and provide information relevant for short- and long-term decision-making, particularly as related to climate response planning and implementing climate-informed monitoring in the context of adaptive management. In sum, we argue that phenological information is a crucial component of the resource management toolbox that facilitates identification and evaluation of strategies that will reduce the vulnerability of natural systems to climate change. Management-savvy researchers can play an important role in reaching this goal.

  10. Undiscovered phosphate resources in the Caribbean region and their potential value for agricultural development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheldon, Richard Porter; Davidson, D.F.; Riggs, S.R.; Burnett, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    The countries of the world's humid tropical regions lack the soil fertility necessary for high agricultural productivity. A recently developed agricultural technology that increases soil fertility can make tropical agriculture highly productive, but the technique requires large inputs into the soil of phosphorus and other fertilizers and soil amendments. Use of fertilizers derived from phosphate rock is increasing greatly throughout the world, and fertilizer raw materials are being produced more and more frequently from phosphate rock deposits close to the areas of use. An increased understanding of the origin of phosphate rock in ancient oceans has enabled exploration geologists to target areas of potential mineral resource value and to search directly for deposits. However, because of the difficulty of prospecting for mineral deposits in forested tropical regions, phosphate rock deposits are not being explored for in the countries of the humid tropics, including most countries of the Caribbean region. As a result, the countries of the Caribbean must import phosphate rock or phosphorus fertilizer products. In the present trade market, imports of phosphate are too low for the initiation of new agricultural technology in the Caribbean and Central American region. A newly proposed program of discovery and development of undiscovered phosphate rock deposits revolves around reconnaissance studies, prospecting by core drilling, and analysis of bulk samples. The program should increase the chance of discovering economic phosphate rock deposits. The search for and evaluation of phosphate rock resources in the countries of the Caribbean region would take about 5 years and cost an average of $15 million per country. The program is designed to begin with high risk-low cost steps and end with low risk-high cost steps. A successful program could improve the foreign exchange positions of countries in the Caribbean region by adding earnings from agricultural product exports and

  11. Cattle and cultivators: A study of competition over natural resources in north Senegal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freudenberger, Karen Schoonmaker; Wood, Eric

    1998-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the interaction of humans and their environment in the arid Sahel ian zone of northern Senegal. It compares a pastoral community which lives primarily from the production of livestock and a farming community whose activities have traditionally centered on crop production. Living side by side but following different strategies for securing their livelihoods, these groups find themselves in increasing conflict over how the diminishing resources of the area should be used. The pastoral livelihood system, as practiced in the case study community of Maka Ndandary, is essentially conservationist in its approach to natural resources. It regulates the activities of community members toward the environment and employs diverse strategies to protect local resources against incursion by outsiders. The agricultural village, represented by the case study of Teud Bitty, takes a much more extractive approach to its resources. As resources have diminished over time, the villagers have become even more aggressive in their attempts to exploit what remains, whether soils or trees ... both within and outside their territory.

  12. Water Resources and Natural Gas Production from the Marcellus Shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Kappel, William M.

    2009-01-01

    The Marcellus Shale is a sedimentary rock formation deposited over 350 million years ago in a shallow inland sea located in the eastern United States where the present-day Appalachian Mountains now stand (de Witt and others, 1993). This shale contains significant quantities of natural gas. New developments in drilling technology, along with higher wellhead prices, have made the Marcellus Shale an important natural gas resource. The Marcellus Shale extends from southern New York across Pennsylvania, and into western Maryland, West Virginia, and eastern Ohio (fig. 1). The production of commercial quantities of gas from this shale requires large volumes of water to drill and hydraulically fracture the rock. This water must be recovered from the well and disposed of before the gas can flow. Concerns about the availability of water supplies needed for gas production, and questions about wastewater disposal have been raised by water-resource agencies and citizens throughout the Marcellus Shale gas development region. This Fact Sheet explains the basics of Marcellus Shale gas production, with the intent of helping the reader better understand the framework of the water-resource questions and concerns.

  13. The challenge of climate change in Spain: Water resources, agriculture and land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Amelin, Elisa; Pindado, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    Climate change effects are becoming evident worldwide, but some water scarce regions present higher vulnerability. Spain, located in the Mediterranean region, is expected for instance to be highly vulnerable given its unbalanced distribution between water resources availability and existing demands. This article presents an introduction to the main threats of climate change mainly on water resources, but it also assesses effects in interlinked areas such as agriculture, soil and land management. Contents focus on measures and initiatives promoted by the central government and address efforts to establish multi-sectoral coordinating bodies, specific adaptation plans and measures for the different sectors. The article highlights some political aspects, such as the complexity of involved competent authorities in water and land management, the need to strengthen public participation and the conflicts arising from the defence of regional interests. It also makes a link to current EU policies; summarises foreseeable problems derived from climate change effects, and provides some recommendations in the different areas covered.

  14. Irrigated agriculture and groundwater resources - towards an integrated vision and sustainable relationship.

    PubMed

    Foster, Stephen; Garduño, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    Globally, irrigated agriculture is the largest abstractor, and predominant consumer, of groundwater resources, with large groundwater-dependent agro-economies now having widely evolved especially in Asia. Such use is also causing resource depletion and degradation in more arid and drought-prone regions. In addition crop cultivation practices on irrigated land exert a major influence on groundwater recharge. The interrelationship is such that cross-sector action is required to agree more sustainable land and water management policies, and this paper presents an integrated vision of the challenges in this regard. It is recognised that 'institutional arrangements' are critical to the local implementation of management policies, although the focus here is limited to the conceptual understanding needed for formulation of an integrated policy and some practical interventions required to promote more sustainable groundwater irrigation. PMID:23508138

  15. A Natural Resource Condition Assessment for Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theobald, D.M.; Baron, J.S.; Newman, P.; Noon, B.; Norman, J. B., III; Leinwand, I.; Linn, S.E.; Sherer, R.; Williams, K.E.; Hartman, M.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a natural resource assessment of Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO) to provide a synthesis of existing scientific data and knowledge to address the current conditions for a subset of important park natural resources. The intent is for this report to help provide park resource managers with data and information, particularly in the form of spatially-explicit maps and GIS databases, about those natural resources and to place emerging issues within a local, regional, national, or global context. With an advisory team, we identified the following condition indicators that would be useful to assess the condition of the park: Air and Climate: Condition of alpine lakes and atmospheric deposition Water: Extent and connectivity of wetland and riparian areas Biotic Integrity: Extent of exotic terrestrial plant species, extent of fish distributions, and extent of suitable beaver habitat Landscapes: Extent and pattern of major ecological systems and natural landscapes connectivity These indicators are summarized in the following pages. We also developed two maps of important issues for use by park managers: visitor use (thru accessibility modeling) and proportion of watersheds affected by beetle kill. Based on our analysis, we believe that there is a high degree of concern for the following indicators: condition of alpine lakes; extent and connectivity of riparian/wetland areas; extent of exotic terrestrial plants (especially below 9,500’); extent of fish distributions; extent of suitable beaver habitat; and natural landscapes and connectivity. We found a low degree of concern for: the extent and pattern of major ecological systems. The indicators and issues were also summarized by the 34 watershed units (HUC12) within the park. Generally, we found six watersheds to be in “pristine” condition: Black Canyon Creek, Comanche Creek, Middle Saint Vrain Creek, South Fork of the Cache la Poudre, Buchanan Creek, and East Inlet. Four watersheds were found to have

  16. An ecological perspective of the energy basis of sustainable Bolivian natural resources: Forests and natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izursa, Jose-Luis

    Bolivia, traditionally known for being a country rich in natural resources, has suffered from a constant exploitation of its natural resources benefiting only small groups in and outside the country. The devastation of natural resources that occurred for many years was of concern to the latest government, rural communities and indigenous groups. As a result, Bolivia has a more sustainability-oriented forest law that has a strong orientation towards the utilization of natural resources at a national level and encompasses a fast-growing forestry industry than in previous years. In this dissertation, the wealth of Bolivia's national system was evaluated using solar emergy. Emergy (spelled with "m") is the sum of all energy of one form needed to develop a flow of energy of another form, over a period of time. The basic idea is that solar energy is our ultimate energy source and by expressing the value of products in solar emergy units, it becomes possible to compare different kinds of energy, allowing to express the value for the natural resources in Emergy Dollars. It was found out that Bolivia relies heavily in its natural resources and that its emergy exchange ratio with its international trading partners changed from 12.2 to 1 in 2001 to 6.2 to 1 in 2005. This means that Bolivia went from export 12.2 emdollars of goods for each 1 it received in 2001 to export 6.2 emdollars of products for each 1 it received in 2005. The study also showed that under forest certification practices less emergy is removed from forests (1.49E+19 sej/yr) compared to the amount of emergy removed (2.36E+19 sej/yr) under traditional uncertified practices, reflecting that forest ecology does better under certification. The "Ecologically-based Development for the Bolivian Industrial Forestry System" (DEBBIF) simulation model constructed during this study, compared four different scenarios: the Reference Scenario, the Increased Export Scenario, the Increased Domestic Use Scenario and the

  17. Analytical group decision making in natural resources: Methodology and application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoldt, D.L.; Peterson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Group decision making is becoming increasingly important in natural resource management and associated scientific applications, because multiple values are treated coincidentally in time and space, multiple resource specialists are needed, and multiple stakeholders must be included in the decision process. Decades of social science research on decision making in groups have provided insights into the impediments to effective group processes and on techniques that can be applied in a group context. Nevertheless, little integration and few applications of these results have occurred in resource management decision processes, where formal groups are integral, either directly or indirectly. A group decision-making methodology is introduced as an effective approach for temporary, formal groups (e.g., workshops). It combines the following three components: (1) brainstorming to generate ideas; (2) the analytic hierarchy process to produce judgments, manage conflict, enable consensus, and plan for implementation; and (3) a discussion template (straw document). Resulting numerical assessments of alternative decision priorities can be analyzed statistically to indicate where group member agreement occurs and where priority values are significantly different. An application of this group process to fire research program development in a workshop setting indicates that the process helps focus group deliberations; mitigates groupthink, nondecision, and social loafing pitfalls; encourages individual interaction; identifies irrational judgments; and provides a large amount of useful quantitative information about group preferences. This approach can help facilitate scientific assessments and other decision-making processes in resource management.

  18. Changes to freshwater systems affecting Arctic infrastructure and natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Instanes, Arne; Kokorev, Vasily; Janowicz, Richard; Bruland, Oddbjørn; Sand, Knut; Prowse, Terry

    2016-03-01

    The resources component of the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis focuses on the potential impact of future climate and change on water resources in the Arctic and how Arctic infrastructure and exploration and production of natural resources are affected. Freshwater availability may increase in the Arctic in the future in response to an increase in middle- and high-latitude annual precipitation. Changes in type of precipitation, its seasonal distribution, timing, and rate of snowmelt represent a challenge to municipalities and transportation networks subjected to flooding and droughts and to current industries and future industrial development. A reliable well-distributed water source is essential for all infrastructures, industrial development, and other sectorial uses in the Arctic. Fluctuations in water supply and seasonal precipitation and temperature may represent not only opportunities but also threats to water quantity and quality for Arctic communities and industrial use. The impact of future climate change is varying depending on the geographical area and the current state of infrastructure and industrial development. This paper provides a summary of our current knowledge related to the system function and key physical processes affecting northern water resources, industry, and other sectorial infrastructure.

  19. Darwinian agriculture: when can humans find solutions beyond the reach of natural selection?

    PubMed

    Denison, R Ford; Kiers, E Toby; West, Stuart A

    2003-06-01

    Progress in genetic improvement of crop yield potential has slowed since 1985. Simultaneously, more sustainable management of agricultural ecosystems is needed. A better understanding of natural selection can help solve both problems. We illustrate this point with two specific examples. First, the genetic legacy of crop plants has been refined by millions of years of natural selection, often driven by competition among plants. We therefore suggest that most simple, tradeoff-free options to increase competitiveness (e.g., increased gene expression, or minor modifications of existing plant genes) have already been tested by natural selection. Further genetic improvement of crop yield potential over the next decade will mainly involve tradeoffs, either between fitness in past versus present environments, or between individual competitiveness and the collective performance of plant communities. Eventually, we may develop the ability to predict the consequences of genetic alterations so radical that they have not yet been tested by natural selection. Second, natural selection acts mainly at the level of genes, individuals, and family groups, rather than ecosystems as a whole. Consequently, there is no reason to expect the structure of natural ecosystems (diversity, spatial, or temporal patterns) to be a reliable blueprint for agricultural ecosystems. Natural ecosystems are nonetheless an important source of information that could be used to improve agriculture. PMID:12825416

  20. Agricultural Science--Striving for Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budke, Wesley E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six articles examine several of the critical components of program and personnel development in agricultural science including linkages between agriscience and natural resources teachers and high school science teachers, science in agriculture, biological science applications, and hydroponics. (JOW)

  1. Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:22942704

  2. Implementing natural resources management policy in Africa: A document and literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkerhoff, D.W.; Gage, J.D.; Yeager, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    The organizational and management tasks involved in implementing natural resource management (NRM) policy in Africa are examined in the desk study. There are two main chapters. The first reviews 19 A.I.D. projects and programs in forestry/agroforestry, sustainable agriculture, and protected areas/biodiversity conservation in Africa. The study also identifies several troublesome features of NRM policies: the underlying contradiction between sustainable NRM and the prevailing economic development paradigm; the nature of NRM costs and benefits; the negative orientation of NRM regulations; and the tendency of NRM issues to generate conflict. A final section presents a set of strategic questions as a way to begin clarifying the complexity and multiplicity of factors and linkages that characterize NRM.

  3. Estimation of potential impacts and natural resource damages of oil.

    PubMed

    McCay, Deborah French; Rowe, Jill Jennings; Whittier, Nicole; Sankaranarayanan, Sankar; Etkin, Dagmar Schmidt

    2004-02-27

    Methods were developed to estimate the potential impacts and natural resource damages resulting from oil spills using probabilistic modeling techniques. The oil fates model uses wind data, current data, and transport and weathering algorithms to calculate mass balance of fuel components in various environmental compartments (water surface, shoreline, water column, atmosphere, sediments, etc.), oil pathway over time (trajectory), surface distribution, shoreline oiling, and concentrations of the fuel components in water and sediments. Exposure of aquatic habitats and organisms to whole oil and toxic components is estimated in the biological model, followed by estimation of resulting acute mortality and ecological losses. Natural resource damages are based on estimated costs to restore equivalent resources and/or ecological services, using Habitat Equivalency Analysis (HEA) and Resource Equivalency Analysis (REA) methods. Oil spill modeling was performed for two spill sites in central San Francisco Bay, three spill sizes (20th, 50th, and 95th percentile volumes from tankers and larger freight vessels, based on an analysis of likely spill volumes given a spill has occurred) and four oil types (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). The scenarios were run in stochastic mode to determine the frequency distribution, mean and standard deviation of fates, impacts, and damages. This work is significant as it demonstrates a statistically quantifiable method for estimating potential impacts and financial consequences that may be used in ecological risk assessment and cost-benefit analyses. The statistically-defined spill volumes and consequences provide an objective measure of the magnitude, range and variability of impacts to wildlife, aquatic organisms and shorelines for potential spills of four oil/fuel types, each having distinct environmental fates and effects. PMID:15036639

  4. Natural Mode Entanglement as a Resource for Quantum Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, Libby; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-11-13

    Natural particle-number entanglement resides between spatial modes in coherent ultracold atomic gases. However, operations on the modes are restricted by a superselection rule that forbids coherent superpositions of different particle numbers. This seemingly prevents mode entanglement being used as a resource for quantum communication. In this Letter, we demonstrate that mode entanglement of a single massive particle can be used for dense coding and quantum teleportation despite the superselection rule. In particular, we provide schemes where the dense coding linear photonic channel capacity is reached without a shared reservoir and where the full quantum channel capacity is achieved if both parties share a coherent particle reservoir.

  5. From Archive to Evidence: Historians and Natural Resource Litigation.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jennifer A

    2015-02-01

    Within the field of natural resource law are several specific areas that are well suited for the historian's skillset and knowledge. The deployment of the historian's tool box when conducting research in the legal world, however, can result in deliverables which vary significantly from those found in the academy, as they range widely in both size and scope and do not always use the full range of a historian's skills. New technological platforms provide consulting historians with creative opportunities to disseminate valuable information and sources and enhance important scholarly debates. PMID:26281242

  6. Quarterly literature review of the remote sensing of natural resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fears, C. B. (Editor); Inglis, M. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The Technology Application Center reviewed abstracted literature sources, and selected document data and data gathering techniques which were performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft or groundbased stations. All of the documentation was related to remote sensing sensors or the remote sensing of the natural resources. Sensors were primarily those operating within the 10 to the minus 8 power to 1 meter wavelength band. Included are NASA Tech Briefs, ARAC Industrial Applications Reports, U.S. Navy Technical Reports, U.S. Patent reports, and other technical articles and reports.

  7. Floral resource limitation severely reduces butterfly survival, condition and flight activity in simplified agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural intensification has a strong negative impact on farmland biodiversity (including flower-visiting insects), but understanding the mechanisms involved in this requires experimental work. We document the impact of nectar limitation on the performance of a flower-visiting insect, the meadow brown butterfly Maniola jurtina. We conducted two types of experiments: a field experiment in agricultural landscapes with grasslands of different management intensity and an experiment in outdoor flight cages in which the nectar supply was simulated. For the field experiment, we introduced an array of nectar resources in intensively managed, nectar-poor meadows and in extensively managed, flower-rich grasslands and counted flower visitors. Despite higher butterfly abundance in the extensive meadows, our introduced nectar sources were more frequently visited in intensive meadows, indicating the lack of floral resources. The 48-h confinement under nectar-poor conditions in the flight cages had a strong negative effect on body condition, flight activity and lifetime survival compared to butterflies under nectar-rich conditions. Female lifespan was reduced by 22% and male lifespan even by 43%. Agricultural landscapes that provide limited amounts of floral nectar, and no high-quality, preferred nectar sources relative to the needs of the flower-visiting species, may create ecological sinks. Regards an insect's performance, the simple presence of nectar is not necessarily functionally adequate. The effectiveness of agri-environmental schemes for flower-visiting insects (e.g. flower strips) could be improved based on ecological and evolutionary insights on the effects of specific nectar quantities and qualities. PMID:26541442

  8. High natural erosion rates are the backdrop for present-day soil erosion in the agricultural Middle Hills of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, A. J.; Arnold, M.; AumaItre, G.; Bourles, D. L.; Keddadouche, K.; Bickle, M.; Ojha, T.

    2015-07-01

    Although agriculturally accelerated soil erosion is implicated in the unsustainable environmental degradation of mountain environments, such as in the Himalaya, the effects of land use can be challenging to quantify in many mountain settings because of the high and variable natural background rates of erosion. In this study, we present new long-term denudation rates, derived from cosmogenic 10Be analysis of quartz in river sediment from the Likhu Khola, a small agricultural river basin in the Middle Hills of central Nepal. Calculated long-term denudation rates, which reflect background natural erosion processes over 1000+ years prior to agricultural intensification, are similar to present-day sediment yields and to soil loss rates from terraces that are well maintained. Similarity in short- and long-term catchment-wide erosion rates for the Likhu is consistent with data from elsewhere in the Nepal Middle Hills but contrasts with the very large increases in short-term erosion rates seen in agricultural catchments in other steep mountain settings. Our results suggest that the large sediment fluxes exported from the Likhu and other Middle Hills rivers in the Himalaya are derived in large part from natural processes, rather than from soil erosion as a result of agricultural activity. Catchment-scale erosional fluxes may be similar over short and long timescales if both are dominated by mass wasting sources such as gullies, landslides, and debris flows (e.g., as is evident in the landslide-dominated Khudi Khola of the Nepal High Himalaya, based on compiled data). As a consequence, simple comparison of catchment-scale fluxes will not necessarily pinpoint land use effects on soils where these are only a small part of the total erosion budget, unless rates of mass wasting are also considered. Estimates of the mass wasting contribution to erosion in the Likhu imply catchment-averaged soil production rates on the order of ~ 0.25-0.35 mm yr-1, though rates of mass wasting are

  9. Implementing Natural Resources Cadastral Plan in Pasargadae District of Iran by Using Quick Bird Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhdari, G. H.; Deilami, K.; Firooznia, E.

    2015-12-01

    Natural Resources are essential for security and sustainable development of each country. Therefore, in order to reach sustainable development, conservation as well as optimum utilization of natural resources, executing of natural resources cadastral plan is necessary and essential. Governments conduct lands management in Iran, so there is a need for comprehensive plan with arranged program for best evaluation. In this research as a pilot, Pasargadae city is opted. Pasargadae region is located in north-east of Shiraz in Fars province with Latitude and longitude of 30° 15 ´ 53 ° N and 53° 13 ´ 29 ° E respectively. In order to generate the cadastral maps, Firstly, images from QuickBird satellite with 50-60 centimeters resolution were georeferenced by utilizing ground control points with accurate GPS coordinates. In addition to satellite images, old paper maps with 1:10000 scale in local coordinate system from agriculture ministry in 1963 were digitized according to 1:25000 scale map from army geographical organization with AutoCad software. Beside, paper maps with 1:50000 scale and Google Earth were used to find the changes during time. All the above maps were added to QuickBird images as new layers by using ArcMap software. These maps also were utilized to determine the different land-uses. Thus, by employing ArcMap software lands divide into 2 groups: firstly, lands with official document, which is owned by either natural or legal persons, and secondly national lands under different uses such as forestry, range management and desertification plans. Consequently, the generation of cadastral maps leads to better difference between private and national lands. In addition, producing cadastral maps prevent the destruction and illegal possession of natural lands by individuals.

  10. Aligning Natural Resource Conservation and Flood Hazard Mitigation in California

    PubMed Central

    Calil, Juliano; Beck, Michael W.; Gleason, Mary; Merrifield, Matthew; Klausmeyer, Kirk; Newkirk, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Flooding is the most common and damaging of all natural disasters in the United States, and was a factor in almost all declared disasters in U.S. history. Direct flood losses in the U.S. in 2011 totaled $8.41 billion and flood damage has also been on the rise globally over the past century. The National Flood Insurance Program paid out more than $38 billion in claims since its inception in 1968, more than a third of which has gone to the one percent of policies that experienced multiple losses and are classified as “repetitive loss.” During the same period, the loss of coastal wetlands and other natural habitat has continued, and funds for conservation and restoration of these habitats are very limited. This study demonstrates that flood losses could be mitigated through action that meets both flood risk reduction and conservation objectives. We found that there are at least 11,243km2 of land in coastal California, which is both flood-prone and has natural resource conservation value, and where a property/structure buyout and habitat restoration project could meet multiple objectives. For example, our results show that in Sonoma County, the extent of land that meets these criteria is 564km2. Further, we explore flood mitigation grant programs that can be a significant source of funds to such projects. We demonstrate that government funded buyouts followed by restoration of targeted lands can support social, environmental, and economic objectives: reduction of flood exposure, restoration of natural resources, and efficient use of limited governmental funds. PMID:26200353

  11. Social Networks and Community-Based Natural Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauber, T. Bruce; Decker, Daniel J.; Knuth, Barbara A.

    2008-10-01

    We conducted case studies of three successful examples of collaborative, community-based natural resource conservation and development. Our purpose was to: (1) identify the functions served by interactions within the social networks of involved stakeholders; (2) describe key structural properties of these social networks; and (3) determine how these structural properties varied when the networks were serving different functions. The case studies relied on semi-structured, in-depth interviews of 8 to 11 key stakeholders at each site who had played a significant role in the collaborative projects. Interview questions focused on the roles played by key stakeholders and the functions of interactions between them. Interactions allowed the exchange of ideas, provided access to funding, and enabled some stakeholders to influence others. The exchange of ideas involved the largest number of stakeholders, the highest percentage of local stakeholders, and the highest density of interactions. Our findings demonstrated the value of tailoring strategies for involving stakeholders to meet different needs during a collaborative, community-based natural resource management project. Widespread involvement of local stakeholders may be most appropriate when ideas for a project are being developed. During efforts to exert influence to secure project approvals or funding, however, involving specific individuals with political connections or influence on possible sources of funds may be critical. Our findings are consistent with past work that has postulated that social networks may require specific characteristics to meet different needs in community-based environmental management.

  12. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  13. Guiding climate change adaptation within vulnerable natural resource management systems.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, Douglas K; Sweeney, Susan M

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making. PMID:20383706

  14. Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, Douglas K.; Sweeney, Susan M.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  15. Animal genetic resources in Brazil: result of five centuries of natural selection.

    PubMed

    Mariante, A da S; Egito, A A

    2002-01-01

    Brazil has various species of domestic animals, which developed from breeds brought by the Portuguese settlers soon after their discovery. For five centuries, these breeds have been subjected to natural selection in specific environments. Today, they present characteristics adapted to the specific Brazilian environmental conditions. These breeds developed in Brazil are known as "Crioulo," "local," or naturalized. From the beginning of the 20th century, some exotic breeds, selected in temperate regions, have begun to be imported. Although more productive, these breeds do not have adaptive traits, such as resistance to disease and parasites found in breeds considered to be "native." Even so, little by little, they replaced the native breeds, to such an extent that the latter are in danger of extinction. In 1983, to avoid the loss of this important genetic material, the National Research Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (Cenargen) of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) decided to include conservation of animal genetic resources in its research program Conservation and Utilization of Genetic Resources. Until this time, they were only concerned with conservation of native plants. Conservation has been carried out by various research centers of Embrapa, universities, state research corporations, and private farmers, with a single coordinator at the national level, Cenargen. Specifically, conservation is being carried out by conservation nuclei, which are specific herds in which the animals are being conserved, situated in the habitats where the animals have been subjected to natural selection. This involves storage of semen and embryos from cattle, horses, buffaloes, donkeys, goats, sheep, and pigs. The Brazilian Animal Germplasm Bank is kept at Cenargen, which is responsible for the storage of semen and embryos of various breeds of domestic animals threatened with extinction, where almost 45,000 doses of semen and more than 200

  16. Dynamic simulation of connections between population, water resources, agriculture, and energy: Towards a global synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, J. D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Passell, H. D.

    2011-12-01

    During the past decade, scientists at Sandia National Laboratories have been attempting to integrate multi-disciplinary issues associated with human demands for water resources, agriculture, and energy, and the interconnections inherent in these into a common modeling framework. A variety of models have been created, each focusing specifically on certain aspects of the population - water - food - energy question, and each at a different geographic scale. The modeling of these dimensions of human resource use involves quantification of supply of and demand for the resources through time in order to gain some insight into sensitivities of the system to different model parameters. These models have been used to evaluate policy options in real time in an interactive setting. This presentation will summarize the localized efforts that have been made to this point, and propose a framework for a simulation tool to evaluate all four dimensions in a global context. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Pollinator Interactions with Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) across Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Misha; Kremen, Claire; Roderick, George K.

    2014-01-01

    Pollinator-plant relationships are found to be particularly vulnerable to land use change. Yet despite extensive research in agricultural and natural systems, less attention has focused on these interactions in neighboring urban areas and its impact on pollination services. We investigated pollinator-plant interactions in a peri-urban landscape on the outskirts of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, where urban, agricultural, and natural land use types interface. We made standardized observations of floral visitation and measured seed set of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), a common grassland invasive, to test the hypotheses that increasing urbanization decreases 1) rates of bee visitation, 2) viable seed set, and 3) the efficiency of pollination (relationship between bee visitation and seed set). We unexpectedly found that bee visitation was highest in urban and agricultural land use contexts, but in contrast, seed set rates in these human-altered landscapes were lower than in natural sites. An explanation for the discrepancy between floral visitation and seed set is that higher plant diversity in urban and agricultural areas, as a result of more introduced species, decreases pollinator efficiency. If these patterns are consistent across other plant species, the novel plant communities created in these managed landscapes and the generalist bee species that are favored by human-altered environments will reduce pollination services. PMID:24466050

  18. Soil Respiration in Different Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems in an Arid Region

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Liming; Zhao, Xuechun; Jiang, Lianhe; Wang, Yongji; Luo, Liangguo; Zheng, Yuanrun; Chen, Xi; Rimmington, Glyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The variation of different ecosystems on the terrestrial carbon balance is predicted to be large. We investigated a typical arid region with widespread saline/alkaline soils, and evaluated soil respiration of different agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil respiration for five ecosystems together with soil temperature, soil moisture, soil pH, soil electric conductivity and soil organic carbon content were investigated in the field. Comparing with the natural ecosystems, the mean seasonal soil respiration rates of the agricultural ecosystems were 96%–386% higher and agricultural ecosystems exhibited lower CO2 absorption by the saline/alkaline soil. Soil temperature and moisture together explained 48%, 86%, 84%, 54% and 54% of the seasonal variations of soil respiration in the five ecosystems, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between soil respiration and soil electrical conductivity, but a weak correlation between soil respiration and soil pH or soil organic carbon content. Our results showed that soil CO2 emissions were significantly different among different agricultural and natural ecosystems, although we caution that this was an observational, not manipulative, study. Temperature at the soil surface and electric conductivity were the main driving factors of soil respiration across the five ecosystems. Care should be taken when converting native vegetation into cropland from the point of view of greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:23082234

  19. Exploring the dynamics of agricultural climatic resource utilization of spring maize over the past 50 years in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junfang; Guo, Jianping; Mu, Jia; Xu, Yanhong

    Exploring the dynamics of the utilization of agricultural climatic resources (i.e., environmental factors that affect crop productivity such as light, temperature, and water) can provide a theoretical basis for modifying agricultural practices and distributions of agricultural production in the future. Northeast China is one of the major agricultural production areas in China and also an obvious region of climatic warming. We were motivated to analyze the utilization dynamics of agricultural climatic resource during spring maize cultivation from 1961 to 2010 in Northeast China. To understand these dynamics, we used the daily data from 101 meteorological stations in Northeast China between 1961 and 2010. The demands on agricultural climatic resources in Northeast China imposed by the cultivation of spring maize were combined and agricultural climatic suitability theory was applied. The growth period of spring maize was further detailedly divided into four stages: germination to emergence, emergence to jointing, jointing to tasseling, and tasseling to maturity. The average resource utilization index was established to evaluate the effects. Over the past five decades, Northeast China experienced increases in daily average temperature of 0.246 °C every decade during the growing season (May-September). At the same time, strong fluctuating decreases were observed in average total precipitation of 8.936 mm every decade and an average sunshine hour of 0.122 h every decade. Significant temporal and spatial changes occurred in K from 1961 to 2010. The K showed decreasing trends in Liaoning province and increasing trends in Jilin and especially in Heilongjiang province, which increased by 0.11. Spatial differences were visible in different periods, and the most obvious increase was found in the period 2001-2010. The areas with high values of K shifted northeastward over the past 50 years, indicating more efficient use of agricultural climatic resources in Northeast China.

  20. 75 FR 36676 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Jefferson City, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Jefferson... completion of an inventory of human remains in the control of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources... Department of Natural Resources professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Osage...

  1. 78 FR 42755 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Natural Resource Damage Assessment Restoration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... collection is to assist state and federal Natural Resource Trustees in more efficiently carrying out the restoration planning phase of Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDA), in compliance with the National... information will be used by the Natural Resource Trustees to develop potential restoration alternatives...

  2. 43 CFR 11.22 - Sampling of potentially injured natural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sampling of potentially injured natural resources. 11.22 Section 11.22 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 11.22 Sampling of potentially injured natural resources. (a) General limitations. Until...

  3. 43 CFR 11.22 - Sampling of potentially injured natural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Sampling of potentially injured natural resources. 11.22 Section 11.22 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 11.22 Sampling of potentially injured natural resources. (a) General limitations. Until...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.303 - What is imminent jeopardy to natural resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is imminent jeopardy to natural resources? 1000.303...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.303 What is imminent jeopardy to natural resources? The standard for natural resources is the same as for a physical trust asset, except that a review...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.303 - What is imminent jeopardy to natural resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is imminent jeopardy to natural resources? 1000.303...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.303 What is imminent jeopardy to natural resources? The standard for natural resources is the same as for a physical trust asset, except that a review...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.303 - What is imminent jeopardy to natural resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is imminent jeopardy to natural resources? 1000.303...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.303 What is imminent jeopardy to natural resources? The standard for natural resources is the same as for a physical trust asset, except that a review...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.303 - What is imminent jeopardy to natural resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is imminent jeopardy to natural resources? 1000.303...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.303 What is imminent jeopardy to natural resources? The standard for natural resources is the same as for a physical trust asset, except that a review...

  8. Introduction to Natural Resources. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hehn, Darold; Newport, Bob

    These student and teacher guides are designed for a secondary-level course in natural resources that focuses on renewable and nonrenewable natural resources, methods of protecting the environment, and the various careers and technologies available in the natural resources area. The following topics are covered in the course's 10 units: outdoor…

  9. Management of natural resources through automatic cartographic inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rey, P.; Gourinard, Y.; Cambou, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Over those parts of the ARNICA test site where ERTS-1 data were available, the search for correspondences between images and ground truth acquired by the vegetation and geology maps was quite positive. The probability of recognition of soil use types can be estimated at: (1) 100% for water plans, rivers, canals, swamplands, and wetlands; (2) 80%-100% for the major types of forestry, farmland zones, moorlands and pasturelands, and urbanization; (3) 20%-50% for communication lines; (4) 60%-80% for forestry species and organization of agricultural areas; (5) 40%-60% for finer discrimination between forest types and more accurate identification of cultivations; (6) 60%-90% for major geological features. These percentages will be improved upon as soon as it is possible to use the repetitive imagery. An early use of automatic cartography using ERTS-1 imagery was made possible for pine forests in the Central Pyrenees, the densitometric signature of which were particularly significant. Important observations were made in related fields of water resources, snow survey, estuary dynamics, and meteorology.

  10. 7 CFR 650.23 - Natural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Natural areas. 650.23 Section 650.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES COMPLIANCE WITH NEPA Related Environmental Concerns § 650.23 Natural areas. (a) Background. (1) Natural areas...

  11. Climate and weather risk in natural resource models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Nathaniel Henry

    This work, consisting of three manuscripts, addresses natural resource management under risk due to variation in climate and weather. In three distinct but theoretically related applications, I quantify the role of natural resources in stabilizing economic outcomes. In Manuscript 1, we address policy designed to effect the risk of cyanobacteria blooms in a drinking water reservoir through watershed wide policy. Combining a hydrologic and economic model for a watershed in Rhode Island, we solve for the efficient allocation of best management practices (BMPs) on livestock pastures to meet a monthly risk-based as well as mean-based water quality objective. In order to solve for the efficient allocations of nutrient control effort, we optimize a probabilistically constrained integer-programming problem representing the choices made on each farm and the resultant conditions that support cyanobacteria blooms. In doing so, we employ a genetic algorithm (GA). We hypothesize that management based on controlling the upper tail of the probability distribution of phosphorus loading implies different efficient management actions as compared to controlling mean loading. We find a shift to more intense effort on fewer acres when a probabilistic objective is specified with cost savings of meeting risk levels of up to 25% over mean loading based policies. Additionally, we illustrate the relative cost effectiveness of various policies designed to meet this risk-based objective. Rainfall and the subsequent overland runoff is the source of transportation of nutrients to a receiving water body, with larger amounts of phosphorus moving in more intense rainfall events. We highlight the importance of this transportation mechanism by comparing policies under climate change scenarios, where the intensity of rainfall is projected to increase and the time series process of rainfall to change. In Manuscript 2, we introduce a new economic groundwater model that incorporates the gradual shift

  12. Remote sensing applications to support sustainable natural resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Charles Kenneth

    The original design of this dissertation project was relatively simple and straightforward. It was intended to produce one single, dynamic, classification and mapping system for existing vegetation that could rely on commonly available inventory and remote sensing data. This classification and mapping system was intended to provide the analytical basis for resource planning and management. The problems encountered during the first phase of the original design transformed this project into an extensive analysis of the nature of these problems and a decade-long remote sensing applications development endeavor. What evolved from this applications development process is a portion of what has become a "system of systems" to inform and support natural resource management. This dissertation presents the progression of work that sequentially developed a suite of remote sensing applications designed to address different aspects of the problems encountered with the original project. These remote sensing applications feature different resource issues, and resource components and are presented in separate chapters. Chapter one provides an introduction and description of the project evolution and chapter six provides a summary of the work and concluding discussion. Chapters two through five describe remote sensing applications that represent related, yet independent studies that are presented essentially as previously published. Chapter two evaluates different approaches to classifying and mapping fire severity using multi-temporal Landsat TM data. The recommended method currently represents the analytical basis for fire severity data produced by the USDA Forest Service and the US Geological Survey. Chapter three also uses multi-temporal Landsat data and compares quantitative, remote-sensing-based change detection methods for forest management related canopy change. The recommended method has been widely applied for a variety of forest health and disaster response applications

  13. Science, Technology and Natural Resources Policy: Overcoming Congressional Gridlock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The current status of Science, Technology and Natural Resources (STNR) policy in the United States provides an ideal context to examine the influence of committee seniority within the public policy process. Exemplars of the Policy Entrepreneur have been individuals in leadership positions, whether executive or legislative. The role of junior committee members in shaping policy innovation is less well understood, and is frequently masked either in cross-sectional research designs or in case studies. The House Natural Resources committee seniority patterns are compared to the House of Representatives Chamber data from 1975 to 2015. This expanse of congressional time captures both the policy innovation of the Class of 1974 who helped transform the public lands by pursuing a preservation agenda, along with the contemporaneous gridlock caused by disagreements about reducing the size of the federal government, a policy agenda championed and sustained by the Class of 1994. Several types of political actors have served as policy entrepreneurs, President Kennedy and Secretary of Interior Udall shepherding the Wilderness Act of 1964 from the Executive branch, or in the 111th Congress Committee chairmen Senator Christopher Dodd and Representative Barney Frank, having announced their retirements, spent their final Congress shaping the consensus that produced the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. A less studied policy phenomenon relies on "packing the committee" to outvote the leadership. This tactic can be used by the party leadership to overcome recalcitrant senior committee members, as was the case for Democrats in the House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee shift to preservation in the 1970s, or the tactic can be employed from the grassroots, as may be happening in the case of the House Natural Resources Committee in the 114th Congress. A policy making process analog to rivers is more appropriate than a mechanistic model. As there are multiple

  14. Assessing future risks to agricultural productivity, water resources and food security: How can remote sensing help?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Knox, Jerry W.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Congalton, Russell G.; Wu, Zhuoting; Milesi, Cristina; Finkral, Alex; Marshall, Mike; Mariotto, Isabella; You, Songcai; Giri, Chandra; Nagler, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    of changing dietary consumption patterns, a changing climate and the growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington, 2010). The impact from these changes wi ll affect the viability of both dryland subsistence and irrigated commodity food production (Knox, et al., 2010a). Since climate is a primary determinant of agricultural productivity, any changes will influence not only crop yields, but also the hydrologic balances, and supplies of inputs to managed farming systems as well as potentially shifting the geographic location for specific crops . Unless concerted and collective action is taken, society risks worldwide food shortages, scarcity of water resources and insufficient energy. This has the potential to unleash public unrest, cross-border conflicts and migration as people flee the worst-affected regions to seck refuge in "safe havens", a situation that Beddington described as the "perfect storm" (2010).

  15. Ownership Patterns of Natural Resources in Rural America: Implications for Distribution of Wealth and Income. Rural Development, Poverty, and Natural Resources Workshop Paper Series, Part IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Marion

    Beginning with definitions of land ownership and natural resources, this paper traces United States resource ownership patterns and draws conclusions for rural areas. Following the definitions, a general history of resource ownership discusses disposition of land from government to private owner, noting that the cadastral survey system still in…

  16. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A; Booij, C.J.H; Tscharntke, T

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control because non-crop habitats provide requisites for a broad spectrum of natural enemies, and the exchange of natural enemies between crop and non-crop habitats is likely to be diminished in landscapes dominated by arable cropland. In this review, we test the hypothesis that natural pest control is enhanced in complex patchy landscapes with a high proportion of non-crop habitats as compared to simple large-scale landscapes with little associated non-crop habitat. In 74% and 45% of the studies reviewed, respectively, natural enemy populations were higher and pest pressure lower in complex landscapes versus simple landscapes. Landscape-driven pest suppression may result in lower crop injury, although this has rarely been documented. Enhanced natural enemy activity was associated with herbaceous habitats in 80% of the cases (e.g. fallows, field margins), and somewhat less often with wooded habitats (71%) and landscape patchiness (70%). The similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. We conclude that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function. PMID:16790403

  17. "Actionable" Climate Scenarios for Natural Resource Managers in Southwestern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangwala, I.; Rondeau, R.; Wyborn, C.

    2014-12-01

    Locally relevant projections of climate change provide critical insights for natural resource managers seeking to adapt their management activities to climate change. To provide such information, we developed narrative scenarios of future climate change and its impacts on different ecosystems in southwestern Colorado. This multi-institution and trans-disciplinary project seeks to provide useful and useable knowledge to facilitate climate change adaptation in the context of uncertainty. The narratives are intended to provide detailed insights into the range of changes that natural resource managers may face in the future. These scenarios were developed in an iterative process through interactions between ecologists, social and climate scientists. In our scenario development process, climate uncertainty is acknowledged by having multiple scenarios, where each scenario is regarded as a storyline with equal probability as another scenario. Rather than a qualitative narration of the general direction of change and range in responses, we quantified changes in several decision relevant climate and ecological responses based on our best available understanding and provided a tight storyline for each scenario to facilitate (a) a more augmented use of scientific information in a decision-making process, (b) differential responses from stakeholders across the different scenarios, and (c) identification of strategies that could work across these multiple scenarios. This presentation will discuss the process of selecting the scenarios, quantifying climate and ecological responses, and the criteria for building the narrative for each scenario. We will also cover the process by which these scenarios get used, and how the user feedbacks are integrated in further developing the tools and processes.

  18. Political economy of natural resources: water scarcity in the High Plains region of the US

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation demonstrates the inadequacy of conventional neoclassical economic theories to explain natural resource depletion in a market economy. That theoretical perspective claims that the worry over depletion and scarcity of natural resources results from treating them as unique inputs in the production process. Accordingly, it finds that special controls designed to ration natural resources often lead to erroneous and unintended impacts. An alternative view presented in this dissertation provides a political economic explanation for natural resource scarcity. Importantly, natural resource scarcity and exhaustion result from specific historical developments which define the limits of economic activity. There are conditions unique to a particular nonrenewable resource that determines whether it will be exhausted. A political economic assessment of natural resource depletion utilizing a case study of the High Plains and the declining groundwater in the Ogallala Aquifer finds that exhaustion results from the conflicts and contradictions inherent in a market economy and the structural impediments preventing the state from instituting resource conservation policies.

  19. Frugivorous Bats Maintain Functional Habitat Connectivity in Agricultural Landscapes but Rely Strongly on Natural Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Ripperger, Simon P.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Mayer, Frieder; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae), a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats. PMID:25830222

  20. Frugivorous bats maintain functional habitat connectivity in agricultural landscapes but rely strongly on natural forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Ripperger, Simon P; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Mayer, Frieder; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae), a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats. PMID:25830222

  1. Long-term fluctuations of water resources availability and its implications for a sustainable management of arid agricultural coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Schütze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Freshwater scarcity and ongoing population growth associated with increasing water demands are major challenges for water management in coastal arid regions. Excessive use of groundwater for irrigation in agriculture puts those regions at risk of saltwater intrusion which limits agricultural opportunities. Additionally, some arid regions are characterised by a cyclic climate in which longer periods of dry years are followed by longer periods of wet years. This results also in long-term fluctuations of groundwater replenishment rates and water resources availability which may reach the same order of magnitude like long-term average values. Therefore, these long-term fluctuations should be considered for water resources management planning and operation. In order to evaluate their impact a simulation-based integrated water management system for coastal arid regions is used. The management system couples a groundwater module, assessing the water resources availability, and an agricultural module, controlling irrigation and cultivation within an optimisation module which allow for multi-objective optimisation of the water management regarding profitable and sustainable water resources and agricultural management on farm and regional scale. To achieve a fast and robust operation of the water management system, surrogate models are used which emulate the behaviour of physically based process models and a hierarchical optimisation scheme is applied. The water management system is driven by different scenarios of the water resources availability which were generated by using time series analyses and modelling of local groundwater replenishment rates. An application is performed for the south Batinah coastal region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. Several scenarios of water resources availability are used to compare long-term and adaptive

  2. Modeling the impacts of dryland agricultural reclamation on groundwater resources in Northern Egypt using sparse data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzman, Harris; Coulibaly, Paulin; Adeel, Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Demand for freshwater in many dryland environments is exerting negative impacts on the quality and availability of groundwater resources, particularly in areas where demand is high due to irrigation or industrial water requirements to support dryland agricultural reclamation. Often however, information available to diagnose the drivers of groundwater degradation and assess management options through modeling is sparse, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This study presents an approach for generating transient groundwater model inputs to assess the long-term impacts of dryland agricultural land reclamation on groundwater resources in a highly data-sparse context. The approach was applied to the area of Wadi El Natrun in Northern Egypt, where dryland reclamation and the associated water use has been aggressive since the 1960s. Statistical distributions of water use information were constructed from a variety of sparse field and literature estimates and then combined with remote sensing data in spatio-temporal infilling model to produce the groundwater model inputs of well-pumping and surface recharge. An ensemble of groundwater model inputs were generated and used in a 3D groundwater flow (MODFLOW) of Wadi El Natrun's multi-layer aquifer system to analyze trends in water levels and water budgets over time. Validation of results against monitoring records, and model performance statistics demonstrated that despite the extremely sparse data, the approach used in this study was capable of simulating the cumulative impacts of agricultural land reclamation reasonably well. The uncertainty associated with the groundwater model itself was greater than that associated with the ensemble of well-pumping and surface recharge estimates. Water budget analysis of the groundwater model output revealed that groundwater recharge has not changed significantly over time, while pumping has. As a result of these trends, groundwater was estimated to be in a deficit of

  3. Sustainable Water and Agricultural Land Use in the Guanting Watershed under Limited Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wechsung, F.; Möhring, J.; Otto, I. M.; Wang, X.; Guanting Project Team

    2012-04-01

    The Yongding River System is an important water source for the northeastern Chinese provinces Shanxi, Hebei, Beijing, and Tianjin. The Guanting Reservoir within this river system is one of the major water sources for Beijing, which is about 70 km away. Original planning assumed a discharge of 44 m3/s for the reservoir, but the current mean discharge rate is only about 5 m3/s; there is often hardly any discharge at all. Water scarcity is a major threat for the socio-economic development of the area. The situation is additionally aggravated by climate change impacts. Typical upstream-downstream conflicts with respect to water quantity and quality requests are mixed up with conflicts between different sectors, mainly mining, industry, and agriculture. These conflicts can be observed on different administrative levels, for example between the provinces, down to households. The German-Chinese research project "Sustainable water and agricultural land use in the Guanting Watershed under limited water resources" investigates problems and solutions related to water scarcity in the Guanting Catchment. The aim of the project is to create a vulnerability study in order to assess options for (and finally achieve) sustainable water and land use management in the Guanting region. This includes a comprehensive characterization of the current state by gap analysis and identification of pressures and impacts. The presentation gives an overview of recent project results regarding regionalization of global change scenarios and specification for water supply, evaluation of surface water quantity balances (supply-demand), evaluation of the surface water quality balances (emissions-impact thresholds), and exploration of integrative measurement planning. The first results show that climate in the area is becoming warmer and drier which leads to even more dramatically shrinking water resources. Water supply is expected to be reduced between one and two thirds. Water demand might be

  4. The Role of Windbreaks in Reducing Water Resources Use in Irrigated Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, T. A.; de Vries, T. T.

    2014-12-01

    Windbreaks are common features in flat agricultural landscapes around the world. The reduction in wind speed afforded by windbreaks is dictated by their porosity, location, height, and distance from the windbreak. The reduction in wind speeds not only reduces potential wind erosion; it also reduces crop evapotranspiration (ET) and provides shelter for livestock and crops. In the Canterbury plains of New Zealand there are over 300,000 km of windbreaks which were first implemented as a soil conservation strategy to reduce wind erosion of prime agricultural land. Agriculture in the region has since changed to irrigated pasture cultivation for dairy production and windbreaks are being cut down or reduced to heights of 2 m to allow for large scale centre-pivot irrigation schemes. Although soil erosion is no longer a major concern due to permanent pasture cover, irrigation water is sourced from limited supplies of ground and surface water and thus the effects of wind on irrigation losses due to spray drift and increased ET are of significant concern. The impact of reducing windbreaks needs to be understood in terms of water resources use. Experimental and theoretical work was conducted to quantify the reduction in wind speeds by windbreaks and in spray evaporation losses. A temporal and spatial model was also developed and validated to quantify the impact of single and multiple windbreaks on irrigation water losses. Initial modelling results show that for hot windy dry conditions in Canterbury, ET can increase by up to 1.4 mm/day when windbreaks are reduced to 2 m in height and on average wind days ET can increase by up to 0.5 mm/day. ET can be reduced by up to 30% in the windbreak leeward zone relative to ET in areas not protected by windbreaks. Wind speed, air temperature and relative humidity all had a considerable impact on spray evaporation losses, but the extent is determined by the droplet size. Estimated losses range from only 0.07% to 67% for 5 and 0.2 mm

  5. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  6. Could Crop Height Affect the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2016-03-01

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. These considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  7. Photodynamic inactivation of Gram-positive bacteria employing natural resources.

    PubMed

    Mamone, L; Di Venosa, G; Gándara, L; Sáenz, D; Vallecorsa, P; Schickinger, S; Rossetti, M V; Batlle, A; Buzzola, F; Casas, A

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate a collection of plant extracts from Argentina as a source of new natural photosensitizers (PS) to be used in Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) of bacteria. A collection of plants were screened for phototoxicity upon the Gram-positive species Staphylococcus epidermidis. Three extracts turned out to be photoactive: Solanum verbascifolium flower, Tecoma stans flower and Cissus verticillata root. Upon exposure to a light dose of 55J/cm(2), they induced 4, 2 and 3logs decrease in bacterial survival, respectively. Photochemical characterisation of S. verbascifolium extract was carried out. PDI reaction was dependent mainly on singlet oxygen and to a lesser extent, on hydroxyl radicals, through type II and I reactions. Photodegradation experiments revealed that the active principle of the extract was not particularly photolabile. It is noticeable that S. verbascifolium -PDI was more efficient under sunlight as compared to artificial light (total eradication vs. 4 logs decrease upon 120min of sunlight). The balance between oxidant and antioxidant compounds is likely to be masking or unmasking potential PS of plant extracts, but employing the crude extract, the level of photoactivity of S. verbascifolium is similar to some artificial PS upon exposure to sunlight, demonstrating that natural resources can be employed in PDI of bacteria. PMID:24705374

  8. Environmental considerations in natural resource and real property transactions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of environmental considerations involved in the purchase and sale or lease of natural resource and other real properties. Its focus is on evaluating the environmental and economic liabilities associated with particular property purchases, understanding the environmental regulatory and legal framework currently in place, and structuring transactions to avoid, eliminate, or apportion environmental liabilities or risks. Both lender and borrower concerns with environmental liabilities are covered. Topics include: Federal and state frameworks: statutes and regulations affecting transactions; Considerations before you buy or lease: avoiding toxic surprise; Evaluating the existence, nature, and extent of environmental liabilities and risks; Apportioning environmental liabilities in real estate transactions; third parties to the deal: lender and investor liabilities and concerns; Effect of bankruptcy on environmental liabilities; Toxic tort law: what happens when cleanup is not enough; Insurance coverage for environmental liabilities; Environmental regulation of the mining and oil and gas industries; Contracting for the investigation, analysis, and/or cleanup of toxic sites.

  9. Globalization, shifting livelihoods, and their effects on natural resources on the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of local peoples' livelihoods is important in understanding the use of, access to, and regulation of natural resources. Drivers of global change, including climate change and globalization, often result in shifts in local peoples' livelihood portfolios. Here, we use longitudinal data to examine how increasing market access, migration, and technology adoption have affected livelihood portfolios in a dozen communities along Nicaragua's Atlantic coast and the effects of livelihood change on terrestrial and marine wildlife. Our study communities are located in varying proximity to the terminus of the first trans-isthmian highway in this region, completed in 2008. Our results indicate that changes in livelihood portfolios, such as shifts between agriculture, fishing, and tourism, can be explained by a combination of household and community characteristics. Moreover, globalization's effects on specific livelihoods are distinct while varying both spatially and temporally. Trends in fisheries abundance, deforestation, and the management of endangered species and protected areas are better understood in the context of these shifting livelihood patterns. Moreover, this study provides new insights as to how natural resource dependent communities might decrease their vulnerability to the forces of global change.

  10. Behavioral avoidance as evidence of injury to fishery resources: Applications to natural resource damage assessment

    SciTech Connect

    DeLonay, A.J.; Little, E.E.; Lipton, J.; Hansen, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) provisions enacted under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) empower natural resource trustees to seek compensation for environmental injury resulting from the release of oil or hazardous substances. Under NRDA regulations promulgated under CERCLA, fish avoidance behavior is recognized as an accepted injury, and may be used to support damage claims. In support of an ongoing damage assessment, tests were conducted to determine if avoidance of ambient metals concentrations may contribute to reductions in local salmonid populations. In laboratory tests, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) avoided mixtures of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) at concentrations that occur in impacted river reaches at a contaminated site (Clark Fork River, MT). Avoidance of metal contamination may contribute to population reductions and preclude restoration of instream populations by prohibiting movement of fish into contaminated areas of the river from uncontaminated tributaries. Laboratory avoidance tests were performed at two testing facilities. The similar avoidance responses observed at the two laboratories demonstrated the reproducibility of avoidance measures.

  11. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - ...

  12. Climate and weather risk in natural resource models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Nathaniel Henry

    This work, consisting of three manuscripts, addresses natural resource management under risk due to variation in climate and weather. In three distinct but theoretically related applications, I quantify the role of natural resources in stabilizing economic outcomes. In Manuscript 1, we address policy designed to effect the risk of cyanobacteria blooms in a drinking water reservoir through watershed wide policy. Combining a hydrologic and economic model for a watershed in Rhode Island, we solve for the efficient allocation of best management practices (BMPs) on livestock pastures to meet a monthly risk-based as well as mean-based water quality objective. In order to solve for the efficient allocations of nutrient control effort, we optimize a probabilistically constrained integer-programming problem representing the choices made on each farm and the resultant conditions that support cyanobacteria blooms. In doing so, we employ a genetic algorithm (GA). We hypothesize that management based on controlling the upper tail of the probability distribution of phosphorus loading implies different efficient management actions as compared to controlling mean loading. We find a shift to more intense effort on fewer acres when a probabilistic objective is specified with cost savings of meeting risk levels of up to 25% over mean loading based policies. Additionally, we illustrate the relative cost effectiveness of various policies designed to meet this risk-based objective. Rainfall and the subsequent overland runoff is the source of transportation of nutrients to a receiving water body, with larger amounts of phosphorus moving in more intense rainfall events. We highlight the importance of this transportation mechanism by comparing policies under climate change scenarios, where the intensity of rainfall is projected to increase and the time series process of rainfall to change. In Manuscript 2, we introduce a new economic groundwater model that incorporates the gradual shift

  13. Visions for Natural Resource Education and Ecosystem Science for the 21st Century. An Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cudmore, Wynn, Ed.; Kelly, Susie, Ed.

    The Northwest Center for Sustainable Resources (NCSR) is a partnership of educators and numerous agencies dealing with natural resource management. NCSR emphasizes the ecosystem as a central theme in natural resource technical education. This booklet explains NCSR's relationship to secondary and higher education, describes NCSR programs and…

  14. 36 CFR 1002.1 - Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources. 1002.1 Section 1002.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.1 Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources. (a) Except as...

  15. Non-stationarity of "Nature's Limit" - Implications for Agriculture in Semi-arid Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozer, C.; Kiem, A.; Verdon-Kidd, D.

    2014-12-01

    "Rain follows the plow" was a theory that encouraged agricultural settlement in dryland areas in both the United States of America and Australia during the mid-1800s. Supporters of the theory believed that humans could master nature and alter the climate through cultivation of the soil. An opponent of this theory was George W. Goyder, who used vegetation in South Australia as an indicator to mark out the extent of the area's severe 1865 drought, effectively establishing "nature's limit" to reliable agriculture in South Australia. This limit became known as Goyder's Line and demarked the boundary between land suitable for agricultural pursuits (i.e. cropping) to the south and land only suitable for grazing in the State's arid north. Current cropping areas however extend north beyond this line, suggesting that either a) the line is not well defined, b) cropping is occurring on land considered 'non-viable' according to Goyder's Line or c) the line distinguishing where cropping is and is not viable varies on interannual to multidecadal timescales. In this study, the 220 mm growing season (April to October) rainfall isohyet is used as a proxy for Goyder's Line in order to assess its temporal and spatial variability. Using indices of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, Indian Ocean variability, Southern Annular Mode and the Subtropical Ridge, it is shown that climate state significantly influences the location of the 220 mm growing season rainfall isohyet. This implies that the boundary between viable and non-viable cropping areas (i.e. Goyder's Line or "nature's limit") is non-stationary. These results also indicate the key influences on South Australia's climate and have important implications globally for agricultural practices operating in or bordering semi-arid environments.

  16. Efficacy of Indexing and Abstracting Services for the Dissemination of Agricultural Information Resources in the Institure for Agricultural Research Library, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, KASA, M.

    2012-10-01

    The efficacy of Indexing and Abstracting service for effective organization, storage and retrieval of information resources for agricultural research in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria necessitated examining the situation in Agricultural Library, Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru. The study examines the processes, awareness and problems militating against the effective exploitation of the indexing and abstracting services in the Agricultural library established in 1975. The study was conducted ex post facto, data collected span from 2006 ñ 2010. Total sample sizes of 752 patrons and 20,236 intellectually indexed and abstracted resources were involved in the study. Data collected were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that a total of 644 articles were indexed and abstracted, 35% of these was done in 2010. Results for awareness show 452 (60.11%) to be aware in 2008. A total 584 articles were indexed and abstracted from which 167 (28.59%) was retrieved in 2006. Patrons, 270 (35.90%) attributed the poor use of the service to assumption it is a referral unit. The hypothesis testing revealed that there is significant association between articles indexed and abstracted with information consulted by patrons (?2cal,100.31>?2tab,9.488) at 5% level of probability and df, 4. In conclusion, enormous documents on Nigerian agriculture are indexed and abstracted in the unit, implying that the service is desirous and consistent. The study recommends that the unit should explore the use of modern technology, employ a permanent subject specialist, train and retrain the unit staff as well as intensify it general orientation campaigns to focus on awareness and use of the indexing and abstracting services.

  17. Characterization of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of Agricultural Lands near Manila, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, Steven J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, have been identified as contributing dissolved solids to Flaming Gorge Reservoir. Concentrations of dissolved solids in water resources of agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, ranged from 35 to 7,410 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids load in seeps and drains in the study area that discharge to Flaming Gorge Reservoir ranged from less than 0.1 to 113 tons per day. The most substantial source of dissolved solids discharging from the study area to the reservoir was Birch Spring Draw. The mean daily dissolved-solids load near the mouth of Birch Spring Draw was 65 tons per day. The estimated annual dissolved-solids load imported to the study area by Sheep Creek and Peoples Canals is 1,330 and 13,200 tons, respectively. Daily dissolved-solid loads discharging to the reservoir from the study area, less the amount of dissolved solids imported by canals, for the period July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005, ranged from 90 to 289 tons per day with a mean of 142 tons per day. The estimated annual dissolved-solids load discharging to the reservoir from the study area, less the amount of dissolved solids imported by canals, for the same period was 51,900 tons. Of this 51,900 tons of dissolved solids, about 9,000 tons may be from a regional source that is not associated with agricultural activities. The salt-loading factor is 3,670 milligrams per liter or about 5.0 tons of dissolved solids per acre-foot of deep percolation in Lucerne Valley and 1,620 milligrams per liter or 2.2 tons per acre-foot in South Valley. The variation of 87Sr with strontium concentration indicates some general patterns that help to define a conceptual model of the processes affecting the concentration of strontium and the 87Sr isotopic ratio in area waters. As excess irrigation water percolates through soils derived from Mancos Shale, the 87Sr isotopic ratio (0.21 to 0.69 permil) approaches one that is typical of deep percolation from irrigation on Mancos Shale

  18. Agricultural Trends and Resource Conservation: Implications and Issues. A Symposium Proceedings (Washington, D.C., November 3-5, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight some of the most significant trends likely to affect agricultural resource conservation activities, to discuss their significance to policy development and program management and implementation, and to make policy and program recommendations. In November 1986, 25 representatives from academia, farming…

  19. Attitudes of Selected Groups Concerning the Role of Vocational-Technical Education Programs for Occupations in Agricultural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downer, Howard I.

    The attitudes of professionals, businessmen, teachers, principals, and extension personnel toward establishment of programs of vocational-technical education for occupations concerned with conservation, protection and regulation, and recreational utilization of agricultural resources were studied. Attitudes concerning the importance of selected…

  20. Use of interactive immersive visualization techniques for natural resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Ian D.; Karadaglis, Chris

    1996-03-01

    Natural resources management typically requires prediction of environmental changes over long time periods. In the case of forest management, for example, decisions can affect timber production, water catchment properties, recreational values, aesthetic values, energy usage or employment opportunities. This paper presents an application of advanced visualization techniques in combination with a geographic information system and linear programming in this context. The emphasis is on provision of visual feedback on the outcome of decision options. This main interactive window include a 3D view of the management area based initially on remote sensing imagery draped on a digital terrain model. Also on screen are a slider for time (from the present to 200 years hence), and sliders for decision variables such as required job support level, extent of habit conservation or catchment performance. As the time, or the decision variables are altered by the user the result is presented through replacement of textures in the 3D view to represent the changes in land cover. Initially the visualization is based on prior modeling in a well-defined decision space. The system reads model output in ARC/INFO export format while interactive visualization is based on the Silicon Graphics Performer Toolkit.

  1. 26 CFR 509.111 - Real property income and natural resource royalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real property income and natural resource... and natural resource royalties. (a) General. Income of whatever nature derived by a nonresident alien... from such property, and royalties in respect of the operation of mines, quarries, or other...

  2. 26 CFR 509.111 - Real property income and natural resource royalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Real property income and natural resource... and natural resource royalties. (a) General. Income of whatever nature derived by a nonresident alien... from such property, and royalties in respect of the operation of mines, quarries, or other...

  3. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - resources Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources ...

  4. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length inmore » a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.« less

  5. Natural Resource Assessment: An Approach to Science Based Planning in National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, Carolyn G.; Vanderhorst, James P.; Young, John A.

    2009-06-01

    We conducted a natural resource assessment at two national parks, New River Gorge National River and Shenandoah National Park, to help meet the goals of the Natural Resource Challenge—a program to help strengthen natural resource management at national parks. We met this challenge by synthesizing and interpreting natural resource information for planning purposes and we identified information gaps and natural significance of resources. We identified a variety of natural resources at both parks as being globally and/or nationally significant, including large expanses of unfragmented, mixed-mesophytic forests that qualify for wilderness protection, rare plant communities, diverse assemblages of neotropical migratory birds and salamanders, and outstanding aquatic recreational resources. In addition, these parks function, in part, as ecological reserves for plants in and wildlife. With these significant natural resources in mind, we also developed a suite of natural resource management recommendations in light of increasing threats from within and outside park boundaries. We hope that our approach can provide a blueprint for natural resource conservation at publically owned lands.

  6. Natural resource assessment: an approach to science based planning in national parks.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Carolyn G; Vanderhorst, James P; Young, John A

    2009-06-01

    We conducted a natural resource assessment at two national parks, New River Gorge National River and Shenandoah National Park, to help meet the goals of the Natural Resource Challenge--a program to help strengthen natural resource management at national parks. We met this challenge by synthesizing and interpreting natural resource information for planning purposes and we identified information gaps and natural significance of resources. We identified a variety of natural resources at both parks as being globally and/or nationally significant, including large expanses of unfragmented, mixed-mesophytic forests that qualify for wilderness protection, rare plant communities, diverse assemblages of neotropical migratory birds and salamanders, and outstanding aquatic recreational resources. In addition, these parks function, in part, as ecological reserves for plants in and wildlife. With these significant natural resources in mind, we also developed a suite of natural resource management recommendations in light of increasing threats from within and outside park boundaries. We hope that our approach can provide a blueprint for natural resource conservation at publically owned lands. PMID:19365671

  7. AgBase: a unified resource for functional analysis in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of functional genomics (transcriptomics and proteomics) datasets is hindered in agricultural species because agricultural genome sequences have relatively poor structural and functional annotation. To facilitate systems biology in these species we have established the curated, web-accessib...

  8. Nationwide Natural Resource Inventory of the Philippines Using Lidar: Strategies, Progress, and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, A. C.; Tamondong, A.; Perez, A. M.; Ang, M. R. C.; Paringit, E.; Alberto, R.; Alibuyog, N.; Aquino, D.; Ballado, A.; Garcia, P.; Japitana, M.; Ignacio, M. T.; Macandog, D.; Novero, A.; Otadoy, R. E.; Regis, E.; Rodriguez, M.; Silapan, J.; Villar, R.

    2016-06-01

    The Philippines has embarked on a detailed nationwide natural resource inventory using LiDAR through the Phil-LiDAR 2 Program. This 3-year program has developed and has been implementing mapping methodologies and protocols to produce high-resolution maps of agricultural, forest, coastal marine, hydrological features, and renewable energy resources. The Program has adopted strategies on system and process development, capacity building and enhancement, and expanding the network of collaborations. These strategies include training programs (on point cloud and image processing, GIS, and field surveys), workshops, forums, and colloquiums (program-wide, cluster-based, and project-based), and collaboration with partner national government agencies and other organizations. In place is a cycle of training, implementation, and feedback in order to continually improve the system and processes. To date, the Program has achieved progress in the development of workflows and in rolling out products such as resource maps and GIS data layers, which are indispensable in planning and decision-making. Challenges remains in speeding up output production (including quality checks) and in ensuring sustainability considering the short duration of the program. Enhancements in the workflows and protocols have been incorporated to address data quality and data availability issues. More trainings have been conducted for project staff hired to address human resource gaps. Collaborative arrangements with more partners are being established. To attain sustainability, the Program is developing and instituting a system of training, data updating and sharing, information utilization, and feedback. This requires collaboration and cooperation of the government agencies, LGUs, universities, other organizations, and the communities.

  9. Agricultural wastes as a resource of raw materials for developing low-dielectric glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Danewalia, Satwinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Thakur, Samita; Singh, K

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural waste ashes are used as resource materials to synthesize new glass and glass-ceramics. The as-prepared materials are characterized using various techniques for their structural and dielectric properties to check their suitability in microelectronic applications. Sugarcane leaves ash exhibits higher content of alkali metal oxides than rice husk ash, which reduces the melting point of the components due to eutectic reactions. The addition of sugarcane leaves ash in rice husk ash promotes the glass formation. Additionally, it prevents the cristobalite phase formation. These materials are inherently porous, which is responsible for low dielectric permittivity i.e. 9 to 40. The presence of less ordered augite phase enhances the dielectric permittivity as compared to cristobalite and tridymite phases. The present glass-ceramics exhibit lower losses than similar materials synthesized using conventional minerals. The dielectric permittivity is independent to a wide range of temperature and frequency. The glass-ceramics developed with adequately devitrified phases can be used in microelectronic devices and other dielectric applications. PMID:27087123

  10. Cyanobacteria: A Precious Bio-resource in Agriculture, Ecosystem, and Environmental Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Kumar, Arun; Rai, Amar N.; Singh, Devendra P.

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view, the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters), generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, synga, and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet. PMID:27148218

  11. Cyanobacteria: A Precious Bio-resource in Agriculture, Ecosystem, and Environmental Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Kumar, Arun; Rai, Amar N; Singh, Devendra P

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view, the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters), generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, synga, and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet. PMID:27148218

  12. Agricultural wastes as a resource of raw materials for developing low-dielectric glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danewalia, Satwinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Thakur, Samita; Singh, K.

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural waste ashes are used as resource materials to synthesize new glass and glass-ceramics. The as-prepared materials are characterized using various techniques for their structural and dielectric properties to check their suitability in microelectronic applications. Sugarcane leaves ash exhibits higher content of alkali metal oxides than rice husk ash, which reduces the melting point of the components due to eutectic reactions. The addition of sugarcane leaves ash in rice husk ash promotes the glass formation. Additionally, it prevents the cristobalite phase formation. These materials are inherently porous, which is responsible for low dielectric permittivity i.e. 9 to 40. The presence of less ordered augite phase enhances the dielectric permittivity as compared to cristobalite and tridymite phases. The present glass-ceramics exhibit lower losses than similar materials synthesized using conventional minerals. The dielectric permittivity is independent to a wide range of temperature and frequency. The glass-ceramics developed with adequately devitrified phases can be used in microelectronic devices and other dielectric applications.

  13. Agricultural wastes as a resource of raw materials for developing low-dielectric glass-ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Danewalia, Satwinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Thakur, Samita; Singh, K.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural waste ashes are used as resource materials to synthesize new glass and glass-ceramics. The as-prepared materials are characterized using various techniques for their structural and dielectric properties to check their suitability in microelectronic applications. Sugarcane leaves ash exhibits higher content of alkali metal oxides than rice husk ash, which reduces the melting point of the components due to eutectic reactions. The addition of sugarcane leaves ash in rice husk ash promotes the glass formation. Additionally, it prevents the cristobalite phase formation. These materials are inherently porous, which is responsible for low dielectric permittivity i.e. 9 to 40. The presence of less ordered augite phase enhances the dielectric permittivity as compared to cristobalite and tridymite phases. The present glass-ceramics exhibit lower losses than similar materials synthesized using conventional minerals. The dielectric permittivity is independent to a wide range of temperature and frequency. The glass-ceramics developed with adequately devitrified phases can be used in microelectronic devices and other dielectric applications. PMID:27087123

  14. Drought and Water Resources Assessment in the Western United States Using Data and Analyses From the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasteris, P. A.; Garen, D. C.

    2001-12-01

    Recent extremes in western snowpacks, from record maximums to record minimums, have raised the awareness of climate variability and its effect on water resources. Water availability from melting snowpacks plays a key role in assessing water supplies and drought and their effects on agriculture, municipalities, hydropower, application of endangered species legislation, and forest management. The Natural Resources Conservation Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture has a 60 year history of measuring western snowpacks and producing water supply forecast products. With the installation of the SNOTEL (SNOwpack TELemetry) network in the early 1980s and wide availability of the Internet, many thousands of users have access to real-time climate information collected by the 660 SNOTEL sites throughout the West. These data are not only used directly by users but also are fundamental to a number of analyses and products, including water supply forecasts, a surface water supply index, and a drought map. This information is critical to managing water resources in the West, especially during drought years.

  15. Towards the evaluation of natural resource management projects in the sahel.

    PubMed

    Skinner, J R

    1990-03-01

    Recent drought in the Sahel has focussed attention on the important role played by natural resources in the rural economy and, together with the increasing environmental awareness of donors, has spawned a series of field projects aimed at improving the management of existing natural resources. This paper is a working document; a contribution to the discussion of how to evaluate the success or failure of natural resource management projects and of whether important components of successful projects can be replicated elsewhere. PMID:20958694

  16. PRACE resources to study extreme natural events: the SCENE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiori, Elisabetta; Galizia, Antonella; Danovaro, Emanuele; Clematis, Andrea; Bedrina, Tatiana; Parodi, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Forecasting severe storms and floods is one of the main challenges of 21th century. Floods are the most dangerous meteorological hazard in the Mediterranean basins due to both the number of people affected and to the relatively high frequency by which human activities and goods suffer damages and losses. The numerical simulations of extreme events which happen over small basins as the Mediterranean ones are need a very fine-resolution in space and time and as a consequence considerable memory and computational power are required. Since the resources provided by the PRACE project represent the solution for satisfying such requirements, the Super Computing of Extreme Natural Events (SCENE) project has been proposed. SCENE aims to provide an advanced understanding of the intrinsic predictability of severe precipitation processes and the associated predictive ability of high-resolution meteorological models with a special focus on flash flood-producing storms in regions of complex orography (e.g. Mediterranean area) through the assessment of the role of both the convective and microphysical processes. The meteorological model considered in the project is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a state of the art mesoscale numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both operational forecasting and atmospheric research needs. Thus, among all the parameterizations available in the WRF model, the WRF Single-Moment 6-Class Scheme and the Thompson microphysics scheme will be adopted for the numerical simulations in combination with three different approaches for the treatment of the convective processes, that is the use of explicit method, Betts-Miller-Janjic Scheme and Kain-Fritsch. As for flash-flood producing storms, the project considers the recent sequence of extreme events occurred in the north-western portion of the Mediterranean sea; some of these events are the so-called critical cases of the DRIHM project (www.drihm.eu), i.e. selected severe

  17. Assessing habitat quality for a migratory songbird wintering in natural and agricultural habitats.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew D; Sherry, Thomas W; Holmes, Richard T; Marra, Peter P

    2006-10-01

    As tropical forests are cleared, a greater proportion of migratory songbirds are forced to winter in agricultural and disturbed habitats, which, if poorer in quality than natural forests, could contribute to population declines. We compared demographic indicators of habitat quality for a focal species, the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), wintering in Jamaican citrus orchards and shade coffee plantations with those in four natural habitats: mangrove, coastal scrub, coastal palm, and dry limestone forests. Demographic measures of habitat quality included density, age and sex ratio, apparent survival, and changes in body mass. Measures of habitat quality for redstarts in citrus and coffee habitats were generally intermediate between the highest (mangrove) and lowest (dry limestone) measurements from natural habitats. The decline in mean body mass over the winter period was a strong predictor of annual survival rate among habitats, and we suggest that measures of body condition coupled with survival data provide the best measures of habitat quality for nonbreeding songbirds. Density, which is far easier to estimate, was correlated with these more labor-intensive measures, particularly in the late winter when food is likely most limiting. Thus, local density may be useful as an approximation of habitat quality for wintering migrant warblers. Our findings bolster those of previous studies based on bird abundance that suggest arboreal agricultural habitats in the tropics can be useful for the conservation of generalist, insectivorous birds, including many migratory passerines such as redstarts. PMID:17002761

  18. The Importance of Change: Contextualizing Natural and Anthropogenic Hydrologic Variability in terms of agricultural and sectorial economies in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce de Leon Barido, D.; Nelson, H.; Thatikonda, S.; Smith, R.; Roe, T.; Foufoula, E.

    2012-12-01

    Freshwater availability and human prosperity are intricately connected. In many parts of the world however, water demands exceed the renewable water supply and groundwater resources are depleted at an alarming rate. Such is the case in India, especially in its agriculturally intensive regions of Punjab and Telagana where most of the country's rice and wheat is produced. Punjab (Northwest India; deep alluvial aquifers), and Telangana (Central India; shallow bedrock aquifers), with vastly different natural resource endowments (water and hydrogeology) and economic structures, present an exemplary case study for depicting the linkages that exist between hydrological variability, climate change adaptation, and regional sectorial economies. We focus our study on precipitation variability and key parameters that can explain how the Indian monsoon has been evolving over time: total and monthly monsoon rainfall, the frequency and length of dry spells, the spatial distribution of rainfall, and the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Using a social accounting matrix (SAM) to describe the sector composition and structure of the Punjab, Telengana and the rest of India, we evaluate the economic implications of variability, adaptation, and policy changes, via a general equilibrium framework. Hydrologic variability and change is given context as "water shocks" are translated to economic consequences allowing to study scenarios and trade-offs.

  19. Characterization of Ground-Water Quality, Upper Republican Natural Resources District, Nebraska, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankforter, Jill D.; Chafin, Daniele T.

    2004-01-01

    Nearly all rural inhabitants and livestock in the Upper Republican Natural Resources District (URNRD) in southwestern Nebraska use ground water that can be affected by elevated nitrate concentrations. The development of ground-water irrigation in this area has increased the vulnerability of ground water to the introduction of fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals. In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Republican Natural Resources District, began a study to characterize the quality of ground water in the Upper Republican Natural Resources District area with respect to physical properties and concentrations of major ions, coliform bacteria, nitrate, and pesticides, and to assess the presence of nitrogen concentrations in the unsaturated zone. At selected well sites, the ground-water characterization also included tritium and nitrogen-isotope analyses to provide information about the approximate age of the ground water and potential sources of nitrogen detected in ground-water samples, respectively. In 1998, ground-water samples were collected from 101 randomly selected domestic-well sites. Of the 101 samples collected, 26 tested positive for total coliform bacteria, exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of zero colonies. In 1999, ground-water samples were collected from 31 of the 101 well sites, and 16 tested positive for coliform bacteria. Nitrates were detected in ground water from all domestic-well samples and from all but four of the irrigation-well samples collected from 1998 to 2001. Eight percent of the domestic-well samples and 3 percent of the irrigation-well samples had nitrate concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MCL for drinking water of 10 milligrams per liter. Areas with nitrate concentrations exceeding 6 milligrams per liter, the URNRD's ground-water management-plan action level, were found predominantly in north-central Chase, western and

  20. The change of nature and the nature of change in agricultural landscapes: Hydrologic regime shifts modulate ecological transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Takbiri, Zeinab; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Schwenk, Jon

    2015-08-01

    Hydrology in many agricultural landscapes around the world is changing in unprecedented ways due to the development of extensive surface and subsurface drainage systems that optimize productivity. This plumbing of the landscape alters water pathways, timings, and storage, creating new regimes of hydrologic response and driving a chain of environmental changes in sediment dynamics, nutrient cycling, and river ecology. In this work, we nonparametrically quantify the nature of hydrologic change in the Minnesota River Basin, an intensively managed agricultural landscape, and study how this change might modulate ecological transitions. During the growing season when climate effects are shown to be minimal, daily streamflow hydrographs exhibit sharper rising limbs and stronger dependence on the previous-day precipitation. We also find a changed storage-discharge relationship and show that the artificial landscape connectivity has most drastically affected the rainfall-runoff relationship at intermediate quantiles. Considering the whole year, we show that the combined climate and land use change effects reduce the inherent nonlinearity in the dynamics of daily streamflow, perhaps reflecting a more linearized engineered hydrologic system. Using a simplified dynamic interaction model that couples hydrology to river ecology, we demonstrate how the observed hydrologic change and/or the discharge-driven sediment generation dynamics may have modulated a regime shift in river ecology, namely extirpation of native mussel populations. We posit that such nonparametric analyses and reduced complexity modeling can provide more insight than highly parameterized models and can guide development of vulnerability assessments and integrated watershed management frameworks.

  1. Energy from California agriculture and forest resources: current and future potential and constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    More than 0.3 Quad of energy in the form of liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels can be produced from California forests and farms without altering significantly the supply of food, feed or fiber. The costs of biomass to fuels via direct combustion and gasification conversion systems is now lower than the petroleum or natural gas-derived fuels that they would replace. Yields of 10 tons dry matter per acre per year would be expected from all irrigated agricultural regions if the most productive crops such as corn, sorghum, sugar beets, certain forages and tree crops are grown. Double cropping, e.g., winter grain followed by corn or sorghum in the summer, may increase yields above 10 tons dry matter per year. As much as 4 tons per acre should be available as residues from corn or sorghum for energy conversion systems. With selected crop acreage and utilization schemes up to 5 billion gallons of fermentation ethanol can be produced annually from high starch and sugar crops. With little change in current crop production and utilization over 1 billion gallons of ethanol and methanol can be produced by conversion of current collectable crop, forestry and urban residues.

  2. Corporate Use of Information regarding Natural Resources and Environmental Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Train, Russell E.

    This report presents findings and recommendations from a 1-year study which identified corporate needs for resource information (particularly statistical information) and assessed the extent to which these needs are being met by various resource-information services, including those of the federal government. Chapter I discusses 11 types of…

  3. Climate change, agroclimatic resources and agroclimatic zoning of agriculture in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazandjiev, V.; Moteva, M.; Georgieva, V.

    2009-09-01

    The important factors for the agrarian output in Bulgaria are only thermal and water probability. From the two factors the component related to soil moisture is more limited. As well water and temperatures probabilities in the agrarian output are estimated trough sums of temperatures and rainfalls or by derivatives indicators (most frequently named as coefficients or indices). The heat conditions and the heat resources are specified by the continuousness of the vegetative period. Duration of vegetative season is limited for each type of plant, between the spring and autumn steady pass of air temperature across the biological minimum. For the agricultural crops in Bulgaria the three biological minimums: in 5°C are taken for wheat and barley, oat, pea, lentil and sunflower; 10°C for corn, haricot, and soybean and in 15°C for the cotton, vegetables and other spring cultures). The cold and warm period duration are mutually related characteristics. The first period define number of days with the snow fall and days with the snow cover, that are in the basis in the formation of soil moisture reserves after the spring snow melt. Definition of the regions with temperature stress conditions during vegetative season is one of the most important parameters of agroclimatic conditions. The values indicating for the limitations are one or more periods from at least 10 consecutive days with maximal air temperature over 35 °С. More from the agricultures, character for the moderate continental climatic zone are developed normally under temperatures 25-28°С. Temperatures over 28°C are ballast slowing the growth and destroying plants due to the heat tension. The component, limiting in greatest degree growth, development and formation of yields from the agricultural crops are the conditions of moisturizing, present trough atmospheric and soil moisture. The most apparent indicator is the year sum of the rains or their sum by the periods with the average daily temperatures of

  4. Mobile laboratory measurements of atmospheric emissions from agriculture, oil, and natural gas activities in northeastern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilerman, S. J.; Peischl, J.; Neuman, J. A.; Ryerson, T. B.; Wild, R. J.; Perring, A. E.; Brown, S. S.; Aikin, K. C.; Holloway, M.; Roberts, O.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions from agriculture are important to air quality and climate, yet their representation in inventories is incomplete. Increased fertilizer use has lead to increased emissions of nitrogen compounds, which can adversely affect ecosystems and contribute to the formation of fine particulates. Furthermore, extraction and processing of oil and natural gas continues to expand throughout northeastern Colorado; emissions from these operations require ongoing measurement and characterization. This presentation summarizes initial data and analysis from a summer 2014 campaign to study emissions of nitrogen compounds, methane, and other species in northeastern Colorado using a new mobile laboratory. A van was instrumented to measure NH3, N2O, NOx, NOy, CH4, CO, CO2, O3, and bioaerosols with high time resolution. By sampling in close proximity to a variety of emissions sources, the mobile laboratory facilitated accurate source identification and quantification of emissions ratios. Measurements were obtained near agricultural sites, natural gas and oil operations, and other point sources. Additionally, extensive measurements were obtained downwind from urban areas and along roadways. The relationship between ammonia and other trace gases is used to characterize sources and constrain emissions inventories.

  5. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed. PMID:24790975

  6. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed. PMID:24790975

  7. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-02-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted towards improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  8. BIODIVERSITY, HABITAT, AND NATURAL RESOURCE ISSUES IN WINEGRAPE PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California wine industry traditionally has had a positive public image with a customer base that is relatively progressive and politically astute. California’s well-informed consumers are highly aware of water quality, wildlife, and other environmental impacts of agriculture. Winegrapes are the ...

  9. Integrating Farm Production and Natural Resource Management in Tasmania, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotching, W. E.; Sherriff, L.; Kilpatrick, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the social learning from a project aimed to increase the knowledge and capacity of a group of farmers in Tasmania, Australia, to reduce the impacts of intensive agriculture on soil health and waterways, and to optimise the efficient use of on-farm inputs. The plan-do-check-review cycle adopted in this project required the…

  10. 7 CFR 2.61 - Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., National Institute of Food and Agriculture in § 2.66(a)(76). (3) Administer the basic program of soil and... Food Security Act of 1985 (the Act), as amended (16 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.), including the following: (i... leadership in the conservation, development and productive use of the Nation's soil, water, and...

  11. 7 CFR 2.61 - Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., National Institute of Food and Agriculture in § 2.66(a)(76). (3) Administer the basic program of soil and... Food Security Act of 1985 (the Act), as amended (16 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.), including the following: (i... leadership in the conservation, development and productive use of the Nation's soil, water, and...

  12. Literacy: What Level for Food, Land, Natural Resources, and Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardwell, Vernon B.

    2005-01-01

    Many forms of literacy exist. Each literacy is an integration of ways of thinking, acting, interacting, and valuing. To understand the impact of agriculture (i.e., farming, ranching, forestry, and fisheries) and the contributions and interactions to the environment (e.g., losses of biological diversity, soil degradation, air and water pollution,…

  13. The Natural Resources Conservation Service land resource hierarchy and ecological sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resource areas of the NRCS have long been important to soil geography. At both regional and landscape scales, resource areas are used to stratify programs and practices based on geographical areas where resource concerns, problems, or treatment needs are similar. However, the inability to quantifiab...

  14. E-Alerts: Natural resources and earth sciences (mineral industries). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The paper discusses industries and their processes that exploit metallic and nonmetallic, fuel and nonfuel resources, including: Coal mining, mining wastes, and acid mine drainage; Coal preparation; Petroleum exploration, drilling, and production; Metals exploration and mining; Exploration geophysics and seismology; Reserves; Mine safety; Mineral economics; Underwater and continental shelf mining; Natural resources studies (excluding Earth Resource Satellite Surveys).

  15. 76 FR 20372 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree and Settlement Agreement Regarding Natural Resource Damage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree and Settlement Agreement Regarding Natural Resource Damage Claims... St. Regis Mohawk Tribe. The NRD Settlement Agreement resolves claims for natural resource damages and... Diamond Alkali Superfund Site in New Jersey; 4. The General Motors Bedford Site in Indiana; and 5....

  16. Reference Guide for Environmental Education and the Conservation of Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    About 40 Forest Service publications that are designed to contribute to public understanding of natural resource issues and environmental management are described. Categories include natural resources, Forest Service careers, educational aids, and recreation tips. Provided for each document is a brief outline of the content along with a key to the…

  17. The Impacts of the Great Recession on State Natural Resource Extension Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serenari, Christopher; Peterson, M. Nils; Bardon, Robert E.; Brown, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Recession contributed to major budget cuts for natural resource Extension programs in the United States. Despite the potentially large cuts, their impacts and how Extension has adapted their programs have not been evaluated. We begin addressing these needs with surveys of Association of Natural Resource Extension Professionals members…

  18. 77 FR 16483 - Petition for Rulemaking Submitted by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Petition On September 20, 2011, the NRC published a notice of receipt (76 FR...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 Petition for Rulemaking Submitted by the Natural Resources... Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. (NRDC or the petitioner), in the rulemaking process....

  19. Teaching Natural Resource Management-Teaching Techniques and Difficulties in Greek Vocational Lyceum: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsoukos, Marios; Mouratidis, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the teaching techniques applied, as well as the difficulties, with which educators in teaching Natural Resource Management are confronted. For research purposes, a case study was conducted on teaching Natural Resource Management in the Third Grade of Vocational Lyceum (EPAL) in Northern Greece. It was…

  20. Building Social Capital in Groups: Facilitating Skill Development for Natural Resource Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of the experiences of four farmer groups set up to learn how to jointly manage local natural resource issues shows that the groups are going though two simultaneous processes. One builds technical competency in natural resource management and the other is the underpinning social process that allows the groups to make decisions and work…

  1. "Kids for Trees": Student Projects in Real-Life Natural Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Jim

    The "Kids for Trees" program described in this guidebook is a hands-on natural resource management experience where students raise trees from seedlings to harvest and manage other natural resources in a sustainable manner. Sections of the book include key concepts, getting started, needs of different kinds of trees, learning about potential…

  2. 43 CFR 9268.2 - Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Natural history resource management procedures. 9268.2 Section 9268.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Recreation Programs § 9268.2 Natural history resource management procedures....

  3. 43 CFR 9268.2 - Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Natural history resource management procedures. 9268.2 Section 9268.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Recreation Programs § 9268.2 Natural history resource management procedures....

  4. 43 CFR 9268.2 - Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Natural history resource management procedures. 9268.2 Section 9268.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Recreation Programs § 9268.2 Natural history resource management procedures....

  5. 36 CFR 34.8 - Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources. 34.8 Section 34.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... natural, cultural and archeological resources. In addition to the provisions of § 2.1 of this chapter,...

  6. 36 CFR 2.1 - Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources. 2.1 Section 2.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.1 Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological...

  7. 36 CFR 2.1 - Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources. 2.1 Section 2.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.1 Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological...

  8. 26 CFR 513.5 - Natural resource royalties and real property rentals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Natural resource royalties and real property rentals. 513.5 Section 513.5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS IRELAND Withholding of Tax § 513.5 Natural resource...

  9. 15 CFR 990.20 - Relationship to the CERCLA natural resource damage assessment regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 43 CFR part 11. The CERCLA regulations originally applied to natural resource damages resulting from oil discharges as well as hazardous substance releases. This part supersedes 43 CFR part 11 with... commenced a natural resource damage assessment for an oil discharge under 43 CFR part 11 prior to February...

  10. 26 CFR 513.5 - Natural resource royalties and real property rentals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Natural resource royalties and real property rentals. 513.5 Section 513.5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS IRELAND Withholding of Tax § 513.5 Natural resource...

  11. 15 CFR 990.20 - Relationship to the CERCLA natural resource damage assessment regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 43 CFR part 11. The CERCLA regulations originally applied to natural resource damages resulting from oil discharges as well as hazardous substance releases. This part supersedes 43 CFR part 11 with... commenced a natural resource damage assessment for an oil discharge under 43 CFR part 11 prior to February...

  12. 43 CFR 9268.2 - Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Natural history resource management procedures. 9268.2 Section 9268.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Recreation Programs § 9268.2 Natural history resource management procedures....

  13. STATISTICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS ON NATURAL RESOURCE MONITORING PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural resource monitoring includes a wide variation in the type of natural resource monitored as well as in the objectives for the monitoring. Rather than address the entire breadth, the focus will be restricted to programs whose focus is to produce state, regional, or nationa...

  14. Agri-Business, Natural Resources, Marine Science; Grade 7. Cluster V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 7, the document is devoted to the occupational clusters "Agri-business, Natural Resources, and Marine Science." It is divided into five units: natural resources, ecology, landscaping, conservation, oceanography. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's purpose, main ideas, quests, and a list of…

  15. 78 FR 50085 - Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... United States Geological Survey Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science AGENCY... Climate Change and Natural Resource Science will hold a meeting. DATES: Meetings: The meetings will be...'Malley, Designated Federal Officer, Policy and Partnership Coordinator, National Climate Change...

  16. 77 FR 60717 - Establishment of the Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Geological Survey Establishment of the Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science... Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science (Committee). The Committee will provide advice on... Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center and the DOI Climate Science Centers. In doing so, the...

  17. Natural Resources: Time, Space and Spirit--Keys to Scientific Literacy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonebarger, Bill

    Many experts have predicted a global crisis for the end of the twentieth century because of dwindling supplies of natural resources such as minerals, oil, gas, and soil. This booklet considers three aspects of natural resources, time, space, and spirit. Time refers to a sense of history; space refers to geography; and spirit refers to life and…

  18. Land-cover assessment of conservation and buffer zones in the BOSAWAS natural resource reserve of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan H

    2003-02-01

    The BOSAWAS Natural Resource Reserve of Nicaragua was established in 1991, to protect a portion of the remaining tropical rain forest and to promote the sustainable use of the region's resources. Information required to effectively manage the reserve includes the extents and locations of present land-cover types and recent land-cover changes in the management use zones that were delineated by local indigenous communities. These zones include areas designated for conservation, limited resource extraction, agriculture, and watershed protection. Land-cover for 1986 and 1995 was identified for three of the communities from remotely sensed images and then input into a geographic information system database to identify land-cover types within these management use zones. For both dates of the analysis, advanced forest was the dominant land cover, with the conservation zones entirely forested. The amount of both agricultural land and scrub/early secondary forest increased between the two dates, with much of these land-cover classes occurring in the agriculture zones. Conflicts between the land-cover present and designated use were identified in some of the limited-use buffer and watershed protection zones. Changes between 1986 and 1995 were identified by overlaying the two land-cover data sets. Three change processes were identified as occurring: deforestation, reforestation, and reconversion. Changes were concentrated in the agriculture zones but were found to occur in every type of zone, except for conservation. The results of this study will establish baseline information for the future management of the BOSAWAS Reserve, an important component in uniting conservation areas along the Central American isthmus. PMID:12520380

  19. A Resource-Based Modelling Framework to Assess Habitat Suitability for Steppe Birds in Semiarid Mediterranean Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cardador, Laura; De Cáceres, Miquel; Bota, Gerard; Giralt, David; Casas, Fabián; Arroyo, Beatriz; Mougeot, François; Cantero-Martínez, Carlos; Moncunill, Judit; Butler, Simon J.; Brotons, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    European agriculture is undergoing widespread changes that are likely to have profound impacts on farmland biodiversity. The development of tools that allow an assessment of the potential biodiversity effects of different land-use alternatives before changes occur is fundamental to guiding management decisions. In this study, we develop a resource-based model framework to estimate habitat suitability for target species, according to simple information on species’ key resource requirements (diet, foraging habitat and nesting site), and examine whether it can be used to link land-use and local species’ distribution. We take as a study case four steppe bird species in a lowland area of the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. We also compare the performance of our resource-based approach to that obtained through habitat-based models relating species’ occurrence and land-cover variables. Further, we use our resource-based approach to predict the effects that change in farming systems can have on farmland bird habitat suitability and compare these predictions with those obtained using the habitat-based models. Habitat suitability estimates generated by our resource-based models performed similarly (and better for one study species) than habitat based-models when predicting current species distribution. Moderate prediction success was achieved for three out of four species considered by resource-based models and for two of four by habitat-based models. Although, there is potential for improving the performance of resource-based models, they provide a structure for using available knowledge of the functional links between agricultural practices, provision of key resources and the response of organisms to predict potential effects of changing land-uses in a variety of context or the impacts of changes such as altered management practices that are not easily incorporated into habitat-based models. PMID:24667825

  20. Deforestation: environmental impact and research needs. Joint hearing before the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment of the Committee on Science and Technology and the Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, September 16, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Witnesses from several federal agencies involved in international development and environmental concerns described the destabilizing global effects of tropical deforestation from carbon dioxide buildup and the loss of trees due to population pressures. The witnesses explained the environmental impacts and the research underway to minimize and manage the impacts of deforestation, such as the loss to pharmaceutical research. They emphasized the need for coordinating forestry and agriculture and of the importance of international cooperation among researchers. (DCK)

  1. Managing Resources in Agricultural Colleges. Information Bank Working Paper Number 2326.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, L.; And Others

    Three papers from a study conference are provided. "Is There a Future for Agricultural Education?" (L. Norman) attempts to answer this question. Part I puts forward suggestions as to why there may be no future for agricultural education. Part II suggests some ways of counteracting the problems enumerated in Part I. Part III offers suggestions on…

  2. Higher Agricultural Universities Serve for "Sannong" by Offering English Human Resources Support System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Youqin; Cheng, Baole

    2008-01-01

    This paper puts higher agricultural English education how to serve for "Sannong" construction as priority, combining the actual market demand, based on teaching reform in the past few years, tries to explore English nurturing model and curriculum system for real delivery the agriculture-related qualified foreign language professionals.…

  3. MARYLAND AGRICULTURE AND YOUR WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory



    Using primarily 1995 State of Maryland agricultural statistics data, a new methodology was demonstrated with which State natural resource managers can analyze the areal extent of agricultural lands and production data on a watershed basis. The report organized major crop ...

  4. Could Crop Roughness Impact the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderwende, B. J.; Lundquist, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    The high concentration of both large-scale agriculture and wind power production in the United States Midwest region raises new questions concerning the interaction of the two activities. For instance, it is known from internal boundary layer theory that changes in the roughness of the land-surface resulting from crop choices could modify the momentum field aloft. Upward propagation of such an effect might impact the properties of the winds encountered by modern turbines, which typically span a layer from about 40 to 120 meters above the surface. As direct observation of such interaction would require impractical interference in the planting schedules of farmers, we use numerical modeling to quantify the magnitude of crop-roughness effects. To simulate a collocated farm and turbine array, we use version 3.4.1 of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The hypothetical farm is inserted near the real location of the 2013 Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX). Reanalyses provide representative initial and boundary conditions. A month-long period spanning August 2013 is used to evaluate the differences in flows above corn (maize) and soybean crops at the mature, reproductive stage. Simulations are performed comparing the flow above each surface regime, both in the absence and presence of a wind farm, which consists of a parameterized 11x11 array of 1.8 MW Vestas V90 turbines. Appreciable differences in rotor-layer wind speeds emerge. The use of soybeans results in an increase in wind speeds and a corresponding reduction in rotor-layer shear when compared to corn. Despite the turbulent nature of flow within a wind farm, high stability reduces the impact of crop roughness on the flow aloft, particularly in the upper portion of the rotor disk. We use these results to estimate the economic impact of crop selection on wind power producers.

  5. Integrating natural resource damage assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

  6. Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

  7. The Supreme Court, the commerce clause, and natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Olen Paul

    1988-07-01

    The Supreme Court's interpretation of the commerce clause controls the balance of power between state and federal governments in the United States. An understanding of the relationship between the different government levels is essential for resource managers concerned with resource and environmental issues. This study examines selected Supreme Court decisions between 1976 and 1988 to answer three questions raised by the commerce clause: (1) Is the regulated item an article of commerce? (2) Do state laws burden interstate commerce? (3) Is federal commerce regulation limited? The balance of power among the justices and the commerce clause theories affecting the federal role in resource management are also examined. Since ratification of the Constitution, the Supreme Court has continuously increased federal power, but states have power to act independently as long as contradictory federal laws do not exist and state law does not impermissively affect commerce. If Congress regulates an individual's use of resources, their power is unquestioned. Future Court decisions will not significantly reduce the federal role in resource management even if the Court's membership changes. Even the supporters of states' rights on the Court realize increased federal power is a necessary part of the country's evolution. The purpose of the commerce clause is to create a national economic unit with free location principles. The Court supports this purpose today and will in the future.

  8. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Bulletin, New Series Vol. 7, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    Described is the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) marine program which centers around the world wildlife fund marine program. The program has been divided into three phases - launch, main, and follow-up; the launch phase is described. Action plans are described for each sub-program. Each action plan…

  9. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Sacramento Basin Province of California, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered natural gas resources of the Sacramento Basin Province of California. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources are 534 billion cubic feet of natural gas and 323 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids in the Sacramento Basin Province. Additional undiscovered oil accumulations larger than 0.5 million barrels are considered unlikely.

  10. Building Capacity to Use Earth Observations in Decision Making for Climate, Health, Agriculture and Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. W.; Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    In order to fill the gaps existing in climate and public health, agriculture, natural disasters knowledge and practices, the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) has developed a Curriculum for Best Practices in Climate Information. This Curriculum builds on the experience of 10 years courses on 'Climate Information' and captures lessons and experiences from different tailored trainings that have been implemented in many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this presentation, we will provide examples of training activities we have developed to bring remote sensing products to monitor climatic and environmental information into decision processes that benefited users such as the World Health Organization, Ministries of Health, Ministries of Agriculture, Universities, Research Centers such as CIFOR and FIOCRUZ. The framework developed by IRI to provide capacity building is based on the IDEAS framework: Innovation (research) Around climate impacts, evaluation of interventions, and the value of climate information in reducing risks and maximizing opportunities Demonstration E.g. in-country GFCS projects in Tanzania and Malawi - or El Nino work in Ethiopia Education Academic and professional training efforts Advocacy This might focus on communication of variability and change? We are WHO collaborating center so are engaged through RBM/Global Malaria Programme Service ENACTS and Data library key to this. Country data better quality than NASA as incorporates all relevant station data and NASA products. This presentation will demonstrate how the IDEAS framework has been implemented and lessons learned.

  11. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Issa, Shams A M

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3″ × 3″] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated. PMID:23509393

  12. A Youth Exchange Model for Teaching about Natural Resources Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitsworth, Michael H.

    A 4-H exchange program in which eight youth from the Dominican Republic came to Indiana and a like number of Purdue University-sponsored 4-H members visited the Dominican Republic is described. The program, sponsored by the U.S. Information Agency, was part of a larger program to strengthen youth leadership resources in both places through a…

  13. 10 CFR 960.4-2-8-1 - Natural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... human consumption without treatment, present at or near the site will not be likely to give rise to... resource. (2) Ground water with 10,000 parts per million or more of total dissolved solids along any path.... (5) Potential for foreseeable human activities—such as ground-water withdrawal, extensive...

  14. Education Requirements for Natural Resource Based Outdoor Recreation Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsner, Gary; And Others

    The Office of Personnel Management should designate a new professional series for hiring individuals in outdoor recreational management. A new professional series would help set a standard for professionals with training in both resource management and the social sciences. Recommended educational requirements for the series include: (1) natural…

  15. Water consumption of agriculture and natural ecosystems at the Amu Darya in Lebap Province, Turkmenistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevs, Niels; Ovezmuradov, Kurban

    2013-04-01

    The Amu Darya is the main water source for whole Turkmenistan, but also for the regions Khorezm and Karakalpakistan in Uzbekistan. Due to the arid climate in the Amu Darya river basin, agriculture depends on irrigation with river water being the major source of water. Also the natural ecosystems depend on river water. Until end of the 1970s, the Amu Darya flew into the Aral Sea and, together with the Syr Darya, sustained its water level. From the 1960s until today the area under irrigation has been strongly enlarged. During Soviet Union times, mainly cotton was planted on the newly reclaimed land. After independence, new land was reclaimed, in order to grow wheat. In the course of this land reclamation, the downstream section of the Amu Darya, i.e. in Karakalpakistan faces severe water shortage. Today, the Amu Darya only occasionally reaches the previous shore line of the Aral Sea. Against this background, it is necessary that water consumption along the Amu Darya is limited and water is used efficiently, in order to ensure water supply for downstream water users. The province Lebap in Turkmenistan is located at the middle reaches of the Amu Darya. Thus, it is an example of an administrative unit, which consumes water from the Amu Darya and which should release a sufficient amount of water downstream. Furthermore, Lebap harbours one of the last near-natural riparian forests of Central Asia, i.e. the Amu Darya State Reserve, which also is a water consumer. Therefore, we estimate the water consumption of agriculture (cotton, wheat, rice, and house gardens) and the natural ecosystems within Lebap Province. Water consumption refers to the actual evapo-transpiration. We use Landsat ETM and TM satellite images, in order to produce maps of the actual evapo-transpiration. Afterwards, a land cover map is laid over the ETa maps, in order to retrieve the ETa of the different crops and natural ecosystems. These results are compared with the water norms and quotas given for

  16. 78 FR 69365 - Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). ACTION... Program Office update D. Update on agricultural air quality regulatory issues at EPA E. AAQTF...

  17. AgRISTARS - Plans and first-year achievements. [Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, F. G.; Hogg, R. C.; Caudill, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    The results of the agriculture and resources inventory surveys through aerospace remote sensing (AgRISTARS) program managed by the USDA for exploring the use of satellite data for domestic and global commodity information needs are discussed. The program was intended to gather early warning of changes affecting production and quality of commodities and renewable resources, for predicting commodity production, land use classification and quantification, for inventories and assessments of renewable resources, land productivity measurements, assessment of conservation practices, and for pollution detection and impact evaluation. Up to 20 crop/region combinations in 7 countries were covered by the experiments, which comprised NOAA 6 and Landsat data analyses. Attempts to reduce variances through improved machine classification techniques are reported, together with soil moisture profiling, and the use of airborne sensors for providing comparative data.

  18. Natural resources and their prospects in the closed basins of rift valley marginal grabens in northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meaza, Hailemariam; Frankl, Amaury; Poesen, Jean; Zenebe, Amanuel; Deckers, Jozef; Vaneetvelde, Veerle; Lanckriet, Sil; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    With increasing population, producing more food and fibers has led to an expansion of the area under cultivation. For this, much attention is given to low-lying flat areas in search of suitable agricultural lands. The objectives of this paper are therefore: (1) to review the opportunities and challenges of natural resources in the marginal grabens for rural development; (2) to highlight the knowledge gaps and priorities in research and development in the marginal grabens, and (3) to supplement the literature review through repeat transect walks, focus group discussions and interviews across the western rift valley of northern Ethiopia. The paper shows that marginal grabens along the rift valleys are rich both in blue and green water resources due to their topographical and geological characteristics. Spate irrigation has been a growing water management practice to respond to soil moisture deficit. Besides, marginal grabens are fertile plains as a result of alluvial deposition that could be suitable for agricultural development. However, rainfall variability and groundwater withdrawal lead to graben basin closure and salinization. Notably, riverbed incisions and sediment deposition affects drainage systems and water supply in the marginal grabens. As a result, socioeconomic and natural capital of the marginal graben farmers are continuously threatened. Thus, the benefits of natural resources for rural development in the marginal grabens along the rift valley can be optimized if the current bottlenecks are converted into opportunities. A better understanding of the complex marginal graben system via a robust land evaluation framework will improve livelihoods of the communities that live in the (closed) marginal grabens. Keywords: population pressure, marginal grabens, endorheic lakes, salinization, Ethiopia

  19. The Salts of Mars: A Rich and Ubiquitous Natural Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, Jeff S.

    1998-01-01

    The Viking and Pathfinder Mars landers have shown that martian soil is highly enriched in Cl, S, P, and perhaps Br. which, in all likelihood, occur as salts (chlorides, sulfates, phosphates, and perhaps bromides). Carbonates also may be present Many martian salt minerals are believed to be hydrated. These water-soluble constituents of the soil will offer the first colonists a rich source of many industrial commodities needed to sustain and grow the colony. Being hydrous, martian salts hold a tremendous potential to supply water in regions of Mars where otherwise preferable ice may be absent or difficult to access A caliche-like form of concrete or adobe may be manufactured by the drying of briny mud. Sulfates and phosphates may be used as additives for the manufacture of soil prepared and balanced for agriculture. Sulfates and chlorides offer a raw material for the manufacture of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids. Electrolytic processes applied to magnesium sulfate solution may yield metallic Mg. In short, martian salts will offer colonists abroad industrial base of chemical substances potentially useful in development of indigenous construction, chemical, and agricultural industries. Best of all, such salty dust deposits are among the most widespread and chemically uniform (i.e., dependable) raw materials on Mars. A simple method of preprocessing martian soil to extract and isolate the major salt consituents and to obtain water will be presented, as will a more thorough presentation of possible industrial uses of these materials in a Mars base.

  20. Adult volunteerism in Pennsylvania 4-H natural resources programs for youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sanford Sherrick

    2001-07-01

    Pennsylvania's 4-H Youth Development Program relies on adult volunteers to reach youth with educational information and opportunities. Finding adults willing to do this volunteer work is challenging. This study looks at the current status of adult volunteerism with natural resources 4-H projects, and seeks to understand potential volunteers. The literature has much to offer in regards to general volunteer trends, management, motivations, and task preferences; however, few studies focus on volunteers in natural resources or environmental education. A telephone survey conducted with county 4-H agents revealed that only 3.2% of Pennsylvania's 4-H volunteers work with natural resources projects in 56 out of 67 counties, and that very few volunteers have any formal background in natural resources. Semi-structured interviews with 41 adult volunteers currently working with natural resources projects explored volunteer demographics, history, program design preferences, and ideas for seeking more volunteers. Findings from the telephone survey and the semi-structured interviews were used to generate a mail survey with large, random samples from three population groups: (1) 4-H Volunteers, (2) 4-H Parents, and (3) Natural Resources Professionals. Confidence with youth and subject matter, and adult willingness to volunteer was explored for each of the groups in relation to background, demographic characteristics, motivational needs, past and present volunteer activity, personal interests, and program design importance. Natural resources subject matter confidence was shown to be the most significant variable determining willingness to volunteer for all three groups. The variables that contributed to subject matter and youth confidence varied for each population. Key variables effecting willingness to volunteer included outdoor activity level, personal interest in natural resources, the need to fulfill feelings of social responsibility, and confidence with youth. Program design

  1. La roca magica: Uses of natural zeolites in agriculture and industry

    PubMed Central

    Mumpton, Frederick A.

    1999-01-01

    For nearly 200 years since their discovery in 1756, geologists considered the zeolite minerals to occur as fairly large crystals in the vugs and cavities of basalts and other traprock formations. Here, they were prized by mineral collectors, but their small abundance and polymineralic nature defied commercial exploitation. As the synthetic zeolite (molecular sieve) business began to take hold in the late 1950s, huge beds of zeolite-rich sediments, formed by the alteration of volcanic ash (glass) in lake and marine waters, were discovered in the western United States and elsewhere in the world. These beds were found to contain as much as 95% of a single zeolite; they were generally flat-lying and easily mined by surface methods. The properties of these low-cost natural materials mimicked those of many of their synthetic counterparts, and considerable effort has made since that time to develop applications for them based on their unique adsorption, cation-exchange, dehydration–rehydration, and catalytic properties. Natural zeolites (i.e., those found in volcanogenic sedimentary rocks) have been and are being used as building stone, as lightweight aggregate and pozzolans in cements and concretes, as filler in paper, in the take-up of Cs and Sr from nuclear waste and fallout, as soil amendments in agronomy and horticulture, in the removal of ammonia from municipal, industrial, and agricultural waste and drinking waters, as energy exchangers in solar refrigerators, as dietary supplements in animal diets, as consumer deodorizers, in pet litters, in taking up ammonia from animal manures, and as ammonia filters in kidney-dialysis units. From their use in construction during Roman times, to their role as hydroponic (zeoponic) substrate for growing plants on space missions, to their recent success in the healing of cuts and wounds, natural zeolites are now considered to be full-fledged mineral commodities, the use of which promise to expand even more in the future. PMID

  2. Diversifying natural resources value measurements: The Trinity River study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, J.G.; Douglas, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team set out to establish the economic and social values of the Trinity River in northern California. This information was intended to support the Secretary of the Interior's decision on allocation of Trinity River flows. This team set out to measure the values of Trinity River flows, fishery resources, and recreation amenities in several different ways. A survey was mailed to users of the Trinity River. This single instrument included economic measures (willingness-to-pay and costs incurred in visiting) and social-psychological measures (importance, satisfaction, and water allocation preferences). A closely related survey measured several of these same values among west coast regional households. The results of these surveys were compiled, and the measured economic and social values were compared. We found that integrating economic and social value information provides a greater depth of understanding of the resource's value. In addition, this integration provides a more in-depth understanding through the quantitative and qualitative results that emerge.

  3. Delivery of agricultural technology to resource-poor farmers in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mignouna, Hodeba D; Abang, Mathew M; Omanya, Gospel; Nang'ayo, Francis; Bokanga, Mpoko; Boadi, Richard; Muchiri, Nancy; Terry, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in agricultural science and technology have the potential to transform the agricultural sector in the developing world. These technological advances constitute key drivers of economic growth and hold great promise for poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Agricultural research and development in Africa is undergoing a major paradigm shift. Until recently, public-sector institutions in Africa worked in isolation to create and disseminate agricultural technologies to smallholder farmers. However, they need access to improved proprietary technologies developed for the most part by the private sector in developed countries. These technologies are currently concentrated in the hands of a few large corporations and are protected by intellectual property rights. The African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) is a new initiative addressing the challenges associated with the access, development, and deployment of agricultural technologies to smallholder farmers in SSA. This article describes the AATF model of facilitating the creation of partnership alliances dedicated to promote and support collaboration among a wide variety of public- and private-sector organizations around shared agricultural research and development goals for the public good. It explains AATF's public-private partnership framework for technology delivery in the light of market failures, institutional constraints, and systemic weaknesses, which impede public-sector organizations from accessing and delivering pro-poor knowledge and technology to farmers. The article provides policy makers, research managers, and business decision makers with an understanding of how access to, and delivery of, proprietary technologies could contribute to food security and the improvement of farmers' livelihoods in Africa. PMID:17954683

  4. Managing the rippling stream: decisionmaking in natural resource administration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doerksen, Harvey R.; Lamb, Berton L.

    1979-01-01

    This article addresses the conflict which exists within the water resources decisionmaking arena over the allocation of water for instream uses. The discussion reviews the literature on public administration regarding decisionmaking, and is based on research performed by the authors which synthesizes a model of decisionmaking. This model can be used as both a description of agency behavior, and as the basis for developing a prescription for strategy formulation.

  5. Accelerating Adaptation of Natural Resource Management to Address Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn AF

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants’ self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world. Acelerando la Adaptación del Manejo de Recursos Naturales para

  6. From waste to resource: a systems-based approach to sustainable community development through equitable enterprise and agriculturally-derived polymeric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teipel, Elisa

    Rural communities in developing countries are most vulnerable to the plight of requiring repeated infusions of charitable aid over time. Micro-business opportunities that effectively break the cycle of poverty in resource-rich countries in the developing world are limited. However, a strong model for global commerce can break the cycle of donor-based economic supplements and limited local economic growth. Sustainable economic development can materialize when a robust framework combines engineering with the generous investment of profits back into the community. This research presents a novel, systems-based approach to sustainable community development in which a waste-to-resource methodology catalyzes the disruption of rural poverty. The framework developed in this thesis was applied to the rural communities of Cagmanaba and Badian, Philippines. An initial assessment of these communities showed that community members are extremely poor, but they possess an abundant natural resource: coconuts. The various parts of the coconut offer excellent potential value in global commerce. Today the sale of coconut water is on the rise, and coconut oil is an established $3 billion market annually that is also growing rapidly. Since these current industries harvest only two parts of the coconut (meat and water), the 50 billion coconuts that grow annually leave behind approximately 100 billion pounds of coconut shell and husk as agricultural waste. Coconuts thus provide an opportunity to create and test a waste-to-resource model. Intensive materials analysis, research, development, and optimization proved that coconut shell, currently burned as a fuel or discarded as agricultural waste, can be manufactured into high-grade coconut shell powder (CSP), which can be a viable filler in polymeric composites. This framework was modeled and tested as a case study in a manufacturing facility known as a Community Transformation Plant (CTP) in Cagmanaba, Philippines. The CTP enables local

  7. Position of the American Dietetic Association: natural resource conservation and waste management.

    PubMed

    1997-04-01

    ADA members are encouraged to evaluate their personal and professional practices and take action to more effectively conserve natural resources and protect the environment. Dietetics professionals' knowledge of the complexity of the issues associated with environmental concerns should be increased through participation in continuing education activities. Knowledgeable members should be proactive in implementing programs to conserve natural resources and protect the environment and participate in the legislative process within their states and communities. ADA supports programs designed to preserve natural resources and protect the environment. ADA is committed to enhancing the quality of life for future generations. PMID:9120200

  8. An overview of the Valles Caldera National Preserve: the natural and cultural resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parmenter, Robert R.; Steffen, Anastasia; Allen, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    The Valles Caldera National Preserve is one of New Mexico’s natural wonders and a popular area for public recreation, sustainable natural resource production, and scientific research and education. Here, we provide a concise overview of the natural and cultural history of the Preserve, including descriptions of the ecosystems, flora and fauna. We note that, at the landscape scale, the Valles caldera appears to be spectacularly pristine; however, humans have extracted resources from the Preserve area for many centuries, resulting in localized impacts to forests, grasslands and watersheds. The Valles Caldera Trust is now charged with managing the Preserve and providing public access, while preserving and restoring these valuable public resources.

  9. Global Agricultural Land Resources – A High Resolution Suitability Evaluation and Its Perspectives until 2100 under Climate Change Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zabel, Florian; Putzenlechner, Birgitta; Mauser, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Changing natural conditions determine the land's suitability for agriculture. The growing demand for food, feed, fiber and bioenergy increases pressure on land and causes trade-offs between different uses of land and ecosystem services. Accordingly, an inventory is required on the changing potentially suitable areas for agriculture under changing climate conditions. We applied a fuzzy logic approach to compute global agricultural suitability to grow the 16 most important food and energy crops according to the climatic, soil and topographic conditions at a spatial resolution of 30 arc seconds. We present our results for current climate conditions (1981–2010), considering today's irrigated areas and separately investigate the suitability of densely forested as well as protected areas, in order to investigate their potentials for agriculture. The impact of climate change under SRES A1B conditions, as simulated by the global climate model ECHAM5, on agricultural suitability is shown by comparing the time-period 2071–2100 with 1981–2010. Our results show that climate change will expand suitable cropland by additionally 5.6 million km2, particularly in the Northern high latitudes (mainly in Canada, China and Russia). Most sensitive regions with decreasing suitability are found in the Global South, mainly in tropical regions, where also the suitability for multiple cropping decreases. PMID:25229634

  10. RF plasma polymerised thin films from natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Mohan V.; Easton, Chris D.; Anderson, Liam J.; Bazaka, Kateryna

    2014-08-01

    Plasma polymerisation is an effective tool for fabrication of thin films from volatile organic monomers. RF plasma assisted deposition is used for one-step, chemical-free polymerisation of nonsynthetic materials derived directly from agricultural produces. By varying the deposition parameters, especially the input RF power, the film properties can be tailored for a range of uses, including electronics or biomedical applications. The fabricated thin films are optically transparent with refractive index close to that of glass. Given the diversity of essential oils, this paper compares the chemical and physical properties of thin films fabricated from several commercially exploited essential oils and their components. It is interesting to note that some of the properties can be tailored for various applications even though the chemical structure of the derived polymer is very similar. The obtained material properties also show that the synthesised materials are suitable as encapsulating layers for biodegradable implantable metals.

  11. Influence of forest management systems on natural resource use and provision of ecosystem services in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Strauch, Ayron M; Rurai, Masegeri T; Almedom, Astier M

    2016-09-15

    Social, religious and economic facets of rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa are heavily dependent on natural resources, but improper resource management, drought, and social instability frequently lead to their unsustainable exploitation. In rural Tanzania, natural resources are often governed locally by informal systems of traditional resource management (TRM), defined as cultural practices developed within the context of social and religious institutions over hundreds of years. However, following independence from colonial rule, centralized governments began to exercise jurisdictional control over natural resources. Following decades of mismanagement that resulted in lost ecosystem services, communities demanded change. To improve resource protection and participation in management among stakeholders, the Tanzanian government began to decentralize management programs in the early 2000s. We investigated these two differing management approaches (traditional and decentralized government) in Sonjo communities, to examine local perceptions of resource governance, management influences on forest use, and their consequences for forest and water resources. While 97% of households understood the regulations governing traditionally-managed forests, this was true for only 39% of households for government-managed forests, leading to differences in forest use. Traditional management practices resulted in improved forest condition and surface water quality. This research provides an essential case study demonstrating the importance of TRM in shaping decision frameworks for natural resource planning and management. PMID:27203700

  12. Natural radioactivity levels of geothermal waters and their influence on soil and agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Murat Saç, Müslim; Aydemir, Sercan; Içhedef, Mutlu; Kumru, Mehmet N; Bolca, Mustafa; Ozen, Fulsen

    2014-01-01

    All over the world geothermal sources are used for different purposes. The contents of these waters are important to understand positive/negative effects on human life. In this study, natural radioactivity concentrations of geothermal waters were investigated to evaluate the effect on soils and agricultural activities. Geothermal water samples were collected from the Seferihisar Geothermal Region, and the radon and radium concentrations of these waters were analysed using a collector chamber method. Also soil samples, which are irrigated with geothermal waters, were collected from the surroundings of geothermal areas, and natural radioactivity concentrations of collected samples (U, Th and K) were determined using an NaI(Tl) detector system. The activity concentrations of radon and radium were found to be 0.6-6.0 and 0.1-1.0 Bq l(-1), respectively. Generally, the obtained results are not higher compared with the geothermal waters of the world. The activity concentrations in soils were found to be in the range of 3.3-120.3 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra (eU), 0.3-108.5 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th (eTh), 116.0-850.0 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K (% K). PMID:24026900

  13. Edges in agricultural landscapes: species interactions and movement of natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Macfadyen, Sarina; Muller, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes can be characterized as a mosaic of habitat patches interspersed with hostile matrix, or as a gradient of patches ranging from suitable to unsuitable for different species. Arthropods moving through these landscapes encounter a range of edges, with different permeability. Patches of native vegetation in these landscapes may support natural enemies of crop pests by providing alternate hosts for parasitic wasps and/or acting as a source for predatory insects. We test this by quantifying species interactions and measuring movement across different edge-types. A high diversity of parasitoid species used hosts in the native vegetation patches, however we recorded few instances of the same parasitoid species using hosts in both the native vegetation and the crop (canola). However, we did find overall greater densities of parasitoids moving from native vegetation into the crop. Of the parasitoid groups examined, parasitoids of aphids (Braconidae: Aphidiinae) frequently moved from native vegetation into canola. In contrast, parasitoids of caterpillars (Braconidae: Microgastrinae) moved commonly from cereal fields into canola. Late season samples showed both aphids and parasitoids moving frequently out of native vegetation, in contrast predators moved less commonly from native vegetation (across the whole season). The season-long net advantage or disadvantage of native vegetation for pest control services is therefore difficult to evaluate. It appears that the different edge-types alter movement patterns of natural enemies more so than herbivorous pest species, and this may impact pest control services. PMID:23555737

  14. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  15. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  16. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  17. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  18. 7 CFR 601.2 - Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Functions reserved to the Secretary of Agriculture. 601.2 Section 601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.2 Functions reserved...

  19. Improving Crop Classification Techniques Using Optical Remote Sensing Imagery, High-Resolution Agriculture Resource Inventory Shapefiles and Decision Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnychuk, A. L.; Berg, A. A.; Sweeney, S.

    2010-12-01

    Recognition of anthropogenic effects of land use management practices on bodies of water is important for remediating and preventing eutrophication. In the case of Lake Simcoe, Ontario the main surrounding landuse is agriculture. To better manage the nutrient flow into the lake, knowledge of the management of the agricultural land is important. For this basin, a comprehensive agricultural resource inventory is required for assessment of policy and for input into water quality management and assessment tools. Supervised decision tree classification schemes, used in many previous applications, have yielded reliable classifications in agricultural land-use systems. However, when using these classification techniques the user is confronted with numerous data sources. In this study we use a large inventory of optical satellite image products (Landsat, AWiFS, SPOT and MODIS) and ancillary data sources (temporal MODIS-NDVI product signatures, digital elevation models and soil maps) at various spatial and temporal resolutions in a decision tree classification scheme. The sensitivity of the classification accuracy to various products is assessed to identify optimal data sources for classifying crop systems.

  20. Metrics for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of agricultural mechanics students, this instructional package is one of four for the agribusiness and natural resources occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…